WorldWideScience

Sample records for fully breastfed infants

  1. Effect of Human Milk Appetite Hormones, Macronutrients, and Infant Characteristics on Gastric Emptying and Breastfeeding Patterns of Term Fully Breastfed Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoya Gridneva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Human milk (HM components influence infant feeding patterns and nutrient intake, yet it is unclear how they influence gastric emptying (GE, a key component of appetite regulation. This study analyzed GE of a single breastfeed, HM appetite hormones/macronutrients and demographics/anthropometrics/body composition of term fully breastfed infants (n = 41, 2 and/or 5 mo. Stomach volumes (SV were calculated from pre-/post-feed ultrasound scans, then repeatedly until the next feed. Feed volume (FV was measured by the test-weigh method. HM samples were analyzed for adiponectin, leptin, fat, lactose, total carbohydrate, lysozyme, and total/whey/casein protein. Linear regression/mixed effect models were used to determine associations between GE/feed variables and HM components/infant anthropometrics/adiposity. Higher FVs were associated with faster (−0.07 [−0.10, −0.03], p < 0.001 GE rate, higher post-feed SVs (0.82 [0.53, 1.12], p < 0.001, and longer GE times (0.24 [0.03, 0.46], p = 0.033. Higher whey protein concentration was associated with higher post-feed SVs (4.99 [0.84, 9.13], p = 0.023. Longer GE time was associated with higher adiponectin concentration (2.29 [0.92, 3.66], p = 0.002 and dose (0.02 [0.01, 0.03], p = 0.005, and lower casein:whey ratio (−65.89 [−107.13, −2.66], p = 0.003. FV and HM composition influence GE and breastfeeding patterns in term breastfed infants.

  2. Effect of Human Milk Appetite Hormones, Macronutrients, and Infant Characteristics on Gastric Emptying and Breastfeeding Patterns of Term Fully Breastfed Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gridneva, Zoya; Kugananthan, Sambavi; Hepworth, Anna R; Tie, Wan J; Lai, Ching T; Ward, Leigh C; Hartmann, Peter E; Geddes, Donna T

    2016-12-28

    Human milk (HM) components influence infant feeding patterns and nutrient intake, yet it is unclear how they influence gastric emptying (GE), a key component of appetite regulation. This study analyzed GE of a single breastfeed, HM appetite hormones/macronutrients and demographics/anthropometrics/body composition of term fully breastfed infants ( n = 41, 2 and/or 5 mo). Stomach volumes (SV) were calculated from pre-/post-feed ultrasound scans, then repeatedly until the next feed. Feed volume (FV) was measured by the test-weigh method. HM samples were analyzed for adiponectin, leptin, fat, lactose, total carbohydrate, lysozyme, and total/whey/casein protein. Linear regression/mixed effect models were used to determine associations between GE/feed variables and HM components/infant anthropometrics/adiposity. Higher FVs were associated with faster (-0.07 [-0.10, -0.03], p < 0.001) GE rate, higher post-feed SVs (0.82 [0.53, 1.12], p < 0.001), and longer GE times (0.24 [0.03, 0.46], p = 0.033). Higher whey protein concentration was associated with higher post-feed SVs (4.99 [0.84, 9.13], p = 0.023). Longer GE time was associated with higher adiponectin concentration (2.29 [0.92, 3.66], p = 0.002) and dose (0.02 [0.01, 0.03], p = 0.005), and lower casein:whey ratio (-65.89 [-107.13, -2.66], p = 0.003). FV and HM composition influence GE and breastfeeding patterns in term breastfed infants.

  3. Clinical update: understanding jaundice in the breastfed infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Mary

    2013-06-01

    Breastfed infants are more likely to be jaundiced than infants who are formula fed. Community practitioners need to understand the physiology of jaundice and the issues associated with breastfeeding so that they can support parents. Visible jaundice is a result of hyperbilirubinaemia and, in most cases, is harmless and caused by normal physiological processes. It does, however, require detection monitoring and sometimes treatment to prevent rare but serious health complications. Although some debate remains over the association between breastfeeding and jaundice, the literature suggests that in the breastfed infant, early onset jaundice may be a result of insufficient intake of breast milk and prolonged jaundice may be related to a constituent of breast milk itself (breast milk jaundice). Early breastfeeding support to promote good positioning, attachment and baby-led feeding may help prevent early onset jaundice. Management of jaundice in the breastfed infant involves referral to local services to determine bilirubin levels and exclude pathologies.

  4. Feeding Patterns and Emotional Care in Breastfed Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Julie P.; Ellwood, Mark

    2011-01-01

    A number of studies have suggested breastfed infants have improved bonding and attachment or cognitive development outcomes. However, mechanisms by which these differences might develop are poorly understood. We used maternal time use data to examine whether exclusively breastfeeding mothers spend more time in close interactive behaviors with…

  5. [Allergic colitis in exclusively breast-fed infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra Salinas, C; Blasco Alonso, J; Olivares Sánchez, L; Barco Gálvez, A; del Río Mapelli, L

    2006-02-01

    Eosinophilic colitis is induced by antigens present in cow's milk proteins in formula or human milk. In the last few years, an increasing number of cases have been diagnosed in exclusively breast-fed infants. We performed a retrospective study of 13 infants diagnosed with allergic colitis in our unit between January 1997 and January 2004. All the infants had been exclusively breast-fed. In all patients, initial symptoms were digestive (12 with mucus and bloody stools). Onset of symptoms occurred at 0-3 months in 77 %. Laboratory data of the allergic compound were negative. The main locations were the descending and sigmoid colon (75 %). Biopsy demonstrated acute inflammation, with neutrophil infiltration and an increase in eosinophils. In all patients, initial treatment consisted of exclusion of cow's milk proteins from the mother's diet. Ten of the 13 patients showed no improvement, requiring exclusive administration of protein-free hydrolyzate. In 3 infants, breastfeeding was maintained (breastfeeding without cow's milk proteins plus hydrolyzate). Diagnosis of eosinophilic colitis is based on exclusion of other causes of specific colitis and typical endoscopic and ultrastructural findings. Moreover, a satisfactory response to dietary treatment must be demonstrated. This diagnosis should be considered in breast-fed infants with rectal bleeding without involvement of general health status.

  6. Vitamin Status among Breastfed Infants in Bhaktapur, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulak, Manjeswori; Chandyo, Ram K; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L; Henjum, Sigrun; Ueland, Per M; Midttun, Øivind; Shrestha, Prakash S; Fawzi, Wafaie W; Graybill, Lauren; Strand, Tor A

    2016-03-08

    Vitamin deficiencies are known to be common among infants residing in low- and middle-income countries but relatively few studies have assessed several biochemical parameters simultaneously. The objective of the study was to describe the status of vitamins (A, D, E, B₆, B12 and folate) in breastfed infants. We measured the plasma concentrations of trans retinol, 25 hydroxy vitamin D, α-tocopherol, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, cobalamin, folate, methylmalonic acid, homocysteine, hemoglobin and C-reactive protein from 467 randomly selected infants. One in five (22%) was deficient in at least one vitamin. Mean (SD) plasma folate concentration was 73 (35) nmol/L, and no infant in the sample was folate deficient. Vitamin B₆ deficiency and vitamin B12 deficiency was found in 22% and 17% of the infants, respectively. Elevated plasma methylmalonic acid or total homocysteine concentration was found in 82% and 62% of infants, respectively. Fifteen percent of infants were vitamin A deficient and 65% were marginally deficient in vitamin A. Fewer than 5% of infants had low plasma vitamin D concentration or vitamin E concentration (α-tocopherol importance of continued supplementation campaigns and support the expansion of food fortification and dietary diversification programs that target children and women in Nepal.

  7. An Overview of Iron in Term Breast-Fed Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafaa A. Qasem

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Iron is an essential nutrient for normal growth and neurodevelopment of infants. Iron deficiency (ID remains the most common micronutrient deficiency worldwide. There are convincing data that ID is associated with negative effects on neurological and psychomotor development. Objectives In this review, we provide an overview of current knowledge of the importance of iron in normal term breast-fed infants with a focus on recommendations, metabolism, and iron requirements. Conclusions Health organizations around the world recommend the introduction of iron-rich foods or iron supplements for growing infants to prevent ID. However, there is no routine screening for ID in infancy. Multicenter trials with long-term follow-up are needed to investigate the association between iron fortification/supplementation and various health outcomes.

  8. VERY HIGH WEIGHT GAIN IN EXCLUSIVELY BREASTFED INFANTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Melanie Wange

    , family doctors and at our institute. Breastmilk intake was estimated by weighing (using prefeeding and postfeeding infant weighing) during 2-4 24h periods (Tanita BD 815 MA). Breastmilk macronutrient content was measured by mid-infrared human milk analyzer (Miris AB, Sweden). Results: Case 1: boy, birth...... weight 3.8 kg. Weight-for-age curve in Fig 1. Exclusively breastfed until 5 mo, and stopped breastfeeding at 11 mo. At 5.5 mo milk intake was about 1100 ml (91ml/kg) and milk macronutrient content (4 samples foremilk and 4 hindmilk (g/100 ml)): fat foremilk 0.4-2.1, hindmilk 4.3-6.9, protein foremilk: 0.......6-0.8. Case 2: girl, birth weight 4.45 kg. Weight-for-age curve in Fig 2. Exclusively breastfed until 5 mo Still partially breastfed at last measurement at 8 mo. At 4 mo milk intake was about 1500 ml (128ml/kg) and milk macronutrient content (g/100 ml) measured on 4 complete emptying of a breast: fat 2...

  9. Oral microbial profile discriminates breast-fed from formula-fed infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holgerson, Pernilla L; Vestman, Nelly R; Claesson, Rolf; Ohman, Carina; Domellöf, Magnus; Tanner, Anne C R; Hernell, Olle; Johansson, Ingegerd

    2013-02-01

    Little is known about the effect of diet on the oral microbiota of infants, although diet is known to affect the gut microbiota. The aims of the present study were to compare the oral microbiota in breast-fed and formula-fed infants, and investigate growth inhibition of streptococci by infant-isolated lactobacilli. A total of 207 mothers consented to participation of their 3-month-old infants. A total of 146 (70.5%) infants were exclusively and 38 (18.4%) partially breast-fed, and 23 (11.1%) were exclusively formula-fed. Saliva from all of their infants was cultured for Lactobacillus species, with isolate identifications from 21 infants. Lactobacillus isolates were tested for their ability to suppress Streptococcus mutans and S sanguinis. Oral swabs from 73 infants were analysed by the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM) and by quantitative polymerase chain reaction for Lactobacillus gasseri. Lactobacilli were cultured from 27.8% of exclusively and partially breast-fed infants, but not from formula-fed infants. The prevalence of 14 HOMIM-detected taxa, and total salivary lactobacilli counts differed by feeding method. Multivariate modelling of HOMIM-detected bacteria and possible confounders clustered samples from breast-fed infants separately from formula-fed infants. The microbiota of breast-fed infants differed based on vaginal or C-section delivery. Isolates of L plantarum, L gasseri, and L vaginalis inhibited growth of the cariogenic S mutans and the commensal S sanguinis: L plantarum >L gasseri >L vaginalis. The microbiota of the mouth differs between 3-month-old breast-fed and formula-fed infants. Possible mechanisms for microbial differences observed include species suppression by lactobacilli indigenous to breast milk.

  10. Dietary habits of partly breast-fed and completely weaned infants at 9 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gondolf, Ulla Holmboe; Tetens, Inge; Fleischer Michaelsen, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To test whether there are differences in diet diversity between children still being partly breast-fed at 9 months and those completely weaned at the same age. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Cross-sectional study (SKOT cohort) in the area of Copenhagen, Denmark. Subjects...... found for absolute intakes of foods between feeding groups, although fatty spread had significantly higher intake rates and consumption (P50?031) among partly breast-fed compared with completely weaned infants. Conclusions: At 9 months the infants partly breast-fed did not eat a less diversified diet...

  11. Correlation of Blood Lead Level in Mothers and Exclusively Breastfed Infants: A Study on Infants Aged Less Than Six Months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadshah Farhat

    2013-12-01

    How to cite this article: Farhat A, Mohammadzadeh A, Balali-Mood M, Aghajanpoor-Pasha M, Ravanshad Y. Correlation of Blood Lead Level in Mothers and Exclusively Breastfed Infants: A Study on Infants Aged Less Than Six Months. Asia Pac J Med Toxicol 2013;2:150-2.

  12. No difference in urinary iodine concentrations between Boston-area breastfed and formula-fed infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Joshua H; Leung, Angela M; Hale, Andrea R; Pearce, Elizabeth N; Braverman, Lewis E; He, Xuemei; Belfort, Mandy B; Nelson, Sara M; Brown, Rosalind S

    2014-08-01

    Thyroid hormone is essential for normal mental and physical development in infancy and childhood and is dependent on adequate iodine intake. During the first few months of life, infants are reliant on breastmilk and/or infant formula as their sole sources of dietary iodine. The iodine status of U.S. infants has not been well studied. This was a cross-sectional study of 95 breastfed and/or formula-fed infants less than 3 months of age in the Boston area. We measured iodine content from infants' single spot urine samples and assessed associations with infant feeding type as well as maternal demographic data, salt and multivitamin use, smoking status, and diet. The median infant urine iodine concentration was 197.5 μg/L (range 40-897.5 μg/L). Median infant urine iodine concentrations were similar between infants who were exclusively breastfed (n=39, 203.5 μg/L; range 61.5-395.5 μg/L), formula-fed (n=44, 182.5 μg/L; range 40-897.5 μg/L), and mixed (n=10, 197.8 μg/L; range 123-592.5) (p=0.88). There were no significant correlations of infant urinary iodine with maternal salt or multivitamin use (regularly or in the past 24 hours), active or secondhand cigarette smoke exposures, infant weight, infant length, or recent maternal ingestion of common iodine-containing foods, although the correlations with iodine-containing foods are difficult to accurately determine due to the small sample sizes of these variables. Both breastfed and formula-fed infants less than 3 months of age in the Boston area were generally iodine sufficient. Larger studies are needed to confirm these observations among infants nationwide and elucidate other factors that may contribute to infant iodine nutrition.

  13. Milk consumption and hydration status of exclusively breast-fed infants in a warm climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, K H; Creed de Kanashiro, H; del Aguila, R; Lopez de Romana, G; Black, R E

    1986-05-01

    To assess the hydration status of 40 exclusively breast-fed Peruvian infants, their milk intake and urinary volume and concentration were measured during 8-hour daytime observations. Maximum home temperatures ranged between 26 degrees and 33 degrees C; environmental relative humidity ranged between 49% and 96%. The infants consumed between 105 and 528 gm milk during the observation period; the standardized intakes ranged between 4.0 and 12.1 gm/kg body weight per hour (mean +/- SD 7.5 +/- 1.7 gm). The infants voided between 0.9 and 6.3 ml urine per kilogram of body weight per hour (mean +/- SD 3.4 +/- 1.3 ml). The maximum urinary specific gravity in each infant ranged between 1.003 and 1.017. We conclude that healthy infants can maintain adequate hydration status while exclusively breast-fed under these environmental conditions.

  14. Metabolic fate of neutral human milk oligosaccharides in exclusively breast-fed infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotz, Viktoria; Rudloff, Silvia; Meyer, Christina; Lochnit, Günter; Kunz, Clemens

    2015-02-01

    Various biological effects have been postulated for human milk oligosaccharides (HMO), as deduced from in vitro, animal, and epidemiological studies. Little is known about their metabolic fate in vivo in the breast-fed infant, which is presented here. Human milk and infant urine and feces were collected from ten mother-child pairs and analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS (/MS), accompanied by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection. Previously, we detected intact small and complex HMO in infant urine, which had been absorbed from gut, as verified via intrinsic (13) C-labeling. Our current work reveals the presence of novel HMO metabolites in urine and feces of breast-fed infants. The novel metabolites were identified as acetylated HMOs and other HMO-like structures, produced by the infants or by their gut microbiota. The finding of secretor- or Lewis-specific HMO in the feces/urine of infants fed with nonsecretor or Lewis-negative milk suggested a correspondent modification in the infant. Our study reveals new insights into the metabolism of neutral HMO in exclusively breast-fed infants and provides further indications for multiple factors influencing HMO metabolism and functions that should be considered in future in vivo investigations. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Maternal supplementation for prevention and treatment of vitamin D deficiency in exclusively breastfed infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggerty, Linda L

    2011-06-01

    Current research links newborn and infant vitamin D deficiency with various clinical outcomes, including rickets, failure to thrive, type 1 diabetes, and other immune-related diseases. Breastfed infants are often at a greater risk of developing deficiency due to their mothers' low vitamin D status. Human milk reflects the vitamin D status of the mother and often contains inadequate levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D for infant nutrition. In 2008 the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommended 400 IU of vitamin D supplementation of all infants. However, research has indicated low levels of compliance of vitamin D supplementation of breastfed infants and a high incidence of vitamin D deficiency in the United States. Many breastfeeding advocates believe that the AAP's recommendations undermine breastfeeding, implying that human milk is inadequate for infant nutrition. Lactating mothers are also reluctant to add any supplements to their breastmilk. The literature review will examine the effectiveness and safety of maternal vitamin D supplementation for prevention and/or treatment of vitamin D deficiency in breastfed infants and lactating mothers. This method of prevention and intervention provides pediatric providers and certified lactation consultants with an alternative approach for education, counseling, promotion of breastfeeding, and treatment to improve maternal and infant health.

  16. Exclusively breastfed infants at risk for false negative double blind placebo controlled milk challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrus, N. C. M.; Kole, E. A.; Schoemaker, A. A.; van Aalderen, W. M. C.; Sprikkelman, A. B.

    2014-01-01

    The double blind placebo controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) is the gold standard for diagnosing cow's milk allergy (CMA). However, false-negative DBPCFC have been reported. We present 2 cases with a false negative DBPCFC in exclusively breastfed infants suspected of CMA. These cases highlight the

  17. Breast milk and energy intake in exclusively, predominantly, and partially breast-fed infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haisma, H; Coward, WA; Albernaz, E; Visser, GH; Wells, JCK; Wright, A; Victoria, CG; Victora, C.G.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the extent to which breast milk is replaced by intake of other liquids or foods, and to estimate energy intake of infants defined as exclusively (EBF), predominantly (PBF) and partially breast-fed (PartBF). Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Community-based study in urban

  18. Exclusively breastfed overweight infants are at the same risk of childhood overweight as formula fed overweight infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Willik, E.M.; Vrijkotte, T.G.M.; Altenburg, T.M.; Gademan, M.G.J.; van Holthe, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective Several early life determinants play a role in childhood obesity. Rapid weight gain and overweight in infancy increases the risk while breast feeding seems to protect against childhood overweight. However, should we worry about exclusively breastfed overweight infants? The

  19. CoQ10 plasmatic levels in breast-fed infants compared to formula-fed infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compagnoni, G; Giuffrè, B; Lista, G; Mosca, F; Marini, A

    2004-01-01

    Coenzyme Q10 has been recognized as an important antioxidant factor besides its main role in bioenergetic metabolism. CoQ10 tissue levels depend both on exogenous dietetic intake and on endogenous biosynthesis, as this compound can be partly synthesized in human cells. Q10 plasma levels reflect the tissue content of the coenzyme and can be used to evaluate the presence of this compound in the human organism. Aim of the study was to measure CoQ10 plasmatic levels in a newborn breast-fed population and to compare them to CoQ10 levels in a newborn formula-fed population in order to verify whether changes in CoQ10 plasmatic contents could be related to a different dietetic intakes. We measured CoQ10 plasmatic levels in 25 healthy term neonates with different dietetic intakes: 15 breast-fed and 10 bottle-fed with a common infant formula. These infants were evaluated prospectively during the first month of life. The analyses were performed on the mothers' blood samples and cord blood samples at the time of delivery, then on infants at 4 and 28 days of age. Our results showed markedly reduced Q10 levels in cord blood samples compared to maternal Q10 plasmatic levels at the time of delivery, suggesting placental impermeability towards this molecule or increased fetal utilization during labor and delivery. At 4 days of age Q10 levels had increased in both groups of neonates, but significantly more in breast-fed infants compared to formula-fed babies (p <0.05). At 4 weeks of age no significant changes occurred in breast-fed infants, while values increased significantly in formula-fed infants (p <0.05). The content of Q10 in breast milk samples was lower than in infant formula. The results of this study show that CoQ10 plasmatic levels are at least partly influenced by the exogenous dietetic supply.

  20. [Aortic and cerebral trombosis caused by hypernatremic dehydration in an exclusively breast-fed infant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias Fernández, C; Chimenti Camacho, P; Vázquez López, P; Guerrero Soler, M; Blanco Bravo, D

    2006-10-01

    Complete aortic thrombosis is rare in neonates. Because it carries high morbidity and mortality, this entity requires aggressive and early treatment. This report describes an 8-day-old healthy and exclusively breast-fed infant, without specific coagulopathy, who developed complete aortic and cerebral venous thrombosis, which was attributed to inadequate breast-feeding and severe hypernatremic dehydration. Early systemic anticoagulation and thrombolytic therapy allowed complete resolution of the problem.

  1. Shoshin beriberi-thiamine responsive pulmonary hypertension in exclusively breastfed infants: A study from northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Javeed Iqbal; Rather, Hilal Ahmad; Ahangar, Ambreen Ali; Qureshi, Umar Amin; Dar, Parvez; Ahmed, Qazi Iqbal; Charoo, Bashir Ahmed; Ali, Syed Wajid

    To study the effect of thiamine administration on the resolution of pulmonary hypertension in exclusively breastfed infants. Prospective cohort study. Hospital based study of a tertiary care hospital. A total of 29 infants with 17 males (58.6%) and 12 females (41.4%) were included in the study. In addition to the management of shock, right heart failure and renal failure, patients received intravenous thiamine 100mg/kg IV followed by 10mg/day till introduction of supplementary feeds. Resolution of shock, metabolic complications and pulmonary hypertension. Mean age at presentation was 78.45±30.7 days. All infants were exclusively breastfed. 86.2% of mothers were on customary dietary restrictions. Biventricular failure and tachycardia was commonly present. There were four deaths in our series. Acute metabolic acidosis was a universal feature with a mean pH of 7.21±0.15. Pulmonary hypertension was present in all patients on admission. Intravenous thiamine 100mg/kg IV stat was given immediately after documenting pulmonary hypertension. Repeat echocardiography showed complete resolution of pulmonary hypertension. Many infants present to us with Shoshin beriberi with unusually high pulmonary pressures. These patients respond to thiamine challenge with prompt resolution of metabolic complications and reversal of pulmonary hypertension. We believe this is first of its kind from the region, which is reported. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Maternal vitamin D supplementation to meet the needs of the breastfed infant: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Doria K; Senti, Jeanine L; Anderson, Cindy M

    2013-05-01

    Maternal vitamin D insufficiency during lactation, related to lack of sun exposure and minimal intake of vitamin D from the diet, contributes to low breast milk vitamin D content and, therefore, infant vitamin D deficiency. The objective of this review was to examine the literature regarding evidence for achieving maternal vitamin D status that promotes sufficient vitamin D transfer from mother to infant exclusively from breast milk. PubMed and CINAHL databases were searched using the terms lactation or breastfeeding or milk, human and vitamin D. The resulting articles were further limited to those written in English, published within the last 10 years, and involving clinical or randomized controlled trials of humans. The search yielded 13 studies, 3 of which provide evidence for maternal intake of vitamin D and the correlation with exclusively breastfed infants' serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level. A strong positive correlation exists between maternal vitamin D intake during exclusive breastfeeding and infant serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. There is support to conclude that when maternal vitamin D intake is sufficient, vitamin D transfer via breast milk is adequate to meet infant needs. In the reviewed studies, doses up to 10 times the current recommended daily intake of vitamin D were needed to produce sufficient transfer from mother to breastfed infant. Further research is needed to refine the dose and gestational timing of maternal vitamin D supplementation. Due to the high rates of vitamin D deficiency during lactation and the correlations between vitamin D deficiency and multiple diseases, providers should consider monitoring lactating mothers' vitamin D status.

  3. Stable Isotope Technique to Assess Intake of Human Milk in Breastfed Infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This publication was developed by an international group of experts as an integral part of the IAEA’s efforts to contribute to the transfer of technology and knowledge in nutrition. Its aim is to assist Member States in their efforts to combat malnutrition by facilitating the use of relevant nuclear techniques. The stable (non-radioactive) isotope technique has been developed to assess intake of human milk in breastfed infants. The practical application of the stable isotope technique, based on analysis of deuterium by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), is presented in this book

  4. Prevention and Management of Cow's Milk Allergy in Non-Exclusively Breastfed Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenplas, Yvan

    2017-07-10

    Introduction: The prevention and management of cow milk allergy (CMA) is still debated. Since CMA is much less frequent in breastfed infants, breastfeeding should be stimulated. Method: Literature was searched using databases to find original papers and reviews on this topic. Results: Hydrolysates with a clinical proof of efficacy are recommended in the prevention and treatment of CMA. However, not all meta-analyses conclude that hydrolysates do prevent CMA or other atopic manifestations such as atopic dermatitis. There are pros and cons to consider partially hydrolysed protein as an option for starter infant formula for each non-exclusively breastfed infant. A challenge test is still recommended as the most specific and sensitive diagnostic test, although a positive challenge test does not proof that the immune system is involved. The Cow Milk Symptom Score (CoMiSS™) is an awareness tool that enables healthcare professionals to better recognize symptoms related to the ingestion of cow milk, but it still needs validation as diagnostic tool. The current recommended elimination diet is a cow milk based extensive hydrolysate, although rice hydrolysates or soy infant formula can be considered in some cases. About 10 to 15% of infants allergic to cow milk will also react to soy. Mainly because of the higher cost, amino acid based formula is reserved for severe cases. There is no place for infant formula with intact protein from other animals as cross-over allergenicity is high. During recent years, attention focused also on the bifidogenic effect of prebiotics and more recently also on human milk oligosaccharides. A bifidogenic gastrointestinal microbiome may decrease the risk to develop allergic disease. The addition of probiotics and prebiotics to the elimination diet in treatment may enhance the development of tolerance development. Conclusion: Breastfeeding is the best way to feed infants. Cow milk based extensive hydrolysates remain the first option for the

  5. Prevention and Management of Cow’s Milk Allergy in Non-Exclusively Breastfed Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The prevention and management of cow milk allergy (CMA) is still debated. Since CMA is much less frequent in breastfed infants, breastfeeding should be stimulated. Method: Literature was searched using databases to find original papers and reviews on this topic. Results: Hydrolysates with a clinical proof of efficacy are recommended in the prevention and treatment of CMA. However, not all meta-analyses conclude that hydrolysates do prevent CMA or other atopic manifestations such as atopic dermatitis. There are pros and cons to consider partially hydrolysed protein as an option for starter infant formula for each non-exclusively breastfed infant. A challenge test is still recommended as the most specific and sensitive diagnostic test, although a positive challenge test does not proof that the immune system is involved. The Cow Milk Symptom Score (CoMiSS™) is an awareness tool that enables healthcare professionals to better recognize symptoms related to the ingestion of cow milk, but it still needs validation as diagnostic tool. The current recommended elimination diet is a cow milk based extensive hydrolysate, although rice hydrolysates or soy infant formula can be considered in some cases. About 10 to 15% of infants allergic to cow milk will also react to soy. Mainly because of the higher cost, amino acid based formula is reserved for severe cases. There is no place for infant formula with intact protein from other animals as cross-over allergenicity is high. During recent years, attention focused also on the bifidogenic effect of prebiotics and more recently also on human milk oligosaccharides. A bifidogenic gastrointestinal microbiome may decrease the risk to develop allergic disease. The addition of probiotics and prebiotics to the elimination diet in treatment may enhance the development of tolerance development. Conclusion: Breastfeeding is the best way to feed infants. Cow milk based extensive hydrolysates remain the first option for the

  6. Maternal drug use: evaluation of risks to breast-fed infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirksey, A; Groziak, S M

    1984-01-01

    This paper, based on a review of the literature, evaluates the risks to infants of maternal drug use during lactation. The potential harm of a particular drug to the breastfed infant is related both to the complex mechanism of milk synthesis and secretion and the mode of passage of the drug from plasma into milk. The 1st part of the paper discusses mammary cell and milk synthesis, milk secretion and composition, the mode of passage of drugs into milk, and factors influencing drug concentrations in milk. Drug concentrations in milk are dependent on 6 major factors: drug dosage, proportion bound in plasma, molecular weight, lipid solubility, degree of ionization, and pH difference between plasma and milk. Drugs that are weak acids are ionized to a greater extent and are more protein-bound than weak alkaline drugs. The 2nd part of the paper evaluates the risks to breastfed infants of selected pharmacons. Some categories of drugs that contain pharmacons that should be limited or avoided by nursing mothers are alkylating agents, analgesics and anti-inflammatory agents, anticoagulants, anticonvulsants, anti-infective agents, central nervous system stimulants, hormones, laxatives, minerals, provitamins, psychotherapeutic agents, thyroid affecting agents, and vitamins. The following precautions are suggested to minimize the risks of potentially harmful pharmacons: 1) all unnecessary medications should be avoided by nrusing mothers; 2) if medication is necessary during lactation, drug dosage should be controlled and the infant should be monitored for adverse symptoms; 3) drugs should be administered shortly after breastfeeding and the interval prolonged before the next feeding; and 4) if the infant must be fed soon after a potentially harmful drug has been taken by the mother, bottle feeding is recommended.

  7. Energy intake from human milk covers the requirement of 6-month-old Senegalese exclusively breast-fed infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agne-Djigo, Anta; Kwadjode, Komlan M.; Idohou-Dossou, Nicole; Diouf, Adama; Guiro, Amadou T.; Wade, Salimata

    2013-01-01

    Exclusive breast-feeding until 6 months is advised by the WHO as the best practice to feed infants. Yet, some studies have suggested a gap between energy requirements and the energy provided by human milk for many infants at 6 months. In order to assess the adequacy of WHO recommendations in 6-month-old Senegalese lactating infants, a comprehensive study was designed to measure human milk intake by the dose-to-the mother 2H2O turnover method. Infants energy intakes were calculated using daily breast milk intake and the energy content of milk was estimated on the basis of creamatocrit. Of the fifty-nine mother-infant pairs enrolled, fifteen infants were exclusively breast-fed (Ex) while forty-four were partially breast-fed Infants breast milk intake was significantly higher in the Ex group (993 (SD 135)g/d, n 15) compared with the Part group (828 (SD 222)g/d, n 44, P= 0.009). Breast milk energy content as well as infants growth was comparable in both groups. However, infants' energy intake from human milk was significantly higher (364 (SD 50)kJ/kg per d (2586 (SD 448)kJ/d)) in the Ex group than in the Part group (289 (SD 66)kJ/kg per d (2150 (SD 552)kJ/d), P<0.01). Compared with WHO recommendations, the results demonstrate that energy intake from breast milk was low in partially breast-fed infants while exclusively breast-fed 6-month-old Senegalese infants received adequate energy from human milk alone, the most complete food for infants. Therefore, advocacy of exclusive breast-feeding until 6 months should be strengthened.

  8. Variation in Formula Supplementation of Breastfed Newborn Infants in New York Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trang; Dennison, Barbara A; Fan, Wei; Xu, Changning; Birkhead, Guthrie S

    2017-07-01

    We examined the variation between 126 New York hospitals in formula supplementation among breastfed infants after adjusting for socioeconomic, maternal, and infant factors and stratifying by level of perinatal care. We used 2014 birth certificate data for 160 911 breastfed infants to calculate hospital-specific formula supplementation percentages by using multivariable hierarchical logistic regression models. Formula supplementation percentages varied widely among hospitals, from 2.3% to 98.3%, and was lower among level 1 hospitals (18.2%) than higher-level hospitals (50.6%-57.0%). Significant disparities in supplementation were noted for race and ethnicity (adjusted odds ratios [aORs] were 1.54-2.05 for African Americans, 1.85-2.74 for Asian Americans, and 1.25-2.16 for Hispanics, compared with whites), maternal education (aORs were 2.01-2.95 for ≤12th grade, 1.74-1.85 for high school or general education development, and 1.18-1.28 for some college or a college degree, compared with a Master's degree), and insurance coverage (aOR was 1.27-1.60 for Medicaid insurance versus other). Formula supplementation was higher among mothers who smoked, had a cesarean delivery, or diabetes. At all 4 levels of perinatal care, there were exemplar hospitals that met the HealthyPeople 2020 supplementation goal of ≤14.2%. After adjusting for individual risk factors, the hospital-specific, risk-adjusted supplemental formula percentages still revealed a wide variation. A better understanding of the exemplar hospitals could inform future efforts to improve maternity care practices and breastfeeding support to reduce unnecessary formula supplementation, reduce disparities, increase exclusive breastfeeding and breastfeeding duration, and improve maternal and child health outcomes. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. Iron Stores of Breastfed Infants during the First Year of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekhard E. Ziegler

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The birth iron endowment provides iron for growth in the first months of life. We describe the iron endowment under conditions of low dietary iron supply. Subjects were infants participating in a trial of Vitamin D supplementation from 1 to 9 months. Infants were exclusively breastfed at enrollment but could receive complementary foods from 4 months but not formula. Plasma ferritin (PF and transferrin receptor (TfR were determined at 1, 2, 4, 5.5, 7.5, 9 and 12 months. At 1 month PF ranged from 38 to 752 µg/L and was only weakly related to maternal PF. PF declined subsequently and flattened out at 5.5 months. PF of females was significantly higher than PF of males except at 12 months. TfR increased with age and was inversely correlated with PF. PF and TfR tracked strongly until 9 months. Iron deficiency (PF < 10 µg/L began to appear at 4 months and increased in frequency until 9 months. Infants with ID were born with low iron endowment. We concluded that the birth iron endowment is highly variable in size and a small endowment places infants at risk of iron deficiency before 6 months. Boys have smaller iron endowments and are at greater risk of iron deficiency than girls.

  10. [Vitamin K supplementation in the exclusively breast-fed infant: how much, how long?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zix-Kieffer, I

    2008-09-01

    There are various ways to prevent late vitamin K deficiency bleeding in exclusively breast-fed infants. The French paediatric society recommends weekly doses of 2mg of mixed micellar preparation of vitamin K during the entire period of exclusive breastfeeding, i.e. 24 doses for a period of six months, which matches recommendations for optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding by the French paediatric society, WHO and AAP. This significantly exceeds recommendations in other European countries. We describe the risks of vitamin K deficiency; we provide a review of recent literature about administrating vitamin K in other countries, and give a recommendation for daily practice that seems to be acceptable. Nevertheless, a comprehensive randomised prospective study is needed in France to answer the question of the best ways of preventing vitamin K deficiency bleeding.

  11. Plasma total homocysteine increases from day 20 to 40 in breastfed but not formula-fed low-birthweight infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, M R; Woltil, H A; van Beusekom, C M; Schaafsma, A; Dijck-Brouwer, D A J; Muskiet, F A J

    2002-01-01

    Homocysteine is an intermediate in the folate cycle and methionine metabolism. This study investigated whether formula-fed infants have different plasma total homocysteine to their breastfed counterparts, and during what period any difference developed. Plasma total homocysteine was determined in 53

  12. Efficacy and immunogenicity of live-attenuated human rotavirus vaccine in breast-fed and formula-fed European infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesikari, Timo; Prymula, Roman; Schuster, Volker; Tejedor, Juan-C; Cohen, Robert; Bouckenooghe, Alain; Damaso, Silvia; Han, Htay Htay

    2012-05-01

    Rotavirus is the main cause of severe gastroenteritis and diarrhea in infants and young children less than 5 years of age. Potential impact of breast-feeding on the efficacy and immunogenicity of human rotavirus G1P[8] vaccine was examined in this exploratory analysis. Healthy infants (N = 3994) aged 6-14 weeks who received 2 doses of human rotavirus vaccine/placebo according to a 0-1 or 0-2 month schedule were followed for rotavirus gastroenteritis during 2 epidemic seasons. Rotavirus IgA seroconversion rate (anti-IgA antibody concentration ≥ 20 mIU/mL) and geometric mean concentrations were measured prevaccination and 1-2 months post-dose 2. Vaccine efficacy against any and severe rotavirus gastroenteritis was analyzed according to the infants being breast-fed or exclusively formula-fed at the time of vaccination. Antirotavirus IgA seroconversion rate was 85.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 82.4-88.3) in breast-fed and 89.2% (95% CI: 84.2-93) in exclusively formula-fed infants; geometric mean concentrations in the respective groups were 185.8 U/mL (95% CI: 161.4-213.9) and 231.5 U/mL (95% CI: 185.9-288.2). Vaccine efficacy was equally high in breast-fed and exclusively formula-fed children in the first season but fell in breast-fed infants in the second rotavirus season. During the combined 2-year efficacy follow-up period, vaccine efficacy against any rotavirus gastroenteritis was 76.2% (95% CI: 68.7-82.1) and 89.8% (95% CI: 77.6-95.9) and against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis 88.4% (95% CI: 81.6-93) and 98.1% (95% CI: 88.2-100) in the breast-fed and exclusively formula-fed infants, respectively. The difference in immunogenicity of human rotavirus vaccine in breast-fed and exclusively formula-fed infants was small. Vaccine efficacy was equally high in breast-fed and exclusively formula-fed children in the first season. Breast-feeding seemed to reduce slightly the efficacy in the second season.

  13. The prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency is more common in breastfed infants than their mothers in Bhaktapur, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandyo, R K; Henjum, S; Ulak, M; Thorne-Lyman, A L; Ulvik, R J; Shrestha, P S; Locks, L; Fawzi, W; Strand, T A

    2016-04-01

    Iron deficiency anemia is a widespread public health problem, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Maternal iron status around and during pregnancy may influence infant iron status. We examined multiple biomarkers to determine the prevalence of iron deficiency and anemia among breastfed infants and explored its relationship with maternal and infant characteristics in Bhaktapur, Nepal. In a cross-sectional survey, we randomly selected 500 mother-infant pairs from Bhaktapur municipality. Blood was analyzed for hemoglobin, ferritin, total iron-binding capacity, transferrin receptors and C-reactive protein. The altitude-adjusted prevalence of anemia was 49% among infants 2-6-month-old (hemaglobin (Hb) Iron deficiency anemia, defined as anemia and serum ferritin anemia (Hb iron stores. Significant predictors of infant iron status and anemia were infant age, sex and duration of exclusive breastfeeding and maternal ferritin concentrations. Our findings suggest that iron supplementation in pregnancy is likely to have resulted in a low prevalence of postpartum anemia. The higher prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency among breastfed infants compared with their mothers suggests calls for intervention targeting newborns and infants.

