Sample records for fully circumferential cracks


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.B. Nestleroth


    Circumferential MFL is a new implementation of a widely used technology that has potential to provide improved detection and quantification of axially oriented defects such as cracks, seam weld defects, mechanical damage, and groove corrosion. This implementation works by orienting the magnetic field around the pipe rather that along the axis. By orienting the magnetic field around the pipe (the circumferential direction), the axial defects that were magnetically transparent can disrupt more of the magnetic field and can be more easily detected. Initial implementations of circumferential MFL have found that flux leakage from cracks at the interior of the pipe is small, and the signals from cracks are difficult to detect. The objective of this project is to improve detection of cracks by changing the implementation along with using data from overlapping and complementary inspection techniques. Two technology enhancements were investigated: Combining high- and low-magnetization technology for stress detection; and Combining axial and circumferential MFL methods. Although a method combining high- and low-magnetization technology showed promise for characterizing gouges cause by third party excavation equipment, its commercial development was not successful for two reasons. First, the stress diminishes the crack signal, while the opening of the crack increases the signal. The stress-induced changes in flux leakage around cracks were small and any critical information on the severity of cracks and crack-like defects is difficult to distinguish from changes caused by the crack opening and other inspection variables. Second, it is difficult to magnetize pipe material in the circumferential direction. A relatively low, non-uniform magnetization level produced by the circumferential magnetizer makes detection of changes due to stress extremely difficult. This project also examined combining axial and circumferential MFL to improve crack detection and distinguish cracks for

  2. Structural and leakage integrity of tubes affected by circumferential cracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernalsteen, P. [TRACTEBEL, Brussels (Belgium)


    In this paper the author deals with the notion that circumferential cracks are generally considered unacceptable. He argues for the need to differentiate two facets of such cracks: the issue of the size and growth rate of a crack; and the issue of the structural strength and leakage potential of the tube in the presence of the crack. In this paper the author tries to show that the second point is not a major concern for such cracks. The paper presents data on the structural strength or burst pressure characteristics of steam generator tubes derived from models and data bases of experimental work. He also presents a leak rate model, and compares the performance of circumferential and axial cracks as far as burst strength and leak rate. The final conclusion is that subject to improvement in NDE capabilities (sizing, detection, growth), that Steam Generator Defect Specific Management can be used to allow circumferentially degraded tubes to remain in service.

  3. Thermal shock in a circumferentially cracked hollow cylinder with cladding (United States)

    Nied, H. F.


    An theoretical analysis is presented which demonstrates the effect of cladding on the thermal resistance of a circumferentially cracked hollow cylinder. The cladding is assumed to be bonded to the inner wall of the hollow cylinder. The axisymmetric circumferential crack may be either embedded in the cylinder wall or may be an edge crack which passes through the clad and opens into the inner wall of the hollow cylinder. The problem is formulated mathematically and a solution is found which is in the form of a single integral equation. The integral equation is solved numerically and yields estimates of transient temperature distributions, thermal stresses in the uncracked cylinder, and stress intensity factors as a function of time for various cladding thickness to cylinder wall thickness ratios. It is shown that yielding of the clad under certain conditions can result in a reduction in the magnitude of the stress intensity factor for the crack tip in the elastic base material.

  4. Transverse shear effect in a circumferentially cracked cylindrical shell (United States)

    Delale, F.; Erdogan, F.


    The objectives of the paper are to solve the problem of a circumferentially-cracked cylindrical shell by taking into account the effect of transverse shear, and to obtain the stress intensity factors for the bending moment as well as the membrane force as the external load. The formulation of the problem is given for a specially orthotropic material within the framework of a linearized shallow shell theory. The particular theory used permits the consideration of all five boundary conditions as to moment and stress resultants on the crack surface. The effect of Poisson's ratio on the stress intensity factors and the nature of the out-of-plane displacement along the edges of the crack, i.e., bulging, are also studied.

  5. Crack shape developments and leak rates for circumferential complex-cracked pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brickstad, B.; Bergman, M. [SAQ Inspection Ltd., Stockholm (Sweden)


    A computerized procedure has been developed that predicts the growth of an initial circumferential surface crack through a pipe and further on to failure. The crack growth mechanism can either be fatigue or stress corrosion. Consideration is taken to complex crack shapes and for the through-wall cracks, crack opening areas and leak rates are also calculated. The procedure is based on a large number of three-dimensional finite element calculations of cracked pipes. The results from these calculations are stored in a database from which the PC-program, denoted LBBPIPE, reads all necessary information. In this paper, a sensitivity analysis is presented for cracked pipes subjected to both stress corrosion and vibration fatigue.

  6. Recent evaluations of crack-opening-area in circumferentially cracked pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, S.; Brust, F.; Ghadiali, N.; Wilkowski, G.; Miura, N.


    Leak-before-break (LBB) analyses for circumferentially cracked pipes are currently being conducted in the nuclear industry to justify elimination of pipe whip restraints and jet shields which are present because of the expected dynamic effects from pipe rupture. The application of the LBB methodology frequently requires calculation of leak rates. The leak rates depend on the crack-opening area of the through-wall crack in the pipe. In addition to LBB analyses which assume a hypothetical flaw size, there is also interest in the integrity of actual leaking cracks corresponding to current leakage detection requirements in NRC Regulatory Guide 1.45, or for assessing temporary repair of Class 2 and 3 pipes that have leaks as are being evaluated in ASME Section XI. The objectives of this study were to review, evaluate, and refine current predictive models for performing crack-opening-area analyses of circumferentially cracked pipes. The results from twenty-five full-scale pipe fracture experiments, conducted in the Degraded Piping Program, the International Piping Integrity Research Group Program, and the Short Cracks in Piping and Piping Welds Program, were used to verify the analytical models. Standard statistical analyses were performed to assess used to verify the analytical models. Standard statistical analyses were performed to assess quantitatively the accuracy of the predictive models. The evaluation also involved finite element analyses for determining the crack-opening profile often needed to perform leak-rate calculations.

  7. Fracture behavior of short circumferentially surface-cracked pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnaswamy, P.; Scott, P.; Mohan, R. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)] [and others


    This topical report summarizes the work performed for the Nuclear Regulatory Comniission`s (NRC) research program entitled ``Short Cracks in Piping and Piping Welds`` that specifically focuses on pipes with short, circumferential surface cracks. The following details are provided in this report: (i) material property deteminations, (ii) pipe fracture experiments, (iii) development, modification and validation of fracture analysis methods, and (iv) impact of this work on the ASME Section XI Flaw Evaluation Procedures. The material properties developed and used in the analysis of the experiments are included in this report and have been implemented into the NRC`s PIFRAC database. Six full-scale pipe experiments were conducted during this program. The analyses methods reported here fall into three categories (i) limit-load approaches, (ii) design criteria, and (iii) elastic-plastic fracture methods. These methods were evaluated by comparing the analytical predictions with experimental data. The results, using 44 pipe experiments from this and other programs, showed that the SC.TNP1 and DPZP analyses were the most accurate in predicting maximum load. New Z-factors were developed using these methods. These are being considered for updating the ASME Section XI criteria.

  8. Effect of strength matching on the reliability of welded pipe with circumferential surface crack

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何柏林; 于影霞; 霍立兴; 张玉凤


    For different strength matching, the reliability index and failure probability of welded pressure pipe with circumferential surface crack were calculated using three dimensional stochastic finite element method. This method has overcome the shortcomings of conservative results in safety assessment with deterministic fracture mechanics method. The effects of external moment and the depth of the circumferential surface crack (a) on the reliability of pressure pipe were also calculated and discussed. The calculation results indicate that the strength matching has certain effect on the reliability of the welded pressure pipe with circumferential surface crack. The failure probability of welded pressure pipe with high strength matching is lower than that with low strength matching at the same conditions. The effects of strength matching on the failure probability and reliability index increased by adding external moment (M) and the depth of the circumferential surface crack (a).

  9. A circumferential crack in a cylindrical shell under tension. (United States)

    Duncan-Fama, M. E.; Sanders, J. L., Jr.


    A closed cylindrical shell under uniform internal pressure has a slit around a portion of its circumference. Linear shallow shell theory predicts inverse square-root-type singularities in certain of the stresses at the crack tips. This paper reports the computed strength of these singularities for different values of a dimensionless parameter based on crack length, shell radius and shell thickness.

  10. Analytical approach to calculate bending, longitudinal and torsional local stiffness of an asymmetric circumferential crack with contact condition (United States)

    Sharafi, Mojtaba Meidan; Nikravesh, Majid Yadavar; Safarpour, Pedram


    In this paper, bending, longitudinal and torsional stiffness of an eccentric circumferential crack is investigated with taking into account contact condition on the crack surfaces based on fracture mechanics. Although several researches have analyzed stress intensity factors of symmetric circumferential crack, the stiffness of an asymmetric circumferential crack in different directions (along and perpendicular to eccentricity) regarding contact condition has not been studied by an analytical method until now. In this paper we aim to describe behavior of eccentric circumferential crack under axial loading and establish a relation between axial force and the resulting displacement vector. The twisting angle of asymmetric circumferential crack due to torsional loading is also calculated and compared to twisting angle of a symmetric crack. In order to simulate the local bending stiffness in the contact condition, nonlinear governing equations of bending stiffness associated to cracked beam section is developed by dividing it to strip elements and utilizing stiffness equations related to noncontact condition. It is validated by 3D finite element (FE) nonlinear model. Results show a significant compatibility between presented analytical and 3D FE methods. Moreover results of simulations show that without taking into account contact condition, axial, torsional and bending stiffness of symmetric and asymmetric circumferential crack are equal and radius of un-cracked area is the only influential factor.

  11. Estimation of leak rate through circumferential cracks in pipes in nuclear power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jai Hak Park


    Full Text Available The leak before break (LBB concept is widely used in designing pipe lines in nuclear power plants. According to the concept, the amount of leaking liquid from a pipe should be more than the minimum detectable leak rate of a leak detection system before catastrophic failure occurs. Therefore, accurate estimation of the leak rate is important to evaluate the validity of the LBB concept in pipe line design. In this paper, a program was developed to estimate the leak rate through circumferential cracks in pipes in nuclear power plants using the Henry–Fauske flow model and modified Henry–Fauske flow model. By using the developed program, the leak rate was calculated for a circumferential crack in a sample pipe, and the effect of the flow model on the leak rate was examined. Treating the crack morphology parameters as random variables, the statistical behavior of the leak rate was also examined. As a result, it was found that the crack morphology parameters have a strong effect on the leak rate and the statistical behavior of the leak rate can be simulated using normally distributed crack morphology parameters.

  12. Nonlinear Local Bending Response and Bulging Factors for Longitudinal and Circumferential Cracks in Pressurized Cylindrical Shells (United States)

    Young, Richard D.; Rose, Cheryl A.; Starnes, James H., Jr.


    Results of a geometrically nonlinear finite element parametric study to determine curvature correction factors or bulging factors that account for increased stresses due to curvature for longitudinal and circumferential cracks in unstiffened pressurized cylindrical shells are presented. Geometric parameters varied in the study include the shell radius, the shell wall thickness, and the crack length. The major results are presented in the form of contour plots of the bulging factor as a function of two nondimensional parameters: the shell curvature parameter, lambda, which is a function of the shell geometry, Poisson's ratio, and the crack length; and a loading parameter, eta, which is a function of the shell geometry, material properties, and the applied internal pressure. These plots identify the ranges of the shell curvature and loading parameters for which the effects of geometric nonlinearity are significant. Simple empirical expressions for the bulging factor are then derived from the numerical results and shown to predict accurately the nonlinear response of shells with longitudinal and circumferential cracks. The numerical results are also compared with analytical solutions based on linear shallow shell theory for thin shells, and with some other semi-empirical solutions from the literature, and limitations on the use of these other expressions are suggested.

  13. Fracture behavior of circumferentially surface-cracked elbows. Technical report, October 1993--March 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilinski, T.; Mohan, R.; Rudland, D.; Fleming, M. [and others


    This report presents the results from Task 2 of the Second International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG-2) program. The focus of the Task 2 work was directed towards furthering the understanding of the fracture behavior of long-radius elbows. This was accomplished through a combined analytical and experimental program. J-estimation schemes were developed for both axial and circumferential surface cracks in elbows. Large-scale, quasi-static and dynamic, pipe-system, elbow fracture experiments under combined pressure and bending loads were performed on elbows containing an internal surface crack at the extrados. In conjunction with the elbow experiments, material property data were developed for the A106-90 carbon steel and WP304L stainless steel elbow materials investigated. A comparison of the experimental data with the maximum stress predictions using existing straight pipe fracture prediction analysis methods, and elbow fracture prediction methods developed in this program was performed. This analysis was directed at addressing the concerns regarding the validity of using analysis predictions developed for straight pipe to predict the fracture stresses of cracked elbows. Finally, a simplified fitting flaw acceptance criteria incorporating ASME B2 stress indices and straight pipe, circumferential-crack analysis was developed.

  14. Creep crack growth analysis using C{sub t}-parameter for internal circumferential and external axial surface cracks in a pressurized cylinder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tun, Nwe Ni; Yang, Hee Seung; Yu, Jong Min; Yoon, Kee Bong [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Chung Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Creep crack growth at elevated temperatures is a critical consideration in estimating the remaining life of high temperature structural components and in deciding their inspection interval. In this study, creep crack growth analyses for external radial-axial and internal radial-circumferential surface cracks in a pressurized cylinder were conducted by an analytical method. The effect of crack depth and crack length on the variations in Ct and remaining life predictions were investigated for surface cracks with various initial aspect ratios. It was observed that the remaining life of an internal radial-circumferential surface crack was approximately 53 times longer than that of an external radial-axial surface crack for the same crack size and loading conditions with 316 stainless steel material. It was also observed that the variations in remaining life, crack propagations, and the Ct values were considerably sensitive to the crack location and crack depth. Convergence of crack aspect ratio was not observed when the crack depth ratio was increased. Since the method is independent of material properties and location of the crack geometries, it can be extended to various material properties and various locations of the surface crack geometries.

  15. K{sub I}-T estimation for embedded flaws in pipes - Part II: Circumferentially oriented cracks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian Xudong, E-mail: [Department of Civil Engineering, National University of Singapore, 1 Engineering Drive 2, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)


    This paper, in parallel to the investigation on axially embedded cracks reported in the companion paper, presents a numerical study on the linear-elastic K{sub I} and T-stress values over the front of elliptical cracks circumferentially embedded in the wall of a pipe/cylindrical structure, under a uniform pressure applied on the inner surface of the pipe. The numerical procedure employs the interaction-integral approach to compute the linear-elastic stress-intensity factor (SIF) K{sub I} and T-stress values for embedded cracks with practical sizes at different locations in the wall of the pipe. The parametric study covers a wide range of geometric parameters for embedded cracks in the pipe, including: the wall thickness to the inner radius ratio (t/R{sub i}), the crack depth over the wall thickness ratio (a/t), the crack aspect ratio (a/c) and the ratio of the distance from the centerline of the crack to the outer surface of the pipe over the pipe wall thickness (e{sub M}/t). The parametric investigation identifies a significant effect of the remaining ligament length on both the T-stress and K{sub I} values at the crack-front location (denoted by point O) nearest to the outer surface of the pipe and at the crack-front location (denoted by point I) nearest to the inner surface of the pipe. The numerical investigation establishes the database to derive approximate functions from a nonlinear curve-fitting procedure to predict the T-stress and K{sub I} values at three critical front locations of the circumferentially embedded crack in a pipe: points O, I and M. The proposed T-stress and K{sub I} functions utilize a combined second-order polynomial and a power-law expression, which presents a close agreement with the T-stress and K{sub I} values computed from the very detailed finite element models. The comparison between the circumferentially embedded crack and the axially embedded crack indicates that both the T-stress and K{sub I} values at crack-front points O and

  16. Assessment of circumferential cracks in hypereutectic Al-Si clutch housings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Haghshenas


    Full Text Available As in situ natural composites with silicon phase acting as the reinforcing phase, Al-Si alloys are among most commonly used aluminum alloys in automotive applications (i.e. engine component. Silicon contributes to the strength of Al-Si alloys through load transfer from the Al matrix to the hard (rigid Si phase in the microstructure (load-carrying capacity. Casting parameters (i.e. solidification rate, elemental segregation, secondary dendrite spacing… as well as the size and distribution of the microstructural constituents in Al-Si alloys (i.e. morphology of Si particles, intermetallic compounds, secondary dendrite spacing contribute directly to the mechanical response and failure (or fracture behavior of the alloy within the service. In hyper-eutectic Al-Si alloys (i.e. B390.0, distribution of coarse pre-eutectic Si particle mainly contribute to stress concentration, crack initiation and propagation during the actual service condition. In the present paper, the parameters contribution to the formation of the circumferential cracks in clutch housings made of die cast hyper-eutectics B390.0 Al-Si alloys are assessed through optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Casting variable, cooling rate, their effect on the cracks as well some of the possible causes are also discussed in detail.

  17. Fracture problem for an external circumferential crack in a functionally graded superconducting cylinder subjected to a parallel magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Z. [Department of Engineering Mechanics, Shijiazhuang Tiedao University, Shijiazhuang 050043 (China); Gao, S.W. [College of Civil Engineering, Hebei Institute of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Zhangjiakou 075000 (China); Feng, W.J., E-mail: [Department of Engineering Mechanics, Shijiazhuang Tiedao University, Shijiazhuang 050043 (China)


    Highlights: • External circumferential crack problem of superconducting cylinder is investigated. • A functionally graded superconducting cylinder is analyzed. • The magnetically impermeable crack surface condition is applied. • The generalized Irie-Yamafuji critical state model outside the crack region is adopted. - Abstract: In this study, the multiple isoparametric finite element method (MIFEM) is used to investigate external circumferential crack problem of a functionally graded superconducting cylinder subjected to electromagnetic forces. The superconducting cylinder is composed by Bi2223/Ag composite with material parameters varying. A crack reference region is defined to reflect the effects of crack on flux and current densities, and the magnetically impermeable crack surface condition and the generalized Irie–Yamafuji critical state model outside the crack region are adopted. The distributions of magnetic flux density in the superconducting cylinder are obtained analytically for both the zero-field cooling (ZFC) and the field cooling (FC) activation processes. Based on the MIFEM, the stress intensity factors (SIFs) at crack fronts in the process of field ascent and/or descent are then numerically calculated. It is interesting to note from numerical results that for the present crack model in the ZFC activation process, the crack is easily propagate and grow with the applied field increases, and that in the field descent process of either the ZFC case or FC case, the crack generally does not propagate. In addition, in the field ascent process of the ZFC case, the SIFs depend on not only the crack depths and model parameters but also the applied field. The present study should be helpful to the design and application of high-temperature superconductors with external edge cracks.

  18. Fully plastic crack opening analyses of complex-cracked pipes for Ramberg-Osgood materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jae Uk; Choi, Jae Boong [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Huh, Nam Su [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yun Jae [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The plastic influence functions for calculating fully plastic Crack opening displacement (COD) of complex-cracked pipes were newly proposed based on systematic 3-dimensional (3-D) elastic-plastic Finite element (FE) analyses using Ramberg-Osgood (R-O) relation, where global bending moment, axial tension and internal pressure are considered separately as a loading condition. Then, crack opening analyses were performed based on GE/EPRI concept by using the new plastic influence functions for complex-cracked pipes made of SA376 TP304 stainless steel, and the predicted CODs were compared with FE results based on deformation plasticity theory of tensile material behavior. From the comparison, the confidence of the proposed fully plastic crack opening solutions for complex-cracked pipes was gained. Therefore, the proposed engineering scheme for COD estimation using the new plastic influence functions can be utilized to estimate leak rate of a complex-cracked pipe for R-O material.

  19. Transverse shear effects on the stress-intensity factor for a circumferentially cracked, specially orthotropic cylindrical shell (United States)

    Delale, F.; Erdogan, F.


    The problem of a cylindrical shell containing a circumferential through crack is considered by taking into account the effect of transverse shear deformations. The formulation is given for a specially orthotropic material within the confines of a linearized shallow shell theory. The particular theory used permits the consideration of all five boundary conditions regarding moment and stress resultants on the crack surface. Consequently, aside from multiplicative constants representing the stress intensity factors, the membrane and bending components of the asymptotic stress fields near the crack tip are found to be identical. The stress intensity factors are calculated separately for a cylinder under a uniform membrane load, and that under a uniform bending moment. Sample results showing the nature of the out-of-plane crack surface displacement and the effect of the Poisson's ratio are presented.

  20. Contribution to the Evaluation of the Circumferentially-Cracked Round Bar for Fracture Toughness Determination of Reactor Pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scibetta, M


    The subject of this PhD dissertation is the use of the Circumferentially-Cracked Round Bar (CRB) for fracture toughness measurements. The main advantages of CRB are the relatively small size requirements of the testing specimens, the low cost to machine the specimen, the rotating bending fatigue allowing for easy precracking of specimens, the use of standard tensile test fixture and the axisymmetry of the specimen that avoids time consuming 3D finite element calculations. An in-depth study of the most widely used precracking technique for CRB, namely the rotating bending fatigue, is made.

  1. Numerical ductile tearing simulation of circumferential cracked pipe tests under dynamic loading conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Hyun Suk; Kim, Ji Soo; Ryu, Ho Wan; Kim, Yun Jae [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Weon [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)


    This paper presents a numerical method to simulate ductile tearing in cracked components under high strain rates using finite element damage analysis. The strain rate dependence on tensile properties and multiaxial fracture strain is characterized by the model developed by Johnson and Cook. The damage model is then defined based on the ductility exhaustion concept using the strain rate dependent multiaxial fracture strain concept. The proposed model is applied to simulate previously published three cracked pipe bending test results under two different test speed conditions. Simulated results show overall good agreement with experimental results.

  2. Prediction of fracture parameters of circumferential through-wall cracks in the interface between an elbow and a pipe under internal pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Youn Young; Huh, Nam Su [Dept. of Mechanical System Design Engineering, Seoul National Univ. of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Jae Uk [Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)


    This paper provides plastic influence functions of GE/EPRI method for calculating J and Crack opening displacement (COD) of pipes with a circumferential Through-wall crack (TWC) in the interface between an elbow and a straight pipe by using 3-dimensional (3-D) elastic-plastic finite element analyses for Ramberg-Osgood (R-O) materials, in which internal pressure was considered as a loading condition. The proposed plastic influence functions are tabulated as a function of the pipe geometries, crack length and strain hardening exponent. In order to provide sufficient confidence for the proposed plastic influence functions, the estimation scheme using the proposed plastic influence functions for J and COD of cracked elbows was validated against FE results using R-O parameters for the SA312 TP316 stainless steel. Moreover, the predicted J and COD for elbows with a TWC in the interface between an elbow and a pipe by the proposed scheme were compared with those for cracked straight pipes to investigate the effect of the elbow geometries on crack behavior of elbows. One important point is that crack behaviors in the interface between an elbow and a straight pipe can be significantly different with those in straight pipes according to pipe thickness, crack length and bend radius of elbows. Thus, the proposed plastic influence functions can be useful to predict accurate J and COD for cracked elbows.

  3. Is crack branching under shear loading caused by shear fracture? ——A critical review on maximum circumferential stress theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    When a crack is subjected to shear force, crack branching usually occurs. Theoretical study shows that the crack branching under shear loading is caused by tensile stress, but not caused by shear fracture. The co-plane shear fracture could be obtained if compressive stress with given direction is applied to the specimen, subsequently, calculated shear fracture toughness, KⅡ C, is larger than KⅠ C. A prerequisite of possible occurrence of mode Ⅱ fracture was proposed. The study of shear fracture shows that the maximum circumferential stress theory considered its criterion as a parametric equation of a curve in KⅠ, KⅡ plane is incorrect; the predicted ratio KⅡ C/KⅠ C=0.866 is incorrect too.

  4. Effective applied moment in circumferential through-wall cracked pipes for leak-before-break evaluation considering pipe restraint effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeji; Hwang, Il-Soon [Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Young-Jin, E-mail: [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Co. Inc., Gimcheon 39660 (Korea, Republic of)


    Highlights: • Effective applied moment at pipe cracked section considering the pipe restraint effect. • Verification of the proposed evaluation methods using finite element analyses. • Applicability for distributed external load of the proposed methods. - Abstract: In the leak-before-break (LBB) design of nuclear power plants, crack opening displacement (COD) is an essential element for determining the length of the leakage size crack. Recent researches regarding the evaluation of COD have indicated that the current practice of the LBB evaluation without consideration of the pressure induced bending (PIB) restraint overestimates COD, which in turn gives non-conservative results. Under a free-ended boundary condition, however, the applied moment at cracked section also can be overestimated, which has conservative effects on LBB evaluation. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate pipe restraint effects on the applied moment as well as on COD to keep the constancy. In this paper, an evaluation method for the effect of the PIB restraint on COD and an effective applied moment (=crack driving force) at cracked section was developed. Both the linear elastic and elastic–plastic behaviors of the crack were considered. By comparing the behaviors with 3-D finite element analysis results from earlier studies, it was confirmed that the proposed methods make accurate estimations of the PIB restraint effect on COD. Next, the applicability of the proposed method to other types of external loading conditions was examined.

  5. J-Integral Estimate for Circumferential Cracked Pipes Under Primary and Secondary Stress in R, RBC-MR A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Hyun Suk; Oh, Chang Young; Kim, Yun Jae [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    This paper provides a comparison of the J-integral estimation method under combined primary and secondary stress in the R, RBC-MR A code. The comparisons of each code are based on finite element analysis using Abacus with regard to the crack shape, crack depth, and magnitude of secondary load. The estimate of the R code is conservative near L{sub r} = 1, and that of the RBC-MR A code is conservative near L{sub r} = 0. As a result, this paper proposes a modified method of J-integral estimation in the R, RCC{sub M}R A code. The J-integral using the modified method corresponds to the finite element analysis result.

  6. Application of structural reliability to multi-circumferential cracking in steam generator tubes; Application de la fiabilite des structures a la multifissuration circonferentielle des tubes de generateur de vapeur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardillon, E.; Riffard, T. [Electricite de France (EDF), 78 - Chatou (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches


    The COMPROMIS Code, developed by Electricite de France, is a probabilistic software tool concerned with assessment of probability of occurrence of a Steam Generator (SG) tube rupture caused by multi-circumferential cracking. It involves the calculation of low probabilities, for which Monte Carlo stratified sampling was selected. After a short description of the physical model, this paper presents the implementation of the numerical methods, some outputs of the code and sensitivity results of the rupture probability to input parameters. (author). 7 refs.

  7. A partly and fully cracked triangular XFEM element for modeling cohesive fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mougaard, Jens Falkenskov; Poulsen, Peter Noe; Nielsen, Leif Otto


    This paper discusses the build‐up of a partly cracked cohesive crack tip element. The crack tip element is based on the principles of the eXtended Finite Element Method (XFEM) and is of Linear Strain Triangle (LST) type. The composition of the enrichment has been in focus to achieve as complete...

  8. Strain distribution and crack detection in thin unbonded concrete pavement overlays with fully distributed fiber optic sensors (United States)

    Bao, Yi; Chen, Genda


    This study aims at evaluating the feasibility of strain measurement and crack detection in thin unbonded concrete pavement overlays with pulse prepump Brillouin optical time domain analysis. Single-mode optical fibers with two-layer and three-layer coatings, respectively, were applied as fully distributed sensors, their performances were compared with analytical predictions. They were successfully protected from damage during concrete casting of three full-scale concrete panels when 5 to 10-cm-thick protective mortar covers had been set for 2 h. Experimental results from three-point loading tests of the panels indicated that the strain distributions measured from the two types of sensors were in good agreement, and cracks can be detected at sharp peaks of the measured strain distributions. The two-layer and three-layer coated fibers can be used to measure strains up to 2.33% and 2.42% with a corresponding sensitivity of 5.43×10-5 and 4.66×10-5 GHz/μɛ, respectively. Two cracks as close as 7 to 9 cm can be clearly detected. The measured strains in optical fiber were lower than the analytical prediction by 10% to 25%. Their difference likely resulted from strain transfer through various coatings, idealized point loading, varying optical fiber embedment, and concrete heterogeneity.

  9. Microstructure and Ductility-Dip Cracking Susceptibility of Circumferential Multipass Dissimilar Weld Between 20MND5 and Z2CND18-12NS with Ni-Base Filler Metal 52 (United States)

    Qin, Renyao; Duan, Zhaoling; He, Guo


    The large circumferential multipass dissimilar weld between 20MND5 steel and Z2CND18-12NS stainless steel welded with FM52 filler material was investigated in terms of the diluted composition, the grain boundary precipitation, and the ductility-dip cracking (DDC) susceptibility of the weld. The diluted composition of the weld is composed of 37 to 47 pct Ni, 21 to 24 pct Cr, and 28 to 40 pct Fe, which are inhomogeneous along the depth and over the width of the deep weld. The carbon content has a distribution in the region of the surface weld from a high level (~0.20 pct) in the zone near 20MND5 steel to a normal level (~0.03 pct) in the zone near Z2CND18-12NS stainless steel. The carbon distribution is corresponding to the grain boundary carbides. The minimum threshold strains for DDC occur in the temperature range of 1223 K to 1323 K (950 °C to 1050 °C), which are 0.5, 0.35, and 0.4 pct for the root weld, middle region, and the surface weld, respectively. The dissimilar weld has the largest susceptibility to the DDC compared to the filler metal 52 and the Inconel 690.

  10. Fully Noncontact Wave Propagation Imaging in an Immersed Metallic Plate with a Crack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Ryul Lee


    Full Text Available This study presents a noncontact sensing technique with ultrasonic wave propagation imaging algorithm, for damage visualization of liquid-immersed structures. An aluminum plate specimen (400 mm × 400 mm × 3 mm with a 12 mm slit was immersed in water and in glycerin. A 532 nm Q-switched continuous wave laser is used at an energy level of 1.2 mJ to scan an area of 100 mm × 100 mm. A laser Doppler vibrometer is used as a noncontact ultrasonic sensor, which measures guided wave displacement at a fixed point. The tests are performed with two different cases of specimen: without water and filled with water and with glycerin. Lamb wave dispersion curves for the respective cases are calculated, to investigate the velocity-frequency relationship of each wave mode. Experimental propagation velocities of Lamb waves for different cases are compared with the theoretical dispersion curves. This study shows that the dispersion and attenuation of the Lamb wave is affected by the surrounding liquid, and the comparative experimental results are presented to verify it. In addition, it is demonstrated that the developed fully noncontact ultrasonic propagation imaging system is capable of damage sizing in submerged structures.

  11. Control effect of fracture on hard coal cracking in a fully mechanized longwall top coal caving face

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Jin-ping; LI Zhong-hua; SANG Pei-miao; CHEN Shang-qiang


    Through theoretical analysis,simulation test and practice,the law of a fracture's influence on hard top coal press cracking was studied.The study focused on the relation between fracture and coal strength,top coal caving ability and work face layout.Based on the investigation of the fracture system,the control of press cracking was achieved by matching working face to fracture orientation to improve top-coal caving ability and recov-ery.The matching principle was pointed out: The top-coal caving working face should be perpendicular to or obliquely cross the primary fracture at a large angle,and cross the secondary fracture at a small angle.The rational match can increase the recovery ratio of top-coal and avoid rib spalling.The application of control technology on hard top coal press cracking was introduced at the Iongwall top-coal caving face.

  12. Comparison of critical circumferential through-wall-crack-lengths in welds between pieces of straight pipes to welds between straigth pipes and bends with and without internal pressure at force- and displacement-controlled bending load; Vergleich kritischer Umfangsdurchrisslaengen in Schweissnaehten zwischen Geradrohrstuecken mit Schweissnaehten an Rohrbogen-Geradrohrverbindungen mit und ohne Innendruck bei kraft- und wegkontrollierter Biegebelastung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbuch, R. [Fachhochschule fuer Technik und Wirtschaft Reutlingen (Germany). Fachbereich Maschinenbau


    Methods for calculation of critical, circumferential through-wall crack lengths in pipes have been developed and verified by several research projects. In applications during the last few years it has been found that the force or displacement-controlled loads have to be considered separately, and this approach was integrated into the recent methods. Methods so far assumed cracks to be located in welds joining straight pipes. But this approach starts from an incomplete picture of reality, as with today`s technology, circumferential welds are less frequent in straight pipes and much more frequent in pipework of other geometry, as for instance in welds joining straight pipes and bends, or bends with longer legs, nozzles, or T-pieces. The non-linear FEM parameter study presented in the paper, covering cases with internal pressure of pipes and one-dimensional bending loads, is based on current geometries of pipework in the primary and secondary loops of industrial plants and compares the conditions induced by circumferential through-wall cracks in welds joining only straight pipes and in those joining bended and straight pipes. At the relevant, displacement-controlled bending loads due to hampered thermal expansion of the pipe system, the critical through-wall cracks lengths occurring in pipe-to-bend welds are of about the same size and importance as those in pipe-to-pipe welds. As for the case of force-controlled loads, the technical codes calculate more serious effects and require lower bending load limits. Within the range of admissible loads given in the codes, the critical through-wall crack lengths occurring in pipe-to-bend welds are similar in size to those in straight pipe welds. It is therefore a conservative or realistic approach to apply the values determined for critical through-wall crack lengths in pipe-to-pipe joints also to pipe-to-bend welds. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Verfahren zur Berechnung kritischer Umfangdurchrisslaengen in Rohrleitungen wurden in

  13. Development of methods for predicting large crack growth in elastic-plastic work-hardening materials in fully plastic conditions (United States)

    Ford, Hugh; Turner, C. E.; Fenner, R. T.; Curr, R. M.; Ivankovic, A.


    The objects of the first, exploratory, stage of the project were listed as: (1) to make a detailed and critical review of the Boundary Element method as already published and with regard to elastic-plastic fracture mechanics, to assess its potential for handling present concepts in two-dimensional and three-dimensional cases. To this was subsequently added the Finite Volume method and certain aspects of the Finite Element method for comparative purposes; (2) to assess the further steps needed to apply the methods so far developed to the general field, covering a practical range of geometries, work hardening materials, and composites: to consider their application under higher temperature conditions; (3) to re-assess the present stage of development of the energy dissipation rate, crack tip opening angle and J-integral models in relation to the possibilities of producing a unified technology with the previous two items; and (4) to report on the feasibility and promise of this combined approach and, if appropriate, make recommendations for the second stage aimed at developing a generalized crack growth technology for its application to real-life problems.

  14. Tearing of Circumferential Cracks in Pipes Loaded by Bending, (United States)


    geometry dependance in experimentally determined resistance curves are avoided. In applications the effects of geometry dependance are an essential...slope corresponds very closely to T0 . There is very little dependance on ao0 in the case To = 100. CONCLUDING REMARKS The results from the theory

  15. Crack and flip phacoemulsification technique. (United States)

    Fine, I H; Maloney, W F; Dillman, D M


    The crack and flip phacoemulsification technique combines the advantages of circumferential division of the nucleus and nucleofactis techniques. As such, it adds safety and control to the procedure. We describe each of the surgical maneuvers, including machine settings, and explain the rationale for maneuvers and machine settings.

  16. Evaluation of creep-fatigue crack growth for large-scale FBR reactor vessel and NDE assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Young Sang; Kim, Jong Bum; Kim, Seok Hun; Yoo, Bong


    Creep fatigue crack growth contributes to the failure of FRB reactor vessels in high temperature condition. In the design stage of reactor vessel, crack growth evaluation is very important to ensure the structural safety and setup the in-service inspection strategy. In this study, creep-fatigue crack growth evaluation has been performed for the semi-elliptical surface cracks subjected to thermal loading. The thermal stress analysis of a large-scale FBR reactor vessel has been carried out for the load conditions. The distributions of axial, radial, hoop, and Von Mises stresses were obtained for the loading conditions. At the maximum point of the axial and hoop stress, the longitudinal and circumferential surface cracks (i.e. PTS crack, NDE short crack and shallow long crack) were postulated. Using the maximum and minimum values of stresses, the creep-fatigue crack growth of the proposed cracks was simulated. The crack growth rate of circumferential cracks becomes greater than that of longitudinal cracks. The total crack growth of the largest PTS crack is very small after 427 cycles. The structural integrity of a large-scale reactor can be maintained for the plant life. The crack depth growth of the shallow long crack is faster than that of the NDE short crack. In the ISI of the large-scale FBR reactor vessel, the ultrasonic inspection is beneficial to detect the shallow circumferential cracks.

  17. 49 CFR 178.345-7 - Circumferential reinforcements. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Circumferential reinforcements. 178.345-7 Section... reinforcements. (a) A cargo tank with a shell thickness of less than 3/8 inch must be circumferentially... tank heads. (1) Circumferential reinforcement must be located so that the thickness and...

  18. Application of the cracked pipe element to creep crack growth prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brochard, J.; Charras, T.


    The modification of a computer code for leak before break analysis is very briefly described. The CASTEM2000 code was developed for ductile fracture assessment of piping systems with postulated circumferential through-wall cracks under static or dynamic loading. The modification extends the capabilities of the cracked pipe element to the determination of fracture parameters under creep conditions (C*, {phi}c and {Delta}c). The model has the advantage of evaluating significant secondary effects, such as those from thermal loading.

  19. Guided Circumferential Waves in Layered Poroelastic Cylinders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah S.A.


    Full Text Available The present paper investigates the propagation of time harmonic circumferential waves in a two-dimensional hollow poroelastic cylinder with an inner shaft (shaft-bearing assembly. The hollow poroelastic cylinder and inner shaft are assumed to be infinite in axial direction. The outer surface of the cylinder is stress free and at the interface, between the inner shaft and the outer cylinder, it is assumed to be free sliding and the interfacial shear stresses are zero, also the normal stress and radial displacements are continuous. The frequency equation of guided circumferential waves for a permeable and an impermeable surface is obtained. When the angular wave number vanish the frequency equation of guided circumferential waves for a permeable and an impermeable surface degenerates and the dilatational and shear waves are uncoupled. Shear waves are independent of the nature of surface. The frequency equation of a permeable and an impermeable surface for bore-piston assembly is obtained as a particular case of the model under consideration when the outer radius of the hollow poroelastic cylinder tends to infinity. Results of previous studies are obtained as a particular case of the present study. Nondimensional frequency as a function of wave number is presented graphically for two types of models and discussed. Numerical results show that, in general, the first modes are linear for permeable and impermeable surfaces and the frequency of a permeable surface is more than that of an impermeable surface.

  20. Status of the steam generator tube circumferential ODSCC degradation experienced at the Doel 4 plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roussel, G. [AIB-Vincotte Nuclear, Brussels (Belgium)


    Since the 1991 outage, the Doel Unit 4 nuclear power plant is known to be affected by circumferential outside diameter intergranular stress corrosion cracking at the hot leg tube expansion transition. Extensive non destructive examination inspections have shown the number of tubes affected by this problem as well as the size of the cracks to have been increasing for the three cycles up to 1993. As a result of the high percentage of tubes found non acceptable for continued service after the 1993 in-service inspection, about 1,700 mechanical sleeves were installed in the steam generators. During the 1994 outage, all the tubes sleeved during the 1993 outage were considered as potentially cracked to some extent at the upper hydraulic transition and were therefore not acceptable for continued service. They were subsequently repaired by laser welding. Furthermore all the tubes not sleeved during the 1993 outage were considered as not acceptable for continued service and were repaired by installing laser welded sleeves. During the 1995 outage, some unexpected degradation phenomena were evidenced in the sleeved tubes. This paper summarizes the status of the circumferential ODSCC experienced in the SG tubes of the Doel 4 plant as well as the other connected degradation phenomena.

  1. Circumferential phased array of shear-horizontal wave magnetostrictive patch transducers for pipe inspection. (United States)

    Kim, Hoe Woong; Lee, Joo Kyung; Kim, Yoon Young


    Several investigations report effective uses of magnetostrictive patch transducers to generate and measure longitudinal and torsional guided waves in a pipe. They can be used to form a phased array for the circumferential inspection of pipes. Although there are circumferential phased arrays employing piezoelectric transducers or EMAT's, no magnetostrictive patch transducer based array system has been attempted. In this investigation, we aim to develop a circumferential phased magnetostrictive patch transducer (PMPT) array that can focus shear-horizontal waves at any target point on a cylindrical surface of a pipe. For the development, a specific configuration of a PMPT array employing six magnetostrictive patch transducers is proposed. A wave simulation model is also developed to determine time delays and amplitudes of signals generated by the transducers of the array. This model should be able to predict accurately the angular profiles of shear-horizontal waves generated by the transducers. For wave focusing, the time reversal idea will be utilized. The wave focusing ability of the developed PMPT array is tested with multiple-crack detection experiments. Imaging of localized surface inspection regions is also attempted by using wave signals measured by the developed PMPT array system.

  2. Fatigue crack propagation analysis of plaque rupture. (United States)

    Pei, Xuan; Wu, Baijian; Li, Zhi-Yong


    Rupture of atheromatous plaque is the major cause of stroke or heart attack. Considering that the cardiovascular system is a classic fatigue environment, plaque rupture was treated as a chronic fatigue crack growth process in this study. Fracture mechanics theory was introduced to describe the stress status at the crack tip and Paris' law was used to calculate the crack growth rate. The effect of anatomical variation of an idealized plaque cross-section model was investigated. The crack initiation was considered to be either at the maximum circumferential stress location or at any other possible locations around the lumen. Although the crack automatically initialized at the maximum circumferential stress location usually propagated faster than others, it was not necessarily the most critical location where the fatigue life reached its minimum. We found that the fatigue life was minimum for cracks initialized in the following three regions: the midcap zone, the shoulder zone, and the backside zone. The anatomical variation has a significant influence on the fatigue life. Either a decrease in cap thickness or an increase in lipid pool size resulted in a significant decrease in fatigue life. Comparing to the previously used stress analysis, this fatigue model provides some possible explanations of plaque rupture at a low stress level in a pulsatile cardiovascular environment, and the method proposed here may be useful for further investigation of the mechanism of plaque rupture based on in vivo patient data.

  3. On guided circumferential waves in soft electroactive tubes under radially inhomogeneous biasing fields (United States)

    Wu, Bin; Su, Yipin; Chen, Weiqiu; Zhang, Chuanzeng


    Soft electroactive (EA) tube actuators and many other cylindrical devices have been proposed recently in literature, which show great advantages over those made from conventional hard solid materials. However, their practical applications may be limited because these soft EA devices are prone to various failure modes. In this paper, we present an analysis of the guided circumferential elastic waves in soft EA tube actuators, which has potential applications in the in-situ nondestructive evaluation (NDE) or online structural health monitoring (SHM) to detect structural defects or fatigue cracks in soft EA tube actuators and in the self-sensing of soft EA tube actuators based on the concept of guided circumferential elastic waves. Both circumferential SH and Lamb-type waves in an incompressible soft EA cylindrical tube under inhomogeneous biasing fields are considered. The biasing fields, induced by the application of an electric voltage difference to the electrodes on the inner and outer cylindrical surfaces of the EA tube in addition to an axial pre-stretch, are inhomogeneous in the radial direction. Dorfmann and Ogden's theory of nonlinear electroelasticity and the associated linear theory for small incremental motion constitute the basis of our analysis. By means of the state-space formalism for the incremental wave motion along with the approximate laminate technique, dispersion relations are derived in a particularly efficient way. For a neo-Hookean ideal dielectric model, the proposed approach is first validated numerically. Numerical examples are then given to show that the guided circumferential wave propagation characteristics are significantly affected by the inhomogeneous biasing fields and the geometrical parameters. Some particular phenomena such as the frequency veering and the nonlinear dependence of the phase velocity on the radial electric voltage are discussed. Our numerical findings demonstrate that it is feasible to use guided circumferential

  4. Investigation of Cracked Lithium Hydride Reactor Vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    bird, e.l.; mustaleski, t.m.


    Visual examination of lithium hydride reactor vessels revealed cracks that were adjacent to welds, most of which were circumferentially located in the bottom portion of the vessels. Sections were cut from the vessels containing these cracks and examined by use of the metallograph, scanning electron microscope, and microprobe to determine the cause of cracking. Most of the cracks originated on the outer surface just outside the weld fusion line in the base material and propagated along grain boundaries. Crack depths of those examined sections ranged from {approximately}300 to 500 {micro}m. Other cracks were reported to have reached a maximum depth of 1/8 in. The primary cause of cracking was the creation of high tensile stresses associated with the differences in the coefficients of thermal expansion between the filler metal and the base metal during operation of the vessel in a thermally cyclic environment. This failure mechanism could be described as creep-type fatigue, whereby crack propagation may have been aided by the presence of brittle chromium carbides along the grain boundaries, which indicates a slightly sensitized microstructure.

  5. Circumferential fusion improves outcome in comparison with instrumented posterolateral fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Videbaek, Tina S; Christensen, Finn B; Soegaard, Rikke


    -36 instrument, and the Low Back Pain Rating Scale. All measures assessed the endpoint outcomes at 5 to 9 years after surgery. RESULTS: The available response rate was 93%. The circumferential group showed a significantly better improvement (P ... with respect to all four DPQ categories: daily activities, work/leisure, anxiety/depression, and social interest. The Oswestry Disability Index supported these results (P physical health (P ....01) in the circumferential group, whereas no significant difference was found with respect to mental health compared with the posterolateral group. The circumferential group experienced significantly less back pain (P

  6. Application of the cracked pipe element to creep crack growth prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brochard, J.; Charras, T. [C.E.A.-C.E.-Saclay DRN/DMT, Gif Sur Yvette (France); Ghoudi, M. [C.E.A.-C.E.-Saclay, Gif Sur Yvette (France)


    Modifications to a computer code for ductile fracture assessment of piping systems with postulated circumferential through-wall cracks under static or dynamic loading are very briefly described. The modifications extend the capabilities of the CASTEM2000 code to the determination of fracture parameters under creep conditions. The main advantage of the approach is that thermal loads can be evaluated as secondary stresses. The code is applicable to piping systems for which crack propagation predictions differ significantly depending on whether thermal stresses are considered as primary or secondary stresses.

  7. Knuckle Cracking (United States)

    ... Ask The Expert Ask a Question Physician Corner Rheumatology Conference Rheumatology Rounds Case Rounds Radiology Rounds Pathophysiology of the ... Appointment Information Contact Us Our Faculty Our Staff Rheumatology Specialty Centers Knuckle Cracking Q & A September 10, ...

  8. Experimental investigation on circumferential and axial temperature gradient over fuel channel under LOCA (United States)

    Yadav, Ashwini Kumar; kumar, Ravi; Gupta, Akhilesh; Chatterjee, Barun; Mukhopadhyay, Deb; Lele, H. G.


    In a nuclear reactor temperature rises drastically in fuel channels under loss of coolant accident due to failure of primary heat transportation system. Present investigation has been carried out to capture circumferential and axial temperature gradients during fully and partially voiding conditions in a fuel channel using 19 pin fuel element simulator. A series of experiments were carried out by supplying power to outer, middle and center rods of 19 pin fuel simulator in ratio of 1.4:1.1:1. The temperature at upper periphery of pressure tube (PT) was slightly higher than at bottom due to increase in local equivalent thermal conductivity from top to bottom of PT. To simulate fully voided conditions PT was pressurized at 2.0 MPa pressure with 17.5 kW power injection. Ballooning initiated from center and then propagates towards the ends and hence axial temperature difference has been observed along the length of PT. For asymmetric heating, upper eight rods of fuel simulator were activated and temperature difference up-to 250 °C has been observed from top to bottom periphery of PT. Such situation creates steep circumferential temperature gradient over PT and could lead to breaching of PT under high pressure.

  9. Analysis of cracked core spray piping from the Quad Cities Unit 2 boiling water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diercks, D.R.; Gaitonde, S.M.


    The results of a metallurgical analysis of leaking cracks detected in the core spray injection piping of Commonwealth Edison Company's Quad Cities Unit 2 Boiling Water Reactor are described. The cracks were present in a welded 105/sup 0/ elbow assembly in the line, and were found to be caused by intergranular stress corrosion cracking associated with the probable presence of dissolved oxygen in the reactor cooling water and the presence of grain boundary sensitization and local residual stresses induced by welding. The failure is unusual in several respects, including the very large number of cracks (approximately 40) present in the failed component, the axial orientation of the cracks, and the fact that at least one crack completely penetrated a circumferential weld. Virtually all of the cracking occurred in forged material, and the microstructural evidence presented suggests that the orientation of the cracks was influenced by the presence of axially banded delta ferrite in the microstructure of the forged components.

  10. Circumferential gap propagation in an anisotropic elastic bacterial sacculus

    CERN Document Server

    Taneja, Swadhin; Rutenberg, Andrew D


    We have modelled stress concentration around small gaps in anisotropic elastic sheets, corresponding to the peptidoglycan sacculus of bacterial cells, under loading corresponding to the effects of turgor pressure in rod-shaped bacteria. We find that under normal conditions the stress concentration is insufficient to mechanically rupture bacteria, even for gaps up to a micron in length. We then explored the effects of stress-dependent smart-autolysins, as hypothesised by Arthur L Koch [Advances in Microbial Physiology 24, 301 (1983); Research in Microbiology 141, 529 (1990)]. We show that the measured anisotropic elasticity of the PG sacculus can lead to stable circumferential propagation of small gaps in the sacculus. This is consistent with the recent observation of circumferential propagation of PG-associated MreB patches in rod-shaped bacteria. We also find a bistable regime of both circumferential and axial gap propagation, which agrees with behavior reported in cytoskeletal mutants of B. subtilis. We con...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A model of guided circumferential waves propagating in double-walled carbon nanotubes is built by the theory of wave propagation in continuum mechanics, while the van der Waals force between the inner and outer nanotube has been taken into account in the model. The dispersion curves of the guided circumferential wave propagation are studied, and some dispersion characteristics are illustrated by comparing with those of single-walled carbon nanotubes. It is found that in double-walled carbon nanotubes, the guided circumferential waves will propagate in more dispersive ways. More interactions between neighboring wave modes may take place. In particular, it has been found that a couple of wave modes may disappear at a certain frequency and that, while a couple of wave modes disappear, another new couple of wave modes are excited at the same wave number.

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging receiver coil decoupling using circumferential shielding structures. (United States)

    Yeh, Jhy-Neng Tasso; Fa-Hsuan Lin


    We propose a flexible phased-array design using circular coils with circumferential shielding structure to achieve robust decoupling between coil elements when the array is either bended or on a flat plane. Two types of circumferential shielding were tested through numerical simulation and imaging experiment. The results demonstrated that our arrays have good decoupling between coils when they are on a curved surface with S21 coil array. Future work will empirically construct a multi-channel array with the number of channel matched to commercial phased array in order to validate the performance in vivo.

  13. Comparative Study on Crack Initiation and Propagation of Glass under Thermal Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wang


    Full Text Available This paper explores the fracture process based on finite element simulation. Both probabilistic and deterministic methods are employed to model crack initiation, and several commonly used criteria are utilized to predict crack growth. It is concluded that the criteria of maximum tensile stress, maximum normal stress, and maximum Mises stress, as well as the Coulomb-Mohr criterion are able to predict the initiation of the first crack. The mixed-mode criteria based on the stress intensity factor (SIF, energy release rate, and the maximum principal stress, as well as the SIF-based maximum circumferential stress criterion are suitable to predict the crack propagation.

  14. Circumferential nonlocal effect on the buckling and vibration of nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Cheng Yuan, E-mail:; Li, Xiao Hu; Luo, Ying


    The nonlocal beam theories are widely used to study the mechanics of cylindrical nanotubes (NTs). The one-dimensional models however are unable to account for the nonlocal effect in the circumferential direction, which may substantially affect the applicability of the nonlocal beam models. To address the issue this letter examines the circumferential nonlocal effect (CNE) on the buckling and vibration of the NTs. Here the CNE is characterized by the difference between the nonlocal beam model considering the axial nonlocal effect only and the nonlocal shell model with both axial and circumferential nonlocal effects. The aspect ratio and radius-dependence of the CNE are calculated for the singlewall carbon NTs selected as a typical example. The results show that the CNE is substantial for the buckling and vibration of the NTs with small radius (e.g., <1 nm) and aspect ratio (e.g., <15). It however decreases with the rising radius and the aspect ratio, and turns out to be small for relatively wide and long NTs. The nonlocal beam theories thus may overestimate the buckling load and vibration frequency for the thin and short NTs. - Highlights: • First revealed the substantial circumferential nonlocal effect (CNE) on nanotube buckling. • Achieved radius/aspect ratio-dependence of CNE on nanotube buckling and vibration. • Located the range of applicability of the nonlocal beam theory without CNE.

  15. A Critical Appraisal of Circumferential Resection Margins in Esophageal Carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pultrum, Bareld B.; Honing, Judith; Smit, Justin K.; van Dullemen, Hendrik M.; van Dam, Gooitzen M.; Groen, Henk; Hollema, Harry; Plukker, John Th. M.


    In esophageal cancer, circumferential resection margins (CRMs) are considered to be of relevant prognostic value, but a reliable definition of tumor-free CRM is still unclear. The aim of this study was to appraise the clinical prognostic value of microscopic CRM involvement and to determine the opti

  16. Circumferential evaluation of the neointima by optical coherence tomography after ABSORB bioresorbable vascular scaffold implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brugaletta, Salvatore; Radu, Maria D; Garcia-Garcia, Hector M


    To quantify the circumferential healing process at 6 and 12 months following scaffold implantation.......To quantify the circumferential healing process at 6 and 12 months following scaffold implantation....

  17. Analysis of Multiple Cracks in an Infinite Functionally Graded Plate (United States)

    Shbeeb, N. I.; Binienda, W. K.; Kreider, K. L.


    A general methodology was constructed to develop the fundamental solution for a crack embedded in an infinite non-homogeneous material in which the shear modulus varies exponentially with the y coordinate. The fundamental solution was used to generate a solution to fully interactive multiple crack problems for stress intensity factors and strain energy release rates. Parametric studies were conducted for two crack configurations. The model displayed sensitivity to crack distance, relative angular orientation, and to the coefficient of nonhomogeneity.

  18. Circumferential buckling instability of a growing cylindrical tube

    KAUST Repository

    Moulton, D.E.


    A cylindrical elastic tube under uniform radial external pressure will buckle circumferentially to a non-circular cross-section at a critical pressure. The buckling represents an instability of the inner or outer edge of the tube. This is a common phenomenon in biological tissues, where it is referred to as mucosal folding. Here, we investigate this buckling instability in a growing elastic tube. A change in thickness due to growth can have a dramatic impact on circumferential buckling, both in the critical pressure and the buckling pattern. We consider both single- and bi-layer tubes and multiple boundary conditions. We highlight the competition between geometric effects, i.e. the change in tube dimensions, and mechanical effects, i.e. the effect of residual stress, due to differential growth. This competition can lead to non-intuitive results, such as a tube growing to be thinner and yet buckle at a higher pressure. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A comprehensive theoretical, numerical and experimental approach for crack detection in power plant rotating machinery (United States)

    Stoisser, C. M.; Audebert, S.


    -flexibility induced by the crack in the shaft. The validated crack model is then applied to predict the dynamical behaviour of large industrial rotating machinery and to verify the crack detection capability based on the vibratory response. With respect to 900 MW turboset units, with cracks affecting LP rotors, a map of crack detection capabilities, based on 1× rev. and 2× rev. components as a function of circumferential extension ratio and crack depth, is drawn. If the crack depth is higher than 37% of the rotor diameter, on-line measurements of 2× rev. vibratory level shift allow to detect the crack. On the opposite, 1× rev. monitoring is necessary for cracks with circumferential extension superior to 270°. It is also observed that LP rotor bending mode shift monitoring theoretically allows to detect cracks with depths equal to or greater than 20% of the rotor diameter or with circumferential extension greater than 120°. The difficulties encountered for distinguishing the LP rotor bending mode frequencies, which may also evolve in time, independently from the cracks, limit the industrial application of this latter technique. Therefore new studies will focus on the analysis of torsion dynamic behaviour and on its sensitivity to cracks. With respect to RCP units, when half of the shaft section is cracked, the 2× rev. component remains very small. Whilst the result is simply due to a small excitation, a more accurate estimation of the external forces acting on the shaft could lead to more accurate numerical predictions.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Xiangqiao


    This paper presents an extension of a displacement discontinuity method with cracktip elements (a boundary element method) proposed by the author for fatigue crack growth analysis in plane elastic media under mixed-mode conditions. The boundary element method consists of the non-singular displacement discontinuity elements presented by Crouch and Starfield and the crack-tip displacement discontinuity elements due to the author. In the boundary element implementation the left or right crack-tip element is placed locally at the corresponding left or right crack tip on top of the non-singular displacement discontinuity elements that cover the entire crack surface and the other boundaries. Crack growth is simulated with an incremental crack extension analysis based on the maximum circumferential stress criterion. In the numerical simulation, for each increment of crack extension, remeshing of existing boundaries is not required because of an intrinsic feature of the numerical approach. Crack growth is modeled by adding new boundary elements on the incremental crack extension to the previous crack boundaries. At the same time, the element characteristics of some related elements are adjusted according to the manner in which the boundary element method is implemented. As an example, the fatigue growth process of cracks emanating from a circular hole in a plane elastic plate is simulated using the numerical simulation approach.

  1. Crack-tip constraints of through-wall cracked pipes and its similarity to curved wide plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Youn Young; Huh, Nam Su [Dept. of Mechanical System Design Engineering, Seoul National Univ. of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Jae Uk [Global Turbine R and D Center, Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki Seok; Cho, Woo Yeon [Energy Infrastructure Research Group, Steel Solution Center, POSCO, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)


    In the present study, the effects of pipe geometries, material properties and loading conditions on crack-tip constraints of pipes with circumferential Through-wall crack (TWC) were investigated via systematic 3-dimensional (3-D) Finite element (FE) analyses. The crack-tip constraints were quantified by Q-stress, and to characterize the elastic-plastic strain hardening material behavior, Ramberg-Osgood (R-O) material was employed. Based on the FE results, it was observed that crack-tip constraints of pipes with TWC were dependent on crack length and thickness of pipe, however, the effects of each variables decreased as either thickness of pipe becomes thinner or crack length becomes longer. Moreover, the effects loading modes on Q-stresses for thin-walled pipes with TWC are negligible. Finally, the present Q-stresses of pipes were compared with those of Curved wide plate (CWP) in tension to address the similarity of crack-tip constraints between pipe and CWP, which could be used to produce the CWP to measure the fracture toughness of pipes accurately.

  2. Estimation of circumferential fiber shortening velocity by echocardiography. (United States)

    Ruschhaupt, D G; Sodt, P C; Hutcheon, N A; Arcilla, R A


    The M-mode and two-dimensional echocardiograms of 40 young patients were analyzed to compare the mean circumferential fiber shortening velocity (Vcf) of the left ventricle calculated separately by two methods. The mean circumferential fiber shortening velocity was derived from the M-mode echocardiogram as minor axis shortening/ejection time and derived from the two-dimensional echocardiogram as actual circumference change/ejection time. With computer assistance, circumference was determined from the short-axis two-dimensional echocardiographic images during end-diastole and end-systole. Good correlations were obtained between the left ventricular diameter derived by M-mode echocardiography and the vertical axis during end-diastole (r = 0.79) and end-systole (r = 0.88) derived by two-dimensional echocardiography. Likewise, high correlations were noted between diameter and circumference in end-diastole (r = 0.89) and end-systole (r = 0.88). However, comparison of Vcf obtained by M-mode echocardiography with that obtained by two-dimensional echocardiography showed only fair correlation (r = 0.68). Moreover, the diameter/circumference ratio determined in end-diastole and end-systole differed significantly (p less than 0.001), possibly owing to the change in geometry of the ventricular sector image during systole. Although Vcf derived by M-mode echocardiography is a useful index of left ventricular performance, it does not truly reflect the circumference change during systole.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Kroll


    Full Text Available One of the potential alternatives to improve the stability coefficient for an embankment structure is to flatten the filtration curve. As a result, we obtain lower body forces triggering the potential landslide and more advantageous soil strength parameters, which counteract landslide movements. In the case of waste dumps lowering the phreatic surface of waters is achieved thanks to the construction of auxiliary drainage systems, meeting the guidelines for their safe operation. The aim of this paper is to indicate a method facilitating the determination of the actual position of the phreatic surface within the deposited sediments and the assessment of efficiency of the circumferential drainage system in the waste dump. It was decided in this study to apply cone penetration test CPTU. The CPTU made it possible to measure dissipation of excess water pressure in pores identifying drainage conditions, which were compared with the results of piezometric measurements. The results of these tests made it possible to monitor changes in the position of the depression curve of supernatant waters in dams and to determine the efficiency of the circumferential drainage system.