  14. Mercury (Hg) exposure and its effects on Saudi breastfed infant's neurodevelopment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saleh, Iman; Nester, Michael; Abduljabbar, Mai; Al-Rouqi, Reem; Eltabache, Chafica; Al-Rajudi, Tahreer; Elkhatib, Rola

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study analyzed mercury (Hg) levels in healthy Saudi mothers and their infants (age 3-12 months) and examined the influence of Hg on the infants' neurodevelopment using screening tools, such as the Denver Developmental Screening Test II (DDST-II) and Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS). A total of 944 mothers and their 944 infants were recruited from 57 Primary Health Care Centers (PHCCs) in Riyadh. The total Hg (THg) levels were measured in the mothers' and infants' urine (UTHg-M and UTHg-I) and hair (HTHg-M and HTHg-I) samples and in the breast milk and mothers' blood. Methylmercury (MeHg) levels were determined in hair samples from the mothers (MeHg-M) and infants (MeHg-I). Only 40.1% of the infants were breast-fed when enrolled, and 59.9% had stopped breastfeeding. Only 1.8% of the mothers and 0.3% of the infants had MeHg levels above the Environmental Proection Agency (EPA) reference dose (1 μg/g), with low medians of 0.132 and 0.091 μg/g dw, respectively, but the MeHg levels were significantly associated with infant DDST-II performance. The levels of corrected UTHg-M for creatinine (Cr), HTHg-M, HTHg-I, and HMeHg-M, however, displayed an association with infant PEDS performance. The medians and percentage of the tested population that exceeded the recommended limits for Hg in urine and hair set by the World Health Organization (5 μg/g Cr) and EPA (1 μg/g) were 0.695 μg/g Cr and 3% UTHg, 0.118 μg/g dw and 4.1% HTHg-M, 0.101 μg/g dw and 2.8% HTHg-I, and 0.132 μg/g dw and 1.8% HMeHg-M. Our study provides evidence of an association between some Hg measures and delays in infant neurodevelopment, despite their low levels and regardless of the infant's breastfeeding status. The results are of potential concern, because delayed psychomotor or mental performance in infants could be an indicator of later neurocognitive development in children, which may persist into adulthood, as shown in other studies. The absence of local

  15. Isolation, Identification, and Evaluation of Novel Probiotic Strains Isolated from Feces of Breast-Fed Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panya, Marutpong; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Rattanachaikunsopon, Pongsak; Srivoramas, Thanyakarn; Chaiwong, Tarinee

    2016-01-01

    To isolate, identify, and evaluate the probiotic properties of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from the feces of breast-fed infants. The probiotic tests included investigation of hemolysis activity, survival in simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions (acid and bile salt tolerance), susceptibility to antibiotics, and ability to inhibit selected bacterial pathogens (Escherichia coli O157:H7, Vibrio cholerae and Salmonella enterica subsp enterica serovar Typhimurium). The bacterial species identification was performed by both carbohydrate utilization and partial 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing. Five of fifty LAB isolates (UBU-03, UBU-06, UBU-09, UBU-34, and UBU-37) showed good probiotic properties. These five isolates showed non-hemolysis type (gamma-hemolysis), susceptibility to all antibiotics tested except for vancomycin, ability to survive in the simulated gastrointestinal conditions of both acid and bile salt solution, and ability to inhibit growth of E. coli O157: H7 and V. cholerae. Bacterial species identification revealed that all five isolates were firmly identified as Lactobacillus rhamnosus species. The L. rhamnosus strains that were isolated and characterized in this study could be considered as probiotic strains, and then used for further probiotic characterization in human cell cultures or animal models.

  16. Arsenic, lead, mercury and cadmium: Toxicity, levels in breast milk and the risks for breastfed infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebelo, Fernanda Maciel [Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency, University of Brasilia, 70910-900 Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Caldas, Eloisa Dutra, E-mail: eloisa@unb.br [Laboratory of Toxicology, Department of Pharmacy, University of Brasilia, 70910-900 Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2016-11-15

    Metals are ubiquitous in nature, being found in all environmental compartments, and have a variety of applications in human activities. Metals are transferred by maternal blood to the fetus via the placenta, and exposure continues throughout life. For the general population, exposure comes mainly from water and food consumption, including breast milk. In this paper, we reviewed studies on the toxicity of arsenic, lead, mercury and cadmium, the toxic metals of most concern to human health, focusing on the potential risks to newborns and infants. A total of 75 studies published since 2000 reporting the levels of these metals in breast milk were reviewed. Lead was the metal most investigated in breast milk (43 studies), and for which the highest levels were reported (up to 1515 µg/L). Arsenic was the least investigated (18 studies), with higher levels reported for breast milk (up to 149 µg/L) collected in regions with high arsenic concentrations in water (>10 µg/L). Data from 34 studies on mercury showed that levels in breast milk were generally higher in populations with high fish consumption, where it may be present mainly as MeHg. Cadmium levels in breast milk were the lowest, with means <2 µg/L in most of the 29 studies reviewed. Results of risk assessments indicated that the intake of arsenic, lead and mercury by infants through breastfeeding can be considered a health concern in most regions of the world. Although the potential risks to infants are mostly outweighed by the benefits of breast milk consumption, it is essential that contaminants be continuously monitored, especially in the most critical regions, and that measures be implemented by health authorities to reduce exposure of newborns and infants to these metals, and thus avoid unnecessary health risks. - Highlights: • Review of 75 studies that analyzed arsenic, lead, mercury and/or cadmium levels. • Higher levels of arsenic found in India; of mercury found in Brazil. • Lead was the most

  17. Arsenic, lead, mercury and cadmium: Toxicity, levels in breast milk and the risks for breastfed infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebelo, Fernanda Maciel; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra

    2016-01-01

    Metals are ubiquitous in nature, being found in all environmental compartments, and have a variety of applications in human activities. Metals are transferred by maternal blood to the fetus via the placenta, and exposure continues throughout life. For the general population, exposure comes mainly from water and food consumption, including breast milk. In this paper, we reviewed studies on the toxicity of arsenic, lead, mercury and cadmium, the toxic metals of most concern to human health, focusing on the potential risks to newborns and infants. A total of 75 studies published since 2000 reporting the levels of these metals in breast milk were reviewed. Lead was the metal most investigated in breast milk (43 studies), and for which the highest levels were reported (up to 1515 µg/L). Arsenic was the least investigated (18 studies), with higher levels reported for breast milk (up to 149 µg/L) collected in regions with high arsenic concentrations in water (>10 µg/L). Data from 34 studies on mercury showed that levels in breast milk were generally higher in populations with high fish consumption, where it may be present mainly as MeHg. Cadmium levels in breast milk were the lowest, with means <2 µg/L in most of the 29 studies reviewed. Results of risk assessments indicated that the intake of arsenic, lead and mercury by infants through breastfeeding can be considered a health concern in most regions of the world. Although the potential risks to infants are mostly outweighed by the benefits of breast milk consumption, it is essential that contaminants be continuously monitored, especially in the most critical regions, and that measures be implemented by health authorities to reduce exposure of newborns and infants to these metals, and thus avoid unnecessary health risks. - Highlights: • Review of 75 studies that analyzed arsenic, lead, mercury and/or cadmium levels. • Higher levels of arsenic found in India; of mercury found in Brazil. • Lead was the most

  18. Intestinal colonisation patterns in breastfed and formula-fed infants during the first 12 weeks of life reveal sequential microbiota signatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, Harro M.; Rutten, Nicole B.M.M.; Boekhorst, Jos; Saulnier, Delphine M.; Kortman, Guus A.M.; Contractor, Nikhat; Kullen, Martin; Floris, Esther; Harmsen, Hermie J.M.; Vlieger, Arine M.; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Rijkers, Ger T.

    2017-01-01

    The establishment of the infant gut microbiota is a highly dynamic process dependent on extrinsic and intrinsic factors. We characterized the faecal microbiota of 4 breastfed infants and 4 formula-fed infants at 17 consecutive time points during the first 12 weeks of life. Microbiota composition

  19. Intestinal colonisation patterns in breastfed and formula-fed infants during the first 12 weeks of life reveal sequential microbiota signatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, Harro M.; Rutten, Nicole B. M. M.; Boekhorst, Jos; Saulnier, Delphine M.; Kortman, Guus A. M.; Contractor, Nikhat; Kullen, Martin; Floris, Esther; Harmsen, Hermie J. M.; Vlieger, Arine M.; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Rijkers, Ger T.

    2017-01-01

    The establishment of the infant gut microbiota is a highly dynamic process dependent on extrinsic and intrinsic factors. We characterized the faecal microbiota of 4 breastfed infants and 4 formula-fed infants at 17 consecutive time points during the first 12 weeks of life. Microbiota composition was

  20. Taxonomic composition of microbiota of colon in breastfed infants with acute colienteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Sydorchuk

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In recent years, paradoxical situation has been created, that testifies adverse evolution of modern acute intestinal infections, especially in infants and vital prognosis for patients by measure of deep study of this disease in patients, which number is significant and continues to grow, and the prognosis is getting worse. Aim: To define the etiology of colienteritis in infants (1–6 months old, the taxonomic composition of pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic microorganisms. Materials and methods: Content of colon of 48 children (one to six months old with colienteritis underwent bacterial and mycological examination (control group – 35 samples of colon content of practically healthy infants. Results: Etiological structure was determined in 28 (58,33 % of investigations. Consistency index, frequency of occurrence, Margalef species richness, Whittaker species diversity, Simpson and Berger–Parker species dominance indices of bacteria of genera Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Bacteroides and Escherichia did not differ in patients and healthy children. These indices grow in Peptostreptococci: constancy index – by 78,26 %, frequency of occurrence – by 60,00 %, Margalef species richness index – by 2 times, Whittaker species diversity index – by 97,32 %, Simpson species dominance index – by 3 times and Berger - Parker index – by 65,31 %. These indices also grew in conditionally pathogenic Enterobacteria (Proteus by 82,24 %, by 2 times, by 2,03 times, by 68,18 % respectively. Study of taxonomic composition of colon microbiota in children with acute colienteritis showed widespread contamination of biotope (cavity by pathogenic (E. coli Hly +, enteropathogenic E. coli and conditionally pathogenic (C. diversus, Proteus ssp. Enterobacteria, Staphylococci, Peptococcus. This is accompanied with elimination of bacteria of genus Eubacterium from colon cavity. Conclusions: Acute colienteritis in one to six months old breastfed

  1. Maternal and Infantile Adiponectin as Marker for Anthropometric Parameters of Lactating Mothers and their Breast-Fed Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhreldin, Ahmed Ragab

    2018-01-01

    Breast milk adiponectin could play a role in the regulation of infants' growth during lactation. The aim is to evaluate adiponectin concentration in human milk and to investigate its relationship with serum adiponectin concentration in lactating mothers and their breastfed infants and with anthropometric parameters of infants and mothers. Sixty healthy term infants and their healthy lactating mothers are included at infant age of 1 month then repeated again at the age of 4 months. All subjects included in this study were subjected to history, clinical examination, investigations including serum level of adiponectin of infants and their mothers by RIA test, human milk level of adiponectin by ELISA test. There was a significant decrease in serum adiponectin of infant and mothers and maternal breast milk at the age of 4 months when compared to them at the age of 1 month. There was a significant positive correlation between infant serum adiponection, maternal serum adiponectin and breast milk adiponectin at infant's age of 1 month and at infant's age of 4 months. There was a significant negative correlation between maternal serum adiponectin and BMI of mothers. There was a significant negative correlation between infant serum adiponectin and their weight and length of infants at the age of 1 month and at the age of 4 months. There's a metabolic link between mothers and their infants through breast milk during the first 6 months of life. A gradual decline in adiponectin level in maternal breast milk is associated with a gradual increase in infant growth up to 6 months of age.

  2. Prevention of vitamin K deficiency bleeding in breastfed infants: lessons from the Dutch and Danish biliary atresia registries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselt, P.M. van; Koning, T.J. de; Vries, E. de

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Newborns routinely receive vitamin K to prevent vitamin K deficiency bleeding. The efficacy of oral vitamin K administration may be compromised in infants with unrecognized cholestasis. We aimed to compare the risk of vitamin K deficiency bleeding under different prophylactic regimens...... in infants with biliary atresia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From Dutch and Danish national biliary atresia registries, we retrieved infants who were either breastfed and received 1 mg of oral vitamin K at birth followed by 25 microg of daily oral vitamin K prophylaxis (Netherlands, 1991-2003), 2 mg of oral...... vitamin K at birth followed by 1 mg of weekly oral prophylaxis (Denmark, 1994 to May 2000), or 2 mg of intramuscular prophylaxis at birth (Denmark, June 2000-2005) or were fed by formula. We determined the absolute and relative risk of severe vitamin K deficiency and vitamin K deficiency bleeding...

  3. Does supplementation of formula with evening primrose and fish oils augment long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status of low birthweight infants to that of breast-fed counterparts?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltil, HA; van Beusekom, CM; Schaafsma, A; Okken, A; Muskiet, FAJ

    We investigated whether formulae with evening primrose and fish oils raise long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) in plasma cholesterol esters (CE), erythrocytes (RSC) and platelets (PLT) to levels encountered in breast-fed infants. Low birthweight infants (less than or equal to 2500 g)

  4. Organochlorine compounds in breast-fed vs. bottle-fed infants: preliminary results at six weeks of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lackmann, G.-M.; Schaller, K.-H.; Angerer, J.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) are ubiquitous compounds with carcinogenic and teratogenic properties. They are chemically very stable and lipophilic and, therefore, accumulate in our food-chain. They are prenatally transmitted from mother to foetus, and mother's milk due to its high lipid content is an elimination pathway of special importance. Therefore, breast-feeding has been held responsible for elevated concentrations of these organochlorine compounds as well as for harmful effects in children later in life. Methods: Blood samples (2.5 ml) were taken from each 10 breast-fed and bottle-fed infants at 6 weeks of age. Blood specimens were immediately centrifuged, and serum was stored in glass tubes at -20 degree sign C until analysis. Three higher chlorinated PCB congeners (IUPAC nos. 138, 153 and 180), HCB, and the organic metabolite of DDT, p,p<<-DDE, were analysed with capillary gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Reliability was tested with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results: There were no differences between the study groups of breast-fed and bottle-fed infants with regard to sex distribution, gestational age, birth-weight, age of the mothers, and smoking behaviour of the parents. In contrast, serum concentrations of all organochlorine compounds were significantly higher (P<0.0001) in breast-fed than in bottle-fed infants (mean): PCB 138, 0.38 vs. 0.10 μg/l; PCB 153, 0.49 vs. 0.1 μg/l; PCB 180, 0.31 vs. 0.04 μg/l; ΣPCB, 1.19 vs. 0.29 μg/l; HCB, 0.13 vs. 0.04 μg/l; p,p<<-DDE, 1.05 vs. 0.18 μg/l. Conclusions: Breast-feeding significantly increases the pollution of our infants with different organochlorine compounds as early as at 6 weeks of age. The progress of the present study will show whether this pollution will further increase with longer duration of breast-feeding, and whether breast-feeding bears any health risks for our

  5. Organochlorine compounds in breast-fed vs. bottle-fed infants: preliminary results at six weeks of age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lackmann, G.-M.; Schaller, K.-H.; Angerer, J

    2004-08-15

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) are ubiquitous compounds with carcinogenic and teratogenic properties. They are chemically very stable and lipophilic and, therefore, accumulate in our food-chain. They are prenatally transmitted from mother to foetus, and mother's milk due to its high lipid content is an elimination pathway of special importance. Therefore, breast-feeding has been held responsible for elevated concentrations of these organochlorine compounds as well as for harmful effects in children later in life. Methods: Blood samples (2.5 ml) were taken from each 10 breast-fed and bottle-fed infants at 6 weeks of age. Blood specimens were immediately centrifuged, and serum was stored in glass tubes at -20 degree sign C until analysis. Three higher chlorinated PCB congeners (IUPAC nos. 138, 153 and 180), HCB, and the organic metabolite of DDT, p,p<<-DDE, were analysed with capillary gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Reliability was tested with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results: There were no differences between the study groups of breast-fed and bottle-fed infants with regard to sex distribution, gestational age, birth-weight, age of the mothers, and smoking behaviour of the parents. In contrast, serum concentrations of all organochlorine compounds were significantly higher (P<0.0001) in breast-fed than in bottle-fed infants (mean): PCB 138, 0.38 vs. 0.10 {mu}g/l; PCB 153, 0.49 vs. 0.1 {mu}g/l; PCB 180, 0.31 vs. 0.04 {mu}g/l; {sigma}PCB, 1.19 vs. 0.29 {mu}g/l; HCB, 0.13 vs. 0.04 {mu}g/l; p,p<<-DDE, 1.05 vs. 0.18 {mu}g/l. Conclusions: Breast-feeding significantly increases the pollution of our infants with different organochlorine compounds as early as at 6 weeks of age. The progress of the present study will show whether this pollution will further increase with longer duration of breast-feeding, and whether breast-feeding bears any

  6. Exposure Assessment of Breast-Fed Infants in the Czech Republic to Indicator Pcbs and Selected Chlorinated Pesticides: Area-Related Differences

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Černá, M.; Bencko, V.; Brabec, Marek; Šmíd, J.; Krsková, A.; Jech, L.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 78, č. 2 (2010), s. 160-168 ISSN 0045-6535 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : human milk * Czech Republic * PCBs and OCPs * breast-fed infant exposure * statistical modeling of exposure * Bayesian modeling Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 3.155, year: 2010

  7. (H2O)-H-2 turnover method as a means to detect bias in estimations of intake of nonbreast milk liquids in breast-fed infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haisma, H; Coward, WA; Albernaz, E; Barros, A; Victora, CG; Wright, A; Visser, GH

    Objective: Firstly, to compare food, and macronutrient intake as obtained from a single 24-h recall and a frequency questionnaire (FQ) covering a 14-day period in breast-fed infants aged 4 months of age. Secondly, nonbreast milk water intake (NB-WI, ml/day) was used as an estimation of energy and

  8. Slight Hydronephrosis in Newborns and Breast-fed Infants: Can the Presence of Vesicoureteral Reflux Be Predicted?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berrocal, T.; Pablo, T. de; Gutierrez, J.; Prieto, C.; Hoyo, M. L. del

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the value of slight-to moderate echo graphically detected hydronephrosis in newborns and breast-fed infants that might serve as indicator for Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), and to evaluate the necessity of performing micturating cystourethrougraphy (MCUG) in these patients. There were reviewed MCUG of 237 patients (174 boys and 63 girls between the ages of 0 and 18 months) with slight echo graphically detected hydronephrosis in order to evaluate the presence of primary VUR. Patients with secondary reflux or those that presented anomalies which made impossible an exact reflux gradind were excluded. However, normal kidneys with reflux which were contralateral to hydronephrotic kidneys were included in the study. For a statistical analysis of the data, each kidney was considered separately, thereby forming a total of 474 kidneys. Slight hydronephrosis was diagnosed when the renal pelvis anteroposterior diameter was observed to measure between 0.5 and 1.5 cm. The International Grading System was used to grade reflux during MCUG. Of the 474 kidneys evaluated, 306 showed slight hydromephrosis in the echography. Only 98 of these presented reflux (32%) (14 grade 1.50 grade II, 32 grade III and 2 grade IV). The echography was normal (i. e. hydronephrosis not present) in 52 kidneys with reflux (31%) which were contralateral to hydronephrotic kidneys, although 38 of these had reflux of grade II or higher. The echography showed slight hydronephrosis in 208 kidneys that did not have reflux during MCUG (68%). There were no significant differences in the incidence of VUR among normal or hydronephrotic kidneys. There is a poor correlation between slight hydronephrosis and presence or grade of reflux in newborns and breast-fed infants. The latter should not, therefore, be considered an indication for MCUC. (Author) 33 refs

  9. Measurements of breast milk intake in exclusively or predominantly breast-fed infants, and the impact of lactation counseling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albernaz, E.; Haisma, H.; Victora, C.

    2000-01-01

    In a mirror sample of the Multicenter Growth Reference Study the deuterium dilution method was used to measure breast milk intake. The following hypotheses were tested: a) There is no statistically significant difference in breast milk intake between exclusively and predominantly breast-fed babies; b) Breast milk intake is higher in babies from mothers who get lactation support; and c) Mothers who report exclusive breast-feeding are not taking any other fluids or foods. Mothers were randomly assigned to an intervention group who received lactation counseling from birth to 4 months onwards, and a control group who did not receive lactation support. 142 mother and infant pairs were followed up. Preliminary results show that the sample was an exact mirror of the MGRS, and that at 4 months mothers who received lactation support were exclusively breast-feeding more frequently than those who did not receive support. Similarly, the number of infants weaned off the breast was smaller in the intervention than in the control group. At the time of writing of this report 72 mother-infant pairs were included in the deuterium study. Results on breast milk intake are awaiting completion of the study and sample analysis. (author)

  10. Evaluation of the daily iron intake by non-breastfed Egyptian infants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iron deficiency is frequently associated with anaemia. The prevalence of anaemia among Egyptian infants and young children is 25%. Fortification of infant and followup milk-based formulae remains a valuable method for delivering iron to reduce the incidence of iron deficiency anaemia. Percentage of Egyptian ...

  11. Early introduction of complementary foods and childhood overweight in breastfed and formula-fed infants in the Netherlands: the PIAMA birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluymen, Linda P M; Wijga, Alet H; Gehring, Ulrike; Koppelman, Gerard H; Smit, Henriëtte A; van Rossem, L

    2018-02-22

    To investigate whether early introduction of complementary foods (CF) is associated with an increased risk of overweight during childhood, and whether this association differs between formula-fed and breastfed infants. We included 2611 participants that were born at term from a Dutch population-based birth cohort (n = 3963) designed to investigate the development of asthma and allergies. Parents kept records of their infant's age when CF were first introduced. Weight and height were parent reported yearly from age 1 to 8 years, and at ages 11, 14 and 17 years. We used multivariate generalized estimating equations analysis to investigate the association between timing of CF introduction (before 4 months vs at or after 4 months of age) and overweight at ages 1-17 years. Children with CF introduction before 4 months had higher odds of being overweight during childhood than children with CF introduction at or after 4 months (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.19, 1.47). This association was observed in formula-fed infants (OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.17, 1.94) and breastfed infants (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.19, 1.47). The duration of breastfeeding modified the association between CF introduction and overweight: children breastfed for shorter than 4 months, but not children breastfed for 4 months or longer with CF introduction before 4 months had higher odds of being overweight (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.19, 1.57 and 1.07, 95% CI 0.87, 1.32, respectively), compared to those with CF introduction at or after 4 months. In children born at term, formula-fed infants and infants who were breastfed for shorter than 4 months, but not infants who were breastfed for 4 months or longer, had a higher risk of being overweight during childhood when being introduced to CF before 4 months of age.

  12. Increased kidney growth in formula-fed versus breast-fed healthy infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ida M; Damgaard, Ida N; Boisen, Kirsten A

    2004-01-01

    versus breast feeding on kidney growth in a cohort of 631 healthy children examined at birth, and at 3 and 18 months of age. Kidney size was determined by ultrasonography and related to gender, age, body size, and feeding category (fully breast fed, partially breast fed, or fully formula fed at 3 months...

  13. Mercury in breast milk from women in the Federal District, Brazil and dietary risk assessment for breastfed infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebelo, Fernanda M; Cunha, Leandro R da; Andrade, Patrícia D; Costa Junior, Walkimar A da; Bastos, Wanderley R; Caldas, Eloisa D

    2017-12-01

    Mercury is a toxic metal, ubiquitous in nature; it is excreted in breast milk from exposed mothers and may affect infant neuro-development. In this study, 224 breast milk samples provided by eight human milk banks in the Federal District of Brazil were analyzed for total mercury (THg), of which 183 were also analyzed for methyl mercury (MeHg), the most relevant form of this metal for the breastfed infants. Samples were acid digested in a microwave oven and THg determined by atomic fluorescence spectrometry (LOQ of 0.76μg/L). Samples were lyophilized, ethylated and MeHg determined in a MERX automated system (LOQ of 0.10μg/L). Inorganic mercury (IHg) levels were estimated from the THg and MeHg determined in the samples. Most of the samples were collected 1-2 months postpartum, with 38% during the first month. Over 80% of the samples had THg values above the LOQ, reaching a maximum of 8.40μg/L, with a mean of 2.56μg/L. On average, MeHg accounted for 11.8% of THg, with a maximum of 97.4%. Weekly intakes were estimated individually, considering the baby's age and body weight at the time of milk collection. Mean weekly intake for MeHg was 0.16±0.22μg/kg bw, which represented 10% of the PTWI; in only one case, the intake exceeded 100% of the PTWI (1.90μg/kg bw, 119% of PTWI). Mean intake for IHg was 2.1±1.5μg/kg bw, corresponding to 53% PTWI. These results indicate no health concern for the breastfed babies, a conclusion that can be extended to the consumers of breast milk donated to the milk banks, primarily immature and low weight babies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Growth of Czech Breastfed Infants in Comparison with the World Health Organization Standards

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vignerová, J.; Shriver, L.; Paulová, M.; Brabec, Marek; Schneidrová, D.; Růžková, R.; Procházka, B.; Riedlová, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 1 (2015), s. 32-38 ISSN 1210-7778 Grant - others:GA MZd(CZ) NS9974; Pedagogická fakulta UK(CZ) PRVOUK P02 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : breastfeeding * Czech * growth standards * infants * national references * WHO standards Subject RIV: FG - Pediatrics Impact factor: 0.525, year: 2015

  15. Maternal fish oil supplementation in lactation: effect on developmental outcome in breast-fed infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, L.; Jørgensen, M.H.; Olsen, S.F.

    2005-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) accumulates in the brain during the 1st and 2nd years of life. The objective of this study was to see if an increased content of DHA in breast-milk via maternal fish oil (FO)-supplementation affects mental development in term infants. one hundred twenty-two Danish mothe...

  16. Socio-economic and environmental factors influence energy utilization in Brazilian breast-fed infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haisma, Hinke; Coward, W. Andrew; Visser, G. Henk; Vonk, Roel; Wells, Jonathan C. K.; Wright, A.; Victora, Cesar G.

    Energy intake recommendations for infants are based on data from industrialized countries. FAO/WHO/UNU expressed the need for studies on total energy expenditure (TEE) and basal metabolic rate from developing countries covering current and changing lifestyles. For this observational study, 65

  17. Complementary feeding with cow's milk alters sleeping metabolic rate in breast-fed infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haisma, H; Wells, JCK; Coward, WA; Duro, D; Victora, CG; Vonk, RJ; Wright, A; Visser, GH

    Although it is widely accepted that energy expenditure in infants is a function of feeding pattern, the mechanism behind this is not well understood. The objectives of this observational study were as follows: 1) to compare minimal observable energy expenditure (MOEE) between 2 subgroups of

  18. The study of breast milk IGF-1, leptin, ghrelin and adiponectin levels as possible reasons of high weight gain in breast-fed infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kon, Igor Ya; Shilina, Natalia M; Gmoshinskaya, Maria V; Ivanushkina, Tatiana A

    2014-01-01

    Excessive consumption of protein that leads to increased blood levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is an important risk factor for high growth velocity and obesity in formula-fed infants. However, it is not clear whether these factors can explain the high growth velocity in breast-fed infants. To study the possible links between the growth velocity in breast-fed infants and the levels of protein, IGF-1 and other hormones, which regulate energy homeostasis, in mothers' breast milk. We studied 103 mother-infant pairs. Their daily breast milk intake and level of IGF-1, leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin, protein and fat in breast milk were measured at 1, 2 and 3 months of lactation. The infant group was divided into three subgroups of low, normal and high weight gain tertiles. The breast milk consumed by the infants with high weight gain contained higher levels of IGF-1 than that consumed by those with low weight gain at all periods studied (p = 0.032 at 3 months of lactation), and ghrelin levels were higher at 1 and 2 months and leptin levels at 2 and 3 months of lactation (p milk IGF-1 level and infant weight gain (r = 0.294, p = 0.043). Total daily breast milk, fat and hormone intake was also higher in the high weight gain group compared to the low weight gain group. One of the reasons for the high growth velocity in breast-fed infants may be the enhanced levels of the studied hormones in breast milk.

  19. Iodine nutrition in breast-fed infants is impaired by maternal smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, Peter; Nøhr, Susanne B; Pedersen, Klaus M

    2004-01-01

    the sodium-iodide symporter responsible for iodide transport in the lactating mammary gland. Smoking during the period of breastfeeding increases the risk of iodine deficiency-induced brain damage in the child. Women who breastfeed should not smoke, but if they do, an extra iodine supplement should......Lack of iodine for thyroid hormone formation during the fetal stage and/or the first years of life may lead to developmental brain damage. During the period of breastfeeding, thyroid function of the infant depends on iodine in maternal milk. We studied healthy, pregnant women admitted for delivery...... and their newborn infants. Cotinine in urine and serum was used to classify mothers as smokers (n = 50) or nonsmokers (n = 90). Smoking and nonsmoking mothers had identical urinary iodine on d 5 after delivery, but smoking was associated with reduced iodine content in breast milk (smokers 26.0 micro g/liter vs...

  20. New complementary foods in the diet of breast-fed and bottle-fed infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Kaznacheev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the physical development and health status of babies receiving goat’s milk-based formula “Bibikasha”.Patients and methods. An open-label uncontrolled trial was conducted in 47 babies aged 5 to 6.5 months. Their weight and height changes, neuropsychological development, and the skin were assessed. The incidence of acute respiratory diseases, the manifestations of dyspepsia, and number of bowel movement a day were estimated; fecal macroscopy, microbiological examination, and complete blood count were carried out. The data were statistically processed using Statistica Advanced.Results. At complementary feeding, there was constipation and hard stools in approximately 20% the infants in the study group and fecal opportunistic bacteria in 63.8%. When eating Bibikasha, the number of infants with opportunistic pathogenic bacteria reduced by 3 times and hard stools and constipation disappeared completely. During their follow-up, none of the babies developed anemia, acute respiratory or gastrointestinal diseases; weight gain rates and psychomotor development were age-appropriate, indicating their harmonious development.Conclusion. Bibikasha used as a complementary food has a positive effect on a baby’s health and contributes to the prevention of nutrition-related diseases. Adding Bibikasha to the diet of infants with constipation normalizes their bowel function

  1. Identification of Probiotic Strains from Human Milk in Breastfed Infants with Respiratory Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neamtu Bogdan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Isolation and industrial exploitation of probiotics from human milk is a goal for worldwide milk biotechnology centres because of their modulation effect on the immune system in infants and adults. In the proposed study we have analysed fermentation patterns of Lactobacilli isolated from human milk, the reliability of API 50 CH carbohydrate fermentation system and a possible link between lactose concentrations and fermentation profiles on carbohydrates. We had succesfully identified three species of Lactobacillus (paracasei ssp paracasei, fermentum, acidophilus and one unsatisfactory identification of Lactoccocus lactis ssp lactis. These strains had different carbohydrate fermentation patterns but with common characteristics and showed no statistically significant correlations between their carbohydrate metabolic trends and lactose concentrations in the milk samples.

  2. Safety and tolerability of Bifidobacterium longum subspecies infantis EVC001 supplementation in healthy term breastfed infants: a phase I clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smilowitz, Jennifer T; Moya, Jackelyn; Breck, Melissa A; Cook, Chelsea; Fineberg, Annette; Angkustsiri, Kathleen; Underwood, Mark A

    2017-05-30

    Historically, bifidobacteria were the dominant intestinal bacteria in breastfed infants. Still abundant in infants in developing nations, levels of intestinal bifidobacteria are low among infants in developed nations. Recent studies have described an intimate relationship between human milk and a specific subspecies of Bifidobacterium, B. longum subsp. infantis (B. infantis), yet supplementation of breastfed, healthy, term infants with this organism, has not been reported. The IMPRINT Study, a Phase I clinical trial, was initiated to determine the safety and tolerability of supplementing breastfed infants with B. infantis (EVC001). Eighty mother-infant dyads were enrolled in either lactation support plus B. infantis supplementation (BiLS) or lactation support alone (LS). Starting with Day 7 postnatal, BiLS infants were fed 1.8-2.8 × 10 10  CFU B. infantis EVC001 daily in breast milk for 21 days. Mothers collected fecal samples, filled out health questionnaires, and kept daily logs about their infants' feeding and gastrointestinal symptoms from birth until Day 61 postnatal. Safety and tolerability were determined from maternal reports. There were no differences in the mean gestational age at birth, weight 1 and 2 months postnatal, and breast milk intake between groups. The mean Log 10 change in fecal Bifidobacterium from Day 6 to Day 28 was higher (p = 0.0002) for BiLS (6.6 ± 2.8 SD) than for LS infants (3.5 ± 3.5 SD). Daily stool number was higher (p jaundice, number of illnesses, sick doctor visits, or diagnoses of eczema were different for the groups at any point. The B. infantis EVC001 supplement was safely consumed and well-tolerated. Stools were fewer and better formed in infants in the BiLS group compared with LS group. Adverse events were those expected in healthy infants and not different between groups. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02457338 . Registered May 27, 2015.

  3. Levels and congener profiles of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in primipara breast milk from Shenzhen and exposure risk for breast-fed infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian Gang; Sun, Xiao Wei; Ai, Hua

    2012-03-01

    This study aimed at revealing the levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in breast milk from primipara in Shenzhen (China), and estimating daily intake of PBDEs for breast-fed infants. Concentrations of 7 PBDEs were measured in 60 breast milk samples by isotope dilution HRGC/HRMS (high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry). The intake of PBDEs for breast-fed infants was estimated based on the infant's daily milk consumption. The range of total concentration of 7 PBDEs congeners in samples was 2.6-188.6 ng g(-1) lipid (mean: 14.8 ng g(-1) lipid; median: 7.2 ng g(-1) lipid). The mean estimated daily intake of PBDEs by breast-fed infants ranged from 9.9 to 335.9 ng kg(-1) body weight (bw) per day (mean: 52.5 ng kg(-1) bw per day; median: 28.6 ng kg(-1) bw per day). The levels of PBDEs body burden in the recruited mothers of Shenzhen were higher than those reported previously for the general population from other areas in China. No significant correlations were found between the body burden of PBDEs and the mothers' age, pre-pregnancy BMI, dietary habits, duration of residence in Shenzhen, weight and length of the newborns. BDE-47 and BDE-153 were major PBDE congeners in milk samples, while the congeners of BDE-183 and BDE-28 were also high in Shenzhen. The situation may be attributed to the special economic pattern including electronic production in Shenzhen in the past three decades. Continuous surveillance on PBDEs levels in human milk is needed in order to accurately evaluate the environmental impact of PBDEs to human health in Shenzhen. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  4. Probiotic properties of Lactobacillus strains isolated from the feces of breast-fed infants and Taiwanese pickled cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chung-Yi; Lin, Pei-Rong; Ng, Chang-Chai; Shyu, Yuan-Tay

    2010-12-01

    This study assessed potential probiotic Lactobacillus strains isolated from the feces of breast-fed infants and from Taiwanese pickled cabbage for their possible use in probiotic fermented foods by evaluating their (i) in vitro adhesive ability, resistance to biotic stress, resistance to pathogenic bacteria, and production of β-galactosidase; (ii) milk technological properties; and (iii) in vivo adhesive ability, intestinal survival and microbial changes during and after treatment. Five Lactobacillus isolates identified as Lactobacillus reuteri F03, Lactobacillus paracasei F08, Lactobacillus rhamnosus F14, Lactobacillus plantarum C06, and Lactobacillus acidophilus C11 that showed resistance to gastric juice and bile salts were selected for further evaluation of their probiotic properties. All the strains demonstrated the ability to adhere to Caco-2 cells, particularly, strain L. plantarum C06 and L. reuteri F03 showed satisfactory abilities, which were similar to that of the reference strain L. rhamnosus GG. The strains L. paracasei F08 and L. acidophilus C11 had the highest β-galactosidase activity. Most of the strains were resistant to aminoglycosides and vancomycin but sensitive to ampicillin, erythromycin, and penicillin. All the 5 strains elicited antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus) and -negative (Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica) pathogens. Moreover, the strains L. reuteri F03, L. paracasei F08, and L. plantarum C06 could grow rapidly in milk without nutrient supplementation and reached 10⁸ cfu/mL after 24 h of fermentation at 37 °C. The viable cell counts of the 3 strains remained above 10⁷ cfu/mL after 21 d of storage at 4 °C. In the animal feeding trial, the number of intestinal lactobacilli increased significantly after administration of milk fermented with the 3 strains, and the counts of fecal coliforms and Clostridium perfringens were markedly reduced

  5. The levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in human milk and exposure risk to breastfed infants in petrochemical industrialized Lanzhou Valley, Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Liu, Aiping; Zhao, Yuan; Mu, Xi; Huang, Tao; Gao, Hong; Ma, Jianmin

    2018-04-03

    We investigated in this paper the presence of PAHs in human milk from lactating women residing in Lanzhou, a petrochemical industrialized valley city in Northwest China. The PAH concentration levels in human milk samples from 98 healthy women were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The associations between the lifestyle factors and the PAHs levels of human milk were analyzed. Moreover, we applied principal component analysis (PCA) method to gain a better insight into the similarities or dissimilarities of the human milk PAH loads and different pathways of source exposure. In addition, the exposure risks of breastfed infants due to PAH ingestion via breast milk were assessed and the relative breast-feeding risk to the total intake dose of infants was addressed. The results showed that the average fat-normalized human milk ∑ 15 PAHs concentrations for the lactating women residing in four districts of Lanzhou, namely, Xigu, Anning, Qilihe, and Chengguan were 320.40, 270.36, 374.04, and 259.84 ng/g of fat, respectively. The ∑ 15 PAHs of human milk from the lactating women of Qilihe District exhibited the highest concentration level, while the concentration level for women from Xigu District is the second highest for the observed human milk ∑ 15 PAHs. And the corresponding BaPeq concentrations for women in Xigu, Anning, Qilihe, and Chengguan districts were 58.29, 47.95, 65.13, and 45.60 ng/g of fat, respectively. A significant correlation was only found between human milk and living district environment (p milk PAHs, we confirmed that consuming barbecue food could elevate PAHs levels in human milk: the barbecue intake frequency caused 10% fluctuation of ∑ 15 PAHs concentration between high frequency and low frequency group in our study. Furthermore, the exposure to second-hand smoke can also increase the ∑ 15 PAHs levels in human milk by 4 to 11% here. Ingestion doses of PAHs by infants (19.37-77.75 ng kg -1  day -1 ) were much

  6. Prevention of vitamin K deficiency bleeding in breastfed infants : Lessons from the Dutch and Danish biliary atresia registries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hasselt, Peter M.; de Koning, Tom J.; Kvist, Nina; de Vries, Elsemieke; Lundin, Christina Rydahl; Berger, Ruud; Kimpen, Jan L. L.; Houwen, Roderick H. J.; Jorgensen, Marianne Horby; Verkade, Henkjan J.

    OBJECTIVE. Newborns routinely receive vitamin K to prevent vitamin K deficiency bleeding. The efficacy of oral vitamin K administration may be compromised in infants with unrecognized cholestasis. We aimed to compare the risk of vitamin K deficiency bleeding under different propylactic regimens in

  7. [The anatomical features of the middle ear exerting the influence on the formation of exudative otitis media in the breast-fed infants of different gestational age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matroskin, A G; Rakhmanova, I V; Dreval', A A; Kislyakov, A N; Vladimirov, A I

    The objective of the present study was to elucidate the anatomical features of the structure of the middle ear and eustachian tube in the breast-fed infants of different gestational age that may be responsible for the formation of exudates (fluids). We have examined 150 temporal bones obtained from the children's cadavers that were allocated to three groups as follows: 50 temporal bones obtained at weeks 26-30 weeks of gestation (group 1), 44 bones 31-36 weeks of gestation (group 2), and 37-40 weeks of gestation (full-term babies, group 3),The analysis of the data obtained on an individual bases revealed either increase or decreases in the selected characteristics of the eustachian tube in comparison with the respective average values as well as the well apparent predominance of a single change or a combination of alteration of several parameters in one case in 26-30 weeks and 31-36 weeks groups. No significant changes were found in group 1. It is concluded that the presence of a single change or a combination of two or three abnormal changes in the parameters of the bone structures of the eustachian tube can affect the development of the secretory process in the middle ear especially in the children born after 36 weeks of pregnancy.

  8. Severe vitamin B12 deficiency in an exclusively breastfed 5-month-old Italian infant born to a mother receiving multivitamin supplementation during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guez Sophie

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In infants, vitamin B12 deficiency may be due to an inborn error of absorption and metabolism, or nutritional problems. Case presentation An exclusively breastfed 5-month-old Italian male infant, who was born after a normal full-term pregnancy to a vegan mother who was apparently daily treated with a multivitamin oral preparation during the second and third trimester, was hospitalised because of poor weight gain, feeding difficulties, severe pallor, muscle hypotonia and somnolence. Upon admission, his weight, length and head circumference were below the third percentile, he had an enlarged liver and spleen, and showed a significant delay in developmental milestones and communicative reactions. He had a hemoglobin level of 4.7 g/dL with an MCV of 84.2 fL, a white blood cell count of 4,680/mm3, and a platelet count of 45,000/mm3. His serum vitamin B12 level was 57 pg/mL (normal value 180–500 pg/mL and serum folate level 12.8 ng/mL (normal value >3 ng/mL. The results of metabolic examinations excluded a cobalamin C disorder, whereas nutritional screening showed a serum iron concentration of 9 μg/dL and serum ferritin of 4 ng/mL. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed mild dilatation of the lateral ventricles with diffuse delayed myelination. The child was diagnosed as having vitamin B12 and iron deficiency due to nutritional inadequacy and was immediately treated with packed red blood cells, intramuscular vitamin B12 injections, and iron supplementation. A few days after the start of therapy, his hemoglobin levels and other hematological parameters rapidly improved, and a clinical improvement was observed within few weeks. There was an increase in his achievement of developmental milestones, but his development was still retarded seven months after the start of therapy. Conclusion This case underlines the importance of adequately controlling maternal vitamin B12 intake during pregnancy by means of

  9. Contribution of stable isotope to better understand breastfed infant nutritional status in burkina Faso: Longitudinal study with body composition measurement at one year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulibaly, Nadine; Zeba, Augustin; Ouedraogo, Jean-Bosco; Somda, Serge Manituo

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Background and objectives: Exclusive breastfeeding for six months, followed by the introduction of appropriate complementary foods and continued breastfeeding, as recommended by the World Health Organization, are cornerstones in infant nutrition. In Burkina Faso, only limited information is available on the quantities of human milk consumed and the time of introduction of other foods into infants’ diets and the effect of feeding practice on the infant’s growth. In this work we analyzed infant’s nutritional status according to their feeding practice. Methods: We used the deuterium oxide (DO) dose-to-the mother technique to measure the human milk intake (HM) as well as the non-milk water intake (non-HM) by the babies at 3, 6, 9 and 12 mo. We also evaluated the infant body composition at 12 mo by giving a dose of DO to the babies in order to determine the fat-free mass (FFM) and the fat mass (FM). Saliva samples were collected from the babies and their mother and the DO enrichment in saliva was analyzed by FTIR. At each period, the anthropometric measurements were done to assess the infant nutritional status at 3,6, 9 and 12 mo according to the WHO standards. Results: The HM was maximum at 3 mo with a mean of 968.1 ml (95%CI = 847.2 ml-1089.1 ml), decreased at 6 mo to 918.4 ml (95%CI = 815.9 ml-1020.8 ml) that didn’t change until 12 mo. The non-HM that was 54.6 ml (95%CI = -12.6 ml-121.7 ml) increased significantly (p = 0.001) to 175.2 ml (95%CI = 100.2 ml-250.4 ml) at 6 mo. Exclusive breastfeeding was 32% at 3 mo and reduced to 16% at 6 mo. Breastfeeding was predominant after 6 mo and the contribution of HM in infant feeding was 80% at 9 mo and 69% at 12 mo. The anthropometric measurement showed that wasting was 1.5% at 3 mo but increase significantly (p = 0.04) to 8.7% at 6 mo. The DO dose to mother confirmed that all of the malnourished infants were not exclusive breastfed. At 9 mo the WHZ<-2 was reduced to 6.8%, but 4.5% of the children were

  10. Safety and immunomodulatory effects of three probiotic strains isolated from the feces of breast-fed infants in healthy adults: SETOPROB study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Plaza-Diaz

    Full Text Available We previously described the isolation and characterization of three probiotic strains from the feces of exclusively breast-fed newborn infants: Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-4034, Bifidobacterium breve CNCM I-4035 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-4036. These strains were shown to adhere to intestinal mucus in vitro, to be sensitive to antibiotics and to resist biliary salts and low pH. In the present study, a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with 100 healthy volunteers in three Spanish cities was carried out to evaluate the tolerance, safety, gut colonization and immunomodulatory effects of these three probiotics. Volunteers underwent a 15-day washout period, after which they were randomly divided into 5 groups that received daily a placebo, a capsule containing one of the 3 strains or a capsule containing a mixture of two strains for 30 days. The intervention was followed by another 15-day washout period. Patients did not consume fermented milk for the entire duration of the study. Gastrointestinal symptoms, defecation frequency and stool consistency were not altered by probiotic intake. No relevant changes in blood and serum, as well as no adverse events occurred during or after treatment. Probiotic administration slightly modified bacterial populations in the volunteers' feces. Intestinal persistence occurred in volunteers who received L. rhamnosus CNCM I-4036. Administration of B. breve CNCM I-4035 resulted in a significant increase in fecal secretory IgA content. IL-4 and IL-10 increased, whereas IL-12 decreased in the serum of volunteers treated with any of the three strains. These results demonstrate that the consumption of these three bacterial strains was safe and exerted varying degrees of immunomodulatory effects.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01479543.

  11. Oral Supplementation of Parturient Mothers with Vitamin D and Its Effect on 25OHD Status of Exclusively Breastfed Infants at 6 Months of Age: A Double-Blind Randomized Placebo Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Prasanna; Faridi, M M A; Batra, Prerna; Madhu, S V

    2017-12-01

    Exclusively breastfed infants are at increased risk of vitamin D deficiency and many lactating mothers have been found deficient in 25OHD stores. To compare serum vitamin D levels in exclusively breastfed infants at 6 months of age with or without oral supplementation of 600,000 IU of vitamin D3 to mothers in early postpartum period. Exclusively breastfeeding term parturient mothers were randomized 24-48 hours following delivery to receive either 600,000 IU of vitamin D3 (Cholecalciferol) over 10 days in a dose of 60,000 IU/day or placebo. 25OHD levels were measured by Radio Immuno Assay method at recruitment and after 6 months in all mothers and their infants. Urinary calcium and creatinine ratio was measured to monitor adverse effects of vitamin D3 in both mothers and infants at 14 weeks and 6 months of age. X-ray of both wrists in anteroposterior view and serum alkaline phosphatase of infants were done in both groups at 6 months of age to look for evidence of rickets. Maternal profile was similar in intervention (A) and control (B) groups. Mothers' serum 25OHD levels at recruitment were also similar being 16.2 ± 9.3 ng/mL in group A and 14.1 ± 7.1 ng/mL in group B. After 6 months, 25OHD levels were 40.3 ± 21.6 and 22.9 ± 20.1 ng/mL in group A and group B mothers (p ≤ 0.00), respectively. The serum 25OHD levels in cord blood were 9.9 ± 5.7 and 8.9 ± 5.1 ng/mL, respectively, in infants born to mothers in intervention and control groups (p = 0.433). At 6 months of age, the serum 25OHD levels significantly (p vitamin D3. Serum 25OHD levels of exclusively breastfed infants significantly rise at 6 months of age when their mothers are orally supplemented with 60,000 IU of vitamin D3 daily for 10 days in the early postpartum period in comparison to infants of vitamin D3 unsupplemented mothers.

  12. Stable Isotope Technique to Assess Intake of Human Milk in Breastfed Infants; Técnica de isótopos estables para determinar la ingesta de leche materna en lactantes amamantados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-08-15

    This publication was developed by an international group of experts as an integral part of the IAEA’s efforts to contribute to the transfer of technology and knowledge in nutrition. Its aim is to assist Member States in their efforts to combat malnutrition by facilitating the use of relevant nuclear techniques. The stable (non-radioactive) isotope technique has been developed to assess intake of human milk in breastfed infants. The practical application of the stable isotope technique, based on analysis of deuterium by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), is presented in this book.

  13. [Growth of breastfed and bottle-fed infants up to 2 years of age: CLACYD (Lactation, Alimentation, Growth and Development) study 1993-1995].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrelo, F; Lobo, B; Chesta, M; Berra, S; Sabulsky, J

    1999-07-01

    Studies done in various countries show important differences in the growth of breastfed and bottle-fed children. In addition, it has been found that breast-fed children grow more slowly beginning at the age of 2 or 3 months in comparison with the reference pattern of the U.S. National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) and the World Health Organization (WHO). These results cast doubt on whether maximum growth is the same as optimal growth. The objective of this study was to compare the growth in weight and length, from birth to 24 months, for a group of children who were breast-fed with that of a group who were bottle-fed. The study was also intended to describe the growth of the breastfed group in relation to the NCHS/WHO norms and a WHO "12-month breast-fed pooled data set." For this research, data were analyzed from the "Cordoba: lactation, feeding, growth, and development" study (or CLACYD study, for its Spanish-language acronym). That study looked at a representative cohort, stratified by social class, of children born in 1993 in the city of Cordoba, Argentina. The researchers analyzed anthropometric data on 74 children who were breast-fed during the first year of life and on 108 bottle-fed children. The data had been recorded, using standardized techniques, at birth and at 6, 12, and 24 months of age. Both groups were homogenous with respect to the age and schooling of the parents, social stratum, birth order, maternal height, and child's weight and length at birth. The living conditions (housing construction and availability of water and sewer services) were better among the group that was bottle-fed (P = 0.04). The breast-fed children had a lower weight and a shorter length at 6, 12, and 24 months than did the bottle-fed children. The breast-fed children also showed a slowing in growth with respect to the NCHS/WHO guidelines beginning in the second semester. This indicates that the NCHS/WHO norms are not totally adequate for evaluating the growth of breast-fed

  14. Changes in soluble transferrin receptor and hemoglobin concentrations in Malawian mothers are associated with those values in their exclusively breastfed, HIV-exposed infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infant iron status at birth is influenced bymaternal iron status during pregnancy; however, there are limited data on the extent to which maternal iron status is associated with infant iron status during exclusive breastfeeding. We evaluated how maternal and infant hemoglobin and iron status [solubl...

  15. Changes in soluble transferrin receptor and hemoglobin concentrations in Malawian mothers are associated with those values in their exclusively breastfed, HIF-exposed infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Infant iron status at birth is influenced by maternal iron status during pregnancy; however there are few data on the extent to which maternal iron status is associated with infant iron status during exclusive breastfeeding. Objective: We evaluated how maternal and infant hemoglobin (Hb...

  16. Slight Hydronephrosis in Newborns and Breast-fed Infants: Can the Presence of Vesicoureteral Reflux Be Predicted?; Hidronefrosis leve en neonatos y lactantes: puede predecirse la presencia del reflujo vesicoureteral?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berrocal, T.; Pablo, T. de; Gutierrez, J.; Prieto, C.; Hoyo, M. L. del [Hospital Universitario La Paz. Madrid (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the value of slight-to moderate echo graphically detected hydronephrosis in newborns and breast-fed infants that might serve as indicator for Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), and to evaluate the necessity of performing micturating cystourethrougraphy (MCUG) in these patients. There were reviewed MCUG of 237 patients (174 boys and 63 girls between the ages of 0 and 18 months) with slight echo graphically detected hydronephrosis in order to evaluate the presence of primary VUR. Patients with secondary reflux or those that presented anomalies which made impossible an exact reflux gradind were excluded. However, normal kidneys with reflux which were contralateral to hydronephrotic kidneys were included in the study. For a statistical analysis of the data, each kidney was considered separately, thereby forming a total of 474 kidneys. Slight hydronephrosis was diagnosed when the renal pelvis anteroposterior diameter was observed to measure between 0.5 and 1.5 cm. The International Grading System was used to grade reflux during MCUG. Of the 474 kidneys evaluated, 306 showed slight hydromephrosis in the echography. Only 98 of these presented reflux (32%) (14 grade 1.50 grade II, 32 grade III and 2 grade IV). The echography was normal (i. e. hydronephrosis not present) in 52 kidneys with reflux (31%) which were contralateral to hydronephrotic kidneys, although 38 of these had reflux of grade II or higher. The echography showed slight hydronephrosis in 208 kidneys that did not have reflux during MCUG (68%). There were no significant differences in the incidence of VUR among normal or hydronephrotic kidneys. There is a poor correlation between slight hydronephrosis and presence or grade of reflux in newborns and breast-fed infants. The latter should not, therefore, be considered an indication for MCUC. (Author) 33 refs.

  17. [Vitamin deficiencies in breastfed children due to maternal dietary deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kollee, L.A.A.

    2006-01-01

    Dietary deficiencies of vitamin B12 and vitamin D during pregnancy and lactation may result in health problems in exclusively breastfed infants. Vitamin-B12 deficiency in these infants results in irritability, anorexia and failure to thrive during the first 4-8 months of life. Severe and permanent

  18. Cup feeding versus other forms of supplemental enteral feeding for newborn infants unable to fully breastfeed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Anndrea; New, Karen; Davies, Mark W

    2016-08-31

    Breast milk provides optimal nutrition for term and preterm infants, and the ideal way for infants to receive breast milk is through suckling at the breast. Unfortunately, this may not always be possible for medical or physiological reasons such as being born sick or preterm and as a result requiring supplemental feeding. Currently, there are various ways in which infants can receive supplemental feeds. Traditionally in neonatal and maternity units, bottles and nasogastric tubes have been used; however, cup feeding is becoming increasingly popular as a means of offering supplemental feeds in an attempt to improve breastfeeding rates. There is no consistency to guide the choice of method for supplemental feeding. To determine the effects of cup feeding versus other forms of supplemental enteral feeding on weight gain and achievement of successful breastfeeding in term and preterm infants who are unable to fully breastfeed. We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review group to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2016, Issue 1), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to 31 January 2016), Embase (1980 to 31 January 2016), and CINAHL (1982 to 31 January 2016). We also searched clinical trials' databases, conference proceedings, and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing cup feeding to other forms of enteral feeding for the supplementation of term and preterm infants. Data collection and analysis was performed in accordance with the methods of Cochrane Neonatal. We used the GRADE approach to assess the quality of evidence.The review authors independently conducted quality assessments and data extraction for included trials. Outcomes reported from these studies were: weight gain; proportion not breastfeeding at hospital discharge; proportion not feeding at three months of age; proportion not feeding at six

  19. Transfer of L-selenomethionine-/sup 75/Se to human milk and the potential radiation dose to a breast-fed infant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, D M; McCready, V R; Cosgrove, D O [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Strahlentoxikologie

    1981-04-01

    Following the administration of L-selenomethionine-/sup 75/Se for a pancreas scan of a lactating mother, it was shown that there was a rapid and high level of incorporation of /sup 75/Se into the breast milk and the milk proteins. Between 5 and 29 hours after injection, the /sup 75/Se concentration in the whole milk and the milk solids decreased by a factor of more than 2; from 29 to 123 hours the concentrations appeared to decrease exponentially with a biological half-time of 78 +- 6 hours. At 123 hours post injection the concentrations of /sup 75/Se in the milk was 68% of that in the maternal plasma. An estimate of the /sup 75/Se intake by the infant was made from the measurements made on the single urine sample obtained 41 hours after the last breast feed. A whole body radiation dose to the infant was estimated to be about 500 ..mu..Gy, i.e. about one-tenth of the ICRP dose equivalent limit for a member of the general public. If breast feeding had been allowed to continue, the whole boent localization tumours and the principles of transferring the experimental data from animals to human beings.

  20. Effects of early maternal docosahexaenoic acid intake on neuropsychological status and visual acuity at five years of age of breast-fed term infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Craig L; Voigt, Robert G; Llorente, Antolin M; Peters, Sarika U; Prager, Thomas C; Zou, Yali L; Rozelle, Judith C; Turcich, Marie R; Fraley, J Kennard; Anderson, Robert E; Heird, William C

    2010-12-01

    We previously reported better psychomotor development at 30 months of age in infants whose mothers received a docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (22:6n-3) supplement for the first 4 months of lactation. We now assess neuropsychological and visual function of the same children at 5 years of age. Breastfeeding women were assigned to receive identical capsules containing either a high-DHA algal oil (∼200 mg/d of DHA) or a vegetable oil (containing no DHA) from delivery until 4 months postpartum. Primary outcome variables at 5 years of age were measures of gross and fine motor function, perceptual/visual-motor function, attention, executive function, verbal skills, and visual function of the recipient children at 5 years of age. There were no differences in visual function as assessed by the Bailey-Lovie acuity chart, transient visual evoked potential or sweep visual evoked potential testing between children whose mothers received DHA versus placebo. Children whose mothers received DHA versus placebo performed significantly better on the Sustained Attention Subscale of the Leiter International Performance Scale (46.5 ± 8.9 vs 41.9 ± 9.3, P DHA supplementation versus placebo for the first 4 months of breastfeeding performed better on a test of sustained attention. This, along with the previously reported better performance of the children of DHA-supplemented mothers on a test of psychomotor development at 30 months of age, suggests that DHA intake during early infancy confers long-term benefits on specific aspects of neurodevelopment. Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Evolução histórica dos utensílios empregados para alimentar lactentes não amamentados Historical evolution of utensils used to feed non breastfed infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Diez Castilho

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse artigo de revisão é descrever os utensílios empregados ao longo da história para alimentar lactentes não amamentados. O levantamento bibliográfico foi realizado nas bases de dados MEDLINE, LILACS e SciELO, de 1966 a 2007. Para a análise documental, foram processadas buscas na Internet, em enciclopédias, livros de arte, história e museus. Utensílios manufaturados com materiais e formas variadas, dependendo da disponibilidade, poder aquisitivo e cultura, foram empregados desde os primórdios da história para alimentar bebês que, por diferentes motivos, deixaram de ser amamentados. Muitos objetos coexistiram na mesma época e local, outros em tempos e pontos geográficos distantes. A aceitação de uma nova alternativa ocorria sem evidência que comprovasse ou apontasse para os benefícios da mudança. Alguns utensílios voltaram a ser empregados embora a mortalidade infantil fosse elevada à época em que foram utilizados. No início do século XX, as mamadeiras assumiram a forma cilíndrica cônica. A tecnologia trouxe avanços no sentido de melhorar a higienização e possibilitar o controle da contaminação. O vidro deu lugar ao plástico e os bicos de borracha, aos de silicone, mas a mamadeira, como a conhecemos hoje, é a mesma de cem anos atrás.The objective of this article is to describe the utensils used throughout history to feed non breastfed infants. The method used was article review, reference search on the MEDLINE, LILACS and SciELO databases from 1966 to 2007 and documental analysis based on data from the internet, encyclopedias, art and history books, and museums. Utensils manufactured in a variety of materials and shapes, depending on availability, purchasing power and culture have been used since early history to feed babies who for different reasons were not breastfed. Many objects coexisted at the same time and place, others at distant sites and times. New alternatives have been accepted without

  2. Isolation, identification and characterisation of three novel probiotic strains (Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-4034, Bifidobacterium breve CNCM I-4035 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-4036) from the faeces of exclusively breast-fed infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Quezada, Sergio; Chenoll, Empar; Vieites, José María; Genovés, Salvador; Maldonado, José; Bermúdez-Brito, Miriam; Gomez-Llorente, Carolina; Matencio, Esther; Bernal, María José; Romero, Fernando; Suárez, Antonio; Ramón, Daniel; Gil, Angel

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to isolate, identify and characterise novel strains of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria with probiotic properties from the faeces of exclusively breast-fed infants. Of the 4680 isolated colonies, 758 exhibited resistance to low pH and tolerance to high concentrations of bile salts; of these, only forty-two exhibited a strong ability to adhere to enterocytes in vitro. The identities of the isolates were confirmed by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequencing, which permitted the grouping of the forty-two bacteria into three different strains that showed more than 99 % sequence identity with Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium breve, respectively. The strain identification was confirmed by sequencing the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer regions. Strains were assayed for enzymatic activity and carbohydrate utilisation, and they were deposited in the Collection Nationale de Cultures de Microorganismes (CNCM) of the Institute Pasteur and named L. paracasei CNCM I-4034, B. breve CNCM I-4035 and L. rhamnosus CNCM I-4036. The strains were susceptible to antibiotics and did not produce undesirable metabolites, and their safety was assessed by acute ingestion in immunocompetent and immunosuppressed BALB/c mouse models. The three novel strains inhibited in vitro the meningitis aetiological agent Listeria monocytogenes and human rotavirus infections. B. breve CNCM I-4035 led to a higher IgA concentration in faeces and plasma of mice. Overall, these results suggest that L. paracasei CNCM I-4034, B. breve CNCM I-4035 and L. rhamnosus CNCM I-4036 should be considered as probiotic strains, and their human health benefits should be further evaluated.

  3. Screening for Hypoglycemia in Exclusively Breastfed High-risk Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Princy; Upadhyay, Amit; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Jaiswal, Vijay; Saxena, Pranjali

    2017-06-15

    To determine incidence of hypoglycemia in exclusively breastfed, high-risk but healthy newborns, and risk factors for its development. This observational study enrolled 407 exclusively breastfed high-risk (low birth weight newborns (1800-2499 g), late preterms, small-for-gestation, large-for-gestation and infant of diabetic mother), who did not require admission to neonatal intensive care unit and were kept in postnatal wards with mother. Hypoglycemia was defined as blood glucose £46 mg/dL (2.6 mmol/L). Blood glucose was monitored till 48 hours of life. 27% of the screened newborns developed hypoglycemia in first 48 hours. 31 (7.6%) developed recurrent (>2) episodes, 28 (6.8%) had moderate (<37mg/dL) while 8 (1.9%) developed symptomatic hypoglycemia. With increase in birthweight, risk of hypoglycemia reduced significantly (P=0.003). Hypoglycemia was observed more frequently in first 2 hours as compared to next 48 hours (P=0.0001). Low birth- weight, preterm gestation and male gender was significantly associated with increased risk of hypoglycemia. Healthy, high-risk exclusively breastfed newborns in postnatal wards need close monitoring for hypoglycemia in first 24 hrs of life.

  4. A prospective study of cow's milk allergy in exclusively breast-fed infants. Incidence, pathogenetic role of early inadvertent exposure to cow's milk formula, and characterization of bovine milk protein in human milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, A; Husby, S; Osterballe, O

    1988-01-01

    A cohort of 1,749 newborns in the municipality of Odense were followed prospectively for the development of cow's milk allergy (CMA) during their first year of life. Altogether 39 fulfilled the criteria for CMA (2.2%). Out of the 39 infants, 17 developed symptoms of CMA during breast-feeding, in ...

  5. Thyroid Function among Breastfed Children with Chronically Excessive Iodine Intakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inger Aakre

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Iodine excess may impair thyroid function and trigger adverse health consequences for children. This study aims to describe iodine status among breastfed infants with high iodine exposure in the Saharawi refugee camps Algeria, and further assess thyroid function and iodine status among the children three years later. In 2010, a cross-sectional study among 111 breastfed children aged 0–6 months was performed (baseline study. In 2013, a second cross-sectional study (follow-up study was conducted among 289 children; 213 newly selected and 76 children retrieved from baseline. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC and breast milk iodine concentration (BMIC were measured at baseline. UIC, thyroid hormones and serum thyroglobulin (Tg were measured at follow-up. At baseline and follow-up, 88% and 72% had excessive iodine intakes (UIC ≥ 300 µg/L, respectively. At follow-up, 24% had a thyroid hormone disturbance and/or elevated serum Tg, including 9% with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH, 4% with elevated fT3 and 14% with elevated Tg. Children with SCH had poorer linear growth and were more likely to be underweight than the children without SCH. Excessive iodine intakes and thyroid disturbances were common among children below four years of age in our study. Further, SCH seemed to be associated with poor growth and weight.

  6. Age and weight at final discharge from an early discharge programme for stable but tube-fed preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahnfeldt, A M; Stanchev, H.; Jørgensen, Henrik Løvendahl

    2015-01-01

    the programme (p difference in weight-for-age at discharge (p = 0.15), but infants in the early discharge group were more frequently fully or partly breastfed (88% versus 80%, p ... comparability of the two groups, weight-for-age at discharge was similar, but the programme appeared to allow better breastfeeding success at the expense of a later final discharge......., and during the programme, they received home visits by neonatal nurses. We evaluated the programme, focusing on the infants' well-being, using weight gain, breastfeeding rates and total duration of hospitalisation as outcomes. METHODS: Over an 11-year period, 500 infants participated in the programme...

  7. Neurodevelopment, nutrition, and growth until 12 mo of age in infants fed a low-energy, low-protein formula supplemented with bovine milk fat globule membranes: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timby, Niklas; Domellöf, Erik; Hernell, Olle; Lönnerdal, Bo; Domellöf, Magnus

    2014-04-01

    Observational studies have indicated that differences in the composition of human milk and infant formula yield benefits in cognitive development and early growth for breastfed infants. The objective was to test the hypothesis that feeding an infant formula with reduced energy and protein densities and supplemented with bovine milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) reduces differences in cognitive development and early growth between formula-fed and breastfed infants. In a prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled trial, 160 infants Toddler Development, Third Edition, was significantly higher in the EF group than in the SF group (105.8 ± 9.2 compared with 101.8 ± 8.0; P = 0.008) but was not significantly different from that in the BFR group (106.4 ± 9.5; P = 0.73). The EF group ingested larger volumes of formula than did the SF group (864 ± 174 compared with 797 ± 165 mL/d; P = 0.022), fully compensating for the lower energy density. No significant differences in linear growth, weight gain, body mass index, percentage body fat, or head circumference were found between the EF and SF groups. MFGM supplementation to infant formula narrows the gap in cognitive development between breastfed and formula-fed infants. Between 2 and 6 mo of age, formula-fed term infants have the capacity to upregulate their ingested volumes when the energy density of formula is reduced from 66 to 60 kcal/100 mL.

  8. Growth of exclusively breastfed and self-weaned children of Greece aged 0-36 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patsourou, Anna; Konstantinides, Theodoros; Mantadakis, Elpis; Tsalkidis, Aggelos; Zarras, Charalambos; Balaska, Athena; Simopoulos, Konstantinos; Chatzimichael, Athanassios

    2012-12-01

    Breastfeeding is recognized as an important public health issue with substantial social and economic implications. Moreover, the growth of exclusively breastfed babies differs from that of their formula-fed counterparts. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical growth of exclusively breastfed and self-weaned boys and girls of Greece 0-36 months of age. The physical growth of children was monitored from birth up to 36 months of age. Body weight, length/height, and head circumference were recorded. The study population included 101 boys and 105 girls who were recruited consecutively from a private breastfeeding clinic in the second largest city of Greece and through La Leche League groups throughout the country during 2000 to 2005. All infants were exclusively breastfed for ≥ 6 months. Anthro software ( www.who.int/childgrowth/software/en/index.html ) was used to compare the data of our study population and the World Health Organization standards for weight, length/height, and head circumference for age. Male and female infants at 12 months had almost tripled their weight (192% and 190% increase, respectively) and had increased their length (height) by 48% and 47%, respectively, and head circumference had increased by 35% and 33%, respectively. In both sexes the relative length/height and the head circumference-for-age increase rates were higher from the first to the second month of life than at any other period. Long-term exclusively breastfed infants grow normally. Hence, no recommendations for the interruption of lactation and/or supplementation with formula are justified.

  9. Free Amino Acids in Human Milk and Associations with Maternal Anthropometry and Infant Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larnkjær, Anni; Bruun, Signe; Pedersen, Dorthe

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Free glutamic acid has an appetite regulating effect and studies with infant formula have suggested that free amino acids (FAA), especially glutamic acid, can downregulate intake. The content of glutamic acid and glutamine is high in breast milk but varies considerably between mothers....... The aim was to investigate if maternal anthropometry was associated with the content of the FAA glutamic acid or glutamine in breast milk and if there was a negative association between these FAA and current size or early infant growth in fully breastfed infants. Methods: From a subgroup of 78 mothers......, of which 50 were fully breast feeding, from the Odense Child Cohort breast milk samples were collected 4 months after birth and analyzed for FAA. Information regarding breastfeeding status and infant weight and length was also recorded. Results: There was a large variation in the concentration of the FAAs...

  10. Voxel-Based Morphometry and fMRI Revealed Differences in Brain Gray Matter in Breastfed and Milk Formula-Fed Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, X; Andres, A; Pivik, R T; Cleves, M A; Snow, J H; Ding, Z; Badger, T M

    2016-04-01

    Infant diets may have significant impact on brain development in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate brain gray matter structure and function in 8-year-old children who were predominantly breastfed or fed cow's milk formula as infants. Forty-two healthy children (breastfed: n = 22, 10 boys and 12 girls; cow's milk formula: n = 20, 10 boys and 10 girls) were studied by using structural MR imaging (3D T1-weighted imaging) and blood oxygen level-dependent fMRI (while performing tasks involving visual perception and language functions). They were also administered standardized tests evaluating intelligence (Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales) and language skills (Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals). Total brain gray matter volume did not differ between the breastfed and cow's milk formula groups. However, breastfed children had significantly higher (P left inferior temporal lobe and left superior parietal lobe compared with cow's milk formula-fed children. Breastfed children showed significantly more brain activation in the right frontal and left/right temporal lobes on fMRI when processing the perception task and in the left temporal/occipital lobe when processing the visual language task than cow's milk formula-fed children. The imaging findings were associated with significantly better performance for breastfed than cow's milk formula-fed children on both tasks. Our findings indicated greater regional gray matter development and better regional gray matter function in breastfed than cow's milk formula-fed children at 8 years of age and suggested that infant diets may have long-term influences on brain development in children. © 2016 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  11. Development of resting cardiovascular activity during the first 2 years of life differs in breastfed and formula-fed boys and girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    To investigate whether early infant diet influences cardiovascular development we recorded resting heart-rate (HR) at 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 mo in awake healthy children who were breastfed (BF) or fed milk formula (MF) or soy formula (SF) during infancy (n = 83-146/group/age). HR, and indices of autono...

  12. Do infants with cow's milk protein allergy have inadequate levels of vitamin D?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane M. Silva

    2017-11-01

    Conclusions: Lower vitamin D levels were found in infants with CMPA, especially those who were exclusively or predominantly breastfed, making these infants a possible risk group for vitamin D deficiency.

  13. Quantitative Real-Time PCR Assays To Identify and Quantify Fecal Bifidobacterium Species in Infants Receiving a Prebiotic Infant Formula

    OpenAIRE

    Haarman, Monique; Knol, Jan

    2005-01-01

    A healthy intestinal microbiota is considered to be important for priming of the infants' mucosal and systemic immunity. Breast-fed infants typically have an intestinal microbiota dominated by different Bifidobacterium species. It has been described that allergic infants have different levels of specific Bifidobacterium species than healthy infants. For the accurate quantification of Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Bifidobacterium angulatum, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifid...

  14. Excessive weight loss in exclusively breastfed full-term newborns in a Baby-Friendly Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Mezzacappa

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To determine the risk factors for weight loss over 8% in full-term newborns at postpartum discharge from a Baby Friendly Hospital. Methods: The cases were selected from a cohort of infants belonging to a previous study. Healthy full-term newborns with birth weight ≥2.000g, who were exclusively breastfed were included and excluded twins and those undergoing phototherapy as well as those discharged after 96h of life. The analyzed maternal and neonatal variables were maternal age, parity, ethnicity, type of delivery, maternal diabetes, gender, gestational age and appropriate weight for age. Adjusted multiple and univariate Cox regression analyses were used, considering as significant p8% were cesarean delivery and older maternal age. At the adjusted multiple regression analysis, the model to explain the weight loss was cesarean delivery (Relative risk 2.27, 95% of Confidence Interval 1.54–3.35. Conclusions: The independent predictor for weight loss>8% in exclusively breastfed full-term newborns in a Baby-Friendly Hospital was the cesarean delivery. It is possible to reduce the number of cesarean sections to minimize neonatal excessive weight loss and the resulting use of infant formula during the first week of life.

  15. Infant feeding practices in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S T

    1978-12-01

    Retrospective nutritional data on 100 children, aged 6 months to 2 1/2 years, who were admitted to the University Hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, was obtained by interviewing the mothers of the children. Analysis of the data revealed that 1) only 49% of the children were breast-fed as infants; 2) 50% of the mothers who did breast-feed discontinued breast-feeding before the children were 3 months old; and 3) the weaning diet of at least 1/3 of the children was inadequate. 18% of the children were Malays, 49% were Chinese, and 33% were Indian. The proportion of breast-fed children was highest among the Malays and lowest among the Chinese. Mothers with higher incomes tended to stop breast-feeding earlier than mothers with lower incomes. 67% of the women said they stopped breast-feeding due to inadequate lactation. Most of the children received supplementary foods at relatively early ages. 50% of the infants received starchy foods by the time they were 3 1/2 months old, and 50% received fruit or fruit juice by the time they were 3 1/2 months old. Vegetable products, meat, fish, and eggs were not added to the diet until the children were considerably older. Recommendations, based on the study findings, were 1) hospitals should discontinue the practice of deferring breast-feeding initiation for 24 hours after delivery; 2) mothers should be encouraged to breast-feed fully; and 3) health personnel should discourage the widespread use of costly precooked cereals for supplementary feeding. Tables depicted 1) the frequency distribution of the 100 children by income and by milk feeding patterns according to ethnic affiliation and 2) the cost of serving precooked cereals as compared to the cost of serving home cooked meals.

  16. Prevalent infant feeding practices among the mothers presenting at a tertiary care hospital in Garhwal Himalayan region, Uttarakhand, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyas Kumar Rathaur

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is paucity of studies on infant feeding practices from the rural areas of garhwal Himalayas of the state of uttarakhand. The present study was designed to assess the infant feeding practices in Garhwal region. Infant feeding practices have significant implications on a child's health. Early nutritional status especially during the first year of life has been shown to have a significant effect on child health and development. Optimal infant feeding practices are crucial for nutritional status, growth, development, health, and ultimately the survival of infants and young children. The study of infant feeding practices is essential before formulation of any interventional programme. Settings and Design: A study was conducted in HNB Base Hospital and Teaching Institute with the aim to assess the infant feeding practices and the prevalence of malnutrition in the study population reporting at the hospital in garhwal region of uttarakhand. Methods and Material: This is an observational cross sectional study. 275 infants were included in the study. After taking informed consent, case study forms were filled by interviewing the infants' mothers. Weight, length and head circumference of each infant was also measured. The information thus obtained was compiled, tabulated and analysed statistically. Results: The study findings revealed that 46.4% infants in the age group 0-5 months were breastfed within 1 hour of birth. 52.8% infants aged 0-5 months of were exclusively breastfed. 33.6% infants in age group 0-5 months received prelacteal feeds. 53.12% infants in age group 6-8 months received solid, semi-solid or soft food, in addition to breast milk. 53.33% infants were partially or fully bottle fed. Age appropriate feeding was found in 56% infants. The percentage of wasting, stunting and underweight in 0-5 months was 33.6%,30.4% and 36.8% respectively . The percentage of wasting, stunting and underweight in 6-11 months was 28%, 26.5% and

  17. Thymic size in uninfected infants born to HIV-positive mothers and fed with pasteurized human milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Dorthe Lisbeth; Hasselbalch, H; Ersbøll, A K

    2003-01-01

    /weight-ratio (Ti/w) at birth and at 4 mo of age in 12 healthy uninfected infants born to HlV-infected mothers. All infants were exclusively fed pasteurized donor milk. The results were compared with those obtained from a previous cohort of exclusively breastfed, partially breastfed and exclusively formula...

  18. Prebiotics in infant formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenplas, Yvan; Greef, Elisabeth De; Veereman, Gigi

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal microbiota of breast-fed babies differ from classic standard formula fed infants. While mother's milk is rich in prebiotic oligosaccharides and contains small amounts of probiotics, standard infant formula doesn’t. Different prebiotic oligosaccharides are added to infant formula: galacto-oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharide, polydextrose, and mixtures of these. There is evidence that addition of prebiotics in infant formula alters the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota resembling that of breastfed infants. They are added to infant formula because of their presence in breast milk. Infants on these supplemented formula have a lower stool pH, a better stool consistency and frequency and a higher concentration of bifidobacteria in their intestine compared to infants on a non-supplemented standard formula. Since most studies suggest a trend for beneficial clinical effects, and since these ingredients are very safe, prebiotics bring infant formula one step closer to breastmilk, the golden standard. However, despite the fact that adverse events are rare, the evidence on prebiotics of a significant health benefit throughout the alteration of the gut microbiota is limited. PMID:25535999

  19. Prevalence of bacterial contamination of powdered infant feeds in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background The study arose as part of a nutrition model regarding the introduction of ready-to-use (RTU) infant feeds in place of powdered infant feeds (PIFs) as a standard formula for infants under the age of 1 year who are unable to be breastfed. Internationally and locally there is grave concern regarding the safety and ...

  20. Serum lutein concentrations in healthy term infants fed human milk or infant formula with lutein

    OpenAIRE

    Bettler, Jodi; Zimmer, J. Paul; Neuringer, Martha; DeRusso, Patricia A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Lutein is a carotenoid that may play a role in eye health. Human milk typically contains higher concentrations of lutein than infant formula. Preliminary data suggest there are differences in serum lutein concentrations between breastfed and formula-fed infants. Aim of the study To measure the serum lutein concentrations among infants fed human milk or formulas with and without added lutein. Methods A prospective, double-masked trial was conducted in healthy term formula-fed infant...

  1. Development of iron homeostasis in infants and young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnerdal, Bo

    2017-12-01

    Healthy, term, breastfed infants usually have adequate iron stores that, together with the small amount of iron that is contributed by breast milk, make them iron sufficient until ≥6 mo of age. The appropriate concentration of iron in infant formula to achieve iron sufficiency is more controversial. Infants who are fed formula with varying concentrations of iron generally achieve sufficiency with iron concentrations of 2 mg/L (i.e., with iron status that is similar to that of breastfed infants at 6 mo of age). Regardless of the feeding choice, infants' capacity to regulate iron homeostasis is important but less well understood than the regulation of iron absorption in adults, which is inverse to iron status and strongly upregulated or downregulated. Infants who were given daily iron drops compared with a placebo from 4 to 6 mo of age had similar increases in hemoglobin concentrations. In addition, isotope studies have shown no difference in iron absorption between infants with high or low hemoglobin concentrations at 6 mo of age. Together, these findings suggest a lack of homeostatic regulation of iron homeostasis in young infants. However, at 9 mo of age, homeostatic regulatory capacity has developed although, to our knowledge, its extent is not known. Studies in suckling rat pups showed similar results with no capacity to regulate iron homeostasis at 10 d of age when fully nursing, but such capacity occurred at 20 d of age when pups were partially weaned. The major iron transporters in the small intestine divalent metal-ion transporter 1 (DMT1) and ferroportin were not affected by pup iron status at 10 d of age but were strongly affected by iron status at 20 d of age. Thus, mechanisms that regulate iron homeostasis are developed at the time of weaning. Overall, studies in human infants and experimental animals suggest that iron homeostasis is absent or limited early in infancy largely because of a lack of regulation of the iron transporters DMT1 and ferroportin

  2. Preparation and handling of powdered infant formula: a commentary by the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostoni, Carlo; Axelsson, Irene; Goulet, Olivier; Koletzko, Berthold; Michaelsen, Kim F; Puntis, John W L; Rigo, Jacques; Shamir, Raanan; Szajewska, Hania; Turck, Dominique; Vandenplas, Yvan; Weaver, Lawrence T

    2004-10-01

    Powdered infant formulae are not sterile and may contain pathogenic bacteria. In addition, milk products are excellent media for bacterial proliferation. Multiplication of Enterobacter sakazakii in prepared formula feeds can cause devastating sepsis, particularly in the first 2 months of life. In approximately 50 published case reports of severe infection, there are high rates of meningitis, brain abscesses and necrotizing enterocolitis, with an overall mortality from 33% to 80%. Breast feeding provides effective protection against infection, one of the many reasons why it deserves continued promotion and support. To minimize the risk of infection in infants not fully breastfed, recommendations are made for preparation and handling of powdered formulae for children younger than 2 months of age. In the home setting, powdered infant formulae should be freshly prepared for each feed. Any milk remaining should be discarded rather than used in the following feed. Infant feeds should never be kept warm in bottle heaters or thermoses. In hospitals and other institutions written guidelines for preparation and handling of infant formulae should be established and their implementation monitored. If formula needs to be prepared in advance, it should be prepared on a daily basis and kept at 4 degrees C or below. Manufacturers of infant formulae should make every effort to minimize bacterial contamination of powdered products.