  4. Circumferential intradural meningioma of the thoracic spinal cord. (United States)

    Foster, Mitchell; Soh, Calvin; DuPlessis, Daniel; Karabatsou, Konstantina


    There are very few reported cases of a meningioma circumferentially surrounding the spinal cord. To date, this entity has only been described at the conus medullaris and in the cervical cord. Herewith, the authors describe a case of an intradural extramedullary meningioma that completely encircled the thoracic spinal cord. A 40-year-old woman with progressive numbness of the lower limbs and spasticity of gait following a fall presented to our hospital. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine demonstrated an abnormality at T6-T7 completely encircling the spinal cord. The patient underwent a T6-T8 laminectomy and subtotal resection of the intradural partially calcified lesion. Resection of the anterolateral portion was not feasible. Histology revealed psammomatous meningioma (WHO Grade 1). The patient recovered well and was discharged with improved gait but some residual numbness of her feet and right hemithorax. This is the first reported case of an intradural extramedullary meningioma completely encircling the thoracic spinal cord. Achieving complete resection of this circumferential meningioma was not possible via a posterior approach. The optimum management of this condition is unknown; clearly, achieving symptomatic relief with adequate cord decompression is paramount; however, the long-term outcome and risk of recurrence in these cases, given their rarity and the difficulties in achieving complete resection, is unknown. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Detection of a longitudinal defect in a pipe based on guided circumferential waves techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Longtao; HE Cunfu; WU Bin


    Based on elasticity theory, the multi-modes and disperse characteristics of guided circumferential waves in a pipe were investigated theoretically and experimentally, the disperse curves of guided circumferential waves were gotten by numerical calculations. The relationships between the angle of beam transducer, frequency and guided circumferential modes were analyzed by our guided wave experiment system. Then single guided circumferential mode was excited in the pipe (O.D 88.8 mm, I.D 80.8 mm). An artificial longitudinal defect (25 × 1 × 0.7 mm)on the surface of the pipe was detected by use of the single guided circumferential wave. The results show that single guided circumferential mode can be excited in the pipe by choosing special frequency and special angle beam transducer, similar to the excitation of Lamb wave in a plate, and it can be used to find the longitudinal defect on a pipe surface.

  6. Matrix cracking of fiber-reinforced ceramic composites in shear (United States)

    Rajan, Varun P.; Zok, Frank W.


    The mechanics of cracking in fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) under general loadings remains incomplete. The present paper addresses one outstanding aspect of this problem: the development of matrix cracks in unidirectional plies under shear loading. To this end, we develop a model based on potential energy differences upstream and downstream of a fully bridged steady-state matrix crack. Through a combination of analytical solutions and finite element simulations of the constituent stresses before and after cracking, we identify the dominant stress components that drive crack growth. We show that, when the axial slip lengths are much larger than the fiber diameter and when interfacial slip precedes cracking, the shear stresses in the constituents are largely unaffected by the presence of the crack; the changes that do occur are confined to a 'core' region within a distance of about one fiber diameter from the crack plane. Instead, the driving force for crack growth derives mainly from the axial stresses-tensile in the fibers and compressive in the matrix-that arise upon cracking. These stresses are well-approximated by solutions based on shear-lag analysis. Combining these solutions with the governing equation for crack growth yields an analytical estimate of the critical shear stress for matrix cracking. An analogous approach is used in deriving the critical stresses needed for matrix cracking under arbitrary in-plane loadings. The applicability of these results to cross-ply CMC laminates is briefly discussed.

  7. Characterization of mechanical and geometrical properties of a tube with axial and circumferential guided waves. (United States)

    Yeh, Cheng-Hung; Yang, Che-Hua


    Guided waves propagating in cylindrical tubes are frequently applied for the characterization of material or geometrical properties of tubes. In a tube, guided waves can propagate in the axial direction and called axial guided waves, or in the circumferential direction called circumferential guided waves. Dispersion spectra for the axial and circumferential guided waves share some common behaviors and however exhibit some particular behaviors of their own. This study provides an investigation with theoretical modeling, experimental measurements, and a simplex-based inversion procedure to explore the similarity and difference between the axial guided waves and circumferential guided waves, aiming at providing useful information while axial and circumferential guided waves are applied in the area of material characterization. The sensitivity to the radius curvature for the circumferential guided waves dispersion spectra is a major point that makes circumferential guided waves different from axial guided waves. For the purpose of material characterization, both axial and circumferential guided waves are able to extract an elastic moduli and wall-thickness information from the dispersion spectra, however, radius information can only be extracted from the circumferential guided waves spectra. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Crack opening area estimates in pressurized through-wall cracked elbows under bending

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, C.; Gilles, P.; Pignol, M.


    One of the most important aspects in the leak-before-break approach is the estimation of the crack opening area corresponding to potential through-wall cracks at critical locations during plant operation. In order to provide a reasonable lower bound to the leak area under such loading conditions, numerous experimental and numerical programs have been developed in USA, U.K. and FRG and widely discussed in literature. This paper aims to extend these investigations on a class of pipe elbows characteristic of PWR main coolant piping. The paper is divided in three main parts. First, a new simplified estimation scheme for leakage area is described, based on the reference stress method. This approach mainly developed in U.K. and more recently in France provides a convenient way to account for the non-linear behavior of the material. Second, the method is carried out for circumferential through-wall cracks located in PWR elbows subjected to internal pressure. Finite element crack area results are presented and comparisons are made with our predictions. Finally, in the third part, the discussion is extended to elbows under combined pressure and in plane bending moment.

  9. Gear Crack Propagation Investigation (United States)


    Reduced weight is a major design goal in aircraft power transmissions. Some gear designs incorporate thin rims to help meet this goal. Thin rims, however, may lead to bending fatigue cracks. These cracks may propagate through a gear tooth or into the gear rim. A crack that propagates through a tooth would probably not be catastrophic, and ample warning of a failure could be possible. On the other hand, a crack that propagates through the rim would be catastrophic. Such cracks could lead to disengagement of a rotor or propeller from an engine, loss of an aircraft, and fatalities. To help create and validate tools for the gear designer, the NASA Lewis Research Center performed in-house analytical and experimental studies to investigate the effect of rim thickness on gear-tooth crack propagation. Our goal was to determine whether cracks grew through gear teeth (benign failure mode) or through gear rims (catastrophic failure mode) for various rim thicknesses. In addition, we investigated the effect of rim thickness on crack propagation life. A finite-element-based computer program simulated gear-tooth crack propagation. The analysis used principles of linear elastic fracture mechanics, and quarter-point, triangular elements were used at the crack tip to represent the stress singularity. The program had an automated crack propagation option in which cracks were grown numerically via an automated remeshing scheme. Crack-tip stress-intensity factors were estimated to determine crack-propagation direction. Also, various fatigue crack growth models were used to estimate crack-propagation life. Experiments were performed in Lewis' Spur Gear Fatigue Rig to validate predicted crack propagation results. Gears with various backup ratios were tested to validate crack-path predictions. Also, test gears were installed with special crack-propagation gages in the tooth fillet region to measure bending-fatigue crack growth. From both predictions and tests, gears with backup ratios

  10. Predictions for fatigue crack growth life of cracked pipes and pipe welds using RMS SIF approach and experimental validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arora, Punit, E-mail: [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Department of Atomic Energy, Maharashtra, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Singh, P.K.; Bhasin, Vivek; Vaze, K.K.; Ghosh, A.K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Department of Atomic Energy, Maharashtra, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Pukazhendhi, D.M.; Gandhi, P.; Raghava, G. [Structural Engineering Research Centre, Chennai 600 113 (India)


    The objective of the present study is to understand the fatigue crack growth behavior in austenitic stainless steel pipes and pipe welds by carrying out analysis/predictions and experiments. The Paris law has been used for the prediction of fatigue crack growth life. To carry out the analysis, Paris constants have been determined for pipe (base) and pipe weld materials by using Compact Tension (CT) specimens machined from the actual pipe/pipe weld. Analyses have been carried out to predict the fatigue crack growth life of the austenitic stainless steel pipes/pipes welds having part through cracks on the outer surface. In the analyses, Stress Intensity Factors (K) have been evaluated through two different schemes. The first scheme considers the 'K' evaluations at two points of the crack front i.e. maximum crack depth and crack tip at the outer surface. The second scheme accounts for the area averaged root mean square stress intensity factor (K{sub RMS}) at deepest and surface points. Crack growth and the crack shape with loading cycles have been evaluated. In order to validate the analytical procedure/results, experiments have been carried out on full scale pipe and pipe welds with part through circumferential crack. Fatigue crack growth life evaluated using both schemes have been compared with experimental results. Use of stress intensity factor (K{sub RMS}) evaluated using second scheme gives better fatigue crack growth life prediction compared to that of first scheme. Fatigue crack growth in pipe weld (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding) can be predicted well using Paris constants of base material but prediction is non-conservative for pipe weld (Shielded Metal Arc Welding). Further, predictions using fatigue crack growth rate curve of ASME produces conservative results for pipe and GTAW pipe welds and comparable results for SMAW pipe welds. - Highlights: > Predicting fatigue crack growth of Austenitic Stainless Steel pipes and pipe welds. > Use of RMS-SIF and

  11. Assessment of crack opening area for leak rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharples, J.K.; Bouchard, P.J.


    This paper outlines the background to recommended crack opening area solutions given in a proposed revision to leak before break guidance for the R6 procedure. Comparisons with experimental and analytical results are given for some selected cases of circumferential cracks in cylinders. It is shown that elastic models can provide satisfactory estimations of crack opening displacement (and area) but they become increasingly conservative for values of L{sub r} greater than approximately 0.4. The Dugdale small scale yielding model gives conservative estimates of crack opening displacement with increasing enhancement for L{sub r} values greater than 0.4. Further validation of the elastic-plastic reference stress method for up to L{sub r} values of about 1.0 is presented by experimental and analytical comparisons. Although a more detailed method, its application gives a best estimate of crack opening displacement which may be substantially greater than small scale plasticity models. It is also shown that the local boundary conditions in pipework need to be carefully considered when evaluating crack opening area for through-wall bending stresses resulting from welding residual stresses or geometry discontinuities.

  12. Low-frequency circumferential magnetization curves in magnetostrictive amorphous wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivera, J. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo, C/Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Sanchez, M.L. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo, C/Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Prida, V.M. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo, C/Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Perez, M.J. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo, C/Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Santos, J.D. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo, C/Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Gorria, P. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo, C/Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Hernando, B. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo, C/Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain)]. E-mail:; Sanchez Ll, J.L. [Laboratorio de Magnetismo, Facultad de Fisica-IMRE, Universidad de La Habana, La Habana 10400 (Cuba)


    Circumferential magnetization curves have been derived from the imaginary component of the impedance response in an Fe{sub 73.5}Si{sub 13.5}B{sub 9}Cu{sub 1}Nb{sub 3} amorphous wire. Measurements were performed at 1 kHz driving frequency, and 0.05- 20 mA{sub rms} current amplitude range. Axial DC fields from 0 to 100 Oe have been simultaneously applied in order to detect the magnetoinductive effect. The circular magnetization curves are compared with quasi-static longitudinal magnetization ones, and the results are analyzed on the basis of the core-shell model for a wire with positive magnetostriction.

  13. Crack path in aeronautical titanium alloy under ultrasonic torsion loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nikitin


    Full Text Available This paper discusses features of fatigue crack initiation and growth in aeronautical VT3-1 titanium alloy under pure torsion loading in gigacycle regime. Two materials: extruded and forged VT3-1 titanium alloys were studied. Torsion fatigue tests were performed up to fatigue life of 109 cycles. The results of the torsion tests were compared with previously obtained results under fully reversed axial loading on the same alloys. It has been shown that independently on production process as surface as well subsurface crack initiation may appear under ultrasonic torsion loading despite the maximum stress amplitude located at the specimen surface. In the case of surface crack initiation, a scenario of crack initiation and growth is similar to HCF regime except an additional possibility for internal crack branching. In the case of subsurface crack, the initiation site is located below the specimen surface (about 200 μm and is not clearly related to any material flaw. Internal crack initiation is produced by shear stress in maximum shear plane and early crack growth is in Mode II. Crack branching is limited in the case of internal crack initiation compared to surface one. A typical ‘fish-eye’ crack can be observed at the torsion fracture surface, but mechanism of crack initiation seems not to be the same than under axial fatigue loading.

  14. The use of circumferentially varying stagger guide vanes in an axial flow pump or compressor (United States)

    Horlock, J. H.


    An actuator disk analysis is given of the flow through a guide vane and rotor combination. It is shown that changes in total pressure across the rotor are, in general, related to circumferential variations in guide vane outlet angle. In particular, known variations in inlet total pressure may be eliminated by suitable circumferential changes in guide vane stagger.

  15. Crack growth analysis due to PWSCC in dissimilar metal butt weld for reactor piping considering hydrostatic and normal operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hwee Sueng; Huh, Nam Su [Seoul Nat' l Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Gun; Park, Heung Bae [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Company, Gyeonggi (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sung Ho [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    This study investigates the crack growth behavior due to primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) in the dissimilar metal butt weld of a reactor piping using Alloy 82/182. First, detailed finite element stress analyses were performed to predict the stress distribution of the dissimilar metal butt weld in which the hydrostatic and the normal operating loads as well as the weld residual stresses were considered to evaluate the stress redistribution due to mechanical loadings. Based on the stress distributions along the wall thickness of the dissimilar metal butt weld, the crack growth behavior of the postulated axial and circumferential cracks were predicted, from which the crack growth diagram due to PWSCC was proposed. The present results can be applied to predict the crack growth rate in the dissimilar metal butt weld of reactor piping due to PWSCC.

  16. Fracture mechanics analyses of partial crack closure in shell structures (United States)

    Zhao, Jun


    This thesis presents the theoretical and finite element analyses of crack-face closure behavior in shells and its effect on the stress intensity factor under a bending load condition. Various shell geometries, such as spherical shell, cylindrical shell containing an axial crack, cylindrical shell containing a circumferential crack and shell with double curvatures, are all studied. In addition, the influence of material orthotropy on the crack closure effect in shells is also considered. The theoretical formulation is developed based on the shallow shell theory of Delale and Erdogan, incorporating the effect of crack-face closure at the compressive edges. The line-contact assumption, simulating the crack-face closure at the compressive edges, is employed so that the contact force at the closure edges is introduced, which can be translated to the mid-plane of the shell, accompanied by an additional distributed bending moment. The unknown contact force is computed by solving a mixed-boundary value problem iteratively, that is, along the crack length, either the normal displacement of the crack face at the compressive edges is equal to zero or the contact pressure is equal to zero. It is found that due to the curvature effects crack closure may not always occur on the entire length of the crack, depending on the direction of the bending load and the geometry of the shell. The crack-face closure influences significantly the magnitude of the stress intensity factors; it increases the membrane component but decreases the bending component. The maximum stress intensity factor is reduced by the crack-face closure. The significant influence of geometry and material orthotropy on rack closure behavior in shells is also predicted based on the analytical solutions. Three-dimensional FEA is performed to validate the theoretical solutions. It demonstrates that the crack face closure occurs actually over an area, not on a line, but the theoretical solutions of the stress intensity

  17. Modified Dugdale cracks and Fictitious cracks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang


    (displacement) respectively of material considered. The practical applicability of the two models is limited such that predicted strength sigma_CR must be less than sigma_L/3, which corresponds to an assumption that fictitious cracks are much smaller than real crack lengths considered. The reason......A number of theories are presented in the literature on crack mechanics by which the strength of damaged materials can be predicted. Among these are theories based on the well-known Dugdale model of a crack prevented from spreading by self-created constant cohesive flow stressed acting in local...... Dugdale crack is the same as if it has been weakened by the well-known Griffith crack, namely sigma_CR = (EG_CR/phi)^1/2 where E and 1 are Young's modulus and crack half-length respectively, and G_CR is the so-called critical energy release rate. The physical significance of G_CR, however, is different...

  18. Factors affecting hydrogen-assisted cracking in a commercial tempered martensitic steel: Mn segregation, MnS, and the stress state around abnormal cracks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Daisuke [Graduate School of Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Koyama, Motomichi [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Moto-oka, Nishi-ku Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Noguchi, Hiroshi, E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Moto-oka, Nishi-ku Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)


    The purpose of this paper is to reveal the dominant factors affecting tensile fracture under a hydrogen gas atmosphere. Tensile tests were conducted in hydrogen gas with circumferentially-notched specimens of a commercial tempered martensitic steel. Two specimens were exposed to hydrogen gas for 48 h before tensile testing; the other two specimens were not pre-charged. Longitudinal cracks along the loading direction and a transverse crack perpendicular to the loading direction were observed on a cross section of the non-charged specimen, but there was only one small crack on a cross section of the pre-charged specimen. Electron back scatter diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and finite element method analyses were applied to clarify the relationships among the longitudinal crack, Mn segregation, microstructures of martensitic steel and hydrogen. As a result, it has been demonstrated that Mn segregation and MnS promote hydrogen-assisted cracking in the tempered martensitic steel, causing the longitudinal cracking which is a mechanically non-preferential direction in homogeneous situations. More specifically, we have shown that the role of the Mn segregation is to promote the hydrogen-enhanced decohesion effect (HEDE), which is particularly important for crack propagation in the present case. These considerations indicate that the presence of Mn is crucially important for hydrogen-assisted cracking associated with hydrogen-enhanced localized plasticity (HELP) as well as HEDE.

  19. Finite Element Simulation on Crack Analysis of a Thick-Tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Ahmad Zaidi


    Full Text Available Most engineering failure began with cracks. Crack may caused by material defect, discontinuities in geometry or damage in service. Thus, Fracture Mechanics is introduced as a method for predicting failure of a surface containing a crack. This project is focusing on pre-existing crack with assumption that no microscopic defects are presents. Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM is used to evaluate the Stress Intensity Factor (SIF of the specimen. Further analysis is done by incorporating Elastic Plastic Fracture Mechanics (EPFM to understand the crack growth over period of time. In this study, the important parameters in fracture mechanics such as Stress Intensity Factor (SIF, Crack Mouth Opening Displacement (CMOD, J Integral and stable crack growth are been investigated. A complex loading simulation of NKS-3 specimen is done using finite element modeling. The NKS-3 is a thick-tube used in Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR which has a circumferential flaw on its inner surface. The cylinder is loaded with axial tensile load and internal pressure combined with thermal shock. A 2-Dimensional Axysimmetric-4 nodes element with focused mesh at the crack tip is employed in the simulation. Several analyses have been done using hardening data at different temperature. A comparison of solution is made for simulation with and without thermal load history. Further analysis showed that the stable crack growth is estimated to be around 3.0mm.

  20. Effects of weld residual stresses on crack-opening area analysis of pipes for LBB applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, P.; Rahman, S.; Wilkowski, G. [and others


    This paper summarizes four different studies undertaken to evaluate the effects of weld residual stresses on the crack-opening behavior of a circumferential through-wall crack in the center of a girth weld. The effect of weld residual stress on the crack-opening-area and leak-rate analyses of a pipe is not well understood. There are no simple analyses to account for these effects, and, therefore, they are frequently neglected. The four studies involved the following efforts: (1) Full-field thermoplastic finite element residual stress analyses of a crack in the center of a girth weld, (2) A comparison of the crack-opening displacements from a full-field thermoplastic residual stress analysis with a crack-face pressure elastic stress analysis to determine the residual stress effects on the crack-opening displacement, (3) The effects of hydrostatic testing on the residual stresses and the resulting crack-opening displacement, and (4) The effect of residual stresses on crack-opening displacement with different normal operating stresses.

  1. A dynamic model of a cantilever beam with a closed, embedded horizontal crack including local flexibilities at crack tips (United States)

    Liu, J.; Zhu, W. D.; Charalambides, P. G.; Shao, Y. M.; Xu, Y. F.; Fang, X. M.


    As one of major failure modes of mechanical structures subjected to periodic loads, embedded cracks due to fatigue can cause catastrophic failure of machineries. Understanding the dynamic characteristics of a structure with an embedded crack is helpful for early crack detection and diagnosis. In this work, a new three-segment beam model with local flexibilities at crack tips is developed to investigate the vibration of a cantilever beam with a closed, fully embedded horizontal crack, which is assumed to be not located at its clamped or free end or distributed near its top or bottom side. The three-segment beam model is assumed to be a linear elastic system, and it does not account for the nonlinear crack closure effect; the top and bottom segments always stay in contact at their interface during the beam vibration. It can model the effects of local deformations in the vicinity of the crack tips, which cannot be captured by previous methods in the literature. The middle segment of the beam containing the crack is modeled by a mechanically consistent, reduced bending moment. Each beam segment is assumed to be an Euler-Bernoulli beam, and the compliances at the crack tips are analytically determined using a J-integral approach and verified using commercial finite element software. Using compatibility conditions at the crack tips and the transfer matrix method, the nature frequencies and mode shapes of the cracked cantilever beam are obtained. The three-segment beam model is used to investigate the effects of local flexibilities at crack tips on the first three natural frequencies and mode shapes of the cracked cantilever beam. A stationary wavelet transform (SWT) method is used to process the mode shapes of the cracked cantilever beam; jumps in single-level SWT decomposition detail coefficients can be used to identify the length and location of an embedded horizontal crack.

  2. Angular-profile tuning of guided waves in hollow cylinders using a circumferential phased array. (United States)

    Li, Jian; Rose, Joseph L


    Angular-profile tuning of guided waves in hollow cylinders is implemented by using partial loading of the elements in a circumferentially placed phased array. Each partial loading element generates nonaxisymmetric guided waves in a pipe. In earlier work, numerical calculations and experiments have shown that, for nonaxisymmetric guided waves, circumferential distribution of particle displacements (i.e., the angular profile) changes with propagation distance, frequency, and mode. To change the angular profile at a certain distance, either frequency or mode has to be changed for a single partial loading element. This is not the case, however, for a circumferential phased array. The total angular profile of a circumferential array is the superposition of contributions from all elements. If given the knowledge of the angular profile for a single element, the total guided wave angular profile can be controlled and thus focused at any specific circumferential location by a circumferentially placed phased array with adjustable voltage level and phase inputs. This angular profile tuning technique can be used for implementing a circumferential scan with focused, guided wave beams, which leads to the detection of smaller defects as a result of stronger focused beams. Algorithms and specific nondestructive evaluation (NDE) applications for pipe inspection using this technique are discussed.

  3. Transport and Corrosion Behavior of Cracked Reinforced Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pease, Bradley Justin

    to enter the concrete. This is, among others, important in the corrosion of reinforcing steel. When cracks protrude to the depth of reinforcing steel, liquids containing aggressive ions (i.e. chlorides associated with salts and sea water) may rapidly access and initiate corrosion of the reinforcing...... structures. These models currently lack some of the scientific validity to fully represent actual field structures, i.e. structures containing cracks. Further understanding, therefore is needed on the effect cracks have on transport and corrosion in reinforced concrete. The fundamental mechanisms...... of transport and corrosion in cracked, reinforced concrete are not yet fully understood. The scope of this study therefore is to develop a link between concrete cracks and the relevant transport mechanism(s) under particular environmental conditions. It is envisioned that a finite element model...

  4. Crack growth simulation in heterogeneous material by S-FEM and comparison with experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanori Kikuchi


    Full Text Available Fully automatic fatigue crack growth simulation system is developed using S-version FEM (SFEM. This system is extended to fracture in heterogeneous material. In the heterogeneous material, crack tip stress field becomes mixed mode condition, and crack growth path is affected by inhomogeneous materials and mixed mode conditions. Stress Intensity Factors (SIF in mixed mode condition are evaluated using Virtual Crack Closure Method (VCCM. Criteria for crack growth amount and crack growth path are used based on these SIFs, and growing crack configurations are obtained. Three crack growth problems are simulated. One is crack growth in bi-materila made of CFRP plate and Aluminum alloy. Initial crack is located in CFRP plate, and grows toward Aluminum alloy. Crack growing direction changes and results are compared with experimental one. Second problem is crack growth in bimaterial made of PMMA and Aluminum alloy. Initial crack is located in PMMA plate and parallel to phase boundary. By cahnging loading conditions, several cases are simulated and compared with experimental ones. In the experiment, crack grows into pahse boundary and grow along it. This case is simulated precisely, and the effect of pahse boundary is discussed. Last case is Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC at Hot-Leg Safe-End of Pressurized Water Rreactor. This location is made of many kinds of steels by welding. In some steel, SCC does not occur and in other steel, SCC is accelerated. As a result, small surface crack grows in complicated manner.

  5. Development of X-FEM methodology and study on mixed-mode crack propagation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhuo Zhuang; Bin-Bin Cheng


    The extended finite element method (X-FEM) is a novel numerical methodology with a great potential for using in multi-scale computation and multi-phase coupling problems.The algorithm is discussed and a program is developed based on X-FEM for simulating mixed-mode crack propagation.The maximum circumferential stress criterion and interaction integral are deduced.Some numerical results are compared with the experimental data to prove the capability and efficiency of the algorithm and the program.Numerical analyses of sub-interfacial crack growth in bi-materials give a clear description of the effect on fracture made by interface and loading condition.

  6. Design of optical cloaks and illusion devices along a circumferential direction in curvilinear coordinates (United States)

    Chen, Tungyang; Yu, Shang-Ru


    We propose a cloaking and illusion device of circumferential topology based on the concept of transformation optics. The device is capable to cloak an object and/or simultaneously generate illusion images along a circumferential direction in curvilinear orthogonal coordinates. This feature allows us to construct multiple illusions in different ways, irrespective of the profile and direction of incident wave. Particularly when the device is served as a building brick of a larger device, one can generate a circumferential array of illusions in a periodic or any preferred pattern. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed illusion devices by carrying out full wave simulations based on finite element calculations.

  7. Nonlinear giant magnetoimpedance and the asymmetric circumferential magnetization process in soft magnetic wires (United States)

    Gómez-Polo, C.; Duque, J. G. S.; Knobel, M.


    The magnetoimpedance effect and its nonlinear terms are analysed for a (Co0.94Fe0.06)72.5Si12.5B15 amorphous wire. In order to enhance the nonlinear contribution the sample was previously subjected to current annealing (Joule heating) to induce a circumferential anisotropy. The effect of the application of a torsional strain on the nonlinear magnetoimpedance is analysed in terms of the torsional dependence of the magnetic permeability, evaluated through experimental circumferential hysteresis loops. The results obtained clearly confirm the direct correlation between the asymmetric circumferential magnetization process and the occurrence of nonlinear second-harmonic terms in the magnetoimpedance voltage.

  8. A cylindrical shell with an axial crack under skew-symmetric loading. (United States)

    Yuceoglu, U.; Erdogan, F.


    The skew-symmetric problem for a cylindrical shell containing an axial crack is considered. It is assumed that the material has a special orthotropy - namely, that the shear modulus may be evaluated from the measured Young's moduli and Poisson ratios and is not an independent material constant. The problem is solved within the confines of an eighth-order linearized shallow shell theory. As numerical examples, the torsion of an isotropic cylinder and that of a specially orthotropic cylinder (titanium) are considered. The membrane and bending components of the stress intensity factor are calculated and are given as functions of a dimensionless shell parameter. In the torsion problem for the axially cracked cylinder the bending effects appear to be much more significant than that found for the circumferentially cracked cylindrical shell. Also, as the shell parameter increases, unlike the results found in the pressurized shell, the bending stresses around crack ends do not change sign.

  9. Estimation of Crack Growth Properties of High Strength Metallic Materials by a Novel Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P R Sadananda Rao


    Full Text Available This research work proposes a novel technique based on fracture mechanics approach for the quick determination of fatigue crack growth rate and threshold stress intensity factor range (ΔKth of metallic materials using circumferentially cracked round bar (CCRBspecimen geometry. The literature survey indicates that the fatigue crack growth rate data generated using ASTM E-647 standard test specimens were strongly dependent on specimen size and its configuration. Also the standard test procedure is more cumbersome and time consuming requires costly instrumentation. Aluminum 2014T6 alloy is used as the test specimen because of its wide applicationin automobiles and aero plane industry. It is found that the test procedure is simple, reliable, less time consuming and uses simple instrumentation. The obtained fatigue crack growth rate is found to be very close to the values obtained by using standard specimens. This methodology can be widely applied in industries for rapid determination of ΔKth any metallic materials.

  10. Strength Restoration of Cracked Sandstone and Coal under a Uniaxial Compression Test and Correlated Damage Source Location Based on Acoustic Emissions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Feng

    Full Text Available Underground rock masses have shown a general trend of natural balance over billions of years of ground movement. Nonetheless, man-made underground constructions disturb this balance and cause rock stability failure. Fractured rock masses are frequently encountered in underground constructions, and this study aims to restore the strength of rock masses that have experienced considerable fracturing under uniaxial compression. Coal and sandstone from a deep-buried coal mine were chosen as experimental subjects; they were crushed by uniaxial compression and then carefully restored by a chemical adhesive called MEYCO 364 with an innovative self-made device. Finally, the restored specimens were crushed once again by uniaxial compression. Axial stress, axial strain, circumferential strain, and volumetric strain data for the entire process were fully captured and are discussed here. An acoustic emission (AE testing system was adopted to cooperate with the uniaxial compression system to provide better definitions for crack closure thresholds, crack initiation thresholds, crack damage thresholds, and three-dimensional damage source locations in intact and restored specimens. Several remarkable findings were obtained. The restoration effects of coal are considerably better than those of sandstone because the strength recovery coefficient of the former is 1.20, whereas that of the latter is 0.33, which indicates that MEYCO 364 is particularly valid for fractured rocks whose initial intact peak stress is less than that of MEYCO 364. Secondary cracked traces of restored sandstone almost follow the cracked traces of the initial intact sandstone, and the final failure is mainly caused by decoupling between the adhesive and the rock mass. However, cracked traces of restored coal only partially follow the traces of intact coal, with the final failure of the restored coal being caused by both bonding interface decoupling and self-breakage in coal. Three

  11. Effect of surface contamination on osseointegration of dental implants surrounded by circumferential bone defects.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mohamed, Seif


    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of surface contamination on osseointegration of dental implants surrounded by a circumferential bone defect and to compare osseointegration around Osseotite with that around Nanotite implants.

  12. Reduced Circumferential Resection Margin Involvement in Rectal Cancer Surgery: Results of the Dutch Surgical Colorectal Audit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gietelink, L.; Wouters, M.W.; Tanis, P.J.; Deken, M.M.; Berge, M.G. Ten; Tollenaar, R.A.; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van; Noo, M.E. de


    BACKGROUND: The circumferential resection margin (CRM) is a significant prognostic factor for local recurrence, distant metastasis, and survival after rectal cancer surgery. Therefore, availability of this parameter is essential. Although the Dutch total mesorectal excision trial raised awareness ab

  13. Variation in circumferential resection margin: Reporting and involvement in the South-Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homan, J.; Bokkerink, G.M.J.; Aarts, M.J.; Lemmens, V.E.; Lijnschoten, G. van; Rutten, H.J.; Wijsman, J.H.; Nagtegaal, I.D.; Wilt, J.H.W. de


    BACKGROUND: Since the introduction of total mesorectal surgery the outcome of rectal cancer patients has improved significantly. Involvement of the circumferential resection margin (CRM) is an important predictor of increased local recurrence, distant metastases and decreased overall survival. Abdom

  14. Understanding the link between circumferential dikes and eruptive fissures around calderas based on numerical and analog models (United States)

    Corbi, Fabio; Rivalta, Eleonora; Pinel, Virginie; Maccaferri, Francesco; Acocella, Valerio


    Active calderas are seldom associated with circumferential eruptive fissures, but eroded magmatic complexes reveal widespread circumferential dikes. This suggests that, while the conditions to emplace circumferential dikes are easily met, mechanisms must prevent them from reaching the surface. We explain this discrepancy with experiments of air injection into gelatin shaped as a volcano with caldera. Analog dikes show variable deflection, depending on the competition between overpressure, Pe, and topographic unloading, Pl; when Pl/Pe = 4.8-5.3, the dikes propagate orthogonal to the least compressive stress. Due to the unloading, they become circumferential and stall below the caldera rim; buoyancy is fundamental for the further rise and circumferential fissure development. Numerical models quantitatively constrain the stress orientation within the gelatin, explaining the observed circumferential dikes. Our results explain how dikes propagate below the rim of felsic and mafic calderas, but only in the latter they are prone to feed circumferential fissures.

  15. Rapid high-amplitude circumferential slow wave propagation during normal gastric pacemaking and dysrhythmias. (United States)

    O'Grady, G; Du, P; Paskaranandavadivel, N; Angeli, T R; Lammers, W J E P; Asirvatham, S J; Windsor, J A; Farrugia, G; Pullan, A J; Cheng, L K


    Gastric slow waves propagate aborally as rings of excitation. Circumferential propagation does not normally occur, except at the pacemaker region. We hypothesized that (i) the unexplained high-velocity, high-amplitude activity associated with the pacemaker region is a consequence of circumferential propagation; (ii) rapid, high-amplitude circumferential propagation emerges during gastric dysrhythmias; (iii) the driving network conductance might switch between interstitial cells of Cajal myenteric plexus (ICC-MP) and circular interstitial cells of Cajal intramuscular (ICC-IM) during circumferential propagation; and (iv) extracellular amplitudes and velocities are correlated. An experimental-theoretical study was performed. High-resolution gastric mapping was performed in pigs during normal activation, pacing, and dysrhythmia. Activation profiles, velocities, and amplitudes were quantified. ICC pathways were theoretically evaluated in a bidomain model. Extracellular potentials were modeled as a function of membrane potentials. High-velocity, high-amplitude activation was only recorded in the pacemaker region when circumferential conduction occurred. Circumferential propagation accompanied dysrhythmia in 8/8 experiments was faster than longitudinal propagation (8.9 vs 6.9 mm s(-1) ; P = 0.004) and of higher amplitude (739 vs 528 μV; P = 0.007). Simulations predicted that ICC-MP could be the driving network during longitudinal propagation, whereas during ectopic pacemaking, ICC-IM could outpace and activate ICC-MP in the circumferential axis. Experimental and modeling data demonstrated a linear relationship between velocities and amplitudes (P propagation. Rapid circumferential propagation also emerges during a range of gastric dysrhythmias, elevating extracellular amplitudes and organizing transverse wavefronts. One possible explanation for these findings is bidirectional coupling between ICC-MP and circular ICC-IM networks. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Key results for the NRC`s Short Cracks in Piping and Piping Welds Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkowski, G.; Krishnaswamy, P.; Brust, F. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)] [and others


    The overall objective of the Short Cracks in Piping and Piping Welds Program is to verify and improve engineering analyses to predict the fracture behavior of circumferentially cracked pipe under quasi-static loading with particular attention to crack lengths typically used in LBB or flaw evaluation criteria. The USNCRC program at Battelle was initiated in March 1990 and is scheduled to be completed in December 1994. This paper discusses key results from the overall program with particular emphasis on the efforts since the last WRSIM meeting. The program consists of eight technical tasks as listed below: task 1 short through-wall-cracked (TWC) pipe evaluations; task 2 short surface-cracked (SC) pipe evaluations; task 3 bi-metallic weld crack evaluations; task 4 dynamic strain aging and crack instabilities; task 5 fracture evaluations of anisotropic pipe; task 6 crack-opening-area evaluations; task 7 NRCPIPE code improvements; task 8 additional efforts. Task 8 is a collection of new efforts initiated during the coarse of the program. A list of the full-scale pipe experiments in this program is given in Table 1. All of the experiments have been completed. The most recent accomplishments in each of the tasks listed above are discussed below. The details of all the results in the eight tasks are published in the semiannual reports as well as topical reports from the program.

  17. Development of Efficient Finite Element Software of Crack Propagation Simulation using Adaptive Mesh Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulnaser M. Alshoaibi


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is on the determination of 2D crack paths and surfaces as well as on the evaluation of the stress intensity factors as a part of the damage tolerant assessment. Problem statement: The evaluation of SIFs and crack tip singular stresses for arbitrary fracture structure are a challenging problem, involving the calculation of the crack path and the crack propagation rates at each step especially under mixed mode loading. Approach: This study was provided a finite element code which produces results comparable to the current available commercial software. Throughout the simulation of crack propagation an automatic adaptive mesh was carried out in the vicinity of the crack front nodes and in the elements which represent the higher stresses distribution. The finite element mesh was generated using the advancing front method. The adaptive remising process carried out based on the posteriori stress error norm scheme to obtain an optimal mesh. The onset criterion of crack propagation was based on the stress intensity factors which provide as the most important parameter that must be accurately estimated. Facilitated by the singular elements, the displacement extrapolation technique is employed to calculate the stress intensity factor. Crack direction is predicted using the maximum circumferential stress theory. The fracture was modeled by the splitting node approach and the trajectory follows the successive linear extensions of each crack increment. The propagation process is driven by Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM approach with minimum user interaction. Results: In evaluating the accuracy of the estimated stress intensity factors and the crack path predictions, the results were compared with sets of experimental data, benchmark analytical solutions as well as numerical results of other researchers. Conclusion/Recommendations: The assessment indicated that the program was highly reliable to evaluate the stress intensity

  18. Analyses of axial, lateral and circumferential deformations of rock specimen in triaxial compression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xue-bin


    The axial, lateral and circumferential strains were analyzed for a rock specimen subjected to shear failure in the form of a shear band bisecting the specimen in triaxial compression. Plastic deformation of the specimen stemmed from shear strain localization initiated at the peak shear stress. Beyond the onset of strain localization, the axial, lateral and circumferential strains were decomposed into two parts, respectively. One is the elas-tic strain described by general Hooke's law. The other is attributable to the plastic shear slips along shear band with a certain thickness dependent on the internal length of rock.The post-peak circumferential strain-axial strain curve of longer specimen is steeper than that of shorter specimen, as is consistent with the previous experiments. In elastic stage,the circumferential strain-axial strain curve exhibits nonlinear characteristic, as is in agreement with the previous experiment since confining pressure is loaded progressively until a certain value is reached. When the confining pressure is loaded completely, the circumferential strain-axial strain curve is linear in elastic and strain-softening stages. The predicted circumferential strain-axial strain curve in elastic and strain- softening stages agrees with the previous experiment.

  19. Single-stage Posterior Spondylectomy,Circumferential Decompression and Reconstruction Using Mesh Cage for Spinal Tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Zhu; Hong Zhao; Giu-xing Qiu; Jian-guo Zhang; Ye Tian; Shu-gang Li; Suo-mao Yuan


    Objective To explore the feasibility and clinical results of circumferential decompression and threecolumn reconstruction through single-stage posterior transpedicular approach for spinal tumor treatment.Methods Totally,24 patients with spinal tumor underwent tumor resection and spinal reconstruction through single-stage posterior transpedicular approach.Preoperatively,according to the Frankel classification,12 patients were grade E,9 grade D,and 3 grade C.Anterior column was reconstructed with non-expandable titanium cages.Posterior segmental instrumentation was used to maintain the stability of spine in all cases.Anterior and posterolateral fusion was performed with autograft and allogenic bone.The following data were followed up in these patients:deformity angle,local recurrence,neurological function,and spinal bony fusion.Results The average operating time and blood loss was 5.6 hours and 3 400 ml respectively.No intraoperative and postoperative complications were observed in this group.Postoperatively,21 patients were Frankel grade E,2 grade D,and 1 grade C.Four patients reported significant functional restoration and twenty patients reported complete resolution of pain.At follow-up(range,6-42 months),implant failure or recurrent neurological symptoms was not found.Conclusions The tumor resection and spinal reconstruction through single-stage posterior transpedicular approach is a safe and effective technique for the treatment of spinal tumor.It can fully decompress the neurological structures,correct the kyphosis,and achieve early weight-bearing.This technique can improve life quality for the patients with spinal tumor.

  20. Analysis of cracked core spray injection line piping from the Quad Cities Units 1 and 2 boiling water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diercks, D.R.


    Elbow assemblies and adjacent piping from the loops A and B core spray injection lines of Quad Cities Units 1 and 2 Boiling Water Reactors have been examined in order to determine the nature and causes of coolant leakages and flaw indications detected during hydrostatic tests and subsequent ultrasonic inspections. The elbow assemblies were found to contain multiple intergranular cracks in the weld heat-affected zones. The cracking was predominantly axial in orientation in the forged elbow and wedge components, whereas mixed axial and circumferential cracking was seen in the wrought piping pieces. In at least two instances, axial cracks completely penetrated the circumferential weld joining adjacent components. Based upon the observations made in the present study, the failures were attributed to intergranular stress corrosion cracking caused by the weld-induced sensitized microstructure and residual stresses present; dissolved oxygen in the reactor coolant apparently served as the corrosive species. The predominantly axial orientation of the cracks present in the forged components is believed to be related to the banded microstructure present in these components. The metallographic studies reported are supplemented by x-radiography, chemical analysis and mechanical test results, determinations of the degree of sensitization present, and measurements of weld metal delta ferrite content.

  1. Crack identification for rotating machines based on a nonlinear approach (United States)

    Cavalini, A. A., Jr.; Sanches, L.; Bachschmid, N.; Steffen, V., Jr.


    In a previous contribution, a crack identification methodology based on a nonlinear approach was proposed. The technique uses external applied diagnostic forces at certain frequencies attaining combinational resonances, together with a pseudo-random optimization code, known as Differential Evolution, in order to characterize the signatures of the crack in the spectral responses of the flexible rotor. The conditions under which combinational resonances appear were determined by using the method of multiple scales. In real conditions, the breathing phenomenon arises from the stress and strain distribution on the cross-sectional area of the crack. This mechanism behavior follows the static and dynamic loads acting on the rotor. Therefore, the breathing crack can be simulated according to the Mayes' model, in which the crack transition from fully opened to fully closed is described by a cosine function. However, many contributions try to represent the crack behavior by machining a small notch on the shaft instead of the fatigue process. In this paper, the open and breathing crack models are compared regarding their dynamic behavior and the efficiency of the proposed identification technique. The additional flexibility introduced by the crack is calculated by using the linear fracture mechanics theory (LFM). The open crack model is based on LFM and the breathing crack model corresponds to the Mayes' model, which combines LFM with a given breathing mechanism. For illustration purposes, a rotor composed by a horizontal flexible shaft, two rigid discs, and two self-aligning ball bearings is used to compose a finite element model of the system. Then, numerical simulation is performed to determine the dynamic behavior of the rotor. Finally, the results of the inverse problem conveyed show that the methodology is a reliable tool that is able to estimate satisfactorily the location and depth of the crack.

  2. Crack layer theory (United States)

    Chudnovsky, A.


    A damage parameter is introduced in addition to conventional parameters of continuum mechanics and consider a crack surrounded by an array of microdefects within the continuum mechanics framework. A system consisting of the main crack and surrounding damage is called crack layer (CL). Crack layer propagation is an irreversible process. The general framework of the thermodynamics of irreversible processes are employed to identify the driving forces (causes) and to derive the constitutive equation of CL propagation, that is, the relationship between the rates of the crack growth and damage dissemination from one side and the conjugated thermodynamic forces from another. The proposed law of CL propagation is in good agreement with the experimental data on fatigue CL propagation in various materials. The theory also elaborates material toughness characterization.

  3. Effect of crack propagation on crack tip fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.V. Antunes


    Full Text Available Crack closure influences fatigue crack growth rate and must be included in the design of components. Plasticity induced crack closure is intimately linked with the crack tip plastic deformation, which becomes residual as the crack propagates. The objective here is to study numerically the effect of crack propagation on crack tip fields. The transient effect observed at the beginning of crack propagation is linked to the hardening behavior of material. The effect of mesh refinement is studied, and a singular behavior is evident, which is explained by the sharp crack associated with mesh topology, composed of a regular pattern of square elements. The plastic zone size measured perpendicularly to crack flank in the residual plastic wake is quantified and compared with literature models. Finally, the removal of material at the first node behind crack tip with load cycling was observed for plane strain state and some hardening models in plane stress state.

  4. Small-crack test methods (United States)

    Larsen, James M.; Allison, John E.

    This book contains chapters on fracture mechanics parameters for small fatigue cracks, monitoring small-crack growth by the replication method, measurement of small cracks by photomicroscopy (experiments and analysis), and experimental mechanics of microcracks. Other topics discussed are the real-time measurement of small-crack-opening behavior using an interferometric strain/displacement gage; direct current electrical potential measurement of the growth of small cracks; an ultrasonic method for the measurement of the size and opening behavior of small fatigue cracks; and the simulation of short crack and other low closure loading conditions, utilizing constant K(max) Delta-K-decreasing fatigue crack growth procedures.

  5. Effect of crack surface geometry on fatigue crack closure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drury, W.J. [P and L Technologies, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States); Gokhale, A.M. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Materials Science and Engineering; Antolovich, S.D. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering


    The geometry of crack faces often plays a critical role in reducing crack extension forces when crack closure occurs during fatigue crack growth. Most previous studies of fatigue crack closure are concerned with mechanical measure of closure as related to the crack growth rate; very little attention has been given to the geometry of the crack surfaces. The objective is to identify those aspects of crack surface geometry that are important in the closure process, to develop quantitative fractographic techniques to estimate such attributes in a statistically significant and robust manner, and to correlate them to the physical process of crack closure. For this purpose, fatigue crack propagation experiments were performed on a Ni-base superalloy and crack growth rates and crack closure loads were measured. Digital image profilometry and software-based analysis techniques were used for statistically reliable and detailed quantitative characterization of fatigue crack profiles. It is shown that the dimensionless, scale-independent attributes, such a height-to-width ratio of asperities, fractal dimensions, dimensionless roughness parameters, etc., do not represent the aspects of crack geometry that are of primary importance in the crack closure phenomena. Furthermore, it is shown that the scale-dependent characteristics, such as average asperity height, do represent the aspects of crack geometry that play an interactive role in the closure process. These observations have implications concerning the validity of geometry-dependent, closure-based models for fatigue crack growth.

  6. Concrete Crack Identification Using a UAV Incorporating Hybrid Image Processing. (United States)

    Kim, Hyunjun; Lee, Junhwa; Ahn, Eunjong; Cho, Soojin; Shin, Myoungsu; Sim, Sung-Han


    Crack assessment is an essential process in the maintenance of concrete structures. In general, concrete cracks are inspected by manual visual observation of the surface, which is intrinsically subjective as it depends on the experience of inspectors. Further, it is time-consuming, expensive, and often unsafe when inaccessible structural members are to be assessed. Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technologies combined with digital image processing have recently been applied to crack assessment to overcome the drawbacks of manual visual inspection. However, identification of crack information in terms of width and length has not been fully explored in the UAV-based applications, because of the absence of distance measurement and tailored image processing. This paper presents a crack identification strategy that combines hybrid image processing with UAV technology. Equipped with a camera, an ultrasonic displacement sensor, and a WiFi module, the system provides the image of cracks and the associated working distance from a target structure on demand. The obtained information is subsequently processed by hybrid image binarization to estimate the crack width accurately while minimizing the loss of the crack length information. The proposed system has shown to successfully measure cracks thicker than 0.1 mm with the maximum length estimation error of 7.3%.

  7. Concrete Crack Identification Using a UAV Incorporating Hybrid Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunjun Kim


    Full Text Available Crack assessment is an essential process in the maintenance of concrete structures. In general, concrete cracks are inspected by manual visual observation of the surface, which is intrinsically subjective as it depends on the experience of inspectors. Further, it is time-consuming, expensive, and often unsafe when inaccessible structural members are to be assessed. Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV technologies combined with digital image processing have recently been applied to crack assessment to overcome the drawbacks of manual visual inspection. However, identification of crack information in terms of width and length has not been fully explored in the UAV-based applications, because of the absence of distance measurement and tailored image processing. This paper presents a crack identification strategy that combines hybrid image processing with UAV technology. Equipped with a camera, an ultrasonic displacement sensor, and a WiFi module, the system provides the image of cracks and the associated working distance from a target structure on demand. The obtained information is subsequently processed by hybrid image binarization to estimate the crack width accurately while minimizing the loss of the crack length information. The proposed system has shown to successfully measure cracks thicker than 0.1 mm with the maximum length estimation error of 7.3%.

  8. Deformation analysis of transversely isotropic coal-rock mass with porous and cracks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Dongjie; Zhou Hongwei; Kong Lin; Tang Xianli; Zhao Tian; Yi Haiyang; Zhao Yufeng


    Coal-rock as a typical sedimentary rock has obvious stratification,namely it has transversely isotropic feature.Meanwhile,deformation leads to coal-rock mass having the characteristics of different porous and crack structures as well as local anisotropy.Equivalent axial and circumferential strain' formulas of the pure coal-rock mass specimen with a single crack were derived through the establishment of equivalent mechanical model of standard cylindrical coal-rock specimen,and have been widely used to a variety of media combined different structures containing multiple cracks.The complete stress strain curve of a real coal-rock specimen was obtained by the CTC test.Additionally,according to the comparison with the theoretical value,the theoretical mechanical model could well explain the deformation characteristics of coal-rock mass and verify its validity.Further,following features were analyzed:strain normalized coefficient and elastic modulus (Poisson's ratio) in vertical and parallel direction to the stratification,stratification angle,porosity,pore radius,normal and tangential stiffness of crack,and the relationship of different crack width with different tangential stiffness of crack.Through the analysis above,it substantiate this claim that the theoretical model with better reliability reflects the transversely isotropic nature of the coal-rock and the local anisotropy caused by the porous and cracks.

  9. Deformation analysis of transversely isotropic coal-rock mass with porous and cracks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue; Dongjie; Zhou; Hongwei; Kong; Lin; Tang; Xianli; Zhao; Tian; Yi; Haiyang; Zhao; Yufeng


    Coal-rock as a typical sedimentary rock has obvious stratification,namely it has transversely isotropic feature.Meanwhile,deformation leads to coal-rock mass having the characteristics of different porous and crack structures as well as local anisotropy.Equivalent axial and circumferential strain' formulas of the pure coal-rock mass specimen with a single crack were derived through the establishment of equivalent mechanical model of standard cylindrical coal-rock specimen,and have been widely used to a variety of media combined different structures containing multiple cracks.The complete stress strain curve of a real coal-rock specimen was obtained by the CTC test.Additionally,according to the comparison with the theoretical value,the theoretical mechanical model could well explain the deformation characteristics of coal-rock mass and verify its validity.Further,following features were analyzed:strain normalized coefficient and elastic modulus(Poisson's ratio) in vertical and parallel direction to the stratification,stratification angle,porosity,pore radius,normal and tangential stiffness of crack,and the relationship of different crack width with different tangential stiffness of crack.Through the analysis above,it substantiate this claim that the theoretical model with better reliability reflects the transversely isotropic nature of the coal-rock and the local anisotropy caused by the porous and cracks.

  10. Correlation between longitudinal, circumferential, and radial moduli in cortical bone: effect of mineral content. (United States)

    Macione, J; Depaula, C A; Guzelsu, N; Kotha, S P


    Previous studies indicate that changes in the longitudinal elastic properties of bone due to changes in mineral content are related to the longitudinal strength of bone tissue. Changes in mineral content are expected to affect bone tissue mechanical properties along all directions, albeit to different extents. However, changes in tissue mechanical properties along the different directions are expected to be correlated to one another. In this study, we investigate if radial, circumferential, and longitudinal moduli are related in bone tissue with varying mineral content. Plexiform bovine femoral bone samples were treated in fluoride ion solutions for a period of 3 and 12 days to obtain bones with 20% and 32% lower effective mineral contents. Transmission ultrasound velocities were obtained in the radial, circumferential, and longitudinal axes of bone and combined with measured densities to obtain corresponding tensorial moduli. Results indicate that moduli decreased with fluoride ion treatments and were significantly correlated to one another (r(2) radial vs. longitudinal = 0.80, r(2) circumferential vs. longitudinal = 0.90, r(2) radial vs. circumferential = 0.85). Densities calculated from using ultrasound parameters, acoustic impedance and transmission velocities, were moderately correlated to those measured by the Archimedes principle (r(2)=0.54, p<0.01). These results suggest that radial and circumferential ultrasound measurements could be used to determine the longitudinal properties of bone and that ultrasound may not be able to predict in vitro densities of bones containing unbonded mineral. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Accelerated circumferential strain quantification of the left ventricle using CIRCOME: simulation and factor analysis (United States)

    Moghaddam, Abbas N.; Finn, J. Paul


    Circumferential strain of the left ventricle reflects myocardial contractility and is considered a key index of cardiac function. It is also an important parameter in the quantitative evaluation of heart failure. Circumferential compression encoding, CIRCOME, is a novel method in cardiac MRI to evaluate this strain non-invasively and quickly. This strain encoding technique avoids the explicit measurement of the displacement field and does not require calculation of strain through spatial differentiation. CIRCOME bypasses these two time-consuming and noise sensitive steps by directly using the frequency domain (k-space) information from radially tagged myocardium, before and after deformation. It uses the ring-shaped crown region of the k-space, generated by the taglines, to reconstruct circumferentially compression-weighted images of the heart before and after deformation. CIRCOME then calculates the circumferential strain through relative changes in the compression level of corresponding regions before and after deformation. This technique can be implemented in 3D as well as 2D and may be employed to estimate the overall global or regional circumferential strain. The main parameters that affect the accuracy of this method are spatial resolution, signal to noise ratio, eccentricity of the center of radial taglines their fading and their density. Also, a variety of possible image reconstruction and filtering options may influence the accuracy of the method. This study describes the pulse sequence, algorithm, influencing factors and limiting criteria for CIRCOME and provides the simulated results.

  12. Quantity effect of radial cracks on the cracking propagation behavior and the crack morphology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Chen

    Full Text Available In this letter, the quantity effect of radial cracks on the cracking propagation behavior as well as the circular crack generation on the impacted glass plate within the sandwiched glass sheets are experimentally investigated via high-speed photography system. Results show that the radial crack velocity on the backing glass layer decreases with the crack number under the same impact conditions during large quantities of repeated experiments. Thus, the "energy conversion factor" is suggested to elucidate the physical relation between the cracking number and the crack propagation speed. Besides, the number of radial crack also takes the determinative effect in the crack morphology of the impacted glass plate. This study may shed lights on understanding the cracking and propagation mechanism in laminated glass structures and provide useful tool to explore the impact information on the cracking debris.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhou; Wanchun Yuan


    Wave reflection and transmission in a beam containing a semi-infinite crack are studied analytically based on Timoshenko beam theory. Two kinds of crack surface conditions: non-contact (open) and fully contact (closed) cracks, are considered respectively for an isotropic beam. The analytical solution of reflection and transmission coefficients for a semi-infinite crack is obtained. The power reflection and transmission ratios depend on both the frequency and the position of the crack. Numerical results show the conservation of power transport. The transmitted energy among various wave modes is also investigated. A finite element method is used to verify the validity of the analytical results.

  14. Modelling of Corrosion Cracks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    Modelling of corrosion cracking of reinforced concrete structures is complicated as a great number of uncertain factors are involved. To get a reliable modelling a physical and mechanical understanding of the process behind corrosion in needed.......Modelling of corrosion cracking of reinforced concrete structures is complicated as a great number of uncertain factors are involved. To get a reliable modelling a physical and mechanical understanding of the process behind corrosion in needed....

  15. Self-Reacting Friction Stir Welding for Aluminum Alloy Circumferential Weld Applications (United States)

    Bjorkman, Gerry; Cantrell, Mark; Carter, Robert


    Friction stir welding is an innovative weld process that continues to grow in use, in the commercial, defense, and space sectors. It produces high quality and high strength welds in aluminum alloys. The process consists of a rotating weld pin tool that plasticizes material through friction. The plasticized material is welded by applying a high weld forge force through the weld pin tool against the material during pin tool rotation. The high weld forge force is reacted against an anvil and a stout tool structure. A variation of friction stir welding currently being evaluated is self-reacting friction stir welding. Self-reacting friction stir welding incorporates two opposing shoulders on the crown and root sides of the weld joint. In self-reacting friction stir welding, the weld forge force is reacted against the crown shoulder portion of the weld pin tool by the root shoulder. This eliminates the need for a stout tooling structure to react the high weld forge force required in the typical friction stir weld process. Therefore, the self-reacting feature reduces tooling requirements and, therefore, process implementation costs. This makes the process attractive for aluminum alloy circumferential weld applications. To evaluate the application of self-reacting friction stir welding for aluminum alloy circumferential welding, a feasibility study was performed. The study consisted of performing a fourteen-foot diameter aluminum alloy circumferential demonstration weld using typical fusion weld tooling. To accomplish the demonstration weld, weld and tack weld development were performed and fourteen-foot diameter rings were fabricated. Weld development consisted of weld pin tool selection and the generation of a process map and envelope. Tack weld development evaluated gas tungsten arc welding and friction stir welding for tack welding rings together for circumferential welding. As a result of the study, a successful circumferential demonstration weld was produced leading

  16. Circumferential myocardial strain in cardiomyopathy with and without left bundle branch block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimetbaum Peter J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT has been shown to decrease mortality in 60-70% of advanced heart failure patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB and QRS duration > 120 ms. There have been intense efforts to find reproducible non-invasive parameters to predict CRT response. We hypothesized that different left ventricular contraction patterns may exist in LBBB patients with depressed systolic function and applied tagged cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR to assess circumferential strain in this population. Methods We determined myocardial circumferential strain at the basal, mid, and apical ventricular level in 35 subjects (10 with ischemic cardiomyopathy, 15 with non-ischemic cardiomyopathy, and 10 healthy controls. Patterns of circumferential strain were analyzed. Time to peak systolic circumferential strain in each of the 6 segments in all three ventricular slices and the standard deviation of time to peak strain in the basal and mid ventricular slices were determined. Results Dyskinesis of the anterior septum and the inferior septum in at least two ventricular levels was seen in 50% (5 out of 10 of LBBB patients while 30% had isolated dyskinesis of the anteroseptum, and 20% had no dyskinesis in any segments, similar to all of the non-LBBB patients and healthy controls. Peak circumferential strain shortening was significantly reduced in all cardiomyopathy patients at the mid-ventricular level (LBBB 9 ± 6%, non-LBBB 10 ± 4% vs. healthy 19 ± 4%; both p Conclusions Septal dyskinesis exists in some patients with LBBB. Myocardial circumferential strain analysis enables detailed characterization of contraction patterns, strengths, and timing in cardiomyopathy patients with and without LBBB.

  17. An analysis of the Circumferential Grooves Casing Treatment for transonic compressor flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The stall mechanism of the NASA Rotor 37 is investigated through the analysis of the critical flow structures near the stall under the transonic condition. The performance of the rotor with Circumferential Grooves Casing Treatment (CGCT) is also studied based on the Reynolds-Averaging Navier-Stokes approach. The study finds that stall margin improvement can be achieved without significant penalty on the efficiency for the two CGCT configurations applied. The effects of circumferential grooves on the critical flow structures are studied through the analysis of the tip leakage mass and momentum transport that further re-veal the CGCT mechanism.

  18. A second patient with MCA/MR syndrome with multiple circumferential skin creases. (United States)

    Leonard, N J


    Symmetrical congenital circumferential skin creases are a rare feature described in only a few conditions. We report a case of a 29-month-old boy with symmetrical circumferential skin creases on arms, legs, and digits, and other features reminiscent of the single case reported by Cohen et al. [1993: Clin Dysmorphol 2:39-46] and reviewed by Elliott et al. [1996: Am J Med Genet 62:23-25]. The key features also include epicanthic folds, microphthalmia, microcornea, microcephaly, small, low-set posteriorly angulated ears with thick overfolded helices, cleft palate, and moderate-severe psychomotor developmental delay.

  19. Solidification cracking in austenitic stainless steel welds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Shankar; T P S Gill; S L Mannan; S Sundaresan


    Solidification cracking is a significant problem during the welding of austenitic stainless steels, particularly in fully austenitic and stabilized compositions. Hot cracking in stainless steel welds is caused by low-melting eutectics containing impurities such as S, P and alloy elements such as Ti, Nb. The WRC-92 diagram can be used as a general guide to maintain a desirable solidification mode during welding. Nitrogen has complex effects on weld-metal microstructure and cracking. In stabilized stainless steels, Ti and Nb react with S, N and C to form low-melting eutectics. Nitrogen picked up during welding significantly enhances cracking, which is reduced by minimizing the ratio of Ti or Nb to that of C and N present. The metallurgical propensity to solidification cracking is determined by elemental segregation, which manifests itself as a brittleness temperature range or BTR, that can be determined using the varestraint test. Total crack length (TCL), used extensively in hot cracking assessment, exhibits greater variability due to extraneous factors as compared to BTR. In austenitic stainless steels, segregation plays an overwhelming role in determining cracking susceptibility.

  20. Crack stability analysis of low alloy steel primary coolant pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, T.; Kameyama, M. [Kansai Electric Power Company, Osaka (Japan); Urabe, Y. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Takasago (Japan)] [and others


    At present, cast duplex stainless steel has been used for the primary coolant piping of PWRs in Japan and joints of dissimilar material have been applied for welding to reactor vessels and steam generators. For the primary coolant piping of the next APWR plants, application of low alloy steel that results in designing main loops with the same material is being studied. It means that there is no need to weld low alloy steel with stainless steel and that makes it possible to reduce the welding length. Attenuation of Ultra Sonic Wave Intensity is lower for low alloy steel than for stainless steel and they have advantageous inspection characteristics. In addition to that, the thermal expansion rate is smaller for low alloy steel than for stainless steel. In consideration of the above features of low alloy steel, the overall reliability of primary coolant piping is expected to be improved. Therefore, for the evaluation of crack stability of low alloy steel piping to be applied for primary loops, elastic-plastic future mechanics analysis was performed by means of a three-dimensioned FEM. The evaluation results for the low alloy steel pipings show that cracks will not grow into unstable fractures under maximum design load conditions, even when such a circumferential crack is assumed to be 6 times the size of the wall thickness.

  1. Extended layerwise method for laminated composite plates with multiple delaminations and transverse cracks (United States)

    Li, D. H.; Zhang, X.; Sze, K. Y.; Liu, Y.


    In this paper, the extended layerwise method (XLWM), which was developed for laminated composite beams with multiple delaminations and transverse cracks (Li et al. in Int J Numer Methods Eng 101:407-434, 2015), is extended to laminated composite plates. The strong and weak discontinuous functions along the thickness direction are adopted to simulate multiple delaminations and interlaminar interfaces, respectively, whilst transverse cracks are modeled by the extended finite element method (XFEM). The interaction integral method and maximum circumferential tensile criterion are used to calculate the stress intensity factor (SIF) and crack growth angle, respectively. The XLWM for laminated composite plates can accurately predicts the displacement and stress fields near the crack tips and delamination fronts. The thickness distribution of SIF and thus the crack growth angles in different layers can be obtained. These information cannot be predicted by using other existing shell elements enriched by XFEM. Several numerical examples are studied to demonstrate the capabilities of the XLWM in static response analyses, SIF calculations and crack growth predictions.

  2. Optimization of the axial compressor flow passage to reduce the circumferential distortion (United States)

    Popov, G.; Kolmakova, D.; Shklovets, A.; Ermakov, A.


    This work is motivated by the necessity to reduce the effects of the flow circumferential distortion in the flow passage of the aircraft gas turbine engine (GTE). In previous research, the authors have proposed the approaches to decrease of the flow circumferential distortion arising from the mid-support racks of GTE compressor and having a negative impact on the blade rows, located upstream. In particular, the idea of introducing the circumferentially non-uniform blade pitch and profile stagger angle of guide vanes located in front of the support was contributed in order to redistribute the flow and decrease the dynamic stresses in the rotor wheel of the same stage. During the research presented in this paper, another principal of reduction of the flow circumferential distortion was chosen. Firstly, the variants of upgrading the existing support racks were found. Secondly, the new design of support was offered. Both the first and the second version of the support design variation took into account the availability of technological and structural limitations associated with the location of oil pipes, springs and others elements in the support racks. Investigations of modified design showed that the support with altered racks provides a reduction of dynamic stresses by 20% at resonance with the most dangerous harmonic, and the new design of support can give the decrease of 30%.

  3. Variations of mechanical property of out circumferential lamellae in cortical bone along the radial by nanoindentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingdong Sun


    Full Text Available Because the out circumferential lamellae have a special protective effect on the cortical bone, it is very important to understand the variations of the mechanical property of the out circumferential lamellae in cortical bone. For the purpose, the elasticity modulus and hardness of out circumferential lamellae in cortical bone were investigated in two orthogonal planes by nanoindentation, and the comparisons were made for both elasticity modulus and hardness between the two orthogonal planes. From the experiments, the decreasing trend was discovered for elasticity modulus from inside to outside in the transverse plane and ruleless variations tendency was presented in the longitudinal plane. The hardness presented the same variations in two orthogonal planes with elasticity modulus in respective plane. In the same layer, the elasticity modulus in the transverse plane was higher than that in the longitudinal plane, and the difference values between them turned to be smaller. In contrast, the hardness in the longitudinal plane was higher than that in the transverse plane in all the layers. From the heterogeneity and the microstructure of the material, the influence factors were discussed. A soft to hard structure model was put forward, and the coordinating protection mechanism of buffer and support was described. Investigation of variations of mechanical properties of out circumferential lamellae in cortical bone can provide some new understanding in researches of fracture of bone, interface load effect and design of bone graft.

  4. Conventional CT for the prediction of an involved circumferential resection margin in primary rectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolberink, Steven V. R. C.; Beets-Tan, Regina G. H.; de Haas-Kock, Danielle F. M.; Span, Mark M.; van de Jagt, Eric J.; van de Velde, Cornelis J. H.; Wiggers, Theo


    Purpose: To determine the accuracy of conventional computed tomography (CT) scan in the preoperative prediction of an involved circumferential resection margin (CRM) in primary rectal cancer. Methods: 125 patients with biopsy-proven adenocarcinoma of the rectum underwent CT of the abdomen before und

  5. Numerical Simulation of the Flow Field in Circumferential Grooved Liquid Seals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Zhang


    Full Text Available Circumferential grooved liquid seals are utilized inside turbomachinery to provide noncontacting control of internal incompressible fluid leakage. Accurate prediction of the flow field is fundamental in producing robust and efficient designs. To validate the capabilities of the computational fluid dynamics FLUENT for incompressible fluid seal flow, comparisons of velocity parameters are made to the published experimental results and other CFD code for a circumferential grooved liquid seal. This work employs a pressure-based CFD code FLUENT to calculate the flow field in the seal, using four different turbulence models respectively. The velocity contours are compared with experimental values. It shows good overall agreement of the axial, radial, and azimuthal velocities in the through-flow jet, shear layer, and recirculation zone. Quantitative comparisons of velocity profiles at the center of the groove are made to experiment. This study verifies the prediction accuracy of three turbulence models. Various structures were considered to obtain a better understanding of the circumferential grooved liquid flow characteristics. The best groove structure to control leakage was also found within the limited designed seal. This study will provide a useful reference for designing the circumferential grooved liquid seal.

  6. Arteries respond to independent control of circumferential and shear stress in organ culture. (United States)

    Wayman, Brian H; Taylor, W Robert; Rachev, Alexander; Vito, Raymond P


    Arteries respond to changes in global mechanical parameters (pressure, flow rate, and longitudinal stretching) by remodeling to restore local parameters (circumferential stress, shear stress, and axial strain) to baseline levels. Because a change in a single global parameter results in changes of multiple local parameters, the effects of individual local parameters on remodeling remain unknown. This study uses a novel approach to study remodeling in organ culture based on independent control of local mechanical parameters. The approach is illustrated by studying the short term effects of circumferential and shear stress on remodeling-related biological markers. Porcine carotid arteries were cultured for 3 days at a circumferential stress of 50 or 150 kPa or, in separate experiments, a shear stress of 0.75 or 2.25 Pa. At high circumferential stress, matrix synthesis, smooth muscle cell proliferation, and cell death are significantly greater, but matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and pro-MMP-2 activity are significantly less. In contrast, biological markers measured were unaffected by shear stress. Applications of the proposed approach for improved understanding of remodeling, optimizing mechanical conditioning of tissue engineered arteries, and selection of experimentally motivated growth laws are discussed.

  7. Circumferential optical coherence tomography angiography imaging of the swine esophagus using a micromotor balloon catheter. (United States)

    Lee, Hsiang-Chieh; Ahsen, Osman Oguz; Liang, Kaicheng; Wang, Zhao; Cleveland, Cody; Booth, Lucas; Potsaid, Benjamin; Jayaraman, Vijaysekhar; Cable, Alex E; Mashimo, Hiroshi; Langer, Robert; Traverso, Giovanni; Fujimoto, James G


    We demonstrate a micromotor balloon imaging catheter for ultrahigh speed endoscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT) which provides wide area, circumferential structural and angiographic imaging of the esophagus without contrast agents. Using a 1310 nm MEMS tunable wavelength swept VCSEL light source, the system has a 1.2 MHz A-scan rate and ~8.5 µm axial resolution in tissue. The micromotor balloon catheter enables circumferential imaging of the esophagus at 240 frames per second (fps) with a ~30 µm (FWHM) spot size. Volumetric imaging is achieved by proximal pullback of the micromotor assembly within the balloon at 1.5 mm/sec. Volumetric data consisting of 4200 circumferential images of 5,000 A-scans each over a 2.6 cm length, covering a ~13 cm(2) area is acquired in <18 seconds. A non-rigid image registration algorithm is used to suppress motion artifacts from non-uniform rotational distortion (NURD), cardiac motion or respiration. En face OCT images at various depths can be generated. OCT angiography (OCTA) is computed using intensity decorrelation between sequential pairs of circumferential scans and enables three-dimensional visualization of vasculature. Wide area volumetric OCT and OCTA imaging of the swine esophagus in vivo is demonstrated.

  8. An analytical investigation on singularity of current distribution around a crack in a long cylindrical superconductor (United States)

    Xue, Feng; Zhou, You-He


    This paper presents an analytical investigation to display the distribution of critical current flow and trapped magnetic field around a through crack centrally located in a long cylindrical superconductor on the basis of the Bean model and the Kim model. After a simple conformal mapping is employed to the case of that the superconductor is fully penetrated, the current streamlines, the current density, and the trapped field around the crack in the superconductor without deformation are obtained. It is shown that the crack results in a long-range disturbance of J(r ) on the scale much larger than the crack length 2a and a large stagnation region of magnetic flux near the crack except for the singularity of the critical current at the crack tip. Meanwhile, it is also found that the singularity feature is different from the conventional stress one at the crack tip in a deformable body.

  9. Can magnetic resonance imaging predict circumferential margins and TNM stage in rectal cancer? (United States)

    Branagan, Graham; Chave, Helen; Fuller, Clare; McGee, Shaun; Finnis, Derek


    This study was designed to assess whether preoperative magnetic resonance imaging scans were able to predict 1) pathologic tumor and node stage, and 2) those patients with a pathologically clear circumferential resection margin. Patients with histologically proven carcinoma of the rectum were staged preoperatively using magnetic resonance imaging. Histologic specimens from patients undergoing mesorectal excision were reported according to the Royal College of Pathologists minimum dataset. Agreement between radiologic staging of tumor, local lymph nodes and circumferential resection margin involvement, and pathologic reporting was assessed by means of the Kappa statistic. After exclusions (10 radiotherapy, 3 failed scans, 10 no surgery, 9 local surgery), 40 patients remained. Magnetic resonance imaging correctly staged the tumor in 20 patients, understaged in 12, and overstaged in 8. Statistically, there was poor correlation between pathologic and radiologic tumor staging (Kappa, 0.18; 95 percent confidence interval, -0.13 to 0.42). Magnetic resonance imaging correctly staged node status in 27 patients, overstaged in 9, and understaged in 4. Statistically, there was poor correlation between pathologic and radiologic node staging (Kappa, 0.38; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.08-0.64). Magnetic resonance imaging correctly reported the status of the circumferential resection margin in 39 patients and understaged 1. Statistically, there was good correlation between pathologic and radiologic reporting of circumferential resection margin involvement (Kappa, 0.66; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.03-1). Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging scans provide poor predictive data as to subsequent pathologic tumor and node stage. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging does produce reliable prediction of clear circumferential resection margins and provides valuable information in assessing whether patients can proceed to surgery without the need for preoperative

  10. Mechanical characterization of human aortas from pressurization testing and a paradigm shift for circumferential residual stress. (United States)

    Labrosse, Michel R; Gerson, Eleanor R; Veinot, John P; Beller, Carsten J


    Material properties needed for accurate stress analysis of the human aorta are still incompletely known, especially as many reports have ignored the presence of residual stresses in the aortic wall. To contribute new material regarding these issues, we carried out measurements and pressurization testing on ascending, thoracic and abdominal aortic samples from 24 human subjects aged 38-77 years, and evaluated the opening angle describing the circumferential residual stress level present in the aorta. We determined material constants for the aorta by gender, anatomic location and age group, according to a simple phenomenological constitutive model. The unpressurized aortic radius positively correlated with age, and the circumferential and longitudinal stretch ratios under systemic pressure negatively correlated with age, confirming the known enlargement and stiffening of the aorta with aging. The opening angle was measured to range from a minimum of 89° to above 360° for extreme cases. For given aortic dimensions and material properties, analysis of the in vivo circumferential and longitudinal mural stress distributions indicated a profound influence of the opening angle. For instance, in the thoracic aorta of males aged 38-66, opening angles in the range of 0° to 80° (resp. 60°) may equalize the gradient of in vivo circumferential (resp. longitudinal) stress between the inner and outer layers of the aorta, as commonly expected; however, opening angles above 160° (resp. 120°) may cause the gradient of circumferential (resp. longitudinal) stress to reverse and increase compared to the case without residual stress, putting the maximum stresses toward the adventitia instead of the intima. Even though the analysis of the aortic wall excluded possible longitudinal residual stresses as well as material inhomogeneities, such as constitutive differences between the intimal, medial and adventitial layers, the experimental data reported herein are important to aortic

  11. Android Fully Loaded

    CERN Document Server

    Huddleston, Rob


    Fully loaded with the latest tricks and tips on your new Android! Android smartphones are so hot, they're soaring past iPhones on the sales charts. And the second edition of this muscular little book is equally impressive--it's packed with tips and tricks for getting the very most out of your latest-generation Android device. Start Facebooking and tweeting with your Android mobile, scan barcodes to get pricing and product reviews, download your favorite TV shows--the book is positively bursting with practical and fun how-tos. Topics run the gamut from using speech recognition, location-based m

  12. On Fully Homomorphic Encryption


    Fauzi, Prastudy


    Fully homomorphic encryption is an encryption scheme where a party can receive encrypted data and perform arbitrary operations on this data efficiently.The data remains encrypted throughout, but the operations can be done regardless, without having to know the decryption key.Such a scheme would be very advantageous, for example in ensuring the privacy of data that is sent to a third-party service.This is in contrast with schemes like Paillier where you can not perform a multiplication of encr...

  13. Crack instability of ferroelectric solids under alternative electric loading (United States)

    Chen, Hao-Sen; Wang, He-Ling; Pei, Yong-Mao; Wei, Yu-Jie; Liu, Bin; Fang, Dai-Ning


    The low fracture toughness of the widely used piezoelectric and ferroelectric materials in technological applications raises a big concern about their durability and safety. Up to now, the mechanisms of electric-field induced fatigue crack growth in those materials are not fully understood. Here we report experimental observations that alternative electric loading at high frequency or large amplitude gives rise to dramatic temperature rise at the crack tip of a ferroelectric solid. The temperature rise subsequently lowers the energy barrier of materials for domain switch in the vicinity of the crack tip, increases the stress intensity factor and leads to unstable crack propagation finally. In contrast, at low frequency or small amplitude, crack tip temperature increases mildly and saturates quickly, no crack growth is observed. Together with our theoretical analysis on the non-linear heat transfer at the crack tip, we constructed a safe operating area curve with respect to the frequency and amplitude of the electric field, and validated the safety map by experiments. The revealed mechanisms about how electro-thermal-mechanical coupling influences fracture can be directly used to guide the design and safety assessment of piezoelectric and ferroelectric devices.

  14. Adaptive Road Crack Detection System by Pavement Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Amírola


    Full Text Available This paper presents a road distress detection system involving the phases needed to properly deal with fully automatic road distress assessment. A vehicle equipped with line scan cameras, laser illumination and acquisition HW-SW is used to storage the digital images that will be further processed to identify road cracks. Pre-processing is firstly carried out to both smooth the texture and enhance the linear features. Non-crack features detection is then applied to mask areas of the images with joints, sealed cracks and white painting, that usually generate false positive cracking. A seed-based approach is proposed to deal with road crack detection, combining Multiple Directional Non-Minimum Suppression (MDNMS with a symmetry check. Seeds are linked by computing the paths with the lowest cost that meet the symmetry restrictions. The whole detection process involves the use of several parameters. A correct setting becomes essential to get optimal results without manual intervention. A fully automatic approach by means of a linear SVM-based classifier ensemble able to distinguish between up to 10 different types of pavement that appear in the Spanish roads is proposed. The optimal feature vector includes different texture-based features. The parameters are then tuned depending on the output provided by the classifier. Regarding non-crack features detection, results show that the introduction of such module reduces the impact of false positives due to non-crack features up to a factor of 2. In addition, the observed performance of the crack detection system is significantly boosted by adapting the parameters to the type of pavement.

  15. Adaptive Road Crack Detection System by Pavement Classification (United States)

    Gavilán, Miguel; Balcones, David; Marcos, Oscar; Llorca, David F.; Sotelo, Miguel A.; Parra, Ignacio; Ocaña, Manuel; Aliseda, Pedro; Yarza, Pedro; Amírola, Alejandro


    This paper presents a road distress detection system involving the phases needed to properly deal with fully automatic road distress assessment. A vehicle equipped with line scan cameras, laser illumination and acquisition HW-SW is used to storage the digital images that will be further processed to identify road cracks. Pre-processing is firstly carried out to both smooth the texture and enhance the linear features. Non-crack features detection is then applied to mask areas of the images with joints, sealed cracks and white painting, that usually generate false positive cracking. A seed-based approach is proposed to deal with road crack detection, combining Multiple Directional Non-Minimum Suppression (MDNMS) with a symmetry check. Seeds are linked by computing the paths with the lowest cost that meet the symmetry restrictions. The whole detection process involves the use of several parameters. A correct setting becomes essential to get optimal results without manual intervention. A fully automatic approach by means of a linear SVM-based classifier ensemble able to distinguish between up to 10 different types of pavement that appear in the Spanish roads is proposed. The optimal feature vector includes different texture-based features. The parameters are then tuned depending on the output provided by the classifier. Regarding non-crack features detection, results show that the introduction of such module reduces the impact of false positives due to non-crack features up to a factor of 2. In addition, the observed performance of the crack detection system is significantly boosted by adapting the parameters to the type of pavement. PMID:22163717

  16. Fundamental study of crack initiation and propagation. Annual progress report, March 1976--March 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, D.M. Jr. (ed.)


    Ductile fracture in nuclear pressure vessel steel was characterized using a computer model of material damage. The model predicts crack initiation and growth and contains constants that are set by computer simulation of the following fracture tests: the simple tension test, the circumferentially notched round tension test, the blunt-notched compact tension test, and the Charpy V-notch test. The simulations provide the stress and strain states of these tests at fracture. The major goal of our characterization program is to determine the correlation between Charpy toughness and fracture toughness.

  17. Fully Awake Breast Reduction. (United States)

    Filson, Simon A; Yarhi, Danielle; Ramon, Yitzhak


    The authors present 25 cases and an in-depth 4-minute video of fully awake aesthetic breast reduction, which was made possible by thoracic epidural anesthesia. There are obvious and important advantages to this technique. Not only does this allow for intraoperative patient cooperation (i.e., patient self-positioning and opinion for comparison of breasts), meaning a shorter and more efficient intraoperative time, there also is a reduction in postoperative pain, complications, recovery, and discharge times. The authors have also enjoyed great success and no complications with this technique in over 150 awake abdominoplasty/total body lift patients. The authors feel that the elimination of the need for general anesthesia by thoracic epidural sensorial-only anesthesia is a highly effective and efficient technique, with very few disadvantages/complications, providing advantages to both patients and surgeons. Therapeutic, IV.

  18. Ramifications of structural deformations on collapse loads of critically cracked pipe bends under in-plane bending and internal pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasidharan, Sumesh; Arunachalam, Veerappan; Subramaniam, Shanmugam [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli (India)


    Finite-element analysis based on elastic-perfectly plastic material was conducted to examine the influence of structural deformations on collapse loads of circumferential through-wall critically cracked 90 .deg. pipe bends undergoing in-plane closing bending and internal pressure. The critical crack is defined for a through-wall circumferential crack at the extrados with a subtended angle below which there is no weakening effect on collapse moment of elbows subjected to in-plane closing bending. Elliptical and semioval cross sections were postulated at the bend regions and compared. Twice-elastic-slope method was utilized to obtain the collapse loads. Structural deformations, namely, ovality and thinning, were each varied from 0% to 20% in steps of 5% and the normalized internal pressure was varied from 0.2 to 0.6. Results indicate that elliptic cross sections were suitable for pipe ratios 5 and 10, whereas for pipe ratio 20, semioval cross sections gave satisfactory solutions. The effect of ovality on collapse loads is significant, although it cancelled out at a certain value of applied internal pressure. Thinning had a negligible effect on collapse loads of bends with crack geometries considered.

  19. Effects of friction and high torque on fatigue crack propagation in Mode III (United States)

    Nayeb-Hashemi, H.; McClintock, F. A.; Ritchie, R. O.


    Turbo-generator and automotive shafts are often subjected to complex histories of high torques. To provide a basis for fatigue life estimation in such components, a study of fatigue crack propagation in Mode III (anti-plane shear) for a mill-annealed AISI 4140 steel (RB88, 590 MN/m2 tensile strength) has been undertaken, using torsionally-loaded, circumferentially-notched cylindrical specimens. As demonstrated previously for higher strength AISI 4340 steel, Mode III cyclic crack growth rates (dc/dN) IIIcan be related to the alternating stress intensity factor ΔKIII for conditions of small-scale yielding. However, to describe crack propagation behavior over an extended range of crack growth rates (˜10-6 to 10-2 mm per cycle), where crack growth proceeds under elastic-plastic and full plastic conditions, no correlation between (dc/dN) III and ΔKIII is possible. Accordingly, a new parameter for torsional crack growth, termed the plastic strain intensity Γ III, is introduced and is shown to provide a unique description of Mode III crack growth behavior for a wide range of testing conditions, provided a mean load reduces friction, abrasion, and interlocking between mating fracture surfaces. The latter effect is found to be dependent upon the mode of applied loading (i.e., the presence of superimposed axial loads) and the crack length and torque level. Mechanistically, high-torque surfaces were transverse, macroscopically flat, and smeared. Lower torques showed additional axial cracks (longitudinal shear cracking) perpendicular to the main transverse surface. A micro-mechanical model for the main radi l Mode III growth, based on the premise that crack advance results from Mode II coalescence of microcracks initiated at inclusions ahead of the main crack front, is extended to high nominal stress levels, and predicts that Mode III fatigue crack propagation rates should be proportional to the range of plastic strain intensity (ΔΓIII if local Mode II growth rates are

  20. Uncommon deformation mechanisms during fatigue-crack propagation in nanocrystalline alloys. (United States)

    Cheng, Sheng; Lee, Soo Yeol; Li, Li; Lei, Changhui; Almer, Jon; Wang, Xun-Li; Ungar, Tamas; Wang, Yinmin; Liaw, Peter K


    The irreversible damage at cracks during the fatigue of crystalline solids is well known. Here we report on in situ high-energy x-ray evidence of reversible fatigue behavior in a nanocrystalline NiFe alloy both in the plastic zone and around the crack tip. In the plastic zone, the deformation is fully recoverable as the crack propagates, and the plastic deformation invokes reversible interactions of dislocation and twinning in the nanograins. But around the crack tip lies a regime with reversible grain lattice reorientation promoted by a change of local stress state. These observations suggest unprecedented fatigue deformation mechanisms in nanostructured systems that are not addressed theoretically.

  1. In vivo vascular wall shear rate and circumferential strain of renal disease patients. (United States)

    Park, Dae Woo; Kruger, Grant H; Rubin, Jonathan M; Hamilton, James; Gottschalk, Paul; Dodde, Robert E; Shih, Albert J; Weitzel, William F


    This study measures the vascular wall shear rate at the vessel edge using decorrelation based ultrasound speckle tracking. Results for nine healthy and eight renal disease subjects are presented. Additionally, the vascular wall shear rate and circumferential strain during physiologic pressure, pressure equalization and hyperemia are compared for five healthy and three renal disease subjects. The mean and maximum wall shear rates were measured during the cardiac cycle at the top and bottom wall edges. The healthy subjects had significantly higher mean and maximum vascular wall shear rate than the renal disease subjects. The key findings of this research were that the mean vascular wall shear rates and circumferential strain changes between physiologic pressure and hyperemia that was significantly different between healthy and renal disease subjects.

  2. Inspection of circumferential IGA/SCC in Bruce Unit 4 SGs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fluit, S.; Myderwyk, H.; King, P. [Babcock and Wilcox Canada Limited, Cambridge, Ontario (Canada); Durance, D.; Sedman, K. [Bruce Power, Tiverton, Ontario (Canada)


    Circumferential IGA/SCC has been detected in the roll-transition zone of tubes in Bruce A SGs for over a decade, but recently became more pronounced in Unit 4 BO4 in 2006 and the spring of 2007. A number of ET probes have been developed to detect and characterize this degradation, including C-3/8, +Point and X-Probe. Comparisons of the inspection results from these probes and metallurgical results from removed tubes have provided insight into the strengths and limitations of each probe and how the probes can complement each other. This paper will discuss the evolution of the ET inspection approach for circumferential IGA/SCC and how the results have been used in recent FFS assessments in the Bruce Unit 4 SGs. (author)

  3. Circumferential mucosal dissection and esophageal perforation in a patient with eosinophilic esophagitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gennaro Liguori; Maurizio Cortale; Fabrizio Cimino; Michele Sozzi


    A young man with a previous history of episodes of mild solid food dysphagia was admitted with a total dysphagia.The esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGDS) showed an extensive disruption of mucosal layer with a cul-de-sac in the lower part of the esophagus.Soon after the procedure,the patient suffered from an acute chest pain and subsequent CT scan demonstrated an intramural circumferential dissection of thoracic esophagus,and a mediastinal emphysema.An emergency right thoracotomy was performed,followed by a total esophagectomy with esophagogastroplasty and jejunostomy.The histopathology confirmed that mucosal and submucosal layers were circumferentially detached from muscular wall and showed an eosinophilic infiltration of the whole organ with necrosis and erosions of mucosal,submucosal and muscular layers.The diagnosis was esophageal perforation in eosinophilic esophagitis.

  4. [Echocardiographic longitudinal, radial, circumferential and rotational synchronization disturbance in predicting response to cardiac resynchronization therapy]. (United States)

    Sade, Leyla Elif


    Several echocardiographic methods have been proposed to assist patient selection for cardiac resynchronization therapy. Color-coded tissue Doppler is one of the most promising methods to quantify mechanical dyssynchrony. However, tissue Doppler data are affected by Doppler angle of incidence and tethering or translational motion. Furthermore tissue Doppler based modalities are good for longitudinal motion analysis but limited in other directions of wall motion such as radial, circumferential, and rotational. Speckle tracking is a more recent technique that allows accurate calculation of regional radial and circumferential strain as well as regional rotation for dyssynchrony analysis. Although no ideal echocardiographic method exists that integrates regional dyssynchrony data in all contraction directions as yet, technical refinements and advances in understanding of pathophysiology will help to improve the study of mechanical dyssynchrony.

  5. Skin resurfacing in a circumferential full thickness burn to the penis: lessons learnt. (United States)

    Jabir, Shehab; Frew, Quentin; Thompson, Richard; Dziewulski, Peter


    A circumferential full-thickness burn to the penis is a rarely encountered injury. However, when it does occur, it proves a management challenge to the plastic and burns surgeon in terms of reconstruction. This is due to the need of not only regaining adequate function of the organ, but also because of the need for a pleasing aesthetic outcome. Split-skin grafts have been utilised successfully to resurface full thickness burns of the penis and have given good results. Yet the success of split-skin grafts, especially those applied to an anatomically challenging region of the body such as the penis, depends on a number of carefully thought-out steps. We discuss the case of a circumferential full-thickness burn to the penis which was treated with split-skin grafting and highlight important pitfalls that the plastic and burns surgeon need to be aware of to ensure a successful outcome.

  6. Prediction of leakage and rotordynamic coefficients for the circumferential-groove pump seal using CFD analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Ho; Ha, Tae Woong [Gachon University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)


    The circumferential-groove seal is commonly used in various turbopumps to reduce leakage. The main goal of this paper is to develop the method of three-dimensional CFD analysis for determining leakage and rotordynamic coefficients of the circumferential-groovepump seal. A relative coordinate system was defined for steady-state simulation to calculate the velocity and pressure distributions of the seal clearance at each rotor whirl speed. Instead of setting the inlet and outlet pressures as the boundary conditions in the three dimensional CFD analysis, as it is more commonly done, we used the inlet velocity and outlet pressure obtained from a preliminary two dimensional CFD analysis. For prediction leakage, the presented analysis shows improvement from the bulk-flow model analysis. For the prediction of rotordynamic coefficients of K, k and C, the presented analysis provides results in closer agreement with the experimental values than those of the bulk-flow model analysis at several rotor speeds.

  7. Circumferential-wave phase velocities for empty, fluid-immersed spherical metal shells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Überall, Herbert; Ahyi, A. C.; Raju, P. K.


    -loaded, evacuated spherical metal shells of aluminum, stainless steel, and tungsten carbide. In particular, the characteristic upturn of the dispersion curves of low-order shell-borne circumferential waves (A or A0 waves) which takes place on spherical shells when the frequency tends towards very low values......, is demonstrated here for all cases of the metals under consideration. ©2002 Acoustical Society of America....

  8. Influence of the heart rate on mean circumferential shortening velocity: echocardiographic study of 183 normal subjects. (United States)

    Mangiarotti, R; Martinotti, R; Monzani, V; Sardella, F; Pierini, A; Pastori, M; Randazzo, A


    Echocardiography was used to explore the influence of independent variables (age, body surface area and heart rate) on the mean circumferential shortening velocity (MVCF) in 183 healthy subjects. Multiple stepwise regression analysis shows that heart rate is the only variable of the three just mentioned that influences MVCF. A regression equation is evolved and proposed as an index of MVCF correction for varying heart rates.

  9. Selective radiofrequency therapy as a non-invasive approach for contactless body contouring and circumferential reduction. (United States)

    Fajkošová, Kateřina; Machovcová, Alena; Onder, Meltem; Fritz, Klaus


    In this study, the efficacy of non-contact, selective radiofrequency (RF) were evaluated for body contouring as non-invasive fat and circumferential reduction of the abdomen. 40 healthy (36 female, 4 male) subjects showing significant volume of subcutaneous fat tissue on the abdomen and waistline were included. Once a week for 30 minutes, 4 sessions were performed. The applicator was placed on a supplied spacer covering the treatment area. Maximum power was 200W, which induced heat in the fat and connective tissue layer. The homogeneity of heat distribution and temperature of the skin surface were controlled. The circumferential reduction was measured at the baseline and after the last treatment. The photographs and adverse effects were recorded. Participants completed the self-evaluation questionnaires and rated their level of satisfaction. All subjects tolerated the treatments well. The only side effect was mild to moderate erythema. 35 subjects finished the protocol as planned and 5 subjects dropped off due to events not related to the study. 32 subjects had a 1-13 cm decrease in abdominal circumference and 3 subjects did not show significant response (0-1 cm). Most likely, a very thin fat layer was the reason for lack of response (the non-responding group was the thinnest patient group). No significant differences were found between men and women. The average decrease of 4.93 cm was calculated as a result of circumferential reduction statistical evidence. This study demonstrates that the selective RF system designed for contactless deep tissue heating is a painless, safe, and effective treatment for non-surgical body contouring and circumferential fat reduction.

  10. Numerical Investigation of Inlet Distortion on an Axial Flow Compressor Rotor with Circumferential Groove Casing Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Jian; Wu Hu


    On the base of an assumed steady inlet circumferential total pressure distortion, three-dimensional time-dependent numerical simulations are conducted on an axial flow subsonic compressor rotor. The performances and flow fields of a compressor rotor, either casing treated or untreated, are investigated in detail either with or without inlet pressure distortion. Results show that the circumferential groove casing treatment can expand the operating range of the compressor rotor either with or without inlet pressure distortion at the expense of a drop in peak isentropic efficiency. The casing treatment is capable of weakening or even removing the tip leakage vortex effectively either with or without inlet distortion. In clean inlet circumstances, the enhancement and forward movement of tip leakage vortex cause the untreated compressor rotor to stall. By contrast, with circumferential groove casing, the serious flow separation on the suction surface leads to aerodynamic stalling eventually. In the presence of inlet pressure distortion, the blade loading changes from passage to passage as the distorted inflow sector is traversed. Similar to the clean inlet circumstances, with a smooth wall casing, the enhancement and forward movement of tip leakage vortex are still the main factors which lead to the compressor rotor stalling eventu-ally. When the rotor works under near stall conditions, the blockage resulting from the tip leakage vortex in all the passages is very seri-ous. Especially in several passages, flow-spillage is observed. Compared to the clean inlet circumstances, circumferential groove casing treatment can also eliminate the low energy zone in the outer end wall region effectively.

  11. Fully electric waste collection

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer


    Since 15 June, Transvoirie, which provides waste collection services throughout French-speaking Switzerland, has been using a fully electric lorry for its collections on the CERN site – a first for the region!   Featuring a motor powered by electric batteries that charge up when the brakes are used, the new lorry that roams the CERN site is as green as can be. And it’s not only the motor that’s electric: its waste compactor and lifting mechanism are also electrically powered*, making it the first 100% electric waste collection vehicle in French-speaking Switzerland. Considering that a total of 15.5 tonnes of household waste and paper/cardboard are collected each week from the Meyrin and Prévessin sites, the benefits for the environment are clear. This improvement comes as part of CERN’s contract with Transvoirie, which stipulates that the firm must propose ways of becoming more environmentally friendly (at no extra cost to CERN). *The was...

  12. Fatigue Crack Topography. (United States)


    evaluating ciack initiation time and crack propagation, prgram I was used for performing the major fatigue test with the aircraft structure. In...advantage to begin with the end of the fracture, this is especially so in the case of the quantitative evaluation of striations. The overload fracture...Select the Measuring Line for Quantitative Evaluation Actually, the fatigue fracture should be inspected completely from the point of origin to the

  13. Cracking in desiccating soils


    Ledesma Alberto


    Soil shrinkage is produced typically under desiccating conditions. Eventually shrinkage may generate cracks in the soil mass, a phenomenon that is being studied by several researchers, because its prediction is far from being a routine in Soil Mechanics. Within this context, Unsaturated Soil Mechanics provides a promising framework to understand the mechanisms involved. In addition to that, physical modelling of desiccating soils constitutes a good tool to explore the nature of this problem. ...

  14. Utopia Cracks and Polygons (United States)


    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-339, 23 April 2003This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a pattern of polygonal cracks and aligned, elliptical pits in western Utopia Planitia. The picture covers an area about 3 km (about 1.9 mi) wide near 44.9oN, 274.7oW. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left.

  15. Soft Sensor for Oxide Scales on the Steam Side of Superheater Tubes under Uneven Circumferential Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Wei Li


    Full Text Available A soft sensor for oxide scales on the steam side of superheater tubes of utility boiler under uneven circumferential loading is proposed for the first time. First finite volume method is employed to simulate oxide scales growth temperature on the steam side of superheater tube. Then appropriate time and spatial intervals are selected to calculate oxide scales thickness along the circumferential direction. On the basis of the oxide scale thickness, the stress of oxide scales is calculated by the finite element method. At last, the oxide scale thickness and stress sensors are established on support vector machine (SMV optimized by particle swarm optimization (PSO with time and circumferential angles as inputs and oxide scale thickness and stress as outputs. Temperature and stress calculation methods are validated by the operation data and experimental data, respectively. The soft sensor is applied to the superheater tubes of some power plant. Results show that the soft sensor can give enough accurate results for oxide scale thickness and stress in reasonable time. The forecasting model provides a convenient way for the research of the oxide scale failure.

  16. Lumbar extracavitary corpectomy with a single stage circumferential arthrodesis: surgical technique and clinical series. (United States)

    Singh, Kern; Park, Daniel K


    Circumferential arthrodesis and reconstruction is necessary after a lumbar corpectomy in the setting of malignancy and infection. The advent of expandable cage technology now allows for safe anterior column reconstruction via a posterior approach with no transection and minimal retraction of the lumbar spinal nerve roots. Fifteen patients underwent a single-stage, circumferential corpectomy and anterior spinal reconstruction with an expandable cage via a midline, posterior, lateral lumbar extracavitary approach. Posterior segmental pedicle screw fixation and iliac crest bone graft was used in all cases. Fifteen lumbar extracavitary corpectomy nerve root-sparing procedures have been performed to date, with at least 1-year follow-up (12 tumors/3 infections). No patient suffered any neurological complications. One patient suffered from a postoperative myocardial infarction 10 days after the procedure. Two patients had medical complications that were treated without sequelae. We present a technical description and case series of patients undergoing a single-stage, circumferential corpectomy and anterior spinal reconstruction with an expandable cage via a midline, posterior, lateral lumbar extracavitary approach with at least 1-year follow-up. The technique is safe, technically feasible, and obviates an anterior approach in this oftentimes critically ill patient population.

  17. Nonlinear vibrations and energy exchange of single-walled carbon nanotubes. Circumferential flexural modes (United States)

    Strozzi, Matteo; Smirnov, Valeri V.; Manevitch, Leonid I.; Milani, Massimo; Pellicano, Francesco


    In this paper, the nonlinear vibrations and energy exchange of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are studied. The Sanders-Koiter theory is applied to model the nonlinear dynamics of the system in the case of finite amplitude of vibration. The SWNT deformation is described in terms of longitudinal, circumferential and radial displacement fields. Simply supported, clamped and free boundary conditions are considered. The circumferential flexural modes (CFMs) are investigated. Two different approaches based on numerical and analytical models are compared. In the numerical model, an energy method based on the Lagrange equations is used to reduce the nonlinear partial differential equations of motion to a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations, which is solved by using the implicit Runge-Kutta numerical method. In the analytical model, a reduced form of the Sanders-Koiter theory assuming small circumferential and tangential shear deformations is used to get the nonlinear ordinary differential equations of motion, which are solved by using the multiple scales analytical method. The transition from energy beating to energy localization in the nonlinear field is studied. The effect of the aspect ratio on the analytical and numerical values of the nonlinear energy localization threshold for different boundary conditions is investigated. Time evolution of the total energy distribution along the axis of a simply supported SWNT

  18. Functional evaluation of repairs to circumferential labral lesions of the glenoid - Case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Tadeu do Nascimento

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical results among patients undergoing arthroscopic repair of circumferential labral lesions. METHODS: This was a retrospective study on 10 patients who underwent arthroscopic repair to circumferential labral lesions of the shoulder, between September 2012 and September 2015. The patients were evaluated by means of the Carter-Rowe score, DASH score, UCLA score, visual analog scale (VAS for pain and Short-Form 36 (SF36. The average age at surgery was 29.6 years. The mean follow-up was 27.44 months (range: 12-41.3. RESULTS: The mean score was 16 points for DASH; 32 points for UCLA, among which six patients (60% had excellent results, three (30% good and one (10% poor; 1.8 points for VAS, among which nine patients (90% had minor pain and one (10% moderate pain; 79.47 for SF-36; and 92.5 for Carter-Rowe, among which nine patients (90% had excellent results and one (10% good. Joint degeneration was present in one case (10%, of grade 1. We did not observe any significant complications, except for grade 1 glenohumeral arthrosis, which one patient developed after the operation. CONCLUSION: Arthroscopic repair of circumferential labral lesions of the shoulder through use of absorbable anchors is effective, with improvements in all scores applied, and it presents low complication rates. Cases associated with glenohumeral dislocation have lower long-term residual pain.

  19. Effect of fully and semi austempering treatment on the fatigue properties of ductile cast iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Gun; Lim, Bok Kyu; Hwang, Jung Gak [Kangwon National Univ., Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Youl [Samcheok National Univ., Samcheok (Korea, Republic of)


    Single phase bainite structure which is obtained by the conventional austempering treatment reduces the ductility of ductile cast iron. Because of the reduction of ductility it is possible to worsen the fatigue properties. Therefore, semi austempered ductile iron which is treated from {alpha}+{gamma} is prepared to investigate the static strength and fatigue properties in comparison with fully austempered ductile iron (is treated from {gamma}). In spite of semi austempered ductile iron shows the 86% increase of ductility. Also, semi austempered ductile iron shows the higher fatigue limit and lower fatigue crack growth rate as compared with fully austempered ductile iron. By the fractographical analysis, it is revealed that the ferrite obtained by semi austempering process brings about the plastic deformation (ductile striation) of crack tip and gives the prior path of crack propagation. The relatively low crack growth rate in semi austempered specimen is caused by above fractographical reasons.

  20. Investigation of stress intensity factor for internal cracks in FG cylinders under static and dynamic loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Shariati


    Full Text Available his paper investigates the variations of mode I stress intensity factor (KI for inner penny-shaped and circumferential cracks in functionally graded solid and hollow thick walled cylinders, respectively with the changes of crack geometry, material gradation and loading conditions. The functionally graded material of cylinders consists of epoxy and glass. It is assumed that the mechanical properties vary with a power law in the radial direction of cylinders. Micromechanical models for conventional composites are used to estimate the material properties of functionally graded cylinders. The equations of motion obtained from the extended finite element discretization are solved by the Newmark method in the time domain. The interaction integral method is employed to calculate the mode I stress intensity factor (KI. The MATLAB programming environment was implemented to solve the problem.

  1. Numerical Simulation for Three-Dimensional (3D) Unsteady State Temperature Field in Circumferential Laser Oxygen Cutting of Pipes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kaijin HUANG; Dawen ZENG; Changsheng XIE; Desheng XU


    A 3D unsteady state numerical model of heat transfer in the circumferential laser oxygen cutting of pipes wasdeveloped. In order to minimize the computing time required for solving the finite difference equations as much aspossible, the alternating direct

  2. Testing fully depleted CCD (United States)

    Casas, Ricard; Cardiel-Sas, Laia; Castander, Francisco J.; Jiménez, Jorge; de Vicente, Juan


    The focal plane of the PAU camera is composed of eighteen 2K x 4K CCDs. These devices, plus four spares, were provided by the Japanese company Hamamatsu Photonics K.K. with type no. S10892-04(X). These detectors are 200 μm thick fully depleted and back illuminated with an n-type silicon base. They have been built with a specific coating to be sensitive in the range from 300 to 1,100 nm. Their square pixel size is 15 μm. The read-out system consists of a Monsoon controller (NOAO) and the panVIEW software package. The deafualt CCD read-out speed is 133 kpixel/s. This is the value used in the calibration process. Before installing these devices in the camera focal plane, they were characterized using the facilities of the ICE (CSIC- IEEC) and IFAE in the UAB Campus in Bellaterra (Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain). The basic tests performed for all CCDs were to obtain the photon transfer curve (PTC), the charge transfer efficiency (CTE) using X-rays and the EPER method, linearity, read-out noise, dark current, persistence, cosmetics and quantum efficiency. The X-rays images were also used for the analysis of the charge diffusion for different substrate voltages (VSUB). Regarding the cosmetics, and in addition to white and dark pixels, some patterns were also found. The first one, which appears in all devices, is the presence of half circles in the external edges. The origin of this pattern can be related to the assembly process. A second one appears in the dark images, and shows bright arcs connecting corners along the vertical axis of the CCD. This feature appears in all CCDs exactly in the same position so our guess is that the pattern is due to electrical fields. Finally, and just in two devices, there is a spot with wavelength dependence whose origin could be the result of a defectous coating process.

  3. Cracking in thin films of colloidal particles on elastomeric substrates (United States)

    Smith, Michael; Sharp, James


    The drying of thin colloidal films of particles is a common industrial problem (e.g paint drying, ceramic coatings). An often undesirable side effect is the appearance of cracks. As the liquid in a suspension evaporates, particles are forced into contact both with each other and the substrate, forming a fully wetted film. Under carefully controlled conditions the observed cracks grow orthogonal to the drying front, spaced at regular intervals along it. In this work we investigated the role of the substrate in constraining the film. Atomic force microscopy, was used to image the particle arrangements on the top and bottom surfaces of films, dried on liquid and glass substrates. We present convincing evidence that the interface prevents particle rearrangements at the bottom of the film, leading to a mismatch strain between upper and lower surfaces of the film which appears to drive cracking. We show that when the modulus of the substrate becomes comparable to the stresses measured in the films, the crack spacing is significantly altered. We also show that cracks do not form on liquid substrates. These combined experiments highlight the importance of substrate constraint in the crack formation mechanism.[4pt] [1] M.I. Smith, J.S. Sharp, Langmuir 27, 8009 (2011)

  4. Initiation of environmentally-assisted cracking in low-alloy steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wire, G.L.; Li, Y.Y.


    Environmentally-Assisted Cracking (EAC) in low alloy steels is activated by a critical level of sulfide ions at the crack tip, which is produced from dissolution of sulfide inclusions (MnS, FeS, etc.) in the steel following exposure by a growing crack. EAC of concern herein is the increase of fatigue crack growth rate of up to 40 to 100 times the rate in air that occurs at 240--300 C in high temperature LWR or boiler water environments. The initiation of EAC is the onset of the higher fatigue crack growth rates in fully developed cracks already presumed to be present due to fatigue, stress corrosion cracking, or induced by fabrication. Initiation of EAC is induced by a change in loading parameters causing the fatigue crack growth rate to increase from a small multiple (2--4) to 40--100 times the air rate. A steady state theory developed by Combrade, suggests that EAC will initiate only above a critical crack velocity and cease below this same velocity. However, more recent tests show that EAC can persist down to much lower velocities (100 times lower) in low oxygen water at slightly lower temperatures. A special set of experiments on high sulfur plate material demonstrate that EAC will not initiate from surface cracks with low sulfide inventories at low crack tip velocities. Transient diffusion calculations show that a finite crack extension at a high crack tip velocity is necessary to initiate EAC, providing a possible explanation for the lack of high crack growth observations reported in low alloy steels in structural applications involving low oxygen environments.

  5. Crack Tip Parameters for Growing Cracks in Linear Viscoelastic Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune

    intensity factors. In the special case of a constant Poisson ratio only 2 deformation intensity factors are needed. Closed form solutions are given both for a slowly growing crack and for a crack that is suddenly arrested at a point at the crack extension path. Two examples are studied; a stress boundary...... value problem, and a displacement boundary value problem. The results show that the stress intensity factors and the displacement intensity factors do not depend explicitly upon the velocity of the crack tip....

  6. A study on fatigue crack growth in dual phase martensitic steel in air environment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K V Sudhakar; E S Dwarakadasa


    Dual phase (DP) steel was intercritically annealed at different temperatures from fully martensitic state to achieve martensite plus ferrite, microstructures with martensite contents in the range of 32 to 76%. Fatigue crack growth (FCG) and fracture toughness tests were carried out as per ASTM standards E 647 and E 399, respectively to evaluate the potential of DP steels. The crack growth rates (/) at different stress intensity ranges ( ) were determined to obtain the threshold value of stress intensity range ( th). Crack path morphology was studied to determine the influence of microstructure on crack growth characteristics. After the examination of crack tortuosity, the compact tension (CT) specimens were pulled in static mode to determine fracture toughness values. FCG rates decreased and threshold values increased with increase in vol.% martensite in the DP steel. This is attributed to the lower carbon content in the martensite formed at higher intercritical annealing (ICA) temperatures, causing retardation of crack growth rate by crack tip blunting and/or deflection. Roughness induced crack closure was also found to contribute to the improved crack growth resistance at higher levels of martensite content. Scanning electron fractography of DP steel in the near threshold region revealed transgranular cleavage fracture with secondary cracking. Results indicate the possibility that the DP steels may be treated to obtain an excellent combination of strength and fatigue properties.

  7. Cryptography cracking codes

    CERN Document Server


    While cracking a code might seem like something few of us would encounter in our daily lives, it is actually far more prevalent than we may realize. Anyone who has had personal information taken because of a hacked email account can understand the need for cryptography and the importance of encryption-essentially the need to code information to keep it safe. This detailed volume examines the logic and science behind various ciphers, their real world uses, how codes can be broken, and the use of technology in this oft-overlooked field.

  8. Averaged strain energy density-based synthesis of crack initiation life in notched steel bars under torsional fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Berto


    Full Text Available The torsional fatigue behaviour of circumferentially notched specimens made of austenitic stainless steel, SUS316L, and carbon steel, SGV410, characterized by different notch root radii has been recently investigated by Tanaka. In that contribution, it was observed that the total fatigue life of the austenitic stainless steel increases with increasing stress concentration factor for a given applied nominal shear stress amplitude. By using the electrical potential drop method, Tanaka observed that the crack nucleation life was reduced with increasing stress concentration, on the other hand the crack propagation life increased. The experimental fatigue results, originally expressed in terms of nominal shear stress amplitude, have been reanalysed by means of the local strain energy density (SED averaged over a control volume having radius R0 surrounding the notch tip. To exclude all extrinsic effects acting during the fatigue crack propagation phase, such as sliding contact and/or friction between fracture surfaces, crack initiation life has been considered in the present work. In the original paper, initiation life was defined in correspondence of a 0.1÷0.4-mm-deep crack. The control radius R0 for fatigue strength assessment of notched components, thought of as a material property, has been estimated by imposing the constancy of the averaged SED for both smooth and cracked specimens at NA = 2 million loading cycles

  9. Multiaxial mixed-mode cracking - small crack initiation and propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, M. de; Reis, L.; Li Bin [Lisbon Univ. (Portugal). ICEMS - Inst. of Material and Surface Science and Engineering


    Both the fatigue crack path and fatigue life of CK45 steel and 42CrMo4 steel under various multiaxial loading paths are studied in this paper. The replica method was applied to monitor the crack initiation and small crack growth, the fractographic analyses were carried out on the fracture surface and the crack initiation angle was measured. The effects of non-proportional loading on both the crack path and fatigue life were studied, and the flattening of asperities on the crack surface due to compressive normal stress was also observed. An improved model is proposed based on correcting the strain range parameter of the ASME code approach, taking into account the additional hardening caused by the non-proportional loading path, which can improve the predictions of the fatigue lives for various non-proportional loading paths and provide an easy way to overcome the drawbacks of the current ASME code approach for non-proportional fatigue. Based on these corrected strain range parameters, a strain intensity factor range is used to correlate with the experimental results of small crack growth rates. It is concluded that the orientation of the early crack growth can be predicted well by the critical damage plane, but the fatigue life can not be predicted accurately using only the parameters on the critical plane, since the damage on all the planes contributes to fatigue damage as stated by the integral approaches. (orig.)

  10. Catalytic cracking of lignites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, M.; Nowak, S.; Naegler, T.; Zimmermann, J. [Hochschule Merseburg (Germany); Welscher, J.; Schwieger, W. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ. (Germany); Hahn, T. [Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Germany)


    A most important factor for the chemical industry is the availability of cheap raw materials. As the oil price of crude oil is rising alternative feedstocks like coal are coming into focus. This work, the catalytic cracking of lignite is part of the alliance ibi (innovative Braunkohlenintegration) to use lignite as a raw material to produce chemicals. With this new one step process without an input of external hydrogen, mostly propylene, butenes and aromatics and char are formed. The product yield depends on manifold process parameters. The use of acid catalysts (zeolites like MFI) shows the highest amount of the desired products. Hydrogen rich lignites with a molar H/C ratio of > 1 are to be favoured. Due to primary cracking and secondary reactions the ratio between catalyst and lignite, temperature and residence time are the most important parameter to control the product distribution. Experiments at 500 C in a discontinuous rotary kiln reactor show yields up to 32 wt-% of hydrocarbons per lignite (maf - moisture and ash free) and 43 wt-% char, which can be gasified. Particularly, the yields of propylene and butenes as main products can be enhanced four times to about 8 wt-% by the use of catalysts while the tar yield decreases. In order to develop this innovative process catalyst systems fixed on beads were developed for an easy separation and regeneration of the used catalyst from the formed char. (orig.)

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging characterization of circumferential and longitudinal strain under various coronary interventions in swine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammed; SA; Suhail; Mark; W; Wilson; Steven; W; Hetts; Maythem; Saeed


    AIM:To compare the acute changes in circumferential and longitudinal strain after exposing a coronary artery to various interventions in swine.METHODS:Percutaneous balloon angioplasty catheter was guided to location aid device(LAD)under X-ray fluoroscopy to create different patterns of ischemic insults.Pigs(n=32)were equally divided into 4 groups:controls,90 min LAD occlusion/reperfusion,LAD microembolization,and combined LAD occlusion/microembolization/reperfusion.Three days after interventions,cine,tagged and viability magnetic resonance imaging(MRI)were acquired to measure and compare left and right circumferential strain,longitudinal strain and myocardial viability,respectively.Measurements were obtained using HARP and semi-automated threshold method and statistically analyzed using unpaired t-test.Myocardial and vascular damage was characterized microscopically.RESULTS:Coronary microemboli caused greater impairment in l left ventricular(LV)circumferential strain and dyssynchrony than LAD occlusion/reperfusion despite the significant difference in the extent of myocardial damage.Microemboli also caused significant decrease in peak systolic strain rate of remote myocardium and LV dyssynchrony.Cine MRI demonstrated the interaction between LV and right ventricular(RV)at 3 d after interventions.Compensatory increase in RV free wall longitudinal strain was seen in response to all interventions.Viability MRI,histochemical staining and microscopy revealed different patterns of myocardial damage and microvascular obstruction.CONCLUSION:Cine MRI revealed subtle changes in LV strain caused by various ischemic insults.It also demonstrated the interaction between the right and left ventricles after coronary interventions.Coronary microemboli with and without acute myocardial infarction(AMI)cause complex myocardial injury and ventricular dysfunction that is not replicated in solely AMI.

  12. Posterior-Only Circumferential Decompression and Reconstruction in the Surgical Management of Lumbar Vertebral Osteomyelitis (United States)

    Skovrlj, Branko; Guzman, Javier Z.; Caridi, John; Cho, Samuel K.


    Study Design Case report. Objective The purpose of this report is to discuss the surgical management of lumbar vertebral osteomyelitis with a spinal epidural abscess (SEA) and present a single-stage, posterior-only circumferential decompression and reconstruction with instrumentation using an expandable titanium cage and without segmental nerve root sacrifice as an option in the treatment of this disease process. Methods We report a 42-year-old man who presented with 3 days of low back pain and chills who rapidly decompensated with severe sepsis following admission. Magnetic resonance imaging of his lumbosacral spine revealed intramuscular abscesses of the left paraspinal musculature and iliopsoas with SEA and L4 vertebral body involvement. The patient failed maximal medical treatment, which necessitated surgical treatment as a last resort for infectious source control. He underwent a previously undescribed procedure in the setting of SEA: a single-stage, posterior-only approach for circumferential decompression and reconstruction of the L4 vertebral body with posterior segmental instrumented fixation. Results After the surgery, the patient's condition gradually improved; however, he suffered a wound dehiscence necessitating a surgical exploration and deep wound debridement. Six months after the surgery, the patient underwent a revision surgery for adjacent-level pseudarthrosis. At 1-year follow-up, the patient was pain-free and off narcotic pain medication and had returned to full activity. Conclusion This patient is the first reported case of lumbar osteomyelitis with SEA treated surgically with a single-stage, posterior-only circumferential decompression and reconstruction with posterior instrumentation. Although this approach is more technically challenging, it presents another viable option for the treatment of lumbar vertebral osteomyelitis that may reduce the morbidity associated with an anterior approach. PMID:26835214

  13. Circumferential skin folds in a child: A case of Michelin tire baby syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palit Aparna


    Full Text Available A six-month-old girl who presented with dermatitis was found to have multiple, symmetric, deep, gyrate skin folds involving her trunk and similar circumferential lesions on her extremities since birth. She had a characteristic round face with hypertelorism, depressed nasal bridge, thin, down-turned vermillion border of upper lip and short neck. Skin biopsy demonstrated increased smooth muscle fibers in the deeper dermis. A diagnosis of Michelin tire baby syndrome was made. Clinical features, histopathology, differential diagnosis and prognosis of this rare disorder have been discussed.

  14. Investigations on an Axial Flow Fan Stage subjected to Circumferential Inlet Flow Distortion and Swirl

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.Govardhan; K.Viswanath


    The combined effects of swirl and circumferential inlet flow distortion on the flow field of an axial flow fan stage are reported in this paper,The study involves measurements at the inlet of the rotor and exit of the rotor and stator atdesign and off design flow conditions.The study indicated that at the design flow condition,swirl had caused deterioration of the performance in addition to that caused by distortion.Pressure rise imparted in the distortion zone is hogher than in the free zone.The attenuation of distortion is high in the presence of swirl.

  15. Formation of internal cracks in steel billets during soft reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenjun Wang; Linxin Ning; Raimund Biilte; Wolfgang Bleck


    To investigate the formation of internal cracks in steel billets during soft reduction, fully coupled thermo-mechanical finite element models were developed using the commercial software ABAQUS, also casting and soft reduction tests were carried out in a laboratory strand casting machine. With the finite element models, the temperature distribution, the stress and strain states in the bil- let were calculated. The relation between internal cracks and equivalent plastic strain, as well as maximal principal stress was ana- lyzed. The results indicate that tensile stresses can develop in the mushy zone during soft reduction and the equivalent strain nearby the zero ductility temperature (ZDT) increases with decreasing sofid fraction. Internal cracks can be initiated when the accumulated strain exceeds the critical strain or the applied tensile stress exceeds the critical fracture stress during solidification.

  16. J-integral elastic plastic fracture mechanics evaluation of the stability of cracks in nuclear reactor pressure vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, M. P.; McMeeking, R. M.; Parks, D. M.


    Contributions were made toward developing a new methodology to assess the stability of cracks in pressure vessels made from materials that exhibit a significant increase in toughness during the early increments of crack growth. It has a wide range of validity from linear elastic to fully plastic behavior.

  17. Experiences on IGSCC crack manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veron, P. [Equipos Nucleares, S.A., Maliano (Spain)


    The author presents his experience in manufacturing IGSCC realistic defects, mainly in INCONEL 600 MA Steam Generator Tubes. From that experience he extracts some knowledge about this cracking (influence of chemistry in the environment, stress state, crack growth rate, and occurrence in laboratory condition of break before leak).


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Hydrogen transfer is an important secondary reaction of catalytic cracking reactions, which affects product yield distribution and product quality. It is an exothermic reaction with low activation energy around 43.3 kJ/mol. Catalyst properties and operation parameters in catalytic cracking greatly influence the hydrogen transfer reaction. Satisfactory results are expected through careful selection of proper catalysts and operation conditions.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yang; OUYANG Hua; DU Zhaohui


    In the steady operation condition, the experiments and the numerical simulations are used to investigate the tip leakage flow fields in three low pressure axial flow fans with three kinds of circumferential skewed rotors, including the radial rotor, the forward-skewed rotor and the backward-skewed rotor. The three-dimensional viscous flow fields of the fans are computed. In the experiments, the two-dimensional plane particle image velocimetry (PIV) system is used to measure the flow fields in the tip region of three different pitchwise positions of each fan. The results show that the computational results agree well with the experimental data in the flow field of the tip region of each fan. The tip leakage vortex core segments based on method of the eigenmode analysis can display clearly some characteristics of the tip leakage vortex, such as the origination position of tip leakage vortex, the development of vortex strength, and so on. Compared with the radial rotor, the other two skewed rotors can increase the stability of the tip leakage vortex and the increment in the forward-skewed rotor is more than that in the backward-skewed one. Among the tip leakage vortices of the three rotors, the velocity of the vortex in the forward-skewed rotor is the highest in the circumferential direction and the lowest in the axial direction.

  20. Effects of circumferential rigid wrist orthoses in rehabilitation of patients with radius fracture at typical site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurović Aleksandar


    Full Text Available Background. The use of orthoses is a questionable rehabilitation method for patients with the distal radius fracture at typical site. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of the rehabilitation on patients with radius fracture at the typical site, who wore circumferential static wrist orthoses, with those who did not wear them. Methods. Thirty patients were divided into 3 equal groups, 2 experimental groups, and 1 control group. The patients in the experimental groups were given the rehabilitation program of wearing serially manufactured (off-the-shelf, as well as custom-fit orthoses. Those in the control group did not wear wrist orthoses. Evaluation parameters were pain, edema, the range of the wrist motion, the quality of cylindrical, spherical, and pinch-spherical grasp, the strength of pinch and hand grasp, and patient's assessment of the effects of rehabilitation. Results. No significant difference in the effects of rehabilitation on the patients in experimental groups as opposed to control group was found. Patients in the first experimental group, and in control group were more satisfied with the effects of rehabilitation, as opposed to the patients in the second experimental group (p<0,05. Conclusion. The effects of circumferential static wrist orthoses in the rehabilitation of patients with distal radius fracture at the typical site were not clinically significant. There was no significant difference between the custom and off-the-shelf orthoses.

  1. Smooth muscle-like tissue constructs with circumferentially oriented cells formed by the cell fiber technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Y Hsiao

    Full Text Available The proper functioning of many organs and tissues containing smooth muscles greatly depends on the intricate organization of the smooth muscle cells oriented in appropriate directions. Consequently controlling the cellular orientation in three-dimensional (3D cellular constructs is an important issue in engineering tissues of smooth muscles. However, the ability to precisely control the cellular orientation at the microscale cannot be achieved by various commonly used 3D tissue engineering building blocks such as spheroids. This paper presents the formation of coiled spring-shaped 3D cellular constructs containing circumferentially oriented smooth muscle-like cells differentiated from dedifferentiated fat (DFAT cells. By using the cell fiber technology, DFAT cells suspended in a mixture of extracellular proteins possessing an optimized stiffness were encapsulated in the core region of alginate shell microfibers and uniformly aligned to the longitudinal direction. Upon differentiation induction to the smooth muscle lineage, DFAT cell fibers self-assembled to coiled spring structures where the cells became circumferentially oriented. By changing the initial core-shell microfiber diameter, we demonstrated that the spring pitch and diameter could be controlled. 21 days after differentiation induction, the cell fibers contained high percentages of ASMA-positive and calponin-positive cells. Our technology to create these smooth muscle-like spring constructs enabled precise control of cellular alignment and orientation in 3D. These constructs can further serve as tissue engineering building blocks for larger organs and cellular implants used in clinical treatments.