  3. Preserving Mother Nature's best food for preterm infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    The American Academy of Pediatrics, the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition, and the World Health Organization recommend that infants should be breastfed the first 6 mo of life. In the case of high-risk, very-low-birth-weight (<1500 g) premature infants, this is...

  4. Feeding infants and toddlers study: Improvements needed in meeting infant feeding recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briefel, Ronette R; Reidy, Kathleen; Karwe, Vatsala; Devaney, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    To assess adherence to infant feeding recommendations among a sample of infants and toddlers four to 24 months of age in the United States. Descriptive analysis of data collected in the 2002 Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS) based on telephone interviews and 24-hour dietary recalls collected with the Nutrition Data System for Research of the University of Minnesota. A national random sample of 3,022 infants and toddlers age four to 24 months, including 2,024 infants age four to 11 months. Breastfeeding, timing of introduction of complementary foods, and adherence to infant feeding recommendations. Means and standard errors, percentile distributions, and percentages by age group (four to six months, seven to eight months, and nine to 11 months). About 76% of infants and toddlers were fully or partly breastfed at birth. This percentage declined to 30% at six months and 16% at 12 months-short of Healthy People 2010 goals of 50% and 25%, respectively. The average duration of breastfeeding was 5.5 months for all who initiated breastfeeding. About two-thirds of infants had been introduced to complementary foods between four and six months-the period recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP); 17% consumed juice before the AAP recommended age of six months or later. Twenty-two percent of infants nine to 11 months consumed cow's milk on a daily basis before the recommended age of 12 months or later, and one in 10 consumed french fries and/or sweetened beverages on any given day. More parents and caregivers can benefit from guidance about the introduction of developmentally appropriate, micronutrient-rich first solid foods such as iron-rich infant cereals, iron-fortified grain products, meats, soft fruits, and cooked vegetables and the importance of breastfeeding through the first year of life. A smaller proportion of parents and caregivers require guidance on delaying the introduction of juices until six months of age and cow's milk other than formula

  5. Concomitant administration of a fully liquid, ready-to-use DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T hexavalent vaccine with a meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesikari, Timo; Borrow, Ray; Da Costa, Xavier; Richard, Patrick; Eymin, Cécile; Boisnard, Florence; Lockhart, Stephen

    2017-01-11

    DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T or hexavalent vaccines are indicated for primary and booster vaccination of infants and toddlers against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, poliomyelitis and invasive diseases caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). The present study evaluates the safety and immunogenicity of a ready-to-use hexavalent vaccine when co-administered with a meningococcal serogroup C conjugate (MenC) vaccine in infants. This was a phase III, open-label, randomised, multicentre study conducted in Finland. Healthy infants, aged 46-74days (n=350), were randomised in a ratio of 1:1 to receive DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T vaccine at two, three and four months, either with a MenC vaccine co-administered at two and four months (Group 1; n=175) or without MenC vaccine (Group 2; n=175). All infants also received routine rotavirus and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. The proportion of participants with an anti-HBs concentration ⩾10mIU/mL assessed one month after the third dose of DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T vaccine was 97.5% [95%CI: 93.1-99.3] in the coadministration group and 96.1% [95%CI: 91.8-98.6] in the group without MenC vaccine. The proportion of participants with an anti-MenC SBA titre ⩾8 assessed one month after the second dose of MenC vaccine was 100% in the coadministration group. Both primary objectives were achieved. Secondary immunogenicity and safety analyses showed that co-administration of DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T and MenC vaccines did not impact the immune response to the antigens of each of the two vaccines. All vaccines were well tolerated and the safety profile of DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T vaccine was similar in both groups. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01839175; EudraCT number: 2012-005547-24. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Decreased memory B cells and increased CD8 memory T cells in blood of breastfed children: the generation R study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Michelle A E; van den Heuvel, Diana; van Zelm, Menno C; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; de Jongste, Johan C; Hooijkaas, Herbert; Moll, Henriette A

    2015-01-01

    Breastfeeding provides a protective effect against infectious diseases in infancy. Still, immunological evidence for enhanced adaptive immunity in breastfed children remains inconclusive. To determine whether breastfeeding affects B- and T-cell memory in the first years of life. We performed immunophenotypic analysis on blood samples within a population-based prospective cohort study. Participants included children at 6 months (n=258), 14 months (n=166), 25 months (n=112) and 6 years of age (n=332) with both data on breastfeeding and blood lymphocytes. Total B- and T-cell numbers and their memory subsets were determined with 6-color flow cytometry. Mothers completed questionnaires on breastfeeding when their children were aged 2, 6, and 12 months. Multiple linear regression models with adjustments for potential confounders were performed. Per month continuation of breastfeeding, a 3% (95% CI -6, -1) decrease in CD27+IgM+, a 2% (95 CI % -5, -1) decrease in CD27+IgA+ and a 2% (95% CI -4, -1) decrease in CD27-IgG+ memory B cell numbers were observed at 6 months of age. CD8 T-cell numbers at 6 months of age were 20% (95% CI 3, 37) higher in breastfed than in non-breastfed infants. This was mainly found for central memory CD8 T cells and associated with exposure to breast milk, rather than duration. The same trend was observed at 14 months, but associations disappeared at older ages. Longer breastfeeding is associated with increased CD8 T-cell memory, but not B-cell memory numbers in the first 6 months of life. This transient skewing towards T cell memory might contribute to the protective effect against infectious diseases in infancy.

  7. Decreased memory B cells and increased CD8 memory T cells in blood of breastfed children: the generation R study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle A E Jansen

    Full Text Available Breastfeeding provides a protective effect against infectious diseases in infancy. Still, immunological evidence for enhanced adaptive immunity in breastfed children remains inconclusive.To determine whether breastfeeding affects B- and T-cell memory in the first years of life.We performed immunophenotypic analysis on blood samples within a population-based prospective cohort study. Participants included children at 6 months (n=258, 14 months (n=166, 25 months (n=112 and 6 years of age (n=332 with both data on breastfeeding and blood lymphocytes. Total B- and T-cell numbers and their memory subsets were determined with 6-color flow cytometry. Mothers completed questionnaires on breastfeeding when their children were aged 2, 6, and 12 months. Multiple linear regression models with adjustments for potential confounders were performed.Per month continuation of breastfeeding, a 3% (95% CI -6, -1 decrease in CD27+IgM+, a 2% (95 CI % -5, -1 decrease in CD27+IgA+ and a 2% (95% CI -4, -1 decrease in CD27-IgG+ memory B cell numbers were observed at 6 months of age. CD8 T-cell numbers at 6 months of age were 20% (95% CI 3, 37 higher in breastfed than in non-breastfed infants. This was mainly found for central memory CD8 T cells and associated with exposure to breast milk, rather than duration. The same trend was observed at 14 months, but associations disappeared at older ages.Longer breastfeeding is associated with increased CD8 T-cell memory, but not B-cell memory numbers in the first 6 months of life. This transient skewing towards T cell memory might contribute to the protective effect against infectious diseases in infancy.

  8. Prebiotics and probiotics in infant nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker-Zierikzee, A.

    2005-01-01

    IntroductionIn general breast-fed infants suffer less from infection, which could be partly explained by the specificcompostionand metabolic activity of their intestinalmicroflora. During the last two decades, many

  9. Thymic size in uninfected infants born to HIV-positive mothers and fed with pasteurized human milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Dorthe Lisbeth; Hasselbalch, H; Ersbøll, A K

    2003-01-01

    /weight-ratio (Ti/w) at birth and at 4 mo of age in 12 healthy uninfected infants born to HlV-infected mothers. All infants were exclusively fed pasteurized donor milk. The results were compared with those obtained from a previous cohort of exclusively breastfed, partially breastfed and exclusively formula.......8 and the mean Ti/w-ratio was 4.2. Compared with those of exclusively breastfed infants, the Ti and Ti/w-ratio of infants fed donor milk were significantly reduced (p infants compared with that in the formula-fed infants (p = 0.02). CONCLUSION: At birth...... with thymic size in infants that were exclusively formula fed....

  10. Vacuum characteristics of the sucking cycle and relationships with milk removal from the breast in term infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Anna Maria; Sakalidis, Vanessa Susanna; Lai, Ching Tat; Perrella, Sharon Lisa; Geddes, Donna Tracy

    2016-05-01

    The importance of an infant's intra-oral vacuum in milk removal from the breast has been established. However, the relationship between the vacuum curve and milk transfer is not well understood. To investigate the parameters of the infant suck cycle in relation to the volume of milk removed from the breast. Cross-sectional study to elucidate the role of infant intra-oral vacuum in efficient milk removal from the breast. Nineteen fully breastfed term infants. Intra-oral vacuum was recorded during monitored breastfeeds using a pressure transducer. Ultrasound imaging (milk flow) and respiratory inductive plethysmography (swallowing) were used to determine the nutritive sucking (NS) portion of the feed. Milk intake was determined by weighing infants before and after feeds. Vacuum traces of the first and next 2min of NS from the first breast were analysed. The volumes of milk removed during both NS periods were negatively associated with peak vacuum (pmilk removal during breastfeeding. It also appears that infants modify their sucking dynamics to adapt to changes in milk flow during milk ejection as the breast empties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Pattern of urine specific gravity in exclusively breastfed and water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Exclusive breastfeeding, an essential intervention for the reduction of infant mortality, is not widely practised. A major reason is the issue of thirst, especially in the hot regions of the world. Objective: To describe the pattern of specific gravity of breastfeeding infants aged 0-6 months as a measure of their ...

  12. Serum lutein concentrations in healthy term infants fed human milk or infant formula with lutein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettler, Jodi; Zimmer, J Paul; Neuringer, Martha; DeRusso, Patricia A

    2010-02-01

    Lutein is a carotenoid that may play a role in eye health. Human milk typically contains higher concentrations of lutein than infant formula. Preliminary data suggest there are differences in serum lutein concentrations between breastfed and formula-fed infants. To measure the serum lutein concentrations among infants fed human milk or formulas with and without added lutein. A prospective, double-masked trial was conducted in healthy term formula-fed infants (n = 26) randomized between 9 and 16 days of age to study formulas containing 20 (unfortified), 45, 120, and 225 mcg/l of lutein. A breastfed reference group was studied (n = 14) and milk samples were collected from their mothers. Primary outcome was serum lutein concentration at week 12. Geometric mean lutein concentration of human milk was 21.1 mcg/l (95% CI 14.9-30.0). At week 12, the human milk group had a sixfold higher geometric mean serum lutein (69.3 mcg/l; 95% CI 40.3-119) than the unfortified formula group (11.3 mcg/l; 95% CI 8.1-15.8). Mean serum lutein increased from baseline in each formula group except the unfortified group. Linear regression equation indicated breastfed infants had a greater increase in serum lutein (slope 3.7; P milk lutein than formula-fed infants (slope 0.9; P lutein concentrations than infants who consume formula unfortified with lutein. These data suggest approximately 4 times more lutein is needed in infant formula than in human milk to achieve similar serum lutein concentrations among breastfed and formula fed infants.

  13. A fully liquid DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T hexavalent vaccine for primary and booster vaccination of healthy Turkish infants and toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceyhan, Mehmet; Yıldırım, İnci; Tezer, Hasan; Devrim, İlker; Feroldi, Emmanuel

    2017-08-23

    Background/aim: Immunogenicity and safety of a primary series of a fully liquid, hexavalent DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T vaccine given at 2, 3, and 4 months of age compared to licensed comparators and a DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T booster at 15?18 months were evaluated. Materials and methods: This was a Phase III, randomized, open-label trial. Primary series (no hepatitis B [HB] at birth) of DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T (N = 155) (group 1) or licensed control vaccines (DTaP-IPV//PRP-T and standalone HB: N = 155) (group 2) and DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T booster were administered. Noninferiority was evaluated 1 month postprimary series for anti-HB seroprotection (SP). All other analyses were descriptive. Safety was assessed from parental reports. Results: Postprimary series noninferiority of anti-HB ≥ 10 mIU/mL was demonstrated for the DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T vaccine (94.0%) compared to the licensed control (96.1%). Postprimary series primary SP and seroconversion (SC) rates were high and similar for both groups. Antibody persistence (prebooster) was high for each antigen and similar between groups except for HB, which was lower for DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T than for standalone HB. For each antigen except HB, DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T booster responses were high and similar in each group. Safety was good for primary and booster series and similar between groups. Conclusion: The DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T vaccine is immunogenic and safe when administered in a challenging primary series schedule without HB vaccination at birth.

  14. [Regulatory peptides and psychomotor development in infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, O Iu; Kost, N V; Kurasova, O B; Dmitriev, A D; Gabaeva, M V; Zolotarev, Iu A; Mikheeva, I G; Zozulia, A A

    2007-01-01

    Regulatory peptides (RP) are an important homeostatic factor. The maternal organism and placenta are substantial sources of RP for fetus during the prenatal period. Not only endogenous, but also exogenous RP play an important role during early postnatal period. In this study, the concentration of exogenous RP (casomorphins-7) and the activity of peptidases (enkephalinases) in the serum of breastfed and bottle-fed infants were estimated. Possible interrelation between these two parameters and the psychomotor development (PMD) of infants were evaluated. Using specially developed RIA, the investigators estimated the presence of human and bovine casomorphins immunoreactivity (CMir) in the serum of breastfed and bottle-fed infants. A distinct correlation of CMir with PMD was demonstrated. The activity of RP-degrading serum enzymes also correlated with PMD level. The role of endo- and exogenous peptides in normal PMD process and in the pathogenesis of early child autism is discussed in the article.

  15. Assessment of complementary feeding of Canadian infants: effects on microbiome & oxidative stress, a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qasem, Wafaa; Azad, Meghan B; Hossain, Zakir; Azad, Elnaz; Jorgensen, Sarah; Castillo San Juan, Sandra; Cai, Chenxi; Khafipour, Ehsan; Beta, Trust; Roberts, L Jackson; Friel, James

    2017-02-14

    The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months followed by introduction of iron-rich complementary foods (CFs). The aim of this study was to determine the impact of different iron-rich CFs on infant gut inflammation and microbiota. Eighty-seven exclusively breastfed infants were randomly assigned to receive one of the following as their first CF: iron-fortified cereal (Cer), iron-fortified cereal with fruit (Cer + Fr), or meat (M). Urine and stool samples were collected to assess reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, gut microbiota and inflammation. Fecal iron differed across feeding groups (p microbiota richness increased after introduction of M or Cer + Fr. Regardless of feeding group, Coriobacteriaceae were positively correlated with ROS and Staphylococcaceae were negatively correlated with calprotectin. Choice of first CF may influence gut inflammation and microbiota, potentially due to variations in iron absorption from different foods. Further research is warranted to fully characterize these associations and to establish implications for infant health. This study was registered in the ClinicalTrial.gov registry (Identifier No. NCT01790542 ). This study was registered in the ClinicalTrial.gov registry under the name "Assessment of Complementary Feeding of Canadian Infants" (Identifier No. NCT01790542 ) February 6, 2013.

  16. Lutein Supplementation Increases Breast Milk and Plasma Lutein Concentrations in Lactating Women and Infant Plasma Concentrations but Does Not Affect Other Carotenoids 1 2 3

    OpenAIRE

    Sherry, Christina L.; Oliver, Jeffery S.; Renzi, Lisa M.; Marriage, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    Lutein is a carotenoid that varies in breast milk depending on maternal intake. Data are lacking with regard to the effect of dietary lutein supplementation on breast milk lutein concentration during lactation and subsequent plasma lutein concentration in breast-fed infants. This study was conducted to determine the impact of lutein supplementation in the breast milk and plasma of lactating women and in the plasma of breast-fed infants 2–3 mo postpartum. Lutein is the dominant carotenoid in t...

  17. A Randomized Controlled Study of a Fully Liquid DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T Hexavalent Vaccine for Primary and Booster Vaccinations of Healthy Infants and Toddlers in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Pío; Arguedas Mohs, Adriano; Abdelnour Vásquez, Arturo; Consuelo-Miranda, Maria; Feroldi, Emmanuel; Noriega, Fernando; Jordanov, Emilia; B Chir, Siham; Zambrano, Betzana

    2017-11-01

    Hexavalent diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus-hepatitis B-Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T)-containing vaccines are increasingly the standard of care. This study evaluated the primary series (NCT01177722) and booster (NCT01444781) of a fully liquid DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T vaccine in Latin America. Infants (N = 1375) received hepatitis B vaccine at birth and were randomized to one of 3 batches of the investigational DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T or licensed control vaccine (DTaP-HB-IPV//PRP-T) at 2-4 to 6 months of age, coadministered with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) (2-4-6 months) and rotavirus vaccine (2-4 months). A booster of either DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T or control was given at 12-24 months, coadministered with PCV7. Immunogenicity was assessed by validated assays and safety from parental reports. Primary series seroprotection and vaccine response rates were equivalent for DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T batches. For pooled batches, noninferiority to the control vaccine was demonstrated for each antigen. There were no descriptive differences in antibody persistence or booster response between DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T and the control. The booster responses to either vaccine following DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T primary series or to DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T following a control vaccine primary series were similar. The anti-aP component (filamentous hemagglutinin [FHA] and pertussis toxin [PT]) vaccine response and anti-Haemophilus influenzae type b (PRP) series seroprotection (≥0.15 µg/mL) rates were ≥73.0% after 2 primary series doses. Antipyretics had no effect on the immune response, and an extra (oral) polio vaccination had no effect on the antipolio booster response. Responses to PCV7 and rotavirus vaccine were similar for each coadministration. There were no safety concerns observed with any vaccine. These results confirm the suitability of the fully liquid DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T vaccine for primary and booster vaccination of infants.

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of the Commensal Enterococcus faecalis 62, Isolated from a Healthy Norwegian Infant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brede, Dag Anders; Snipen, Lars Gustav; Ussery, David

    2011-01-01

    The genome of Enterococcus faecalis 62, a commensal isolate from a healthy Norwegian infant, revealed multiple adaptive traits to the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) environment and the milk-containing diet of breast-fed infants. Adaptation to a commensal existence was emphasized by lactose and other...

  19. Oligosaccharides in infant formula: more evidence to validate the role of prebiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenplas, Yvan; Zakharova, Irina; Dmitrieva, Yulia

    2015-05-14

    The gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota differs between breast-fed and classic infant formula-fed infants. Breast milk is rich in prebiotic oligosaccharides (OS) and may also contain some probiotics, but scientific societies do not recommend the addition of prebiotic OS or probiotics to standard infant formula. Nevertheless, many infant formula companies often add one or the other or both. Different types of prebiotic OS are used in infant formula, including galacto-oligosaccharide, fructo-oligosaccharide, polydextrose and mixtures of these OS, but none adds human milk OS. There is evidence that the addition of prebiotics to infant formula brings the GI microbiota of formula-fed infants closer to that of breast-fed infants. Prebiotics change gut metabolic activity (by decreasing stool pH and increasing SCFA), have a bifidogenic effect and bring stool consistency and defecation frequency closer to those of breast-fed infants. Although there is only limited evidence that these changes in GI microbiota induce a significant clinical benefit for the immune system, interesting positive trends have been observed in some markers. Additionally, adverse effects are extremely seldom. Prebiotics are added to infant formula because breast milk contains human milk OS. Because most studies suggest a trend of beneficial effects and because these ingredients are very safe, prebiotics bring infant formula one step closer to the golden standard of breast milk.

  20. Effect of Mother's Characteristics and Infant Feeding Practices on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Height-for-age (stunting), weight-for-height (wasting) and weightfor-age ... Up to 74.4% of mothers with children 0-6 months of age exclusively breastfed their infants. Few mothers (7.5%) gave breast milk to their babies immediately after birth, ...

  1. Iodine nutrition in breast-fed infants is impaired by maternal smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, Peter; Nøhr, Susanne B; Pedersen, Klaus M

    2004-01-01

    the sodium-iodide symporter responsible for iodide transport in the lactating mammary gland. Smoking during the period of breastfeeding increases the risk of iodine deficiency-induced brain damage in the child. Women who breastfeed should not smoke, but if they do, an extra iodine supplement should...

  2. Dioxin and dioxin-like PCB exposure of non-breastfed Dutch infants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijs, P J M; Bakker, Martine I; Korver, K R; Goor Ghanaviztchi, K van; Wijnen, Joop H van

    2006-01-01

    The exposure of humans to PCDD/Fs (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans) and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs, i.e. polychlorinated non-ortho and mono-ortho biphenyls) occurs predominantly via the intake of food. Young children have a relatively high intake of these substances, due to their

  3. Differences in serum biochemistry between breast-fed and formula-fed infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzee-Chung Wu

    2011-11-01

    Conclusion: Different sources of nutrition may result in different metabolic responses; these differences are reflected by different serum biochemistries. The reference values for serum biochemistry levels also differ according to the infant’s postnatal age.

  4. Exclusive breastfeeding rate and factors associated with infant feeding practices in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yovita Ananta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Breast milk is the ideal food for infants. According to the 2007 Indonesian National Household Health Survey, only 23% of mothers exclusively breastfeed for six months. Objectives To determine the rate of exclusive breastfeeding in Indonesia, to evaluate factors associated with infant feeding practices, and to compare the nutritional and developmental status between exclusively-breastfed and formula-fed infants. Methods A survey was conducted in hospitals located in 17 provinces in Indonesia. The rate of exclusive breastfeeding was calculated. Many variables were investigated as potential predictors for exclusive breastfeeding using a multivariable logistic regression analysis. Further analysis was performed to compare the nutritional and developmental status between exclusively breastfed and formula-fed infants at the time of survey. Results From 1,804 infant subjects, the overall rate of exclusive breastfeeding was 46.3%, ranging from 10.5% in East Java to 66.9% in Jambi. Predominant breastfeeding, complementary feeding, and formula feeding rates were 14.3%, 8.6%, and 30.7%, respectively. Maternal unemployment was associated with a longer duration of breastfeeding (P=0.000. There were significantly more formula-fed infants who were undernourished compared to exclusively-breastfed infants (14% vs. 8%, P=0.001. There were also significantly more infants in the formula-fed group who had abnormal head circumference compared to those in the exclusively-breastfed group (9% vs. 6%, P=0.031. Child development, as assessed by the Pre-screening Developmental Questionnaire, was similar between the two groups (P=0.996. Conclusion The overall rate of exclusive breastfeeding in Indonesia is 46.3%. Maternal unemployment is associated with longer duration of breastfeeding. Exclusive breastfed infants have significant better growth and head circumference compared to formula fed infants, while the development is similar between the two groups.

  5. Both Mother and Infant Require a Vitamin D Supplement to Ensure That Infants' Vitamin D Status Meets Current Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghajafari, Fariba; Field, Catherine J; Weinberg, Amy R; Letourneau, Nicole

    2018-03-29

    We examined the association between maternal vitamin D intake during breastfeeding with their infants' vitamin D status in infants who did or did not receive vitamin D supplements to determine whether infant supplementation was sufficient. Using plasma from a subset of breastfed infants in the APrON (Alberta Pregnant Outcomes and Nutrition) cohort, vitamin D status was measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Maternal and infants' dietary data were obtained from APrON's dietary questionnaires. The median maternal vitamin D intake was 665 International Units (IU)/day, while 25% reported intakes below the recommended 400 IU/day. Of the 224 infants in the cohort, 72% were exclusively breastfed, and 90% were receiving vitamin D supplements. Infants' median 25(OH)D was 96.0 nmol/L (interquartile ranges (IQR) 77.6-116.2), and 25% had 25(OH)D < 75 nmol/L. An adjusted linear regression model showed that, with a 100 IU increase in maternal vitamin D intake, infants' 25(OH)D increased by 0.9 nmol/L controlling for race, season, mid-pregnancy maternal 25(OH)D, birthweight, and whether the infant received daily vitamin D supplement (β = 0.008, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.002, 0.13). These results suggest that, to ensure infant optimal vitamin D status, not only do infants require a supplement, but women also need to meet current recommended vitamin D intake during breastfeeding.

  6. Developmental Readiness of Normal Full Term Infants To Progress from Exclusive Breastfeeding to the Introduction of Complementary Foods: Reviews of the Relevant Literature Concerning Infant Immunologic, Gastrointestinal, Oral Motor and Maternal Reproductive and Lactational Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Audrey J., Ed.; Morrow, Ardythe L., Ed.

    This review of the developmental readiness of normal, full-term infants to progress from exclusive breastfeeding to the introduction of complementary foods is the result of the international debate regarding the best age to introduce complementary foods into the diet of the breastfed human infant. After a list of definitions, four papers focus on:…

  7. Marketing breastfeeding--reversing corporate influence on infant feeding practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Deborah L; Graff, Kristina M

    2008-07-01

    Breast milk is the gold standard for infant nutrition and the only necessary food for the first 6 months of an infant's life. Infant formula is deficient and inferior to breast milk in meeting infants' nutritional needs. The infant formula industry has contributed to low rates of breastfeeding through various methods of marketing and advertising infant formula. Today, in New York City, although the majority of mothers initiate breastfeeding (approximately 85%), a minority of infants is breastfed exclusively at 8 weeks postpartum (approximately 25%). The article reviews the practices of the formula industry and the impact of these practices. It then presents the strategic approach taken by the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene and its partners to change hospital practices and educate health care providers and the public on the benefits of breast milk, and provides lessons learned from these efforts to make breastfeeding the normative and usual method of infant feeding in New York City.

  8. Breastfeeding Trends Among Very Low Birth Weight, Low Birth Weight, and Normal Birth Weight Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Angela G; Miranda, Patricia Y

    2018-05-18

    To examine the change in breastfeeding behaviors over time, among low birth weight (LBW), very low birth weight (VLBW), and normal birth weight (NBW) infants using nationally representative US data. Univariate statistics and bivariate logistic models were examined using the Early Child Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (2001) and National Study of Children's Health (2007 and 2011/2012). Breastfeeding behaviors improved for infants of all birth weights from 2007 to 2011/2012. In 2011/2012, a higher percentage of VLBW infants were ever breastfed compared with LBW and NBW infants. In 2011/2012, LBW infants had a 28% lower odds (95% CI, 0.57-0.92) of ever breastfeeding and a 52% lower odds (95% CI, 0.38-0.61) of breastfeeding for ≥6 months compared with NBW infants. Among black infants, a larger percentage of VLBW infants were breastfed for ≥6 months (26.2%) compared with LBW infants (14.9%). Breastfeeding rates for VLBW and NBW infants have improved over time. Both VLBW and NBW infants are close to meeting the Healthy People 2020 ever breastfeeding goal of 81.9%. LBW infants are farther from this goal than VLBW infants. The results suggest a need for policies that encourage breastfeeding specifically among LBW infants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Reference values of amino acids and of common clinical chemistry in plasma of healthy infants aged 1 and 4 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haschke-Becher, Elisabeth; Kainz, Alexander; Bachmann, Claude

    2016-01-01

    To compare plasma levels of amino acids and clinical chemistry parameters in healthy infants at 1 and 4 months of age and to establish corresponding reference limits. Data of three multicenter studies assessing the safety of new infant formulas were used. During these studies infants of both age-groups were either breast-fed or received formulas of low or high protein content. All samples were analyzed centrally in the same accredited laboratory. Plasma was collected from 521 infants in total, 157 boys and 135 girls aged 1 month and 121 boys and 108 girls aged 4 months. At the age of 1 month, 62 infants had received exclusively breast milk, 198 exclusively formula, and 27 both; in the 4-months age group corresponding numbers were 49, 158 and 18, respectively; for 9 infants, diet was unknown. Concentrations of most amino acids and clinical chemistry parameters differed significantly between both ages. Regardless of age, most plasma amino acid levels were comparable or lower in breast-fed than in formula-fed infants whereas at 1 month of age most clinical chemistry parameters were higher. While in breast-fed infants the plasma urea concentration decreased over 4 months of age, it increased in formula-fed infants. There were significant differences between infants fed a low and high protein formula. At both ages, high protein formulas resulted in significantly higher threonine, 2-aminobutyrate, and urea concentrations. For clinical use, age- and diet specific reference limits in infants are warranted.

  10. Do differences in childhood diet explain the reduced overweight risk in breastfed children?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Salome; Brunekreef, Bert; Smit, Henriette A; Gast, Gerrie-Cor M; Hoekstra, Maarten O; de Jongste, Johan C; Postma, Dirkje S; Gerritsen, Jorrit; Seidell, Jaap C; Wijga, Alet H

    2008-01-01

    Breastfeeding has been associated with a reduced risk of overweight later in life. This study investigates whether differences in diet and lifestyle at 7 years of age between breastfed and formula-fed children can explain the difference in overweight prevalence at 8 years of age. We studied 2,043

  11. Do Differences in Childhood Diet Explain the Reduced Overweight Risk in Breastfed Children?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Salome; Brunekreef, Bert; Smit, Henriette A.; Gast, Gerrie-Cor M.; Hoekstra, Maarten O.; De Jongste, Johan C.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Gerritsen, Jorrit; Seidell, Jaap C.; Wijga, Alet H.

    2008-01-01

    Breastfeeding has been associated with a reduced risk of overweight later in life. This study investigates whether differences in diet and lifestyle at 7 years of age between breastfed and formula-fed children can explain the difference in overweight prevalence at 8 years of age. We studied 2,043

  12. Body Parameters of Czech Breastfed Children Compared to the Czech References and WHO Growth Standards

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Riedlová, J.; Vignerová, J.; Paulová, M.; Musil, V.; Brabec, Marek; Schneidrová, D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 7 (2017), s. 593-599 ISSN 0301-4460 Grant - others:GA MZd(CZ) NS9974 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : breastfed children * Czech reference * Growth charts * WHO growth standards Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research OBOR OECD: Statistics and probability Impact factor: 1.240, year: 2016

  13. Human milk adiponectin is associated with infant growth in two independent cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Jessica G; Guerrero, M Lourdes; Altaye, Mekibib; Ruiz-Palacios, Guillermo M; Martin, Lisa J; Dubert-Ferrandon, Alix; Newburg, David S; Morrow, Ardythe L

    2009-06-01

    Adiponectin, a circulating adipocyte protein, is associated with lower obesity. We have previously shown that adiponectin is present in human milk. This study determined whether higher milk adiponectin is associated with infant growth and investigated milk adiponectin's oligomeric form. This is a study of two parallel longitudinal cohorts of breastfed infants born between 1998 and 2005. Forty-five mother-infant pairs from Cincinnati, OH and 277 mother-infant pairs from Mexico City, Mexico were analyzed. All participants were healthy, term infants breastfed at least 1 month who completed 6 months of follow-up. Monthly milk samples (n = 1,379) up to 6 months were assayed for adiponectin by radioimmunoassay. Infant weight-for-age, length-for-age, and weight-for-length Z-scores up to 6 months of age were calculated using World Health Organization standards. Repeated-measures analysis was conducted. The structural form of human milk adiponectin was assessed by western blot. In the population studies, initial milk adiponectin was 24.0 +/- 8.6 microg/L and did not differ by cohort. Over the first 6 months, higher milk adiponectin was associated with lower infant weight-for-age Z-score (-0.20 +/- 0.04, p milk adiponectin was predominantly in the biologically active high-molecular-weight form. Our data suggest milk adiponectin may play a role in the early growth and development of breastfed infants.

  14. Tolerance and safety of Lactobacillus paracasei ssp paracasei in combination with Bifidobacterium animalis ssp lactis in a prebiotic-containing infant formula: a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlieger, Arine M.; Robroch, Afke; van Buuren, Stef; Kiers, Jeroen; Rijkers, Ger; Benninga, Marc A.; te Biesebeke, Rob

    2009-01-01

    The addition of probiotics to infant formula has been shown to be an efficient way to increase the number of beneficial bacteria in the intestine in order to promote a gut flora resembling that of breast-fed infants. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the safety and tolerance of a

  15. Relationships between Breastfeeding Patterns and Maternal and Infant Body Composition over the First 12 Months of Lactation

    OpenAIRE

    Zoya Gridneva; Alethea Rea; Anna R. Hepworth; Leigh C. Ward; Ching T. Lai; Peter E. Hartmann; Donna T. Geddes

    2018-01-01

    Breastfeeding has been implicated in the establishment of infant appetite regulation, feeding patterns and body composition (BC). A holistic approach is required to elucidate relationships between infant and maternal BC and contributing factors, such as breastfeeding parameters. Associations between maternal and breastfed term infant BC (n = 20) and feeding parameters during first 12 months of lactation were investigated. BC was measured at 2, 5, 9 and/or 12 months postpartum with ultrasound ...

  16. Variation in consumption of human milk oligosaccharides by infant gut-associated strains of Bifidobacterium breve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Moyano, Santiago; Totten, Sarah M; Garrido, Daniel A; Smilowitz, Jennifer T; German, J Bruce; Lebrilla, Carlito B; Mills, David A

    2013-10-01

    Human milk contains a high concentration of complex oligosaccharides that influence the composition of the intestinal microbiota in breast-fed infants. Previous studies have indicated that select species such as Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis and Bifidobacterium bifidum can utilize human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) in vitro as the sole carbon source, while the relatively few B. longum subsp. longum and Bifidobacterium breve isolates tested appear less adapted to these substrates. Considering the high frequency at which B. breve is isolated from breast-fed infant feces, we postulated that some B. breve strains can more vigorously consume HMO and thus are enriched in the breast-fed infant gastrointestinal tract. To examine this, a number of B. breve isolates from breast-fed infant feces were characterized for the presence of different glycosyl hydrolases that participate in HMO utilization, as well as by their ability to grow on HMO or specific HMO species such as lacto-N-tetraose (LNT) and fucosyllactose. All B. breve strains showed high levels of growth on LNT and lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT), and, in general, growth on total HMO was moderate for most of the strains, with several strain differences. Growth and consumption of fucosylated HMO were strain dependent, mostly in isolates possessing a glycosyl hydrolase family 29 α-fucosidase. Glycoprofiling of the spent supernatant after HMO fermentation by select strains revealed that all B. breve strains can utilize sialylated HMO to a certain extent, especially sialyl-lacto-N-tetraose. Interestingly, this specific oligosaccharide was depleted before neutral LNT by strain SC95. In aggregate, this work indicates that the HMO consumption phenotype in B. breve is variable; however, some strains display specific adaptations to these substrates, enabling more vigorous consumption of fucosylated and sialylated HMO. These results provide a rationale for the predominance of this species in breast-fed infant feces and

  17. Does Breast Feeding Protect the Hypothyroid Infant Diagnosed by Newborn Screening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovet, Joanne F.

    Because breast milk contains small quantities of thyroid hormones not found in commercial formula preparations, it was hypothesized that breast feeding may provide some protective benefit to the hypothyroid infant before medical treatment is begun. Of 108 children with congenital hypothyroidism, breast-fed children had higher thyroid hormone…

  18. Breast milk and complementary food intake in Brazilian infants according to socio-economic position

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romulus-Nieuwelink, Johanna J. C.; Doak, Colleen; Albernaz, Elaine; Victora, Cesar G.; Haisma, Hinke

    Objective. (a) To compare breast milk and complementary food intake between breast-fed infants from high and low socio-economic status (SES) aged 8 months of age; (b) To compare these intakes with PAHO/WHO recommendations. Methods. Cross-sectional, community-based study in Pelotas, Brazil. Breast

  19. Breast milk and complementary food intake in Brazilian infants according to socio-economic position

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romulus-Nieuwelink, J.C.; Doak, C.M.; Albernaz, E.; Victora, C.G.; Haisma, H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. (a) To compare breast milk and complementary food intake between breast-fed infants from high and low socio-economic status (SES) aged 8 months of age; (b) To compare these intakes with PAHO/WHO recommendations. Methods. Cross-sectional, community-based study in Pelotas, Brazil. Breast

  20. The Effect of Exclusive Breastfeeding on Hospital Stay and Morbidity due to Various Diseases in Infants under 6 Months of Age: A Prospective Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarpreet Kaur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mother’s milk is the best for the babies. Protective and preventive role of breast milk was evaluated in this study by assessing the relation of type of feeding and duration of hospital stay or morbidity. Methods. This prospective study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital and 232 infants in the age group of 14 weeks to 6 months formed the sample. There are two groups of infants, that is, one for breastfed and one for top fed infants. Statistical analysis was done and results were calculated up to 95% to 99% level of significance to find effect of feeding pattern on hospital stay due to various diseases and morbidity. Results. Prolonged hospital stay, that is, >7 days, was lesser in breastfed infants and results were statistically significant in case of gastroenteritis (p value < 0.001, bronchopneumonia (p value = 0.0012, bronchiolitis (p value = 0.005, otitis media (p value = 0.003, and skin diseases (p value = 0.047. Lesser morbidity was seen in breastfed infants with gastroenteritis (p value 0.0414, bronchopneumonia (p value 0.03705, bronchiolitis (p value 0.036706, meningitis (p value 0.043, and septicemia (p value 0.04. Conclusions. Breastfed infants have shorter hospital stay and lesser morbidity in regard to various diseases as compared to top fed infants.

  1. Infant Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... After hours (404) 639-2888 Contact Media Infant Mortality Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On This ... differences in rates among population groups. About Infant Mortality Infant mortality is the death of an infant ...

  2. Thymic size in uninfected infants born to HIV-positive mothers and fed with pasteurized human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeppesen, D; Hasselbalch, H; Ersbøll, A K; Heilmann, C; Valerius, N H

    2003-06-01

    To examine the size of the thymus in uninfected infants born to HIV-positive mothers and to study the effects of feeding by human donor milk on the size of the thymus in these infants. The absolute and relative thymic size was assessed by sonography as thymic index (Ti), and the Ti/weight-ratio (Ti/w) at birth and at 4 mo of age in 12 healthy uninfected infants born to HlV-infected mothers. All infants were exclusively fed pasteurized donor milk. The results were compared with those obtained from a previous cohort of exclusively breastfed, partially breastfed and exclusively formula-fed infants. At birth the Ti was reduced in infants born to HIV-infected mothers in comparison with that in control infants but this difference disappeared when their birthweights were taken into consideration (Ti/w-ratio). At 4 mo of age the geometric mean Ti of infants fed donor milk was 23.8 and the mean Ti/w-ratio was 4.2. Compared with those of exclusively breastfed infants, the Ti and Ti/w-ratio of infants fed donor milk were significantly reduced (p milk-fed infants compared with that in the formula-fed infants (p = 0.02). At birth the size of the thymus was smaller in uninfected infants of HIV-positive mothers compared with infants of HIV-negative mothers but when birthweight was taken into account this difference disappeared. Feeding by human donor milk seemed to result in an increased size of the thymus at 4 mo of age compared with thymic size in infants that were exclusively formula fed.

  3. Isotopic evaluation of breast milk intake, energy metabolism, growth and body composition of exclusively breast fed infants in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhutta, Z.A.; Weaver, L.; Preston, T.