  2. Smooth muscle-like tissue constructs with circumferentially oriented cells formed by the cell fiber technology. (United States)

    Hsiao, Amy Y; Okitsu, Teru; Onoe, Hiroaki; Kiyosawa, Mahiro; Teramae, Hiroki; Iwanaga, Shintaroh; Kazama, Tomohiko; Matsumoto, Taro; Takeuchi, Shoji


    The proper functioning of many organs and tissues containing smooth muscles greatly depends on the intricate organization of the smooth muscle cells oriented in appropriate directions. Consequently controlling the cellular orientation in three-dimensional (3D) cellular constructs is an important issue in engineering tissues of smooth muscles. However, the ability to precisely control the cellular orientation at the microscale cannot be achieved by various commonly used 3D tissue engineering building blocks such as spheroids. This paper presents the formation of coiled spring-shaped 3D cellular constructs containing circumferentially oriented smooth muscle-like cells differentiated from dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells. By using the cell fiber technology, DFAT cells suspended in a mixture of extracellular proteins possessing an optimized stiffness were encapsulated in the core region of alginate shell microfibers and uniformly aligned to the longitudinal direction. Upon differentiation induction to the smooth muscle lineage, DFAT cell fibers self-assembled to coiled spring structures where the cells became circumferentially oriented. By changing the initial core-shell microfiber diameter, we demonstrated that the spring pitch and diameter could be controlled. 21 days after differentiation induction, the cell fibers contained high percentages of ASMA-positive and calponin-positive cells. Our technology to create these smooth muscle-like spring constructs enabled precise control of cellular alignment and orientation in 3D. These constructs can further serve as tissue engineering building blocks for larger organs and cellular implants used in clinical treatments.

  3. Effects of inlet circumferential fluctuation on the sweep aerodynamic performance of axial fans/compressors (United States)

    Gui, Xingmin; Zhu, Fang; Wan, Ke; Jin, Donghai


    Swept blades have been widely used in the transonic fan/compressor of aircraft engines with the aids of 3D CFD simulation since the design concept of controlling the shock structure was firstly proposed and successfully tested by Dr. Wennerstrom in the 1980s. However, some disadvantage phenomenon has also been induced by excessively 3D blade geometries on the structure stress insufficiency, vibration and reliability. Much confusion in the procedure of design practice leading us to recognize a new view on the flow mechanism of sweep aerodynamical induction: the new radial equilibrium established by the influence of inlet circumferential fluctuation (CF) changes the inlet flows of blading and induces the performance modification of axial fans/compressors blade. The view is verified by simplified models through numerical simulation and circumferentially averaged analysis in the present paper. The results show that the CF source items which originate from design parameters, such as the spanwise distributions of the loading and blading geometries, contribute to the changing of averaged incidence spanwise distribution, and further more affect the performance of axial fans/compressors with swept blades.

  4. Mutations in Either TUBB or MAPRE2 Cause Circumferential Skin Creases Kunze Type (United States)

    Isrie, Mala; Breuss, Martin; Tian, Guoling; Hansen, Andi Harley; Cristofoli, Francesca; Morandell, Jasmin; Kupchinsky, Zachari A.; Sifrim, Alejandro; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Celia Maria; Dapena, Elena Porta; Doonanco, Kurston; Leonard, Norma; Tinsa, Faten; Moortgat, Stéphanie; Ulucan, Hakan; Koparir, Erkan; Karaca, Ender; Katsanis, Nicholas; Marton, Valeria; Vermeesch, Joris Robert; Davis, Erica E.; Cowan, Nicholas J.; Keays, David Anthony; Van Esch, Hilde


    Circumferential skin creases Kunze type (CSC-KT) is a specific congenital entity with an unknown genetic cause. The disease phenotype comprises characteristic circumferential skin creases accompanied by intellectual disability, a cleft palate, short stature, and dysmorphic features. Here, we report that mutations in either MAPRE2 or TUBB underlie the genetic origin of this syndrome. MAPRE2 encodes a member of the microtubule end-binding family of proteins that bind to the guanosine triphosphate cap at growing microtubule plus ends, and TUBB encodes a β-tubulin isotype that is expressed abundantly in the developing brain. Functional analyses of the TUBB mutants show multiple defects in the chaperone-dependent tubulin heterodimer folding and assembly pathway that leads to a compromised yield of native heterodimers. The TUBB mutations also have an impact on microtubule dynamics. For MAPRE2, we show that the mutations result in enhanced MAPRE2 binding to microtubules, implying an increased dwell time at microtubule plus ends. Further, in vivo analysis of MAPRE2 mutations in a zebrafish model of craniofacial development shows that the variants most likely perturb the patterning of branchial arches, either through excessive activity (under a recessive paradigm) or through haploinsufficiency (dominant de novo paradigm). Taken together, our data add CSC-KT to the growing list of tubulinopathies and highlight how multiple inheritance paradigms can affect dosage-sensitive biological systems so as to result in the same clinical defect. PMID:26637975

  5. Reconstructive options after total laryngectomy with subtotal or circumferential hypopharyngectomy and cervical esophagectomy. (United States)

    Piazza, Cesare; Taglietti, Valentina; Nicolai, Piero


    The present review is focused on the main reconstructive options currently used after partial or circumferential resection of the hypopharynx and cervical esophagus. The advantages and disadvantages of pectoralis major myocutaneous (PMMC) pedicled flap, fasciocutaneous free flaps as radial forearm and anterolateral thigh (ALT), and visceral free grafts like jejunum and gastro-omental are overviewed. For partial hypopharyngeal defects with limited extension to the cervical esophagus, no specific pedicled or free flap is deemed superior over others: the patient's body habitus and surgeon's preference remain the most important factors affecting the reconstructive choice. In contrast, after circumferential hypopharyngectomy, pharyngocutaneous fistula (PCF) and stricture rates of PMMC are higher than those obtained by free flaps. In the most recent series applying ALT and jejunum, PCF and stricture occurrence is comparable, whereas reduced mortality, overall complication rate, and donor-site morbidity of ALT and its better swallowing and speech outcomes have contributed to make this option progressively more popular. On the other hand, gastro-omental seems to offer an unparalleled amount of highly vascularized tissue to manage the difficult situation of salvage surgery after chemoradiation, even though complication rates remain not negligible and this technique has not been widely adopted. The reconstructive armamentarium of head and neck surgeons involved in hypopharyngeal and cervical esophagus reconstruction should encompass every option described herein in order to appropriately deal with specific clinical needs and patient requirements. However, fasciocutaneous free flaps (especially ALT) seem to play an ever greater role in restoration of pharyngoesophageal continuity.

  6. Fatigue crack growth behavior of the simulated HAZ of 800 MPa grade high-performance steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sanghoon [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Donghwan; Kim, Tae-Won [School of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jongkwan [Research Institute of Industrial Science and Technology, 75-9, Youngcheon, Dongtan, Hwaseong, Gyeonggi-do 445-813 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Changhee, E-mail: [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)


    Research highlights: {yields} Fatigue crack resistances of HSB800 base steel and HAZs: Base steel > FGHAZ > CGHAZ > ICCGHAZ. {yields} In the case of ICCGHAZ, fatigue cracks are rapidly initiated and propagated through massive M-A constituents. {yields} Fatigue crack growth rate of CGHAZ was faster than that of FGHAZ, mainly due to the coarsened prior austenite grain and martensite packet. - Abstract: The present study focuses on the fatigue properties in the weld heat-affected zone (HAZ) of 800 MPa grade high-performance steel, which is commonly used in bridges and buildings. Single- and multi-pass HAZs were simulated by the Gleeble system. Fatigue properties were estimated using a crack propagation test under a 0.3 stress ratio and 0.1 load frequencies. The microstructures and fracture surfaces were analyzed by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The results of the crack propagation test showed that the fatigue crack growth rate of coarse-grained HAZ (CGHAZ) was faster than fine-grained HAZ (FGHAZ), although both regions have identical fully martensite microstructures, because FGHAZ has smaller prior austenite grain and martensite packet sizes, which can act as effective barriers to crack propagation. The fatigue crack growth rate of intercritically reheated CGHAZ (ICCGHAZ) was the fastest among local zones in the HAZ, due to rapid crack initiation and propagation via the massive martensite-austenite (M-A) constituent.

  7. A consistent partly cracked XFEM element for cohesive crack growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asferg, Jesper L.; Poulsen, Peter Noe; Nielsen, Leif Otto


    capable of modelling variations in the discontinuous displacement field on both sides of the crack and hence also capable of modelling the case where equal stresses are present on each side of the crack. The enrichment was implemented for the 3-node constant strain triangle (CST) and a standard algorithm...... was used to solve the non-linear equations. The performance of the element is illustrated by modelling fracture mechanical benchmark tests. Investigations were carried out on the performance of the element for different crack lengths within one element. The results are compared with previously obtained...

  8. Homotopy Iteration Algorithm for Crack Parameters Identification with Composite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Huang


    Full Text Available An approach based on homotopy iteration algorithm is proposed to identify the crack parameters in beam structures. In the forward problem, a fully open crack model with the composite element method is employed for the vibration analysis. The dynamic responses of the cracked beam in time domain are obtained from the Newmark direct integration method. In the inverse analysis, an identification approach based on homotopy iteration algorithm is studied to identify the location and the depth of a cracked beam. The identification equation is derived by minimizing the error between the calculated acceleration response and the simulated measured one. Newton iterative method with the homotopy equation is employed to track the correct path and improve the convergence of the crack parameters. Two numerical examples are conducted to illustrate the correctness and efficiency of the proposed method. And the effects of the influencing parameters, such as measurement time duration, measurement points, division of the homotopy parameter and measurement noise, are studied.

  9. Probabilistic Analysis of Crack Width

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Marková


    Full Text Available Probabilistic analysis of crack width of a reinforced concrete element is based on the formulas accepted in Eurocode 2 and European Model Code 90. Obtained values of reliability index b seem to be satisfactory for the reinforced concrete slab that fulfils requirements for the crack width specified in Eurocode 2. However, the reliability of the slab seems to be insufficient when the European Model Code 90 is considered; reliability index is less than recommended value 1.5 for serviceability limit states indicated in Eurocode 1. Analysis of sensitivity factors of basic variables enables to find out variables significantly affecting the total crack width.

  10. Analysis of Crack Arrest Toughness. (United States)


    vload(m) vp tn(m) Vertical Source Load (kN) on wedge HY80 Finite Element 0.0122 0.0099 3.81x10 -4 144 Steel Calculations Experiment 0.0122 --- 3.74x10-4...curve, are bona fide measures of the fracture arrest capability of tough ductile steels . The second is that the J-values represent the crack driving...fibrous mode of crack extension. (b) A new test method for studying fast fracture and arrest in tough steels . (c) Measurements of fast fracture and crack

  11. A computational algorithm for crack determination: The multiple crack case (United States)

    Bryan, Kurt; Vogelius, Michael


    An algorithm for recovering a collection of linear cracks in a homogeneous electrical conductor from boundary measurements of voltages induced by specified current fluxes is developed. The technique is a variation of Newton's method and is based on taking weighted averages of the boundary data. The method also adaptively changes the applied current flux at each iteration to maintain maximum sensitivity to the estimated locations of the cracks.

  12. Ultrasound-guided perineural injection for nerve blockade: Does a single-sided injection produce circumferential nerve coverage? (United States)

    Nwawka, O Kenechi; Miller, Theodore T; Jawetz, Shari T; Saboeiro, Gregory R


    Our current clinical technique for sonographic-guided perineural injection consists of two-sided perineural needle placement to obtain circumferential distribution of the injectate. This study aimed to determine if a single-side needle position will produce circumferential nerve coverage. Fresh-frozen cadaveric specimens were used for this study. In six upper extremities, a needle was positioned along the deep surface of median, radial, and ulnar nerves in the carpal tunnel, radial tunnel, and cubital tunnel, respectively, and 2 ml of contrast was injected for each nerve. In three pelvic specimens, a needle was positioned deep to the sciatic nerves bilaterally, and 5 ml of contrast was injected. An additional four median nerve injections were performed using superficial surface needle position. The specimens then underwent CT scanning to assess the distribution of the perineural contrast medium. One hundred percent of the radial, ulnar, and sciatic nerves demonstrated circumferential distribution on CT. Only 50% of the median nerve injections with the needle placed deep to the nerve produced circumferential coverage, whereas 100% of median nerves injected with the needle between the nerve and retinaculum demonstrated circumferential coverage. The average length of spread of perineural injectate was 11.6 cm in the upper extremity and 10.3 cm for the sciatic nerves. Using clinical volumes of fluid, needle positioning at the deep surface of upper extremity and sciatic nerves was sufficient to produce circumferential coating of the nerve, except in the carpal tunnel, where placement of the needle between the nerve and flexor retinaculum is recommended. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 44:465-469, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Tip clearance flow interaction with circumferential groove casing treatment in a transonic axial compressor (United States)

    Ross, Mark Hamilton

    Experimental and computational studies were conducted to study the role of the tip leakage flow in axial compressor stall and the relationship between the tip clearance flow flow field and surge margin extension from circumferential groove casing treatment. The CFD results were used to identify the existence of an interface between the approach ow and the tip-leakage flow. The experiments used a surface streaking visualization method to identify the time-averaged location of this interface as a line of zero axial shear stress at the casing. The axial position of this line, denoted xzs, moved upstream with decreasing ow coefficient in both the experiments and computations. The line was consistently located at the rotor leading edge plane at the stalling flow coefficient, regardless of in flow boundary condition. These results were successfully modeled using a control volume approach that balanced the reverse axial momentum ux of the tip-leakage flow with the momentum flux of the approach fluid. Non-uniform tip clearance measurements demonstrated that movement of the interface upstream of the rotor leading edge plane leads to the generation of short length scale rotating disturbances. Therefore, stall was interpreted as a critical point in the momentum flux balance of the approach ow and the reverse axial momentum flux of the tip-leakage flow. Experimental measurements of surge margin extension from seven CGCT configurations with a fixed groove geometry demonstrated that the contribution of individual grooves in a multi-groove casing to surge margin extension is an (a) additive and (b) linear function of the smooth wall tip clearance axial momentum ux at the location of a each groove. Extending the axial momentum model to include the in uence of a CGCT showed that circumferential grooves reduce the tip leakage flow axial momentum through radial transport. The equivalent force due to a circumferential groove was demonstrated to be related to the smooth wall tip

  14. Reduction of longitudinal axial residual stresses in near-root region of circumferential joint of steam pipeline in technological way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Prokhorenko


    Full Text Available The paper proposes a variant for solving the problem of reduction of longitudinal residual stresses in near-root region of a circumferential welded joint of section of steam pipeline by FEM simulation of the stress-strain state of repaired section of a circumferential weld in the zone of lack of root penetration on a thin-wall shell of 89 mm diameter and 6 mm wall thickness from steel 20. The result of solving the problem is total distribution of stresses and residual plastic deformations in the repaired zone.

  15. Cracks in Utopia (United States)


    Many of the craters found on the northern plains of Mars have been partly filled or buried by some material (possibly sediment). The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image presented here (MOC2-136b, above left) shows a high-resolution view of a tiny portion of the floor of one of these northern plains craters. The crater, located in Utopia Planitia at 44oN, 258oW, is shown on the right (MOC2-136a)with a small white box to indicate the location of the MOC image. The MOC image reveals that the material covering the floor of this crater is cracked and pitted. The origin and source of material that has been deposited in this crater is unknown.The MOC image was acquired in June 1999 and covers an area only 1.1 kilometers (0.7 miles) wide at a resolution of 1.8 meters (6 feet) per pixel. The context picture is a mosaic of Viking 2 orbiter images 010B53 and 010B55, taken in 1976. Both images are illuminated from the left. Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  16. Peridynamic model for fatigue cracking.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silling, Stewart Andrew; Abe Askari (Boeing)


    The peridynamic theory is an extension of traditional solid mechanics in which the field equations can be applied on discontinuities, such as growing cracks. This paper proposes a bond damage model within peridynamics to treat the nucleation and growth of cracks due to cyclic loading. Bond damage occurs according to the evolution of a variable called the "remaining life" of each bond that changes over time according to the cyclic strain in the bond. It is shown that the model reproduces the main features of S-N data for typical materials and also reproduces the Paris law for fatigue crack growth. Extensions of the model account for the effects of loading spectrum, fatigue limit, and variable load ratio. A three-dimensional example illustrates the nucleation and growth of a helical fatigue crack in the torsion of an aluminum alloy rod.

  17. 21 CFR 137.190 - Cracked wheat. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cracked wheat. 137.190 Section 137.190 Food and... Related Products § 137.190 Cracked wheat. Cracked wheat is the food prepared by so cracking or cutting into angular fragments cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested by...

  18. The crack growth mechanism in asphaltic mixes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, .M.M.J.; Hopman, P.C.; Molenaar, A.A.A.


    The crack growth mechanism in asphalt concrete (Ac) mixes is studied. In cyclic tests on several asphaltic mixes crack growth is measured, both with crack foils and with cOD-gauges. It is found that crack growth in asphaltic mixes is described by three processes which are parallel in time: cohesive

  19. Fiber Sensing of Micro -Crack

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Optical fiber sensors are used for sensing micro-cracking in composite and metal materials in aerospace applications. The sensing mechanism is based on the detection of acoustic emission signals, which are known to emanate from micro-cracks when they grow under further loading. The sensor head consists of a fiber Bragg grating that is capable of detecting acoustic emission signals generated by pencil lead breaking, of frequencies up to 200 kHz.

  20. Circumferential resonance modes of solid elastic cylinders excited by obliquely incident acoustic waves. (United States)

    Fan, Ying; Honarvar, Farhang; Sinclair, Anthony N; Jafari, Mohammad-Reza


    When an immersed solid elastic cylinder is insonified by an obliquely incident plane acoustic wave, some of the resonance modes of the cylinder are excited. These modes are directly related to the incidence angle of the insonifying wave. In this paper, the circumferential resonance modes of such immersed elastic cylinders are studied over a large range of incidence angles and frequencies and physical explanations are presented for singular features of the frequency-incidence angle plots. These features include the pairing of one axially guided mode with each transverse whispering gallery mode, the appearance of an anomalous pseudo-Rayleigh in the cylinder at incidence angles greater than the Rayleigh angle, and distortional effects of the longitudinal whispering gallery modes on the entire resonance spectrum of the cylinder. The physical explanations are derived from Resonance Scattering Theory (RST), which is employed to determine the interior displacement field of the cylinder and its dependence on insonification angle.

  1. Propagation of S-polarized surface polaritons circumferentially around a locally cylindrical surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polanco, J. [Department of Physics, University of Texas, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Fitzgerald, R.M., E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of Texas, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Maradudin, A.A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States)


    The dispersion relation is derived and solved for s-polarized surface polaritons propagating circumferentially around a portion of a cylindrical interface between vacuum and an isotropic dielectric. In the case that the dielectric is convex toward the vacuum these modes are found to be radiative, and consequently are attenuated as they propagate on the cylindrical surface. When the dielectric is concave toward the vacuum the resulting surface polaritons are nonradiative and propagate unattenuated on the cylinder. Such modes do not exist in the case of a planar interface between a homogeneous isotropic dielectric and vacuum. -- Highlights: ► New surface wave. ► Many-branched dispersion curve. ► More nodes in fields as frequency grows.

  2. Amniotic Membrane Grafts for the Prevention of Esophageal Stricture after Circumferential Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection (United States)

    Barret, Maximilien; Pratico, Carlos Alberto; Camus, Marine; Beuvon, Frédéric; Jarraya, Mohamed; Nicco, Carole; Mangialavori, Luigi; Chaussade, Stanislas; Batteux, Frédéric; Prat, Frédéric


    Background and Aims The prevention of esophageal strictures following circumferential mucosal resection remains a major clinical challenge. Human amniotic membrane (AM) is an easily available material, which is widely used in ophthalmology due to its wound healing, anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic properties. We studied the effect of AM grafts in the prevention of esophageal stricture after endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) in a swine model. Animals and Methods In this prospective, randomized controlled trial, 20 swine underwent a 5 cm-long circumferential ESD of the lower esophagus. In the AM Group (n = 10), amniotic membrane grafts were placed on esophageal stents; a subgroup of 5 swine (AM 1 group) was sacrificed on day 14, whereas the other 5 animals (AM 2 group) were kept alive. The esophageal stent (ES) group (n = 5) had ES placement alone after ESD. Another 5 animals served as a control group with only ESD. Results The prevalence of symptomatic strictures at day 14 was significantly reduced in the AM group and ES groups vs. the control group (33%, 40% and 100%, respectively, p = 0.03); mean esophageal diameter was 5.8±3.6 mm, 6.8±3.3 mm, and 2.6±1.7 mm for AM, ES, and control groups, respectively. Median (range) esophageal fibrosis thickness was 0.87 mm (0.78–1.72), 1.19 mm (0.28–1.95), and 1.65 mm (0.7–1.79) for AM 1, ES, and control groups, respectively. All animals had developed esophageal strictures by day 35. Conclusions The anti-fibrotic effect of AM on esophageal wound healing after ESD delayed the development of esophageal stricture in our model. However, this benefit was of limited duration in the conditions of our study. PMID:24992335

  3. Amniotic membrane grafts for the prevention of esophageal stricture after circumferential endoscopic submucosal dissection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilien Barret

    Full Text Available The prevention of esophageal strictures following circumferential mucosal resection remains a major clinical challenge. Human amniotic membrane (AM is an easily available material, which is widely used in ophthalmology due to its wound healing, anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic properties. We studied the effect of AM grafts in the prevention of esophageal stricture after endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD in a swine model.In this prospective, randomized controlled trial, 20 swine underwent a 5 cm-long circumferential ESD of the lower esophagus. In the AM Group (n = 10, amniotic membrane grafts were placed on esophageal stents; a subgroup of 5 swine (AM 1 group was sacrificed on day 14, whereas the other 5 animals (AM 2 group were kept alive. The esophageal stent (ES group (n = 5 had ES placement alone after ESD. Another 5 animals served as a control group with only ESD.The prevalence of symptomatic strictures at day 14 was significantly reduced in the AM group and ES groups vs. the control group (33%, 40% and 100%, respectively, p = 0.03; mean esophageal diameter was 5.8±3.6 mm, 6.8±3.3 mm, and 2.6±1.7 mm for AM, ES, and control groups, respectively. Median (range esophageal fibrosis thickness was 0.87 mm (0.78-1.72, 1.19 mm (0.28-1.95, and 1.65 mm (0.7-1.79 for AM 1, ES, and control groups, respectively. All animals had developed esophageal strictures by day 35.The anti-fibrotic effect of AM on esophageal wound healing after ESD delayed the development of esophageal stricture in our model. However, this benefit was of limited duration in the conditions of our study.

  4. Quantitative lymphoscintigraphy in post-mastectomy lymphedema: correlation with circumferential measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Joon Young; Lee, Kyung Han; Kim, Sang Eun; Kim, Byung Tae; Hwang, Jee Hea; Lee, Byung Boong [Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    An objective measure for the severity and progression is important for the management of lymphedema. To evaluate the usefulness of lympho-scintigraphy in this regard, we compared various quantitative indices from upper extremity lymphoscintigraphy with circumferential measurements, before and after physiotheraphy. Upper extremity lymphoscintigraphy was performed in 38 patients with unilateral postmastectomy lymphedema. Tc-99m antimony sulfide colloid (37 MBq) was injected s.c. into the second and third interdigital spaces. The injection sites were imaged immediately after injection. After standardized exercise for 15 min, upper extremity images were acquired 30 min, 1 hr and 2 hr after injection. The clearance of the injection site (CL), and % uptake in regional lymph nodes (%LN) and soft tissue of the extremity (i.e., the degree of dermal backflow) (%EXT) compared to the initial injection site were calculated. Circumference of each extremity was measured at 7 levels; the severity of lymphedema was expressed as the percentage difference of total circumferential difference (TCD) between healthy and edematous extremities compared to the total circumference of healthy extremity (%TCD). In 19 patients who received physiotherapy, the therapeutic effect was measured by % decrease of TCD (%DTCD) before and after therapy (Raines. et al., 1977). The quantitative indices calculated in the image at 2 hr p.i. had better correlation with either %TCD or %DTCD than those from earlier images (Table). The CL, %LN and %EXT of edematous extremity had a significant correlation with TCD. The %EXT was correlated best with either TCD or %DTCD. The results suggest that the %EXT which corresponds to the degree of dermal backflow may be a simple and useful quantitative index for evaluating the severity and progression in lymphedema and predicting the effect of therapy.

  5. Development of a used fuel cladding damage model incorporating circumferential and radial hydride responses (United States)

    Chen, Qiushi; Ostien, Jakob T.; Hansen, Glen


    At the completion of the fuel drying process, used fuel Zry4 cladding typically exhibits a significant population of δ-hydride inclusions. These inclusions are in the form of small platelets that are generally oriented both circumferentially and radially within the cladding material. There is concern that radially-oriented hydride inclusions may weaken the cladding material and lead to issues during used fuel storage and transportation processes. A high fidelity model of the mechanical behavior of hydrides has utility in both designing fuel cladding to be more resistant to this hydride-induced weakening and also in suggesting modifications to drying, storage, and transport operations to reduce the impact of hydride formation and/or the avoidance of loading scenarios that could overly stress the radial inclusions. We develop a mechanical model for the Zry4-hydride system that, given a particular morphology of hydride inclusions, allows the calculation of the response of the hydrided cladding under various loading scenarios. The model treats the Zry4 matrix material as J2 elastoplastic, and treats the hydrides as platelets oriented in predefined directions (e.g., circumferentially and radially). The model is hosted by the Albany analysis framework, where a finite element approximation of the weak form of the cladding boundary value problem is solved using a preconditioned Newton-Krylov approach. Instead of forming the required system Jacobian operator directly or approximating its action with a differencing operation, Albany leverages the Trilinos Sacado package to form the Jacobian via automatic differentiation. We present results that describe the performance of the model in comparison with as-fabricated Zry4 as well as HB Robinson fuel cladding. Further, we also present performance results that demonstrate the efficacy of the overall solution method employed to host the model.

  6. Development of a used fuel cladding damage model incorporating circumferential and radial hydride responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Qiushi, E-mail: [Glenn Department of Civil Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Ostien, Jakob T., E-mail: [Mechanics of Materials Dept. 8256, Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 969, Livermore, CA 94551-0969 (United States); Hansen, Glen, E-mail: [Computational Multiphysics Dept. 1443, Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185-1321 (United States)


    At the completion of the fuel drying process, used fuel Zry4 cladding typically exhibits a significant population of δ-hydride inclusions. These inclusions are in the form of small platelets that are generally oriented both circumferentially and radially within the cladding material. There is concern that radially-oriented hydride inclusions may weaken the cladding material and lead to issues during used fuel storage and transportation processes. A high fidelity model of the mechanical behavior of hydrides has utility in both designing fuel cladding to be more resistant to this hydride-induced weakening and also in suggesting modifications to drying, storage, and transport operations to reduce the impact of hydride formation and/or the avoidance of loading scenarios that could overly stress the radial inclusions. We develop a mechanical model for the Zry4-hydride system that, given a particular morphology of hydride inclusions, allows the calculation of the response of the hydrided cladding under various loading scenarios. The model treats the Zry4 matrix material as J{sub 2} elastoplastic, and treats the hydrides as platelets oriented in predefined directions (e.g., circumferentially and radially). The model is hosted by the Albany analysis framework, where a finite element approximation of the weak form of the cladding boundary value problem is solved using a preconditioned Newton–Krylov approach. Instead of forming the required system Jacobian operator directly or approximating its action with a differencing operation, Albany leverages the Trilinos Sacado package to form the Jacobian via automatic differentiation. We present results that describe the performance of the model in comparison with as-fabricated Zry4 as well as HB Robinson fuel cladding. Further, we also present performance results that demonstrate the efficacy of the overall solution method employed to host the model.

  7. The influence of circumferential resection margins on survival following rectal cancer surgery. (United States)

    Mois, Emil; Graur, Florin; Hajjar, Nadim Al; Puia, Cosmin; Cote, Adrian; Zaharie, Florin; Bartos, Adrian; Momani, Noemi Al; Pop, Flaviu; Neagos, Horatiu; Ciorogar, George; Iancu, Cornel


    A negative (R0) circumferential resection margin (CRM) is described as one of the most important factor that decrease the rate of local recurrence in rectal cancer. The primary outcome of the study was the status of the CRM, while the secondary outcomes were local recurrence and overall survival. Study includes 192 patients with rectal cancer operated between January 2012 and December 2013 in our Institute. The incidence of positive CRM and its impact on the survival rates after oncologic surgical resection were investigated along with factors that determine positive CRM. R1 was defined as a distance of ≤ 1 mm between the tumor and the resection margin. The R1 rate was 3.6 % (7 cases). Nine patients (4.68%) developed local recurrence during a median followup period of 720 days. A positive CRM was found to be a risk factor of local recurrence (p-value = 0.031) and it decreased the overall survival (p-value=0.001). pT4 stage (p-value=0.008) and vascular invasion (p-value=0.005) are factors that play significant roles in determining CRM positivity. In case of inferior rectal tumours abdomino-perineal resection (APR) determines significantly higher (p-value=0.048) rates of positive CRM than anterior resection (AR) of the rectum. Positive CRM affects overall survival and local recurrence in rectal cancer. pT4 stage and vascular invasion play determinant roles in determine CRM status. APR is a risk factor for positive CRM in inferior rectal tumors. Abdomino-perineal resection, Circumferential resection margins, Local recurrence, Rectal cancer, Overall survival.

  8. Type IIIa cracking at 2CrMo welds in 1/2CrMoV pipework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brett, S.J.; Smith, P.A. [National Power plc, Swindon (United Kingdom)


    The most common form of in-service defect found today on the welds of National Power`s 1/2CrMoV pipework systems is Type IV cracking which occurs in intercritically transformed material at the edge of the heat affected zone. However an alternate form of cracking, termed IIIa, which occurs close to the weld fusion line in fully grain refined heat affected zones, has also been observed. The incidence of Type IIIa cracking has increased in recent years and these defects now constitute a significant part of the total recorded crack population. This presentation describes Type IIIa cracking and compares and contrasts it with the better documented Type IV cracking. Particular reference is made to the role of carbon diffusion at the weld fusion line in promoting Type IIIa damage in preference to Type IV. (orig.) 5 refs.

  9. Nanomechanical modeling of a (100)[001] crack in a single crystal bcc iron cantilever beam (United States)

    Skogsrud, Jørn; Jørum, Marie; Thaulow, Christian


    An atomistic model of a fully 3D, nano-sized, pre-cracked cantilever beam has been made and MD simulations have been performed to deflect the beam and initiate crack growth. The crucial process zone in front of the crack has been investigated with respect to linear elastic and elastic-plastic fracture mechanics and plastic deformation mechanisms such as dislocations and twinning. The effect of crack geometry and loading rate has been studied. Two crack geometries were compared, one atomically sharp and one blunted. The sharper crack was shown to lead to a cleaner crack extension on (110)-planes, while the rounded crack showed extension along the initial (100)-plane in accordance with experiments on micro-sized 3 wt% Si α-Fe cantilevers. The effect of strain rate was also investigated, and it was found that lower strain rate correlated better with experimental observations. However, the strain rate used is still several magnitudes higher than for experiments, limiting the usefulness of strain rate observations for predicting behavior in experiments. A brief post-deformation comparison between simulations and SEM-images of focused ion beam-fabricated micro-cantilevers was also done, showing possible signs of similar deformation mechanisms and dislocation systems between them.

  10. Initial experience with circumferential pulmonary vein ablation guided by fusion of magnetic resonance imaging with three-dimensional electroanatomic mapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Kai; MA Jian; MA Fu-sheng; JlA Yu-he; ZHANG Shu


    @@ Catheter ablation for the treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF) has been a focal target of electrophysiological study in recent years. Up to date,circumferential pulmonary vein ablation (CPVA)guided by three-dimensional (3-D) electroanatomic mapping (Carto, USA) has been one of the most favourable procedures for the treatment of AF.

  11. Circumferential electrocautery of the patella in primary total knee replacement without patellar replacement: a meta-analysis and systematic review (United States)

    Fan, Lihong; Ge, Zhaogang; Zhang, Chen; Li, Jia; Yu, Zefeng; Dang, Xiaoqian; Wang, Kunzheng


    The purpose of this meta-analysis and systematic review was to identify and assess whether circumferential electrocautery is useful for improving outcomes after primary total knee replacement(TKR). We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, SpringerLink, Web of Knowledge, OVID CINAHL, OVID EBM and Google Scholar and included articles published through January 2014. A total of 6 articles met the inclusion criteria. Of the 776 cases included in the analysis, 388 cases involved patellar denervation, and 388 cases were designated as the control group. The meta-analysis revealed no significant difference in the incidence of anterior knee pain (AKP, p = 0.18) or in the visual analogue scale score (VAS, p = 0.23) between the two groups. In addition, AKSS Function Score indicated no significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.28). However, the OKS (p = 0.02), patellar score (p = 0.01), AKSS-Knee Score (p = 0.004), range of motion (ROM, p < 0.0001) and WOMAC Score (p = 0.0003) indicated that circumpatellarelectrocautery improved clinical outcomes compared with non-electrocautery. The results indicate that circumferential electrocautery of the patella does not significantly improve AKP compared with non-electrocautery techniques but that circumferential electrocautery significantly improves patients' knee function after surgery. Therefore, we believe that circumferential electrocautery is beneficial to the outcome of primary TKR surgery without patellar replacement.

  12. Burn-out, Circumferential Film Flow Distribution and Pressure Drop for an Eccentric Annulus with Heated Rod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, P. S.; Jensen, A.; Mannov, G.


    Measurements of (1) burn-out, (2) circumferential film flow distribution, and (3) pressure drop in a 17 × 27.2 × 3500 mm concentric and eccentric annulus geometry are presented. The eccentric displacement was varied between 0 and 3 mm. The working fluid was water. Burn-out curves at 70 bar...... flow variation on burn-out is discussed....

  13. Chordal Graphs are Fully Orientable

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, Hsin-Hao


    Suppose that D is an acyclic orientation of a graph G. An arc of D is called dependent if its reversal creates a directed cycle. Let m and M denote the minimum and the maximum of the number of dependent arcs over all acyclic orientations of G. We call G fully orientable if G has an acyclic orientation with exactly d dependent arcs for every d satisfying m <= d <= M. A graph G is called chordal if every cycle in G of length at least four has a chord. We show that all chordal graphs are fully orientable.

  14. Fatigue reliability of cracked engineering structures (United States)

    Lanning, David Bruce, Jr.


    This study investigates the reliability of engineering structures containing fatigue cracks. Stress concentrations and welded joints are probable locations for the initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks. Due to the many unknowns of loading, materials properties, crack sizes and crack shapes present at these locations, a statistics-based reliability analysis is valuable in the careful consideration of these many different random factors involved in a fatigue life analysis, several of which are expanded upon in this study. The basic problem of a crack near a stress concentration is first considered. A formulation for the aspect ratio (a/c) of a propagating semi-elliptical fatigue crack located at the toe of a welded T-joint is developed using Newman and Raju's stress intensity factor for a cracked flat plate with a weld magnification factor and compared to that of a cracked flat plate, and the reliability in terms of fatigue lifetime is calculated with the aid of Paris' crack propagation equation for membrane and bending loadings. Crack closure effects are then introduced in the consideration of short crack effects, where crack growth rates typically may exceed those found using traditional linear elastic fracture mechanics solutions for long cracks. The probability of a very small, microstructurally influenced crack growing to a size influenced by local plastic conditions is calculated utilizing the probability of a crack continuing to grow past an obstacle, such as a grain boundary. The result is then combined with the probability for failure defined using the crack closure-modified Paris equation to find an overall reliability for the structure. Last, the probability of fracture is determined when a crack front encounters regions of non-uniform toughness, such as typical in the heat affected zone of a welded joint. An expression for the effective crack lengths of the dissimilar regions is derived, and used in a weakest-link fracture model in the evaluation

  15. A combined deterministic and probabilistic procedure for safety assessment of components with cracks - Handbook.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillstroem, Peter; Bergman, Mats; Brickstad, Bjoern; Weilin Zang; Sattari-Far, Iradj; Andersson, Peder; Sund, Goeran; Dahlberg, Lars; Nilsson, Fred (Inspecta Technology AB, Stockholm (Sweden))


    SSM has supported research work for the further development of a previously developed procedure/handbook (SKI Report 99:49) for assessment of detected cracks and tolerance for defect analysis. During the operative use of the handbook it was identified needs to update the deterministic part of the procedure and to introduce a new probabilistic flaw evaluation procedure. Another identified need was a better description of the theoretical basis to the computer program. The principal aim of the project has been to update the deterministic part of the recently developed procedure and to introduce a new probabilistic flaw evaluation procedure. Other objectives of the project have been to validate the conservatism of the procedure, make the procedure well defined and easy to use and make the handbook that documents the procedure as complete as possible. The procedure/handbook and computer program ProSACC, Probabilistic Safety Assessment of Components with Cracks, has been extensively revised within this project. The major differences compared to the last revision are within the following areas: It is now possible to deal with a combination of deterministic and probabilistic data. It is possible to include J-controlled stable crack growth. The appendices on material data to be used for nuclear applications and on residual stresses are revised. A new deterministic safety evaluation system is included. The conservatism in the method for evaluation of the secondary stresses for ductile materials is reduced. A new geometry, a circular bar with a circumferential surface crack has been introduced. The results of this project will be of use to SSM in safety assessments of components with cracks and in assessments of the interval between the inspections of components in nuclear power plants

  16. Stability of cracked pipe under inertial stresses. Subtask 1.1 final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, P.; Wilson, M.; Olson, R.; Marschall, C.; Schmidt, R.; Wilkowski, G. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)


    This report presents the results of the pipe fracture experiments, analyses, and material characterization efforts performed within Subtask 1.1 of the IPIRG Program. The objective of Subtask 1.1 was to experimentally verify the analysis methodologies for circumferentially cracked pipe subjected primarily to inertial stresses. Eight cracked-pipe experiments were conducted on 6-inch nominal diameter TP304 and A106B pipe. The experimental procedure was developed using nonlinear time-history finite element analyses which included the nonlinear behavior due to the crack. The model did an excellent job of predicting the displacements, forces, and times to maximum moment. The comparison of the experimental loads to the predicted loads by the Net-Section-Collapse (NSC), Dimensionless Plastic-Zone Parameter, J-estimation schemes, R6, and ASME Section XI in-service flaw assessment criteria tended to underpredict the measured bending moments except for the NSC analysis of the A106B pipe. The effects of flaw geometry and loading history on toughness were evaluated by calculating the toughness from the pipe tests and comparing these results to C(l) values. These effects were found to be variable. The surface-crack geometry tended to increase the toughness (relative to CM results), whereas a negative load-ratio significantly decreased the TP304 stainless steel surface-cracked pipe apparent toughness. The inertial experiments tended to achieve complete failure within a few cycles after reaching maximum load in these relatively small diameter pipe experiments. Hence, a load-controlled fracture mechanics analysis may be more appropriate than a displacement-controlled analysis for these tests.

  17. Round robin analysis on stress intensity factor of inner surface cracks in welded stainless steel pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Chang Gi; Chang, Yoon Suk [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, College of Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Sung [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Sunchon National University, Sunchon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Maan Won [Central Research Institute, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Company, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Austenitic stainless steels (ASSs) are widely used for nuclear pipes as they exhibit a good combination of mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. However, high tensile residual stresses may occur in ASS welds because postweld heat treatment is not generally conducted in order to avoid sensitization, which causes a stress corrosion crack. In this study, round robin analyses on stress intensity factors (SIFs) were carried out to examine the appropriateness of structural integrity assessment methods for ASS pipe welds with two types of circumferential cracks. Typical stress profiles were generated from finite element analyses by considering residual stresses and normal operating conditions. Then, SIFs of cracked ASS pipes were determined by analytical equations represented in fitness-for-service assessment codes as well as reference finite element analyses. The discrepancies of estimated SIFs among round robin participants were confirmed due to different assessment procedures and relevant considerations, as well as the mistakes of participants. The effects of uncertainty factors on SIFs were deducted from sensitivity analyses and, based on the similarity and conservatism compared with detailed finite element analysis results, the R6 code, taking into account the applied internal pressure and combination of stress components, was recommended as the optimum procedure for SIF estimation.

  18. Round Robin Analyses on Stress Intensity Factors of Inner Surface Cracks in Welded Stainless Steel Pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Gi Han


    Full Text Available Austenitic stainless steels (ASSs are widely used for nuclear pipes as they exhibit a good combination of mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. However, high tensile residual stresses may occur in ASS welds because postweld heat treatment is not generally conducted in order to avoid sensitization, which causes a stress corrosion crack. In this study, round robin analyses on stress intensity factors (SIFs were carried out to examine the appropriateness of structural integrity assessment methods for ASS pipe welds with two types of circumferential cracks. Typical stress profiles were generated from finite element analyses by considering residual stresses and normal operating conditions. Then, SIFs of cracked ASS pipes were determined by analytical equations represented in fitness-for-service assessment codes as well as reference finite element analyses. The discrepancies of estimated SIFs among round robin participants were confirmed due to different assessment procedures and relevant considerations, as well as the mistakes of participants. The effects of uncertainty factors on SIFs were deducted from sensitivity analyses and, based on the similarity and conservatism compared with detailed finite element analysis results, the R6 code, taking into account the applied internal pressure and combination of stress components, was recommended as the optimum procedure for SIF estimation.

  19. An estimation method for echo signal energy of pipe inner surface longitudinal crack detection by 2-D energy coefficients integration (United States)

    Zhou, Shiyuan; Sun, Haoyu; Xu, Chunguang; Cao, Xiandong; Cui, Liming; Xiao, Dingguo


    The echo signal energy is directly affected by the incident sound beam eccentricity or angle for thick-walled pipes inner longitudinal cracks detection. A method for analyzing the relationship between echo signal energy between the values of incident eccentricity is brought forward, which can be used to estimate echo signal energy when testing inside wall longitudinal crack of pipe, using mode-transformed compression wave adaptation of shear wave with water-immersion method, by making a two-dimension integration of "energy coefficient" in both circumferential and axial directions. The calculation model is founded for cylinder sound beam case, in which the refraction and reflection energy coefficients of different rays in the whole sound beam are considered different. The echo signal energy is calculated for a particular cylinder sound beam testing different pipes: a beam with a diameter of 0.5 inch (12.7mm) testing a φ279.4mm pipe and a φ79.4mm one. As a comparison, both the results of two-dimension integration and one-dimension (circumferential direction) integration are listed, and only the former agrees well with experimental results. The estimation method proves to be valid and shows that the usual method of simplifying the sound beam as a single ray for estimating echo signal energy and choosing optimal incident eccentricity is not so appropriate.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z.X.Wu; X.C.Wu


    The progressive fatigue damage of a material is closely related to the whole populationof cracks on the surface of an un-notched specimen.In order to understand whichparameter is a more useful indicator of fatigue damage,rotatory bending fatigue testswere carried out using smooth specimens of medium-carbon steel.The behavior ofshort crack propagation during fatigue was examined and a new parameter "totalcrack area" was suggested.The aim of this paper is to extend the research on fatiguedamage in the already studied steel and to study how these damage parameters arecorrelated with the process of fatigue damage in order to evaluate the effectiveness ofdamage detection methods.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹剑; 陈进; 蒲亚鹏


    The dynamic equation of cracked rotor in rotational frame was modelled, the numerical simulation solutions of the cracked rotor and the uncracked rotor were obtained. By the wavelet transform, the time-frequency properties of the cracked rotor and the uncracked rotor were discussed, the difference of the time-frequency properties between the cracked rotor and the uncracked rotor was compared. A new detection algorithm using wavelet transform to identify crack was proposed. The experiments verify the availability and validity of the wavelet transform in identification of crack.

  2. IPIRG-2 task 1 - pipe system experiments with circumferential cracks in straight-pipe locations. Final report, September 1991--November 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, P.; Olson, R.; Marschall, C.; Rudland, D. [and others


    This report presents the results from Task 1 of the Second International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG-2) program. The IPIRG-2 program is an international group program managed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC) and funded by a consortium of organizations from 15 nations including: Bulgaria, Canada, Czech Republic, France, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Lithuania, Republic of China, Slovak Republic, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The objective of the program was to build on the results of the IPIRG-1 and other related programs by extending the state-of-the-art in pipe fracture technology through the development of data needed to verify engineering methods for assessing the integrity of nuclear power plant piping systems that contain defects. The IPIRG-2 program included five main tasks: Task 1 - Pipe System Experiments with Flaws in Straight Pipe and Welds Task 2 - Fracture of Flawed Fittings Task 3 - Cyclic and Dynamic Load Effects on Fracture Toughness Task 4 - Resolution of Issues From IPIRG-1 and Related Programs Task 5 - Information Exchange Seminars and Workshops, and Program Management. The scope of this report is to present the results from the experiments and analyses associated with Task 1 (Pipe System Experiments with Flaws in Straight Pipe and Welds). The rationale and objectives of this task are discussed after a brief review of experimental data which existed after the IPIRG-1 program.

  3. Failure Analysis of X80 Line Pipe’s Circumferential Weld

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Hong Liang


    Full Text Available One 530mm X80 pipeline weld failed infrequently in service process. This paper gives a systematic analysis in consideration of both material quality and loading condition. Inspection was performed on chemical composition, mechanical performance, metallograghy and micro-morphology. The result shows that weld joint’s leakage failure accident is fatigue failure. Under the effect of tensile- tensile stress fatigue stress, fatigue crack originated from weld fusion line near the pipe body and developed along the weld. Porosity defect in the weld reduced its bearing capacity, and promoted the formation and development of the fatigue crack. Fatigue strength and fatigue life of the weld has great relationship with the size and distribution of porosity. The greater the porosity, the more close to surface, the decrease of fatigue life is more obvious.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roziq Himawan


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the in-service inspection conducted to G.A. Siwabessy reactor’s primary cooling system pipe, it was found the presence of inhomogenity inside of welding part. To verify whether the inhomogenity could be tolerated or not, comparative data from welding pre-service inspection is needed. Unfortunately, this weld wasn’t covered in pre-service inspection. Therefore, this inhomogenity needs to be analyzed. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the stress intensity factor of the inhomogenity, whether it is within a limit value or not and to predict the crack growth. Analysis were performed based on fracture mechanics theory using parameter of stress intensity factor. Two models were used for calculation approach that are plane crack model and semi-elliptic crack model. Hence, in order to predict the length of inhomogenity in the future, crack growth calculations were performed. The results showed that stress intensity values from both two models are remain below fracture toughness value of pipe’s material. Besides that, stress intensity factor from plane crack model is higher than those from semi-elliptic crack model. Under consideration that inhomogenity has an arc shape in actual, thus, stress intensity factor from this inhomogenity still low enough compare to the fracture toughness. Crack growth calculation’s results showed that after 300th cycle of loading, the length of inhomogenity reaches approximately 2 mm. Based on operation data of G.A. Siwabessy reactor, 300 cycle number is corresponds to 30 years operation. Based on these results it could be concluded that the presence of inhomogenity in the welding part does not affect the structure’s integrity of piping system. Keywords : Inhomogenity, fracture mechanics, fracture toughness, stress intensity factor, crack growth   ABSTRAK Pada pelaksanaan in-service inspection terhadap perpipaan sistem pendingin primer reaktor G.A. Siwabessy diketahui adanya inhomogenitas pada

  5. Review of Environmentally Assisted Cracking (United States)

    Sadananda, K.; Vasudevan, A. K.


    Many efforts have been made in the past by several researchers to arrive at some unifying principles governing the embrittlement phenomena. An inescapable conclusion reached by all these efforts was that the behavior is very complex. Hence, recognizing the complexity of material/environment behavior, we focus our attention here only in extracting some similarities in the experimental trends to arrive at some generic principles of behavior. Crack nucleation and growth are examined under static load in the presence of internal and external environments. Stress concentration, either pre-existing or in-situ generated, appears to be a requirement for embrittlement. A chemical stress concentration factor is defined for a given material/environment system as the ratio of failure stress with and without the damaging chemical environment. All factors that affect the buildup of the required stress concentration, such as planarity of slip, stacking fault energy, etc., also affect the stress-corrosion behavior. The chemical stress concentration factor is coupled with the mechanical stress concentration factor. In addition, generic features for all systems appear to be (a) an existence of a threshold stress as a function of concentration of the damaging environment and flow properties of the material, and (b) an existence of a limiting threshold as a function of concentration, indicative of a damage saturation for that environment. Kinetics of crack growth also depends on concentration and the mode of crack growth. In general, environment appears to enhance crack tip ductility on one side by the reduction of energy for dislocation nucleation and glide, and to reduce cohesive energy for cleavage, on the other. These two opposing factors are coupled to provide environmentally induced crack nucleation and growth. The relative ratio of these two opposing factors depends on concentration and flow properties, thereby affecting limiting thresholds. The limiting concentration or

  6. Crack growth in an austenitic stainless steel at high temperature; Propagation de fissure a haute temperature dans un acier inoxydable austenitique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polvora, J.P


    This study deals with crack propagation at 650 deg C on an austenitic stainless steel referenced by Z2 CND 17-12 (316L(NN)). It is based on an experimental work concerning two different cracked specimens: CT specimens tested at 650 deg C in fatigue, creep and creep-fatigue with load controlled conditions (27 tests), tube specimens containing an internal circumferential crack tested in four points bending with displacement controlled conditions (10 tests). Using the fracture mechanics tools (K, J and C* parameters), the purpose here is to construct a methodology of calculation in order to predict the evolution of a crack with time for each loading condition using a fracture mechanics global approach. For both specimen types, crack growth is monitored by using a specific potential drop technique. In continuous fatigue, a material Paris law at 650 deg C is used to correlate crack growth rate with the stress intensity factor range corrected with a factor U(R) in order to take into account the effects of crack closure and loading ratio R. In pure creep on CT specimens, crack growth rate is correlated to the evolution of the C* parameter (evaluated experimentally) which can be estimated numerically with FEM calculations and analytically by using a simplified method based on a reference stress approach. A modeling of creep fatigue growth rate is obtained from a simple summation of the fatigue contribution and the creep contribution to the total crack growth. Good results are obtained when C* parameter is evaluated from the simplified expression C*{sub s}. Concerning the tube specimens tested in 4 point bending conditions, a simulation based on the actual A 16 French guide procedure proposed at CEA. (authors) 104 refs.

  7. Cracking and corrosion recovery boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suik, H. [Tallinn Technical University, Horizon Pulp and Paper, Tallinn (Estonia)


    The corrosion of heat surfaces and the cracking the drums are the main problems of the recovery boiler. These phenomena have been appeared during long-term operation of boiler `Mitsubishi - 315` erected at 1964. Depth of the crack is depending on the number of shutdowns and on operation time. Corrosion intensity of different heat surfaces is varying depend on the metal temperature and the conditions at place of positioning of tube. The lowest intensity of corrosion is on the bank tubes and the greatest is on the tubes of the second stage superheater and on the tubes at the openings of air ports. (orig.) 5 refs.

  8. Modified Dugdale crack models - some easy crack relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang


    are assumed to be self created by local materials flow. The strength sigma_CR predictid by the Dugdale model is sigma_CR =(E Gamma_CR/phi1)^½ where E and 1 are Young’s modulus and crack half-length respectively of the material considered. The so-called critical strain energy rate is Gamma_CR = sigma......_Ldelta_CR where sigma_L is strength, and at the same time constant flow stress, of the uncracked material while delta_CR is flow limit (displacement).Obviously predictions by the Dugdale model are most reliable for materials with stress-strain relations where flow can actually be described (or well approximated......) by a constant flow stress (sigma_L). A number of materials, however, do not at all exhibit this kind of flow. Such materials are considered in this paper by Modified Dugdale crack models which apply for any cohesive stress distribution in crack front areas. Formally modified Dugdale crack models exhibit...

  9. Mixed Mode I and II Fully Plastic Crack Growth from Simulated Weld Defects. (United States)


    steel 281 348 105 61.1 hot rolled 0.29% C max, 0.60-0.90% Mn HY80 steel 587 692 175 69.9 0.18% C, 2-3.25% Ni, 0.10-0.40...8217S MN/rn Alloy *1018 steel 796 0.05152 0.10 cold finished 1018 steel 818 0.01718 0.23 normalized A36 steel 697 0.02628 0.24 hot rolled * HY80 steel 1107...0.00702 0.12 *HY100 steel 1180 0.00488 0.10 5088-Hlll 589 0.00554 0.19 - aluminum 47 TABLE 3 - TEST RESULTS (Ligament 10=2.54 mm) Alloy 1018 CF HY80

  10. Circumferential tensile test method for mechanical property evaluation of SiC/SiC tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Ju-Hyeon, E-mail: [Graduate School, Muroran Institute of Technology, 27-1, Muroran, Hokkaido (Japan); Kishimoto, Hirotatsu [Graduate School, Muroran Institute of Technology, 27-1, Muroran, Hokkaido (Japan); OASIS, Muroran Institute of Technology, 27-1, Muroran, Hokkaido (Japan); Park, Joon-soo [OASIS, Muroran Institute of Technology, 27-1, Muroran, Hokkaido (Japan); Nakazato, Naofumi [Graduate School, Muroran Institute of Technology, 27-1, Muroran, Hokkaido (Japan); Kohyama, Akira [OASIS, Muroran Institute of Technology, 27-1, Muroran, Hokkaido (Japan)


    Highlights: • NITE SiC/SiC cooling channel system to be a candidate of divertor system in future. • Hoop strength is one of the important factors for a tube. • This research studies the relationship between deformation and strain of SiC/SiC tube. - Abstract: SiC fiber reinforced/SiC matrix (SiC/SiC) composite is expected to be a candidate material for the first-wall, components in the blanket and divertor of fusion reactors in future. In such components, SiC/SiC composites need to be formed to be various shapes. SiC/SiC tubes has been expected to be employed for blanket and divertor after DEMO reactor, but there is not established mechanical investigation technique. Recent progress of SiC/SiC processing techniques is likely to realize strong, having gas tightness SiC/SiC tubes which will contribute for the development of fusion reactors. This research studies the relationship between deformation and strain of SiC/SiC tube using a circumferential tensile test method to establish a mechanical property investigation method of SiC/SiC tubes.

  11. Interactions of a propeller with a stator-induced circumferentially varying flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farnsworth, John [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Mechanical Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering, Troy, NY (United States); US Air Force Academy, Department of Aeronautics, Colorado Springs, CO (United States); Amitay, Michael [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Mechanical Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering, Troy, NY (United States); Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Center for Flow Physics and Control (CeFPaC), Troy, NY (United States); Beal, David; Huyer, Stephen A. [Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division, Vehicle Dynamics and Signature Control, Newport, RI (United States)


    The interactions of a circumferentially varying stator cascade and a downstream fixed pitch propeller were investigated experimentally. The global performance of the components and the coupled system were systematically investigated through force and moment measurements on the propulsor model in a water tunnel. In addition, the wake of the cyclic stator cascade with and without the propeller was investigated downstream from a propulsor model using the Stereoscopic PIV technique. A cyclic distribution of the stators' deflections resulted in non-axisymmetric distributions of the flow field downstream of the stator array. The stator distribution alone produced a significant side force that increased linearly with stator pitch amplitude. When a propeller was incorporated downstream from the cyclic cascade, the side force from the stator cascade was reduced, but a small normal force and pitching moment were created. The generation of these secondary forces and moments can be related to the redistribution of the tangential flow from the cyclic cascade into the axial direction by the retreating and advancing blade states of the fixed pitch propeller. (orig.)

  12. Leak before break behaviour of austenitic and ferritic pipes containing circumferential defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadtmueller, W.; Sturm, D.


    Several research projects carried out at MPA Stuttgart to investigate the Leak-before-Break (LBB) behavior of safety relevant pressure bearing components are summarized. Results presented relate to pipes containing circumferential defects subjected to internal pressure and external bending loading. An overview of the experimentally determined results for ferritic components is presented. For components containing postulated or actual defects, the dependence of the critical loading limit on the defect size is shown in the form of LBB curves. These are determined experimentally and/or by calculation for through-wall slits, and represent the boundary curve between leakage and massive fracture. For surface defects and a given bending moment and internal pressure, no fracture will occur if the length at leakage remains smaller than the critical defect length given by the LBB curve for through-wall defects. The predictive capability of engineering calculational methods are presented by way of example. The investigation programs currently underway, testing techniques, and initial results are outlined.

  13. Error Modeling and Compensation of Circular Motion on a New Circumferential Drilling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Fang


    Full Text Available A new flexible circumferential drilling system is proposed to drill on the fuselage docking area. To analyze the influence of the circular motion error to the drilling accuracy, the nominal forward kinematic model is derived using Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H method and this model is further developed to model the kinematic errors caused by circular positioning error and synchronization error using homogeneous transformation matrices (HTM. A laser tracker is utilized to measure the circular motion error of the two measurement points at both sides. A circular motion compensation experiment is implemented according to the calculated positioning error and synchronization error. Experimental results show that the positioning error and synchronization error were reduced by 65.0% and 58.8%, respectively, due to the adopted compensation, and therefore the circular motion accuracy is substantially improved. Finally, position errors of the two measurement points are analyzed to have little influence on the measurement result and the validity of the proposed compensation method is proved.

  14. Feasibility of radial and circumferential strain analysis using 2D speckle tracking echocardiography in cats (United States)

    TAKANO, Hiroshi; ISOGAI, Tomomi; AOKI, Takuma; WAKAO, Yoshito; FUJII, Yoko


    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the feasibility of strain analysis using speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) in cats and to evaluate STE variables in cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Sixteen clinically healthy cats and 17 cats with HCM were used. Radial and circumferential strain and strain rate variables in healthy cats were measured using STE to assess the feasibility. Comparisons of global strain and strain variables between healthy cats and cats with HCM were performed. Segmental assessments of left ventricle (LV) wall for strain and strain rate variables in cats with HCM were also performed. As a result, technically adequate images were obtained in 97.6% of the segments for STE analysis. Sedation using buprenorphine and acepromazine did not affect any global strain nor strain rate variable. In LV segments of cats with HCM, reduced segmental radial strain and strain rate variables had significantly related with segmental LV hypertrophy. It is concluded that STE analysis using short axis images of LV appeared to be clinically feasible in cats, having the possibility to be useful for detecting myocardial dysfunctions in cats with diseased heart. PMID:25373881

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging cannot predict histological tumour involvement of a circumferential surgical margin in rectal cancer. (United States)

    Dent, O F; Chapuis, P H; Haboubi, N; Bokey, L


    Several recent studies have attempted to evaluate the accuracy of preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in predicting the likelihood of tumour involvement of the postoperative circumferential resection margin (CRM) in rectal cancer with the intention of selecting patients who might benefit from neoadjuvant therapy and as a guide to surgery. The aim of this study was to assess whether such studies can provide a valid answer as to whether preoperative MRI can accurately predict CRM involvement by tumour. The study design and methodology of studies on this topic were critically examined. Features identified as affecting the efficacy of these studies were: representativeness of patients, definition of the margin assessed by MRI and by histology, lack of blinding of surgeons and pathologists to MRI results, effect of neoadjuvant treatment, and number of patients studied. Because of methodological inadequacies in studies completed to date, there is insufficient evidence of the ability of a positive MRI result to predict an involved CRM. Although MRI may be able to identify a tumour that has extended to the mesorectal fascia and/or intersphincteric plane, logically, it cannot indicate where the surgical boundary of the resection will ultimately lie, and therefore cannot validly predict an involved CRM and should not be relied upon for this purpose. © 2011 The Authors. Colorectal Disease © 2011 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  16. SERI Surgical Scaffold as an Adjunct for Circumferential Abdominoplasty and Lower Body Lift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Kornstein, MD, FACS


    Full Text Available Summary: Patients who have undergone massive weight loss typically have poor-quality skin and fascia and thus are prone to experiencing recurrent skin laxity, bulges, and poor scarring after body contouring efforts, even in the hands of experienced surgeons. Moreover, this challenging patient population often has nutritional deficiencies and concomitant medical problems, which may lead to delayed or suboptimal wound healing. A silk-derived biological scaffold (SBS and its facilitation of autogenous tissue generation may be viewed as a qualitative reinforcement of the superficial fascial system. Therefore, it may help support and stabilize a superficial fascial system that has been weakened by obesity and other factors. When employed in body lifting for patients with massive weight loss who desire long-lasting aesthetic results, it may represent a paradigm shift that has the potential to solve at least some issues that plague this patient population. In the present case of circumferential abdominoplasty and lower body lift, this silk-based bioresorbable scaffold was implanted in one side of the patient’s body but not the other. Throughout the 7-month follow-up period, the patient and her husband (who were blinded as to which side received the SBS and the author consistently observed more favorable results for the SBS side, which included greater postoperative comfort, better shape, higher buttock position, less recurrent laxity, and less descent of the scar.