    2000-01-01

    There is considerable evidence to support the view that the current growth standards for infants, which are in-use globally, may be inappropriate. This is based on the observation that these were derived from largely formula-fed western populations and recent studies documenting that exclusively breastfed young infants exhibit a lower growth trajectory. However, there are few studies objectively evaluating energy metabolism, body composition and growth in exclusively breastfed infants, and none in developing countries. We propose to evaluate this longitudinally in an appropriate sample of exclusively breast fed newborn infants in Pakistan. These newborn infants will be well characterized at birth and sequential measurements of breast milk intake and energy expenditure will be made using doubly labeled water, big-impedance analysis and indirect calorimetry. (author)

  4. Breast-feeding success among infants with phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta-Wright, Sandra A; Shelton, Kathleen C; Lowe, Nancy D; Knafl, Kathleen A; Houck, Gail M

    2012-08-01

    Breast milk is the nutrition of choice for human infants (American Academy of Pediatrics, 2005; American Association of Family Physicians, 2008; Association of Women's Health Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses, 2005; Canadian Paediatric Society, 2005; U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, 2008; World Health Organization, 2009). In comparison to standard commercial formula, human breast milk has a lower concentration of protein and a lower content of the amino acid phenylalanine (Phe). For infants with phenylketonuria (PKU), these attributes of human breast milk make it ideal as a base source of nutrition. The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence and duration of breast-feeding and corresponding Phe levels of breast-fed and formula-fed infants with PKU in the caseload of a pediatric metabolic clinic at an urban tertiary-care medical center. Charts were reviewed for infants diagnosed with PKU beginning with 2005 and ending with 1980, the year no further breast-feeding cases were identified in the PKU population. During the first year of life, most of the infants, whether breast-fed or formula-fed, had similar mean Phe levels. However, the frequency distributions revealed that more breast-fed infants with PKU had Phe levels within the normal range (120-360 μmol/L) and were less likely to have low Phe levels (<120 μmol/L) than formula-fed infants with PKU. Further research is needed to understand how mothers manage breast-feeding in the context of PKU. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Modern and traditional diets for Noongar infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eades, Sandra J; Read, Anne W; McAullay, Daniel; McNamara, Bridgette; O'Dea, Kerin; Stanley, Fiona J

    2010-07-01

    Describe breast- and bottle-feeding patterns and the introduction of solid feeds and sugar containing drinks to the dietary intake of a cohort of urban Aboriginal infants in the first year of life. Two hundred and seventy-four infants were recruited to a cohort study and information about infant nutrition was collected from their mothers during face to face interviews when the infants were aged 6-12 weeks, 7-8 months and 12 months old. 88.3% of mothers initiated breast-feeding, but only 43.8% of infants were exclusively breast-fed at 6-12 weeks. By 12 months of age 69.8% of babies had received fruit juice in their bottles, 59.8% received cordial. 64.5% of infants were given water in their bottles. The majority of infants had received 'fast foods' by 12 months of age with 56.2% had been given coca cola, 68% lemonade and 78% fried chips. This study highlights areas in which nutrition health promotion can be targeted to prevent common childhood health problems including promoting and supporting mothers to sustain breast-feeding and opportunities to reduce the sugar and fat intake among infants.

  6. Infant feeding practices in the rural population of north India

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmood, Syed E.; Srivastava, Anurag; Shrotriya, Ved P.; Mishra, Payal

    2012-01-01

    Background : Breastfeeding is one of the most important determinants of child survival, birth spacing, and the prevention of childhood infections. The beneficial effects of breastfeeding depend on its initiation, duration, and the age at which the breastfed child is weaned. Breastfeeding practices vary among different regions and communities. Objectives: To assess the pattern of infant feeding and its relation to certain practices of maternity and newborn care, and to assess the knowledge of ...

  7. Milk vitamin D in relation to the 'adequate intake' for 0-6-month-old infants : A study in lactating women with different cultural backgrounds, living at different latitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoutjesdijk, Eline; Schaafsma, Anne; Nhien, Nguyen V.; Khor, Geok Lin; Kema, Ido P.; Hollis, Bruce W.; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    2017-01-01

    Breast-fed infants are susceptible to vitamin D deficiency rickets. The current vitamin D adequate intake' (AI) for 0-6-month-old infants is 10 mu g/d, corresponding with a human milk antirachitic activity (ARA) of 513 IU/l. We were particularly interested to see whether milk ARA of mothers with

  8. Infant feeding bottle design, growth and behaviour: results from a randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fewtrell MS

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whether the design of an anti-vacuum infant feeding bottle influences infant milk intake, growth or behavior is unknown, and was the subject of this randomized trial. Methods Subjects 63 (36 male healthy, exclusively formula-fed term infants. Intervention Randomisation to use Bottle A (n = 31, one-way air valve: Philips Avent versus Bottle B (n = 32, internal venting system: Dr Browns. 74 breast-fed reference infants were recruited, with randomisation (n = 24 to bottle A (n = 11 or B (n = 13 if bottle-feeding was subsequently introduced. Randomisation stratified by gender and parity; computer-based telephone randomisation by independent clinical trials unit. Setting Infant home. Primary outcome measure infant weight gain to 4 weeks. Secondary outcomes (i milk intake (ii infant behaviour measured at 2 weeks (validated 3-day diary; (iii risk of infection; (iv continuation of breastfeeding following introduction of mixed feeding. Results Number analysed for primary outcome Bottle A n = 29, Bottle B n = 25. Primary outcome There was no significant difference in weight gain between randomised groups (0-4 weeks Bottle A 0.74 (SD 1.2 SDS versus bottle B 0.51 (0.39, mean difference 0.23 (95% CI -0.31 to 0.77. Secondary outcomes Infants using bottle A had significantly less reported fussing (mean 46 versus 74 minutes/day, p Breast-fed reference group There were no significant differences in primary or secondary outcomes between breast-fed and formula fed infants. The likelyhood of breastfeeding at 3 months was not significantly different in infants subsequently randomised to bottle A or B. Conclusion Bottle design may have short-term effects on infant behaviour which merit further investigation. No significant effects were seen on milk intake or growth; confidence in these findings is limited by the small sample size and this needs confirmation in a larger study. Trial registration Clinical Trials.gov NCT00325208.

  9. Breastfeeding, Parenting, and Infant Attachment Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Benjamin G; Forste, Renata; Lybbert, Emily

    2018-04-01

    Objectives Infants and toddlers need secure attachments in order to develop the social competence required to successfully navigate later peer and adult relationships. Breastfeeding is a parenting factor that has been associated with child emotional development-specifically the attachment between children and their mothers. Yet, this link may simply be the result of other parenting behaviors that are associated with breastfeeding. Thus, our objective is to examine whether the link between infant attachment behaviors and breastfeeding endures when accounting for a broad array of in-depth measures of parenting. Methods We use the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study of children from 9 months to 2 years of age collected by the National Center for Education Statistics. Using Ordinary Least Squares regression, data analyses examine the association between the Toddler Attachment Sort-45 (TAS-45) measures of toddler-parent attachment (infant attachment security and temperamental dependency) and breastfeeding practices. We also examine individual items of the TAS-45 to isolate specific attachment behaviors that have the strongest associations with breastfeeding. Results We find an enduring link between children who are predominantly breastfed for six or more months and infant attachment security. However, we find no evidence that breastfeeding is linked to a child's temperamental dependency. Of the nine items used to examine infant attachment behaviors, we find that breastfed children are rated as having slightly higher scores on two measures ("warm and cuddly," "cooperative") and lower scores on one measure ("demanding/angry"). Conclusions for Practice Breastfeeding has an important link to the child's use of their caregiver as a secure base for exploration and a place of comfort when distressed (infant attachment security). Yet, breastfeeding does not appear to reduce a child's temperamental dependency or level of clinginess as measured by how demanding, fussy or

  10. Influence of breast-feeding on the infant's intellectual development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temboury, M C; Otero, A; Polanco, I; Arribas, E

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the effects of breast-feeding on the intellectual development of the infant, controlling for possible confounding factors. A prospective study of cohorts was carried out in a group of 229 healthy infants, studied from birth to 2 years of age. The infants were divided into two groups: group 1, 99 infants who were bottle-fed; and group 0, 130 who were breast-fed. All other characteristics in both groups were similar. Psychomotor development was measured between 18 and 29 months using the Bayley scales. Lower results on the Index of Mental Development were associated with bottle-fed infants, lower-middle and lower social class, elementary education of the mother, temper tantrums, and having siblings. Lower results on the Index of Motor Development were associated only with lower and lower-middle social class.

  11. High Prevalence of Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Autoantibodies in Infants with Food Protein-Induced Proctitis/Proctocolitis: Autoimmunity Involvement?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sekerková, A.; Fuchs, M.; Cecrdlová, E.; Šváchová, V.; Kralová Lesná, I.; Stříž, I.; Tlaskalová-Hogenová, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 2015, September 2015 (2015), s. 902863 ISSN 2314-8861 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NT13483 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : INDUCED ENTEROCOLITIS SYNDROME * INFLAMMATORY-BOWEL-DISEASE * BREAST-FED INFANTS Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.812, year: 2015

  12. Infant diet, gender and the development of vagal tone stability during the first two years of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postnatal nutrition influences neurodevelopment, including autonomic nervous system components associated with cardiac control. In this study resting vagal tone (V) was measured quarterly during infancy and at 2 years in 146 breast-fed, 143 milk formula-fed, and 137 soy formula-fed infants. Stabilit...

  13. Infant diet, gender and the normative development of vagal tone and heart period during the first two years of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relationships between early postnatal diet and the development of cardiac regulation were studied using resting vagal tone and heart period measures obtained quarterly during infancy and at 2 years in 158 breast-fed, 159 milk formula-fed, and 148 soy formula-fed infants. Both measures increased acro...

  14. Antagonistic effect of Lactobacillus strains against gas-producing coliforms isolated from colicky infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oggero Roberto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infantile colic is a common disturb within the first 3 months of life, nevertheless the pathogenesis is incompletely understood and treatment remains an open issue. Intestinal gas production is thought to be one of the causes of abdominal discomfort in infants suffering from colic. However, data about the role of the amount of gas produced by infants' colonic microbiota and the correlation with the onset of colic symptoms are scanty. The benefit of supplementation with lactobacilli been recently reported but the mechanisms by which they exert their effects have not yet been fully defined. This study was performed to evaluate the interaction between Lactobacillus spp. strains and gas-forming coliforms isolated from stools of colicky infants. Results Strains of coliforms were isolated from stools of 45 colicky and 42 control breastfed infants in McConkey Agar and identified using PCR with species-specific primers, and the BBL™ Enterotube™ II system for Enterobacteriaceae. Gas-forming capability of coliforms was assessed in liquid cultures containing lactose as sole carbon source. The average count of total coliforms in colicky infants was significantly higher than controls: 5.98 (2.00-8.76 log10 vs 3.90 (2.50-7.10 CFU/g of faeces (p = 0.015. The following strains were identified: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter cloacae and Enterococcus faecalis. Then, 27 Lactobacillus strains were tested for their antagonistic effect against coliforms both by halo-forming method and in liquid co-cultures. Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp.delbrueckii DSM 20074 and L. plantarum MB 456 were able to inhibit all coliforms strains (halo-forming method, also in liquid co-cultures, thus demonstrating an antagonistic activity. Conclusions This study shows that two out of 27 strains of Lactobacillus examined possess an antimicrobial effect against six species of gas-forming coliforms

  15. Antagonistic effect of Lactobacillus strains against gas-producing coliforms isolated from colicky infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, Francesco; Cordisco, Lisa; Tarasco, Valentina; Locatelli, Emanuela; Di Gioia, Diana; Oggero, Roberto; Matteuzzi, Diego

    2011-06-30

    Infantile colic is a common disturb within the first 3 months of life, nevertheless the pathogenesis is incompletely understood and treatment remains an open issue. Intestinal gas production is thought to be one of the causes of abdominal discomfort in infants suffering from colic. However, data about the role of the amount of gas produced by infants' colonic microbiota and the correlation with the onset of colic symptoms are scanty. The benefit of supplementation with lactobacilli been recently reported but the mechanisms by which they exert their effects have not yet been fully defined. This study was performed to evaluate the interaction between Lactobacillus spp. strains and gas-forming coliforms isolated from stools of colicky infants. Strains of coliforms were isolated from stools of 45 colicky and 42 control breastfed infants in McConkey Agar and identified using PCR with species-specific primers, and the BBL™ Enterotube™ II system for Enterobacteriaceae. Gas-forming capability of coliforms was assessed in liquid cultures containing lactose as sole carbon source. The average count of total coliforms in colicky infants was significantly higher than controls: 5.98 (2.00-8.76) log10 vs 3.90 (2.50-7.10) CFU/g of faeces (p = 0.015). The following strains were identified: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter cloacae and Enterococcus faecalis. Then, 27 Lactobacillus strains were tested for their antagonistic effect against coliforms both by halo-forming method and in liquid co-cultures. Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii DSM 20074 and L. plantarum MB 456 were able to inhibit all coliforms strains (halo-forming method), also in liquid co-cultures, thus demonstrating an antagonistic activity. This study shows that two out of 27 strains of Lactobacillus examined possess an antimicrobial effect against six species of gas-forming coliforms isolated from colicky infants. Our findings may stimulate

  16. Lactation support and breastfeeding duration in jaundiced infants: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M Pound

    Full Text Available Neonatal jaundice is the most common problem in full-term infants during the immediate post-natal period. We examined the effect of a lactation support intervention on breastfeeding duration in hospitalized jaundiced infants.We conducted a randomized controlled trial with a qualitative component involving mothers of hospitalized jaundiced breastfed infants <4 weeks of age. Mothers receiving the intervention met with an International Board-Certified Lactation Consultant in hospital and 1-3 times post discharge. Both groups received the standard care for jaundice. The primary outcome was exclusive breastfeeding at 3 months. To the exception of research assistants enrolling participants and completing qualitative interviews, all research staff, investigators and statisticians were blinded to group assignment. Qualitative interviews elicited feedback on breastfeeding experiences for both groups.99 participants were recruited, and 86 analyzed for primary outcome. There was no difference in exclusive breastfeeding at 3 months between groups (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.56-1.24, p = 0.40 or in the secondary outcomes. 31 participants were included in the qualitative analysis. Participants in the intervention group described an increase in comfort and confidence levels with breastfeeding. Participants in the control group reported limited lactation support.Our hospital-based lactation support program did not result in a higher proportion of mothers exclusively breastfeeding at 3 months compared to current hospital standard care. Qualitative feedback from the intervention group suggests that mothers' confidence was increased, which is linked to breastfeeding duration. The decision to breastfeed is multifactorial and hospital-based lactation support may be only a small piece of the puzzle in hospitalized jaundiced infants. Further studies may be needed to fully elucidate the impact of an in-hospital lactation support program on successful breastfeeding for these

  17. Baby-Friendly Practices Minimize Newborn Infants Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procaccini, Diane; Curley, Ann L Cupp; Goldman, Martha

    2018-04-01

    It is accepted that newborns lose weight in the first few days of life. Baby-Friendly practices that support breastfeeding may affect newborn weight loss. The objective of this study were: 1) To determine whether Baby-Friendly practices are associated with term newborn weight loss day 0-2 in three feeding categories (exclusively breastfed, mixed formula fed and breastfed, and formula fed). 2) To determine whether Baby-Friendly practices increase exclusive breast feeding rates in different ethnic populations. This was a retrospective case-control study. Term newborn birth weight, neonatal weights days 0-2, feeding type, type of birth, and demographic information were collected for 1,000 births for the year before Baby-Friendly designation (2010) and 1,000 in 2013 (after designation). Ultimately 683 in the first group and 518 in the second met the inclusion criteria. Mean weight loss decreased day 0-2 for infants in all feeding types after the initiation of Baby-Friendly practices. There was a statistically significant effect of Baby-Friendly designation on weight loss for day 0-2 in exclusively breastfed infants (p Baby-Friendly practices were put in place. There was a decrease in mean weight loss day 0-2 regardless of feeding type after Baby-Friendly designation. Exclusive breast feeding increased in the presence of Baby-Friendly practices.

  18. Emergency preparedness for those who care for infants in developed country contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gribble Karleen D

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Emergency management organisations recognise the vulnerability of infants in emergencies, even in developed countries. However, thus far, those who care for infants have not been provided with detailed information on what emergency preparedness entails. Emergency management authorities should provide those who care for infants with accurate and detailed information on the supplies necessary to care for them in an emergency, distinguishing between the needs of breastfed infants and the needs of formula fed infants. Those who care for formula fed infants should be provided with detailed information on the supplies necessary for an emergency preparedness kit and with information on how to prepare formula feeds in an emergency. An emergency preparedness kit for exclusively breastfed infants should include 100 nappies and 200 nappy wipes. The contents of an emergency preparedness for formula fed infants will vary depending upon whether ready-to-use liquid infant formula or powdered infant formula is used. If ready-to-use liquid infant formula is used, an emergency kit should include: 56 serves of ready-to-use liquid infant formula, 84 L water, storage container, metal knife, small bowl, 56 feeding bottles and teats/cups, 56 zip-lock plastic bags, 220 paper towels, detergent, 120 antiseptic wipes, 100 nappies and 200 nappy wipes. If powdered infant formula is used, an emergency preparedness kit should include: two 900 g tins powdered infant formula, 170 L drinking water, storage container, large cooking pot with lid, kettle, gas stove, box of matches/lighter, 14 kg liquid petroleum gas, measuring container, metal knife, metal tongs, feeding cup, 300 large sheets paper towel, detergent, 100 nappies and 200 nappy wipes. Great care with regards hygiene should be taken in the preparation of formula feeds. Child protection organisations should ensure that foster carers responsible for infants have the resources necessary to formula feed in the

  19. Compromised Weight Gain, Milk Intake, and Feeding Behavior in Breastfed Newborns of Depressive Mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, Sybil L.; Jackson, Shera C.; Boylan, L. Mallory

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore depressed mood in the breastfeeding dyad. Method N = 50 mothers of 12-day-olds reported depressed mood (EPDS) and anxiety (STAI), then were videotaped while breastfeeding. Infants were weighed before and after breastfeeding. Results An ANCOVA on weight gain, which controlled for infant age and birth weight, found EPDS inversely related to weight gain. Following a significant MANCOVA on infant biobehavioral measures, ANCOVAs which controlled for birth weight, age, hunger a...

  20. A pilot study comparing opaque, weighted bottles with conventional, clear bottles for infant feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Ventura, Alison K.; Golen, Rebecca Pollack

    2014-01-01

    Compared to breast-fed infants, bottle-fed infants consume greater volumes and gain more weight during infancy. It is hypothesized that the visual and weight cues afforded by bottle-feeding may lead mothers to overfeed in response to the amount of liquid in the bottle. The aim of the present pilot study was to test this hypothesis by comparing mothers’ sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues and infants’ intakes when mothers use opaque, weighted bottles (that remove visual and weight cu...

  1. The Comparison of Haemophilus Influenza in the Throat of Healthy Infants with Different Feeding Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kazemi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Haemophilus influenza (HI is the most commonly found pathogenic bacteria in pediatric otitis media and lower respiratory tract infections. Bacterial attachment to pharyngeal cells and proliferation may be necessary for infection. In the presence of human milk, attachment of HI to pharyngeal cells and colonization may be inhibited. To evaluate the protecting role of breast milk, we investigated the incidence of HI isolated from the throat of healthy infants with different feeding methods. Methods: Between August 2002 and March 2003, 210 healthy infants (70 purely breast-fed, 70 purely formula-fed, 70 mixed-fed, aged 1-6 months were enrolled into the study and a throat culture was taken in all of them. The incidence of HI was evaluated using Haemophilus Test Agar Bose (HTAB plates. Results: The incidence of HI in purely breast-fed, mixed-fed and purely formula-fed infants was 2.9%, 42.9% and 75.7% respectively (P = 0.000. The mean age and weight of cases in the three groups were not statistically different. Conclusion: These data suggest that human milk protects the throat of healthy infants from HI colonization especially in purely breast-fed cases. Keywords: Breast milk, Haemophilus influenza, Throat culture

  2. Complementary feeding adequacy in relation to nutritional status among early weaned breastfed children who are born to HIV-infected mothers: ANRS 1201/1202 Ditrame Plus, Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becquet, Renaud; Leroy, Valériane; Ekouevi, Didier K; Viho, Ida; Castetbon, Katia; Fassinou, Patricia; Dabis, François; Timite-Konan, Marguerite

    2006-04-01

    In high HIV prevalence resource-constrained settings, exclusive breastfeeding with early cessation is one of the conceivable interventions aimed at the prevention of HIV through breast milk. Nevertheless, this intervention has potential adverse effects, such as the inappropriateness of complementary feeding to take over breast milk. The purpose of our study first was to describe the nature and the ages of introduction of complementary feeding among early weaned breastfed infants up to their first birthday and second was to assess the nutritional adequacy of these complementary foods by creating a child feeding index and to investigate its association with child nutritional status. A prospective cohort study in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, was conducted in HIV-infected pregnant women who were willing to breastfeed and had received a perinatal antiretroviral prophylaxis. They were requested to practice exclusive breastfeeding and initiate early cessation of breastfeeding from the fourth month to reduce breast milk HIV transmission. Nature and ages of introductory complementary feeding were described in infants up to their first birthday by longitudinal compilation of 24-hour and 7-day recall histories. These recalls were done weekly until 6 weeks of age, monthly until 9 months of age, and then quarterly. We created an index to synthesize the nutritional adequacy of infant feeding practices (in terms of quality of the source of milk, dietary diversity, food, and meal frequencies) ranging from 0 to 12. The association of this feeding index with growth outcomes in children was investigated. Among the 262 breastfed children included, complete cessation of breastfeeding occurred in 77% by their first birthday, with a median duration of 4 months. Most of the complementary foods were introduced within the seventh month of life, except for infant food and infant formula that were introduced at age 4 months. The feeding index was relatively low (5 of 12) at age 6 months, mainly

  3. Survival of infants born to HIV-positive mothers, by feeding modality, in Rakai, Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Kagaayi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Data comparing survival of formula-fed to breast-fed infants in programmatic settings are limited. We compared mortality and HIV-free of breast and formula-fed infants born to HIV-positive mothers in a program in rural, Rakai District Uganda. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: One hundred eighty two infants born to HIV-positive mothers were followed at one, six and twelve months postpartum. Mothers were given infant-feeding counseling and allowed to make informed choices as to whether to formula-feed or breast-feed. Eligible mothers and infants received antiretroviral therapy (ART if indicated. Mothers and their newborns received prophylaxis for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (pMTCT if they were not receiving ART. Infant HIV infection was detected by PCR (Roche Amplicor 1.5 during the follow-up visits. Kaplan Meier time-to-event methods were used to compare mortality and HIV-free survival. The adjusted hazard ratio (Adjusted HR of infant HIV-free survival was estimated by Cox regression. Seventy-five infants (41% were formula-fed while 107 (59% were breast-fed. Exclusive breast-feeding was practiced by only 25% of breast-feeding women at one month postpartum. The cumulative 12-month probability of infant mortality was 18% (95% CI = 11%-29% among the formula-fed compared to 3% (95% CI = 1%-9% among the breast-fed infants (unadjusted hazard ratio (HR = 6.1(95% CI = 1.7-21.4, P-value < 0.01. There were no statistically significant differentials in HIV-free survival by feeding choice (86% in the formula-fed compared to 96% in breast-fed group (Adjusted RH = 2.8[95%CI = 0.67-11.7, P-value = 0.16] CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Formula-feeding was associated with a higher risk of infant mortality than breastfeeding in this rural population. Our findings suggest that formula-feeding should be discouraged in similar African settings.

  4. INFANT FEEDING IN THE FIRST TWO YEARS OF LIFE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Wanessa Casteluber; Marques, Fúlvia Karine Santos; Oliveira, Camila Ferreira de; Rodrigues, Jéssica Alkmim; Silveira, Marise Fagundes; Caldeira, Antônio Prates; Pinho, Lucinéia de

    2018-01-01

    To analyze the prevalence of breastfeeding and the introduction of complementary food for zero to 24-month-old infants. This is a population-based cross-sectional study of children aged less than 24 months in Montes Claros, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Data were collected in 2015, by interviews with people in charge of infant care in the house. The questionnaire administered assessed the sociodemographic status of the family, maternal and infant characteristics and food consumption habits. Survival analysis was used to calculate median prevalence and duration of breastfeeding and the introduction of complementary feeding. With 180 days of life, 4.0% of the children were exclusively breastfed, 22.4% were mostly breastfed and 43.4% were fed breast milk as complementary food. In the third month of life, children were consuming water (56.8%), fruit juice or formula (15.5%) and cow's milk (10.6%). At the age of 12 months, 31.1% were consuming artificial juice and 50.0% were eating candies. Before the age of 1 year, 25.0% of them had already eaten instant noodles. The introduction of drinks, honey, sugar and candies as complementary food was found to be premature; and solid and semi-solid foods were almost appropriate. The habits described can directly affect the success of breastfeeding. Given that the inadequate eating practices identified can compromise the infant's health, actions that promote breastfeeding and provide guidance on the introduction of complementary foods are important.

  5. Infant and child feeding practices: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyne, A H; Spencer, A J; Szuster, F S

    1997-02-01

    The objective of this preliminary investigation was to examine the feeding practices of infants and pre-school children in Adelaide, and thereby contribute to the development of appropriate preventive dental strategies. A stratified random sample of 160 two year old and three year old pre-school children in the Adelaide Statistical District was obtained. Information about feeding practices and use of comforters or 'dummies' was obtained through a self-administered questionnaire completed by parents of the selected children. Information was collected for the age periods of 0-3 months, 4-6 months, 7-12 months, 13-24 months and 25-36 months. Most of the children (81.8 per cent) were breast-fed at some stage. However the percentage of children being breast-fed decreased markedly across age periods, particularly to 13-24 months, when only 15.9 per cent of children were being breast-fed. Over half of the children, had been bottle-fed with infant formula at some stage. The highest percentage of children being bottle-fed with infant formula occurred in the 4-6 months (42.6 per cent) closely followed by the 7-12 months age period (37.4 per cent). Nearly two-thirds of children were bottle-fed with cow's milk at some stage. The highest percentage of children being bottle-fed with cow's milk occurred in the 13-24 months age period (49.6 per cent). A quarter (24.5 per cent) of the children were put to bed at some stage with a bottle containing cariogenic fluids. The majority of children used a 'dummy' at some stage during both day-time and night-time. Parents are in need of advice on appropriate feeding patterns for infants and young children.

  6. Dietary intake in infants and young children in the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammino, Victoria M; Gittelsohn, Joel; Langidrik, Justina R

    2007-09-01

    Changes in traditional foodways associated with increasing modernization have affected the feeding patterns of infants and young children. Declines in the duration of exclusive breastfeeding have been associated with poor nutritional status and increased morbidity from infectious diseases. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of dietary intake in children under six in four settings in the Republic of the Marshall Islands in Micronesia. The mean duration of breastfeeding in the sample was 11 months, however only 16% of subjects were exclusively breastfed for the first six months, which is recommended by the WHO, UNICEF and other policymakers. Among non-exclusively breastfed infants, supplemental foods were introduced as early as 2 months. Mean intakes for total energy, protein, carbohydrates, fat and iron were calculated for subjects providing recalls. Intake levels for energy, protein, carbohydrates and iron varied by location. Recommendations for future research and program intervention are outlined.

  7. Fully portable blood irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hungate, F.P.; Riemath, W.F.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1980-01-01

    A fully portable blood irradiator was developed using the beta emitter thulium-170 as the radiation source and vitreous carbon as the body of the irradiator, matrix for isotope encapsulation, and blood interface material. These units were placed in exteriorized arteriovenous shunts in goats, sheep, and dogs and the effects on circulating lymphocytes and on skin allograft retention times measured. The present work extends these studies by establishing baseline data for skin graft rejection times in untreated animals

  8. Epidemiological and experimental studies on the impact of infant nutrition on body weight and metabolism and on psychomotor and cognitive development in children of diabetic mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Rodekamp, Elke

    2010-01-01

    Breast feeding offers a number of short- and long-term advantages to mothers and their children. Many population-based studies have shown that, e.g., breast-fed infants are at lower risk of later overweight and associated disturbances than formula-fed infants. Furthermore, numerous studies point to an independent positive influence of breast feeding on psychomotor and cognitive development. Therefore, breast feeding could, as a measure of primary prevention, be of particular importance for of...

  9. Infant feeding practices among mildly wasted children: a retrospective study on Nias Island, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inayati Dyah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigated the infant feeding practices of participating mothers who were recruited into a research project aimed at improving the nutritional status of mildly wasted children (-scores aged ≥ 6 to Methods Cross-sectional, questionnaire-based interview of mothers of the index children (n = 215 who were admitted to the community program for mildly wasted children in the study area. Four focus groups and twenty in-depth interviews were conducted to explore further information on infant feeding practices in the study area. Results Retrospective results indicated that 6% of the mothers never breastfed. Fifty two percent of mothers initiated breastfeeding within six hours of birth, but 17% discarded colostrum. Exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months of age was practiced by 12%. Seventy-four percent of the mothers offered supplementary liquids besides breast milk within the first 7 days of life, and 14% of infants received these supplementary liquids from 7 days onwards until 6 months of age. Moreover, 79% of the infants were given complementary foods (solid, semi-solid, or soft foods before 6 months of age. About 9% of the children were breastfed at least two years. Less than one in five of the mildly wasted children (19% were breastfed on admission to the community program. Qualitative assessments found that inappropriate infant feeding practices were strongly influenced by traditional beliefs of the mothers and paternal grandmothers in the study areas. Conclusion Generally, suboptimal infant feeding was widely practiced among mothers of mildly wasted children in the study area on Nias Island, Indonesia. To promote breastfeeding practices among mothers on Nias Island, appropriate nutrition training for community workers and health-nutrition officers is needed to improve relevant counseling skills. In addition, encouraging public nutrition education that promotes breastfeeding, taking into account social

  10. Feeding preterm infants after hospital discharge: a commentary by the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggett, Peter J; Agostoni, Carlo; Axelsson, Irene; De Curtis, Mario; Goulet, Olivier; Hernell, Olle; Koletzko, Berthold; Lafeber, Harry N; Michaelsen, Kim F; Puntis, John W L; Rigo, Jacques; Shamir, Raanan; Szajewska, Hania; Turck, Dominique; Weaver, Lawrence T

    2006-05-01

    Survival of small premature infants has markedly improved during the last few decades. These infants are discharged from hospital care with body weight below the usual birth weight of healthy term infants. Early nutrition support of preterm infants influences long-term health outcomes. Therefore, the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition has reviewed available evidence on feeding preterm infants after hospital discharge. Close monitoring of growth during hospital stay and after discharge is recommended to enable the provision of adequate nutrition support. Measurements of length and head circumference, in addition to weight, must be used to identify those preterm infants with poor growth that may need additional nutrition support. Infants with an appropriate weight for postconceptional age at discharge should be breast-fed when possible. When formula-fed, such infants should be fed regular infant formula with provision of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Infants discharged with a subnormal weight for postconceptional age are at increased risk of long-term growth failure, and the human milk they consume should be supplemented, for example, with a human milk fortifier to provide an adequate nutrient supply. If formula-fed, such infants should receive special postdischarge formula with high contents of protein, minerals and trace elements as well as an long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supply, at least until a postconceptional age of 40 weeks, but possibly until about 52 weeks postconceptional age. Continued growth monitoring is required to adapt feeding choices to the needs of individual infants and to avoid underfeeding or overfeeding.

  11. Android Fully Loaded

    CERN Document Server

    Huddleston, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Fully loaded with the latest tricks and tips on your new Android! Android smartphones are so hot, they're soaring past iPhones on the sales charts. And the second edition of this muscular little book is equally impressive--it's packed with tips and tricks for getting the very most out of your latest-generation Android device. Start Facebooking and tweeting with your Android mobile, scan barcodes to get pricing and product reviews, download your favorite TV shows--the book is positively bursting with practical and fun how-tos. Topics run the gamut from using speech recognition, location-based m

  12. Thymic size in uninfected infants born to HIV-positive mothers and fed with pasteurized human milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Dorthe Lisbeth; Hasselbalch, H; Ersbøll, A K

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To examine the size of the thymus in uninfected infants born to HIV-positive mothers and to study the effects of feeding by human donor milk on the size of the thymus in these infants. METHODS: The absolute and relative thymic size was assessed by sonography as thymic index (Ti), and the Ti....../weight-ratio (Ti/w) at birth and at 4 mo of age in 12 healthy uninfected infants born to HlV-infected mothers. All infants were exclusively fed pasteurized donor milk. The results were compared with those obtained from a previous cohort of exclusively breastfed, partially breastfed and exclusively formula......-fed infants. RESULTS: At birth the Ti was reduced in infants born to HIV-infected mothers in comparison with that in control infants but this difference disappeared when their birthweights were taken into consideration (Ti/w-ratio). At 4 mo of age the geometric mean Ti of infants fed donor milk was 23...

  13. Vitamin D supplementation is associated with higher serum 25OHD in Asian and White infants living in Vancouver, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Tim J; Li, Wangyang; Barr, Susan I; Jahani, Mitra; Chapman, Gwen E

    2015-04-01

    To prevent rickets, the Health Canada and the American Academy of Pediatrics recommend that breastfed infants receive a daily vitamin D supplement of 10 μg d(-1) . Compliance with this recommendation is variable and its effect on infant vitamin D status is unclear. We measured serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) in Asian immigrant (n=28) and White (n=37) mothers and their infants aged 2-4 months living in Vancouver (49°N). Mothers completed health and demographic questionnaires. All subjects were term infants who were primarily breastfed. Analysis of variance, χ(2) , multiple regression and logistic regression analysis were performed as appropriate. Mean 25OHD of the infants was 31 (95% confidence interval 28-34) ng mL(-1) . Only two infants had a 25OHD concentration indicative of deficiency, colour or ethnicity (Asian vs. White) did not influence infant 25OHD. The infants in our study, most of whom received vitamin D supplements, were generally protected against low 25OHD. The study was limited by sample size and the nature of the cross-sectional study design. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Breastfeeding infants with phenylketonuria in the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta-Wright, Sandra A; Press, Nancy; Knafl, Kathleen A; Steiner, Robert D; Houck, Gail M

    2014-04-01

    This study described the prevalence and duration of mothers' breastfeeding infants with phenylketonuria (PKU) and explored factors related to duration of breastfeeding as a surrogate for breastfeeding success. Descriptive analysis as performed from an international Internet survey of mothers (n=103) who met the inclusion criteria: (1) at least 21 years of age, (2) able to read and write in English, (3) child with PKU, and (4) living in the United States or Canada. Of the 103 mothers, 89 (86%) initiated breastfeeding immediately following delivery, whereas 14 (14%) chose bottle feeding. In comparison to breastfeeding after delivery, significantly fewer mothers breastfed after diagnosis (McNemar's χ(2)=30.33, pmothers' milk was associated with a shorter duration of breastfeeding among infants with PKU: χ(2) (42, n=73)=88.13, pmothers' breastfeeding infants with PKU to guide the development of interventions specific to these mothers to support their efforts to continue breastfeeding after the diagnosis of PKU.

  15. Candida spp. occurrence in oral cavities of breastfeeding infants and in their mothers' mouths and breasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zöllner Maria Stella Amorim da Costa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the occurrence of Candida spp. in the oral cavity of predominantly breastfed infants and in their mothers' mouths and breasts, as well as in the oral cavity of bottlefed infants and in non-lactating women. One hundred and sixty nine women and eighty-five milk-fed infants took part in this study and were divided into four groups: 1 infants predominantly on breastfeeding (n = 55 and their mothers (n = 55; 2 infants on bottlefeeding (n = 30; 3 non-lactating women on whom oral collections were performed (n = 80 and, 4 non-lactating women on whom breast collections were performed (n = 34. Oral and mammary swabs were cultured on Sabouraud agar dextrose with chloramphenicol. The Candida yeast strains found were isolated and identified through morphological and biochemical tests. Candida species were much less frequent in infants who were predominantly breastfed than in those who were bottlefed. Yeasts were much more frequent on the breasts of lactating women, with statistical difference in relation to the control group.

  16. Effects of birth order and maternal age on breast cancer risk: modification by whether women had been breast-fed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Hazel B; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Sprague, Brian L; Hampton, John M; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Newcomb, Polly A

    2008-05-01

    Early life risk factors for breast cancer have been investigated in relation to hormonal, nutritional, infectious, and genetic hypotheses. Recent studies have also considered potential health effects associated with exposure to environmental contaminants in breastmilk. We analyzed data from a population-based case-control study of women living in Wisconsin. Cases (n = 2016) had an incident diagnosis of invasive breast cancer in 2002-2006 reported to the statewide tumor registry. Controls (n = 1960) of similar ages were randomly selected from driver's license lists. Risk-factor information was collected during structured telephone interviews. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated from multivariable logistic regression. In multivariable models, maternal age and birth order were not associated with breast cancer risk in the full study population. The odds ratio for breast cancer risk associated with having been breast-fed in infancy was 0.83 (95% CI = 0.72-0.96). In analyses restricted to breast-fed women, maternal age associations with breast cancer were null (P = 0.2). Increasing maternal age was negatively associated with breast cancer risk among women who were not breast-fed; the odds ratio for breast cancer associated with each 5-year increase in maternal age was 0.90 (0.82-1.00). Higher birth order was inversely associated with breast cancer risk among breast-fed women (for women with 3 or more older siblings compared with first-born women, OR = 0.58 [CI = 0.39-0.86]) but not among nonbreast-fed women (1.13 [0.81-1.57]). These findings suggest that early life risk factor associations for breast cancer may differ according to breast-feeding status in infancy.

  17. Co-ordinated research project on isotopic evaluations in infant growth monitoring - a collaboration with WHO (partly RCA). Report on the first research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This Coordinated Research Project (CRP) came about as an initiative to collaborate with the WHO Multicenter Growth Reference Study (MGRS) to generate new growth reference data for breastfed babies using stable isotopes. The WHO MRGS measures growth using anthropometric measurements (e.g. height and weight) in healthy infants and young children in different countries and continents. All participants are fed according to strict criteria regarding duration and frequency of breast-feeding. The MGRS' main goal is to develop a truly international growth standard to look at growth pattern of healthy breast-fed babies. Nevertheless, the composition of the growth (fat/lean tissue) and the nutrient intake that produced the standard growth were not originally included in the study. In order to address these and other important issues related to the baby's body composition and growth, a fruitful collaboration between the WHO and the IAEA has been established. The Agency technical experts and consultants will assist developing countries to carry out isotopic work to measure infant's growth using the in vivo kinetics technique. The objective of this CRP is to measure breast milk intake, using stable isotopes in a subgroup of breast-fed infants growing normally, and to assess their nutrient intakes. Furthermore, the results from the participating projects will provide new and valuable information on the nutrient requirement of healthy breast-fed babies, who were fed according to the WHO standard protocols

  18. Co-ordinated research project on isotopic evaluations in infant growth monitoring - a collaboration with WHO (partly RCA). Report on the first research co-ordination meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This Coordinated Research Project (CRP) came about as an initiative to collaborate with the WHO Multicenter Growth Reference Study (MGRS) to generate new growth reference data for breastfed babies using stable isotopes. The WHO MRGS measures growth using anthropometric measurements (e.g. height and weight) in healthy infants and young children in different countries and continents. All participants are fed according to strict criteria regarding duration and frequency of breast-feeding. The MGRS' main goal is to develop a truly international growth standard to look at growth pattern of healthy breast-fed babies. Nevertheless, the composition of the growth (fat/lean tissue) and the nutrient intake that produced the standard growth were not originally included in the study. In order to address these and other important issues related to the baby's body composition and growth, a fruitful collaboration between the WHO and the IAEA has been established. The Agency technical experts and consultants will assist developing countries to carry out isotopic work to measure infant's growth using the in vivo kinetics technique. The objective of this CRP is to measure breast milk intake, using stable isotopes in a subgroup of breast-fed infants growing normally, and to assess their nutrient intakes. Furthermore, the results from the participating projects will provide new and valuable information on the nutrient requirement of healthy breast-fed babies, who were fed according to the WHO standard protocols.

  19. Nutrient Enrichment of Mother's Milk and Growth of Very Preterm Infants After Hospital Discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariassen, Gitte; Faerk, Jan; Grytter, Carl

    2011-01-01

    : 535-2255 g), breastfed infants (65% [n = 207]) were randomly assigned shortly before hospital discharge to receive either unfortified (n = 102, group A) or fortified (n = 105, group B) mother's milk until 4 months' corrected age (CA). The remaining infants were bottle-fed with a preterm formula (group......Objective: To determine if the addition of a multinutrient human milk fortifier to mother's milk while breastfeeding very preterm infants after hospital discharge is possible and whether it influences first-year growth. Methods: Of a cohort of 320 infants (gestational age: 24-32 weeks; birth weight...... A and B at 12 months' CA. Compared with groups A and B, infants in group C had a higher increase in weight z score until term and in length z score until 6 months' CA. At 12 months' CA, boys in group C were significantly longer and heavier compared with those in groups A and B, whereas girls in group C...