  17. Modeling and numerical investigation of the inlet circumferential fluctuations of swept and bowed blades (United States)

    Tang, Mingzhi; Jin, Donghai; Gui, Xingmin


    The circumferential fluctuation (CF) source terms induced by the inviscid blade force can affect the inlet distribution of flow parameters and radial equilibrium of swept and bowed blades. However, these phenomena cannot be adequately described by throughflow methods based on the axisymmetric assumption. A transport model for the CF stresses is proposed and correlated to the distribution of circulation to reflect the effect of the inviscid blade force. To investigate the effect of the inlet CFs on swept and bowed blades, the model is integrated into a throughflow model and applied to a series of cascades with different sweep and bow angles. For swept cascades, the CF source terms change the distributions of incidence angles, as well as the radial equilibrium at the inlet of the blade passage. And the influence is enhanced as the absolute value of the sweep angle increases. For bowed cascades, the distributions of incidence angles are also altered. For both cases, the model can offer a good prediction of the inlet CF source terms, and prove to exert a better prediction of blade design key parameters such as flow angles.

  18. The Prognostic Value of Circumferential Resection Margin Involvement in Patients with Extraperitoneal Rectal Cancer. (United States)

    Shin, Dong Woo; Shin, Jin Yong; Oh, Sung Jin; Park, Jong Kwon; Yu, Hyeon; Ahn, Min Sung; Bae, Ki Beom; Hong, Kwan Hee; Ji, Yong Il


    The prognostic influence of circumferential resection margin (CRM) status in extraperitoneal rectal cancer probably differs from that of intraperitoneal rectal cancer because of its different anatomical and biological behaviors. However, previous reports have not provided the data focused on extraperitoneal rectal cancer. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the prognostic significance of the CRM status in patients with extraperitoneal rectal cancer. From January 2005 to December 2008, 248 patients were treated for extraperitoneal rectal cancer and enrolled in a prospectively collected database. Extraperitoneal rectal cancer was defined based on tumors located below the anterior peritoneal reflection, as determined intraoperatively by a surgeon. Cox model was used for multivariate analysis to examine risk factors of recurrence and mortality in the 248 patients, and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of recurrence and mortality in 135 patients with T3 rectal cancer. CRM involvement for extraperitoneal rectal cancer was present in 29 (11.7%) of the 248 patients, and was the identified predictor of local recurrence, overall recurrence, and death by multivariate Cox analysis. In the 135 patients with T3 cancer, CRM involvement was found to be associated with higher probability of local recurrence and mortality. In extraperitoneal rectal cancer, CRM involvement is an independent risk factor of recurrence and survival. Based on the results of the present study, it seems that CRM involvement in extraperitoneal rectal cancer is considered an indicator for (neo)adjuvant therapy rather than conventional TN status.

  19. Performance comparison for oil-water heat transfer of circumferential overlap trisection helical baffle heat exchanger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟晗; 程道来; 刘涛; 刘颖昊


    The performance tests were conducted on oil–water heat transfer in circumferential overlap trisection helical baffle heat exchangers with incline angles of 12°, 16°, 20°, 24° and 28°, and compared with a segmental baffle heat exchanger. The results show that the shell side heat transfer coefficientho and pressure dropΔpo both increase while the comprehensive indexho/Δpo decreases with the increase of the mass flow rate of all schemes. And the shell side heat transfer coefficient, pressure drop and the comprehensive indexho/Δpo decrease with the increase of the baffle incline angle at a certain mass flow rate. The average values of shell side heat transfer coefficient and the comprehensive indexho/Δpo of the 12° helical baffled scheme are above 50% higher than those of the segmental one correspondingly, while the pressure drop value is very close and the ratios of the average values are about 1.664 and 1.596, respectively. The shell-side Nusselt numberNuo and the comprehensive index Nuo·Euzo−1 increase with the increase of Reynolds number of the shell side axial in all schemes, and the results also demonstrate that the small incline angled helical scheme has better comprehensive performance.

  20. Vascular Repair by Circumferential Cell Therapy Using Magnetic Nanoparticles and Tailored Magnets. (United States)

    Vosen, Sarah; Rieck, Sarah; Heidsieck, Alexandra; Mykhaylyk, Olga; Zimmermann, Katrin; Bloch, Wilhelm; Eberbeck, Dietmar; Plank, Christian; Gleich, Bernhard; Pfeifer, Alexander; Fleischmann, Bernd K; Wenzel, Daniela


    Cardiovascular disease is often caused by endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction and atherosclerotic plaque formation at predilection sites. Also surgical procedures of plaque removal cause irreversible damage to the EC layer, inducing impairment of vascular function and restenosis. In the current study we have examined a potentially curative approach by radially symmetric re-endothelialization of vessels after their mechanical denudation. For this purpose a combination of nanotechnology with gene and cell therapy was applied to site-specifically re-endothelialize and restore vascular function. We have used complexes of lentiviral vectors and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) to overexpress the vasoprotective gene endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in ECs. The MNP-loaded and eNOS-overexpressing cells were magnetic, and by magnetic fields they could be positioned at the vascular wall in a radially symmetric fashion even under flow conditions. We demonstrate that the treated vessels displayed enhanced eNOS expression and activity. Moreover, isometric force measurements revealed that EC replacement with eNOS-overexpressing cells restored endothelial function after vascular injury in eNOS(-/-) mice ex and in vivo. Thus, the combination of MNP-based gene and cell therapy with custom-made magnetic fields enables circumferential re-endothelialization of vessels and improvement of vascular function.

  1. Dispersion of circumferential waves in cylindrically anisotropic layered pipes in plane strain. (United States)

    Vasudeva, R Y; Sudheer, G; Vema, Anu Radha


    Dispersion spectra of circumferential waves along the periphery of circular pipes made of layered anisotropic materials do not seem to be available in literature. This note attempts to partially fill this gap by providing the dispersion spectra in two and three layered cylindrically anisotropic pipes in plane strain motion. The spectra for pipes executing time harmonic vibrations in plane strain condition are obtained as roots of a numerical characteristic equation derived extending a weighted residual method of solution of the governing equations for a single layer pipe [Towfighi et al., J. Appl. Mech. 69, 283-291 (2002)] to a general N layered pipe. The anisotropic elastic coefficients are considered to be independent of position coordinates and the bond condition at interfaces of the layers is assumed to be perfect. Numerical illustrations are presented for two and three layered pipes with anisotropy directions differing in adjacent layers. Increase in curvature of the pipe and inclination of the fiber orientation in the outermost layers to propagation direction are factors that seem to influence the mode number and pattern within the limited examples worked out.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Experimental results indicate that propagation paths of cracks in geomaterials are often irregular, producing rough fracture surfaces which are fractal. A formula is derived for the fractal kinematics of crack propagation in geomaterials. The formula correlates the dynamic and static fracture toughnesses with crack velocity, crack length and a microstructural parameter, and allows the fractal dimension to be obtained. From the equations for estimating crack velocity and fractal dimension it can be shown that the measured crack velocity, Vo , should be much smaller than the fractal crack velocity, V. It can also be shown that the fractal dimension of the crack propagation path can be calculated directly from Vo and from the fracture toughness.

  3. Interacting Cracks in an Environmentally Assisted Fracture (United States)

    Levandovsky, Artem; Balazs, Anna


    We perform the study of environmentally assisted fracture within the framework of a lattice model. Formation of an ensemble of environmentally assisted microcracks, their coalescence and formation of crack ``avalanches'' lead to a very rich dynamical picture. Under specific condition crack healing can occur due to cohesive forces, which hold material together and tend to pull atoms together even if they are separated by a crack over several lattice units. We investigate the dynamical interplay between crack formation, arrest, healing and re-cracking. The goal here is to provide an understanding of the conditions leading to the phenomena of crack healing that happens along with the crack formation. We study the morphology of crack patterns with the intentions to establish a way to enhance the healing property of a material sample.

  4. On multiple crack detection in beam structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moradi, Shapour; Kargozarfard, Mohammad [Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    This study presents an inverse procedure to identify multiple cracks in beams using an evolutionary algorithm. By considering the crack detection procedure as an optimization problem, an objective function can be constructed based on the change of the eigenfrequencies and some strain energy parameters. Each crack is modeled by a rotational spring. The changes in natural frequencies due to the presence of the cracks are related to a damage index vector. Then, the bees algorithm, a swarm-based evolutionary optimization technique, is used to optimize the objective function and find the damage index vector, whose positive components show the number and position of the cracks. A second objective function is also optimized to find the crack depths. Several experimental studies on cracked cantilever beams are conducted to ensure the integrity of the proposed method. The results show that the number of cracks as well as their sizes and locations can be predicted well through this method.

  5. The use of COD and plastic instability in crack propagation and arrest in shells (United States)

    Erdogan, F.; Ratwani, M.


    The initiation, growth, and possible arrest of fracture in cylindrical shells containing initial defects are dealt with. For those defects which may be approximated by a part-through semi-elliptic surface crack which is sufficiently shallow so that part of the net ligament in the plane of the crack is still elastic, the existing flat plate solution is modified to take into account the shell curvature effect as well as the effect of the thickness and the small scale plastic deformations. The problem of large defects is then considered under the assumptions that the defect may be approximated by a relatively deep meridional part-through surface crack and the net ligament through the shell wall is fully yielded. The results given are based on an 8th order bending theory of shallow shells using a conventional plastic strip model to account for the plastic deformations around the crack border.

  6. Efifciency of Concrete Crack-healing based on Biological Carbonate Precipitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Mian; QIAN Chunxiang; LI Ruiyang; RONG Hui


    The aim of this study was to improve the capacity for crack-repair in concrete by developing a new way. The self-healing agent based on biological carbonate precipitation was developed. Crack-healing capacity of the cement paste specimens with this biochemical agent was researched. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the precipitation in cracks. The healing efficiency was evaluated by measuring the water permeability after crack healing as well.The experimental results show that the applied biochemical agent can successfully improve the self-healing capacity of the cement paste specimens as larger cracks can be healed. The cracks with a width of 0.48 mm in the specimens with the biochemical agent are nearly fully healed by the precipitation after 80d repair. SEM and XRD analysis results demonstrate that the white precipitation in cracks is calcium carbonate, which displays spherical crystal morphology. Meanwhile, the water permeability test result shows that the biochemical agent can significantly decrease the water permeability of the cement paste specimens, the water permeability of specimens with the biochemical agent respectively decreases by 84%and 96%after 7 d and 28 d immersion in water, however the control specimens only respectively decrease by 41%and 60%, which indicates that the bacteria-based concrete appears to be a promising approach to increase concrete durability.

  7. China Cracks Down Internet Piracy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


      National Copyright Administration of China carried out a special operation to crack down on behaviors involving network infringement and piracy from September to December in 2005 ,according to the speech of Yan Xiaohong,Deputy Commissioner of National Copyright Administration on the Press Conference of the State Council.Now the relevant conditions are as follows:……

  8. China Cracks Down Internet Piracy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ National Copyright Administration of China carried out a special operation to crack down on behaviors involving network infringement and piracy from September to December in 2005 ,according to the speech of Yan Xiaohong,Deputy Commissioner of National Copyright Administration on the Press Conference of the State Council.Now the relevant conditions are as follows:


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The hydrothermal cracking of heavy oils, such as Canadian oil sand bitumen and Arabian heavy vacuum residue, as well as their model compound were performed over sulfided Ni/Al2O3 and NiMo/Al2O3 catalysts under 663~703 K and 6.0~8.0 MPa of hydrogen pressure in a batch autoclave reactor. According to the reaction mechanism of hydrothermal cracking, a small amount of free redical initiators, such as di-tert-peroxide, sulfur, etc., was added into the feed to generate free redicals at lower temperature, and obviously showed promotional effect on the conversion of hydrocarbons. The reaction mechanisms of hydrothermal cracking as well as the enhancing effect of initiators were studied by a probe reaction with 1-phenyldodecane as a model compound. The hydrothermal cracking of hydrocarbon proceeded via free redical mechanism and hydrogenating quench. The initiators might easily generate free redicals under reaction temperature, these redicals might abstract H from hydrocarbon molecule and reasonably initiate the chain reactions, therefore, promote the conversion of hydrocarbon even at lower reaction temperature.

  10. Confining crack propagation in defective graphene. (United States)

    López-Polín, Guillermo; Gómez-Herrero, Julio; Gómez-Navarro, Cristina


    Crack propagation in graphene is essential to understand mechanical failure in 2D materials. We report a systematic study of crack propagation in graphene as a function of defect content. Nanoindentations and subsequent images of graphene membranes with controlled induced defects show that while tears in pristine graphene span microns length, crack propagation is strongly reduced in the presence of defects. Accordingly, graphene oxide exhibits minor crack propagation. Our work suggests controlled defect creation as an approach to avoid catastrophic failure in graphene.

  11. Circumferential resection margin positivity after preoperative chemoradiotherapy based on magnetic resonance imaging for locally advanced rectal cancer: implication of boost radiotherapy to the involved mesorectal fascia. (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Hwan; Park, Min Jung; Lim, Joon Seok; Kim, Nam Kyu; Min, Byung Soh; Ahn, Joong Bae; Kim, Tae Il; Kim, Ho Geun; Koom, Woong Sub


    To identify patients who are at a higher risk of pathologic circumferential resection margin involvement using preoperative magnetic resonance imaging. Between October 2008 and November 2012, 165 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (cT4 or cT3 with fascia) who received preoperative chemoradiotherapy were analysed. The morphologic patterns on post-chemoradiotherapy magnetic resonance imaging were categorized into five patterns from Pattern A (most-likely negative pathologic circumferential resection margin) to Pattern E (most-likely positive pathologic circumferential resection margin). In addition, the location of mesorectal fascia involvement was classified as lateral, posterior and anterior. The diagnostic accuracy of the morphologic criteria was calculated using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Pathologic circumferential resection margin involvement was identified in 17 patients (10.3%). The diagnostic accuracy of predicting pathologic circumferential resection margin involvement was 0.73 using the five-scale magnetic resonance imaging pattern. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for predicting pathologic circumferential resection margin involvement were 76.5, 65.5, 20.3 and 96.0%, respectively, when cut-off was set between Patterns C and D. On multivariate logistic regression, the magnetic resonance imaging patterns D and E (P= 0.005) and posterior or lateral mesorectal fascia involvement (P= 0.017) were independently associated with increased probability of pathologic circumferential resection margin involvement. The rate of pathologic circumferential resection margin involvement was 30.0% when the patient had Pattern D or E with posterior or lateral mesorectal fascia involvement. Patients who are at a higher risk of pathologic circumferential resection margin involvement can be identified using preoperative magnetic resonance imaging although the predictability is moderate. © The

  12. Correction to the crack extension direction in numerical modelling of mixed mode crack paths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucht, Tore; Aliabadi, M.H.


    In order to avoid introduction of an error when a local crack-growth criterion is used in an incremental crack growth formulation, each straight crack extension would have to be infinitesimal or have its direction corrected. In this paper a new procedure to correct the crack extension direction i...

  13. Mesh sensitivity effects on fatigue crack growth by crack-tip blunting and re-sharpening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo


    Crack-tip blunting under tensile loads and re-sharpening of the crack-tip during unloading is one of the basic mechanisms for fatigue crack growth in ductile metals. Based on an elastic–perfectly plastic material model, crack growth computations have been continued up to 700 full cycles by using...

  14. Fatigue crack growth from a cracked elastic particle into a ductile matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groh, S.; Olarnrithinun, S.; Curtin, W. A.; Needleman, A.; Deshpande, V. S.; Van der Giessen, E.


    The monotonic and cyclic crack growth rate of cracks is strongly influenced by the microstructure. Here, the growth of cracks emanating from pre-cracked micron-scale elastic particles and growing into single crystals is investigated, with a focus on the effects of (i) plastic confinement due to the

  15. Twisting cracks in Bouligand structures. (United States)

    Suksangpanya, Nobphadon; Yaraghi, Nicholas A; Kisailus, David; Zavattieri, Pablo


    The Bouligand structure, which is found in many biological materials, is a hierarchical architecture that features uniaxial fiber layers assembled periodically into a helicoidal pattern. Many studies have highlighted the high damage-resistant performance of natural and biomimetic Bouligand structures. One particular species that utilizes the Bouligand structure to achieve outstanding mechanical performance is the smashing Mantis Shrimp, Odontodactylus Scyllarus (or stomatopod). The mantis shrimp generates high speed, high acceleration blows using its raptorial appendage to defeat highly armored preys. The load-bearing part of this appendage, the dactyl club, contains an interior region [16] that consists of a Bouligand structure. This region is capable of developing a significant amount of nested twisting microcracks without exhibiting catastrophic failure. The development and propagation of these microcracks are a source of energy dissipation and stress relaxation that ultimately contributes to the remarkable damage tolerance properties of the dactyl club. We develop a theoretical model to provide additional insights into the local stress intensity factors at the crack front of twisting cracks formed within the Bouligand structure. Our results reveal that changes in the local fracture mode at the crack front leads to a reduction of the local strain energy release rate, hence, increasing the necessary applied energy release rate to propagate the crack, which is quantified by the local toughening factor. Ancillary 3D simulations of the asymptotic crack front field were carried out using a J-integral to validate the theoretical values of the energy release rate and the local stress intensity factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fatigue crack growth simulations of 3-D linear elastic cracks under thermal load by XFEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Himanshu PATHAK[1; Akhilendra SINGH[2; I.V. SINGH[3; S. K. YADAV[3


    This paper deals with the fatigue crack growth simulations of three-dimensional linear elastic cracks by XFEM under cyclic thermal load. Both temperature and displacement approximations are extrinsically enriched by Heaviside and crack front enrichment functions. Crack growth is modelled by successive linear extensions, and the end points of these linear extensions are joined by cubic spline segments to obtain a modified crack front. Different crack geometries such as planer, non-planer and arbitrary spline shape cracks are simulated under thermal shock, adiabatic and isothermal loads to reveal the sturdiness and versatility of the XFEM approach.

  17. Circumferential 2D-strain imaging for the prediction of long term response to cardiac resynchronization therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baumann Gert


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (CRT leads to hemodynamic and clinical improvement in heart failure patients. The established methods to evaluate myocardial asynchrony analyze longitudinal and radial myocardial function. This study evaluates the new method of circumferential 2D-strain imaging in the prediction of the long-term response to CRT. Methods and results 38 heart failure patients (NYHA II-III, QRS > 120 ms, LVEF Conclusion There is a significant decrease in the circumferential 2D-strain derived delays after CRT, indicating that resynchronization induces improvement in all three dimensions of myocardial contraction. However, the resulting predictive values of 2D strain delays are not superior to longitudinal and radial 2D-strain or TDI delays.

  18. Fatigue Crack Growth Prediction for generalized fiber metal laminates and hybrid materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, G.S.


    The excellent durability performance of Glare, a thin fiber metal laminate (FML) material system, is now being proven in service. This has motivated work towards the application of FMLs to thicker structures driven by damage tolerance. In order to fully characterize the crack growth life of such mat

  19. Automated circumferential construction of first-order aqueous humor outflow pathways using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (United States)

    Huang, Alex S.; Belghith, Akram; Dastiridou, Anna; Chopra, Vikas; Zangwill, Linda M.; Weinreb, Robert N.


    The purpose was to create a three-dimensional (3-D) model of circumferential aqueous humor outflow (AHO) in a living human eye with an automated detection algorithm for Schlemm's canal (SC) and first-order collector channels (CC) applied to spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Anterior segment SD-OCT scans from a subject were acquired circumferentially around the limbus. A Bayesian Ridge method was used to approximate the location of the SC on infrared confocal laser scanning ophthalmoscopic images with a cross multiplication tool developed to initiate SC/CC detection automated through a fuzzy hidden Markov Chain approach. Automatic segmentation of SC and initial CC's was manually confirmed by two masked graders. Outflow pathways detected by the segmentation algorithm were reconstructed into a 3-D representation of AHO. Overall, only <1% of images (5114 total B-scans) were ungradable. Automatic segmentation algorithm performed well with SC detection 98.3% of the time and <0.1% false positive detection compared to expert grader consensus. CC was detected 84.2% of the time with 1.4% false positive detection. 3-D representation of AHO pathways demonstrated variably thicker and thinner SC with some clear CC roots. Circumferential (360 deg), automated, and validated AHO detection of angle structures in the living human eye with reconstruction was possible.

  20. Comparison of treatment for 153 cases of circumferential facial paralysis by low-power laser and galvan acupuncture (United States)

    Li, Hai-Ling; Zhuo, Qing-shan


    Seventy-six patients were treated by low power He-Ne laser irradiation on Yangbai, Sibai, and other related acupoints. The other 77 cases were treated by Galvan-acupuncture with infrared radiation on the same acupoints. There was little difference between the therapeutic effects of these two groups (P > 0.05). However, the laser group had a much shorter treatment time than the other group. According to the theory of traditional Chinese medicine, circumferential facial paralysis is caused by exposure to cold which blocks the channel of vital energy resulting in the damage of bodily function. Acupuncture and moxibustion on certain acupoints can warm up the channels and remove the stasis allowing vital energy to pass through their passages to regulate bodily functions. Laser can do the same effectively with much less time. The laser therapy also features painlessness, safeness, and is free of bacteria. Circumferential facial paralysis is a common disease, which is clinically treated by acupuncture with reliable results. However, acupuncture is not fit for children who are not cooperative and those patients who are afraid of the pain accompanied with acupuncture. So we applied low power laser irradiation in the treatment of circumferential facial paralysis starting in 1985. The results were favorable. And the treatment time was shortened. The treatment procedures are reported.

  1. Physics of Fully Depleted CCDs

    CERN Document Server

    Holland, S E; Kolbe, W F; Lee, J S


    In this work we present simple, physics-based models for two effects that have been noted in the fully depleted CCDs that are presently used in the Dark Energy Survey Camera. The first effect is the observation that the point-spread function increases slightly with the signal level. This is explained by considering the effect on charge-carrier diffusion due to the reduction in the magnitude of the channel potential as collected signal charge acts to partially neutralize the fixed charge in the depleted channel. The resulting reduced voltage drop across the carrier drift region decreases the vertical electric field and increases the carrier transit time. The second effect is the observation of low-level, concentric ring patterns seen in uniformly illuminated images. This effect is shown to be most likely due to lateral deflection of charge during the transit of the photogenerated carriers to the potential wells as a result of lateral electric fields. The lateral fields are a result of space charge in the fully...

  2. Photoelastic studies of crack propagation and crack arrest. [Homalite 100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irwin, G.R.; Dally, J.W.; Kobayashi, T.; Fourney, W.L.; Etheridge, J.M.


    This report describes the third year effort on research programs dealing with the characterization of dynamic aspects of fracture. The results included in this report are (1) verification of the BCL one-dimensional computer code; (2) determination of a-dot--K relationship from modified compact-tension specimen of Homalite 100; (3) verification of the MRL procedure for K/sub Ia/ measurement with machine-loaded C-DCB specimen of Homalite 100; (4) influence of adhesive toughness, adhesive thickness, and toughness of the arrest section on crack behavior in duplex specimens of both the M-CT and R-DCB types; (5) crack propagation in a thermally stressed ring specimen; and (6) development of a two-dimensional finite-difference code to predict fracture behavior in specimens of rectangular geometry under various a-dot vs K relationships. 118 figures, 53 tables.

  3. Inhibiting Corrosion Cracking: Crack Tip Chemistry and Physics. (United States)


    5 5. Swuzary 113 Rferences 114 wl NO 4L iv . List of Figuring 1. Microipette pulling machine . 29 2. Anodic polarization of 7075-T6 Al alloy in dilute...environment has a strong effect on microplastic behavior at the tip of a fatigue crack. Stolz and Pelloux suggest that nitrate ion competes with chloride...Crystalline Na2 N 20 29H20 precipitates when the filtrate is placed in a vacunm desiccator over sulfuric acid. The filtered precipitate is washed

  4. Crack branching in carbon steel. Fracture mechanisms (United States)

    Syromyatnikova, A. S.; Alekseev, A. A.; Levin, A. I.; Lyglaev, A. V.


    The fracture surfaces of pressure vessels made of carbon steel that form during crack branching propagation are examined by fractography. Crack branching is found to occur at a crack velocity higher than a certain critical value V > V c . In this case, the material volume that is involved in fracture and depends on the elastoplastic properties of the material and the sample width has no time to dissipate the energy released upon crack motion via the damage mechanisms intrinsic in the material under given deformation conditions (in our case, via cracking according to intragranular cleavage).

  5. Strength of Cracked Reinforced Concrete Disks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoang, Cao Linh; Nielsen, Mogens Peter


    The paper deals with models, based on the theory of plasticity, to be used in strength assessments of reinforced concrete disks suffering from different kinds of cracking. Based on the assumption that the sliding strength of concrete is reduced in sections where cracks are located, solutions...... for the shear strength of disks with initial cracks and disks suffering from isotropic cracking are presented. Furthermore, in the case of isotropicly cracked disks subjected to arbitrary in-plane loading, a general yield condition is derived....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Kocúrová


    Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of a damaged part, which was designed for use in a mechanical clutch of a car. The crack in the part was found during the production inspection. The aim of metallographic and fractography analyses of the fracture surfaces was to discover the reasons for the crack. The reason for creating the crack was the formation of smaller cracks in the production during pressing process of the semiproduct. These cracks even grew after the following thermochemical treatment. The fracture was initiated during the straightening process of quenched part.

  7. The Interaction between Fluid Wall Shear Stress and Solid Circumferential Strain Affects Endothelial Gene Expression. (United States)

    Amaya, Ronny; Pierides, Alexis; Tarbell, John M


    Endothelial cells lining the walls of blood vessels are exposed simultaneously to wall shear stress (WSS) and circumferential stress (CS) that can be characterized by the temporal phase angle between WSS and CS (stress phase angle - SPA). Regions of the circulation with highly asynchronous hemodynamics (SPA close to -180°) such as coronary arteries are associated with the development of pathological conditions such as atherosclerosis and intimal hyperplasia whereas more synchronous regions (SPA closer to 0°) are spared of disease. The present study evaluates endothelial cell gene expression of 42 atherosclerosis-related genes under asynchronous hemodynamics (SPA=-180 °) and synchronous hemodynamics (SPA=0 °). This study used a novel bioreactor to investigate the cellular response of bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECS) exposed to a combination of pulsatile WSS and CS at SPA=0 or SPA=-180. Using a PCR array of 42 genes, we determined that BAECS exposed to non-reversing sinusoidal WSS (10±10 dyne/cm2) and CS (4 ± 4%) over a 7 hour testing period displayed 17 genes that were up regulated by SPA = -180 °, most of them pro-atherogenic, including NFκB and other NFκB target genes. The up regulation of NFκB p50/p105 and p65 by SPA =-180° was confirmed by Western blots and immunofluorescence staining demonstrating the nuclear translocation of NFκB p50/p105 and p65. These data suggest that asynchronous hemodynamics (SPA=-180 °) can elicit proatherogenic responses in endothelial cells compared to synchronous hemodynamics without shear stress reversal, indicating that SPA may be an important parameter characterizing arterial susceptibility to disease.

  8. The Interaction between Fluid Wall Shear Stress and Solid Circumferential Strain Affects Endothelial Gene Expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronny Amaya

    Full Text Available Endothelial cells lining the walls of blood vessels are exposed simultaneously to wall shear stress (WSS and circumferential stress (CS that can be characterized by the temporal phase angle between WSS and CS (stress phase angle - SPA. Regions of the circulation with highly asynchronous hemodynamics (SPA close to -180° such as coronary arteries are associated with the development of pathological conditions such as atherosclerosis and intimal hyperplasia whereas more synchronous regions (SPA closer to 0° are spared of disease. The present study evaluates endothelial cell gene expression of 42 atherosclerosis-related genes under asynchronous hemodynamics (SPA=-180 ° and synchronous hemodynamics (SPA=0 °. This study used a novel bioreactor to investigate the cellular response of bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECS exposed to a combination of pulsatile WSS and CS at SPA=0 or SPA=-180. Using a PCR array of 42 genes, we determined that BAECS exposed to non-reversing sinusoidal WSS (10±10 dyne/cm2 and CS (4 ± 4% over a 7 hour testing period displayed 17 genes that were up regulated by SPA = -180 °, most of them pro-atherogenic, including NFκB and other NFκB target genes. The up regulation of NFκB p50/p105 and p65 by SPA =-180° was confirmed by Western blots and immunofluorescence staining demonstrating the nuclear translocation of NFκB p50/p105 and p65. These data suggest that asynchronous hemodynamics (SPA=-180 ° can elicit proatherogenic responses in endothelial cells compared to synchronous hemodynamics without shear stress reversal, indicating that SPA may be an important parameter characterizing arterial susceptibility to disease.

  9. Clinical experience with a circumferential clip-based vascular closure device in diagnostic catheterization. (United States)

    Hermiller, James; Simonton, Charles; Hinohara, Tom; Lee, Daniel; Cannon, Louis; Mooney, Michael; O'Shaughnessy, Charles; Carlson, Harold; Fortuna, Richard; Yarbrough, Carol Anne; Zapien, Michael; Chou, Tony


    The StarClose Vascular Closure System (Abbott Vascular Devices, Redwood City, California) utilizes a small, flexible nitinol clip to complete a circumferential, extravascular closure of the femoral arteriotomy site. The StarClose is an investigational device in the United States, limited by Federal law to investigational use. The StarClose is CE Mark approved. The CLIP study was a prospective, randomized, multicenter trial utilizing a noninferiority design to compare the rate of major vascular complications and time-to-hemostasis using the StarClose system versus manual compression. A total of 596 subjects were enrolled, 208 of whom underwent diagnostic angiography. This diagnostic subset is the focus of this report. The primary safety endpoint was major vascular complications and the primary efficacy endpoint was time-to-hemostasis. All patients were followed at 30 days with a clinical exam. Subjects were randomized 2:1 to the StarClose (n = 136) or manual compression (n = 72). There were no major vascular complications in either group. Minor vascular complications occurred in 3 StarClose patients (2.2%), and 1 manual compression patient (1.4%) (p = 1.00). Use of the StarClose device reduced mean time-to-hemostasis from 15.47 +/- 11.4 to 1.46 +/- 4.5 minutes (p manual compression, and reduced the average time-to-ambulation from 269 +/- 135 to 163 +/- 105 minutes (p < or = 0.001). Device success was 94.1% (127/135), and procedural success was 100% (136/136). The clinical results of this study concluded that the StarClose Vascular Closure System is noninferior to standard compression with respect to the the primary safety endpoint of closing arteriotomies in patients who undergo percutaneous diagnostic procedures.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Kai-rong; XU Zhe; WU Hao; JIANG Zong-lai; LIU Zhao-rong


    The Wall Shear Stress (WSS) generated by blood flow and Circumferential Stress (CS) driven by blood pressure have been thought to play an important role in blood flow-dependent phenomena such as angiogenesis, vascular remodeling, and atherosgenesis.The WSS and CS in straight arteries were calculated by measuring the blood pressure, center-line velocity, wall thickness, and radius of vessels.The WSS and CS in the time domain were then decomposed into the amplitude and phase in the frequency domain.The CS amplitude to the WSS amplitude ratio (referred as stress amplitude ratio, Zs) and the phase difference between the CS and the WSS (referred as stress phase difference, SPA) in the frequency domain were calculated to characterize the synergy of the CS and WSS.Numerical results demonstrated that the CS is not in phase with the WSS, a time delay in the time domain or a stress phase difference in the frequency domain between the WSS and the CS exists.Theoretical analysis demonstrated that the Zs and SPA are primarily determined by the local factors (blood viscosity, local inertial effects, local geometry, local elasticity) and the input impedance of whole downstream arterial beds.Because the arterial input impedance has been shown to reflect the physiological and pathological states of whole downstream arterial beds, the stress amplitude ratio Zs and stress phase difference SPA would be thought to be the appropriate indices to reflect the effects of states of whole downstream arterial beds on the local blood flow-dependent phenomena such as angiogenesis, vascular remodeling, and atherosgenesis.

  11. The prognostic value of circumferential resection margin involvement in oesophageal malignancy. (United States)

    Griffiths, E A; Brummell, Z; Gorthi, G; Pritchard, S A; Welch, I M


    Our aim was to assess the effect on survival of circumferential resection margin (CRM) involvement in patients with resected oesophageal malignancy. Patients undergoing potentially curative oesophageal resection between January 1994 and December 2003 were retrospectively analysed. CRM status was defined as either clear or involved (microscopic tumour within 1 mm of the inked resection margin). Univariate and multivariate survival analyses were performed using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazard model. Overall survival was used as the endpoint. The case records of 249 patients were analysed. CRM status was clear in 170 patients (T1-T3 tumours) and involved in 79 patients (all T3 tumours). Median survival in these groups was 37 months (range 28-47) and 18 months (range 13-23), respectively (p = 0.0001). When T3 tumours were analysed separately there was a trend for T3 CRM involved tumours to have a worse prognosis than T3 CRM clear tumours (p = 0.074). Substratification by percentage of lymph nodes involved by metastases (25%) revealed that CRM status had a greater prognostic effect in T3 tumours with a low metastatic lymph node burden (p = 0.04). CRM involvement predicts poor prognosis in patients with resected oesophageal malignancy and was an independent prognostic factor in our study. There was only a trend for worse prognosis when T3 tumours were analysed separately. However, patients with T3 tumours and a low percentage of lymph node metastases had a better prognosis if the CRM was negative.

  12. Defining a positive circumferential resection margin in oesophageal cancer and its implications for adjuvant treatment. (United States)

    O'Neill, J R; Stephens, N A; Save, V; Kamel, H M; Phillips, H A; Driscoll, P J; Paterson-Brown, S


    A positive circumferential resection margin (CRM) has been associated with a poorer prognosis in oesophageal and oesophagogastric junctional (OGJ) cancer. The College of American Pathologists defines the CRM as positive if tumour cells are present at the margin, whereas the Royal College of Pathologists also include tumour cells within 1 mm of this margin. The relevance of these differences is not clear and no study has investigated the impact of adjuvant therapy. The aim was to identify the optimal definition of an involved CRM in patients undergoing resection for oesophageal or OGJ cancer, and to determine whether adjuvant radiotherapy improved survival in patients with an involved CRM. This was a single-centre retrospective study of patients who had undergone attempted curative resection for a pathological T3 oesophageal or OGJ cancer. Clinicopathological variables and distance from the tumour to the CRM, measured to ± 0.1 mm, were correlated with survival. A total of 226 patients were included. Sex (P = 0·018), tumour differentiation (P = 0·019), lymph node status (P CRM distance (P = 0·042) were independently predictive of prognosis. No significant survival difference was observed between positive CRM 0-mm and 0·1-0·9-mm groups after controlling for other prognostic variables. Both groups had poorer survival than matched patients with a CRM at least 1 mm clear of tumour cells. Among patients with a positive CRM of less than 1 mm, those undergoing observation alone had a median survival of 18·6 months, whereas survival was a median of 10 months longer in patients undergoing adjuvant radiotherapy, but otherwise matched for prognostic variables (P = 0·009). A positive CRM of 1 mm or less should be regarded as involved. Adjuvant radiotherapy confers a significant survival benefit in selected patients with an involved CRM. © 2013 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Measurement of the circumferential mechanical properties of the umbilical vein: experimental and numerical analyses. (United States)

    Karimi, Alireza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi; Rezaee, Taraneh; Hassani, Kamran


    Coronary artery disease is responsible for almost 30% of all deaths worldwide. The saphenous vein and umbilical vein (UV) are the most common veins using for treatment as a coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). The mechanical properties of UV belonging to its long-term patency for CABG are very important. However, there is a lack of knowledge on the linear elastic and nonlinear hyperelastic mechanical properties of the UV. In this study, three stress definitions (second Piola-Kichhoff stress, engineering stress and true stress) and four strain definitions (Almansi-Hamel strain, Green-St Venant strain, engineering strain and true strain) are used to determine the elastic modulus, maximum stress and strain of eight human UVs under circumferential loading. The nonlinear mechanical behaviour of the UV is computationally investigated using Mooney-Rivlin hyperelastic model. A numerical finite element analysis is also carried out to simulate the constitutive modelling versus its numerical results. The results show that the Almansi-Hamel strain definition overestimates the elastic modulus while Green-St Venant strain definition underestimates the elastic modulus at different stress definitions. The true stress-true strain definition, which gives more accurate measurements of the tissue's response using the instantaneous values, reveals the Young's modulus and maximum stress of 2.18 and 6.01 MPa, respectively. The Mooney-Rivlin material model is well represented by the nonlinear mechanical behaviour of the UV. The findings of this study could have implications not only for understanding the extension and rupture mechanism of UV but also for interventions and surgeries, including balloon angioplasty, bypass and stenting.

  14. Investigation of guided wave propagation in pipes fully and partially embedded in concrete. (United States)

    Leinov, Eli; Lowe, Michael J S; Cawley, Peter


    The application of long-range guided-wave testing to pipes embedded in concrete results in unpredictable test-ranges. The influence of the circumferential extent of the embedding-concrete around a steel pipe on the guided wave propagation is investigated. An analytical model is used to study the axisymmetric fully embedded pipe case, while explicit finite-element and semi-analytical finite-element simulations are utilised to investigate a partially embedded pipe. Model predictions and simulations are compared with full-scale guided-wave tests. The transmission-loss of the T(0,1)-mode in an 8 in. steel pipe fully embedded over an axial length of 0.4 m is found to be in the range of 32-36 dB while it reduces by a factor of 5 when only 50% of the circumference is embedded. The transmission-loss in a fully embedded pipe is mainly due to attenuation in the embedded section while in a partially embedded pipe it depend strongly on the extent of mode-conversion at entry to the embedded-section; low loss modes with energy concentrated in the region of the circumference not-covered with concrete have been identified. The results show that in a fully embedded pipe, inspection beyond a short distance will not be possible, whereas when the concrete is debonded over a fraction of the pipe circumference, inspection of substantially longer lengths may be possible.

  15. Alternating grain orientation and weld solidification cracking (United States)

    Kou, S.; Le, Y.


    A new mechanism for reducing weld solidification cracking was proposed, based on the concept of the crack path and resistance to crack propagation, and its effectiveness was verified in magnetically oscillated GTA welds of a rather crack susceptible material 2014 aluminum alloy. This mechanism, i.e., alternating grain orientation, was most pronounced in welds made with transverse arc oscillation of low frequency and high amplitude, and solidification cracking was dramatically reduced in these welds. The effect of the arc oscillation pattern, amplitude, and frequency on the formation of alternating columnar grains and the reduction of solidification cracking in GTA welds of 2014 aluminum alloy was examined and explained. The present study demonstrated for the first time that columnar grains can, in fact, be very effective in reducing solidification cracking, provided that they are oriented favorably.

  16. A Comparative Study on the Relationship Between Inter Alar Width, and Inter Commissural Width on Circumferential Arc Width of Maxillary Anterior Teeth in Different Age Groups

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kurien, Anjana; Cherian, K P; Mhatre, Shirley; Tharakan, Renji George


    This study was done to determine the relationship between interalar width and inter commissural width on circumferential arc width of maxillary anterior teeth in dentulous subjects between the age groups of 20–50 years...

  17. Fully integrated, fully automated generation of short tandem repeat profiles (United States)


    Background The generation of short tandem repeat profiles, also referred to as ‘DNA typing,’ is not currently performed outside the laboratory because the process requires highly skilled technical operators and a controlled laboratory environment and infrastructure with several specialized instruments. The goal of this work was to develop a fully integrated system for the automated generation of short tandem repeat profiles from buccal swab samples, to improve forensic laboratory process flow as well as to enable short tandem repeat profile generation to be performed in police stations and in field-forward military, intelligence, and homeland security settings. Results An integrated system was developed consisting of an injection-molded microfluidic BioChipSet cassette, a ruggedized instrument, and expert system software. For each of five buccal swabs, the system purifies DNA using guanidinium-based lysis and silica binding, amplifies 15 short tandem repeat loci and the amelogenin locus, electrophoretically separates the resulting amplicons, and generates a profile. No operator processing of the samples is required, and the time from swab insertion to profile generation is 84 minutes. All required reagents are contained within the BioChipSet cassette; these consist of a lyophilized polymerase chain reaction mix and liquids for purification and electrophoretic separation. Profiles obtained from fully automated runs demonstrate that the integrated system generates concordant short tandem repeat profiles. The system exhibits single-base resolution from 100 to greater than 500 bases, with inter-run precision with a standard deviation of ±0.05 - 0.10 bases for most alleles. The reagents are stable for at least 6 months at 22°C, and the instrument has been designed and tested to Military Standard 810F for shock and vibration ruggedization. A nontechnical user can operate the system within or outside the laboratory. Conclusions The integrated system represents the

  18. Fully automated (operational) modal analysis (United States)

    Reynders, Edwin; Houbrechts, Jeroen; De Roeck, Guido


    Modal parameter estimation requires a lot of user interaction, especially when parametric system identification methods are used and the modes are selected in a stabilization diagram. In this paper, a fully automated, generally applicable three-stage clustering approach is developed for interpreting such a diagram. It does not require any user-specified parameter or threshold value, and it can be used in an experimental, operational, and combined vibration testing context and with any parametric system identification algorithm. The three stages of the algorithm correspond to the three stages in a manual analysis: setting stabilization thresholds for clearing out the diagram, detecting columns of stable modes, and selecting a representative mode from each column. An extensive validation study illustrates the accuracy and robustness of this automation strategy.

  19. Singularities in fully developed turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shivamoggi, Bhimsen K., E-mail:


    Phenomenological arguments are used to explore finite-time singularity (FTS) development in different physical fully-developed turbulence (FDT) situations. Effects of spatial intermittency and fluid compressibility in three-dimensional (3D) FDT and the role of the divorticity amplification mechanism in two-dimensional (2D) FDT and quasi-geostrophic FDT and the advection–diffusion mechanism in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence are considered to provide physical insights into the FTS development in variant cascade physics situations. The quasi-geostrophic FDT results connect with the 2D FDT results in the barotropic limit while they connect with 3D FDT results in the baroclinic limit and hence apparently provide a bridge between 2D and 3D. - Highlights: • Finite-time singularity development in turbulence situations is phenomenologically explored. • Spatial intermittency and compressibility effects are investigated. • Quasi-geostrophic turbulence is shown to provide a bridge between two-dimensional and three-dimensional cases.

  20. Biaxial Fatigue Cracking from Notch (United States)


    Leevers (reference 11) noticed that the variation in  from 0 to 2 has little effect on the da/dN in PVC ( polyvinyl - chloride ), but reduces the da/dN...under biaxial rotating and bending. Ahmad (reference 2) formulated a model for the biaxial fatigue crack growth in aggressive environment, outlined by...1962, Vol. 90, pp. 238-239. 20. ASM Handbook , Vol. 12 Fractography: 1992, p. 430, 438. 21. Metals Handbook , Vol. 9 Fractography and Atlas of

  1. The Growth of Small Corrosion Fatigue Cracks in Alloy 7075 (United States)

    Piascik, Robert S.


    The corrosion fatigue crack growth characteristics of small (greater than 35 micrometers) surface and corner cracks in aluminum alloy 7075 is established. The early stage of crack growth is studied by performing in situ long focal length microscope (500×) crack length measurements in laboratory air and 1% sodium chloride (NaCl) environments. To quantify the "small crack effect" in the corrosive environment, the corrosion fatigue crack propagation behavior of small cracks is compared to long through-the-thickness cracks grown under identical experimental conditions. In salt water, long crack constant K(sub max) growth rates are similar to small crack da/dN.

  2. Fatigue cracks in Eurofer 97 steel: Part II. Comparison of small and long fatigue crack growth (United States)

    Kruml, T.; Hutař, P.; Náhlík, L.; Seitl, S.; Polák, J.


    The fatigue crack growth rate in the Eurofer 97 steel at room temperature was measured by two different methodologies. Small crack growth data were obtained using cylindrical specimens with a shallow notch and no artificial crack starters. The growth of semicircular cracks of length between 10-2000 μm was followed in symmetrical cycling with constant strain amplitude ( R ɛ = -1). Long crack data were measured using standard CT specimen and ASTM methodology, i.e. R = 0.1. The growth of cracks having the length in the range of 10-30 mm was measured. It is shown that the crack growth rates of both types of cracks are in a very good agreement if J-integral representation is used and usual assumptions of the crack closure effects are taken into account.

  3. Fatigue cracks in Eurofer 97 steel: Part II. Comparison of small and long fatigue crack growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruml, T., E-mail: [Institute of Physics of Materials, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Zizkova 22, CZ 61662 Brno (Czech Republic); Hutar, P.; Nahlik, L.; Seitl, S.; Polak, J. [Institute of Physics of Materials, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Zizkova 22, CZ 61662 Brno (Czech Republic)


    The fatigue crack growth rate in the Eurofer 97 steel at room temperature was measured by two different methodologies. Small crack growth data were obtained using cylindrical specimens with a shallow notch and no artificial crack starters. The growth of semicircular cracks of length between 10-2000 {mu}m was followed in symmetrical cycling with constant strain amplitude (R{sub {epsilon}} = -1). Long crack data were measured using standard CT specimen and ASTM methodology, i.e. R = 0.1. The growth of cracks having the length in the range of 10-30 mm was measured. It is shown that the crack growth rates of both types of cracks are in a very good agreement if J-integral representation is used and usual assumptions of the crack closure effects are taken into account.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Teng-hu; SHAO Xue-ming; YU Zhao-sheng


    In this article, we employ a fully-resolved numerical simulation method (the fictitious domain method) to investigate the effects of large neutrally-buoyant particles on the turbulent flow in a pipe at low Reynolds number and non-dilute regimes. The tube Reynolds number is fixed to be 4 900, the particle-pipe diameter ratio is 0.1, and the particle volume fraction ranges from 0.33% to 10%. Our results indicate that the presence of large particles decreases the maximum root-of-mean-square (rms) of the streamwise velocity fluctuation near the wall by weakening the intensity of large-scale streamwise vortices, although in the region very close to the wall the particles increase the rms of streamwise velocity fluctuation. On the other hand, the particles induce small-scale vortices in the near-wall region, resulting in the enhancement of the rms of radial and circumferential velocity fluctuations there.

  5. Subsidence crack closure: rate, magnitude and sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Graff, J.V.; Romesburg, H.C.


    Tension cracks are a major surface disturbance resulting from subsidence and differential settlement above underground coal mines. Recent engineering studies of subsidence indicate that cracks may close where tensile stresses causing the cracks are reduced or relaxed. This stress reduction occurs as mining in the area is completed. Crack closure was confirmed by a study in the Wasatch Plateau coal field of central Utah. Cracks occurred in both exposed bedrock and regolith in an area with maximum subsidence of 3 m. Mean closure rate was 0.3 cm per week with individual crack closure rates between 0.2 cm and 1.0 cm per week. The mean crack closure magnitude was 80% with closure magnitudes varying between 31% and 100%. Actual magnitude values ranged from 0.6 cm to 6.5 cm with a mean value of 3.8 cm. Statistical analysis compared width change status among cracks over time. It was found that: 1) a 41% probability existed that a crack would exhibit decreasing width per weekly measurement, 2) closure state sequences seem random over time, and 3) real differences in closure state sequence existed among different cracks. (6 refs.) (In English)

  6. Crack propagation in fracture mechanical graded structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Schramm


    Full Text Available The focus of manufacturing is more and more on innovative and application-oriented products considering lightweight construction. Hence, especially functional graded materials come to the fore. Due to the application-matched functional material gradation different local demands such as absorbability, abrasion and fatigue of structures are met. However, the material gradation can also have a remarkable influence on the crack propagation behavior. Therefore, this paper examines how the crack propagation behavior changes when a crack grows through regions which are characterized by different fracture mechanical material properties (e.g. different threshold values KI,th, different fracture toughness KIC. In particular, the emphasis of this paper is on the beginning of stable crack propagation, the crack velocity, the crack propagation direction as well as on the occurrence of unstable crack growth under static as well as cyclic loading. In this context, the developed TSSR-concept is presented which allows the prediction of crack propagation in fracture mechanical graded structures considering the loading situation (Mode I, Mode II and plane Mixed Mode and the material gradation. In addition, results of experimental investigations for a mode I loading situation and numerical simulations of crack growth in such graded structures confirm the theoretical findings and clarify the influence of the material gradation on the crack propagation behavior.

  7. Restaurant No. 1 fully renovated

    CERN Multimedia


    The Restaurant No. 1 team. After several months of patience and goodwill on the part of our clients, we are delighted to announce that the major renovation work which began in September 2006 has now been completed. From 21 May 2007 we look forward to welcoming you to a completely renovated restaurant area designed with you in mind. The restaurant team wishes to thank all its clients for their patience and loyalty. Particular attention has been paid in the new design to creating a spacious serving area and providing a wider choice of dishes. The new restaurant area has been designed as an open-plan space to enable you to view all the dishes before making your selection and to move around freely from one food access point to another. It comprises user-friendly areas that fully comply with hygiene standards. From now on you will be able to pick and choose to your heart's content. We invite you to try out wok cooking or some other speciality. Or select a pizza or a plate of pasta with a choice of two sauces fr...

  8. Control of circumferential wall stress and luminal shear stress within intact vascular segments perfused ex vivo. (United States)

    El-Kurdi, Mohammed S; Vipperman, Jeffrey S; Vorp, David A


    Proportional, integral, and derivative (PID) controllers have proven to be robust in controlling many applications, and remain the most widely used control system architecture. The purpose of this work was to use this architecture for designing and tuning two PID controllers. The first was used to control the physiologic arterial circumferential wall stress (CWS) and the second to control the physiologic arterial shear stress (SS) imposed on intact vascular segments that were implanted into an ex vivo vascular perfusion system (EVPS). In order to most accurately control the stresses imposed onto vascular segments perfused ex vivo, analytical models were derived to calculate the CWS and SS. The mid-vein-wall CWS was calculated using the classical Lame solution for thick-walled cylinders in combination with the intraluminal pressure and outer diameter measurements. Similarly, the SS was calculated using the Hagen-Poiseuille equation in combination with the flow rate and outer diameter measurements. Performance of each controller was assessed by calculating the root mean square of the error (RMSE) between the desired and measured process variables. The performance experiments were repeated ten times (N=10) and an average RMSE was reported for each controller. RMSE standard deviations were calculated to demonstrate the reproducibility of the results. Sterile methods were utilized for making blood gas and temperature measurements in order to maintain physiologic levels within the EVPS. Physiologic blood gases (pH, pO(2), and pCO(2)) and temperature within the EVPS were very stable and controlled manually. Blood gas and temperature levels were recorded hourly for several (N=9) 24 h perfusion experiments. RMSE values for CWS control (0.427+/-0.027 KPa) indicated that the system was able to generate a physiologic CWS wave form within 0.5% error of the peak desired CWS over each cardiac cycle. RMSE values for SS control (0.005+/-0.0007 dynescm(2)) indicated that the system

  9. Controlling fatigue crack paths for crack surface marking and growth investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Barter


    Full Text Available While it is well known that fatigue crack growth in metals that display confined slip, such as high strength aluminium alloys, develop crack paths that are responsive to the loading direction and the local microstructural orientation, it is less well known that such paths are also responsive to the loading history. In these materials, certain loading sequences can produce highly directional slip bands ahead of the crack tip and by adjusting the sequence of loads, distinct fracture surface features or progression marks, even at very small crack depths can result. Investigating the path a crack selects in fatigue testing when particular combinations of constant and variable amplitude load sequences are applied is providing insight into crack growth. Further, it is possible to design load sequences that allow very small amounts of crack growth to be measured, at very small crack sizes, well below the conventional crack growth threshold in the aluminium alloy discussed here. This paper reports on observations of the crack path phenomenon and a novel test loading method for measuring crack growth rates for very small crack depths in aluminium alloy 7050-T7451 (an important aircraft primary structural material. The aim of this work was to firstly generate short- crack constant amplitude growth data and secondly, through the careful manipulation of the applied loading, to achieve a greater understanding of the mechanisms of fatigue crack growth in the material being investigated. A particular focus of this work is the identification of the possible sources of crack growth retardation and closure in these small cracks. Interpreting these results suggests a possible mechanism for why small fatigue crack growth through this material under variable amplitude loading is faster than predicted from models based on constant amplitude data alone.

  10. Online Bridge Crack Monitoring with Smart Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benniu Zhang


    Full Text Available Smart film crack monitoring method, which can be used for detecting initiation, length, width, shape, location, and propagation of cracks on real bridges, is proposed. Firstly, the fabrication of the smart film is developed. Then the feasibility of the method is analyzed and verified by the mechanical sensing character of the smart film under the two conditions of normal strain and crack initiation. Meanwhile, the coupling interference between parallel enameled wires of the smart film is discussed, and then low-frequency detecting signal and the custom communication protocol are used to decrease interference. On this basis, crack monitoring system with smart film is designed, where the collected crack data is sent to the remote monitoring center and the cracks are simulated and recurred. Finally, the monitoring system is applied to six bridges, and the effects are discussed.

  11. Crack Propagation in Bamboo's Hierarchical Cellular Structure (United States)

    Habibi, Meisam K.; Lu, Yang


    Bamboo, as a natural hierarchical cellular material, exhibits remarkable mechanical properties including excellent flexibility and fracture toughness. As far as bamboo as a functionally graded bio-composite is concerned, the interactions of different constituents (bamboo fibers; parenchyma cells; and vessels.) alongside their corresponding interfacial areas with a developed crack should be of high significance. Here, by using multi-scale mechanical characterizations coupled with advanced environmental electron microscopy (ESEM), we unambiguously show that fibers' interfacial areas along with parenchyma cells' boundaries were preferred routes for crack growth in both radial and longitudinal directions. Irrespective of the honeycomb structure of fibers along with cellular configuration of parenchyma ground, the hollow vessels within bamboo culm affected the crack propagation too, by crack deflection or crack-tip energy dissipation. It is expected that the tortuous crack propagation mode exhibited in the present study could be applicable to other cellular natural materials as well.

  12. Air flow through smooth and rough cracks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kula, H.-G.; Sharples, S. [Sheffield Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Building Science


    A series of laboratory experiments are described which investigated the effect of surface roughness on the air flow characteristics of simple, straight-through, no-bend cracks with smooth and rough internal surfaces. The crack thicknesses used in the study were 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0mm. The crack lengths, in the direction of flow, were 50.8mm and 76.2mm. For the rough cracks the roughness was simulated with two different grades of commercially available energy-cloth (grade 60 and 100). The experimental results were satisfactorily fitted to a quadratic relationship between {Delta}p and Q of the form {Delta}p = AQ + BQ{sup 2} for both the smooth and rough crack data. The effect of roughness on the reduction of air flowing through a crack is also discussed. (author)

  13. Crack problem in a long cylindrical superconductor (United States)

    Yong, Hua-Dong; Zhou, You-He; Zeng, Jun


    In this work, the general problem of a center crack in a long cylindrical superconductor is studied. The dependence of the stress intensity factor on the parameters, including the crack length and the applied field, is investigated. We presented a simple model in which the effect of the crack on the critical current is taken into account. It is assumed that the crack forms a perfect barrier to the flow of current. The Bean model and the Kim model are considered for the critical state. Based on the complex potential and boundary collocation methods, the stress intensity factor under the magnetic field is obtained for a long cylindrical superconductor containing a central crack. The results show that the crack length and the applied field have significant effects on the fracture behavior of the superconductor.

  14. Numerical Study of Corrosion Crack Opening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Svensson, Staffan


    for the corrosion crack opening. Experiments and theoretical analysis by a numerical method, FEM, support that the relation between the reduction of the reinforcement bar diameter due to corrosion and the corresponding increase in crack width for a given time interval, measured on the surface of a concrete specimen...... is proportional. More recently, the constant of proportionality, the so-called crack-corrosion index, has been studied further with respect to its dependence on the diameter of the reinforcement and the concrete cover. In the present paper the above-mentioned work is presented and extended with more realistic 3D......-models of the cracked concrete beam. The crack-corrosion index is evaluated for a variation of different parameters, i.e. bar diameter, concrete cover, crack length and type of corrosion product. This paper is an extended version of a paper by Thoft-Christensen et al. (2005) presented at the IFIP WG 7.5 Conference...

  15. The fully Mobile City Government Project (MCity)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholl, Hans; Fidel, Raya; Mai, Jens Erik


    The Fully Mobile City Government Project, also known as MCity, is an interdisciplinary research project on the premises, requirements, and effects of fully mobile, wirelessly connected applications (FWMC). The project will develop an analytical framework for interpreting the interaction...

  16. DBEM crack propagation for nonlinear fracture problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Citarella


    Full Text Available A three-dimensional crack propagation simulation is performed by the Dual Boundary Element Method (DBEM. The Stress Intensity Factors (SIFs along the front of a semi elliptical crack, initiated from the external surface of a hollow axle, are calculated for bending and press fit loading separately and for a combination of them. In correspondence of the latter loading condition, a crack propagation is also simulated, with the crack growth rates calculated using the NASGRO3 formula, calibrated for the material under analysis (steel ASTM A469. The J-integral and COD approaches are selected for SIFs calculation in DBEM environment, where the crack path is assessed by the minimum strain energy density criterion (MSED. In correspondence of the initial crack scenario, SIFs along the crack front are also calculated by the Finite Element (FE code ZENCRACK, using COD, in order to provide, by a cross comparison with DBEM, an assessment on the level of accuracy obtained. Due to the symmetry of the bending problem a pure mode I crack propagation is realised with no kinking of the propagating crack whereas for press fit loading the crack propagation becomes mixed mode. The crack growth analysis is nonlinear because of normal gap elements used to model the press fit condition with added friction, and is developed in an iterative-incremental procedure. From the analysis of the SIFs results related to the initial cracked configuration, it is possible to assess the impact of the press fit condition when superimposed to the bending load case.

  17. Transition from Multiple Macro-Cracking to Multiple Micro-Cracking in Cementitious Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jun; LENG Bing


    This paper presents an experimental study of the possibility of transition from multiple macro-cracking to multiple micro-cracking in cementitious composites.Conventional polyvinyl alcohol fiber reinforced cementitious composites normally exhibit macroscopic strain-hardening and multiple cracking after the first cracks appear.However,the individual crack width at the saturated stage is normally 60 to 80 μm.In the current study,the effect of fine aggregate size on the cracking performance,especially the individual crack width in the strain-hardening stage was studied by bending tests.The results show that the individual crack widths can be reduced from 60-80 μm to 10-30 μm by modifying the particle size of the fine aggregates used in the composites.

  18. Effect of Microstructure on Creep Crack Growth Behavior of a Near- α Titanium Alloy IMI-834 (United States)

    Satyanarayana, D. V. V.; Omprakash, C. M.; Sridhar, T.; Kumar, Vikas


    In the present study, the effect of microstructure ( i.e., α + β and transformed β) on creep crack growth (CCG) behavior of a near-alpha (IMI 834) titanium alloy has been explored at temperatures 550 °C and 600 °C. For characterizing the CCG behavior of the alloy, both stress intensity factor ( K) and energy integral parameter ( C t ) were used in the present investigation. The use of stress intensity factor ( K) as crack-tip parameter is not appropriate in the present study as no unique correlation between crack growth rate and K could be obtained from the observed trend due to transients in the creep crack rate data. On the other hand, C t parameter for both microstructural conditions consolidates CCG data into a single trend. The alloy with fully transformed β microstructure exhibits better CCG resistance as compared to bimodal ( α + β) microstructure. This is consistent with the fact that the transformed β structure offers superior creep resistance as compared to α + β microstructure. Microstructural examination has revealed that CCG for both microstructural conditions is accompanied by formation of damage zone in the form of numerous environmental-assisted secondary surface cracks (perpendicular to the stress axis) ahead of the main crack tip. For α + β microstructure of the alloy, the surface creep cracks were formed by growth and coalescence of microcracks nucleated by fracture of primary α particles. While in the interior of the specimens, CCG occurred by growth and coalescence of microvoids nucleated at primary α/transformed β (matrix) interfaces. For β microstructure of the alloy, while the surface creep cracks formed by growth and coalescence of microvoids nucleated at titanium enriched surface oxide particles, in the interior CCG occurred by nucleation of intergranular cavities.

  19. Fatigue Crack Closure Analysis Using Digital Image Correlation (United States)

    Leser, William P.; Newman, John A.; Johnston, William M.


    Fatigue crack closure during crack growth testing is analyzed in order to evaluate the critieria of ASTM Standard E647 for measurement of fatigue crack growth rates. Of specific concern is remote closure, which occurs away from the crack tip and is a product of the load history during crack-driving-force-reduction fatigue crack growth testing. Crack closure behavior is characterized using relative displacements determined from a series of high-magnification digital images acquired as the crack is loaded. Changes in the relative displacements of features on opposite sides of the crack are used to generate crack closure data as a function of crack wake position. For the results presented in this paper, remote closure did not affect fatigue crack growth rate measurements when ASTM Standard E647 was strictly followed and only became a problem when testing parameters (e.g., load shed rate, initial crack driving force, etc.) greatly exceeded the guidelines of the accepted standard.