  20. Article Commentary: The Influence of Early Infant-Feeding Practices on the Intestinal Microbiome and Body Composition in Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aifric O'Sullivan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite many years of widespread international recommendations to support exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life, common hospital feeding and birthing practices do not coincide with the necessary steps to support exclusive breastfeeding. These common hospital practices can lead to the infant receiving formula in the first weeks of life despite mothers’ dedication to exclusively breastfeed. Consequently, these practices play a role in the alarmingly high rate of formula-feeding worldwide. Formula-feeding has been shown to alter the infant gut microbiome in favor of proinflammatory taxa and increase gut permeability and bacterial load. Furthermore, several studies have found that formula-feeding increases the risk of obesity in later childhood. While research has demonstrated differences in the intestinal microbiome and body growth between exclusively breast versus formula-fed infants, very little is known about the effects of introducing formula to breastfed infants either briefly or long term on these outcomes. Understanding the relationships between mixed-feeding practices and infant health outcomes is complicated by the lack of clarity in the definition of mixed-feeding as well as the terminology used to describe this type of feeding in the literature. In this commentary, we highlight the need for hospitals to embrace the 10 steps of the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative developed by UNICEF and the WHO for successful breastfeeding. We present a paucity of studies that have focused on the effects of introducing formula to breastfed infants on the gut microbiome, gut health, growth, and body composition. We make the case for the need to conduct well-designed studies on mixed-feeding before we can truly answer the question: how does brief or long-term use of formula influence the health benefits of exclusive breastfeeding?

  1. Hábitos alimentares de crianças menores de 1 ano amamentadas e não-amamentadas Feeding habits of breastfed and non-breastfed children up to 1 year old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciete O. Vieira

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Descrever os hábitos alimentares de crianças amamentadas e não-amamentadas através da análise dos alimentos consumidos pelas crianças menores de 1 ano de idade na cidade de Feira de Santana, BA, no ano de 2001. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo transversal, no qual foram aplicados questionários às mães das crianças menores de 1 ano no dia nacional de vacinação, presentes nas 44 (71% unidades de vacinação, selecionadas por estratificação simples. Foram avaliadas 2.319 crianças, representando 24,3% da população estimada. As medidas de associação calculadas foram: razão de prevalência, com intervalo de confiança a 95%, e de significância estatística, através do teste do qui-quadrado com respectivo valor p. RESULTADOS: Nas crianças com idade igual ou inferior a 4 meses e não-amamentadas, foi observada uma chance 8,2 e 6,7 vezes maior de a criança ser alimentada, respectivamente, com a refeição da família (IC 95% 3,23-20,66 e com papas de legumes (IC 95% 3,84-11,78. Na mesma faixa etária, as prevalências de crianças não-amamentadas que receberam água, chás, sucos e papa de frutas foram significativamente maiores (70,7% versus 19,7%, 63,3% versus 26,7%, 33,3% versus 4,9% e 14,4% versus 1,4%, respectivamente. CONCLUSÕES: As crianças amamentadas, quando comparadas com as não-amamentadas, apresentaram melhores hábitos no que se refere à época de introdução dos alimentos complementares.OBJECTIVE: To describe the eating habits of breastfed and non-breastfed children through the analysis of food intake by children younger than one year of age in Feira de Santana in 2001. METHODS: Cross-sectional study. The mothers of children younger than one year answered a questionnaire during the national vaccination day in 44 (71% vaccination units selected by simple stratification. 2,319 children were evaluated, representing 24.3% of the estimated population. Prevalence ratio and 95% confidence interval were

  2. Selenium deficiency and the effects of supplementation on preterm infants

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    Renata Germano B. O. N. Freitas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to review the literature about blood concentrations of selenium associated with gestational age, feeding, supplementation and related clinical features in preterm infants. Data sources: Systematic review in the following databases: MEDLINE, PubMed, Google academics, SciELO. org, ScienceDirect (Elsevier and CINAHL-Plus with Full Text (EBSCO. Articles published up to January 2013 with the keywords "selenium deficiency", "selenium supplementation", "neonates", "infants", "newborn" and "preterm infants" were selected. Data synthesis: The studies reported that low blood selenium levels are associated with increased risk of respiratory diseases. Preterm infants, especially with low birth weight, presented lower selenium levels. Selenium deficiency has also been associated with the use of oral infant formula, enteral and parenteral nutrition (with or without selenium addition. The optimal dose and length of selenium supplementation is not well-established, since they are based only on age group and selenium ingestion by breastfed children. Furthermore, the clinical status of the infant affected by conditions that may increase oxidative stress, and consequently, selenium requirements is not taken into account. Conclusions: Prematurity and low birth weight can contribute to low blood selenium in premature infants. Selenium supplementation seems to minimize or prevent clinical complications caused by prematurity.

  3. Effective dose equivalent to breast fed infants due to artificial and natural radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos Venuti, G.; Felici, F.; Grisanti, A.; Grisanti, G.; Risica, S.; Simula, S.

    1988-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident, the Italian National Institute of Health (ISS), with the collaboration of the Epidemiological Unit of Latium District, started a research devoted to the study of the radioactive contamination of human milk in Latium. The motivation is three-fold, namely: to measure the contamination of a food product utilised for infants in order to assess the corresponding dose to breast-fed infants; to clarify any possible correlations between radioactive levels in human milk and those in the total body; to correlate the levels in human milk with those in the maternal diet

  4. Food Sources of Energy and Macronutrient Intakes among Infants from 6 to 12 Months of Age: The Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes (GUSTO Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Xuan Lim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Adequate nutrition during complementary feeding is important for the growth, development and well-being of children. We aim to examine the energy and macronutrient intake composition and their main food sources in a mother–offspring cohort study in Singapore. The diets of infants were assessed by 24 h dietary recalls or food diaries collected from mothers when their offspring were 6 (n = 760, 9 (n = 893 and 12 (n = 907 months of age. Food sources of energy and macronutrients were determined using the population proportion methodology. Energy intakes per day (kcal; mean (standard deviation, SD of these infants were 640 (158 at 6 months, 675 (173 at 9 months, and 761 (208 at 12 months. Infant formula, breastmilk and infant cereals were the top three food sources of energy and macronutrient intakes in infants through the period 6 to 12 months. Other main energy and carbohydrate sources at 9 and 12 months of age were rice porridge, infant biscuits and fresh fruits, while fish, red meat and eggs were the other main protein and total fat sources. Breast-fed and mixed-fed infants had a more varied diet as compared to formula-fed infants. Formula-fed infants had consistently higher protein and lower total fat consumption compared to those who were breastfed. An understanding of these main food sources during complementary feeding can inform local dietary recommendations and policies.

  5. Food Sources of Energy and Macronutrient Intakes among Infants from 6 to 12 Months of Age: The Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Shan-Xuan; Toh, Jia-Ying; van Lee, Linde; Han, Wee-Meng; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi; Tan, Kok-Hian; Yap, Fabian; Godfrey, Keith M; Chong, Yap-Seng; Chong, Mary Foong-Fong

    2018-03-10

    Adequate nutrition during complementary feeding is important for the growth, development and well-being of children. We aim to examine the energy and macronutrient intake composition and their main food sources in a mother-offspring cohort study in Singapore. The diets of infants were assessed by 24 h dietary recalls or food diaries collected from mothers when their offspring were 6 (n = 760), 9 (n = 893) and 12 (n = 907) months of age. Food sources of energy and macronutrients were determined using the population proportion methodology. Energy intakes per day (kcal; mean (standard deviation, SD)) of these infants were 640 (158) at 6 months, 675 (173) at 9 months, and 761 (208) at 12 months. Infant formula, breastmilk and infant cereals were the top three food sources of energy and macronutrient intakes in infants through the period 6 to 12 months. Other main energy and carbohydrate sources at 9 and 12 months of age were rice porridge, infant biscuits and fresh fruits, while fish, red meat and eggs were the other main protein and total fat sources. Breast-fed and mixed-fed infants had a more varied diet as compared to formula-fed infants. Formula-fed infants had consistently higher protein and lower total fat consumption compared to those who were breastfed. An understanding of these main food sources during complementary feeding can inform local dietary recommendations and policies.

  6. Food Sources of Energy and Macronutrient Intakes among Infants from 6 to 12 Months of Age: The Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Shan-Xuan; Toh, Jia-Ying; Han, Wee-Meng; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi; Yap, Fabian; Chong, Yap-Seng; Chong, Mary Foong-Fong

    2018-01-01

    Adequate nutrition during complementary feeding is important for the growth, development and well-being of children. We aim to examine the energy and macronutrient intake composition and their main food sources in a mother–offspring cohort study in Singapore. The diets of infants were assessed by 24 h dietary recalls or food diaries collected from mothers when their offspring were 6 (n = 760), 9 (n = 893) and 12 (n = 907) months of age. Food sources of energy and macronutrients were determined using the population proportion methodology. Energy intakes per day (kcal; mean (standard deviation, SD)) of these infants were 640 (158) at 6 months, 675 (173) at 9 months, and 761 (208) at 12 months. Infant formula, breastmilk and infant cereals were the top three food sources of energy and macronutrient intakes in infants through the period 6 to 12 months. Other main energy and carbohydrate sources at 9 and 12 months of age were rice porridge, infant biscuits and fresh fruits, while fish, red meat and eggs were the other main protein and total fat sources. Breast-fed and mixed-fed infants had a more varied diet as compared to formula-fed infants. Formula-fed infants had consistently higher protein and lower total fat consumption compared to those who were breastfed. An understanding of these main food sources during complementary feeding can inform local dietary recommendations and policies. PMID:29534442

  7. Fully electric waste collection

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2015-01-01

    Since 15 June, Transvoirie, which provides waste collection services throughout French-speaking Switzerland, has been using a fully electric lorry for its collections on the CERN site – a first for the region!   Featuring a motor powered by electric batteries that charge up when the brakes are used, the new lorry that roams the CERN site is as green as can be. And it’s not only the motor that’s electric: its waste compactor and lifting mechanism are also electrically powered*, making it the first 100% electric waste collection vehicle in French-speaking Switzerland. Considering that a total of 15.5 tonnes of household waste and paper/cardboard are collected each week from the Meyrin and Prévessin sites, the benefits for the environment are clear. This improvement comes as part of CERN’s contract with Transvoirie, which stipulates that the firm must propose ways of becoming more environmentally friendly (at no extra cost to CERN). *The was...

  8. Both Mother and Infant Require a Vitamin D Supplement to Ensure That Infants’ Vitamin D Status Meets Current Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Aghajafari

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We examined the association between maternal vitamin D intake during breastfeeding with their infants’ vitamin D status in infants who did or did not receive vitamin D supplements to determine whether infant supplementation was sufficient. Using plasma from a subset of breastfed infants in the APrON (Alberta Pregnant Outcomes and Nutrition cohort, vitamin D status was measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Maternal and infants’ dietary data were obtained from APrON’s dietary questionnaires. The median maternal vitamin D intake was 665 International Units (IU/day, while 25% reported intakes below the recommended 400 IU/day. Of the 224 infants in the cohort, 72% were exclusively breastfed, and 90% were receiving vitamin D supplements. Infants’ median 25(OHD was 96.0 nmol/L (interquartile ranges (IQR 77.6–116.2, and 25% had 25(OHD < 75 nmol/L. An adjusted linear regression model showed that, with a 100 IU increase in maternal vitamin D intake, infants’ 25(OHD increased by 0.9 nmol/L controlling for race, season, mid-pregnancy maternal 25(OHD, birthweight, and whether the infant received daily vitamin D supplement (β = 0.008, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.002, 0.13. These results suggest that, to ensure infant optimal vitamin D status, not only do infants require a supplement, but women also need to meet current recommended vitamin D intake during breastfeeding.

  9. Both Mother and Infant Require a Vitamin D Supplement to Ensure That Infants’ Vitamin D Status Meets Current Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Amy R.; Letourneau, Nicole

    2018-01-01

    We examined the association between maternal vitamin D intake during breastfeeding with their infants’ vitamin D status in infants who did or did not receive vitamin D supplements to determine whether infant supplementation was sufficient. Using plasma from a subset of breastfed infants in the APrON (Alberta Pregnant Outcomes and Nutrition) cohort, vitamin D status was measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Maternal and infants’ dietary data were obtained from APrON’s dietary questionnaires. The median maternal vitamin D intake was 665 International Units (IU)/day, while 25% reported intakes below the recommended 400 IU/day. Of the 224 infants in the cohort, 72% were exclusively breastfed, and 90% were receiving vitamin D supplements. Infants’ median 25(OH)D was 96.0 nmol/L (interquartile ranges (IQR) 77.6–116.2), and 25% had 25(OH)D < 75 nmol/L. An adjusted linear regression model showed that, with a 100 IU increase in maternal vitamin D intake, infants’ 25(OH)D increased by 0.9 nmol/L controlling for race, season, mid-pregnancy maternal 25(OH)D, birthweight, and whether the infant received daily vitamin D supplement (β = 0.008, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.002, 0.13). These results suggest that, to ensure infant optimal vitamin D status, not only do infants require a supplement, but women also need to meet current recommended vitamin D intake during breastfeeding. PMID:29596362

  10. Do infants with cow's milk protein allergy have inadequate levels of vitamin D?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Cristiane M; Silva, Silvia A da; Antunes, Margarida M de C; Silva, Gisélia Alves Pontes da; Sarinho, Emanuel Sávio Cavalcanti; Brandt, Katia G

    To verify whether infants with cow's milk protein allergy have inadequate vitamin D levels. This cross-sectional study included 120 children aged 2 years or younger, one group with cow's milk protein allergy and a control group. The children were recruited at the pediatric gastroenterology, allergology, and pediatric outpatient clinics of a university hospital in the Northeast of Brazil. A questionnaire was administered to the caregiver and blood samples were collected for vitamin D quantification. Vitamin D levels <30ng/mL were considered inadequate. Vitamin D level was expressed as mean and standard deviation, and the frequency of the degrees of sufficiency and other variables, as proportions. Infants with cow's milk protein allergy had lower mean vitamin D levels (30.93 vs.35.29ng/mL; p=0.041) and higher deficiency frequency (20.3% vs.8.2; p=0.049) than the healthy controls. Exclusively or predominantly breastfed infants with cow's milk protein allergy had higher frequency of inadequate vitamin D levels (p=0.002). Regardless of sun exposure time, the groups had similar frequencies of inadequate vitamin D levels (p=0.972). Lower vitamin D levels were found in infants with CMPA, especially those who were exclusively or predominantly breastfed, making these infants a possible risk group for vitamin D deficiency. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Do infants with cow's milk protein allergy have inadequate levels of vitamin D?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane M. Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To verify whether infants with cow's milk protein allergy have inadequate vitamin D levels. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 120 children aged 2 years or younger, one group with cow's milk protein allergy and a control group. The children were recruited at the pediatric gastroenterology, allergology, and pediatric outpatient clinics of a university hospital in the Northeast of Brazil. A questionnaire was administered to the caregiver and blood samples were collected for vitamin D quantification. Vitamin D levels <30 ng/mL were considered inadequate. Vitamin D level was expressed as mean and standard deviation, and the frequency of the degrees of sufficiency and other variables, as proportions. Results: Infants with cow's milk protein allergy had lower mean vitamin D levels (30.93 vs.35.29 ng/mL; p = 0.041 and higher deficiency frequency (20.3% vs.8.2; p = 0.049 than the healthy controls. Exclusively or predominantly breastfed infants with cow's milk protein allergy had higher frequency of inadequate vitamin D levels (p = 0.002. Regardless of sun exposure time, the groups had similar frequencies of inadequate vitamin D levels (p = 0.972. Conclusions: Lower vitamin D levels were found in infants with CMPA, especially those who were exclusively or predominantly breastfed, making these infants a possible risk group for vitamin D deficiency.

  12. Dioxin exposure in breast milk and infant neurodevelopment in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Pham The; Nishijo, Muneko; Anh, Nguyen Thi Nguyet; Maruzeni, Shoko; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Van Luong, Hoang; Anh, Tran Hai; Honda, Ryumon; Kido, Teruhiko; Nishijo, Hisao

    2013-09-01

    Dioxin levels in the breast milk of mothers residing near hot spots of dioxin contamination areas in South Vietnam remain much higher than in unsprayed areas, suggesting that fetuses and breast-fed infants may be exposed to high levels of dioxins. The present study investigated the association of infant neurodevelopment in early infancy and dioxin exposure during the perinatal period. The study involved 216 mother-infant pairs living near the Da Nang airbase, a dioxin contaminated area in Vietnam. Mothers and infants were followed from birth until infants were 4 months old. Dioxin levels in breast milk were measured to estimate the perinatal dioxin exposure, including the infant daily dioxin intake (DDI) via breastfeeding. Infant neurodevelopmental parameters, including cognitive, language and motor domains were assessed at approximately 4 months using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, third edition (Bayley-III). The level of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans-toxic equivalents in breast milk and the infant DDI showed significant inverse correlations with neurodevelopmental scores. When the subjects were divided into four groups according to dioxin levels in breast milk, the moderate and high DDI groups had significantly lower cognitive, composite motor and fine motor scores, and the high polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans-toxic equivalents group had significantly lower fine motor score than the low exposure group. For all domains, neurodevelopmental scores were decreased with increase in the level of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. The present study demonstrates a considerable impact of perinatal dioxin exposure on neurodevelopment in 4-month-old infants living in contaminated areas in Vietnam.

  13. Infant feeding practice on growth velocity in 4-6 month-olds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Kurniawan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background In developing countries, 5-10% of infants suffer from failure to thrive. Adequate feeding is the most crucial factor for optimal growth in early life. Objective To assess the differences in growth velocity at 4 to 6 months of age, based on the infant feeding practices. Methods This cross-sectional study involving 4 to 6 month-old babies from 6 public health centres in Yogyakarta was performed from August to November 2016. Data on body weight, and growth velocity as they related to weight at birth were collected. Subjects were divided into groups according to their feeding practices. Results Of 173 subjects, 130 (75% infants were exclusively breastfed, 19 infants (11% were given breast milk and formula, 14 (8% infants were given breast milk and complementary food (8%, and 10 (6% infants were given formula and complementary food. The mean growth velocity z-scores by group were as follows: exclusively breastfed 0.04 (SD 1.15 (95%CI -0.16 to 0.24, breast milk and formula -0.61 (SD 0.84 (95%CI -1.01 to -0.21, breast milk and complementary food -0.69 (SD 1.14 (95%CI -1.35 to -0.04, formula and complementary food 0.23 (SD 1.50 (95%CI: -0.84 to 1.31. The mean difference in growth velocity between the exclusively breastfed vs. breast milk and formula groups was 0.65 (SD 0.28 (95%CI: 0.10 to 1.20; P=0.02; vs. breast milk and complementary food was 0.73 (SD 0.32 (95%CI: 0.10 to 1.37; P=0.02; and vs. formula and complementary food was -0.19 (SD 0.37 (95%CI: -0.93 to 0.55; P=0.61. Conclusion Exclusively breastfed have the most optimal growth velocity compared to infants who experience other feeding practices.

  14. Early feeding and neonatal hypoglycemia in infants of diabetic mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Cordero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To examine the effects of early formula feeding or breast-feeding on hypoglycemia in infants born to 303 A1-A2 and 88 Class B-RF diabetics. Methods: Infants with hypoglycemia (blood glucose < 40 mg/dL were breast-fed or formula-fed, and those with recurrences were given intravenous dextrose. Results: Of 293 infants admitted to the well-baby nursery, 87 (30% had hypoglycemia, corrected by early feeding in 75 (86%, while 12 (14% required intravenous dextrose. In all, 98 infants were admitted to the newborn intensive care unit for respiratory distress (40%, prematurity (33% or prevention of hypoglycemia (27%. Although all newborn intensive care unit patients received intravenous dextrose, 22 (22% had hypoglycemia. Of 109 hypoglycemia episodes, 89 (82% were single low occurrences. At discharge, 56% of well-baby nursery and 43% of newborn intensive care unit infants initiated breast-feeding. Conclusions: Hypoglycemia among infants of diabetic mothers can be corrected by early breast-feeding or formula feeding.

  15. Early feeding and neonatal hypoglycemia in infants of diabetic mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Shilpa; Hillier, Kirsty; Giannone, Peter J; Nankervis, Craig A

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the effects of early formula feeding or breast-feeding on hypoglycemia in infants born to 303 A1-A2 and 88 Class B-RF diabetics. Methods: Infants with hypoglycemia (blood glucose < 40 mg/dL) were breast-fed or formula-fed, and those with recurrences were given intravenous dextrose. Results: Of 293 infants admitted to the well-baby nursery, 87 (30%) had hypoglycemia, corrected by early feeding in 75 (86%), while 12 (14%) required intravenous dextrose. In all, 98 infants were admitted to the newborn intensive care unit for respiratory distress (40%), prematurity (33%) or prevention of hypoglycemia (27%). Although all newborn intensive care unit patients received intravenous dextrose, 22 (22%) had hypoglycemia. Of 109 hypoglycemia episodes, 89 (82%) were single low occurrences. At discharge, 56% of well-baby nursery and 43% of newborn intensive care unit infants initiated breast-feeding. Conclusions: Hypoglycemia among infants of diabetic mothers can be corrected by early breast-feeding or formula feeding. PMID:26770697

  16. The crisis in infant feeding practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, A

    1978-01-01

    This article maintains that the dramatic decline in breast-feeding in low-income countries is extracting a substantial cost, both in infant health and in outright economic loss. From the 6th to 12th month of life, breast-feeding can supply up to 3/4 of a child's protein needs. The breast-fed child has received about 375 liters of breast milk by age 2. The nutritional equivalent in cow's milk would cost about $65; in packaged dried milk formulas, close to $140. Yet in the few developing countries where surveys of breast-feeding have been conducted over the years, the common pattern is one of significant decline, with greatest decline in urban areas. As communication techniques become more effective in developing countries, urban life styles will have increasing influence on rural societies. Estimates show that losses in breast milk can produce losses in the billions of dollars to developing countries. In terms of national development, lactation has another major economic asset: its link to family planning as a major form of contraception. One investigation reports that the incidence of pregnancy in the 1st 9 months after childbirth of nonnursing mothers was twice that of mothers who breast-fed, including those who simultaneously used other foods. Just as breast milk can be the major source of nutrition, the failure to provide breast milk is a major cause of infant malnutrition and mortality. Poor parents often dilute milk formulas to extend their supply; many cannot read labels and instructions; and hygienic needs often cannot be met by the parents. Breast-fed babies are more resistant to a host of diseases. The costs and obstacles of designing campaigns to encourage breast-feeding in developing countries may be less imposing than those of alternate nutrition intervention programs designed to achieve the same ends. Such a campaign calls for: 1) attracting the public's attention to the benefits of breast-feeding and the dangers of foregoing it through the media

  17. Very high vitamin D supplementation rates among infants aged 2 months in Vancouver and Richmond, British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crocker Barbara

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin D deficiency during infancy may lead to rickets and possibly other poor health outcomes. The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months. Breast milk is the best food for infants but does not contain adequate vitamin D. Health Canada recommends all breastfed infants receive a daily vitamin D supplement of 400 IU; however, there appears to be limited current Canadian data as to whether parents or caregivers are following this advice. The aim of this study was to determine the rates of vitamin D supplementation among 2-month old infants in Vancouver and Richmond, British Columbia, Canada. Methods Mothers of all healthy infants born between April and May 2010 were approached to participate. Telephone surveys were conducted with 577 mothers (response rate 56% when their infants turned 2 months. Results Over half of the infants received only breast milk in the week prior to the survey. One third received a mixture of breast milk and infant formula and 10% received only formula. About 80% of the infants were supplemented with vitamin D at 2 months. Infants who received only breast milk were most likely to be supplemented with vitamin D (91%. Over 60% of the infants had a total vitamin D intake of 300- Conclusions About 90% of the infants received breast milk at 2 months of age. The vitamin D supplementation rate was 80%. Future studies are needed to monitor breastfeeding duration and vitamin D supplementation rates as infants get older.

  18. Establishment and application of deuterium dilution method for measuring breast milk intake of Pakistani infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilal, R.

    1999-01-01

    This project will be a collaborative study between the Pakistan Institute for Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH) and Department of Pediatrics, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS). It may also involve the Polyclinic, Islamabad. Pediatricians who have had experience in lactation management clinic and hence breast-milk intake studies by conventional methods (test weighing) will be formally involved in the study. Human milk intake and growth performance of exclusively breast-fed infants will be monitored over the first six months of life. The deuterium dilution method will be used for measuring breast-milk intake and will be compared with the test weighing method. The growth of exclusively breast-fed children will be compared with the NCH growth standards. Records of illnesses that may lead to suboptimal growth will be kept. Episodes of diarrhoea, in particular, will be correlated with growth faltering. Acquisition of Helicobacter pylori detected by the use of the 13 C Urea breath test at three month intervals during the study period examined for relationships with diarrhoea. Thus, this study will not only provide preliminary data on breast-milk intake (based on a more accurate isotopic method as compared to test weighing) but also on the growth patterns of exclusively breast-fed infants. Further, information on the significance of Helicobacter pylori to infection with episodes of diarrhoeal infection and growth faltering. (author)

  19. Severe Hypernatremic Dehydration and Lower Limb Gangrene in an Infant Exposed to Lamotrigine, Aripiprazole, and Sertraline in Breast Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Caroline; Chevalier, Isabelle

    Hypernatremic dehydration is well described in exclusively breastfed neonates, although life-threatening complications are rarely reported. The present article describes a case of severe hypernatremic dehydration in a previously healthy term neonate. Other published cases of severe complications of hypernatremic dehydration are discussed. The exclusively breastfed neonate described had severe hypernatremic dehydration because of inadequate milk intake, with disseminated intravascular coagulation and right lower limb gangrene that required amputation of all five toes and surgical debridement of the metatarsals. The usual etiology of hypernatremic dehydration in this age group is insufficient breast milk intake. Here, the infant's mother was treated for bipolar disorder with lamotrigine 250 mg orally once daily, aripiprazole 15 mg orally once daily, and sertraline 100 mg orally once daily. Awareness of these complications should prompt close follow-up of the infant with poor weight gain. The role of maternal medication as a risk factor for hypernatremic dehydration among exclusively breastfed infants needs to be further explored.

  20. A pilot study of the effect of human breast milk on urinary metabolome analysis in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Hiromichi; Taka, Hikari; Kaga, Naoko; Ikeda, Naho; Kitamura, Tomohiro; Miura, Yoshiki; Shimizu, Toshiaki

    2017-08-28

    This study aimed to examine the nutritional effect of breast feeding on healthy term infants by using urinary metabolome analysis. Urine samples were collected from 19 and 14 infants at 1 and 6 months, respectively. Infants were separated into two groups: the breast-fed group receiving metabolome analysis was performed using capillary electrophoresis-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-TOF/MS). A total of 29 metabolites were detected by CE-TOF/MS metabolome analysis in all samples. Urinary excretion of choline metabolites (choline base solution, N,N-dimethylglycine, sarcosine, and betaine) at 1 month were significantly (pmetabolome analysis by the CE-TOF/MS method is useful for assessing nutritional metabolism in infants.

  1. Vitamin K deficiency bleeding and early infant male circumcision in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plank, Rebeca M; Steinmetz, Tara; Sokal, David C; Shearer, Martin J; Data, Santorino

    2013-08-01

    Early infant (1-60 days of life) male circumcision is being trialed in Africa as a human immunodeficiency virus prevention strategy. Postcircumcision bleeding is particularly concerning where most infants are breastfed, and thus these infants are at increased risk of vitamin K deficiency bleeding. During a circumcision trial, one infant bled for 90 minutes postprocedure. After discovering he had not received standard prophylactic vitamin K, we gave 2 mg phytomenadione (vitamin K1) intramuscularly; bleeding stopped within 30 minutes. Vitamin K's extremely rapid action is not commonly appreciated. Neonatal vitamin K has been shown to be cost-effective. To increase availability and promote awareness of its importance, especially in low-resource settings where blood products and transfusions are limited, vitamin K should be included in the World Health Organization's Model List of Essential Medicines for Children.

  2. Nutrition, growth, and allergic diseases among very preterm infants after hospital discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariassen, Gitte

    2013-01-01

    ) until 4 months CA. Infants (n = 113) who were bottle-fed at discharge (group C) were given a preterm formula (PF) until 4 months CA. Infants were examined at the outpatient clinics at term, and at 2, 4, 6, and 12 months CA, where parameters on growth, allergic diseases, possible feeding problems, blood......-samples, and milk samples were obtained. Data on duration of exclusively breastfeeding and time of introduction to formula and/or complementary food were also recorded. Among the 478 infants 60% (n = 285) were exclusively breastfed, 35% (n = 167) were exclusively bottle-fed, and 5% (n=26) were both breast......The aims of this PhD thesis were: 1. Primarily to investigate the effect, of adding human milk fortifier to mother's milk while breastfeeding very preterm infants after hospital discharge, on growth until 1 year corrected age (CA) 2. Secondarily to describe breastfeeding rate and factors associated...

  3. Presence of functional, autoreactive human milk-specific IgE in infants with cow's milk allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvinen, K M; Geller, L; Bencharitiwong, R; Sampson, H A

    2012-02-01

    Occasionally, exclusively breastfed infants with cow's milk allergy (CMA) remain symptomatic despite strict maternal milk avoidance. To determine whether or not persistence of symptoms could be due to sensitization against endogenous human milk proteins with a high degree of similarity to bovine allergens. Ten peptides representing known bovine milk IgE-binding epitopes [α-lactalbumin (ALA), β- and κ-casein] and the corresponding, highly homologous human milk peptides were labelled with sera from 15 breastfed infants with CMA, aged 3 weeks to 12 months, and peptide (epitope)-specific IgE antibodies were assessed. Nine of the 15 breastfed infants became asymptomatic during strict maternal avoidance of milk and other major food allergens; six infants remained symptomatic until weaned. Ten older children, aged 5-15 years, with CMA were also assessed. The functional capacity of specific IgE antibodies was assessed by measuring β-hexosaminidase release from rat basophilic leukaemia cells passively sensitized and stimulated with human and bovine ALA. A minimum of one human milk peptide was recognized by IgE antibodies from 9 of 15 (60%) milk-allergic infants, and the majority of older children with CMA. Genuine sensitization to human milk peptides in the absence of IgE to bovine milk was occasionally seen. There was a trend towards specific IgE being detected to more human milk peptides in those infants who did not respond to the maternal milk elimination diet than in those who did (P = 0.099). Functional IgE antibody to human ALA was only detected in infants not responding to the maternal diet. Endogenous human milk epitopes are recognized by specific IgE from the majority of infants and children with CMA. Such autoreactive, human milk-specific IgE antibodies appear to have functional properties in vitro. Their role in provoking allergic symptoms in infants exclusively breastfed by mothers strictly avoiding dietary milk remains unclear. © 2011 Blackwell

  4. Breastfeeding Progression in Preterm Infants Is Influenced by Factors in Infants, Mothers and Clinical Practice: The Results of a National Cohort Study with High Breastfeeding Initiation Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maastrup, Ragnhild; Hansen, Bo Moelholm; Kronborg, Hanne; Bojesen, Susanne Norby; Hallum, Karin; Frandsen, Annemi; Kyhnaeb, Anne; Svarer, Inge; Hallström, Inger

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim Many preterm infants are not capable of exclusive breastfeeding from birth. To guide mothers in breastfeeding, it is important to know when preterm infants can initiate breastfeeding and progress. The aim was to analyse postmenstrual age (PMA) at breastfeeding milestones in different preterm gestational age (GA) groups, to describe rates of breastfeeding duration at pre-defined times, as well as analyse factors associated with PMA at the establishment of exclusive breastfeeding. Methods The study was part of a prospective survey of a national Danish cohort of preterm infants based on questionnaires and structured telephone interviews, including 1,221 mothers and their 1,488 preterm infants with GA of 24–36 weeks. Results Of the preterm infants, 99% initiated breastfeeding and 68% were discharged exclusively breastfed. Breastfeeding milestones were generally reached at different PMAs for different GA groups, but preterm infants were able to initiate breastfeeding at early times, with some delay in infants less than GA 32 weeks. Very preterm infants had lowest mean PMA (35.5 weeks) at first complete breastfeed, and moderate preterm infants had lowest mean PMA at the establishment of exclusive breastfeeding (36.4 weeks). Admitting mothers to the NICU together with the infant and minimising the use of a pacifier during breastfeeding transition were associated with 1.6 (95% CI 0.4–2.8) and 1.2 days (95% CI 0.1–2.3) earlier establishment of exclusive breastfeeding respectively. Infants that were small for gestational age were associated with 5.6 days (95% CI 4.1–7.0) later establishment of exclusive breastfeeding. Conclusion Breastfeeding competence is not developed at a fixed PMA, but is influenced by multiple factors in infants, mothers and clinical practice. Admitting mothers together with their infants to the NICU and minimising the use of pacifiers may contribute to earlier establishment of exclusive breastfeeding. PMID:25251690

  5. Normal Growth of Healthy Infants Born from HIV+ Mothers Fed a Reduced Protein Infant Formula Containing the Prebiotics Galacto-Oligosaccharides and Fructo-Oligosaccharides: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Da Costa Ribeiro Júnior

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective The aim of the current study was to evaluate the safety of a new reduced protein (2.1 g/100 kcal infant formula containing 4 g/L of 90% galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS and 10% fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS. Methods Healthy term infants from Brazil were enrolled. Those born to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive mothers were randomized to a test ( n = 65 or control ( n = 63 formula group. Infants born to HIV-negative mothers were either exclusively breast-fed ( n = 79 or received a mixed diet (breast milk and test formula, n = 65. Between 2 weeks and 4 months of age, infants were exclusively fed according to their assigned group. Anthropometric measurements were taken at baseline, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 months. Digestive tolerance was evaluated during the first 4 months. The primary outcome was mean daily weight gain between 2 weeks and 4 months in the test formula and breast-fed groups. Results Data from all infants ( N = 272 were used in the intention-to-treat (ITT analysis and data from 230 infants were used in the per-protocol (PP analysis. The difference in mean daily weight gain between 2 weeks and 4 months in the test formula and breast-fed groups was 1.257 g/day (onesided 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.705 to inf, P < 0.001 in the PP analysis, showing that the lower bound of the 95% CI was above the -3.0 g/day non-inferiority margin. Results were similar in the ITT analysis. Symptoms of digestive tolerance and frequency of adverse events were similar in the two groups. Conclusions The formula containing 2.1 g/100 kcal protein and GOS and FOS was safe and tolerated well.

  6. Hyperglycemia - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007228.htm Hyperglycemia - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hyperglycemia is abnormally high blood sugar. The medical term ...

  7. Premature infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... matter Infection or neonatal sepsis Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, extra air in the tissue ... Outlook (Prognosis) Prematurity used to be a major cause of infant deaths. Improved medical and nursing techniques ...

  8. CPR - infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as 4 to 6 minutes later. Machines called automated external defibrillators (AEDs) can be found in many ... side down. Follow the guidelines for using infant car seats. Teach your baby the meaning of "don' ...

  9. Infant botulism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your infant has symptoms of botulism. Prevention In theory, the disease might be avoided by preventing exposure ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  10. Multipartite fully nonlocal quantum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Mafalda L.; Cavalcanti, Daniel; Scarani, Valerio; Acin, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    We present a general method for characterizing the quantum correlations obtained after local measurements on multipartite systems. Sufficient conditions for a quantum system to be fully nonlocal according to a given partition, as well as being (genuinely) multipartite fully nonlocal, are derived. These conditions allow us to identify all completely connected graph states as multipartite fully nonlocal quantum states. Moreover, we show that this feature can also be observed in mixed states: the tensor product of five copies of the Smolin state, a biseparable and bound entangled state, is multipartite fully nonlocal.

  11. Reflux Incidence among Exclusively Breast Milk Fed Infants: Differences of Feeding at Breast versus Pumped Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Yourkavitch

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The practice of feeding infants expressed breast milk is increasing in the United States, but the impacts on infant and maternal health are still understudied. This study examines the monthly incidence of regurgitation (gastro-esophageal reflux in exclusively breast milk fed infants from ages two to six months. Among infants whose mothers participated in the Infant Feeding Practices II Study (IFPS II; 2005–2007, data on reflux and feeding mode were collected by monthly questionnaires. A longitudinal, repeated measures analysis was used, with feeding mode lagged by one month in order to compare reflux incidence among infants fed directly at the breast to infants receiving pumped breast milk. Mothers in both feeding groups had similar characteristics, although a greater proportion feeding at least some pumped milk were primiparous. The number of exclusively breastfed infants decreased steadily between months 2 and 6, although the proportion fed at the breast remained similar over time. An association between feeding mode and reflux incidence was not found; however, the analyses were limited by a small number of reported reflux cases. More studies are needed to further explain the relationship between different feeding modes and infant reflux.

  12. Probiotics do not improve the benefits of a hospital treatment protocol for acute diarrhea in the breastfed child.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Santana Porbén

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: Probiotics have been used in the treatment of acute diarrhea occurring in pediatric ages with mixed results. Objective: To assess the impact of a probiotic (CFU per capsule: Lactobacillus rhamnosus G: 2 x 109, Lactobacillus cassei: 1 x 109, Bifidobacterium brevis: 2 x 109 upon the features and duration of acute diarrhea in breastfed children. Study location: Digestive Diseases and Nutrition Service, “Juan Manuel Márquez” Pediatric Teaching Hospital (Marianao, Havana City, Cuba. Study design: Open, quasi-experimental trial. Thirty children with ages 0.05; Improvement of the features of stools: Non-Treated: 93.3% vs. Treated: 96.1% (p > 0.05. Use of probiotics produced an increase of Hemoglobin ( = -0.44; p 0.05 values of indicators of systemic inflammatory response. Conclusions: Inclusion of probiotics within an institutional protocol for treatment of acute diarrhea does not significantly change the stool pattern of the breastfed child, but might reduce the systemic inflammatory tone which, in turn, would result in a better use of body iron.

  13. Markers of Oxidative Stress in Human Milk do not Differ by Maternal BMI But are Related to Infant Growth Trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Bridget E; Patinkin, Zachary W; Pyle, Laura; de la Houssaye, Becky; Davidson, Barbara S; Geraghty, Sheela; Morrow, Ardythe L; Krebs, Nancy

    2017-06-01

    Objective Obesity in adults is associated with inflammation and oxidative stress. Whether or not this phenotype is reflected in human milk (HM) composition, or may impact infant growth remains unknown. We investigated whether HM from overweight/obese (OW/Ob) mothers exhibited higher concentrations of inflammatory cytokines and markers of oxidative stress. We also correlated these bioactive components with infant growth patterns. Methods This was an observational cohort of 56 breastfeeding mothers and their infants [33 normal weight (NW) and 23 OW/Ob]. Infants were followed until 6 months of age and HM collected at 2-weeks and 4-months. Results Markers of oxidative stress, 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8OHdG) and 4-hydroxynonenol (HNE), decreased in HM over time (p < 0.001) and did not differ between NW and OW/Ob women. Concentrations of inflammatory cytokines, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α, were all inter-correlated (p < 0.001) but did not differ between NW and OW/Ob women. HM fat, protein, lactose, and total calories did not differ between NW and OW/Ob women. Infant growth patterns did not differ by group. In a model of infant weight-for-length-Z score trajectory, there was a significant interaction between both lactose and 8OHdG with maternal group: HM lactose and 8OHdG concentrations were both positively associated with increases in WLZ trajectory only among infants breastfed by OW/Ob mothers. Conclusions for Practice HM composition was relatively stable between NW and OW/Ob women. In exclusively breastfed infants, HM concentrations of lactose and 8OHdG, a marker of oxidative stress, may contribute to regulation of infant weight gain, especially among infants of OW/Ob women.

  14. Age-appropriate feeding practices and nutritional status of infants attending child welfare clinic at a Teaching Hospital in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar M Lawan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Appropriate infant feeding is the key to optimum infant and child development and survival. This study investigates age-appropriate infant feeding practices and nutritional status of infants attending the immunization and child welfare clinic at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital. Materials and Methods: Using a cross-sectional descriptive design, a sample of 300 sets of infants (age ≤12 months and caregivers was systematically selected and studied. The data were analyzed using the MINITAB ® 12.21 (USA statistical software. Results: All the infants studied were still on breast milk. Most of the mothers demonstrated correct body positioning (89.9 and attachment (78.7% during breastfeeding, and effective suckling was demonstrated in 77.0%. Interestingly, none of the infants was either exclusively breastfed for 6 months or currently on exclusive breastfeeding. Furthermore, only 64 (58.2% of the 110 infants that were more than 6 months of age had appropriately been started on complementary feeding from 6 months of age. Overall, most caregivers (88.7% had "fair" to "good" infant feeding practices. The practices were significantly associated with their level of education, and their relationship with the infants. Up to 40.0% and 73.7% of the infants had varying degrees of wasting and stunting respectively. Infant feeding practices and the age of the infants emerged as the only factors significantly associated with stunting, while both the caregivers′ practices and age of the infants emerged as significant predictors of wasting in the infants. Conclusion and Recommendations: Barely 3 years to the 2015 target of the millennium development goals (MDGs, infant feeding and nutritional status still poses a serious threat to the dream of realizing the MDG-4. The Ministry of Health and relevant developing partners in this region should as a matter of urgency, formulate and implement a strong community-based public health intervention program to

  15. Nutritional and Hormonal Status of Premature Infants Born with Intrauterine Growth Restriction at the Term Corrected Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaeva, I A; Namazova-Baranova, L S; Bombardirova, E P; Okuneva, M V

    Inadequate nutrition supply during the period of intrauterine growth and the first year of life leads to persistent metabolic changes and provokes development of various diseases. Тo compare physical development, body composition, and hormonal status (insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), somatotropic hormone (STH), C-Peptide, cortisol) indices in premature infants born with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) at the term corrected age with the same indices in mature infants with IUGR and premature infants with weight appropriate for their gestational age (GA). А crossover study of anthropometric measures, body composition and growth hormones changes assessment was carried out. It included 140 premature infants with weight appropriate for their GA, 58 premature infants with IUGR and 64 mature infants with IUGR. Anthropometric measures were assessed with Fenton and Anthro growth charts (WHO, 2009); body composition was studied with the air plethysmography method (РЕA POD, LMi, USA). Level of hormones in blood serum was assessed with biochemical methods. It is found that anthropometric measures in premature infants with weight appropriate for their GA and premature infants with IUGR at the term corrected age did not have any significant differences while premature infants with IUGR tended to have lower weight. Studying body composition we found that both groups of premature infants had slightly higher level of fat mass in comparison with mature infants. High concentration of insulin, cortisol, IGF-1, and C-peptide was found in premature and mature infants with IUGR. Instead, lower levels of STH was found in infants with IUGR. Formula fed premature infants (comparing to breastfed ones) had higher levels of fat mass, insulin, IGF-1, and C-peptide. Mature infants with IUGR did not tend to have the correlation between levels of fat mass, insulin, IGF-1, C-peptide, and type of feeding. Not only insufficient intrauterine growth but also nutrition pattern

  16. Malnutrition and infant and young child feeding in informal settlements in Mumbai, India: findings from a census

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Abigail; Das, Sushmita; Alcock, Glyn; Shah More, Neena; Pantvaidya, Shanti; Osrin, David

    2015-01-01

    Childhood malnutrition remains common in India. We visited families in 40 urban informal settlement areas in Mumbai to document stunting, wasting, and overweight in children under five, and to examine infant and young child feeding (IYCF) in children under 2 years. We administered questions on eight core WHO IYCF indicators and on sugary and savory snack foods, and measured weight and height of children under five. Stunting was seen in 45% of 7450 children, rising from 15% in the first year to 56% in the fifth. About 16% of children were wasted and 4% overweight. 46% of infants were breastfed within the first hour, 63% were described as exclusively breastfed under 6 months, and breastfeeding continued for 12 months in 74%. The indicator for introduction of solids was met for 41% of infants. Only 13% of children satisfied the indicator for minimum dietary diversity, 43% achieved minimum meal frequency, and 5% had a minimally acceptable diet. About 63% of infants had had sugary snacks in the preceding 24 h, rising to 78% in the second year. Fried and salted snack foods had been eaten by 34% of infants and 66% of children under two. Stunting and wasting remain unacceptably common in informal settlements in Mumbai, and IYCF appears problematic, particularly in terms of dietary diversity. The ubiquity of sugary, fried, and salted snack foods is a serious concern: substantial consumption begins in infancy and exceeds that of all other food groups except grains, roots, and tubers. PMID:25988001

  17. Malnutrition and infant and young child feeding in informal settlements in Mumbai, India: findings from a census.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Abigail; Das, Sushmita; Alcock, Glyn; Shah More, Neena; Pantvaidya, Shanti; Osrin, David

    2015-05-01

    Childhood malnutrition remains common in India. We visited families in 40 urban informal settlement areas in Mumbai to document stunting, wasting, and overweight in children under five, and to examine infant and young child feeding (IYCF) in children under 2 years. We administered questions on eight core WHO IYCF indicators and on sugary and savory snack foods, and measured weight and height of children under five. Stunting was seen in 45% of 7450 children, rising from 15% in the first year to 56% in the fifth. About 16% of children were wasted and 4% overweight. 46% of infants were breastfed within the first hour, 63% were described as exclusively breastfed under 6 months, and breastfeeding continued for 12 months in 74%. The indicator for introduction of solids was met for 41% of infants. Only 13% of children satisfied the indicator for minimum dietary diversity, 43% achieved minimum meal frequency, and 5% had a minimally acceptable diet. About 63% of infants had had sugary snacks in the preceding 24 h, rising to 78% in the second year. Fried and salted snack foods had been eaten by 34% of infants and 66% of children under two. Stunting and wasting remain unacceptably common in informal settlements in Mumbai, and IYCF appears problematic, particularly in terms of dietary diversity. The ubiquity of sugary, fried, and salted snack foods is a serious concern: substantial consumption begins in infancy and exceeds that of all other food groups except grains, roots, and tubers.

  18. Optimal breastfeeding durations for HIV-exposed infants: the impact of maternal ART use, infant mortality and replacement feeding risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallampati, Divya; MacLean, Rachel L; Shapiro, Roger; Dabis, Francois; Engelsmann, Barbara; Freedberg, Kenneth A; Leroy, Valeriane; Lockman, Shahin; Walensky, Rochelle; Rollins, Nigel; Ciaranello, Andrea

    2018-04-01

    In 2010, the WHO recommended women living with HIV breastfeed for 12 months while taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) to balance breastfeeding benefits against HIV transmission risks. To inform the 2016 WHO guidelines, we updated prior research on the impact of breastfeeding duration on HIV-free infant survival (HFS) by incorporating maternal ART duration, infant/child mortality and mother-to-child transmission data. Using the Cost-Effectiveness of Preventing AIDS Complications (CEPAC)-Infant model, we simulated the impact of breastfeeding duration on 24-month HFS among HIV-exposed, uninfected infants. We defined "optimal" breastfeeding durations as those maximizing 24-month HFS. We varied maternal ART duration, mortality rates among breastfed infants/children, and relative risk of mortality associated with replacement feeding ("RRRF"), modelled as a multiplier on all-cause mortality for replacement-fed infants/children (range: 1 [no additional risk] to 6). The base-case simulated RRRF = 3, median infant mortality, and 24-month maternal ART duration. In the base-case, HFS ranged from 83.1% (no breastfeeding) to 90.2% (12-months breastfeeding). Optimal breastfeeding durations increased with higher RRRF values and longer maternal ART durations, but did not change substantially with variation in infant mortality rates. Optimal breastfeeding durations often exceeded the previous WHO recommendation of 12 months. In settings with high RRRF and long maternal ART durations, HFS is maximized when mothers breastfeed longer than the previously-recommended 12 months. In settings with low RRRF or short maternal ART durations, shorter breastfeeding durations optimize HFS. If mothers are supported to use ART for longer periods of time, it is possible to reduce transmission risks and gain the benefits of longer breastfeeding durations. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of the International AIDS Society published by John Wiley & sons Ltd on behalf of the International AIDS Society.

  19. Food and Nutrient Intake among 12-Month-Old Norwegian-Somali and Norwegian-Iraqi Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, Navnit Kaur; Andersen, Lene Frost; Kolve, Cathrine Solheim; Kverndalen, Ingrid; Torheim, Liv Elin

    2016-09-28

    The aim of the present paper was to describe food and nutrient intake among 12-month-old Norwegian-Somali and Norwegian-Iraqi infants, with a focus on iron and vitamin D intake. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from August 2013 through September 2014. Eighty-nine mothers/infants of Somali origin and 77 mothers/infants of Iraqi origin residing in Eastern Norway participated in the study. Data were collected using two 24-h multiple-pass recalls. Forty percent of the Norwegian-Somali infants and 47% of the Norwegian-Iraqi infants were breastfed at 12 months of age ( p = 0.414). Median energy percentages (E%) from protein, fat and carbohydrates were within the recommended intake ranges, except the level of saturated fats (12-13 E%). Median intakes of almost all micronutrients were above the recommended daily intakes. Most of the infants consumed iron-enriched products (81%) and received vitamin D supplements (84%). The median intakes of iron and vitamin D were significantly higher among infants receiving iron-enriched products and vitamin D supplements compared to infants not receiving such products ( p food and nutrient intake of this group of infants in general seems to be in accordance with Norwegian dietary recommendations. Foods rich in iron and vitamin D supplements were important sources of the infants' intake of iron and vitamin D and should continue to be promoted.

  20. Microbial Therapeutics Designed for Infant Health.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Watkins, Claire

    2017-10-01

    Acknowledgment of the gut microbiome as a vital asset to health has led to multiple studies attempting to elucidate its mechanisms of action. During the first year of life, many factors can cause fluctuation in the developing gut microbiome. Host genetics, maternal health status, mode of delivery, gestational age, feeding regime, and perinatal antibiotic usage, are known factors which can influence the development of the infant gut microbiome. Thus, the microbiome of vaginally born, exclusively breastfed infants at term, with no previous exposure to antibiotics, either directly or indirectly from the mother, is to be considered the "gold standard." Moreover, the use of prebiotics as an aid for the development of a healthy gut microbiome is equally as important in maintaining gut homeostasis. Breastmilk, a natural prebiotic source, provides optimal active ingredients for the growth of beneficial microbial species. However, early life disorders such as necrotising enterocolitis, childhood obesity, and even autism have been associated with an altered\\/disturbed gut microbiome. Subsequently, microbial therapies have been introduced, in addition to suitable prebiotic ingredients, which when administered, may aid in the prevention of a microbial disturbance in the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of this mini-review is to highlight the beneficial effects of different probiotic and prebiotic treatments in early life, with particular emphasis on the different conditions which negatively impact microbial colonisation at birth.

  1. Microbial Therapeutics Designed for Infant Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Watkins

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Acknowledgment of the gut microbiome as a vital asset to health has led to multiple studies attempting to elucidate its mechanisms of action. During the first year of life, many factors can cause fluctuation in the developing gut microbiome. Host genetics, maternal health status, mode of delivery, gestational age, feeding regime, and perinatal antibiotic usage, are known factors which can influence the development of the infant gut microbiome. Thus, the microbiome of vaginally born, exclusively breastfed infants at term, with no previous exposure to antibiotics, either directly or indirectly from the mother, is to be considered the “gold standard.” Moreover, the use of prebiotics as an aid for the development of a healthy gut microbiome is equally as important in maintaining gut homeostasis. Breastmilk, a natural prebiotic source, provides optimal active ingredients for the growth of beneficial microbial species. However, early life disorders such as necrotising enterocolitis, childhood obesity, and even autism have been associated with an altered/disturbed gut microbiome. Subsequently, microbial therapies have been introduced, in addition to suitable prebiotic ingredients, which when administered, may aid in the prevention of a microbial disturbance in the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of this mini-review is to highlight the beneficial effects of different probiotic and prebiotic treatments in early life, with particular emphasis on the different conditions which negatively impact microbial colonisation at birth.

  2. Simultaneous measurement of milk intake and total energy expenditure in mixed-fed infants: Methodological approach and prediction of total body water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, J.C.K.; Davies, P.S.W.; Coward, W.A.

    2000-01-01

    Evaluation of the energy metabolism that underlies the new WHO breast-fed growth reference requires simultaneous measurements of milk volume intake (MVI) and total energy expenditure (TEE) by stable isotope methodologies. In young infants, such data is collected without difficulty using the dose-to-the-infant method. In older infants, where breast-milk is supplemented with non-milk foods, MVI must be measured by dosing the mother instead of the infant. This procedure would interfere with a simple measurement of infant TEE using the standard dose-to-the-infant method. Theoretically, this difficulty can be resolved by dosing the mother with deuterium and the infant with 18-oxygen, and using curve-peeling methods to calculate the infant deuterium kinetics. We propose to ascertain whether such an approach is viable in practice, such that MVI, TEE and body composition could all be measured simultaneously in mixed-fed infants. Where MVI in older infants is measured on its own, there is a need to predict infant body water in order to estimate the deuterium dilution space. Using a database of 234 infants aged 1.5 to 12 months, we provide new predictive equations by which such values may be obtained. (author)

  3. CPR: Infant

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Putting It All Together: CPR—Infant (1:52) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store ...

  4. CPR: Infant

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... LIFEGUARDING Refresher Putting It All Together: CPR—Infant (1:52) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms and Conditions All rights reserved. 2011 American National Red Cross.

  5. Occurrence of oligosaccharides in feces of breast-fed babies in their first six months of life and the corresponding breast milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albrecht, S.A.; Schols, H.A.; Heuvel, van den E.G.H.M.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2011-01-01

    The characterization of oligosaccharides in the feces of breast-fed babies is a valuable tool for monitoring the gastrointestinal fate of human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs). In the present study we monitored fecal oligosaccharide profiles together with the HMO-profiles of the respective breast milks

  6. Bioactive Proteins in Human Milk: Health, Nutrition, and Implications for Infant Formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnerdal, Bo

    2016-06-01

    Breast milk confers many benefits to the newborn and developing infant. There is substantial support for better long-term outcomes, such as less obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, in breastfed compared with formula-fed infants. More short-term outcomes, such as incidence and duration of illness, nutrient status, and cognitive development during the first year of life also demonstrate benefits of breastfeeding. Several proteins in breast milk, including lactoferrin, α-lactalbumin, milk fat globule membrane proteins, and osteopontin, have been shown to have bioactivities that range from involvement in the protection against infection to the acquisition of nutrients from breast milk. In some cases, bovine counterparts of these proteins exert similar bioactivities. It is possible by dairy technology to add protein fractions highly enriched in these proteins to infant formula. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Factors Associated with Exclusive Breastfeeding of Preterm Infants. Results from a Prospective National Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maastrup, Ragnhild; Hansen, Bo Moelholm; Kronborg, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Evidence-based knowledge of how to guide the mothers of preterm infants in breastfeeding establishment is contradictive or sparse. The aim was to investigate the associations between pre-specified clinical practices for facilitating breastfeeding, and exclusive breastfeeding...... were analysed by multiple logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: At discharge 68% of the preterm infants were exclusively breastfed and 17% partially. Test-weighing the infant, and minimizing the use of a pacifier, showed a protective effect to exclusive breastfeeding at discharge (OR 0.6 (95% CI 0.......4-0.8) and 0.4 (95% CI 0.3-0.6), respectively). The use of nipple shields (OR 2.3 (95% CI 1.6-3.2)) and the initiation of breast milk expression later than 48 hours postpartum (OR 4.9 (95% CI 1.9-12.6)) were associated with failure of exclusive breastfeeding at discharge. The clinical practices associated...

  8. Effects of cow milk versus extensive protein hydrolysate formulas on infant cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennella, Julie A; Trabulsi, Jillian C; Papas, Mia A

    2016-03-01

    Little research has focused on infant developmental effects, other than growth, of formulas that differ substantially in the form of protein. To examine development of infants fed formulas differing in free amino acid content, we randomized 0.5-month-old infants (n = 79) to either a control group who fed only cow milk formula (CMF) during the first 8 months (CMF8), or to one of two experimental groups: one experimental group fed extensively protein hydrolyzed formula (EHF) for 1-3 months during first 4.5 months (EHF1-3) of life, and the other fed EHF for 8 months (EHF8). The Mullen Scales of Early Learning were administered monthly from 1.5 to 8.5 months to assess fine (FM) and gross (GM) motor control, receptive (RL) and expressive (EL) language, visual reception (VR), and an early learning composite (ELC). Across the 5.5-8.5-month time period, when compared to CMF8 infants, GM scores in EHF1-3 infants averaged 1.5 points higher (95 % CI 0.1, 3.0) and in EHF8 infants 2.2 points higher (95 % CI 0.3, 4.0). Similarly, VR scores averaged 1.9 points higher (95 % CI 0.1, 3.8) in EHF1-3 infants and 2.2 points higher (95 % CI -0.2, 4.5) in EHF8 infants. EHF8 infants' RL scores averaged 1.8 points lower (95 % CI 0.1, 3.6) than CMF8 infants. These data suggest that the form of protein in infant formula may impact cognitive development and that the higher free amino acid content in breast milk may be a contributing factor to the differential cognitive development between breastfed and CMF-fed infants. clinicaltrials.gov NCT00994747.

  9. Analgesic effect of breast milk versus sucrose for analgesia during heel lance in late preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonse, Eva; Mulder, Paul G H; van Beek, Ron H T

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this trial was to investigate whether breast milk (either breastfed or bottle-fed) has a better analgesic effect than sucrose in newborns born at a postmenstrual age between 32 and 37 weeks. We conducted a randomized controlled trial at a secondary care neonatal unit in the Netherlands on 71 preterm neonates (postmenstrual age at birth 32-37 weeks), undergoing heel lance with an automated piercing device. Newborns were randomly assigned to breast milk (either breastfed or bottle-fed) administered during heel lance or oral sucrose administered before heel lance. We assessed the Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP) score (range, 0-21) to investigate whether there was a difference in pain score between neonates receiving breast milk and those receiving sucrose solution. There was no significant difference in mean PIPP score between neonates receiving breast milk (6.1) and those receiving sucrose (5.5), with a mean difference of 0.6 (95% confidence interval -1.6 to 2.8; P = .58). From this study, it cannot be concluded that breast milk has a better analgesic effect than sucrose in late preterm infants. From the results, it follows with 95% confidence that the analgesic effect of breast milk is not >1.6 points better and not > 2.8 points worse on the PIPP scale (SD 3.7) than the analgesic effect of sucrose in late preterm infants.

  10. Feeding practices of infants through the first year of life in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannini, M; Riva, E; Banderali, G; Scaglioni, S; Veehof, S H E; Sala, M; Radaelli, G; Agostoni, C

    2004-04-01

    To investigate infant feeding practices through the first year of life in Italy, and to identify factors associated with the duration of breastfeeding and early introduction of solid foods. Structured phone interviews on feeding practices were conducted with 2450 Italian-speaking mothers randomly selected among women who delivered a healthy-term singleton infant in November 1999 in Italy. Interviews were performed 30 d after delivery and when the infants were aged 3, 6, 9 and 12 mo. Type of breastfeeding was classified according to the WHO criteria. Breastfeeding started in 91.1% of infants. At the age of 6 and 12 mo, respectively, 46.8% and 11.8% of the infants was still breastfed, 68.4% and 27.7% received formula, and 18.3% and 65.2% were given cow's milk. Solids were introduced at the mean age of 4.3 mo (range 1.6-6.5 mo). Introduction of solids occurred before age 3 and 4 mo in 5.6% and 34.2% of infants, respectively. The first solids introduced were fruit (73.1%) and cereals (63.9%). The main factors (negatively) associated with the duration of breastfeeding were pacifier use (p introduction of formula (p introduction of solids (p = 0.05). Factors (negatively) associated with the introduction of solids foods before the age of 3 mo were mother not having breastfed (p introduction of formula (p introduction of complementary foods. National guidelines, public messages and educational campaigns should be promoted in Italy.

  11. Diagnosis and management of cow's milk protein allergy in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Greef, Elisabeth; Hauser, Bruno; Devreker, Thierry; Veereman-Wauters, Gigi; Vandenplas, Yvan

    2012-02-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is frequently suspected in infants with a variety of symptoms. A thorough history and careful clinical examination are necessary to exclude other underlying diseases and to evaluate the severity of the suspected allergy. Care should be taken to diagnose CMPA adequately to avoid an unnecessary diet. We make recommendations based on systematic literature searches using the best-available evidence from PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and bibliographies. Skin prick tests, patch tests and serum specific IgE are only indicative of CMPA. Breastfed infants have a decreased risk of developing CMPA; an elimination diet for the mother is indicated if CMPA is confirmed. If a food challenge is positive in formula fed infants, an extensively hydrolysed formula and cow's milk-free diet is recommended. If symptoms do not improve, an amino acid based formula should be considered. In severe CMPA with life-threatening symptoms, an amino-acid formula is recommended. Elimination diet by a double-blind placebo controlled food challenge is the gold standard for diagnosis. Elimination of the offending allergen from the infants' diet is the main treatment principle.

  12. Prophylactic vitamin D in healthy infants: assessing the need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Agustina; Rodríguez, Julián; Carvajal, Ignacio; Prieto, M A Luz; Rodríguez, Rosa M A; Pérez, Ana M A; Cepeda, Angeles; Nuño, Fernando; Santos, Fernando

    2011-12-01

    The objective was to evaluate the need for vitamin D prophylaxis in healthy infants. This was a prospective and randomized study performed at primary care clinics. Eighty-eight full-term 1-month-old healthy infants were randomly assigned to receive (n = 41) or not (n = 47) 402 IU/d of vitamin D for 1 year. Primary outcome measures were serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations at 3, 6, and 12 months of age; secondary measures included data on feeding, habitat, season of birth, sun exposure, and physical examination. At 3 and 6 months of age, serum 25OHD levels (±SD) were significantly higher (P vitamin D deficiency. Serum 25OHD and PTH concentrations were weakly but significantly correlated (r = -0.29, P = .009) at 3 months of age. Healthy infants without vitamin D prophylaxis had lower circulating concentrations of 25OHD at 3 and 6 months of age, the lowest value being found in 3-month breast-fed infants. The clinical relevance of these findings is probably negligible because serum 25OHD levels spontaneously increased with age and were not associated with high serum PTH. Clinical manifestations of rickets were not observed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Recurrent wheezing in relation to environmental risk factors in infancy. A prospective study of 276 infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A; Husby, S

    1991-01-01

    Clinical course and environmental factors were recorded in a prospective study of 276 unselected infants followed from birth to the age of 18 months. The study was performed with a questionnaire at the age of 6 and 12 months and a physical examination at 18 months. Fifty-nine (21%) of the children......, 192 (70%) were in daycare, 62 (22%) lived in flats and 167 (61%) were in daily contact with furred pets at home and/or in daycare. In social class V a preponderance of children were exposed to passive tobacco smoking, a majority were living in flats and a minority were breastfed greater than or equal...

  14. Allergic diseases among very preterm infants according to nutrition after hospital discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariassen, Gitte; Faerk, Jan; Kjær, Birgitte Esberg Boysen

    2011-01-01

    To determine whether a cow's milk-based human milk fortifier (HMF) added to mother's milk while breastfeeding or a cow's milk-based preterm formula compared to exclusively mother's milk after hospital discharge, increases the incidence of developing allergic diseases among very preterm infants (V...... between nutrition groups. None developed food allergy. Compared to exclusively breastfed, VPI supplemented with HMF or fed exclusively a preterm formula for 4 months did not have an increased risk of developing allergic diseases during the first year of life....

  15. [Exposition to drugs of abuse in pregnancy and breastfed babies growth in CONIN Valparaíso, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñuñuri, Raúl; Mardones, Constanza; Valenzuela, Carina; Estay, Pamela; Llanos, Miguel

    2015-05-01

    Consequences related to drugs exposure during fetal life have been extensively studied. The present work explores the Chilean situation about this matter, characterizing growth of infants previously exposed to drugs during fetal life. Compare anthropometric measurements between neonates exposed to drugs due to maternal consumption during pregnancy and an unexposed control group from 0 -6 months of life. Anthropometric data from 74 control infants from a Health Center in Valparaiso, Chile, and 61 infants exposed to drugs during gestation from the Corporation for Infant Nutrition (CONIN, Valparaíso, Chile) were obtained. Data obtained from both groups were subjected to a T-Student statistical analysis by group. According to gestational age there were more pre-term infants in CONIN-exposed group, reaching more than 25 % prevalence. On the contrary, prevalence in unexposed control infants was less than 11 %. In addition, CONIN group showed a higher number of small for gestational age infants of both sex (37% CONIN vs 6% Control), evaluated according to the Chilean intrauterine growth curves. Length and weight showed statistical significant differences between both groups from birth to 6 months of life. Female infants showed significant differences in cephalic circumference until one month of life, while in male infants this difference is maintained until 6 month of life. Z score for indicators such as weight/ length, weight/age and length/age during first 6 months of life, leads to conclude that CONIN group is at risk of undernutrition while control group should be considered as normal. Maternal drugs consumption during pregnancy results in marked deficient anthropometric characteristics of newborn and until 6 month of life. This fact may have metabolic long term consequences associated to development of chronic non-communicable diseases during adulthood. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  16. Alterations in human milk leptin and insulin are associated with early changes in the infant intestinal microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemas, Dominick J; Young, Bridget E; Baker, Peter R; Tomczik, Angela C; Soderborg, Taylor K; Hernandez, Teri L; de la Houssaye, Becky A; Robertson, Charles E; Rudolph, Michael C; Ir, Diana; Patinkin, Zachary W; Krebs, Nancy F; Santorico, Stephanie A; Weir, Tiffany; Barbour, Linda A; Frank, Daniel N; Friedman, Jacob E

    2016-05-01

    Increased maternal body mass index (BMI) is a robust risk factor for later pediatric obesity. Accumulating evidence suggests that human milk (HM) may attenuate the transfer of obesity from mother to offspring, potentially through its effects on early development of the infant microbiome. Our objective was to identify early differences in intestinal microbiota in a cohort of breastfeeding infants born to obese compared with normal-weight (NW) mothers. We also investigated relations between HM hormones (leptin and insulin) and both the taxonomic and functional potentials of the infant microbiome. Clinical data and infant stool and fasting HM samples were collected from 18 NW [prepregnancy BMI (in kg/m(2)) obese (prepregnancy BMI >30.0) mothers and their exclusively breastfed infants at 2 wk postpartum. Infant body composition at 2 wk was determined by air-displacement plethysmography. Infant gastrointestinal microbes were estimated by using 16S amplicon and whole-genome sequencing. HM insulin and leptin were determined by ELISA; short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were measured in stool samples by using gas chromatography. Power was set at 80%. Infants born to obese mothers were exposed to 2-fold higher HM insulin and leptin concentrations (P obesity may adversely affect the early infant intestinal microbiome, HM insulin and leptin are independently associated with beneficial microbial metabolic pathways predicted to increase intestinal barrier function and reduce intestinal inflammation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01693406. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. Physics of fully ionized regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flower, D.

    1975-01-01

    In this paper the term fully ionised regions is taken to embrace both planetary nebulae and the so-called 'H II' regions referred to as H + regions. Whilst these two types of gaseous nebulae are very different from an evolutionary standpoint, they are physically very similar, being characterised by photoionisation of a low-density plasma by a hot star. (Auth.)

  18. Adherence with early infant feeding and complementary feeding guidelines in the Cork BASELINE Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donovan, Sinéad M; Murray, Deirdre M; Hourihane, Jonathan O'B; Kenny, Louise C; Irvine, Alan D; Kiely, Mairead

    2015-10-01

    To describe adherence with infant feeding and complementary feeding guidelines. Prospective study of infant feeding and complementary feeding practices were collected as part of the Cork BASELINE Birth Cohort Study. Cork, Ireland. Data are described for the 823 infants for whom a diary was completed. Breast-feeding was initiated in 81 % of infants, and 34 %, 14 % and 1 % of infants were exclusively breast-fed at hospital discharge, 2 and 6 months, respectively. Stage one infant formula decreased from 71 % at 2 months to 13 % at 12 months. The majority of infants (79 %) were introduced to solids between 17 and 26 weeks and 18 % were given solid foods before 17 weeks. Mothers of infants who commenced complementary feeding prior to 17 weeks were younger (29·8 v. 31·5 years; P<0·001) and more likely to smoke (18 v. 8 %; P=0·004). The first food was usually baby rice (69 %), infant breakfast cereals (14 %) or fruit/vegetables (14 %). Meals were generally home-made (49 %), cereal-based (35 %), manufactured (10 %), dairy (3 %) and dessert-based (3 %). The median gap between the first-second, second-third, third-fourth and fourth-fifth new foods was 4, 2, 2 and 2 d, respectively. We present the largest prospective cohort study to date on early infant feeding in Ireland. The rate of breast-feeding is low by international norms. Most mothers introduce complementary foods between 4 and 6 months with lengthy gaps between each new food/food product. There is a high prevalence of exposure to infant breakfast cereals, which are composite foods, among the first foods introduced.

  19. Beriberi (thiamine deficiency and high infant mortality in northern Laos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Barennes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Infantile beriberi (thiamine deficiency occurs mainly in infants breastfed by mothers with inadequate intake of thiamine, typically among vulnerable populations. We describe possible and probable cases of infantile thiamine deficiency in northern Laos.Three surveys were conducted in Luang Namtha Province. First, we performed a retrospective survey of all infants with a diagnosis of thiamine deficiency admitted to the 5 hospitals in the province (2007-2009. Second, we prospectively recorded all infants with cardiac failure at Luang Namtha Hospital. Third, we further investigated all mothers with infants (1-6 months living in 22 villages of the thiamine deficiency patients' origin. We performed a cross-sectional survey of all mothers and infants using a pre-tested questionnaire, physical examination and squat test. Infant mortality was estimated by verbal autopsy. From March to June 2010, four suspected infants with thiamine deficiency were admitted to Luang Namtha Provincial hospital. All recovered after parenteral thiamine injection. Between 2007 and 2009, 54 infants with possible/probable thiamine deficiency were diagnosed with acute severe cardiac failure, 49 (90.2% were cured after parenteral thiamine; three died (5.6%. In the 22 villages, of 468 live born infants, 50 (10.6%, 95% CI: 8.0-13.8 died during the first year. A peak of mortality (36 deaths was reported between 1 and 3 months. Verbal autopsy suggested that 17 deaths (3.6% were due to suspected infantile thiamine deficiency. Of 127 mothers, 60 (47.2% reported edema and paresthesia as well as a positive squat test during pregnancy; 125 (98.4% respected post-partum food avoidance and all ate polished rice. Of 127 infants, 2 (1.6% had probable thiamine deficiency, and 8 (6.8% possible thiamine deficiency.Thiamine deficiency may be a major cause of infant mortality among ethnic groups in northern Laos. Mothers' and children's symptoms are compatible with thiamine deficiency. The severity

  20. Exclusive breastfeeding, diarrhoeal morbidity and all-cause mortality in infants of HIV-infected and HIV uninfected mothers: an intervention cohort study in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel C Rollins

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Antiretroviral drug interventions significantly reduce the risk of HIV transmission to infants through breastfeeding. We report diarrhoea prevalence and all-cause mortality at 12 months of age according to infant feeding practices, among infants born to HIV-infected and uninfected mothers in South Africa. METHODS: A non-randomised intervention cohort study that followed both HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected mothers and their infants until 18 months of age. Mothers were supported in their infant feeding choice. Detailed morbidity and vital status data were collected over the first year. At the time, only single dose nevirapine was available to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV. RESULTS: Among 2,589 infants, detailed feeding data and vital status were available for 1,082 HIV-exposed infants and 1,155 HIV non-exposed infants. Among exclusively breastfed (EBF infants there were 9.4 diarrhoeal days per 1,000 child days (95%CI. 9.12-9.82 while among infants who were never breastfed there were 15.6 diarrhoeal days per 1,000 child days (95%CI. 14.62-16.59. Exclusive breastfeeding was associated with fewer acute, persistent and total diarrhoeal events than mixed or no breastfeeding in both HIV-exposed infants and also infants of HIV uninfected mothers. In an adjusted cox regression analysis, the risk of death among all infants by 12 months of age was significantly greater in those who were never breastfed (aHR 3.5, p<0.001 or mixed fed (aHR 2.65, p<0.001 compared with those who were EBF. In separate multivariable analyses, infants who were EBF for shorter durations had an increased risk of death compared to those EBF for 5-6 months [aHR 2.18 (95% CI, 1.56-3.01; p<0.001]. DISCUSSION: In the context of antiretroviral drugs being scaled-up to eliminate new HIV infections among children, there is strong justification for financial and human resource investment to promote and support exclusive breastfeeding to improve HIV-free survival

  1. Breastfeeding Infants with Phenylketonuria in the United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press, Nancy; Knafl, Kathleen A.; Steiner, Robert D.; Houck, Gail M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: This study described the prevalence and duration of mothers' breastfeeding infants with phenylketonuria (PKU) and explored factors related to duration of breastfeeding as a surrogate for breastfeeding success. Subjects and Methods: Descriptive analysis as performed from an international Internet survey of mothers (n=103) who met the inclusion criteria: (1) at least 21 years of age, (2) able to read and write in English, (3) child with PKU, and (4) living in the United States or Canada. Results: Of the 103 mothers, 89 (86%) initiated breastfeeding immediately following delivery, whereas 14 (14%) chose bottle feeding. In comparison to breastfeeding after delivery, significantly fewer mothers breastfed after diagnosis (McNemar's χ2=30.33, p<0.001; n=72 vs. n=89). Breastfeeding duration ranged from less than 1 month to 24 months with one modal duration category (n=20, 22%) at less than 1 month. The timing of the addition of commercial infant formula to supplement breastfeeding or expressed mothers' milk was associated with a shorter duration of breastfeeding among infants with PKU: χ2 (42, n=73)=88.13, p<0.001. Conclusions: PKU is treated with phenylalanine (Phe) restriction. Breastfeeding infants with PKU is challenging in part because Phe intake is difficult to determine precisely. We studied breastfeeding duration in infants with PKU and factors associated with success. Further research should identify the unique needs of mothers' breastfeeding infants with PKU to guide the development of interventions specific to these mothers to support their efforts to continue breastfeeding after the diagnosis of PKU. PMID:24350704

  2. Maternal Caffeine Consumption and Infant Nighttime Waking: Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Iná S.; Matijasevich, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Coffee and other caffeinated beverages are commonly consumed in pregnancy. In adults, caffeine may interfere with sleep onset and have a dose-response effect similar to those seen during insomnia. In infancy, nighttime waking is a common event. With this study, we aimed to investigate if maternal caffeine consumption during pregnancy and lactation leads to frequent nocturnal awakening among infants at 3 months of age. METHODS: All children born in the city of Pelotas, Brazil, during 2004 were enrolled on a cohort study. Mothers were interviewed at delivery and after 3 months to obtain information on caffeine drinking consumption, sociodemographic, reproductive, and behavioral characteristics. Infant sleeping pattern in the previous 15 days was obtained from a subsample. Night waking was defined as an episode of infant arousal that woke the parents during nighttime. Multivariable analysis was performed by using Poisson regression. RESULTS: The subsample included 885 of the 4231 infants born in 2004. All but 1 mother consumed caffeine in pregnancy. Nearly 20% were heavy consumers (≥300 mg/day) during pregnancy and 14.3% at 3 months postpartum. Prevalence of frequent nighttime awakeners (>3 episodes per night) was 13.8% (95% confidence interval: 11.5%–16.0%). The highest prevalence ratio was observed among breastfed infants from mothers consuming ≥300 mg/day during the whole pregnancy and in the postpartum period (1.65; 95% confidence interval: 0.86–3.17) but at a nonsignificant level. CONCLUSIONS: Caffeine consumption during pregnancy and by nursing mothers seems not to have consequences on sleep of infants at the age of 3 months. PMID:22473365

  3. Food claims and nutrition facts of commercial infant foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Yu-Chin; Chang, Jung-Su; Chen, Yi Chun

    2018-01-01

    Composition claim, nutrition claim and health claim are often found on the commercial complementary food packaging. The introduction of complementary foods (CFs) to infants is a turning point in the development of their eating behavior, and their commercial use for Taiwanese infants is growing. In Taiwan, lots of the advertisements for CFs employed health or nutrition claims to promote the products, but the actual nutritional content of these CFs is not clear. The aim of this study was to compare the food claims of commercial complementary food products with their actual nutrition facts. A sample of 363 commercial CFs was collected from websites, local supermarkets, and other food stores, and their nutrition-related claims were classified into composition, nutrition, and health categories. Although the World Health Organization recommends that infants should be exclusively breastfed for the first 6 months, 48.2% of the commercial CFs were targeted at infants younger than 6 months. Therefore, marketing regulations should be implemented to curb early weaning as a result of products targeted at infants younger than 6 months. More than 50% of Taiwanese commercial CFs have high sugar content and more than 20% were high in sodium. Products with health claims, such as "provides good nutrition to children" or "improves appetite," have higher sodium or sugar content than do those without such claims. Moreover, products with calcium or iron content claims did not contain more calcium or iron than products without such claims. Additionally, a significantly greater proportion of the products with "no added sugar" claims were classified as having high sugar content as compared to those without such claims. Parents cannot choose the healthiest food products for their children by simply focusing on food claims. Government should regulate the labeling of nutrition facts and food claims for foods targeted at infants younger than 12 months.

  4. Effect of cup feeding and bottle feeding on breastfeeding in late preterm infants: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Gonca; Caylan, Nilgun; Karacan, Can Demir; Bodur, İlknur; Gokcay, Gulbin

    2014-05-01

    Cup feeding has been used as an alternative feeding method for preterm infants. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of bottle and cup feeding on exclusive breastfeeding rates at hospital discharge and 3 and 6 months post-discharge in late preterm infants. Included in the study were preterm infants of 32 to 35 weeks' gestation fed only by intermittent gastric tube at the time of recruitment; 522 infants were randomly assigned to 2 groups: the cup-fed group (n = 254) and bottle-fed group (n = 268). Main outcomes were prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding at discharge and 3 and 6 months after discharge, and length of hospital stay. Infants randomized to cup versus bottle feeding were more likely to be exclusively breastfed at discharge home (relative risk [RR], 1.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.36-1.83), 3 months after discharge (RR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.42-1.89), and 6 months after discharge (RR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.14-1.63). There was no significant difference between groups for length of hospital stay. The mean hospital stay was 25.96 ± 2.20 days in the bottle-fed group and 25.68 ± 2.22 days in the cup-fed group. There was no significant difference between groups for time spent feeding, feeding problems, or weight gain in hospital. Cup feeding significantly increased the likelihood of late preterm infants being exclusively breastfed at discharge and 3 and 6 months after discharge, and cup feeding did not increase the length of hospital stay. Overall, we recommend cup feeding as a transitional method prior to breastfeeding for late preterm infants during hospitalization.

  5. Vitamin-fortified complementary foods for infant nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Kodentsova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The diet of modern nursing women consisting of natural foods is adequate for the consumption of energy and sometimes excessively caloric can not to provide the organism with the necessary amounts of vitamins. The content of vitamins in breast milk of insufficiently supplied women is less than in nursing mothers, adequate supply of vitamins. The needs of the growing breast-fed child by women with multivitamin deficiency can not to satisfied by means breast milk. Based on the analysis of the vitamin status of pregnant and lactating women, as well as the content of vitamins in breast milk of mothers with various vitamins sufficiency conclusion for inclusion in the diet of infants enriched with vitamins and minerals weaning cereal-based products (cereals had been made. Vitamin and mineral supplements or vitamin enriched foods must be included in the diet to maintain the vitamin status of lactating women. 