  20. Crack (United States)

    ... rate, breathing rate, blood pressure , and body temperature decreased appetite and less need for sleep feelings of restlessness, ... effects include: gangrene in the bowels resulting from decreased blood ... chest pain reduced appetite, plus health problems associated with not eating a ...




    En este trabajo de tesis presentamos dos experimentos en que trayectorias de fracturas sumamente reproducibles son obtenidas en láminas delgadas frágiles. En ambos casos, a partir de configuraciones iniciales sumamente simples y pequeñas, las trayectorias obtenidas son espirales logarítmicas de gran tamao. Nuestro primer experimento consiste en un crack que se inicia desde un corte recto hecho en una lámina delgada y que es forzado a propagarse por medio de empujar con un objeto sólido....

  2. Fatigue Crack Closure - A Review (United States)


    gauge along the crack line. They used CCT speci- mens of high tensile strength steel ( HY80 ). The measured value of U was found to be a minimum at the...ultrasonic surface wave technique on 12.5mm thick specimens of 2024-T851, 2024-T351, Al 2219, Ti-6AI-4V and 17-4 PH steel . Most of the results were...medium and high strength steels . Exami- nation of the fracture surfaces suggested that raising the mean stress in low fracture toughness steels could

  3. Expansive Soil Crack Depth under Cumulative Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bei-xiao Shi


    Full Text Available The crack developing depth is a key problem to slope stability of the expansive soil and its project governance and the crack appears under the roles of dry-wet cycle and gradually develops. It is believed from the analysis that, because of its own cohesion, the expansive soil will have a certain amount of deformation under pulling stress but without cracks. The soil body will crack only when the deformation exceeds the ultimate tensile strain that causes cracks. And it is also believed that, due to the combined effect of various environmental factors, particularly changes of the internal water content, the inherent basic physical properties of expansive soil are weakened, and irreversible cumulative damages are eventually formed, resulting in the development of expansive soil cracks in depth. Starting from the perspective of volumetric strain that is caused by water loss, considering the influences of water loss rate and dry-wet cycle on crack developing depth, the crack developing depth calculation model which considers the water loss rate and the cumulative damages is established. Both the proposal of water loss rate and the application of cumulative damage theory to the expansive soil crack development problems try to avoid difficulties in matrix suction measurement, which will surely play a good role in promoting and improving the research of unsaturated expansive soil.

  4. Nonlinear modal method of crack localization (United States)

    Ostrovsky, Lev; Sutin, Alexander; Lebedev, Andrey


    A simple scheme for crack localization is discussed that is relevant to nonlinear modal tomography based on the cross-modulation of two signals at different frequencies. The scheme is illustrated by a theoretical model, in which a thin plate or bar with a single crack is excited by a strong low-frequency wave and a high-frequency probing wave (ultrasound). The crack is assumed to be small relative to all wavelengths. Nonlinear scattering from the crack is studied using a general matrix approach as well as simplified models allowing one to find the nonlinear part of crack volume variations under the given stress and then the combinational wave components in the tested material. The nonlinear response strongly depends on the crack position with respect to the peaks or nodes of the corresponding interacting signals which can be used for determination of the crack position. Juxtaposing various resonant modes interacting at the crack it is possible to retrieve both crack location and orientation. Some aspects of inverse problem solutions are also discussed, and preliminary experimental results are presented.

  5. Wettability Induced Crack Dynamics and Morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Udita Uday; Bhandari, Aditya Bikram; Chakraborty, Suman; DasGupta, Sunando


    Substrate wettability alteration induced control over crack formation process in thin colloidal films has been addressed in the present study. Colloidal nanosuspension (53nm, mean particle diameter) droplets have been subjected to natural drying to outline the effects of substrate surface energies over the dry-out characteristics with emphasis on crack dynamics, crack morphology and underlying particle arrangements. Experimental findings indicate that number of cracks formed decreases with increase in substrate hydrophobicity. These physical phenomena have been explained based on the magnitude of stress dissipation incurred by the substrate. DLVO predictions are also found to be in tune with the reported experimental investigations.

  6. Crack depth determination with inductive thermography (United States)

    Oswald-Tranta, B.; Schmidt, R.


    Castings, forgings and other steel products are nowadays usually tested with magnetic particle inspection, in order to detect surface cracks. An alternative method is active thermography with inductive heating, which is quicker, it can be well automated and as in this paper presented, even the depth of a crack can be estimated. The induced eddy current, due to its very small penetration depth in ferro-magnetic materials, flows around a surface crack, heating this selectively. The surface temperature is recorded during and after the short inductive heating pulse with an infrared camera. Using Fourier transformation the whole IR image sequence is evaluated and the phase image is processed to detect surface cracks. The level and the local distribution of the phase around a crack correspond to its depth. Analytical calculations were used to model the signal distribution around cracks with different depth and a relationship has been derived between the depth of a crack and its phase value. Additionally, also the influence of the heating pulse duration has been investigated. Samples with artificial and with natural cracks have been tested. Results are presented comparing the calculated and measured phase values depending on the crack depth. Keywords: inductive heating, eddy current, infrared

  7. Fatigue crack growth detect, assess, avoid

    CERN Document Server

    Richard, Hans Albert


    This book offers a concise introduction to fatigue crack growth, based on practical examples. It discusses the essential concepts of fracture mechanics, fatigue crack growth under constant and variable amplitude loading and the determination of the fracture-mechanical material parameters. The book also introduces the analytical and numerical simulation of fatigue crack growth as well as crack initiation. It concludes with a detailed description of several practical case studies and some exercises. The target group includes graduate students, researchers at universities and practicing engineers.

  8. Investigations of Low Temperature Time Dependent Cracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Sluys, W A; Robitz, E S; Young, B A; Bloom, J


    The objective of this project was to investigate metallurgical and mechanical phenomena associated with time dependent cracking of cold bent carbon steel piping at temperatures between 327 C and 360 C. Boiler piping failures have demonstrated that understanding the fundamental metallurgical and mechanical parameters controlling these failures is insufficient to eliminate it from the field. The results of the project consisted of the development of a testing methodology to reproduce low temperature time dependent cracking in laboratory specimens. This methodology was used to evaluate the cracking resistance of candidate heats in order to identify the factors that enhance cracking sensitivity. The resultant data was integrated into current available life prediction tools.

  9. Cracking of open traffic rigid pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niken Chatarina


    Full Text Available The research is done by observing the growth of real structure cracking in Natar, Lampung, Indonesia compared to C. Niken’s et al research and literature study. The rigid pavement was done with open traffic system. There are two main crack types on Natar rigid pavement: cracks cross the road, and cracks spreads on rigid pavement surface. The observation of cracks was analyzed by analyzing material, casting, curing, loading and shrinkage mechanism. The relationship between these analysis and shrinkage mechanism was studied in concrete micro structure. Open traffic make hydration process occur under vibration; therefore, fresh concrete was compressed and tensioned alternately since beginning. High temperature together with compression, cement dissociation, the growth of Ca2+ at very early age leads abnormal swelling. No prevention from outside water movement leads hydration process occur with limited water which caused spreads fine cracks. Limited water improves shrinkage and plastic phase becomes shorter; therefore, rigid pavement can’t accommodate the abnormal swelling and shrinking alternately and creates the spread of cracks. Discontinuing casting the concrete makes both mix under different condition, the first is shrink and the second is swell and creates weak line on the border; so, the cracks appear as cracks across the road.

  10. Crack spacing of unsaturated soils in the critical state

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN JiChao; WANG GuangQian; SUN QiCheng


    The cracking mechanism of unsaturated soils due to evaporation is poorly understood, and the magnitude of crack spacing is usually hard to estimate. In this work, cracks were postulated to occur suc-cedently rather than simultaneously, that is, secondary cracks appear after primary cracks as evaporation continues. Formulae of the secondary crack spacing and secondary trend crack spacing were then derived after stress analysis. The calculated spacing values were consistent with the published experimental data. Meanwhile, the effect of the Poisson ratio on the crack spacing was analyzed, which showed that the magnitude of crack spacing was proportional to the Poisson ratio in the range of [0.30,0.35].

  11. On the application of cohesive crack modeling in cementitious materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stang, Henrik; Olesen, John Forbes; Poulsen, Peter Noe;


    Cohesive crack models-in particular the Fictitious Crack Model - are applied routinely in the analysis of crack propagation in concrete and mortar. Bridged crack models-where cohesive stresses are assumed to exist together with a stress singularity at the crack tip-on the other hand, are used....... Further, a quantitative condition is established indicating when a bridged crack model can be approximated with a cohesive crack model with smooth crack closure in terms of the ratio between the energy dissipation associated with the crack tip and the process zone....

  12. Effect of Crack Closure on Ultrasonic Detection of Fatigue Cracks at Fastener Holes (United States)

    Bowles, S. J.; Harding, C. A.; Hugo, G. R.


    The ultrasonic response from closed fatigue cracks grown in aluminium alloy specimens using a representative aircraft spectrum loading has been characterised as a function of tensile applied load using pulse-echo 45° shear-wave ultrasonic C-scans with focused immersion transducers. Observed trends with crack size and applied load are described and compared to results for artificial machined defects. The results demonstrate that crack closure significantly reduces the ultrasonic response compared to open cracks or machined defects.

  13. Mode Ⅰ Plane Crack Interacting with an Interfacial Crack Along a Circular Inhomogeneity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Rui; MA Jian-jun; LIU Zheng-guang


    The elastic interaction of the mode Ⅰ plane crack with an interfacial crack along a circular inhomogeneity is dealt with. The dislocation density and the stress intensity factors (SIFs) of the mode I plane crack are obtained numerically. A new kind of dislocation equilibrium equation about the plane crack is applied. The influence of some material parameters on the dislocation density and SIFs are analyzed.

  14. Extended propagation model for interfacial crack in composite material structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫相桥; 冯希金


    An interfacial crack is a common damage in a composite material structure . An extended propaga-tion model has been established for an interfacial crack to study the dependence of crack growth on the relativesizes of energy release rates at left and right crack tips and the properties of interfacial material characterize thegrowth of interfacial crack better.

  15. Chloride Penetration through Cracks in High-Performance Concrete and Surface Treatment System for Crack Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Seok Yoon


    Full Text Available For enhancing the service life of concrete structures, it is very important to minimize crack at surface. Even if these cracks are very small, the problem is to which extend these cracks may jeopardize the durability of these decks. It was proposed that crack depth corresponding with critical crack width from the surface is a crucial factor in view of durability design of concrete structures. It was necessary to deal with chloride penetration through microcracks characterized with the mixing features of concrete. This study is devoted to examine the effect of high strength concrete and reinforcement of steel fiber on chloride penetration through cracks. High strength concrete is regarded as an excellent barrier to resist chloride penetration. However, durability performance of cracked high strength concrete was reduced seriously up to that of ordinary cracked concrete. Steel fiber reinforcement is effective to reduce chloride penetration through cracks because steel fiber reinforcement can lead to reduce crack depth significantly. Meanwhile, surface treatment systems are put on the surface of the concrete in order to seal the concrete. The key-issue is to which extend a sealing is able to ensure that chloride-induced corrosion can be prevented. As a result, penetrant cannot cure cracks, however, coating and combined treatment can prevent chloride from flowing in concrete with maximum crack width of 0.06 mm and 0.08 mm, respectively.

  16. On fatigue crack growth in ductile materials by crack-tip blunting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo


    One of the basic mechanisms for fatigue crack growth in ductile metals is that depending on crack-tip blunting under tensile loads and re-sharpening of the crack-tip during unloading. In a standard numerical analysis accounting for finite strains it is not possible to follow this process during...

  17. A Creaking and Cracking Comet (United States)

    Faurschou Hviid, Stubbe; Hüttig, Christian; Groussin, Olivier; Mottola, Stefano; Keller, Horst Uwe; OSIRIS Team


    Since the middle of 2014 the OSIRIS cameras on the ESA Rosetta mission have been monitoring the evolution of the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko as it passed through perihelion. During the perihelion passage several change events have been observed on the nucleus surface. For example existing large scale cracks have expanded and new large scale cracks have been created. Also several large scale "wave pattern" like change events have been observed in the Imhotep and Hapi regions. These are events not directly correlated with any normal visible cometary activity. One interpretation is that these are events likely caused by "seismic" activity. The seismic activity is created by the self-gravity stress of the non-spherical comet nucleus and stress created by the non-gravitational forces acting on the comet. The non-gravitational forces are changing the rotation period of the comet (~20min/perihelion passage) which induces a changing mechanical stress pattern through the perihelion passage. Also the diurnal cycle with its changing activity pattern is causing a periodic wobble in the stress pattern that can act as a trigger for a comet quake. The stress pattern has been modeled using a finite element model that includes self-gravity, the comet spin and the non-gravitational forces based on a cometary activity model. This paper will discuss what can be learned about the comet nucleus structure and about the cometary material properties from these events and from the FEM model.

  18. What can cracked polymer do (United States)

    Jiao, Kexin; Zhou, Chuanhong; Kohli, Punit; Poudel, Anish; Chu, Tsuchin


    Buckling, delamination, and cracking are very well known phenomenon observed in most thin films. They were theoretically explained by the existence of mechanical instability due to the residue stress generated when a thin film is deposited on substrates or undergoing environmental stimulus. Buckled structures at micro- or nano-scale have been of great interests and have been used extensively in many applications including particles self-assembling, surface wettability modification, and micro-electronic device fabrication. However, peeling of a layer from a substrate due to delamination or fractures on a thin film due to cracking is mostly taken as an undesirable result. Therefore, strategies are inspired for preventing or removing these often undesired structures. We found that after being heated above its decomposition temperature and then cooled to room temperature, a PDMS thin film showed micro-fibers of 100 μm width and up to 1.5 cm in length. By studying the formation mechanism, control of the dimensions and of the growth pattern on a substrate for PDMS micro-fibers were realized. Giving credit to their high flexibility and optical transparency, a PDMS micro-fiber were utilized in high resolution near field imaging achieved by attaching a micro-lens on the fiber. Interestingly, a surface covered by PDMS micro-fibers will turn from superhydrophobic into superhydrophilic by further heating providing potential applications in surface wettability modification. In future, we will investigate and simulate the growth of PDMS micro-fiber and look for more possible applications.

  19. Analysis Of Ductile Crack Growth In Pipe Test In STYLE Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Shengjun [ORNL; Williams, Paul T [ORNL; Klasky, Hilda B [ORNL; Bass, Bennett Richard [ORNL


    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is conducting structural analyses, both deterministic and probabilistic, to simulate a large scale mock-up experiment planned within the European Network for Structural Integrity for Lifetime Management non-RPV Components (STYLE). The paper summarizes current ORNL analyses of STYLE s Mock-up3 experiment to simulate/evaluate ductile crack growth in a cladded ferritic pipe. Deterministic analyses of the large-scale bending test of ferritic surge pipe, with an internal circumferential crack, are simulated with a number of local micromechanical approaches, such as Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN) model and cohesive-zone model. Both WARP 3D and ABAQUS general purpose finite element programs are being used to predict the failure load and the failure mode, i.e. ductile tearing or net-section collapse, as part of the pre-test phase of the project. Companion probabilistic analyses of the experiment are utilizing the ORNL developed open-source Structural Integrity Assessment Modular - Probabilistic Fracture Mechanics (SIAM-PFM) framework. SIAM-PFM contains engineering assessment methodology such as the tearing instability (J-T analysis) module developed for inner surface cracks under bending load. The driving force J-integral estimations are based on the SC.ENG1 or SC.ENG2 models. The J-A2 methodology is used to transfer (constraint-adjust) J-R curve material data from standard test specimens to the Mock-up3 experiment configuration. The probabilistic results of the Mock-Up3 experiment obtained from SIAM-PFM will be compared to those generated using the deterministic finite element modeling approach. The objective of the probabilistic analysis is to provide uncertainty bounds that will assist in assessing the more detailed 3D finite-element solutions and to also assess the level of confidence that can be placed in the best-estimate finite-element solutions.

  20. Quantitative circumferential strain analysis using adenosine triphosphate-stress/rest 3-T tagged magnetic resonance to evaluate regional contractile dysfunction in ischemic heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Masashi, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Shitsukawa, Toon-city, Ehime 791-0295 (Japan); Kido, Tomoyuki [Department of Radiology, Saiseikai Matsuyama Hospital, Ehime 791-0295 (Japan); Kido, Teruhito; Tanabe, Yuki; Matsuda, Takuya; Nishiyama, Yoshiko; Miyagawa, Masao; Mochizuki, Teruhito [Department of Radiology, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Shitsukawa, Toon-city, Ehime 791-0295 (Japan)


    Highlights: • Infarcted segments could be differentiated from non-ischemic and ischemic segments with high sensitivity and specificity under at rest conditions. • The time-to-peak circumferential strain values in infarcted segments were more significantly delayed than those in non-ischemic and ischemic segments. • Both circumferential strain and circumferential systolic strain rate values under ATP-stress conditions were significantly lower in ischemic segments than in non-ischemic segments. • Subtracting stress and rest circumferential strain had a higher diagnostic capability for ischemia relative to only utilizing rest or ATP-stress circumferential strain values. • A circumferential strain analysis using tagged MR can quantitatively assess contractile dysfunction in ischemic and infarcted myocardium. - Abstract: Purpose: We evaluated whether a quantitative circumferential strain (CS) analysis using adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-stress/rest 3-T tagged magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can depict myocardial ischemia as contractile dysfunction during stress in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). We evaluated whether it can differentiate between non-ischemia, myocardial ischemia, and infarction. We assessed its diagnostic performance in comparison with ATP-stress myocardial perfusion MR and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE)-MR imaging. Methods: In 38 patients suspected of having CAD, myocardial segments were categorized as non-ischemic (n = 485), ischemic (n = 74), or infarcted (n = 49) from the results of perfusion MR and LGE-MR. The peak negative CS value, peak circumferential systolic strain rate (CSR), and time-to-peak CS were measured in 16 segments. Results: A cutoff value of −12.0% for CS at rest allowed differentiation between infarcted and other segments with a sensitivity of 79%, specificity of 76%, accuracy of 76%, and an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.81. Additionally, a cutoff value of 477.3 ms for time-to-peak CS at rest

  1. Correlation among bioimpedance analysis, sonographic and circumferential measurement in assessment of breast cancer-related arm lymphedema. (United States)

    Choi, Y H; Seo, K S


    New approaches for assessment of lymphedema using ultrasonography (US) have been introduced recently and are reported to be reliable and simple. Ultrasonography provides detailed information about physical properties of the tissue in addition to volume and size. There have been only limited studies comparing bioimpedance analysis (BIA), US, and circumferential measurement (CM), which is considered a standard measurement. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between US, BIA, and CM. Twenty-eight patients with lymphedema after breast cancer surgery underwent BIA, US, and CM. Impedance, which reflects the amount of extracellular fluid, was measured with 1 kHz frequency in affected and unaffected arms. Circumferences were measured at 10cm proximal and distal to the elbow and a truncated cone method used to calculate estimated volumes for upper arm and forearm. We found that interlimb forearm subcutis thickness differences measured by US were highly correlated with CM measurements and that interlimb upper arm subcutis thickness differences measured by US were moderately correlated with CM measurements and BIA ratios. However, the interlimb ratio of compressibility measured by US showed no or only weak correlation with impedance measurements and circumferential measurements. Our results also show that compressibility measured by US could not be predicted from BIA or CM measurements despite a high degree of concordance among subcutis thickness measured by US, CM, and BIA.

  2. Measurement of the longitudinal and circumferential muscular activity associated with peristalsis using a single fibre grating array (United States)

    Arkwright, J. W.; Blenman, N. G.; Underhill, I. D.; Maunder, S. A.; Spencer, N. J.; Costa, M.; Brooks, S. J.; Szczesniak, M. M.; Dinning, P. G.


    Diagnostic catheters based on fibre Bragg gratings (FBG's) are proving to be highly effective for measurement of the muscular activity associated with peristalsis in the human gut. The primary muscular contractions that generate peristalsis are circumferential in nature; however, it has long been known that there is also a component of longitudinal contractility present, acting in harmony with the circumferential component to improve the overall efficiency of material movement. To date, there have been relatively few reports on the measurement or inference of longitudinal contractions in humans and all have been limited to detection at a single location only. This is due to the lack of a viable recording technique suitable for real-time in-vivo measurement of this type of activity over extended lengths of the gut. We report the detection of longitudinal motion in lengths of excised mammalian colon using an FBG technique that should be viable for similar detection in humans. The longitudinal sensors have been combined with our previously reported FBG pressure sensing elements to form a composite catheter that allows the relative phase between the two components to be detected. The catheter output has been validated using digital video mapping in an ex-vivo animal preparation using lengths of rabbit ileum.

  3. Development of crack shape: LBB methodology for cracked pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulin, D.; Chapuliot, S.; Drubay, B. [Commissariat a l Energie Atomique, Gif sur Yvette (France)


    For structures like vessels or pipes containing a fluid, the Leak-Before-Break (LBB) assessment requires to demonstrate that it is possible, during the lifetime of the component, to detect a rate of leakage due to a possible defect, the growth of which would result in a leak before-break of the component. This LBB assessment could be an important contribution to the overall structural integrity argument for many components. The aim of this paper is to review some practices used for LBB assessment and to describe how some new R & D results have been used to provide a simplified approach of fracture mechanics analysis and especially the evaluation of crack shape and size during the lifetime of the component.

  4. Characterization of crack growth under combined loading (United States)

    Feldman, A.; Smith, F. W.; Holston, A., Jr.


    Room-temperature static and cyclic tests were made on 21 aluminum plates in the shape of a 91.4x91.4-cm Maltese cross with 45 deg flaws to develop crack growth and fracture toughness data under mixed-mode conditions. During cyclic testing, it was impossible to maintain a high proportion of shear-mode deformation on the crack tips. Cracks either branched or turned. Under static loading, cracks remained straight if shear stress intensity exceeded normal stress intensity. Mixed-mode crack growth rate data compared reasonably well with published single-mode data, and measured crack displacements agreed with the straight and branched crack analyses. Values of critical strain energy release rate at fracture for pure shear were approximately 50% higher than for pure normal opening, and there was a large reduction in normal stress intensity at fracture in the presence of high shear stress intensity. Net section stresses were well into the inelastic range when fracture occurred under high shear on the cracks.

  5. Locating a leaking crack by safe stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, C.E.; Sagat, S. (Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada). Chalk River Nuclear Labs.); Shek, G.K.; Graham, D.B.; Durand, M.A. (Ontario Hydro, Toronto, ON (Canada))


    A few Zr-2.5 Nb alloy pressure tubes in CANDU nuclear reactors have leaked through cracks that have grown by delayed hydride cracking (DHC). In some instances, tubes contained confirmed leaks that were leaking at a rate too low for precise identification of the leaking channel. Controlled stimulation of DHC can be used to help locate these leaks by extending the crack and increasing the leak rate without approaching crack instability. In the event of a leak being detected, a plant operator can gain time for leak location by a heating and unloading manoeuvre that will arrest crack growth and increase the critical crack length. This manoeuvre increases the safety margin against tube rupture. If required, the operator can then stimulate cracking in a controlled manner to aid in leak identification. Sequences of temperature and load manoeuvres for safe crack stimulation have been found by laboratory tests on dry specimens and the efficacy of the process has been demonstrated, partly in a power reactor, and partly in a full-scale simulation of a leaking pressure tube. (author).

  6. Entering a Crack: An Encounter with Gossip (United States)

    Henderson, Linda


    In this paper, I enter a crack to think otherwise about the concept "gossip". Drawing on previous scholarship engaging with Deleuzian concepts to inform research methodologies, this paper builds on this body of work. Following Deleuze and Guattari, the paper undertakes a mapping of gossip, subsequent to an encounter with a crack.…

  7. Crack propagation directions in unfilled resins. (United States)

    Baran, G; Sadeghipour, K; Jayaraman, S; Silage, D; Paul, D; Boberick, K


    Posterior composite restorative materials undergo accelerated wear in the occlusal contact area, primarily through a fatigue mechanism. To facilitate the timely development of new and improved materials, a predictive wear model is desirable. The objective of this study was to develop a finite element model enabling investigators to predict crack propagation directions in resins used as the matrix material in composites, and to verify these predictions by observing cracks formed during the pin-on-disc wear of a 60:40 BISGMA:TEGDMA resin and an EBPADMA resin. Laser confocal scanning microscopy was used to measure crack locations. Finite element studies were done by means of ABAQUS software, modeling a cylinder sliding on a material with pre-existing surface-breaking cracks. Variables included modulus, cylinder/material friction coefficient, crack face friction, and yield behavior. Experimental results were surprising, since most crack directions were opposite previously published observations. The majority of surface cracks, though initially orthogonal to the surface, changed direction to run 20 to 30 degrees from the horizontal in the direction of indenter movement. Finite element modeling established the importance of subsurface shear stresses, since calculations provided evidence that cracks propagate in the direction of maximum K(II)(theta), in the same direction as the motion of the indenter, and at an angle of approximately 20 degrees. These findings provide the foundation for a predictive model of sliding wear in unfilled glassy resins.

  8. Uncertainty Quantification in Fatigue Crack Growth Prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Sankararaman


    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology to quantify the uncertainty in fatigue crack growth prognosis, applied to structures with complicated geometry and subjected to variable amplitude multi-axial loading. Finite element analysis is used to address the complicated geometry and calculate the stress intensity factors. Multi-modal stress intensity factors due to multi-axial loading are combined to calculate an equivalent stress intensity factor using a characteristic plane approach. Crack growth under variable amplitude loading is modeled using a modified Paris law that includes retardation effects. During cycle-by-cycle integration of the crack growth law, a Gaussian process surrogate model is used to replace the expensive finite element analysis. The effect of different types of uncertainty – physical variability, data uncertainty and modeling errors – on crack growth prediction is investigated. The various sources of uncertainty include, but not limited to, variability in loading conditions, material parameters, experimental data, model uncertainty, etc. Three different types of modeling errors – crack growth model error, discretization error and surrogate model error – are included in analysis. The different types of uncertainty are incorporated into the crack growth prediction methodology to predict the probability distribution of crack size as a function of number of load cycles. The proposed method is illustrated using an application problem, surface cracking in a cylindrical structure.

  9. Entering a Crack: An Encounter with Gossip (United States)

    Henderson, Linda


    In this paper, I enter a crack to think otherwise about the concept "gossip". Drawing on previous scholarship engaging with Deleuzian concepts to inform research methodologies, this paper builds on this body of work. Following Deleuze and Guattari, the paper undertakes a mapping of gossip, subsequent to an encounter with a crack.…

  10. Fracture Mechanical Markov Chain Crack Growth Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gansted, L.; Brincker, Rune; Hansen, Lars Pilegaard


    On the basis of the B-model developed in [J. L. Bogdanoff and F. Kozin, Probabilistic Models of Cumulative Damage. John Wiley, New York (1985)] a new numerical model incorporating the physical knowledge of fatigue crack propagation is developed. The model is based on the assumption that the crack...

  11. Solute transport in cracking clay soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronswijk, J.J.B.; Ritsema, C.J.; Oostindie, K.; Hamminga, P.


    A bromide tracer applied to a cracked clay soil was adsorbed in the soil matrix close to the soil surface. Upon subsequent precipitation, a small part of the bromide dissolved and flowed rapidly through cracks to the subsoil and the groundwater. As a result, the groundwater and the drain discharge

  12. Strength of Cracked Reinforced Concrete Disks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoang, Cao Linh; Nielsen, Mogens Peter


    The paper deals with models, based on the theory of plasticity, to be used in strength assessments of reinforced concrete disks suffering from different kinds of cracking. Based on the assumption that the sliding strength of concrete is reduced in sections where cracks are located, solutions...

  13. Corrosion and Cracking of Reinforced Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    Modelling of the deterioration of reinforced concrete has in recent years changed from being a deterministic modelling based on experience to be stochastic modelling based on sound and consistent physical, chemical and mechanical principles. In this paper is presented a brief review of modern mod...... for time to initial corrosion, time to initial cracking, and time to a given crack width may be obtained....

  14. Crack spacing threshold of double cracks propagation for large-module rack

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵铁柱; 石端伟; 姚哲皓; 毛宏勇; 程术潇; 彭惠


    Large-module rack of the Three Gorges shiplift is manufactured by casting and machining, which is unable to avoid slag inclusions and surface cracks. To ensure its safety in the future service, studying on crack propagation rule and the residual life estimation method of large-module rack is of great significance. The possible crack distribution forms of the rack in the Three Gorges shiplift were studied. By applying moving load on the model in FRANC3D and ANSYS, quantitative analyses of interference effects on double cracks in both collinear and offset conditions were conducted. The variation rule of the stress intensity factor (SIF) influence factor,RK, of double collinear cracks changing with crack spacing ratio,RS, was researched. The horizontal and vertical crack spacing threshold of double cracks within the design life of the shiplift were obtained, which are 24 and 4 times as large as half of initial crack length,c0, respectively. The crack growth rates along the length and depth directions in the process of coalescence on double collinear cracks were also studied.

  15. Unsaturated Seepage Analysis of Cracked Soil including Development Process of Cracks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Cao


    Full Text Available Cracks in soil provide preferential pathways for water flow and their morphological parameters significantly affect the hydraulic conductivity of the soil. To study the hydraulic properties of cracks, the dynamic development of cracks in the expansive soil during drying and wetting has been measured in the laboratory. The test results enable the development of the relationships between the cracks morphological parameters and the water content. In this study, the fractal model has been used to predict the soil-water characteristic curve (SWCC of the cracked soil, including the developmental process of the cracks. The cracked expansive soil has been considered as a crack-pore medium. A dual media flow model has been developed to simulate the seepage characteristics of the cracked expansive soil. The variations in pore water pressure at different part of the model are quite different due to the impact of the cracks. This study proves that seepage characteristics can be better predicted if the impact of cracks is taken into account.

  16. Crack stability in a representative piping system under combined inertial and seismic/dynamic displacement-controlled stresses. Subtask 1.3 final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, P.; Olson, R.; Wilkowski, O.G.; Marschall, C.; Schmidt, R.


    This report presents the results from Subtask 1.3 of the International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG) program. The objective of Subtask 1.3 is to develop data to assess analysis methodologies for characterizing the fracture behavior of circumferentially cracked pipe in a representative piping system under combined inertial and displacement-controlled stresses. A unique experimental facility was designed and constructed. The piping system evaluated is an expansion loop with over 30 meters of 16-inch diameter Schedule 100 pipe. The experimental facility is equipped with special hardware to ensure system boundary conditions could be appropriately modeled. The test matrix involved one uncracked and five cracked dynamic pipe-system experiments. The uncracked experiment was conducted to evaluate piping system damping and natural frequency characteristics. The cracked-pipe experiments evaluated the fracture behavior, pipe system response, and stability characteristics of five different materials. All cracked-pipe experiments were conducted at PWR conditions. Material characterization efforts provided tensile and fracture toughness properties of the different pipe materials at various strain rates and temperatures. Results from all pipe-system experiments and material characterization efforts are presented. Results of fracture mechanics analyses, dynamic finite element stress analyses, and stability analyses are presented and compared with experimental results.

  17. Crack initiation life in notched Ti-6Al-4V titanium bars under uniaxial and multiaxial fatigue: synthesis based on the averaged strain energy density approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Meneghetti


    Full Text Available The fatigue behaviour of circumferentially notched specimens made of titanium alloy, Ti-6Al-4V, has been analysed. To investigate the notch effect on the fatigue strength, pure bending, pure torsion and multiaxial bending-torsion fatigue tests have been carried out on specimens characterized by two different root radii, namely 0.1 and 4 mm. Crack nucleation and subsequent propagation have been accurately monitored by using the direct current potential drop (DCPD technique. Based on the results obtained from the potential drop technique, the crack initiation life has been defined in correspondence of a relative potential drop increase V/V0 equal to 1%, and it has been used as failure criterion. Doing so, the effect of extrinsic mechanisms operating during crack propagation phase, such as sliding contact, friction and meshing between fracture surfaces, is expected to be reduced. The experimental fatigue test results have been re-analysed by using the local strain energy density (SED averaged over a structural volume having radius R0 and surrounding the notch tip. Finally, the use of the local strain energy density parameter allowed us to properly correlate the crack initiation life of Ti-6Al-4V notched specimens, despite the different notch geometries and loading conditions involved in the tests

  18. Probabilistic analysis of linear elastic cracked structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This paper presents a probabilistic methodology for linear fracture mechanics analysis of cracked structures. The main focus is on probabilistic aspect related to the nature of crack in material. The methodology involves finite element analysis; statistical models for uncertainty in material properties, crack size, fracture toughness and loads; and standard reliability methods for evaluating probabilistic characteristics of linear elastic fracture parameter. The uncertainty in the crack size can have a significant effect on the probability of failure, particularly when the crack size has a large coefficient of variation. Numerical example is presented to show that probabilistic methodology based on Monte Carlo simulation provides accurate estimates of failure probability for use in linear elastic fracture mechanics.

  19. Strain rate effects in stress corrosion cracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkins, R.N. (Newcastle upon Tyne Univ. (UK). Dept. of Metallurgy and Engineering Materials)


    Slow strain rate testing (SSRT) was initially developed as a rapid, ad hoc laboratory method for assessing the propensity for metals an environments to promote stress corrosion cracking. It is now clear, however, that there are good theoretical reasons why strain rate, as opposed to stress per se, will often be the controlling parameter in determining whether or not cracks are nucleated and, if so, are propagated. The synergistic effects of the time dependence of corrosion-related reactions and microplastic strain provide the basis for mechanistic understanding of stress corrosion cracking in high-pressure pipelines and other structures. However, while this may be readily comprehended in the context of laboratory slow strain tests, its extension to service situations may be less apparent. Laboratory work involving realistic stressing conditions, including low-frequency cyclic loading, shows that strain or creep rates give good correlation with thresholds for cracking and with crack growth kinetics.

  20. Crack front propagation by kink formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roesch, Frohmut; Trebin, Hans-Rainer [Universitaet Stuttgart, Institut fuer Theoretische und Angewandte Physik, 70550 Stuttgart (Germany)


    In a brittle material a travelling crack generates an upper and a lower fracture surface, which meet at a one-dimensional crack front. From a macroscopic point of view there is no reason why this curve should deviate from a straight line, contrary to the atomistic point of view, where a crack propagates by successive rupture of cohesive bonds. We investigate fracture of the C15 NbCr{sub 2} Friauf-laves phase on an atomic level by means of molecular dynamics simulations. The numerical experiments highlight that crack fronts in general do not form a straight line and propagate by kink-pair formation at low loads (EPL 87 (2009) 66004). This mechanism should be relevant for crack propagation in any ordered brittle solid.

  1. XFEM for Thermal Crack of Massive Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guowei Liu


    Full Text Available Thermal cracking of massive concrete structures occurs as a result of stresses caused by hydration in real environment conditions. The extended finite element method that combines thermal fields and creep is used in this study to analyze the thermal cracking of massive concrete structures. The temperature field is accurately simulated through an equivalent equation of heat conduction that considers the effect of a cooling pipe system. The time-dependent creep behavior of massive concrete is determined by the viscoelastic constitutive model with Prony series. Based on the degree of hydration, we consider the main properties related to cracking evolving with time. Numerical simulations of a real massive concrete structure are conducted. Results show that the developed method is efficient for numerical calculations of thermal cracks on massive concrete. Further analyses indicate that a cooling system and appropriate heat preservation measures can efficiently prevent the occurrence of thermal cracks.

  2. The geometry of soil crack networks

    CERN Document Server

    Chertkov, V Y


    The subject of this work is the modification and specification of an approach to detail the estimation of soil crack network characteristics. The modification aims at accounting for the corrected soil crack volume based on the corrected shrinkage geometry factor compared to known estimates of crack volume and shrinkage geometry factor. The mode of the correction relies on recent results of the soil reference shrinkage curve. The main exposition follows the preliminary brief review of available approaches to dealing with the geometry of soil crack networks and gives a preliminary brief summary of the approach to be modified and specified. To validate and illustrate the modified approach the latter is used in the analysis of available data on soil cracking in a lysimeter.

  3. Field cracking performance of airfield rigid pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Mehta


    Full Text Available This paper discusses cracking in airport pavements as studied in Construction Cycle 6 of testing carried out at the National Airport Pavement Testing Facility by the Federal Aviation Administration. Pavements of three different flexural strengths as well as two different subgrades, a soft bituminous layer and a more rigid layer known as econocrete, were tested. In addition to this, cracking near two types of isolated transition joints, a reinforced edge joint and a thickened edge joint, was considered. The pavement sections were tested using a moving load simulating that of an aircraft. It has been determined that the degree of cracking was reduced as the flexural strength of the pavement was increased and that fewer cracks formed over the econocrete base than over the bituminous base. In addition, the thickened edge transition joint was more effective in preventing cracking at the edges compared to the reinforced edge joint.

  4. Crack Growth in Concrete Gravity Dams Based on Discrete Crack Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Lohrasbi


    Full Text Available Seepage is the most parameter in water management safety and in stable agricultural. This seepage is passed through the cracks that are present to some degree in hydraulic structures. They may exist as basic defects in the constituent materials or may be induced in construction or during service life. To avoid such failure in concrete dams, safety would be an important factor. Over-design carries heavy penalty in terms of excess weight. So the fracture mechanics theory is a principal necessity of evaluating the stability of such crack propagation. For the process of crack propagation analysis in concrete structures, there are two general models: discrete crack and smeared crack. This study surveys the crack propagation in concrete gravity dams based on discrete crack methods. Moreover, we use a program provided specifically for this purpose.

  5. General forms of elastic-plastic matching equations for mode-Ⅲ cracks near crack line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-jian YI; Chao-hua ZHAO; Qing-guo YANG; Kai PENG; Zong-ming HUANG


    Crack line analysis is an effective way to solve elastic-plastic crack problems.Application of the method does not need the traditional small-scale yielding conditions and can obtain sufficiently accurate solutions near the crack line. To address mode-Ⅲ crack problems under the perfect elastic-plastic condition,matching procedures of the crack line analysis method are summarized and refined to give general forms and formulation steps of plastic field,elastic-plastic boundary,and elastic-plastic matching equations near the crack line. The research unifies mode-Ⅲ crack problems under different conditions into a problem of determining four integral constants with four matching equations.An example is given to verify correctness,conciseness,and generality of the procedure.

  6. Investigating Reaction-Driven Cracking (United States)

    Kelemen, P. B.; Hirth, G.; Savage, H. M.


    Many metamorphic reactions lead to large volume changes, and potentially to reaction-driven cracking [1,2]. Large-scale hydration of mantle peridotite to produce serpentine or talc is invoked to explain the rheology of plate boundaries, the nature of earthquakes, and the seismic properties of slow-spread ocean crust and the 'mantle wedge' above subduction zones. Carbonation of peridotite may be an important sink in the global carbon cycle. Zones of 100% magnesite + quartz replacing peridotite, up to 200 m thick, formed where oceanic mantle was thrust over carbonate-bearing metasediments in Oman. Talc + carbonate is an important component of the matrix in subduction mélanges at Santa Catalina Island , California, and the Sanbagawa metamorphic belt, Japan. Engineered systems to emulate natural mineral carbonation could provide relatively inexpensive CO2 capture and storage [3]. More generally, engineered reaction-driven cracking could supplement or replace hydraulic fracture in geothermal systems, solution mining, and extraction of tight oil and gas. The controls on reaction-driven cracking are poorly understood. Hydration and carbonation reactions can be self-limiting, since they potentially reduce permeability and armor reactive surfaces [4]. Also, in some cases, hydration or carbonation may take place at constant volume. Small changes in volume due to precipitation of solid products increases stress, destabilizing solid reactants, until precipitation and dissolution rates become equal at a steady state stress [5]. In a third case, volume change due to precipitation of solid products causes brittle failure. This has been invoked on qualitative grounds to explain, e.g., complete serpentinization of mantle peridotite [6]. Below ~ 300°C, the available potential energy for hydration and carbonation of olivine could produce stresses of 100's of MPa [2], sufficient to fracture rocks to 10 km depth or more, causing brittle failure below the steady state stress required

  7. Cracks assessment using ultrasonic technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Maria Pia; Tomasella, Marcelo [OLDELVAL S.A. Oleoductos del Valle, Rio Negro (Argentina). Pipeline Integrity Dept.


    The goal of Oldelval Integrity Program is to prevent ruptures and leaks, developing strategies for a better handling of the integrity of our pipelines. In order to achieve it we have studied and modeled each process that involved in the integrity pipeline. Those processes are mainly based on defects reported by an internal inspection tool and supplied with field inspection and monitoring data. Years of evaluation, study and the continuous effort overturned towards a phenomenon that worries to the industry, as it is the SCC. Since 1998 up to 2004 SCC was included in the integrity program with some preventive maintenance programs. The accomplishment of the inspection based on ultrasound tools, is the culmination of years of evaluation and investigations supported by field digs and materials susceptibility. This paper describes Oldelval's results with ultrasonic crack detection tool, and how it can be reliably to detect SCC. (author)

  8. Three-Dimensional Gear Crack Propagation Studied (United States)

    Lewicki, David G.


    Gears used in current helicopters and turboprops are designed for light weight, high margins of safety, and high reliability. However, unexpected gear failures may occur even with adequate tooth design. To design an extremely safe system, the designer must ask and address the question, "What happens when a failure occurs?" With gear-tooth bending fatigue, tooth or rim fractures may occur. A crack that propagates through a rim will be catastrophic, leading to disengagement of the rotor or propeller, loss of an aircraft, and possible fatalities. This failure mode should be avoided. A crack that propagates through a tooth may or may not be catastrophic, depending on the design and operating conditions. Also, early warning of this failure mode may be possible because of advances in modern diagnostic systems. One concept proposed to address bending fatigue fracture from a safety aspect is a splittooth gear design. The prime objective of this design would be to control crack propagation in a desired direction such that at least half of the tooth would remain operational should a bending failure occur. A study at the NASA Lewis Research Center analytically validated the crack-propagation failsafe characteristics of a split-tooth gear. It used a specially developed three-dimensional crack analysis program that was based on boundary element modeling and principles of linear elastic fracture mechanics. Crack shapes as well as the crack-propagation life were predicted on the basis of the calculated stress intensity factors, mixed-mode crack-propagation trajectory theories, and fatigue crack-growth theories. The preceding figures show the effect of the location of initial cracks on crack propagation. Initial cracks in the fillet of the teeth produced stress intensity factors of greater magnitude (and thus, greater crack growth rates) than those in the root or groove areas of the teeth. Crack growth was simulated in a case study to evaluate crack-propagation paths. Tooth

  9. Enhanced ethylene and ethane production with free-radical cracking catalysts. (United States)

    Kolts, J H; Delzer, G A


    A series of free-radical catalysts have been discovered that increase the yield of highly valuable olefins from the cracking of low molecular weight paraffins. For example, catalytic cracking of n-butane, isobutane, and propane over manganese or iron supported on magnesium oxide (MgO) gave product distributions different from those given by thermal (free-radical) cracking or cracking over traditional acid catalysts. With n-butane and propane feeds, the products from catalytic cracking included large amounts of ethylene and ethane; with isobutane feed, propylene was the major product. Physical characterization of the MgO-supported catalyst showed the manganese to be in a 2+ oxidation state in the reduced catalyst and a 4+ oxidation state in the fully oxidized catalyst. Manganese was also shown to be uniformly distributed in the support material with very little enrichment at the surface. Matrix isolation of the gasphase radicals from n-butane feed showed that ethyl and methyl radicals were produced over the active catalysts. In the thermal process, only methyl radicals were produced. The mechanism of the catalytic reaction appears to be selective formation of primary carbanions at the catalyst surface followed by electron transfer and release of primary hydrocarbon radicals to the gas phase.

  10. Early posterior spinal canal decompression and circumferential reconstruction of rotationally unstable thoracolumbar burst fractures with neurological deficit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Guo-quan; WANG Yan; TANG Pei-fu; ZHANG Yong-gang; ZHANG Xue-song; GUO Yi-zhu; TAO Sheng


    Background Among the various treatments of neurologically involved unstable thoracolumbar burst fractures,the combination of anterior and posterior instrumentation provides the most stable reconstruction.However,the use of both approaches on a trauma patient may increase the morbidity.This study is a retrospective matched cohort study to evaluate the advantages of a single stage posterior approach for spinal canal decompression in combination with circumferential reconstruction by comparing the clinical and radiographic results.Methods From March 2005 to September 2009,patients with matched type spinal fracture,ages at surgery,and involved levels in our institute underwent either a single stage posterior approach (group one,n=12) or traditional combined approach (group two,n=14) for spinal canal decompression and circumferential reconstruction were reviewed.Pre-and post-operative X-ray films were reviewed and changes in Cobb angle of thoracolumbar spine were documented.Intra-operative,post-operative,and general complications were registered.Results The mean follow-up was (27.7±9.6) months (range,14 to 56 months) in group one and (29.2±7.4) months (range,20 to 60 months) in group two (P >0.05).The mean operation time was 214 minutes (range,186-327 minutes) in group one and 284 minutes (range,219-423 minutes) in group two (P <0.05).The average volume of intraoperative blood loss was 1856 ml (range,1250-3480 ml) in group one and 2453 ml (range,1600-3680 ml) in group two (P <0.05).There was no statistical difference between the groups one and two in average vertebral body height loss at the injured level and the average Cobb angle in sagittal plane before and immediately after surgery.Postoperatively,there was an epidural hematoma in one patient in group one and two patients in group two.Bony union after stabilization was obtained in all patients,without loosening or breakage of screws.Loss of correction (5°) was seen in 1 patient in group one at the 6th month

  11. Crack detection in a beam with an arbitrary number of transverse cracks using genetic algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaji, N. [Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mehrjoo, M. [Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    In this paper, a crack detection approach is presented for detecting depth and location of cracks in beam-like structures. For this purpose, a new beam element with an arbitrary number of embedded transverse edge cracks, in arbitrary positions of beam element with any depth, is derived. The components of the stiffness matrix for the cracked element are computed using the conjugate beam concept and Betti's theorem, and finally represented in closed-form expressions. The proposed beam element is efficiently employed for solving forward problem (i.e., to gain precise natural frequencies and mode shapes of the beam knowing the cracks' characteristics). To validate the proposed element, results obtained by new element are compared with two-dimensional (2D) finite element results and available experimental measurements. Moreover, by knowing the natural frequencies and mode shapes, an inverse problem is established in which the location and depth of cracks are determined. In the inverse approach, an optimization problem based on the new finite element and genetic algorithms (GAs) is solved to search the solution. It is shown that the present algorithm is able to identify various crack configurations in a cracked beam. The proposed approach is verified through a cracked beam containing various cracks with different depths.

  12. Identification of cracks in thick beams with a cracked beam element model (United States)

    Hou, Chuanchuan; Lu, Yong


    The effect of a crack on the vibration of a beam is a classical problem, and various models have been proposed, ranging from the basic stiffness reduction method to the more sophisticated model involving formulation based on the additional flexibility due to a crack. However, in the damage identification or finite element model updating applications, it is still common practice to employ a simple stiffness reduction factor to represent a crack in the identification process, whereas the use of a more realistic crack model is rather limited. In this paper, the issues with the simple stiffness reduction method, particularly concerning thick beams, are highlighted along with a review of several other crack models. A robust finite element model updating procedure is then presented for the detection of cracks in beams. The description of the crack parameters is based on the cracked beam flexibility formulated by means of the fracture mechanics, and it takes into consideration of shear deformation and coupling between translational and longitudinal vibrations, and thus is particularly suitable for thick beams. The identification procedure employs a global searching technique using Genetic Algorithms, and there is no restriction on the location, severity and the number of cracks to be identified. The procedure is verified to yield satisfactory identification for practically any configurations of cracks in a beam.

  13. Subcritical crack growth in two titanium alloys. (United States)

    Williams, D. N.


    Measurement of subcritical crack growth during static loading of precracked titanium alloys in salt water using samples too thin for plane strain loading to predominate was examined as a method for determining the critical stress intensity for crack propagation in salt water. Significant internal crack growth followed by arrest was found at quite low stress intensities, but crack growth rates were relatively low. Assuming these techniques provided a reliable measurement of the critical stress intensity, the value for annealed Ti-4Al-1.5Mo-0.5V alloy was apparently about 35 ksi-in. to the 1/2 power, while that for annealed Ti-4Al-3Mo-1V was below 45 ksi-in. to the 1/2 power. Crack growth was also observed in tests conducted in both alloys in an air environment. At 65 ksi-in. to the 1/2 power, the extent of crack growth was greater in air than in salt water. Ti-4Al-3Mo-1V showed arrested crack growth in air at a stress intensity of 45 ksi-in. to the 1/2 power.

  14. Crack growth monitoring at CFRP bond lines (United States)

    Rahammer, M.; Adebahr, W.; Sachse, R.; Gröninger, S.; Kreutzbruck, M.


    With the growing need for lightweight technologies in aerospace and automotive industries, fibre-reinforced plastics, especially carbon-fibre (CFRP), are used with a continuously increasing annual growth rate. A promising joining technique for composites is adhesive bonding. While rivet holes destroy the fibres and cause stress concentration, adhesive bond lines distribute the load evenly. Today bonding is only used in secondary structures due to a lack of knowledge with regard to long-term predictability. In all industries, numerical simulation plays a critical part in the development process of new materials and structures, while it plays a vital role when it comes to CFRP adhesive bondings conducing the predictability of life time and damage tolerance. The critical issue with adhesive bondings is crack growth. In a dynamic tensile stress testing machine we dynamically load bonded CFRP coupon specimen and measure the growth rate of an artificially started crack in order to feed the models with the results. We also investigate the effect of mechanical crack stopping features. For observation of the bond line, we apply two non-contact NDT techniques: Air-coupled ultrasound in slanted transmission mode and active lockin-thermography evaluated at load frequencies. Both methods give promising results for detecting the current crack front location. While the ultrasonic technique provides a slightly higher accuracy, thermography has the advantage of true online monitoring, because the measurements are made while the cyclic load is being applied. The NDT methods are compared to visual inspection of the crack front at the specimen flanks and show high congruence. Furthermore, the effect of crack stopping features within the specimen on the crack growth is investigated. The results show, that not all crack fronts are perfectly horizontal, but all of them eventually come to a halt in the crack stopping feature vicinity.

  15. Slow crack growth in spinel in water (United States)

    Schwantes, S.; Elber, W.


    Magnesium aluminate spinel was tested in a water environment at room temperature to establish its slow crack-growth behavior. Ring specimens with artificial flaws on the outside surface were loaded hydraulically on the inside surface. The time to failure was measured. Various precracking techniques were evaluated and multiple precracks were used to minimize the scatter in the static fatigue tests. Statistical analysis techniques were developed to determine the strength and crack velocities for a single flaw. Slow crack-growth rupture was observed at stress intensities as low as 70 percent of K sub c. A strengthening effect was observed in specimens that had survived long-time static fatigue tests.

  16. Mitigation strategies for autogenous shrinkage cracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, Dale P.; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede


    , the fundamental parameters contributing to the autogenous shrinkage and resultant early-age cracking of concrete are presented. Basic characteristics of the cement paste that contribute to or control the autogenous shrinkage response include the surface tension of the pore solution, the geometry of the pore...... of early-age cracking due to autogenous shrinkage. Mitigation strategies discussed in this paper include: the addition of shrinkage-reducing admixtures more commonly used to control drying shrinkage, control of the cement particle size distribution, modification of the mineralogical composition......, it should be possible to minimize cracking due to autogenous shrinkage via some combination of the presented approaches....

  17. Prediction of Crack Growth in Aqueous Environments. (United States)


    Impedance for the Propagation of a Crack Through HY80 Steel in 3.5Z NaCl Solution at 25*C Under Sinusoidal Loading Condi t ions...THE PROPAGATION OF A CRACK THROUGH HY80 STEEL IN 3.5% NaCI SOLUTION AT 25°C UNDER SINUSOIDAL LOADING CONDITIONS 49 and the properties of greatest...VELOCITY AS A FUNCTION OF TIME FOR A CRACK GROWN AT CONSTANT CURRENT IN HY80 STEEL Initial conditions CI in Table 5. 66 400 UJ x v> l/> L. 0

  18. Experimental Investigation of Near-Borehole Crack Plugging with Bentonite (United States)

    Upadhyay, R. A.; Islam, M. N.; Bunger, A.


    The success of the disposal of nuclear waste in a deep borehole (DBH) is determined by the integrity of the components of the borehole plug. Bentonite clay has been proposed as a key plugging material, and its effectiveness depends upon its penetration into near-borehole cracks associated with the drilling process. Here we present research aimed at understanding and maximizing the ability of clay materials to plug near-borehole cracks. A device was constructed such that the borehole is represented by a cylindrical chamber, and a near-borehole crack is represented by a slot adjacent to the center chamber. The experiments consist of placing bentonite clay pellets into the center chamber and filling the entire cavity with distilled water so that the pellets hydrate and swell, intruding into the slot because the cell prohibits swelling in the vertical direction along the borehole. Results indicate that the bentonite clay pellets do not fully plug the slot. We propose a model where the penetration is limited by (1) the free swelling potential intrinsic to the system comprised of the bentonite pellets and the hydrating fluid and (2) resisting shear force along the walls of the slot. Narrow slots have a smaller volume for the clay to fill than wider slots, but wider slots present less resistive force to clay intrusion. These two limiting factors work against each other, leading to a non-monotonic relationship between slot width and intrusion length. Further experimental results indicate that the free swelling potential of bentonite clay pellets depends on pellet diameter, "container" geometry, and solution salinity. Smaller diameter pellets possess more relative volumetric expansion than larger diameter pellets. The relative expansion of the clay also appears to decrease with the container size, which we understand to be due to the increased resistive force provided by the container walls. Increasing the salinity of the solution leads to a dramatic decrease in the clay

  19. Experimental investigation on fracture toughness of Al6061–graphite by using Circumferential Notched Tensile Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleemsab Doddamani


    Full Text Available This paper presents the experimental work carried out on the fracture behavior of aluminium 6061 (Al6061 and graphite particulate composites. The required specimens are prepared using stir casting method with graphite proportions ranging from 3 to 12 % by weight. The fracture behavior of Al6061-graphite particulate composites produced using stir casting method, was investigated by conducting experiments on Universal Testing Machine (UTM. Circumferential Notched Tensile (CNT specimens were utilized to evaluate the fracture toughness of the composites. From the experiment the fracture toughness KIC= 15.85MPa m1/2 is obtained for Al6061-9% Graphite. Further, the experimental results revealed that, except 12% graphite, the fracture toughness of Al6061-graphite was observed to increases with an increase in weight percentage of graphite. The experimental results reinforce that Al6061-graphite particulate MMCs are suitable for automotive and aerospace applications requiring high fracture toughness apart from good wear resistance.

  20. Analytical and experimental investigations into the controlled energy absorption characteristics of thick-walled tubes with circumferential grooves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darvizeh, Abolfazl [Islamic Azad University, Bandar-e Anzali (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Darvizeh, Mansour; Ansari, Reza; Meshkinzar, Ata [University of Guilan, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    In this paper, the energy absorption characteristics of grooved circular tubes are investigated under quasi-static loading condition. For experiments, thick-walled tubes with circumferential grooves are prepared. The grooves divide the thick-walled tube into several shorter thin-walled portions. Specimens are subjected to axial crushing load to observe the effect of distribution of circular grooves on the deformation mechanism and energy absorption capacity. Geometrical parameters of the specimens are designed utilizing the Taguchi method to cover a reasonably wide range of groove length-to-wall thickness ratios. An analytical approach based on the concept of energy dissipation through the plastic hinges is applied. Taking the effect of strain hardening into account, the obtained analytical results are in good agreement with the experimental ones. The agreement between analytical and experimental results may indicate the validity of the proposed analytical approach. Desirable mechanism of deformation observed justifies the pre-forming method for obtaining favorable energy absorption characteristics.

  1. CFD Study of the Hydrocarbon Boost Low-Pressure Inducer and Kicker in the Presence of a Circumferential Groove (United States)

    Coker, Robert


    Results are presented of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study done in support of Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) sub-scale water flow experiments of the Hydrocarbon Boost (HCB) Oxidizer Turbopump (OTP) being developed by the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) and Aerojet. A circumferential groove may be added to the pump to reduce synchronous cavitation and subsequent bearing loads at a minimal performance cost. However, the energy may reappear as high order cavitation (HOC) that spans a relatively large frequency range. Thus, HOC may have implications for the full-scale OTP inducer in terms of reduced structural margin at higher mode frequencies. Simulations using the LOCI/Stream CFD program were conducted in order to explore the fluid dynamical impact of the groove on the low-pressure inducer and kicker. It was found that the circumferential groove has minimal head performance impact, but causes back-flowing high-swirl fluid to interact with the nearly-axial incoming fluid just above the inducer blades. The high-shear interface between the fluids is Kelvin-Helmholtz unstable, resulting in trains of low pressure regions or 'pearls' forming near the upstream edge of the groove. When the static pressure in these regions becomes low enough and they get cut by the blade leading edge, HOC is thought to occur. Although further work is required, the numerical models indicate that HOC will occur in the runbox of the AFRL/Aerojet HCB OTP. Comparisons to the ongoing water flow experiments will be discussed, as well as possible designs that may mitigate HOC while continuing to reduce synchronous cavitation. December 2011 MSS/LPS/SPS Joint Subcommittee Meeting ABSTRACT SUBMITTAL FORM


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Objective To evaluate the outcome of two methods for stabilization and fusion: posterolateral fusion and circumferential fusion involving posterior lumbar interbody fusion for lumbar stenosis with Grades 1 and 2 lumbar spondylolisthesis. Methods From April 1998 to April 2003, 45 patients suffering from lumbar stenosis with low degree lumbar spondylolisthesis treated in our hospital were retrospectively reviewed and assigned to two groups. Among them, 24 patients (group A) were treated with instrumented posterolateral fusion and 21 patients (group B) with instrumented circumferential fusion. The two groups were compared for clinical and radiological outcomes. Results All patients were followed up for 12 to 72 months. In group A, results showed preoperative clinical symptoms disappeared completely in 12 of 24 patients, and pain relief was seen in 91.7% (22/24). Two cases suffered from residual symptoms. Twenty-two cases obtained complete reduction of olisthy vertebral bodies, and anatomical reduction rate was 91.7%. No infection or neurological complication occurred in this group. In group B, results showed preoperative clinical symptoms disappeared completely in 13 of 21 patients, and pain relief was seen in 90. 5% ( 19/21 ). One case suffered from residual symptoms. Twenty cases obtained complete reduction of the olisthy vertebral bodies, and anatomical reduction rate was 95.2%. Four cases of infection or neurological complication occurred in this group. Both groups indicated no significant difference in clinical outcomes and anatomical reduction rate during followup. But group A had better intraoperative circumstances and postoperative outcome than group B, while group B had better postoperative parameters in X-ray of Angle of Slipping and Disc Index than group A.Conclusions The first choice of surgical method for lumbar stenosis with low degree lumbar spondylolisthesis is instrumented posterolateral fusion. Only when patients suffer from severe preoperative disc

  3. Task IV: Development of Circumferential Inlet Distortion through a Representative Eleven Stage High-speed Axial Compressor (United States)

    Tan, Choon-Sooi; Suder, Kenneth (Technical Monitor)


    The concepts and the procedure developed in Task I and Task III were used to determine the response of an eleven-stage high-speed compressor to an inlet distortion of 180 deg. circumferential extent for contrasting against its performance under uniform inlet flow. Using the computed results at the inlet to and outlet of the compressor, the computed total pressure ratio and efficiency for the clean condition are determined to be 14.22 and 76.9 percent respectively. As for the distorted case, these are determined to be 10.35 and 71.8 percent respectively, showing deterioration 76.9 percent vs 71.8 percent). The physical consistency of the computed flow field was assessed as a means of demonstrating the applicability and utility of the body force representation for inlet distortion computations. Specifically the computed evolution of the distorted pattern in static pressure and total pressure from compressor inlet to exit is examined. For the eleven-stage compressor examined here, the deterioration in performance has been found to be particularly severe in the last 2 stages. This suggests that the last two stages could be redesigned to alleviate the observed deterioration thus making the compressor performance insensitive to circumferential inlet distortion. This can potentially be accomplished by first determining what should the body force distribution of the last two stages should be to achieve minimal or no deterioration in performance in the last two stages. One can then in principle proceed to determine the blade design to yield such a body force distribution.

  4. Gasoline and gaseous hydrocarbons from fatty acids via catalytic cracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bielansky, Peter; Weinert, Alexander; Schoenberger, Christoph; Reichhold, Alexander [Institute for Chemical Engineering, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria)


    The conversion of palmitic and oleic acid as well as tall oil fatty acid was investigated in a fully continuous small scale fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) pilot plant. A conventional FCC zeolite catalyst was used. Experiments were performed in the range of 485-550 C. The highest gasoline yield of 44 wt.% was obtained from oleic acid at 550 C. Palmitic acid yielded the most cracking gas at 550 C with 43.9 wt.%. The obtained gasoline was practically oxygen-free at high octane numbers. Oxygen contained in the feed was mainly converted to water and small amounts of CO{sub 2}. Gasoline aromaticity clearly increased with temperature. The formation of high boiling products was enhanced by the number of C=C double bonds in the fatty acids. Large amounts of propene and ethene were formed which are valuable reactants for the polymer industry. The lower price of fatty acids in comparison with fresh vegetable oils makes them an interesting feedstock for the FCC process. (orig.)

  5. Interfacial Crack Arrest in Sandwich Panels with Embedded Crack Stoppers Subjected to Fatigue Loading (United States)

    Martakos, G.; Andreasen, J. H.; Berggreen, C.; Thomsen, O. T.


    A novel crack arresting device has been implemented in sandwich panels and tested using a special rig to apply out-of-plane loading on the sandwich panel face-sheets. Fatigue crack propagation was induced in the face-core interface of the sandwich panels which met the crack arrester. The effect of the embedded crack arresters was evaluated in terms of the achieved enhancement of the damage tolerance of the tested sandwich panels. A finite element (FE) model of the experimental setup was used for predicting propagation rates and direction of the crack growth. The FE simulation was based on the adoption of linear fracture mechanics and a fatigue propagation law (i.e. Paris law) to predict the residual fatigue life-time and behaviour of the test specimens. Finally, a comparison between the experimental results and the numerical simulations was made to validate the numerical predictions as well as the overall performance of the crack arresters.

  6. Interfacial Crack Arrest in Sandwich Panels with Embedded Crack Stoppers Subjected to Fatigue Loading (United States)

    Martakos, G.; Andreasen, J. H.; Berggreen, C.; Thomsen, O. T.


    A novel crack arresting device has been implemented in sandwich panels and tested using a special rig to apply out-of-plane loading on the sandwich panel face-sheets. Fatigue crack propagation was induced in the face-core interface of the sandwich panels which met the crack arrester. The effect of the embedded crack arresters was evaluated in terms of the achieved enhancement of the damage tolerance of the tested sandwich panels. A finite element (FE) model of the experimental setup was used for predicting propagation rates and direction of the crack growth. The FE simulation was based on the adoption of linear fracture mechanics and a fatigue propagation law (i.e. Paris law) to predict the residual fatigue life-time and behaviour of the test specimens. Finally, a comparison between the experimental results and the numerical simulations was made to validate the numerical predictions as well as the overall performance of the crack arresters.

  7. Damage 90: A post processor for crack initiation (United States)

    Lemaitre, Jean; Doghri, Issam


    A post processor is fully described which allows the calculation of the crack initiation conditions from the history of strain components taken as the output of a finite element calculation. It is based upon damage mechanics using coupled strain damage constitutive equations for linear isotropic elasticity, perfect plasticity and a unified kinetic law of damage evolution. The localization of damage allows this coupling to be considered only for the damaging point for which the input strain history is taken from a classical structure calculation in elasticity or elastoplasticity. The listing of the code, a `friendly' code, with less than 600 FORTRAN instructions is given and some examples show its ability to model ductile failure in one or multi dimensions, brittle failure, low and high cycle fatigue with the non-linear accumulation, and multi-axial fatigue.

  8. Research on Coupled Extension Characteristic of Thermal Fatigue Cracks at Forged Brake Disc for High Speed Train%高速列车锻钢制动盘热疲劳裂纹耦合扩展特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石晓玲; 李强; 宋占勋; 杨广雪


    据制动盘裂纹剖面的宏观形貌,发现盘面长裂纹的形成以多条半椭圆表面裂纹连通为主。针对制动盘在运行过程中的典型运用工况,采用有限元法计算制动盘在300 km/h紧急制动后的热应力,发现周向残余应力较大,并以此推测周向残余应力是驱动制动盘热疲劳裂纹扩展的主要原因。在此基础上,建立制动盘盘面的裂纹网格,研究了裂纹扩展过程中的应力强度因子和多裂纹耦合扩展规律。通过研究发现对于给定的载荷条件,不同初始形状比时,裂纹前缘应力强度因子的分布规律存在一定的规律性,随着裂纹的扩展,裂纹形状趋于扁平化;多裂纹扩展时,裂纹间距越小,裂纹间的相互作用越明显,扩展速度越快;但受制动盘结构和尺寸限制,共线裂纹数越多,每条裂纹扩展到临界值时的应力强度因子越小。%According to the profile of brake disc crack macro-morphology, the main forms of long crack are approximately its own expansion and multiple cracks connectivity. Regarding the brake disk typical conditions during operation, the circumferential residual stress are considerable by calculated the thermal stress in 300 km/h emergency braking using the finite element method. Thereafter, the thermal fatigue crack growth of brake disc is drove through circumferential residual stress. Based on the conclusion, the brake disc grid with crack is established, and then the distribution of the stress intensity factor and the coupled propagation law between multi-cracks in the crack propagation process are researched. The results show that, the stress intensity factor of crack tip have regularity for different initial crack size and the crack shape tends to flatten with crack propagation under same load; When multiple crack are propagated, crack spacing smaller, the faster expansion and the interaction are more obvious; however, considering the structure and

  9. On Cracking of Charged Anisotropic Polytropes

    CERN Document Server

    Azam, M


    Recently in \\cite{34}, the role of electromagnetic field on the cracking of spherical polytropes has been investigated without perturbing charge parameter explicitly. In this study, we have examined the occurrence of cracking of anisotropic spherical polytropes through perturbing parameters like anisotropic pressure, energy density and charge. We consider two different types of polytropes in this study. We discuss the occurrence of cracking in two different ways $(i)$ by perturbing polytropic constant, anisotropy and charge parameter $(ii)$ by perturbing polytropic index, anisotropy and charge parameter for each case. We conclude that cracking appears for a wide range of parameters in both cases. Also, our results are reduced to \\cite{33} in the absence of charge.

  10. Struggling with Fitzgerald's "Crack-Up" Essays. (United States)

    Fulcher, James


    Ponders F. Scott Fitzgerald's essays about his "crack-up" and relates them to the many complex aspects of the struggles of a teacher using post-structural literary theory and teaching two-year college students. (SR)

  11. The Effect of Water on Crack Interaction (United States)

    Gaede, O.; Regenauer-Lieb, K.


    While the mechanical coupling between pore fluid and solid phase is relatively well understood, quantitative studies dealing with chemical-mechanical weakening in geological materials are rare. Many classical poroelastic problems can be addressed with the simple law of effective stress. Experimental studies show that the presence of a chemically active fluid can have effects that exceed the predictions of the law of effective stress. These chemical fluid-rock interactions alter the mechanical properties of the solid phase. Especially chemical-mechanical weakening has important ramifications for many areas of applied geosciences ranging from nuclear waste disposal over reservoir enhancement to fault stability. In this study, we model chemically induced changes of the size of the process zone around a crack tip. The knowledge of the process zone size is used to extend existing effective medium approximations of cracked solids. The stress distribution around a crack leads to a chemical potential gradient. This gradient will be a driver for mass diffusion through the solid phase. As an example, mass diffusion is towards the crack tip for a mode I crack. In this case a chemical reaction, that weakens the solid phase, will increase the size of the process zone around the crack tip. We apply our model to the prominent hydrolytic weakening effect observed in the quartz-water system (Griggs and Blacic, 1965). Hydrolytic weakening is generally attributed to water hydrolyzing the strong Si-O bonds of the quartz crystal. The hydrolysis replaces a Si-O-Si bridge with a relatively weak hydrogen bridge between two silanol groups. This enhances dislocation mobility and hence the yield stress is reduced. The plastic process zone around a crack tip is therefore larger in a wet crystal than in a dry crystal. We calculate the size of the process zone by solving this coupled mechanical-chemical problem with the Finite Element code ABAQUS. We consider single crack, collinear crack and

  12. Inner Crack Detection Method for Cantilever Beams (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Zhang, Wei; Li, Yixuan; Su, Xianyue


    In this paper, continuous wavelet transform has been performed to extract the inner crack information from the guided waves in cantilever beams, and the location and size of crack can be detected exactly. Considering its best time-frequency property, Gabor continuous wavelet transform is employed to analyze the complicated flexible wave signals in cantilever beam, which is inspirited by an impact on the free end. Otherwise, in order to enhance the sensitivity of detection for some small cracks, an improved method is discussed. Here, both computational and experimental methods are carried out for comparing the influence of different crack location in beam. Therefore, the method proposed can be expected to expand to a powerful damage detection method in a broad engineering application.

  13. Initiating, growing and cracking of hydrogen blisters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Xuechong; SHAN Guangbin; CHU Wuyang; SU Yanjing; GAO Kewei; QIAO Lijie; JIANG Bo; CHEN Gang; CUI Yinhui


    The growing process of a hydrogen blister in a wheel steel was observed in situ with an optical microscope, and the fracture surfaces formed from broken blisters on a wheel steel and bulk metallic glass were investigated. The initiating, growing, cracking and breaking of hydrogen blisters are as follows. Supersaturated vacancies can increase greatly during charging and gather together into a vacancy cluster (small cavity). Hydrogen atoms become hydrogen molecules in the vacancy cluster and hydrogen molecules can stabilize the vacancy cluster. The small cavity becomes the nucleus of hydrogen blister. The blister will grow with entering of vacancies and hydrogen atoms. With increasing hydrogen pressure, plastic deformation occurs first, the hydrogen blister near the surface extrudes, and then cracks initiate along the wall of the blister with further increasing hydrogen pressure. A cracked blister can grow further through propagating of cracks until it breaks.

  14. Dynamic Strain and Crack Monitoring Sensor Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Los Gatos Research proposes to develop a new automated vehicle health monitoring sensor system capable of measuring loads and detecting crack, corrosion, and...

  15. Finite Element Analysis of the Effect of Crack Depth and Crack Opening On the Girder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Kamrul Hassan


    Full Text Available In order to identify the effect of crack depth and opening on the girder, finite element method (FEM has been used in this paper. In FE analysis, six nodded two dimensional plane elements (PLANE-2 are considered. Each node has two degree of freedom such as UX and UY. For the plane elements, a plane stress width/thickness option is chosen. For analytical model of crack of the concrete bridge girder, crack opening was increased from 0.2 mm to 1mm at an interval 0.2 mm and crack depth also increased from 30 mm to 150 mm at an interval 30 mm. The models were discreatized by a triangular mesh and convergence test was executed to obtain satisfactory results from the Plane-2 element. From the numerical result, it is seen that the principal stress become a higher with increased the crack depth and also crack opening with respect to load increasing. But the crack depth at 90 mm and crack opening at 0.6 mm, it has more effect on the girder because the stress concentration is higher than other crack depth and opening.

  16. Calculation of the crack tip opening displacement of a crack lying in a subsurface layer (United States)

    Higashida, Y.; Kamada, K.


    Crack tip opening displacement of a crack lying parallel to a free surface is calculated by counting the number of dislocations emitted into the plastic zone from a crack tip. A discrete dislocation model was used to simulate the crack, while varying the strength of dislocations so as to satisfy the boundary condition. The result coincides numerically with the predictions made in a previous paper, in which the stress intensity factor appearing in a theory of bulk materials was replaced with the one which includes the surface correction.

  17. Crack Closure Effects on Fatigue Crack Propagation Rates: Application of a Proposed Theoretical Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. F. O. Correia


    Full Text Available Structural design taking into account fatigue damage requires a thorough knowledge of the behaviour of materials. In addition to the monotonic behaviour of the materials, it is also important to assess their cyclic response and fatigue crack propagation behaviour under constant and variable amplitude loading. Materials whenever subjected to fatigue cracking may exhibit mean stress effects as well as crack closure effects. In this paper, a theoretical model based on the same initial assumptions of the analytical models proposed by Hudak and Davidson and Ellyin is proposed to estimate the influence of the crack closure effects. This proposal based further on Walker’s propagation law was applied to the P355NL1 steel using an inverse analysis (back-extrapolation of experimental fatigue crack propagation results. Based on this proposed model it is possible to estimate the crack opening stress intensity factor, Kop, the relationship between U=ΔKeff/ΔK quantity and the stress intensity factor, the crack length, and the stress ratio. This allows the evaluation of the influence of the crack closure effects for different stress ratio levels, in the fatigue crack propagation rates. Finally, a good agreement is found between the proposed theoretical model and the analytical models presented in the literature.

  18. Hydration Process and Crack Tendency of Concrete Based on Resistivity and Restrained Shrinkage Crack

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MUAZU Bawa Samaila; WEI Xiaosheng; WANG Lei


    Hydration process, crack potential and setting time of concrete grade C30, C40 and C50 were monitored by using a non-contact electrical resistivity apparatus, a novel plastic ring mould and penetration resistance methods, respectively. The results show the highest resistivity of C30 at the early stage until a point when C50 accelerated and overtook the others. It has been experimentally conifrmed that the crossing point of C30 and C50 corresponds to the ifnal setting time of C50. From resistivity derivative curve, four different stages were observed upon which the hydration process is classiifed; these are dissolution, induction, acceleration and deceleration periods. Consequently, restrained shrinkage crack and setting time results demonstrated that C50 set and cracked the earliest. The cracking time of all the samples occurred within a reasonable experimental period thus the novel plastic ring is a convenient method for predicting concrete’s crack potential. The highest inlfection time (ti) obtained from resistivity curve and the ifnal setting time (tf) were used with crack time (tc) in coming up with mathematical models for the prediction of concrete’s cracking age for the range of concrete grade considered. Finally, an ANSYS numerical simulation supports the experimental ifndings in terms of the earliest crack age of C50 and the crack location.

  19. Molecular dynamics simulation of propagating cracks (United States)

    Mullins, M.


    Steady state crack propagation is investigated numerically using a model consisting of 236 free atoms in two (010) planes of bcc alpha iron. The continuum region is modeled using the finite element method with 175 nodes and 288 elements. The model shows clear (010) plane fracture to the edge of the discrete region at moderate loads. Analysis of the results obtained indicates that models of this type can provide realistic simulation of steady state crack propagation.

  20. Fatigue Crack Initiation Analysis in 1060 Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Gyansah


    Full Text Available This study investigates initiation of small cracks on dumble-shaped plate type specimens of 1060steel at the load ratio of R = 0 under varied cyclic stress amplitudes between 0.6 and 1.0 of yield stress usingthe Instron machine (model: 8501. Sinusoidal wave of a frequency of 10 Hz was used in the experiment. Theexperiment was conducted at a room temperature of 23ºC. Each test for different applied stress ranges wascarried out for 2×104 cycles. Microstructure and fractography of the fractured specimen were also analyzed.Nucleations of cracks were observed at Ferrite-Ferrite G rain Boundary (FFGB as well as inside Ferrite GrainBody (FGB, but the FFGB location was preferred. Results show that the average length of FFGB cracks isfound larger than that of the average length of cracks initiated inside FGB at the same cyclic loading conditions.The formation of slip band inside grain body, slip band impingement at grain boundary and elastic-plasticincompatibility synergistically have significant influence on fatigue crack initiation in 1060 steel. Additionally,the formation of irregular voids inside slip bands, initiation and growth of small voids at grain boundary andthe subsequent joining of these with other voids were seen as specific characteristics of 1060 steel. It was alsoestablished that cracks nucleate both at grain boundary and inside grain body in 1060 steel in the investigateddomain of 0.6 to 1.0Fy.It was further established that the orientation of the grain body cracks at low stress levelis greater than 45º and the average angle of orientation of these cracks increases like that of grain boundarycracks with increased magnitude of stress range.

  1. Molecular dynamics simulation of propagating cracks (United States)

    Mullins, M.


    Steady state crack propagation is investigated numerically using a model consisting of 236 free atoms in two (010) planes of bcc alpha iron. The continuum region is modeled using the finite element method with 175 nodes and 288 elements. The model shows clear (010) plane fracture to the edge of the discrete region at moderate loads. Analysis of the results obtained indicates that models of this type can provide realistic simulation of steady state crack propagation.

  2. Total hip replacement using hemi-circumferential interposition acetabuloplasty for acetabular deficiency in post-Perthes deformities: technique and long-term results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Haverkamp; H. Eijer; R.K. Marti


    We describe a technique of hemi-circumferential interposition grafting that allows placement of the cup in the anatomical position of the original acetabulum in the rare cases of post-Perthes or Perthes-like deformities of the femoral head combined with a steep and shallow acetabulum. This technique

  3. Rehabilitation program for prosthetic tracheojejunal voice production and swallowing function following circumferential pharyngolaryngectomy and neopharyngeal reconstruction with a jejunal free flap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baijens, L.W.J.; Speijer, R.; Roodenburg, N.; Hilgers, F.J.M.


    The case of a 68-year-old woman with postoperative speech and swallowing problems following a circumferential pharyngolaryngectomy and neopharyngeal reconstruction with a jejunal free flap is presented. The primary tumor was an extended papillary thyroid carcinoma (pT4N0M0). For vocal restoration,

  4. Circumferential fusion is dominant over posterolateral fusion in a long-term perspective: cost-utility evaluation of a randomized controlled trial in severe, chronic low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soegaard, Rikke; Bünger, Cody E; Christiansen, Terkel


    STUDY DESIGN: Cost-utility evaluation of a randomized, controlled trial with a 4- to 8-year follow-up. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incremental cost per quality-adjusted-life-year (QALY) when comparing circumferential fusion to posterolateral fusion in a long-term, societal perspective. SUMMARY ...

  5. 76 FR 36176 - Fully Developed Claim (Fully Developed Claims-Applications for Compensation, Pension, DIC, Death... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Fully Developed Claim (Fully Developed Claims--Applications for Compensation, Pension, DIC, Death Pension, and/or Accrued Benefits); Correction AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration, Department...

  6. Atomistic observation of a crack tip approaching coherent twin boundaries. (United States)

    Liu, L; Wang, J; Gong, S K; Mao, S X


    Coherent twin boundaries (CTBs) in nano-twinned materials could improve crack resistance. However, the role of the CTBs during crack penetration has never been explored at atomic scale. Our in situ observation on nano-twinned Ag under a high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) reveals the dynamic processes of a crack penetration across the CTBs, which involve alternated crack tip blunting, crack deflection, twinning/detwinning and slip transmission across the CTBs. The alternated blunting processes are related to the emission of different types of dislocations at the crack tip and vary with the distance of the crack tip from the CTBs.

  7. Crack shape analysis of PWSCC in S/G tubings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, I. K. [Sunmon Univ., Chonan (Korea, Republic of)


    Crack shape of PWSCC was analyzed, based on the fractured pulled-out S/G tubings of Ulchin-1 steam generator. The shape of the cracks in kiss roll transitions was elliptical shape for short cracks, and car shape for long cracks with flat crack front. The bulging was observed under the inner wall after shot-peening. Crack shape change after shot-peening was resulted from the crack growth restraint in axial direction due to compressive residual stresses on the primary side surface.

  8. Thermally activated processes of fatigue crack growth in steels (United States)

    Tanaka, Masaki; Fujii, Atsushi; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Higashida, Kenji


    Fatigue crack growth rates in steels at high and low temperatures have been investigated using Paris curves. The fatigue crack growth rates at high temperatures are quite different from those at low temperatures. Arrhenius plots between fatigue crack growth rate (da/dN) and test temperatures at constant stress intensity factor range (ΔKI) indicate a difference of the rate-controlling process for fatigue crack growth with temperature. Slip deformation at the crack tip governs fatigue crack growth at high temperatures, while hydrogen diffusion is associated with crack growth at low temperatures.

  9. Hierarchical Formation of Intrasplat Cracks in Thermal Spray Ceramic Coatings (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Yang, Guan-Jun; Li, Cheng-Xin; Li, Chang-Jiu


    Intrasplat cracks, an essential feature of thermally sprayed ceramic coatings, play important roles in determining coating properties. However, final intrasplat crack patterns are always considered to be disordered and irregular, resulting from random cracking during splat cooling, since the detailed formation process of intrasplat cracks has scarcely been considered. In the present study, the primary formation mechanism for intrasplat cracking was explored based on both experimental observations and mechanical analysis. The results show that the intrasplat crack pattern in thermally sprayed ceramic splats presents a hierarchical structure with four sides and six neighbors, indicating that intrasplat crack patterns arise from successive domain divisions due to sequential cracking during splat cooling. The driving forces for intrasplat cracking are discussed, and the experimental data quantitatively agree well with theoretical results. This will provide insight for further coating structure designs and tailoring by tuning of intrasplat cracks.

  10. Electromagnetic pulsed thermography for natural cracks inspection (United States)

    Gao, Yunlai; Tian, Gui Yun; Wang, Ping; Wang, Haitao; Gao, Bin; Woo, Wai Lok; Li, Kongjing


    Emerging integrated sensing and monitoring of material degradation and cracks are increasingly required for characterizing the structural integrity and safety of infrastructure. However, most conventional nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods are based on single modality sensing which is not adequate to evaluate structural integrity and natural cracks. This paper proposed electromagnetic pulsed thermography for fast and comprehensive defect characterization. It hybrids multiple physical phenomena i.e. magnetic flux leakage, induced eddy current and induction heating linking to physics as well as signal processing algorithms to provide abundant information of material properties and defects. New features are proposed using 1st derivation that reflects multiphysics spatial and temporal behaviors to enhance the detection of cracks with different orientations. Promising results that robust to lift-off changes and invariant features for artificial and natural cracks detection have been demonstrated that the proposed method significantly improves defect detectability. It opens up multiphysics sensing and integrated NDE with potential impact for natural understanding and better quantitative evaluation of natural cracks including stress corrosion crack (SCC) and rolling contact fatigue (RCF).

  11. Nonlinear modal methods for crack localization (United States)

    Sutin, Alexander; Ostrovsky, Lev; Lebedev, Andrey


    A nonlinear method for locating defects in solid materials is discussed that is relevant to nonlinear modal tomography based on the signal cross-modulation. The scheme is illustrated by a theoretical model in which a thin plate or bar with a single crack is excited by a strong low-frequency wave and a high-frequency probing wave (ultrasound). A crack is considered as a small contact-type defect which does not perturb the modal structure of sound in linear approximation but creates combinational-frequency components whose amplitudes depend on their closeness to a resonance and crack position. Using different crack models, including the hysteretic ones, the nonlinear part of its volume variations under the given stress and then the combinational wave components in the bar can be determined. Evidently, their amplitude depends strongly on the crack position with respect to the peaks or nodes of the corresponding linear signals which can be used for localization of the crack position. Exciting the sample by sweeping ultrasound frequencies through several resonances (modes) reduces the ambiguity in the localization. Some aspects of inverse problem solution are also discussed, and preliminary experimental results are presented.

  12. Electromagnetic pulsed thermography for natural cracks inspection (United States)

    Gao, Yunlai; Tian, Gui Yun; Wang, Ping; Wang, Haitao; Gao, Bin; Woo, Wai Lok; Li, Kongjing


    Emerging integrated sensing and monitoring of material degradation and cracks are increasingly required for characterizing the structural integrity and safety of infrastructure. However, most conventional nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods are based on single modality sensing which is not adequate to evaluate structural integrity and natural cracks. This paper proposed electromagnetic pulsed thermography for fast and comprehensive defect characterization. It hybrids multiple physical phenomena i.e. magnetic flux leakage, induced eddy current and induction heating linking to physics as well as signal processing algorithms to provide abundant information of material properties and defects. New features are proposed using 1st derivation that reflects multiphysics spatial and temporal behaviors to enhance the detection of cracks with different orientations. Promising results that robust to lift-off changes and invariant features for artificial and natural cracks detection have been demonstrated that the proposed method significantly improves defect detectability. It opens up multiphysics sensing and integrated NDE with potential impact for natural understanding and better quantitative evaluation of natural cracks including stress corrosion crack (SCC) and rolling contact fatigue (RCF). PMID:28169361

  13. Dynamic behaviour of a rotating cracked beam (United States)

    Yashar, Ahmed; Ghandchi-Tehrani, Maryam; Ferguson, Neil


    This paper presents a new approach to investigate and analyse the vibrational behaviour of cracked rotating cantilever beams, which can for example represent helicopter or wind turbine blades. The analytical Hamiltonian method is used in modelling the rotating beam and two numerical methods, the Rayleigh-Ritz and FEM, are used to study the natural frequencies and the mode shapes of the intact rotating beams. Subsequently, a crack is introduced into the FE model and simulations are performed to identify the modal characteristics for an open cracked rotating beam. The effect of various parameters such as non-dimensional rotating speed, hub ratio and slenderness ratio are investigated for both the intact and the cracked rotating beam, and in both directions of chordwise and flapwise motion. The veering phenomena in the natural frequencies as a function of the rotational speed and the buckling speed are considered with respect to the slenderness ratio. In addition, the mode shapes obtained for the flapwise vibration are compared using the modal assurance criterion (MAC). Finally, a new three dimensional design chart is produced, showing the effect of crack location and depth on the natural frequencies of the rotating beam. This chart will be subsequently important in identifying crack defects in rotating blades.

  14. Protection of brittle film against cracking (United States)

    Musil, J.; Sklenka, J.; Čerstvý, R.


    This article reports on the protection of the brittle Zrsbnd Sisbnd O film against cracking in bending by the highly elastic top film (over-layer). In experiments the Zrsbnd Sisbnd O films with different elemental composition and structure were used. Both the brittle and highly elastic films were prepared by magnetron sputtering using a dual magnetron. The brittle film easily cracks in bending. On the other hand, the highly elastic film exhibits enhanced resistance to cracking in bending. Main characteristic parameters of both the brittle and highly elastic films are given. Special attention is devoted to the effect of the structure (crystalline, amorphous) of both the brittle and highly elastic top film on the resistance of cracking of the brittle film. It was found that (1) both the X-ray amorphous and crystalline brittle films easily crack in bending, (2) the highly elastic film can have either X-ray amorphous or crystalline structure and (3) both the X-ray amorphous and crystalline, highly elastic top films perfectly protect the brittle films against cracking in bending. The structure, mechanical properties and optical transparency of the brittle and highly elastic sputtered Zrsbnd Sisbnd O films are described in detail. At the end of this article, the principle of the low-temperature formation of the highly elastic films is also explained.

  15. Stress corrosion cracking of copper canisters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Fraser (Integrity Corrosion Consulting Limited (Canada)); Newman, Roger (Univ. of Toronto (Canada))


    A critical review is presented of the possibility of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of copper canisters in a deep geological repository in the Fennoscandian Shield. Each of the four main mechanisms proposed for the SCC of pure copper are reviewed and the required conditions for cracking compared with the expected environmental and mechanical loading conditions within the repository. Other possible mechanisms are also considered, as are recent studies specifically directed towards the SCC of copper canisters. The aim of the review is to determine if and when during the evolution of the repository environment copper canisters might be susceptible to SCC. Mechanisms that require a degree of oxidation or dissolution are only possible whilst oxidant is present in the repository and then only if other environmental and mechanical loading conditions are satisfied. These constraints are found to limit the period during which the canisters could be susceptible to cracking via film rupture (slip dissolution) or tarnish rupture mechanisms to the first few years after deposition of the canisters, at which time there will be insufficient SCC agent (ammonia, acetate, or nitrite) to support cracking. During the anaerobic phase, the supply of sulphide ions to the free surface will be transport limited by diffusion through the highly compacted bentonite. Therefore, no HS. will enter the crack and cracking by either of these mechanisms during the long term anaerobic phase is not feasible. Cracking via the film-induced cleavage mechanism requires a surface film of specific properties, most often associated with a nano porous structure. Slow rates of dissolution characteristic of processes in the repository will tend to coarsen any nano porous layer. Under some circumstances, a cuprous oxide film could support film-induced cleavage, but there is no evidence that this mechanism would operate in the presence of sulphide during the long-term anaerobic period because copper sulphide

  16. Snow fracture: From micro-cracking to global failure (United States)

    Capelli, Achille; Reiweger, Ingrid; Schweizer, Jürg


    Slab avalanches are caused by a crack forming and propagating in a weak layer within the snow cover, which eventually causes the detachment of the overlying cohesive slab. The gradual damage process leading to the nucleation of the initial failure is still not entirely understood. Therefore, we studied the damage process preceding snow failure by analyzing the acoustic emissions (AE) generated by bond failure or micro-cracking. The AE allow studying the ongoing progressive failure in a non-destructive way. We performed fully load-controlled failure experiments on snow samples presenting a weak layer and recorded the generated AE. The size and frequency of the generated AE increased before failure revealing an acceleration of the damage process with increased size and frequency of damage and/or microscopic cracks. The AE energy was power-law distributed and the exponent (b-value) decreased approaching failure. The waiting time followed an exponential distribution with increasing exponential coefficient λ before failure. The decrease of the b-value and the increase of λ correspond to a change in the event distribution statistics indicating a transition from homogeneously distributed uncorrelated damage producing mostly small AE to localized damage, which cause larger correlated events which leads to brittle failure. We observed brittle failure for the fast experiment and a more ductile behavior for the slow experiments. This rate dependence was reflected also in the AE signature. In the slow experiments the b value and λ were almost constant, and the energy rate increase was moderate indicating that the damage process was in a stable state - suggesting the damage and healing processes to be balanced. On a shorter time scale, however, the AE parameters varied indicating that the damage process was not steady but consisted of a sum of small bursts. We assume that the bursts may have been generated by cascades of correlated micro-cracks caused by localization of

  17. NEW RSW & Wall Medium Fully Tetrahedral Grid (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — New Medium Fully Tetrahedral RSW Grid with viscous wind tunnel wall at the root. This grid is for a node-based unstructured solver. Medium Tet: Quad Surface Faces= 0...

  18. NEW RSW & Wall Fine Fully Tetrahedral Grid (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NEW RSW Fine Fully Tetrahedral Grid with Viscous Wind Tunnel wall at the root. This grid is for a node-based unstructured solver. Note that the CGNS file is very...

  19. Automated fully-stressed design with NASTRAN (United States)

    Wallerstein, D. V.; Haggenmacher, G. W.


    An automated strength sizing capability is described. The technique determines the distribution of material among the elements of a structural model. The sizing is based on either a fully stressed design or a scaled feasible fully stressed design. Results obtained from the application of the strength sizing to the structural sizing of a composite material wing box using material strength allowables are presented. These results demonstrate the rapid convergence of the structural sizes to a usable design.

  20. Biogenic Cracks in Porous Rock (United States)

    Hemmerle, A.; Hartung, J.; Hallatschek, O.; Goehring, L.; Herminghaus, S.


    Microorganisms growing on and inside porous rock may fracture it by various processes. Some of the mechanisms of biofouling and bioweathering are today identified and partially understood but most emphasis is on chemical weathering, while mechanical contributions have been neglected. However, as demonstrated by the perseverance of a seed germinating and cracking up a concrete block, the turgor pressure of living organisms can be very significant. Here, we present results of a systematic study of the effects of the mechanical forces of growing microbial populations on the weathering of porous media. We designed a model porous medium made of glass beads held together by polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), a curable polymer. The rheological properties of the porous medium, whose shape and size are tunable, can be controlled by the ratio of crosslinker to base used in the PDMS (see Fig. 1). Glass and PDMS being inert to most chemicals, we are able to focus on the mechanical processes of biodeterioration, excluding any chemical weathering. Inspired by recent measurements of the high pressure (~0.5 Mpa) exerted by a growing population of yeasts trapped in a microfluidic device, we show that yeast cells can be cultured homogeneously within porous medium until saturation of the porous space. We investigate then the effects of such an inner pressure on the mechanical properties of the sample. Using the same model system, we study also the complex interplay between biofilms and porous media. We focus in particular on the effects of pore size on the penetration of the biofilm within the porous sample, and on the resulting deformations of the matrix, opening new perspectives into the understanding of life in complex geometry. Figure 1. Left : cell culture growing in a model porous medium. The white spheres represent the grains, bonds are displayed in grey, and microbes in green. Right: microscopy picture of glass beads linked by PDMS bridges, scale bar: 100 μm.

  1. Environmentally assisted cracking in light water reactors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopra, O. K.; Chung, H. M.; Clark, R. W.; Gruber, E. E.; Shack, W. J.; Soppet, W. K.; Strain, R. V.


    This report summarizes work performed by Argonne National Laboratory on fatigue and environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) in light water reactors (LWRs) from January to December 2002. Topics that have been investigated include: (a) environmental effects on fatigue crack initiation in carbon and low-alloy steels and austenitic stainless steels (SSs), (b) irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) of austenitic SSs in BWRs, (c) evaluation of causes and mechanisms of irradiation-assisted cracking of austenitic SS in PWRs, and (d) cracking in Ni-alloys and welds. A critical review of the ASME Code fatigue design margins and an assessment of the conservation in the current choice of design margins are presented. The existing fatigue {var_epsilon}-N data have been evaluated to define the effects of key material, loading, and environmental parameters on the fatigue lives of carbon and low-alloy steels and austenitic SSs. Experimental data are presented on the effects of surface roughness on fatigue crack initiation in these materials in air and LWR environments. Crack growth tests were performed in BWR environments on SSs irradiated to 0.9 and 2.0 x 10{sup 21} n x cm{sup -2}. The crack growth rates (CGRs) of the irradiated steels are a factor of {approx}5 higher than the disposition curve proposed in NUREG-0313 for thermally sensitized materials. The CGRs decreased by an order of magnitude in low-dissolved oxygen (DO) environments. Slow-strain-rate tensile (SSRT) tests were conducted in high-purity 289 C water on steels irradiated to {approx}3 dpa. The bulk S content correlated well with the susceptibility to intergranular SCC in 289 C water. The IASCC susceptibility of SSs that contain >0.003 wt. % S increased drastically. bend tests in inert environments at 23 C were conducted on broken pieces of SSRT specimens and on unirradiated specimens of the same materials after hydrogen charging. The results of the tests and a review of other data in the literature

  2. Evaluation method of cracking resistance of lightweight aggregate concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季韬; 张彬彬; 陈永波; 庄一舟


    The cracking behavior of lightweight aggregate concrete (LWAC) was investigated by mechanical analysis, SEM and cracking-resistant test where a shrinkage-restrained ring with a clapboard was used. The relationship between the ceramsite type and the cracking resistance of LWAC was built up and compared with that of normal-weight coarse aggregate concrete (NWAC). A new method was proposed to evaluate the cracking resistance of concrete, where the concepts of cracking coefficient ζt(t) and the evaluation index Acr(t) were proposed, and the development of micro-cracks and damage accumulation were recognized. For the concrete with an ascending cracking coefficient curve, the larger Acr(t) is, the lower cracking resistance of concrete is. For the concrete with a descending cracking coefficient curve, the larger Acr(t) is, the stronger the cracking resistance of concrete is. The evaluation results show that in the case of that all the three types of coarse aggregates in concrete are pre-soaked for 24 h, NWAC has the lowest cracking resistance, followed by the LWAC with lower water absorption capacity ceramsite and the LWAC with higher water absorption capacity ceramsite has the strongest cracking resistance. The proposed method has obvious advantages over the cracking age method, because it can evaluate the cracking behavior of concrete even if the concrete has not an observable crack.

  3. Effect of proton irradiation on irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking in PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Han Ok; Hwang, Mi Jin; Kim, Sung Woo; Hwang, Seong Sik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) involves the cracking and failure of materials under irradiation environment in nuclear power plant water environment. The major factors and processes governing an IASCC are suggested by others. The IASCC of the reactor core internals due to the material degradation and the water chemistry change has been reported in high stress stainless steel components, such as fuel elements (Boiling Water Reactors) in the 1960s, a control rod in the 1970s, and a baffle former bolt in recent years of light water reactors (Pressurized Water Reactors). Many irradiated stainless steels that are resistant to inergranular cracking in 288 .deg. C argon are susceptible to IG cracking in the simulated BWR environment at the same temperature. Under the circumstances, a lot works have been performed on IASCC in BWR. Recent efforts have been devoted to investigate an IASCC in a PWR, but the mechanism in a PWR is not fully understood yet as compared with that in a BWR owing to a lack of data from laboratories and fields. Therefore, it is strongly necessary to review and analyze recent researches of an IASCC in both BWR and PWR for establishing a proactive management technology for the IASCC of core internals in Korean PWRs. The objective of this research to find IASCC behavior of proton irradiated 316 stainless steels in a high-temperature water chemistry environment. The IASCC initiation susceptibility on 1, 3, 5 DPA proton irradiated 316 austenite stainless steel was evaluated in PWR environment. SCC area ratio on the fracture surface was similar regardless of irradiation level. Total crack length on the irradiated surface increases in order of specimen 1, 3, 5 DPA. The total crack length at the side surface is a better measure in evaluating IASCC initiation susceptibility for proton-irradiated samples.

  4. A discontinuous finite element approach to cracking in coupled poro-elastic fluid flow models (United States)

    Wilson, C. R.; Spiegelman, M. W.; Evans, O.; Ulven, O. I.; Sun, W.


    Reaction-driven cracking is a coupled process whereby fluid-induced reactions drive large volume changes in the host rock which produce stresses leading to crack propagation and failure. This in turn generates new surface area and fluid-flow pathways for subsequent reaction in a potentially self-sustaining system. This mechanism has has been proposed for the pervasive serpentinization and carbonation of peridotite, as well as applications to mineral carbon sequestration and hydrocarbon extraction. The key computational issue in this problem is implementing algorithms that adequately model the formation of discrete fractures. Here we present models using a discontinuous finite element method for modeling fracture formation (Radovitsky et al., 2011). Cracks are introduced along facets of the mesh by the relaxation of penalty parameters once a failure criterion is met. It is fully described in the weak form of the equations, requiring no modification of the underlying mesh structure and allowing fluid properties to be easily adjusted along cracked facets. To develop and test the method, we start by implementing the algorithm for the simplified Biot equations for poro-elasticity using the finite element model assembler TerraFERMA. We consider hydro-fracking around a borehole (Grassl et al., 2015), where elevated fluid pressure in the poro-elastic solid causes it to fail radially in tension. We investigate the effects of varying the Biot coefficient and adjusting the fluid transport properties in the vicinity of the crack and compare our results to related dual-graph models (Ulven & Sun, submitted). We discuss issues arising from this method, including the formation of null spaces and appropriate preconditioning and solution strategies. Initial results suggest that this method provides a promising way to incorporate cracking into our reactive fluid flow models and future work aims to integrate the mechanical and chemical aspects of this process.

  5. Firebox modeling of SRT cracking heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundaram, K.M.; Albano, J.V. [ABB Lummus Crest Inc., Bloomfield, NJ (United States)


    Thermal cracking of hydrocarbons remains the most economically attractive route for the production of ethylene. The heat for the endothermic cracking reaction is supplied in high capacity fired heaters which are designed specifically to have high selectivity to olefins. In the cracking process, coke is deposited within the tubes of the radiant coil. The rate of coke deposition in a cracking furnace is a function not only of process conditions but of other factors as well. High tube metal temperatures in certain areas of the coil or hot spots can cause locally high coking rate leading to partial blockage of the tubes and consequently, short runs. The small diameter tubes used in modern high selectivity heaters are more sensitive than older large tube designs. The occurrence of these hot zones is a strong function of fireside conditions. For satisfactory performance, the heat flux profile in a cracking heater must be maintained as uniform as possible. In addition, it is important to minimize the variation of process temperatures entering the various cracking coils. These fireside variables are not only a function of the type of burners, excess air, type of fuel(s) and distribution of air and fuel but depend significantly on the air and flue gas flow patterns associated with the firebox, i.e., the firebox aerodynamics. Poor aerodynamics can adversely affect firing patterns and hence heat flux profiles in commercial furnaces. A variety of modeling techniques have been used to evaluate the firebox aerodynamics of Lummus, Short Residence Time, cracking heaters. These include flow visualization, physical cold flow modeling, and computational techniques. These approaches are discussed in this paper.

  6. Crack propagation modeling using Peridynamic theory (United States)

    Hafezi, M. H.; Alebrahim, R.; Kundu, T.


    Crack propagation and branching are modeled using nonlocal peridynamic theory. One major advantage of this nonlocal theory based analysis tool is the unifying approach towards material behavior modeling - irrespective of whether the crack is formed in the material or not. No separate damage law is needed for crack initiation and propagation. This theory overcomes the weaknesses of existing continuum mechanics based numerical tools (e.g. FEM, XFEM etc.) for identifying fracture modes and does not require any simplifying assumptions. Cracks grow autonomously and not necessarily along a prescribed path. However, in some special situations such as in case of ductile fracture, the damage evolution and failure depend on parameters characterizing the local stress state instead of peridynamic damage modeling technique developed for brittle fracture. For brittle fracture modeling the bond is simply broken when the failure criterion is satisfied. This simulation helps us to design more reliable modeling tool for crack propagation and branching in both brittle and ductile materials. Peridynamic analysis has been found to be very demanding computationally, particularly for real-world structures (e.g. vehicles, aircrafts, etc.). It also requires a very expensive visualization process. The goal of this paper is to bring awareness to researchers the impact of this cutting-edge simulation tool for a better understanding of the cracked material response. A computer code has been developed to implement the peridynamic theory based modeling tool for two-dimensional analysis. A good agreement between our predictions and previously published results is observed. Some interesting new results that have not been reported earlier by others are also obtained and presented in this paper. The final objective of this investigation is to increase the mechanics knowledge of self-similar and self-affine cracks.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.F.Lee; L.T.Hsiao


    In this paper, the FEM with the incremental endochronic cyclic plasticity (EndoFEM) and the rc controlled node-released strategy are employed to study the fatigue crack opened/closed load (Pop) of A1 2024-T3 CCT specimens provided by Mageed and Pandey under several crack lengths and the constant amplitude with various load ratio (R). After statisfactory results are achieved by comparisons of computed Pop values and cited experimental data, the simulations will be extended to the crack lengths with significant bending effect due to short ligaments or high peak (Pmax) or high positive or very low negative R cyclic loads. Through these simulations, the complete map of Pop/Pmax vs. Kmax and R can be constructed and thereafter its correspondant empirical formulae can be proposed. Using these formulae and selecting the traditional fatigue crack growth parameter ΔKeff, the A1 2024-T3 fatigue crack growth rate da/dN vs. ΔK and R data, provided by Hiroshi and Schijve, can be employed to proposed empirical formulae of da/dN vs. ΔKeff and R. After integration, fatigue-crack-growth length a vs. N curves computed by EndoFEM can be obtained. The results are agreed very well with the existing experimental curves. According to the above procedures of simulation and steps of comparions with experiment, this paper may provides an integrate methodology of numerical simulation in the studies of fatigue crack growth for academic and industrial researches and design analysis.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.


    Concrete containment structures and cement-based fills and waste forms are used at the Savannah River Site to enhance the performance of shallow land disposal systems designed for containment of low-level radioactive waste. Understanding and measuring transport through cracked concrete is important for describing the initial condition of radioactive waste containment structures at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and for predicting performance of these structures over time. This report transmits the results of a literature review on transport through cracked concrete which was performed by Professor Jason Weiss, Purdue University per SRR0000678 (RFP-RQ00001029-WY). This review complements the NRC-sponsored literature review and assessment of factors relevant to performance of grouted systems for radioactive waste disposal. This review was performed by The Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, San Antonio, TX, and The University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen Scotland and was focused on tank closure. The objective of the literature review on transport through cracked concrete was to identify information in the open literature which can be applied to SRS transport models for cementitious containment structures, fills, and waste forms. In addition, the literature review was intended to: (1) Provide a framework for describing and classifying cracks in containment structures and cementitious materials used in radioactive waste disposal, (2) Document the state of knowledge and research related to transport through cracks in concrete for various exposure conditions, (3) Provide information or methodology for answering several specific questions related to cracking and transport in concrete, and (4) Provide information that can be used to design experiments on transport through cracked samples and actual structures.

  9. Crack Growth Monitoring by Embedded Optical Fibre Bragg Grating Sensors: Fibre Reinforced Plastic Crack Growing Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Gilmar Ferreira; Mikkelsen, Lars Pilgaard; McGugan, Malcolm


    This article presents a novel method to asses a crack growing/damage event in fibre reinforced plastic, or adhesive using Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors embedded in a host material. Different features of the crack mechanism that induce a change in the FBG response were identified. Double Canti...

  10. Hydrocarbon cracking selectivities with a dual zeolite fluid cracking catalyst containing REY and ZSM-5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajagopalan, K.; Young, G.W. (W.R. Grace and Company, Columbia, MD (USA))


    Synthetic Y faujasite zeolites have been used commercially as cracking catalysts for the past two decades, and more recently dual zeolite fluid cracking catalysts, containing faujasite and ZSM-5 were discovered to increase the octane number of the gasoline during catalytic cracking of gas oil. This concept, where ZSM-5 constitutes only a small fraction (about 1 wt %) of the cracking catalyst, has been tested commercially in Europe and in the United States. Cracking of paraffinic and olefinic hydrocarbons by ZSM-5 catalysts has been studied by several investigators over a range of temperatures (350 to 540{degree}C) and using nearly pure ZSM-5 as the catalyst. The mechanism of octane number enhancement with the dual zeolite catalyst was investigated by examining the effect on product selectivity of addition of 1 wt % ZSM-5 to a cracking catalyst composition during catalytic cracking of a commercial gas oil at 500{degree}C. Changes in composition of the product gasoline (paraffins, olefins, naphthenes and aromatics) caused by ZSM-5 were measured. Since commercial cracking catalysts undergo continuous high temperature regeneration in the presence of steam, the effect of hydrothermal treatment of ZSM-5 was also investigated.

  11. Evolving fracture patterns: columnar joints, mud cracks, and polygonal terrain (United States)

    Goehring, L.


    Contraction cracks can form captivating patterns, such as the artistic craquelure sometimes found in pottery glazes, to the cracks in dried mud, or the polygonal networks covering the polar regions of Earth and Mars. Two types are frequently encountered: those with irregular rectilinear patterns, such as that formed by an homogeneous slurry when dried (or cooled) uniformly, and more regular hexagonal patterns, such as those typified by columnar joints. Once cracks start to form in a thin contracting layer, they will sequentially break the layer into smaller and smaller pieces. A rectilinear crack pattern encodes information about the order of cracks, as later cracks tend to intersect with earlier cracks at right angles. In this manner they relieve the stresses perpendicular to the pre-existing crack. In a hexagonal pattern, in contrast, the angles between all cracks at a vertex are near 120°. In this presentation it will be shown how both types of pattern can arise from identical forces, and that a rectilinear, T-junction dominated pattern will develop into to a hexagonal pattern, with Y-junctions, if allowed to. Such an evolution can be explained as the result of three conditions: (1) if cracks advance through space, or heal and recur, that the previous positions of a crack tip acts as a line of weakness, guiding the next iteration of cracking; (2) that the order of opening of cracks can change in each iteration; and (3) that crack tips curve to maximise the local strain energy release rate. The ordering of crack patterns are seen in a number of systems: columnar joints in starch and lava; desiccation cracks in clays that are repeatedly wetted and dried; cracks in eroding gypsum-cemented sand layers; and the cracks in permafrost known as polygonal terrain. These patterns will each be briefly explored, in turn, and shown to obey the above principles of crack pattern evolution.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Daud


    Full Text Available Shielding interaction effects of two parallel edge cracks in finite thickness plates subjected to remote tension load is analyzed using a developed finite element analysis program. In the present study, the crack interaction limit is evaluated based on the fitness of service (FFS code, and focus is given to the weak crack interaction region as the crack interval exceeds the length of cracks (b > a. Crack interaction factors are evaluated based on stress intensity factors (SIFs for Mode I SIFs using a displacement extrapolation technique. Parametric studies involved a wide range of crack-to-width (0.05 ≤ a/W ≤ 0.5 and crack interval ratios (b/a > 1. For validation, crack interaction factors are compared with single edge crack SIFs as a state of zero interaction. Within the considered range of parameters, the proposed numerical evaluation used to predict the crack interaction factor reduces the error of existing analytical solution from 1.92% to 0.97% at higher a/W. In reference to FFS codes, the small discrepancy in the prediction of the crack interaction factor validates the reliability of the numerical model to predict crack interaction limits under shielding interaction effects. In conclusion, the numerical model gave a successful prediction in estimating the crack interaction limit, which can be used as a reference for the shielding orientation of other cracks.

  13. Radiofrequency Ablation Mapping with Circumferential Catheter for Paroxys-mal Atrial Fibrillation Originating From the Pulmonary Veins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘震; 吴书林; 杨平珍; 方咸宏; 李海杰; 陈泗林; 詹贤章; 薛玉梅


    Objectives To assessed thefeasibility and effectiveness of electrophysiologicalmapping of pulmonary veins with a circumferential 10-electrode catheter and radiofrequency catheter abla-tion therapy for patients with paroxysmal atrial fibril-lation. Background Standard mapping and ablationof focal sources of atrial fibrillation are associated withvery long procedure times and low efficacy. Mappingand ablation pulmonary veins guide with a circularcatheter could overcome these limitations. Methods16 patients [male 11, female 5, mean age (51 +14.5) years] with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation refrac-tory to antiarrhythmic drugs were included in thisgroup. A circumferential 10-electrode catheter wasused to pulmonary vein mapping during sinus rhythm orCSd pacing to determine the origin of atrial prematurecontractions. When the ablative target pulmonary veinwas found, the pulmonary vein potentials' distributionand activation were assessment pulmonary veins' ostialablation was performed at the segments showing earliestactivation of pulnonary vein potentials. The end pointwas designed: 1 ) elimination of pulmonary vein po-tential; 2) pulmonary vein potential dissociation fromatrial waves; 3) atrial ectopic beats disappear. ResultsA total of 36 pulmonary veins were ablated, in-cluding 16 left superior, 12 right superior, 7 left in-ferior and 1 right inferior. 1 pulmonary vein in 2 pa-tients was ablated, 2 pulmonary veins in 8 patientswere ablated, 3 pulmonary veins were ablated in 5patients and 4 pulmonary veins were ablated in 1 pa-tient. Procedure duration and fluoroscopy time respec-tively were 186.7 _+ 63.8 min and 51.5 + 15.0 min.During the follow-up 1- 12 months, 11 patients(68.7 % ) were free of AF without any antiarrhythmicdrugs, 2 of them were reablation, effective in 3/16(18.7%) and unsuccessful in 2/16 (12.6%) . 2cases recurred with atrial premature, 1 was treated withamiodarone and the other was repeat electrophysiologi-cal mapping and ablation, 5 cases with

  14. Circumferential Reconstruction of Subaxial Cervical and Cervicothoracic Spine by Simultaneously Combined Anterior-posterior Approaches in the Sitting Position. (United States)

    Han, Yue; Ma, Xin-Long; Hu, Yong-Cheng; Miao, Jun; Zhang, Ji-Dong; Bai, Jian-Qiang; Xia, Qun


    To introduce and analyze the feasibility of a new surgical strategy for circumferential reconstruction of subaxial cervical and cervicothoracic spine by simultaneously combined anterior-posterior approach in the sitting position. A retrospective review was performed for seven patients who underwent the above surgical procedure between July 2011 and January 2015. Among the seven patients, there were six men and one woman, with an average age of 52 years (range, 36-79 years). Six patients were confirmed to have a lower subaxial cervical fracture and dislocation with a locked facet joint, and the other patient had an invasive tumor involving both anterior and posterior parts of vertebrae and lamina, detected by radiological examination. The levels involved for all patients were from C4 to T2 . According to American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) classification, one case was class A, four were class B, and two were class D. The patients were restricted in the sitting position with traction and a halo in extension to immobilize the head during the operation. The simultaneously combined anterior-posterior operation for reduction, decompression or tumor resection and circumferential reconstruction was carried out. Both anterior and posterior procedures were successfully completed simultaneously in the sitting position in all cases. There were no perioperative complications. The average operative time was 175 ± 32 min (range, 120-240 min), and the mean blood loss was 430 ± 85 mL (range, 200-1100 mL). The patients were followed up for 35.8 months (range, 18-60 months). The symptom of neck pain improved distinctly and no evidence of implant failure was noted in any patients. Neurological status improvement was confirmed in six patients, who had suffered incomplete paralysis. The ASIA grade improved in five patients, and two cases had no change in grade. The "sitting position" simultaneously combined anterior-posterior approach is safe and is

  15. Evaluation of Stress Intensity Factors for Multiple Cracked Circular Disks Under Crack Surface Tractions with SBFEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jun-yu; LIN Gao; LI Xiao-chuan; XU Feng-lin


    Stress intensity factors (SIFs) for the cracked circular disks under different distributing surface tractions are evaluated with the scaled boundary finite element method (SBFEM).In the SBFEM,the analytical advantage of the solution in the radial direction allows SIFs to be directly determined from its definition,therefore no special crack-tip treatment is necessary.Furthermore anisotropic material behavior can be treated easily.Different distributions of surface tractions are considered for the center and double-edge-cracked disks.The benchmark examples are modeled and an excellent agreement between the results in the present study and those in published literature is found.It shows that SBFEM is effective and possesses high accuracy.The SIFs of the cracked orthotropic material circular disks subjected to different surface tractions are also evaluated.The technique of substructure is applied to handle the multiple cracks problem.

  16. Failure analysis of corrosion cracking and simulated testing for a fluid catalytic cracking unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Chen; Xiaogang Li; Chaofang Dong; Ming Li; Jinwen Yang


    The failure of a fluid catalysis and cracking unit (FCCU) in a Chinese refinery was investigated by using nondestructive detection methods, fracture surface examination, hardness measurement, chemical composition and corrosion products analysis. The results showed that the failure was caused by the dew point nitrate stress corrosion cracking. For a long operation period, the wall temperature of the regenerator in the FCCU was below the fume dew point. As a result, an acid fume NOx-SOx-H2O medium presented on the surface, resulting in stress corrosion cracking of the component with high residual stress. In order to confirm the relative conclusion, simulated testing was conducted in laboratory, and the results showed similar cracking characteristics. Finally, some suggestions have been made to prevent the stress corrosion cracking of an FCCU from re-occurring in the future.

  17. Shaft Crack Identification Based on Vibration and AE Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxiu Lu


    Full Text Available The shaft crack is one of the main serious malfunctions that often occur in rotating machinery. However, it is difficult to locate the crack and determine the depth of the crack. In this paper, the acoustic emission (AE signal and vibration response are used to diagnose the crack. The wavelet transform is applied to AE signal to decompose into a series of time-domain signals, each of which covers a specific octave frequency band. Then an improved union method based on threshold and cross-correlation method is applied to detect the location of the shaft crack. The finite element method is used to build the model of the cracked rotor, and the crack depth is identified by comparing the vibration response of experiment and simulation. The experimental results show that the AE signal is effective and convenient to locate the shaft crack, and the vibration signal is feasible to determine the depth of shaft crack.

  18. Virtual restoration of cracks in digitized image of paintings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spagnolo, G Schirripa; Somma, F


    An integrated methodology for the detection and removal of cracks on digitized image is presented in this paper. Crack-like pattern detection have been a matter of high concern among researchers mostly for its useful contribution to a variety of applications. The results presented here regard the craquelure of old paintings, however, the same methodology can be used for a much wider set of application. Many images contain similar patterns: crack in protective coating for polymers and other surfaces; fatigue crack in MEMS/NEMS; crack in epoxies used for underfill and encapsulation microelectronics components; etc. In this paper the cracks are detected by thresholding the output of the morphological top-hat transform. Afterwards, the thin dark brush strokes which have been misidentified as cracks are removed using automatic procedure. Finally, crack filling using texture synthesis algorithms. The methodology has been shown to perform very well on digitized images suffering from cracks.

  19. Fracture mechanics of piezoelectric solids with interface cracks

    CERN Document Server

    Govorukha, Volodymyr; Loboda, Volodymyr; Lapusta, Yuri


    This book provides a comprehensive study of cracks situated at the interface of two piezoelectric materials. It discusses different electric boundary conditions along the crack faces, in particular the cases of electrically permeable, impermeable, partially permeable, and conducting cracks. The book also elaborates on a new technique for the determination of electromechanical fields at the tips of interface cracks in finite sized piezoceramic bodies of arbitrary shape under different load types. It solves scientific problems of solid mechanics in connection with the investigation of electromechanical fields in piezoceramic bodies with interface cracks, and develops calculation models and solution methods for plane fracture mechanical problems for piecewise homogeneous piezoceramic bodies with cracks at the interfaces. It discusses the “open” crack model, which leads to a physically unrealistic oscillating singularity at the crack tips, and the contact zone model for in-plane straight interface cracks betw...

  20. Automatic quantification of crack patterns by image processing (United States)

    Liu, Chun; Tang, Chao-Sheng; Shi, Bin; Suo, Wen-Bin


    Image processing technologies are proposed to quantify crack patterns. On the basis of the technologies, a software "Crack Image Analysis System" (CIAS) has been developed. An image of soil crack network is used as an example to illustrate the image processing technologies and the operations of the CIAS. The quantification of the crack image involves the following three steps: image segmentation, crack identification and measurement. First, the image is converted to a binary image using a cluster analysis method; noise in the binary image is removed; and crack spaces are fused. Then, the medial axis of the crack network is extracted from the binary image, with which nodes and crack segments can be identified. Finally, various geometric parameters of the crack network can be calculated automatically, such as node number, crack number, clod area, clod perimeter, crack area, width, length, and direction. The thresholds used in the operations are specified by cluster analysis and other innovative methods. As a result, the objects (nodes, cracks and clods) in the crack network can be quantified automatically. The software may be used to study the generation and development of soil crack patterns and rock fractures.

  1. Crack Detection with Lamb Wave Wavenumber Analysis (United States)

    Tian, Zhenhua; Leckey, Cara; Rogge, Matt; Yu, Lingyu


    In this work, we present our study of Lamb wave crack detection using wavenumber analysis. The aim is to demonstrate the application of wavenumber analysis to 3D Lamb wave data to enable damage detection. The 3D wavefields (including vx, vy and vz components) in time-space domain contain a wealth of information regarding the propagating waves in a damaged plate. For crack detection, three wavenumber analysis techniques are used: (i) two dimensional Fourier transform (2D-FT) which can transform the time-space wavefield into frequency-wavenumber representation while losing the spatial information; (ii) short space 2D-FT which can obtain the frequency-wavenumber spectra at various spatial locations, resulting in a space-frequency-wavenumber representation; (iii) local wavenumber analysis which can provide the distribution of the effective wavenumbers at different locations. All of these concepts are demonstrated through a numerical simulation example of an aluminum plate with a crack. The 3D elastodynamic finite integration technique (EFIT) was used to obtain the 3D wavefields, of which the vz (out-of-plane) wave component is compared with the experimental measurement obtained from a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer (SLDV) for verification purposes. The experimental and simulated results are found to be in close agreement. The application of wavenumber analysis on 3D EFIT simulation data shows the effectiveness of the analysis for crack detection. Keywords: : Lamb wave, crack detection, wavenumber analysis, EFIT modeling

  2. Applied Stress Affecting the Environmentally Assisted Cracking (United States)

    Vasudevan, A. K.


    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is affected by the mode of applied stress, i.e., tension, compression, or torsion. The cracking is measured in terms of initiation time to nucleate a crack or time to failure. In a simple uniaxial loading under tension or compression, it is observed that the initiation time can vary in orders of magnitude depending on the alloy and the environment. Fracture can be intergranular or transgranular or mixed mode. Factors that affect SCC are solubility of the metal into surrounding chemical solution, and diffusion rate (like hydrogen into a tensile region) of an aggressive element into the metal and liquid metallic elements in the grain boundaries. Strain hardening exponent that affects the local internal stresses and their gradients can affect the diffusion kinetics. We examine two environments (Ga and 3.5 pct NaCl) for the same alloy 7075-T651, under constant uniaxial tension and compression load. These two cases provide us application to two different governing mechanisms namely liquid metal embrittlement (7075-Ga) and hydrogen-assisted cracking (7075-NaCl). We note that, in spite of the differences in their mechanisms, both systems show similar behavior in the applied K vs crack initiation time plots. One common theme among them is the transport mechanism of a solute element to a tensile-stress region to initiate fracture.

  3. Crack buckling in soft gels under compression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Long; Chung-Yuen Hui


    Recent interest in designing soft gels with high fracture toughness has called for simple and robust methods to test fracture behavior.The conventional method of applying tension to a gel sample suffers from a difficulty of sample gripping.In this paper,we study a possible fracture mechanism of soft gels under uni-axial compression.We show that the surfaces of a pre-existing crack,oriented parallel to the loading axis,can buckle at a critical compressive stress.This buckling instability can open the crack surfaces and create highly concentrated stress fields near the crack tip,which can lead to crack growth.We show that the onset of crack buckling can be deduced by a dimensional argument combined with an analysis to determine the critical compression needed to induce surface instabilities of an elastic half space.The critical compression for buckling was verified for a neoHookean material model using finite element simulations.

  4. Imaging Cracks by Laser Excited Thermography (United States)

    Schlichting, J.; Kervalishvili, G. N.; Maierhofer, Ch.; Kreutzbruck, M.


    During the last years active thermography is increasingly used in a number of NDT problems in production and maintenance. In this work we focus on the detection of vertical cracks starting at the surface, which is an important indication of structural failure. By using local thermal excitation it is possible to image anisotropies in the lateral diffusivity by recording the temporal temperature data with an infrared camera. The regional transient behaviour of temperature distribution then can provide quantitative information of the crack parameter. In doing so, we present an advanced technique for the determination of the crack depth. The experimental set-up is based on an Nd:YAG laser. The beam is focused on the test sample by using an optical scanner to create the required lateral heat flow. The time resolved temperature distribution is recorded with an infrared camera (InSb FPA, 3 to 5 μm) providing a frame rate of up to 500 Hz. In addition we report on numerical simulation to investigate the concept of local heat excitation for a quantitative estimation of crack parameters. The modeling also includes the influence of surface to surface radiation inside the crack. We obtained a good consistency between experimental and theoretical data.

  5. Study on Expansion of Steam Cracking Unit to 660 kt/a at Yanshan Petrochemical Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Xianghong


    Yanshan Petrochemical Company after having expanded its 300 kt/a steam cracking unit to 450 kt/a in 1994 is still experiencing such problems as low feedstock flexibility, high energy consumption and smaller scale of ethylene unit. In order to fully improve technical capability of steam crackers, reduce energy consumption, improve feedstock flexibility and increase production capacity, a lot of technical revamp cases on steam cracking were studied and compared. Revamp of relevant facilities has expanded the ethylene capacity to the target of 660 kt/a with the actual capacity reaching 710 kt/a. This revamp project has remarkably reduced the energy consumption, which is capable of using naphtha, light diesel fuel, heavy diesel fuel and the hydrocracked tail oil as the steam cracking feedstock. This project is the first to apply refrigeration by means of a mixed cooling agent and has succeeded in using C3 catalytic rectification/hydrogenation technology, which has given an impetus to the progress of steam cracking industry in the world.

  6. Three-dimensional hybrid-stress finite element analysis of composite laminates with cracks and cutouts (United States)

    Wang, S. S.


    A three-dimensional hybrid-stress finite element analysis of composite laminates containing cutouts and cracks is presented. Fully three-dimensional, hexahedral isoparametric elements of the hybrid-stress model are formulated on the basis of the Hellinger-Reissner variational principle. Traction-free edges, cutouts, and crack surfaces are modeled by imposition of exact traction boundary conditions along element surfaces. Special boundary and surface elements are constructed by introducing proper constraints on assumed stress functions. The Lagrangian multiplier technique is used to enforce ply-interface continuity conditions in hybrid bimaterial composite elements for modeling the interface region in a composite laminate. Two examples are given to illustrate the capability of the present method of approach: (1) the well-known delamination problem in an angle-ply laminate, and (2) the important problem of a composite laminate containing a circular hole. Results are presented in detail for each case. Implications of interlaminar and intralaminar crack initiation, growth and fracture in composites containing cracks and cutouts are discussed.

  7. Propagation of stress corrosion cracks in alpha-brasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beggs, Dennis Vinton [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)


    Transgranular and intergranular stress corrosion cracks were investigated in alpha-brasses in a tarnishing ammoniacal solution. Surface observation indicated that the transgranular cracks propagated discontinuously by the sudden appearance of a fine crack extending several microns ahead of the previous crack tip, often associated with the detection of a discrete acoustic emission (AE). By periodically increasing the deflection, crack front markings were produced on the resulting fracture surfaces, showing that the discontinuous propagation of the crack trace was representative of the subsurface cracking. The intergranular crack trace appeared to propagate continuously at a relatively blunt crack tip and was not associated with discrete AE. Under load pulsing tests with a time between pulses, Δt greater than or equal to 3 s, the transgranular fracture surfaces always exhibited crack front markings which corresponded with the applied pulses. The spacing between crack front markings, Δx, decreased linearly with Δt. With Δt less than or equal to 1.5 s, the crack front markings were in a one-to-one correspondence with applied pulses only at relatively long crack lengths. In this case, Δx = Δx* which approached a limiting value of 1 μm. No crack front markings were observed on intergranular fracture surfaces produced during these tests. It is concluded that transgranular cracking occurs by discontinuous mechanical fracture of an embrittled region around the crack tip, while intergranular cracking results from a different mechanism with cracking occurring via the film-rupture mechanism.

  8. Automated assessments of circumferential strain from cine CMR correlate with LVEF declines in cancer patients early after receipt of cardio-toxic chemotherapy. (United States)

    Jolly, Marie-Pierre; Jordan, Jennifer H; Meléndez, Giselle C; McNeal, Gary R; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Hundley, W Gregory


    In patients with cancer receiving potentially cardio-toxic chemotherapy, measurements of left ventricular (LV) circumferential or longitudinal strain are often used clinically to identify myocardial dysfunction. Using a new software algorithm, we sought to determine in individuals receiving treatment for cancer the association between automated assessments of LV mean mid-wall circumferential strain and conventional measures of LV ejection fraction (EF) both obtained from cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) cine balanced steady-state free-precession (bSSFP) white-blood acquisitions. Before and 3 months after initiating treatment with potentially cardio-toxic chemotherapy, 72 individuals (aged 54 ± 14 years with breast cancer [39%], lymphoma [49%], or sarcoma [12%]) underwent serial CMR cine bSSFP assessments of LV volumes and EF, and mean mid-wall circumferential strain determined from these same cine images as well as from additional tagged CMR images. On the cine images, assessments of strain were obtained using the newly developed deformation-based segmentation algorithm. Assessments of LV volumes/EF from the cine images and strain from tagged CMR were accomplished using commercially available software. All measures were analyzed in a blinded fashion independent of one another. Acceptable measures for the automated assessments of mean mid-wall circumferential strain from the cine images were obtained in 142 of 144 visits (98.6%) with an overall analysis time averaging 6:47 ± 1:06 min. The results from these automated measures averaged -18.8 ± 2.9 at baseline and -17.6 ± 3.1 at 3 months (p = 0.001). Left ventricular EF declined slightly from 65 ± 7% at baseline to 62 ± 7% at 3 months (p = 0.0002). The correlation between strain from cine imaging and LVEF was r = -0.61 (p cine and tagged derived assessments of strain was r = 0.23; p = 0.01. Automated measures of LV mean mid-wall circumferential strain can be obtained in 6

  9. New matrix method for response analysis of circumferentially stiffened non-circular cylindrical shells under harmonic pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Based on the governing equation of vibration of a kind of cylindrical shells written in a matrix differential equation of the first order, a new matrix method is presented for steady-state vibration analysis of a noncircular cylindrical shell simply supported at two ends and circumferentially stiffened by rings under harmonic pressure. Its difference from the existing works by Yamada and Irie is that the matrix differential equation is solved by using the extended homogeneous capacity precision integration approach other than the Runge-Kutta-Gill integration method. The transfer matrix can easily be determined by a high precision integration scheme. In addition, besides the normal interacting forces, which were commonly adopted by researchers earlier, the tangential interacting forces between the cylindrical shell and the rings are considered at the same time by means of the Dirac-δ function. The effects of the exciting frequencies on displacements and stresses responses have been investigated. Numerical results show that the proposed method is more efficient than the aforementioned method.

  10. Nondestructive Evaluation of Functionally Graded Subsurface Damage on Cylinders in Nuclear Installations Based on Circumferential SH Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Qu


    Full Text Available Subsurface damage could affect the service life of structures. In nuclear engineering, nondestructive evaluation and detection of the evaluation of the subsurface damage region are of great importance to ensure the safety of nuclear installations. In this paper, we propose the use of circumferential horizontal shear (SH waves to detect mechanical properties of subsurface regions of damage on cylindrical structures. The regions of surface damage are considered to be functionally graded material (FGM and the cylinder is considered to be a layered structure. The Bessel functions and the power series technique are employed to solve the governing equations. By analyzing the SH waves in the 12Cr-ODS ferritic steel cylinder, which is frequently applied in the nuclear installations, we discuss the relationship between the phase velocities of SH waves in the cylinder with subsurface layers of damage and the mechanical properties of the subsurface damaged regions. The results show that the subsurface damage could lead to decrease of the SH waves’ phase velocity. The gradient parameters, which represent the degree of subsurface damage, can be evaluated by the variation of the SH waves’ phase velocity. Research results of this study can provide theoretical guidance in nondestructive evaluation for use in the analysis of the reliability and durability of nuclear installations.

  11. Wall thickness measurement using resonant phenomena of circumferential Lamb waves generated by plural transducer elements located evenly on girth (United States)

    Nishino, Hideo; Iwata, Kodai; Ishikawa, Masashi


    We present a novel method of measuring the pipe wall thickness using the resonance of the circumferential (C-) Lamb wave generated by a piezoelectric ring-shaped sensor (PS). The PS is a special device for an axially propagating torsional wave; however, the C-Lamb waves are generated simultaneously as spurious signals owing to the structure of the PS. Particularly under resonant conditions, the C-Lamb waves are dominantly generated, distorting the axially propagating wave. In this method, these troublesome spurious signals are used effectively for the measurement of the wall thickness under the PS location that is a dead zone of the PS itself. The method can compensate for its drawback, namely, the dead zone problem, without using additional instruments. In this study, the mechanisms of the generation and resonance of the C-Lamb waves were first explained. Secondly, the principle of the wall thickness estimation utilizing the resonance of the C-Lamb waves was proposed. Finally, experimental verifications were carried out. The estimated wall thicknesses agreed very well (maximum 1.5% error) with those measured by a micrometer caliper under suitable resonant conditions.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In this article, the low pressure axial flow fan with circumferential skewed rotor blade, including the radial blade, the forward-skewed blade and the backward-skewed blade, was studied with experimental methods. The aerodynamic performance of the rotors was measured. At the design condition at outlet of the rotors, detailed flow measurements were performed with a five-hole probe and a Hot-Wire Anemometer (HWA). The results show that compared to the radial rotor, the forward-skewed rotor demonstrates a wider Stable Operating Range (SOR), is able to reduce the total pressure loss in the hub region and make main loading of blade accumulating in the mid-span region. There is a wider wake in the upper mid-span region of the forward-skewed rotor. Compared to the radial rotor, in the backward-skewed rotor there is higher total pressure loss near the hub and shroud regions and lower loss in the mid-span region. In addition, the velocity deficit in the wake is lower at mid-span of the backward-skewed rotor than the forward-skewed rotor.

  13. Effect of anxiety and depression on the recurrence of persistent atrial fibrillation after circumferential pulmonary vein ablation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Sheng-bo; HU Wei; ZHAO Qing-yan; QIN Mu; HUANG He; CUI Hong-ying; HUANG Cong-xin


    Background The effects of anxiety and depression on the recurrence of persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) after circumferential pulmonary vein ablation (CPVA) are not clear.Whether CPVA can alleviate the anxiety and depression symptoms of persistent AF patients is unknown.Methods One hundred and sixty-four patients with persistent AF,of which 43 treated with CPVA (CPVA group) and 103 treated with anti-arrhythmics drugs (medicine group),were enrolled.The Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS),and Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) were assessed before and 12 months after treatment in all patients.Results The scores of SAS (40.33±7.90 vs.49.76±9.52,P <0.01) and SDS (42.33±8.73 vs.48.17±8.77,P <0.01)decreased 12 months after CPVA.Over 12 months follow-up,AF relapsed in 17 patients in CPVA group.Compared with the data in the recurrent group (17 patients),the scores of SAS and SDS were significantly lower in the non-recurrent group (26 patients) at baseline.The results of multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed normal scores of SAS and SDS were the independent risk factors of AF recurrence after CPVA.Conclusions Anxiety and depression increase the recurrence risk of persistent AF after CPVA.CPVA can ameliorate the anxiety and depression symptoms in patients with persistent AF.

  14. Circumferential suction lipectomy of the trunk with anterior rectus fascia plication through a periumbilical incision: an alternative to conventional abdominoplasty. (United States)

    Dabb, Richard W; Hall, Wesley W; Baroody, Michael; Saba, Amer A


    During the past decade, many combinations of operative techniques for abdominoplasty have evolved to suit the individual requirements of the patient. The purpose of this study was to present a safe alternative to conventional abdominoplasty for appropriate patients, namely, those with minimal skin laxity, moderate fatty tissue distribution, musculofascial diastases, and no concern for abdominal stretch marks. The procedure consists of circumferential ultrasound-assisted liposuction and direct abdominal wall plication through a periumbilical incision. Thirty-two patients were evaluated on overall patient satisfaction and complication rates, including seroma (five, 15.6 percent), major sensory loss (none), skin slough (none), skin burns (none), end hits (i.e., a small, partial-thickness, subdermal burn; one, 3 percent), and limited results (two, 6 percent). The patients expressed that avoidance of the abdominal scar and diminished recuperative time outweighed the benefit of tighter skin associated with conventional abdominoplasty. This technique may provide another avenue for appropriate contouring of the abdomen in properly selected patients.

  15. Crack tip shielding and anti-shielding effects of parallel cracks for a superconductor slab under an electromagnetic force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhi Wen; Zhou, You He [Ministry of Education, Singapore (China); Lee, Kang Yong [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    In this letter, the shielding or anti-shielding effect is firstly applied to obtain the behavior of two parallel cracks in a two-dimensional type-II superconducting under electromagnetic force. Fracture analysis is performed by the finite element method and the magnetic behavior of superconductor is described by the critical state Bean model. The stress intensity factors at the crack tips can be obtained and discussed for decreasing field after zero-field cooling. The shielding or anti-shielding effect at the crack tips depend on the distance between two parallel cracks and the crack length. The results indicate that the shielding effects of the two parallel cracks increase when the distance between the two parallel cracks decreases. It can be also obtained that the superconductors with shorter cracks has more remarkable shielding effect than those with longer cracks.

  16. Effects of plastic anisotropy on crack-tip behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Brian Nyvang; Tvergaard, Viggo; Kuroda, Mitsutoshi


    loading remote from the crack-tip. In cases where the principal axes of the anisotropy are inclined to the plane of the crack it is found that the plastic zones as well as the stress and strain fields just around the blunted tip of the crack become non-symmetric. In these cases the peak strain...... on the blunted tip occurs off the center line of the crack, thus indicating that the crack may want to grow in a different direction. When the anisotropic axes are parallel to the crack symmetry is retained, but the plastic zones and the near-tip fields still differ from those predicted by standard isotropic...

  17. Evaluation of a Small-Crack Monitoring System (United States)

    Newman, John A.; Johnston, William M.


    A new system has been developed to obtain fatigue crack growth rate data from a series of images acquired during fatigue testing of specimens containing small surface cracks that initiate at highly-polished notches. The primary benefit associated with replica-based crack growth rate data methods is preserving a record of the crack configuration during the life of the specimen. Additionally, this system has the benefits of both reducing time and labor, and not requiring introduction of surface replica media into the crack. Fatigue crack growth rate data obtained using this new system are found to be in good agreement with similar results obtained from surface replicas.

  18. Fully Distributed Cooperative Motion of Group Robots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This paper is focused on the fully distributed cooperative motion of group robots and proposes a new approach. Each robot has a local sensing ability and a simple action selection strategy. Computational complexity is decreased by the fully distributed architecture and the information insufficiency is solved by the interaction between the robots and the environment. Variable loop and random method are used to deal with the fluctuation and equity selection problem and the rapidity and reasonabiliiy are guaranteed. Some simulations have proved the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  19. Optimality of a Fully Stressed Design (United States)

    Patnaik, Surya N.; Hopkins, Dale A.


    For a truss a fully stressed state is reached and when all its members are utilized to their full strength capacity. Historically, engineers considered such a design optimum. But recently this optimality has been questioned, especially since the weight of the structure is not explicitly used in fully stressed design calculations. This paper examines optimality of the full stressed design (FSD) with analytical and graphical illustrations. Solutions for a set of examples obtained by using the FSD method and optimization methods numerically confirm the optimality of the FSD. The FSD, which can be obtained with a small amount of calculation, can be extended to displacement constraints and to nontruss-type structures.

  20. Sizing stress corrosion cracks using laser ultrasonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehman, Hamood; McNealy, Rick; Fingerhut, Martin [Applus-RTD. Houston, TX (United States); Klein, Marvin; Ansari, Homayoon [Intelligent Optical Systems, Inc. Los Angeles, CA (United States); Kania Richard [TransCanada. Calgary, AB (Canada); Rapp, Steve [Spectra Energy, Houston, TX (United States)


    Despite various efforts, no reliable tools and techniques are available to enable an operator to quantify the impact of an SCC (Stress Corrosion Cracking) colony on the safety and integrity of a pipeline. Reliable non-destructive detection and measurement tools are not available either. There is therefore a large gap between current technology and the needs of the pipeline industry. Recent developments promise that with a concentrated effort, a comprehensive solution can be devised. This paper describes technical work performed to develop and validate both the inspection tool and the time of flight diffraction (TOFD) technique for sizing the depth of SCC. It also presents preliminary results of work on a closely related project that provides, on the basis of this technology, an integrated approach and tool for mapping, sizing, and evaluating SCC, through which significant cracks are filtered from more benign cracks within an SCC colony.

  1. Environmentally assisted cracking in LWR materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopra, O.K.; Chung, H.M.; Kassner, T.F.; Park, J.H.; Shack, W.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Zhang, J.; Brust, F.W.; Dong, P. [Battelle Columbus Labs., Columbus, OH (United States)


    The effect of dissolved oxygen level on fatigue life of austenitic stainless steels is discussed and the results of a detailed study of the effect of the environment on the growth of cracks during fatigue initiation are presented. Initial test results are given for specimens irradiated in the Halden reactor. Impurities introduced by shielded metal arc welding that may affect susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking are described. Results of calculations of residual stresses in core shroud weldments are summarized. Crack growth rates of high-nickel alloys under cyclic loading with R ratios from 0.2--0.95 in water that contains a wide range of dissolved oxygen and hydrogen concentrations at 289 and 320 C are summarized.

  2. Fatigue, Wear and Cracking of Dental Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traian Eugen Bolfa


    Full Text Available Evaluation of the method of failure and crack propagation in dental metals, ceramics and polymer composite materials associated with occlusal activity are associated with contact, twisting and sliding modes. Such loads can result in various combinations of damage due to fatigue and wear. In order to increase sustainability and longevity the dental materials must demonstrate sufficient strength to dynamic stresses. In the case of masticatory forces associated with high contact tensions, the contact area of the superficial layer is under a state of specialcomplex voltage. Variations in the material or the structure, impurities, scratches and voids can directly influence the structural integrity of the material and result in microscopic cracks. These cracks propagate under repeated cyclic loading leading to dental restoration failure.

  3. Inverse Crack Problems in Piezoelectric Solids (United States)

    Sladek, Jan; Sladek, Vladimir; Zhang, Chuanzeng


    In the present paper, the meshless local Petrov-Galerkin (MLPG) method is applied to cracked piezoelectric solids under a stationary or transient dynamic load and unspecified electrical conditions on the crack surfaces. On the outer surface of the cracked solid the electrical boundary conditions are over-specified. The coupled governing partial differential equations are satisfied in a weak-form on small fictitious sub-domains. Nodal points are introduced and spread on the analyzed domain and each node is surrounded by a small circle for simplicity, but without loss of generality. The spatial variations of the displacements and the electric potential are approximated by the Moving Least-Squares (MLS) scheme. After performing the spatial integrations, a system of linear algebraic equations for unknown nodal values is obtained. Singular value decomposition (SVD) is applied to solve the ill-conditioned linear system of algebraic equations obtained from the local integral equations (LIEs) after the MLS approximation.

  4. Computer Simulations of the Fatigue Crack Propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Materna


    Full Text Available The following hypothesis for design of structures based on the damage tolerance philosophy is laid down: the perpendicular fatigue crack growth rate v in a certain point of a curved crack front is given by the local value of stress intensity factor per unit of nominal stress K' and the local triaxiality T which describes the constraint. The relationship v = f (K', T is supposed to be typical for a given loading spectrum and material. Such relationship for a 2024 Al alloy and the flight-simulation spectrum was derived from the fatigue test of the rectangular panel with the central hole and used for three-dimensional simulation of the corner fatigue crack propagation in the model of the wing spar flangeplate. Finite element and boundary element methods were used for these computations. The results of the simulation are in good agreement with the experiment.

  5. Crack initiation and crack growth behavior of carbon and low-alloy steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavenda, D.J.; Luebbers, P.R.; Chopra, O.K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Technology Div.


    Section III of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code specifies fatigue design curves for structural materials. These curves were based on tests of smooth polished specimens at room temperature in air. The effects of reactor coolant environments are not explicitly addressed by the Code design curves, but recent test data illustrate potentially significant effects of LWR coolant environments on the fatigue resistance of carbon and low-alloy steels. Under certain loading and environmental conditions, fatigue lives of test specimens may be a factor of {approx}70 shorter than in air. Results of fatigue tests that examine the influence of reactor environment on crack imitation and crack growth of carbon and low-alloy steels are presented. Crack lengths as a function of fatigue cycles were determined in air by a surface replication technique, and in water by block loading that leaves marks on the fracture surface. Decreases in fatigue life of low-alloy steels in high-dissolved-oxygen (DO) water are primarily caused by the effects of environment during early stages of fatigue damage, i.e., growth of short cracks <100 {micro}m in depth. For crack sizes of >100 {micro}m, crack growth rates in high-DO water are higher than in air by one order of magnitude. The effects of LWR environments on growth of short cracks are discussed.

  6. Production of steam cracking feedstocks by mild cracking of plastic wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angyal, Andras; Miskolczi, Norbert; Bartha, Laszlo; Tungler, Antal; Nagy, Lajos; Vida, Laszlo; Nagy, Gabor


    In this work the utility of new possible petrochemical feedstocks obtained by plastic waste cracking has been studied. The cracking process of polyethylene (PE), polyethylene-polypropylene (PEPP) and polyethylene-polystyrene (PEPS) has been carried out in a pilot scale tubular reactor. In this process mild reaction parameters has been applied, with the temperature of 530 C and the residence time of 15 min. The produced hydrocarbon fractions as light- and middle distillates were tested by using a laboratory steam cracking unit. It was concluded that the products of the mild cracking of plastic wastes could be applied as petrochemical feedstocks. Based on the analytical data it was determined that these liquid products contained in significant concentration (25-50 wt.%) of olefin hydrocarbons. Moreover the cracking of polystyrene containing raw material resulted in liquid products with significant amounts of aromatic hydrocarbons too. The steam cracking experiments proved that the products obtained by PE and PEPP cracking resulted in similar or better ethylene and propylene yields than the reference samples, however the aromatic content of PEPS products reduced the ethylene and propylene yields. (author)

  7. Thermographic characterization of stress during crack growth (United States)

    Cramer, K. E.; Dawicke, David S.; Welch, Christopher S.


    A full-field-thermographic technique for imaging stress patterns in dynamically loaded structures using general purpose IR imaging and image processing hardware is described. The inspection technique is based on the thermoelastic effect. A simple geometry is examined, and the experimentally determined values for the stress invariant are shown to be consistent with theoretical and numerical calculations. The application of full-field-thermographic measurement would ensure that the observed stress field has a common sampling period, thus allowing the observation of rapidly occurring stress anomalies such as the propagation of a fatigue crack. Fatigue crack propagation in two consecutive thermoelastic stress images from an aluminum sample is shown.

  8. Fast electromigration crack in nanoscale aluminum film (United States)

    Emelyanov, O. A.; Ivanov, I. O.


    The current-induced breakage of 20 nm thin aluminum layers deposited onto capacitor grade polypropylene (PP) films is experimentally studied. Biexponential current pulses of different amplitude (10-15 A) and duration (0.1-1 μs) were applied to the samples. Breakage occurred after fast development of electromigrating ˜200 nm-wide cracks with initial propagation velocity of ˜1 m/s under a high current density of ˜1012 A/m2. The cracks stopped when their lengths reached 250-450 μm. This behavior is explained by the balance of electromigration and stress-induced atomic fluxes.

  9. Crack Sensing Scheme in Rail Tracking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. Muneendra Rao,


    Full Text Available A major share to the Indian economy is contributed by the commercial transport railway network. So, any problems of crack detection in railway network when encountered, may be dealt with a robust and cost effective solution, else, there may be a proportionate decrease in the nations economy. This paper attempts to provide a viable solution by discussing the technical details and design aspects. The discussion continues with the explanation of different criteria involved in choosing simple components like GPS module,PC,IR-photo diode based crack detector module, modeled for effective implementation in India.

  10. Fatigue crack growth under variable amplitude loading (United States)

    Sidawi, Jihad A.


    Fatigue crack growth tests were conducted on an Fe 510 E C-Mn steel and a submerged arc welded joint from the same material under constant, variable, and random loading amplitudes. Paris-Erdogan's crack growth rate law was tested for the evaluation of m and C using the stress intensity factor K, the J-integral, the effective stress intensity factor K(sub eff), and the root mean square stress intensity factor K(sub rms) fracture mechanics concepts. The effect of retardation and residual stresses resulting from welding was also considered. It was found that all concepts gave good life predictions in all cases.

  11. Multiple Gastrointestinal Complications of Crack Cocaine Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neal Carlin


    Full Text Available Cocaine and its alkaloid free base “crack-cocaine” have long since been substances of abuse. Drug abuse of cocaine via oral, inhalation, intravenous, and intranasal intake has famously been associated with a number of medical complications. Intestinal ischemia and perforation remain the most common manifestations of cocaine associated gastrointestinal disease and have historically been associated with oral intake of cocaine. Here we find a rare case of two relatively uncommon gastrointestinal complications of hemorrhage and pancreatitis presenting within a single admission in a chronic crack cocaine abuser.

  12. Fatigue crack propagation behavior in the field of residual stress distribution. 7th Report. Study of fatigue crack propagation based upon RPG load; Zanryu oryokuba ni okeru hiro kiretsu denpa kyodo. 7. RPG kijun ni yoru hiro kiretsu denpa kyodo no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyosada, M.; Niwa, T. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    In the previous paper, a simulation model of fatigue crack opening and closing phenomena in an arbitrary stress distribution field for the purpose of obtaining RPG load is shown. From the calculation and experimental results of RPG load, the effects of stress ratio and delayed retardation on fatigue crack propagation are quantitatively assessed. Moreover it becomes clear that the stopping condition of fatigue crack propagation is {delta}K{sub RP}{le}0. In this paper, fatigue crack propagation tests in residual stress distribution field are carried out. Two types of center notched specimens are prepared: one is that gas heating is made at the center line of the specimen which leads to tensile residual stress field in the middle part of the specimen, the other at near the edges of the specimen which leads to compressive residual stress field in the middle part of the specimen. It becomes clear that tensile residual stress descends RPG load and compressive residual stress raises RPG load. Moreover if the large compressive residual stress exists, crack closes even when tensile yield zone generates at the crack tip under loading process. In this case, plastic zone could not grow until crack becomes fully open. Simulated RPG load is in good agreement with experimental one even in the field of residual stress distribution. And compressive residual stress has a large effect of decreasing the fatigue crack propagation rate. These effects can be successfully estimated by the simulation model. 6 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuezhong Feng; Zhihe Jin


    This work examines the fracture behavior of a functionally graded material (FGM) plate containing parallel surface cracks with alternating lengths subjected to a thermal shock. The thermal stress intensity factors (TSIFs) at the tips of long and short cracks are calculated using a singular integral equation technique. The critical thermal shock △T_c that causes crack initiation is calculated using a stress intensity factor criterion. Numerical examples of TSIFs and △T_c for an Al_2O_3/Si_3N_4 FGM plate are presented to illustrate the effects of thermal property gradation, crack spacing and crack length ratio on the TSIFs and △T_c. It is found that for a given crack length ratio, the TSIFs at the tips of both long and short cracks can be reduced significantly and △T_c can be enhanced by introducing appropriate material gradation. The TSIFs also decrease dramatically with a decrease in crack spacing. The TSIF at the tips of short cracks may be higher than that for the long cracks under certain crack geometry conditions. Hence, the short cracks instead of long cracks may first start to grow under the thermal shock loading.

  14. Parametrization of Fully Dressed Quark Propagator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Wei-Xing; ZHU Ji-Zhen; ZHOU Li-Juan; SHEN Peng-Nian; HU Zhao-Hui


    Based on an extensive study of the Dyson-Schwinger equations for a fully dressed quark propagator in the "rainbow" approximation, a parametrized form of the quark propagator is suggested. The corresponding quark selfform of the quark propagator proposed in this work describes a confining quark propagation, and is quite convenient to be used in any numerical calculations.

  15. Fully Integrated Biochip Platforms for Advanced Healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni De Micheli


    Full Text Available Recent advances in microelectronics and biosensors are enabling developments of innovative biochips for advanced healthcare by providing fully integrated platforms for continuous monitoring of a large set of human disease biomarkers. Continuous monitoring of several human metabolites can be addressed by using fully integrated and minimally invasive devices located in the sub-cutis, typically in the peritoneal region. This extends the techniques of continuous monitoring of glucose currently being pursued with diabetic patients. However, several issues have to be considered in order to succeed in developing fully integrated and minimally invasive implantable devices. These innovative devices require a high-degree of integration, minimal invasive surgery, long-term biocompatibility, security and privacy in data transmission, high reliability, high reproducibility, high specificity, low detection limit and high sensitivity. Recent advances in the field have already proposed possible solutions for several of these issues. The aim of the present paper is to present a broad spectrum of recent results and to propose future directions of development in order to obtain fully implantable systems for the continuous monitoring of the human metabolism in advanced healthcare applications.

  16. Transport properties of fully screened Kondo models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hörig, Christoph B M; Mora, Christophe; Schuricht, Dirk


    We study the nonequilibrium transport properties of fully (exactly) screened Kondo quantum dots subject to a finite bias voltage or a finite temperature. First, we calculate the Fermi-liquid coefficients of the conductance for models with arbitrary spin, i.e., its leading behavior for small bias vol

  17. A Fully Automated Penumbra Segmentation Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagenthiraja, Kartheeban; Ribe, Lars Riisgaard; Hougaard, Kristina Dupont


    salavageable tissue, quickly and accurately. We present a fully Automated Penumbra Segmentation (APS) algorithm using PWI and DWI images. We compare automatically generated PWI-DWI mismatch mask to mask outlined manually by experts, in 168 patients. Method: The algorithm initially identifies PWI lesions...

  18. Learner Perspectives on Fully Online Language Learning (United States)

    Sun, Susan Y. H.


    This study builds on this author's 2011 article in which the author reflects on the pedagogical challenges and resultant changes made while teaching two fully online foreign language papers over a four-year period (Y. H. S. Sun (2011). Online language teaching: The pedagogical challenges. "Knowledge Management & E-Learning: An…

  19. Band Saw Blade Crack before and after Comparison and Analysis of Experiments (2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Jin-gui


    Full Text Available Based on MJ3310 woodworking band saw machine as the research object, under the no-load and load of Vib system vibration signal acquisition, processing and analysis software of band saw blade transverse vibration test and the signal acquisition and analysis of the collected signals obtained: to determine the transverse vibration displacement 5.66μm ~ 7.86μm and the main vibration frequency between 624 Hz ~ 792 Hz, then saw blade crack at least 3 mm, need timely saw blade, cutting high hardness of wood band saw blade transverse vibration displacement and frequency will increase sharply. Can be generated according to the band saw blade crack before and after the changing rule of the horizontal vibration displacement and frequency of transverse vibration and scope, judgment and replacement time of saw blade saw blade defect types, which can fully rational utilization of saw blade work effectively.

  20. Land cover classification comparisons among dual polarimetric, pseudo-fully polarimetric, and fully polarimetric SAR imagery (United States)

    Mishra, Bhogendra; Susaki, Junichi


    In this paper, an approach is proposed that predicts fully polarimetric data from dual polarimetric data, and then applies selected supervised algorithm for dual polarimetric, pseudo-fully polarimetric and fully polarimetric dataset for the land cover classification comparison. A regression model has been developed to predict the complex variables of VV polarimetric component and amplitude independently using corresponding complex variables and amplitude in HH and HV bands. Support vector machine (SVM)is implemented for the land cover classification. Coherency matrix and amplitude were used for all dataset for the land cover classification independently.They are used to compare the data from different perspective. Finally, a post processing technique is implemented to remove the isolated pixels appeared as a noise. AVNIR-2 optical data over the same area is used as ground truth data to access the classification accuracy.The result from SVM indicates that the fully polarimetric mode gives the maximum classification accuracy followed by pseudo-fully polarimetric and dual polarimetric datasets using coherency matrix input for fully polarimetric image and pseudo-fully polarimetric image and covariance matrix input for dual polarimetric image. Additionally, it is observed that pseudo-fully polarimetric image with amplitude input does not show the significant improvement over dual polarimetric image with same input.

  1. Crack Growth along Interfaces in Porous Ceramic Layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent F.; Horsewell, Andy


    Crack growth along porous ceramic layers was studied experimentally. Double cantilever beam sandwich specimens were loaded with pure bending moments to obtain stable crack growth. The experiments were conducted in an environmental scanning electron microscope enabling in situ observations...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Baolin; Han Jiecai


    This paper considers an anti-plane moving crack in a nonhomogencous material strip of finite thickness. The shear modulus and the mass density of the strip are considered for a class of functional forms for which the equilibrium equation has analytical solutions. The problem is solved by means of the singular integral equation technique. The stress field near the crack tip is obtained. The results are plotted to show the effect of the material non-homogeneity and crack moving velocity on the crack tip field. Crack bifurcation behaviour is also discussed. The paper points out that use of an appropriate fracture criterion is essential for studying the stability of a moving crack in nonhomogeneous materials. The prediction whether the unstable crack growth will be enhanced or retarded is strongly dependent on the type of the fracture criterion used. is a suitable failure criterion for moving cracks in nonhomogeneous materials.

  3. Partial discharge-induced crack growth in dielectric materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Partial discharge(PD) of an air-filled semi-permeable crack in a dielectric material is studied based on the streamer-type discharge mechanism to explore the effects of applied mechanical-electric fields on crack growth.Within the frame of two-dimensional deformation,the electric field inside the crack is first derived by taking the crack deformation into account.Then,the effects of electric field before PD are discussed through considering the contribution of the induced electric field inside the deformed crack space to the total energy release rate.Finally,PD and its effects on crack growth are investigated.It is found that:(1) before PD,the applied electric field always retards crack growth;(2) during PD,the applied electric field can induce crack growth in dielectric materials.

  4. Cracking the Genetic Code | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Cracking the Genetic Code, From NIH Director Dr. Francis S. Collins Past Issues / ... moment in science in 2000: Cracking of the genetic code raised the prospect of pinpointing the root causes ...

  5. Acoustic emission assessment of interface cracking in thermal barrier coatings (United States)

    Yang, Li; Zhong, Zhi-Chun; Zhou, Yi-Chun; Zhu, Wang; Zhang, Zhi-Biao; Cai, Can-Ying; Lu, Chun-Sheng


    In this paper, acoustic emission (AE) and digital image correlation methods were applied to monitor interface cracking in thermal barrier coatings under compression. The interface failure process can be identified via its AE features, including buckling, delamination incubation and spallation. According to the Fourier transformation of AE signals, there are four different failure modes: surface vertical cracks, opening and sliding interface cracks, and substrate deformation. The characteristic frequency of AE signals from surface vertical cracks is 0.21 MHz, whilst that of the two types of interface cracks are 0.43 and 0.29 MHz, respectively. The energy released of the two types of interface cracks are 0.43 and 0.29 MHz, respectively. Based on the energy released from cracking and the AE signals, a relationship is established between the interface crack length and AE parameters, which is in good agreement with experimental results.

  6. A Parametric Study of Crack Propagation During Sonic IR Inspection (United States)

    Chen, J. C.; Kephart, J.; Riddell, W. T.


    We have developed an experiment to study the propagation of synthetic cracks under various controlled conditions during sonic IR inspection. The experiment provides for good repeatability in testing. The parameters of interest include the initial crack length, load history (stress intensity and load ratio) during crack generation, geometry of the crack, material, and also the various conditions involving the ultrasonic source. In general, we find that under typical sonic IR inspection conditions, the initial crack will propagate when subjected to sonic IR testing. The crack growth after each inspection event varies and exhibits a distribution in length of propagation. The results show that the average crack propagation decreases with increasing initial crack length and increasing stress intensity.

  7. Fatigue crack shape prediction based on vertex singularity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutař P.


    Full Text Available Due to the existence of vertex singularity at the point where the crack intersects the free surface, stress distribution around the crack tip and the type of the singularity is changed. In the interior of the specimen the classical singular behaviour of the crack is dominant and can be described using analytic equations. Contrary to this, at the free surface or in the boundary layer close to free surface the vertex singularity is significant. The influence of vertex singularity on crack behaviour and a crack shape for a three-dimensional structure is described in this paper. The results presented make it possible to estimate fatigue crack growth rate and crack shape using the concept of the generalized stress intensity factor. The estimated fatigue crack shape can help to provide a more reliable estimation of the fatigue life of the structures considered.

  8. Template-free synthesis of fully collapsed carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoribbons by chemical vapor deposition (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-Xing; Jia, Yong


    Fe2O3/Al2O3 catalyst was prepared by simply calcining the mixture of commercial Fe2O3 and Al2O3 powders at 1000 °C. The obtained Fe2O3/Al2O3 catalyst shows high efficiency for the synthesis of fully collapsed carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoribbons through the catalytic decomposition of methane at 900 °C. The yield of the fully collapsed carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoribbons was 19.5 wt%. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis were used to characterize the products. A tip-growth mechanism for the fully collapsed carbon nanotubes was suggested based on the SEM and TEM images of products produced at the initial stage. The break through of the catalyst particle from graphite layers resulted in the crack and then cut open of the fully collapsed carbon nanotubes, which further resulted in the formation of the graphene nanoribbons.

  9. Crack Detection for Aerospace Quality Spur Gears (United States)

    Decker, Harry J.


    Health and Usage Monitoring System research and development involves analysis of the vibration signals produced by a gearbox throughout its life. There are two major advantages of knowing the actual lifetime of a gearbox component: safety and cost. In this report, a technique is proposed to help extract the critical data and present it in a manner that can be easy to understand. The key feature of the technique is to make it independent of speed, torque and prior history for localized, single tooth damage such as gear cracks. This extraction technique is demonstrated on two sets of digitized vibration data from cracked spur gears. Standard vibration diagnostic parameters are calculated and presented for comparison. Several new detection algorithms are also presented. The results of this study indicate that crack detection methods examined are not robust or repeatable. The proposed techniques provide a limited improvement to existing diagnostic parameters. Current techniques show that the cracks progressed at a much faster rate than anticipated which reduced available time for detection.

  10. Fatigue crack growth in Aluminium Alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Kranenburg, C.


    Fatigue is a gradual process of local strength reduction. It is a phenomenon of damage accumulation at stress concentrations caused by fluctuating stresses and/or strains. In metals this results in microscopic cracks. These will start to grow under continued cyclic loading until final failure occurs

  11. Crack Propagation in Compressor Rotor Blade (United States)


    by local Public Affairs Office) 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Turbomachine blading crack propagation and initiations are one of...the most important problems. Design, operation and modernization of the contemporary turbomachines are impossible without a detailed numerical and...Rao, J. S., Turbine Blade Life Estimation, Narosa Publishing House, (2000). Rao, J. S., Narayan, R. and Ranjith, M. C., Lifing of Turbomachine

  12. Environmentally assisted cracking in light water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopra, O.K.; Chung, H.M.; Gruber, E.E. [and others


    This report summarizes work performed by Argonne National Laboratory on fatigue and environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) in light water reactors (LWRs) from April 1995 to December 1995. Topics that have been investigated include fatigue of carbon and low-alloy steel used in reactor piping and pressure vessels, EAC of Alloy 600 and 690, and irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) of Type 304 SS. Fatigue tests were conducted on ferritic steels in water that contained various concentrations of dissolved oxygen (DO) to determine whether a slow strain rate applied during different portions of a tensile-loading cycle are equally effective in decreasing fatigue life. Crack-growth-rate tests were conducted on compact-tension specimens from several heats of Alloys 600 and 690 in simulated LWR environments. Effects of fluoride-ion contamination on susceptibility to intergranular cracking of high- and commercial- purity Type 304 SS specimens from control-tensile tests at 288 degrees Centigrade. Microchemical changes in the specimens were studied by Auger electron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy to determine whether trace impurity elements may contribute to IASCC of these materials.

  13. Stress Corrosion Cracking of Pipeline Steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This paper provides a review of the differences between high pH and near-neutral pH stress corrosion cracking ofpipeline steels, influencing factors, and mechanisms. The characteristics and historical information on both forms ofSCC are discussed. The prospect for research in the future is also presented.

  14. Pregnant crack addicts in a psychiatric unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela de Moraes Costa


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In this study we aim to characterize a sample of 85 pregnant crack addicts admitted for detoxification in a psychiatric inpatient unit. METHOD: Cross-sectional study. Sociodemographic, clinical, obstetric and lifestyle information were evaluated. RESULTS: Age of onset for crack use varied from 11 to 35 years (median = 21. Approximately 25% of the patients smoked more than 20 crack rocks in a typical day of use (median = 10; min-max = 1-100. Tobacco (89.4%, alcohol (63.5% and marijuana (51.8% were the drugs other than crack most currently used. Robbery was reported by 32 patients (41.2%, imprisonment experience by 21 (24.7%, trade of sex for money/drugs by 38 (44.7%, home desertion by 33 (38.8%; 15.3% were positive for HIV, 5.9% for HCV, 1.2% for HBV and 8.2% for syphilis. After discharge from the psychiatric unit, only 25% of the sample followed the proposed treatment in the chemical dependency outpatient service. CONCLUSION: Greater risky behaviors for STD, as well as high rates of maternal HIV and Syphilis were found. Moreover, the high rates of concurrent use of other drugs and involvement in illegal activities contribute to show their chaotic lifestyles. Prevention and intervention programs need to be developed to address the multifactorial nature of this problem.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Shanglei; Lu Xueqin; Lou Songnian; Zou Zengda


    A new surfacing electrode is developed with cracking resistance and wearability based on high microhardness of TiC and VC, carbides of Ti and V are formed in deposited metal by means of high temperature arc metallurgic reaction. The results show the hardness of surfacing metal increases with the increase of ferrotitanium (Fe-Ti), ferrovanadium (Fe-V) and graphite in the coat. However,when graphite reaches the volume fraction of 11%, the hardness reaches its peak value, and when beyond 11%, the hardness falls off. As Fe-Ti, Fe-V and graphite increase, the cracking resistance of deposited metal and usability of electrode declines. Carbides are dispersedly distributed in the matrix structure. The matrix microstructure of deposited metal is lath martensite. Carbides present irregular block. When using the researched surfacing electrode to continue weld with non-preheated, no seeable crack or only a few micro-cracks can be observed in the surface of deposited metal. The hardness is above 60 HRC. The wear resistance is better than that of EDZCr-C-15.

  16. The Lead Crack Fatigue Lifting Framework (United States)


    fracture properties of high strength aluminium and titanium alloys. ____________________ ________________________________________________ Russel...and the fatigue crack growth properties of high strength aluminium and titanium alloys. Russell and Simon have also collaborated on a chapter on...forms of machining damage (scratches, grooves, burrs, small tears and nicks); etch pits from surface treatments ( pickling , anodising); porosity

  17. 3D characterisation of RCF crack networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahlström Johan


    Full Text Available Rolling contact fatigue (RCF damage is becoming more frequent with increased traffic and loading conditions in the railway industry. Defects which are characterized by a two-lobe darkened surface and a V-shaped surface-breaking crack are often so-called squats. The origination and propagation of squats in railway rails is the topic of many recent studies; the associated crack networks develop with complicated geometry near the surface of rails that is difficult to characterise using most non-destructive methods. The cracks can be examined with repeated metallographic sectioning, but the process is time-consuming and destructive. In order to reduce time, as well as information and material loss, high-resolution and high-energy X-ray imaging of railway rails was done in the current study. Combining the exposures from a range of angles using image analysis, a 3D representation of the complex crack network is achieved. The latter was complemented with metallographic sectioning to determine the accuracy of prediction of the geometrical reconstruction.

  18. Repairing Hidden Cracks in Coolant Tubes (United States)

    Mills, R. C., Sr.; Duesberg, J.


    Repair technique closes leaks in tubes or conduits where access limited to wall opposite crack. Technique applicable to any tubular assembly where tubes bundled together or bonded to supporting shell, such as in heat exchangers. Procedure provides structural support to area failed and uninterrupted flow without significantly altering heat-transfer profile.

  19. Instantaneous crack detection using dual PZT transducers (United States)

    Kim, Seung Bum; Sohn, Hoon


    A new guided wave based nondestructive testing (NDT) technique is developed to detect crack damage in metallic plates commonly used in aircraft without using prior baseline data or a predetermined decision boundary. In conventional guided wave based techniques, damage is often identified by comparing the "current" data obtained from a potentially damaged condition of a structure with the "past" baseline data collected at the pristine condition of the structure. However, it has been reported that this type of pattern comparison with the baseline data can lead to increased false alarms due to its susceptibility to varying operational and environmental conditions of the structure. In order to tackle this issue, a reference-free damage detection technique is previously developed using two pairs of collocated lead zirconate titanate transducers (PZTs) placed on both sides of a plate. In this study, this reference-free technique is further advanced so that the PZT transducers can be placed only on one side of the specimen. Crack formation creates Lamb wave mode conversion due to a sudden change in the thickness of the structure. Then, the proposed technique instantly detects the appearance of the crack by extracting this mode conversion from the measured Lamb waves. This study suggests a reference-free statistical approach that enables damage classification using only the current data set. Numerical and experimental results are presented to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed technique to instantaneous crack detection.

  20. Durability of cracked fibre reinforced concrete structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan De Place; Nielsen, Laila


    (capillary water uptake) is used, involving an in-situ method and a laboratory method. Three different concrete qualities as well as steel fibres (ZP) and polypropylene fibres (PP) are used. Results of the durability tests on cracked FRC-beams are compared to results for uncracked FRC-beams and beams without...

  1. 46 CFR 59.10-5 - Cracks. (United States)


    ... does not exceed 12 inches in length and after completion the weld is stress-relieved. Cracks in... the root of the weld shall be chipped or ground out to insure a clean surface of the originally... CFR 59.01-2). For thicknesses exceeding three-fourths inch, suitable U grooves should be employed....

  2. Fluid catalytic cracking : feedstocks and reaction mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dupain, X.


    The Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) process is one of the key units in a modern refinery. Traditionally, its design is primarily aimed for the production of gasoline from heavy oil fractions, but as co-products also diesel blends and valuable gasses (e.g. propene and butenes) are formed in

  3. Arc termination cracks in Inconel 718 and Incoloy 903 (United States)

    Bayless, E.; Mccaig, J.; Poorman, R.


    The welding of the nickel base, heat resistant alloys that are used extensively for welded Shuttle engine components revealed solidification cracking characteristics at weld termination points. If not detected and removed, these crater cracks may cause costly component failure. To better understand this characteristic, welding termination techniques were studied and methods developed to eliminate crater cracks. It was determined that weld termination solidification cracking can be eliminated by controlled decrease of welding current, welding voltage, wire feed, and travel speed.

  4. Onset of Propagation of Planar Cracks in Heterogeneous Media


    Ramanathan, Sharad; Fisher, Daniel S.


    The dynamics of planar crack fronts in hetergeneous media near the critical load for onset of crack motion are investigated both analytically and by numerical simulations. Elasticity of the solid leads to long range stress transfer along the crack front which is non-monotonic in time due to the elastic waves in the medium. In the quasistatic limit with instantaneous stress transfer, the crack front exhibits dynamic critical phenomenon, with a second order like transition from a pinned to a mo...

  5. CRACK2. Modelling calcium carbonate deposition from bicarbonate solutions in cracks in concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Knud Erik


    The numerical CRACK2 model simulates precipitation of calcite from calcium bicarbonate solution (e.g. groundwater) passing through cracks in concrete or other cementitious materials. A summary of experimental work is followed by a detailed description ofthe model. Hydroxyl ions are transported...... by diffusion in pore systems in columns of cementitious materials. The hydroxyl is precipitating calcite from a flow of bicarbonate solution in a crack connecting the ends of a row of such columns. Thecementitious material is simulated as calcium hydroxide mixed with inert material but with sodium hydroxide...... dissolved in the pore solution. Diffusive migration of cesium as radioactive isotope is also considered. Electrical interaction of the migratingions is taken into account. Example calculations demonstrate effects of parameter variations on distribution of precipitated calcite in the crack...

  6. Stress corrosion cracking behavior of Alloy 600 in high temperature water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, G.L.; Burke, M.G.


    SCC susceptibility of Alloy 600 in deaerated water at 360 C (statically loaded U-bend specimens) is dependent on microstructure and whether the material was cold-worked and annealed (CWA) or hot-worked and annealed (HWA). All cracking was intergranular, and materials lacking grain boundary carbides were most susceptible to SCC initiation. CWA tubing materials are more susceptible to SCC initiation than HWA ring-rolled forging materials with similar microstructures (optical metallography). In CWA tubing materials, one crack dominated and grew to a visible size. HWA materials with a low hot-working finishing temperature (<925 C) and final anneals at 1010-1065 C developed both large cracks (similar to those in CWA materials) and small intergranular microcracks detectable only by destructive metallography. HWA materials with a high hot-working finishing temperature (>980 C) and a high-temperature final anneal (>1040 C), with grain boundaries that are fully decorated, developed only microcracks in all specimens. These materials did not develop large, visually detectable cracks, even after more than 300 weeks exposure. A low-temperature thermal treatment (610 C for 7h), which reduces or eliminates SCC in Alloy 600, did not eliminate microcrack formation in high temperature processed HWA materials. Conventional metallographic and analytical electron microscopy (AEM) were done on selected materials to identify the factors responsible for the observed differences in cracking behavior. Major difference between high-temperature HWA and low-temperature HWA and CWA materials was that the high temperature processing and final annealing produced predominantly ``semi-continuous`` dendritic M{sub 7}C{sub 3} carbides along grain boundaries with a minimal amount of intragranular carbides. Lower temperature processing produced intragranular M7C3 carbides, with less intergranular carbides.

  7. Sparing Sphincters and Laparoscopic Resection Improve Survival by Optimizing the Circumferential Resection Margin in Rectal Cancer Patients. (United States)

    Keskin, Metin; Bayraktar, Adem; Sivirikoz, Emre; Yegen, Gülcin; Karip, Bora; Saglam, Esra; Bulut, Mehmet Türker; Balik, Emre


    The goal of rectal cancer treatment is to minimize the local recurrence rate and extend the disease-free survival period and survival. For this aim, obtainment of negative circumferential radial margin (CRM) plays an important role. This study evaluated predictive factors for positive CRM status and its effect on patient survival in mid- and distal rectal tumors.Patients who underwent curative resection for rectal cancer were included. The main factors were demographic data, tumor location, surgical technique, neoadjuvant therapy, tumor diameter, tumor depth, lymph node metastasis, mesorectal integrity, CRM, the rate of local recurrence, distant metastasis, and overall and disease-free survival. Statistical analyses were performed by using the Chi-squared test, Fisher exact test, Student t test, Mann-Whitney U test and the Mantel-Cox log-rank sum test.A total of 420 patients were included, 232 (55%) of whom were male. We observed no significant differences in patient characteristics or surgical treatment between the patients who had positive CRM and who had negative CRM, but a higher positive CRM rate was observed in patients undergone abdominoperineal resection (APR) (P CRM status. Logistic regression analysis revealed that APR (P CRM status. Moreover, positive CRM was associated with decreased 5-year overall and disease-free survival (P = 0.002 and P = 0.004, respectively).This large single-institution series demonstrated that APR and open resection were independent predictive factors for positive CRM status in rectal cancer. Positive CRM independently decreased the 5-year overall and disease-free survival rates.

  8. Accuracy of High-Resolution MRI with Lumen Distention in Rectal Cancer Staging and Circumferential Margin Involvement Prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iannicelli, Elsa; Di Renzo, Sara [Radiology Institute, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, University of Rome, Sapienza, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome 00189 (Italy); Department of Surgical and Medical Sciences and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, University of Rome, Sapienza, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome 00189 (Italy); Ferri, Mario [Department of Surgical and Medical Sciences and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, University of Rome, Sapienza, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome 00189 (Italy); Pilozzi, Emanuela [Department of Clinical and Molecular Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, University of Rome, Sapienza, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome 00189 (Italy); Di Girolamo, Marco; Sapori, Alessandra [Radiology Institute, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, University of Rome, Sapienza, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome 00189 (Italy); Department of Surgical and Medical Sciences and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, University of Rome, Sapienza, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome 00189 (Italy); Ziparo, Vincenzo [Department of Surgical and Medical Sciences and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, University of Rome, Sapienza, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome 00189 (Italy); David, Vincenzo [Radiology Institute, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, University of Rome, Sapienza, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome 00189 (Italy); Department of Surgical and Medical Sciences and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, University of Rome, Sapienza, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome 00189 (Italy)


    To evaluate the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with lumen distention for rectal cancer staging and circumferential resection margin (CRM) involvement prediction. Seventy-three patients with primary rectal cancer underwent high-resolution MRI with a phased-array coil performed using 60-80 mL room air rectal distention, 1-3 weeks before surgery. MRI results were compared to postoperative histopathological findings. The overall MRI T staging accuracy was calculated. CRM involvement prediction and the N staging, the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were assessed for each T stage. The agreement between MRI and histological results was assessed using weighted-kappa statistics. The overall MRI accuracy for T staging was 93.6% (k = 0.85). The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV for each T stage were as follows: 91.8%, 86.2%, 95.5%, 92.6% and 91.3% for the group ≤ T2; 90.4%, 94.6%, 86.1%, 87.5% and 94% for T3; 98,6%, 85.7%, 100%, 100% and 98.5% for T4, respectively. The predictive CRM accuracy was 94.5% (k = 0.86); the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were 89.5%, 96.3%, 89.5%, and 96.3% respectively. The N staging accuracy was 68.49% (k = 0.4). MRI performed with rectal lumen distention has proved to be an effective technique both for rectal cancer staging and involved CRM predicting.

  9. Seismic stability analysis of concrete gravity dams with penetrated cracks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou-yan JIANG


    Full Text Available The seismic stability of a cracked dam was examined in this study. Geometric nonlinearity and large deformations, as well as the contact condition at the crack site, were taken into consideration. The location of penetrated cracks was first identified using the concrete plastic-damage model based on the nonlinear finite element method (FEM. Then, the hard contact algorithm was used to simulate the crack interaction in the normal direction, and the Coloumb friction model was used to simulate the crack interaction in the tangential direction. After verification of numerical models through a case study, the seismic stability of the Koyna Dam with two types of penetrated cracks is discussed in detail with different seismic peak accelerations, and the collapse processes of the cracked dam are also presented. The results show that the stability of the dam with two types of penetrated cracks can be ensured in an earthquake with a magnitude of the original Koyna earthquake, and the cracked dam has a large earthquake-resistant margin. The failure processes of the cracked dam in strong earthquakes can be divided into two stages: the sliding stage and the overturning stage. The sliding stage ends near the peak acceleration, and the top block slides a long distance along the crack before the collapse occurs. The maximum sliding displacement of the top block will decrease with an increasing friction coefficient at the crack site.

  10. Optimisation of the Crack Pattern in Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, D.


    Recent field investigations on several new Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavements (CRCP) in Belgium indicate that its crack pattern is characterized by low mean crack spacing along with a high percentage of clusters of closely spaced cracks. Field surveys also indicate that it is difficult to si

  11. Optimisation of the Crack Pattern in Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, D.


    Recent field investigations on several new Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavements (CRCP) in Belgium indicate that its crack pattern is characterized by low mean crack spacing along with a high percentage of clusters of closely spaced cracks. Field surveys also indicate that it is difficult to si

  12. Burst pressure predictions of pipelines with longitudinal cracks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dotta, Fernando; Riggieri, Claudio [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Naval e Oceanica


    This study extends a micro mechanics approach based upon the computational cell methodology to model ductile crack extension of longitudinal crack-like defects in a high strength pipeline steel. Laboratory testing of an API 5L X60 steel at room temperature using standard, deep crack C(T) specimens provides the data needed to measure the crack growth resistance curve for the material. In the computational cell model, ductile crack extension occurs through void growth and coalescence (by cell extinction) within a thin layer of material ahead of crack tip. A simple scheme to calibrate material-specific parameters for the cells is also described. A central focus of the paper is the application of the cell methodology to predict experimentally measured burst pressures for pre-cracked pipe specimens with different crack sizes. The experimental program includes longitudinally pre cracked 20'' (508 mm) O.D. pipe specimens with 15.8 mm thickness and varying crack geometries. Plane-strain computations are conducted on detailed finite element models for the pipe specimens to describe crack extension with increased pressure. The numerical simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the cell approach to describe crack growth response and to predict the burst pressure for the tested pipes. (author)

  13. A cohesive segments method for the simulation of crack growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remmers, J.J.C.; De Borst, R.; Needleman, A.


    A numerical method for crack growth is described in which the crack is not regarded as a single discontinuity that propagates continuously. Instead, the crack is represented by a set of overlapping cohesive segments. These cohesive segments are inserted into finite elements as discontinuities in the

  14. Finite elements simulation of reflective cracking in asphaltic overlays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scarpas, A.; De Bondt, A.H.


    Overlaying is one of the most popular and cost effective techniques of rehabilitation of cracked pavements. The placing of reinforcement between the overlay and the top layer of the cracked pavement is currently being utilised as a possible technique for delaying the development of cracks into the o

  15. Evolving fracture patterns: columnar joints, mud cracks, and polygonal terrain

    CERN Document Server

    Goehring, Lucas


    When cracks form in a thin contracting layer, they sequentially break the layer into smaller and smaller pieces. A rectilinear crack pattern encodes information about the order of crack formation, as later cracks tend to intersect with earlier cracks at right angles. In a hexagonal pattern, in contrast, the angles between all cracks at a vertex are near 120$^\\circ$. However, hexagonal crack patterns are typically only seen when a crack network opens and heals repeatedly, in a thin layer, or advances by many intermittent steps into a thick layer. Here it is shown how both types of pattern can arise from identical forces, and how a rectilinear crack pattern evolves towards a hexagonal one. Such an evolution is expected when cracks undergo many opening cycles, where the cracks in any cycle are guided by the positions of cracks in the previous cycle, but when they can slightly vary their position, and order of opening. The general features of this evolution are outlined, and compared to a review of the specific p...

  16. Fretting fatigue crack propagation rate under variable loading conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gandiolle


    Full Text Available Fretting fatigue experiments aim to represent industrial problems and most of them endure variable loading. Being able to assess lifetime of assemblies, especially for low propagation rate conditions, is essential as experimental validation is often too expensive. Both experimental and numerical approaches are proposed to follow the crack propagation rate of steel on steel cylinder/plane fretting fatigue contact submitted to variable loading conditions. An original experimental monitoring has been implemented on the fretting-fatigue test device to observe crack propagation using a potential drop technique. A calibration curve relating crack length and electrical potential was established for the studied contact. It allows direct knowledge of the crack length and crack propagation rate. It was applied to mixed load test showing crack arrest for the last loading condition. To explain this behavior, a 2-dimensional FE modeling was implemented to simulate the complexes multi-axial contact stressing. The crack propagation rate was formalized using an effective stress intensity factor amplitude ΔKeff coupled with Paris law of the material. The crack arrest condition for a given loading was related to ΔKeff along the expected crack path crossing the material crack arrest threshold ΔK0. The failure was related to ΔKeff reaching the critical stress intensity factor KIC. A good correlation with experiments was observed allowing to predict the crack arrest condition although the model tends to overestimate the final crack length extension.

  17. Research on pavement crack recognition methods based on image processing (United States)

    Cai, Yingchun; Zhang, Yamin


    In order to overview and analysis briefly pavement crack recognition methods , then find the current existing problems in pavement crack image processing, the popular methods of crack image processing such as neural network method, morphology method, fuzzy logic method and traditional image processing .etc. are discussed, and some effective solutions to those problems are presented.

  18. Optimisation of the Crack Pattern in Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, D.


    Recent field investigations on several new Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavements (CRCP) in Belgium indicate that its crack pattern is characterized by low mean crack spacing along with a high percentage of clusters of closely spaced cracks. Field surveys also indicate that it is difficult to

  19. Characterisation of Fatigue Crack Growth in Silicone for Deap Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Thor


    In this paper, the fatigue crack growth characteristics of Elastosil R RT 625 are determined by performing fatigue crack experiments based on ISO 27727. Elastosil R RT 625 is a silicone rubber used by Danfoss PolyPower A/S as the dielectric material in their DEAP elements. Cracks were characteris...

  20. Catalytic oxidative cracking of hexane as a route to olefins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boyadjian, C.A.; Lefferts, Leonardus; Seshan, Kulathuiyer


    Catalytic oxidative cracking of naphtha is conceptually an alternative process to steam cracking. The performance of sol–gel synthesized Li/MgO in oxidative cracking of hexane as a model compound of naphtha, has been studied and compared to that of conventionally prepared catalyst. At a temperature