  6. Identification and biological activity of potential probiotic bacterium isolated from the stomach mucus of breast-fed lamb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kiňová Sepov��

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The lactic acid bacterium E isolated from the stomach mucus of breast-fed lamb was identified by sequencing of 16S rDNA fragment and species-specific PCR as Lactobacillus reuteri. Its potential antimicrobial activity and ability to modulate immune system in vitro and in vivo was determined. The growth inhibition of potential pathogens decreased from Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica ser. Minnesota to Escherichia coli. The lowest inhibition activity was observed in the case of Candida albicans. The ability of L. reuteri E to modulate biological activities of human and mouse mononuclear cells was estimated in vitro and in vivo, respectively. The production of IL-1β by monocytes in vitro was significantly induced by L. reuteri E (relative activity 2.47. The ability to modulate biological activities of mononuclear cells by living L. reuteri E cells in vitro in comparison to disintegrated L. reuteri E cells in vivo differed. For example lysozyme activity in vitro was inhibited while in vivo was stimulated (relative activities 0.30 and 1.83, respectively. The peroxidase activity in vitro was stimulated while in vivo was inhibited (relative activities 1.53 and 0.17, respectively. Obtained results indicate that L. reuteri E is potential candidate to be used in probiotic preparations for animals and/or human.

  7. INFANT AND YOUNG CHILD FEEDING PRACTICES IN GUNTUR DISTRICT-A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Optimal Infant and Young Child-Feeding (IYCF practices are crucial for nutritional status, growth, development, health, and ultimately the survival of infants and young children. It was estimated that, if 90% of infants are covered with a package of intervention to protect, promote, and support the optimal IYCF practices, almost one-fifth of overall under-five mortality can be averted. OBJECTIVES 1. To study the socio-demographic characteristics of the Infants and Young children living in the rural areas. 2. To study the core Infant and Young Child Feeding indicators. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in Venigandla village, the rural field practice area of NRI Medical College, Guntur, for a period of 4 months from January to April 2015. A total of 100 children aged 6-23 months were studied using a pre-tested semi-structured schedule. Data were entered in Microsoft Excel and analysed using Epi Info software. RESULTS Of the 100 children studied, majority of families belong to lower middle class (40% according to BG Prasad socio- economic classification. One in 10 children was given pre- lacteal feeds after birth. Two-thirds of mothers breastfed their children within first hour after birth. Three fourths of children received exclusively breastfed up to 6 months of age. Minimum Dietary Diversity was observed in 74%, Minimum Meal Frequency observed in 94% and Minimum Acceptable Diet was observed in 70% of the 6-23 months children. CONCLUSION The IYCF practices were observed to be better in the present study when compared to similar studies done elsewhere in the country. Area specific programmes need to be created for providing comprehensive nutrition and health education for mothers, to protect, promote and sustain the optimal IYCF practices.

  8. Relationships between Breastfeeding Patterns and Maternal and Infant Body Composition over the First 12 Months of Lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoya Gridneva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Breastfeeding has been implicated in the establishment of infant appetite regulation, feeding patterns and body composition (BC. A holistic approach is required to elucidate relationships between infant and maternal BC and contributing factors, such as breastfeeding parameters. Associations between maternal and breastfed term infant BC (n = 20 and feeding parameters during first 12 months of lactation were investigated. BC was measured at 2, 5, 9 and/or 12 months postpartum with ultrasound skinfolds (US; infants only and bioimpedance spectroscopy (infants and mothers. 24-h milk intake (MI and feeding frequency (FFQ were measured. Higher FFQ was associated with larger 24-h MI (p ≤ 0.003. Higher 24-h MI was associated with larger infant fat mass (FM (US: p ≤ 0.002, greater percentage FM (US: p ≤ 0.008, greater FM index (FMI (US: p ≤ 0.001 and lower fat-free mass index (FFMI (US: p = 0.015. Lower FFQ was associated with both larger FFM (US: p ≤ 0.001 and FFMI (US: p < 0.001. Greater maternal adiposity was associated with smaller infant FFM measured with US (BMI: p < 0.010; %FM: p = 0.004; FMI: p < 0.011. Maternal BC was not associated with FFQ or 24-h MI. These results reinforce that early life is a critical window for infant programming and that breastfeeding may influence risk of later disease via modulation of BC.

  9. Immunostimulatory effect of faecal Bifidobacterium species of breast-fed and formula-fed infants in a PBMC/CaCO-2 coculture system

    OpenAIRE

    Pozo Rubio, Tamara; Mujico, Jorge R.; Marcos, Ascensión; Puertollano, E; Nadal, Inmaculada; Sanz, Yolanda; Nova, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Bifidobacterium spp. typical of the human intestinal microbiota are believed to influence the balance of immune responses in the intestinal mucosa. Aim: To investigate the effect of different bifidobacterial species and mixtures of them in in vitro experiments with PBMCs and CaCo-2 cells. Methods: Bifidobacterium adolescentis; Bifidobacterium angulatum; Bifidobacterium breve; Bifidobacterium catenulatum; Bifidobacterium infantis; Bifidobacterium longum; and two combinations of these bif...

  10. Semantic memory processing is enhanced in preadolescents breastfed compared to those formula-fed as infants: An ERP N400 study of sentential semantic congruity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies comparing child cognitive development and brain activity during cognitive functions between children who were fed breast milk (BF), milk formula (MF), or soy formula (SF) have not been reported. We recorded event-related scalp potentials reflecting semantic processing (N400 ERP) from 20 homo...

  11. Axiomatisation of fully probabilistic design

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kárný, Miroslav; Kroupa, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 186, č. 1 (2012), s. 105-113 ISSN 0020-0255 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 2C06001; GA ČR GA102/08/0567 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Bayesian decision making * Fully probabilistic design * Kullback–Leibler divergence * Unified decision making Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 3.643, year: 2012 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/AS/karny-0367271.pdf

  12. Anemia and Feeding Practices among Infants in Rural Shaanxi Province in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renfu Luo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anemia is one of the most prevalent public health problems among infants and iron deficiency anemia has been related to many adverse consequences. The overall goal of this study is to examine the prevalence of anemia among infants in poor rural China and to identify correlates of anemia. In April 2013, we randomly sampled 948 infants aged 6–11 months living in 351 villages across 174 townships in nationally-designated poverty counties in rural areas of southern Shaanxi Province, China. Infants were administered a finger prick blood test for hemoglobin (Hb. Anthropometric measurement and household survey of demographic characteristics and feeding practices were conducted in the survey. We found that 54.3% of 6–11 month old infants in poor rural China are anemic, and 24.3% of sample infants suffer from moderate or severe anemia. We find that children still breastfed over 6 months of age had lower Hb concentrations and higher anemia prevalence than their non-breastfeeding counterparts (p < 0.01, and that children who had ever been formula-fed had significantly higher Hb concentrations and lower anemia prevalence than their non-formula-fed counterparts (p < 0.01. The results suggest the importance of iron supplementation or home fortification while breastfeeding.

  13. Knowledge, opinions and practices of healthcare workers related to infant feeding in the context of HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liska Janse van Rensburg

    2016-10-01

    Objective: To determine the knowledge, opinions and practices of healthcare workers in maternity wards in a regional hospital in Bloemfontein, Free State Province, South Africa, regarding infant feeding in the context of HIV. Methods: For this descriptive cross-sectional study, all the healthcare workers in the maternity wards of Pelonomi Regional Hospital who voluntarily gave their consent during the scheduled meetings (n = 64, were enrolled and handed over the self-administered questionnaires. Results: Only 14% of the respondents considered themselves to be experts in HIV and infant feeding. Approximately 97% felt that breastfeeding was an excellent feeding choice provided proper guidelines were followed. However, 10% indicated that formula feeding is the safest feeding option. 45% stated that heat-treated breast milk is a good infant feeding option; however, 29% considered it a good infant feeding option but it requires too much work. Only 6% could comprehensively explain the term “exclusive breastfeeding” as per World Health Organisation (WHO definition. Confusion existed regarding the period for which an infant could be breastfed according to the newest WHO guidelines, with only 26% providing the correct answer. Twenty per cent reported that no risk exists for HIV transmission via breastfeeding if all the necessary guidelines are followed. Conclusion: Healthcare workers' knowledge did not conform favourably with the current WHO guidelines. These healthcare workers were actively involved in the care of patients in the maternity wards where HIV-infected mothers regularly seek counselling on infant feeding matters.

  14. Infant feeding and school attainment in five cohorts from low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horta, Bernardo L; Bas, Abet; Bhargava, Santosh K; Fall, Caroline H D; Feranil, Alan; de Kadt, Julia; Martorell, Reynaldo; Richter, Linda M; Stein, Aryeh D; Victora, Cesar G

    2013-01-01

    Performance in intelligence tests tends to be higher among individuals breastfed as infants, but little is known about the association between breastfeeding and achieved schooling. We assessed the association of infant feeding with school achievement in five cohorts from low- and middle-income countries. Unlike high-income country settings where most previous studies come from, breastfeeding is not positively associated with socioeconomic position in our cohorts, thus reducing the likelihood of a spurious positive association. Participants included 10,082 young adults from five birth cohorts (Brazil, India, Guatemala, the Philippines, and South Africa). The exposures variables were whether the subject was ever breastfed, total duration of breastfeeding, and age at introduction of complementary foods. We adjusted the estimates for age at follow up, sex, maternal age, smoking during pregnancy, birthweight and socioeconomic position at birth. The key outcome was the highest grade achieved at school. In unadjusted analyses, the association between ever breastfeeding and schooling was positive in Brazil, inverse in the Philippines, and null in South Africa; in adjusted analyses, these associations were attenuated. In Brazil, schooling was highest among individuals breastfed for 3-12 months whereas in the Philippines duration of breastfeeding was inversely associated with schooling; and null associations were observed in South Africa and Guatemala. These associations were attenuated in adjusted models. Late introduction of solid foods was associated with lower schooling achievement in Brazil and South Africa. Measures of breastfeeding are not consistently related to schooling achievement in contemporary cohorts of young adults in lower and middle-income countries.

  15. Infant feeding and school attainment in five cohorts from low- and middle-income countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo L Horta

    Full Text Available Performance in intelligence tests tends to be higher among individuals breastfed as infants, but little is known about the association between breastfeeding and achieved schooling. We assessed the association of infant feeding with school achievement in five cohorts from low- and middle-income countries. Unlike high-income country settings where most previous studies come from, breastfeeding is not positively associated with socioeconomic position in our cohorts, thus reducing the likelihood of a spurious positive association.Participants included 10,082 young adults from five birth cohorts (Brazil, India, Guatemala, the Philippines, and South Africa. The exposures variables were whether the subject was ever breastfed, total duration of breastfeeding, and age at introduction of complementary foods. We adjusted the estimates for age at follow up, sex, maternal age, smoking during pregnancy, birthweight and socioeconomic position at birth. The key outcome was the highest grade achieved at school. In unadjusted analyses, the association between ever breastfeeding and schooling was positive in Brazil, inverse in the Philippines, and null in South Africa; in adjusted analyses, these associations were attenuated. In Brazil, schooling was highest among individuals breastfed for 3-12 months whereas in the Philippines duration of breastfeeding was inversely associated with schooling; and null associations were observed in South Africa and Guatemala. These associations were attenuated in adjusted models. Late introduction of solid foods was associated with lower schooling achievement in Brazil and South Africa.Measures of breastfeeding are not consistently related to schooling achievement in contemporary cohorts of young adults in lower and middle-income countries.

  16. Bonding with books: the parent-infant connection in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Lynne J

    2013-01-01

    Parents of infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) experience one of the most stressful events of their lives. At times, they are unable to participate fully, if at all, in the care of their infant. Parents in the NICU have a need to participate in the care of their infant to attain the parental role. Parental reading to infants in the NICU is an intervention that can connect the parent and infant and offers a way for parents to participate in caregiving. This intervention may have many benefits and may positively affect the parent-infant relationship.

  17. Physics of fully depleted CCDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, S E; Bebek, C J; Kolbe, W F; Lee, J S

    2014-01-01

    In this work we present simple, physics-based models for two effects that have been noted in the fully depleted CCDs that are presently used in the Dark Energy Survey Camera. The first effect is the observation that the point-spread function increases slightly with the signal level. This is explained by considering the effect on charge-carrier diffusion due to the reduction in the magnitude of the channel potential as collected signal charge acts to partially neutralize the fixed charge in the depleted channel. The resulting reduced voltage drop across the carrier drift region decreases the vertical electric field and increases the carrier transit time. The second effect is the observation of low-level, concentric ring patterns seen in uniformly illuminated images. This effect is shown to be most likely due to lateral deflection of charge during the transit of the photo-generated carriers to the potential wells as a result of lateral electric fields. The lateral fields are a result of space charge in the fully depleted substrates arising from resistivity variations inherent to the growth of the high-resistivity silicon used to fabricate the CCDs

  18. Visualização dos padrões de variação da taxa de mortalidade infantil no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil: comparação entre as abordagens Bayesiana Empírica e Totalmente Bayesiana Patterns of variation in the infant mortality rate in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil: comparison of empirical Bayesian and fully Bayesian approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Letícia Couto da Silva

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A mortalidade infantil é um sensível indicador de saúde. Conhecer o seu perfil geográfico auxilia na formulação de estratégias de saúde pública. O mapeamento de doenças tem por objetivo descrever a distribuição geográfica das taxas de mortalidade ou incidência de doenças por intermédio de mapas. Em razão da alta instabilidade das taxas brutas quando há pequenas áreas, utilizam-se os métodos de suavização bayesiana, que se valem de informações de toda a região ou da vizinhança para estimar as taxas. O artigo faz a comparação entre os métodos Bayesiano Empírico e Totalmente Bayesiano para as taxas de mortalidade infantil (dados acumulados de 2001 a 2004 no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. O trabalho aponta as vantagens do uso dos estimadores bayesianos na visualização espacial dos mapas. Os métodos Bayesianos Empíricos apresentaram resultados muito semelhantes aos dos métodos Totalmente Bayesianos e possuem a grande vantagem de ser de fácil utilização por profissionais da área de saúde, destacando igualmente os principais padrões espaciais da taxa de mortalidade no Rio Grande do Sul no período estudado.Infant mortality is considered a sensitive health indicator, and knowledge of its geographical profile is essential for formulating appropriate public health policies. Disease mapping aims to describe the geographical distribution of disease incidence and mortality rates. Due to the heavy instability of crude rates in small areas, methods involving Bayesian smoothing of rates are used, drawing on information for the whole area or neighborhood to estimate the event rate. The current study compares empirical Bayesian (EB and fully Bayesian (FB methods for infant mortality rates (accumulated data from 2001 to 2004 in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. This study highlights the advantages of Bayesian estimators for viewing and interpreting maps. For the problem at hand, EB and FB methods showed quite similar results and

  19. An Experimental Approach to Study Individual Differences in Infants' Intake and Satiation Behaviors during Bottle-Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Alison K; Mennella, Julie A

    2017-02-01

    As a group, bottle-fed infants are at higher risk for rapid weight gain compared with breast-fed infants. However, little is known about individual differences in feeding behaviors of bottle-feeding infants, as well as maternal and infant characteristics associated with bottle-feeding outcomes. We conducted a 2-day, within-subject study of 21 formula-feeding dyads; the within-subject factor was feeding condition: mother-led (ML; mothers were given the instruction to feed their infants as they typically would) vs. infant-led (IL; the experimenter ensured feeding began when infants signaled hunger and ended when they rejected the bottle on three consecutive occasions). Intake was determined by bottle weight; feedings were video-recorded and later analyzed to determine feeding duration and types of satiation behaviors displayed. Percent difference scores were calculated for each outcome as [((ML - IL)/IL) × 100] to standardize differences among dyads. Mothers completed questionnaires of feeding styles and infant temperament. On average, infants consumed ∼42% more formula during the ML- than IL-condition (p = 0.03). However, notable variation existed in difference scores for intake (range = -52.8% to 268.9%; higher scores reflect greater intake during ML than IL). Stepwise regression illustrated that greater intakes during the ML-condition were predicted by the combination of: (1) higher infant age; (2) lower levels of infant rhythmicity and adaptability; (3) higher levels of infant positive mood; and (4) lower levels of maternal restrictive and responsive feeding styles. This objective, experimental approach illustrated that variation in bottle-feeding outcomes is associated with characteristics of both members of the dyad.

  20. Co-ordinated research project on isotopic evaluations in infant growth monitoring - a collaboration with WHO (partly RCA). Report on the second and final research co-ordination meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    In the last few years, the World Health Organisation (WHO) has organised the development of new reference data for infant growth, reflecting the fact that previous growth reference data were based in part on formula-fed infants. With the benefits of breast-feeding for infant health increasingly recognised, and the differences in growth rate between breast-fed and formula-fed infants replicated in many populations, growth reference data from breast-fed infants became a priority. The importance of early growth for adult health is also increasingly appreciated, with numerous studies linking early nutrition and growth patterns to the risk of cardiovascular disease, obesity, type 2 diabetes and stroke in later life. To support these new reference data, it is also important to assess the breast-milk and nutrient intakes of normally-growing breast-fed infants, in order to revise recommendations for their energy requirements. This coordinated research project (CRP) was therefore initiated by the International Atomic Energy Agency to investigate milk intake and growth in several populations from developing countries. A secondary aim was to continue the technological development of methodologies that allow the required measurements to be undertaken in free-living mother-infant pairs in field conditions. The measurement of breast-milk intake was until recently undertaken using test-weighing, whereby the infant is weighed before and after each feed during one or more 24 hour periods. This method is intrusive, cumbersome, and unsuitable for many populations under field conditions. The development of the dose-to-the-mother deuterium oxide turnover method, by which maternal breast-milk transfer can be assessed by isotopic kinetics, has transformed the ability to measure milk intake in wholly or partially breast-fed infants in developing countries. The current CRP aimed to apply this technology to a variety of populations, ensuring that the data were comparable between countries

  1. Co-ordinated research project on isotopic evaluations in infant growth monitoring - a collaboration with WHO (partly RCA). Report on the second and final research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    In the last few years, the World Health Organisation (WHO) has organised the development of new reference data for infant growth, reflecting the fact that previous growth reference data were based in part on formula-fed infants. With the benefits of breast-feeding for infant health increasingly recognised, and the differences in growth rate between breast-fed and formula-fed infants replicated in many populations, growth reference data from breast-fed infants became a priority. The importance of early growth for adult health is also increasingly appreciated, with numerous studies linking early nutrition and growth patterns to the risk of cardiovascular disease, obesity, type 2 diabetes and stroke in later life. To support these new reference data, it is also important to assess the breast-milk and nutrient intakes of normally-growing breast-fed infants, in order to revise recommendations for their energy requirements. This coordinated research project (CRP) was therefore initiated by the International Atomic Energy Agency to investigate milk intake and growth in several populations from developing countries. A secondary aim was to continue the technological development of methodologies that allow the required measurements to be undertaken in free-living mother-infant pairs in field conditions. The measurement of breast-milk intake was until recently undertaken using test-weighing, whereby the infant is weighed before and after each feed during one or more 24 hour periods. This method is intrusive, cumbersome, and unsuitable for many populations under field conditions. The development of the dose-to-the-mother deuterium oxide turnover method, by which maternal breast-milk transfer can be assessed by isotopic kinetics, has transformed the ability to measure milk intake in wholly or partially breast-fed infants in developing countries. The current CRP aimed to apply this technology to a variety of populations, ensuring that the data were comparable between countries

  2. Risk of ARI among non-exclusively breastfed under-five passive smoker children: A hospital-based cross-sectional study of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpa eThapa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: As Nepal witnesses high burden of both acute respiratory infection and passive smoking among under-five children, studies on effect modification of exclusive breast feeding on passive smoking and acute respiratory infection carry huge significance. With Nepal holding no evidence in this regard, findings would be useful to promote a cost-effective intervention: exclusive breastfeeding. This study was therefore conceived as an effort to bring to light the modifying effect that exclusive breastfeeding may have on the association between passive smoking and acute respiratory infection among under-five children.Methods: One hundred and ninety eight parents of under-five children from Kanti Children's Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal participated in this descriptive, cross-sectional study carried out in October, 2012. Data collected from a semi-structured questionnaire were subjected to univariate, bivariate, and multivariable analysis in R version 3.1.2.Results: Non-exclusively breastfed children with presence of anyone smoking at their house (aOR=4.8, 95% CI: 1.7-13.2 and smoking in presence of children (aOR=6.4, 95% CI: 1.1-38.3 had higher chances of acute respiratory infection, nevertheless this remained insignificant among the exclusively breastfed ones. Having a separate kitchen in the house showed protective effect against acute respiratory infection among exclusively breastfed children (aOR=0.2, 95% CI: 0.1-0.6. Children whose mothers spent at least two hours per day in the kitchen had a higher chance of developing acute respiratory infection, regardless of being exclusively breastfed (aOR= 4.5, 95% CI: 1.5-13.1 or non-exclusively breastfed (aOR= 4.5, 95% CI: 1.4-14.2 compared to those who spent less than two hours per day. Conclusions: Non-exclusive breastfeeding may increase the chances of deleterious effects of household passive smoking like acute respiratory infection among under-five children. As these findings are not conclusive

  3. Comparison between infants receiving traditional supplements (camel thorn, flix weed, and sugar water and exclusively breast fed infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Boskabadi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Although breast milk is considered the best nutritional option for neonates, use of traditional supplements such as sugar water, camel thorn, and flix weed in the first week of life of infants is quite common in Iran and many other countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether consuming such supplements has any impact on infant’s breastfeeding behavior. Materials and Methods: Four hundred fifty four term infants who were referred to the neonatal clinic of Ghaem hospital were enrolled and divided into two groups. Control (exclusively breastfed infants, N=243 and case (breast milk feeding plus traditional remedies such as sugar water, camel thorn, and flix weed, N=211. Spss 19.5 was used for statistical analysis. T-test and Man-Whitney tests were used. A p-value of Results: The two groups were similar in their baseline data. Regarding duration of breastfeeding and breastfeeding frequency, use of these supplements resulted in a reduction in both breastfeeding frequency and duration (p

  4. Effect of Exclusive Breastfeeding Among Overweight and Obese Mothers on Infant Weight-for-Length Percentile at 1 Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Hui; Leff, Michelle; Rhee, Kyung E

    Breastfeeding is associated with decreased risk of childhood obesity. However, there is a strong correlation between maternal weight status and childhood obesity, and it is unclear whether or not breastfeeding among overweight mothers could mitigate this risk. Our goal was to examine whether or not exclusive breastfeeding (compared to formula feeding) among overweight and obese mothers is associated with lower weight-for-length (W/L) percentile at 1 year. Data from the Infant Feeding Practices II study were used. Infants who were preterm or underweight at 1 year, and mothers who were underweight before pregnancy, were excluded from analysis. There was a significant interaction between exclusive breastfeeding for 4 months and maternal prepregnancy weight status (normal weight, overweight, obese) on infant W/L percentile at 1 year. Stratified linear mixed-effects growth modeling controlling for covariates was created to test the relationship between exclusive breastfeeding and infant W/L percentile within each maternal weight category. A total of 915 subjects met inclusion criteria. Normal weight and obese mothers who exclusively breastfed for 4 months had infants with a smaller rate of increase in W/L percentile during the first year compared with those who used formula. Infants of overweight and obese mothers who exclusively breastfed for 4 months had lower W/L percentile at 1 year than those who used formula. Exclusive breastfeeding for 4 months among normal weight and obese mothers resulted in less increase in W/L percentiles in the first year. Obese mothers often have a difficult time initiating and maintaining breastfeeding. Concerted efforts are needed to support this population with breastfeeding.

  5. Early consumption of liquids different to breast milk in Mexican infants under 1 year: results of the probabilistic National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Castell, Dinorah; González de Cosío, Teresita; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia; Escobar-Zaragoza, Leticia

    2016-02-16

    Introduction: Studies on infant dietary intake do not generally focus on the types of liquids consumed. Objective: To document by age and breastfeeding status, the types of liquids present in the diet of Mexican children under 1 year of age (ENSANUT-2012). Methods: Analysis of the infant ENSANUT-2012 survey in non-breastfed (non-BF) and breastfed (BF) infants by status quo for the consumption of liquids grouped in: water, formula, fortified LICONSA milk, nutritive liquids (NL; thin cereal-based gruel with water or milk and coffee with milk) and non-nutritive liquids (non-NL) as sugared water, water-based drinks, tea, beans or chicken broth, aguamieland coffee. In this infants < 1 y we analyzed the not grouped consumption of liquids in the first three days of life (newborns) from the mother’s recall. Percentage and confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated adjusting for survey design. Statistical differences were analyzed by Z test. Results: We observed a high consumption of human milk followed by formula (56.7%) and water (51.1%) in infants under 6 months of age (< 6 mo). The proportion of non-BF infants consuming non-NL was higher than for BF infants (p < 0.05). More than 60% of older infants (6 mo and < 1 y) consumed formula and were non-BF. In newborns formula consumption was predominant, followed by tea or infusion and water. Conclusions: Non-breast milk liquids are present undesirably in Mexican infants’ diet and non-NL are consumed earlier than NL, revealing inadequate early dietary practices.

  6. Perturbations of gut microbiome genes in infants with atopic dermatitis according to feeding type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-Jung; Kang, Mi-Jin; Lee, So-Yeon; Lee, Eun; Kim, Kangjin; Won, Sungho; Suh, Dong In; Kim, Kyung Won; Sheen, Youn Ho; Ahn, Kangmo; Kim, Bong-Soo; Hong, Soo-Jong

    2018-04-01

    Perturbations of the infant gut microbiota can shape development of the immune system and link to the risk of allergic diseases. We sought to understand the role of the gut microbiome in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). The metagenome of the infant gut microbiome was analyzed according to feeding types. Composition of the gut microbiota was analyzed in fecal samples from 129 infants (6 months old) by using pyrosequencing, including 66 healthy infants and 63 infants with AD. The functional profile of the gut microbiome was analyzed by means of whole-metagenome sequencing (20 control subjects and 20 patients with AD). In addition, the total number of bacteria in the feces was determined by using real-time PCR. The gut microbiome of 6-month-old infants was different based on feeding types, and 2 microbiota groups (Bifidobacterium species-dominated and Escherichia/Veillonella species-dominated groups) were found in breast-fed and mixed-fed infants. Bacterial cell amounts in the feces were lower in infants with AD than in control infants. Although no specific taxa directly correlated with AD in 16S rRNA gene results, whole-metagenome analysis revealed differences in functional genes related to immune development. The reduction in genes for oxidative phosphorylation, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt signaling, estrogen signaling, nucleotide-binding domain-like receptor signaling, and antigen processing and presentation induced by reduced colonization of mucin-degrading bacteria (Akkermansia muciniphila, Ruminococcus gnavus, and Lachnospiraceae bacterium 2_1_58FAA) was significantly associated with stunted immune development in the AD group compared with the control group (P gut microbiome can be associated with AD because of different bacterial genes that can modulate host immune cell function. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Infant feeding practices in the rural population of north India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed E Mahmood

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Breastfeeding is one of the most important determinants of child survival, birth spacing, and the prevention of childhood infections. The beneficial effects of breastfeeding depend on its initiation, duration, and the age at which the breastfed child is weaned. Breastfeeding practices vary among different regions and communities. Objectives: To assess the pattern of infant feeding and its relation to certain practices of maternity and newborn care, and to assess the knowledge of mothers on the advantages of exclusive breastfeeding. Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional study was carried out in randomly selected villages of the Bhojipura Block of Bareilly district, Uttar Pradesh. A total of 123 women who had delivered within the last year were interviewed in a house-to-house survey. A study instrument was used to collect data. Chi- square test and regression analysis were used to analyze the data. Results: Most of the mothers were aged less than 30 years (78.04% and were Hindus (73.9%. Most were illiterate (69.9% and belonged to the lower socioeconomic class (97.5%. The majority were housewives (99.1% and multiparous (68.2%. Most had initiated breastfeeding (78.8% within 24 hours of delivery. About 15.4% of the infants did not receive colostrum and 22.8% of the infants were not exclusively breastfed. Ghutti (water mixed with honey and herbs, boiled water, tea, and animal milk were commonly used pre-lacteal feeds. About 47.2% of the respondents were not aware of the benefits of exclusive breastfeeding. About one quarter of the mothers started complementary feeding before the child was six months old. About half the deliveries had taken place at home and only a quarter of the females had had three or more antenatal visits during pregnancy. The birth weight of the majority (78% of newborns was not measured. A majority (69.9% of the mothers did not receive advice on child feeding. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed

  8. Effect of processing on polyamine content and bioactive peptides released after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of infant formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Gallego, C; Recio, I; Gómez-Gómez, V; Ortuño, I; Bernal, M J; Ros, G; Periago, M J

    2016-02-01

    This study examined the influence of processing on polyamines and peptide release after the digestion of a commercial infant formula designed for children during the first months of life. Polyamine oxidase activity was not suppressed during the manufacturing process, which implicates that polyamine concentrations were reduced over time and during infant formula self-life. In gel electrophoresis, in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of samples with reduced amount of enzymes and time of digestion shows an increase in protein digestibility, reflected in the increase in nonprotein nitrogen after digestion and the disappearance of β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin bands in gel electrophoresis. Depending on the sample, between 22 and 87 peptides were identified after gastrointestinal digestion. A peptide from β-casein f(98-105) with the sequence VKEAMAPK and antioxidant activity appeared in all of the samples. Other peptides with antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and antimicrobial activities were frequently found, which could have an effect on infant health. The present study confirms that the infant formula manufacturing process determines the polyamine content and peptidic profile after digestion of the infant formula. Because compositional dissimilarity between human milk and infant formula in polyamines and proteins could be responsible for some of the differences in health reported between breast-fed and formula-fed children, these changes must be taken into consideration because they may have a great effect on infant nutrition and development. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Lactose intolerance and gastrointestinal cow's milk allergy in infants and children - common misconceptions revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Ralf G; AlRefaee, Fawaz; Bachina, Prashant; De Leon, Julie C; Geng, Lanlan; Gong, Sitang; Madrazo, José Armando; Ngamphaiboon, Jarungchit; Ong, Christina; Rogacion, Jossie M

    2017-01-01

    Lactose is the main carbohydrate in human and mammalian milk. Lactose requires enzymatic hydrolysis by lactase into D-glucose and D-galactose before it can be absorbed. Term infants express sufficient lactase to digest about one liter of breast milk daily. Physiological lactose malabsorption in infancy confers beneficial prebiotic effects, including the establishment of Bifidobacterium-rich fecal microbiota. In many populations, lactase levels decline after weaning (lactase non-persistence; LNP). LNP affects about 70% of the world's population and is the physiological basis for primary lactose intolerance (LI). Persistence of lactase beyond infancy is linked to several single nucleotide polymorphisms in the lactase gene promoter region on chromosome 2. Primary LI generally does not manifest clinically before 5 years of age. LI in young children is typically caused by underlying gut conditions, such as viral gastroenteritis, giardiasis, cow's milk enteropathy, celiac disease or Crohn's disease. Therefore, LI in childhood is mostly transient and improves with resolution of the underlying pathology. There is ongoing confusion between LI and cow's milk allergy (CMA) which still leads to misdiagnosis and inappropriate dietary management. In addition, perceived LI may cause unnecessary milk restriction and adverse nutritional outcomes. The treatment of LI involves the reduction, but not complete elimination, of lactose-containing foods. By contrast, breastfed infants with suspected CMA should undergo a trial of a strict cow's milk protein-free maternal elimination diet. If the infant is not breastfed, an extensively hydrolyzed or amino acid-based formula and strict cow's milk avoidance are the standard treatment for CMA. The majority of infants with CMA can tolerate lactose, except when an enteropathy with secondary lactase deficiency is present.

  10. Restaurant No. 1 fully renovated

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    The Restaurant No. 1 team. After several months of patience and goodwill on the part of our clients, we are delighted to announce that the major renovation work which began in September 2006 has now been completed. From 21 May 2007 we look forward to welcoming you to a completely renovated restaurant area designed with you in mind. The restaurant team wishes to thank all its clients for their patience and loyalty. Particular attention has been paid in the new design to creating a spacious serving area and providing a wider choice of dishes. The new restaurant area has been designed as an open-plan space to enable you to view all the dishes before making your selection and to move around freely from one food access point to another. It comprises user-friendly areas that fully comply with hygiene standards. From now on you will be able to pick and choose to your heart's content. We invite you to try out wok cooking or some other speciality. Or select a pizza or a plate of pasta with a choice of two sauces fr...

  11. Fully Employing Software Inspections Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shull, Forrest; Feldmann, Raimund L.; Seaman, Carolyn; Regardie, Myrna; Godfrey, Sally

    2009-01-01

    Software inspections provide a proven approach to quality assurance for software products of all kinds, including requirements, design, code, test plans, among others. Common to all inspections is the aim of finding and fixing defects as early as possible, and thereby providing cost savings by minimizing the amount of rework necessary later in the lifecycle. Measurement data, such as the number and type of found defects and the effort spent by the inspection team, provide not only direct feedback about the software product to the project team but are also valuable for process improvement activities. In this paper, we discuss NASA's use of software inspections and the rich set of data that has resulted. In particular, we present results from analysis of inspection data that illustrate the benefits of fully utilizing that data for process improvement at several levels. Examining such data across multiple inspections or projects allows team members to monitor and trigger cross project improvements. Such improvements may focus on the software development processes of the whole organization as well as improvements to the applied inspection process itself.

  12. Immunomodulatory constituents of human milk change in response to infant bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Dani-Louise; Hart, Prue H; Forsyth, Kevin D; Gibson, Robert A

    2007-09-01

    Although epidemiological evidence is generally supportive of a causal association between respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis during infancy and the development of persistent wheeze/asthma, if not allergy, the mechanism by which this occurs and an explanation for why all children do not succumb remains to be elucidated. Breast feeding has been found to confer a protective effect against respiratory infections such as RSV bronchiolitis and allergy; however, again there is little direct evidence and no clear mechanism. In this study, we examined whether human milk immunomodulatory factors (cells, cytokines) change in response to clinically diagnosed, severe bronchiolitis in the recipient breast-fed infant. We examined milk from 36 breast feeding mothers of infants hospitalized with bronchiolitis and compared them with milk from 63 mothers of postpartum age-matched healthy controls. Milks from mothers of infants hospitalized with bronchiolitis had significantly greater numbers of viable cells when compared with the milks obtained from mothers of healthy infants (1.3 +/- 0.4 vs. 0.3 +/- 0.03 x 10(6) cells/ml, mean +/- s.e.m.; p respiratory infections as well as a possible contributing factor to the development of persistent wheeze in these infants.

  13. Maternal postpartum depression and infant social withdrawal among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive mother-infant dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, C; Pretorius, K; Mohamed, A; Laughton, B; Madhi, S; Cotton, M F; Steyn, B; Seedat, S

    2010-05-01

    Maternal postpartum depression poses significant risks for mother-child interaction and long-term infant outcomes. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status has also been implicated in the development of postpartum depression, but the association between maternal depression and infant social behavior in the context of HIV infection has not been fully investigated. First, we examined the relationship between maternal postpartum depression and infant social withdrawal at 10-12 months of age in HIV-infected mothers and infants. Second, we ascertained whether infant social withdrawal could be significantly predicted by maternal postpartum depression. The sample consisted of 83 HIV-infected mother-infant dyads. Mothers were assessed for postpartum depression with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), and infant social withdrawal behavior was rated using the Modified Alarm Distress Baby Scale (m-ADBB). 42.2% of the mothers scored above the cut-off point for depression on the EPDS, and a third of infants (31%) were socially withdrawn. Notably, maternal depression did not predict infant social withdrawal as measured by the m-ADBB. Infant social withdrawal was also not significantly associated with failure to thrive or gender. These preliminary findings need further investigation with respect to the impact on long-term neurodevelopmental and behavioral outcomes.

  14. The fully Mobile City Government Project (MCity)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholl, Hans; Fidel, Raya; Mai, Jens Erik

    2006-01-01

    The Fully Mobile City Government Project, also known as MCity, is an interdisciplinary research project on the premises, requirements, and effects of fully mobile, wirelessly connected applications (FWMC). The project will develop an analytical framework for interpreting the interaction and inter......The Fully Mobile City Government Project, also known as MCity, is an interdisciplinary research project on the premises, requirements, and effects of fully mobile, wirelessly connected applications (FWMC). The project will develop an analytical framework for interpreting the interaction...

  15. Human Breast Milk and Infant Formulas Differentially Modify the Intestinal Microbiota in Human Infants and Host Physiology in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenmin; Roy, Nicole C; Guo, Yanhong; Jia, Hongxin; Ryan, Leigh; Samuelsson, Linda; Thomas, Ancy; Plowman, Jeff; Clerens, Stefan; Day, Li; Young, Wayne

    2016-02-01

    In the absence of human breast milk, infant and follow-on formulas can still promote efficient growth and development. However, infant formulas can differ in their nutritional value. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of human milk (HM) and infant formulas in human infants and a weanling rat model. In a 3 wk clinical randomized controlled trial, babies (7- to 90-d-old, male-to-female ratio 1:1) were exclusively breastfed (BF), exclusively fed Synlait Pure Canterbury Stage 1 infant formula (SPCF), or fed assorted standard formulas (SFs) purchased by their parents. We also compared feeding HM or SPCF in weanling male Sprague-Dawley rats for 28 d. We examined the effects of HM and infant formulas on fecal short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and bacterial composition in human infants, and intestinal SCFAs, the microbiota, and host physiology in weanling rats. Fecal Bifidobacterium concentrations (mean log copy number ± SEM) were higher (P = 0.003) in BF (8.17 ± 0.3) and SPCF-fed infants (8.29 ± 0.3) compared with those fed the SFs (6.94 ± 0.3). Fecal acetic acid (mean ± SEM) was also higher (P = 0.007) in the BF (5.5 ± 0.2 mg/g) and SPCF (5.3 ± 2.4 mg/g) groups compared with SF-fed babies (4.3 ± 0.2 mg/g). Colonic SCFAs did not differ between HM- and SPCF-fed rats. However, cecal acetic acid concentrations were higher (P = 0.001) in rats fed HM (42.6 ± 2.6 mg/g) than in those fed SPCF (30.6 ± 0.8 mg/g). Cecal transcriptome, proteome, and plasma metabolite analyses indicated that the growth and maturation of intestinal tissue was more highly promoted by HM than SPCF. Fecal bacterial composition and SCFA concentrations were similar in babies fed SPCF or HM. However, results from the rat study showed substantial differences in host physiology between rats fed HM and SPCF. This trial was registered at Shanghai Jiào tong University School of Medicine as XHEC-C-2012-024. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. A Community-Based Study of Sleep and Cognitive Development in Infants and Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wanqi; Li, Shirley Xin; Jiang, Yanrui; Xu, Xiaojuan; Spruyt, Karen; Zhu, Qi; Tseng, Chia-Huei; Jiang, Fan

    2018-05-29

    To examine the prevalence and correlates of nighttime awakenings and to explore the association between sleep and cognitive development in a community sample of infants and toddlers. A total of 590 healthy infants (aged 2-11 months) and 512 toddlers (aged 12-30 months) from 8 provinces of China were assessed for their sleep and cognitive development. Data on sleep duration and nighttime awakenings were collected through the Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire. Cognitive development was assessed by trained pediatricians using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. Prevalence of no nighttime awakening, and nighttime awakening(s) for 1×/night, 2×/night, and ≥ 3×/night was 6.8%, 20.2%, 33.2%, and 39.3% in infants, and was 25.8%, 34.6%, 23.8%, and 15.8% in toddlers, respectively. Nighttime awakenings were generally associated with younger age, lower maternal education level, and being currently breastfed. In addition, nighttime awakenings were associated with being boys in toddlers. After controlling for potential confounders, infants with nighttime awakenings for 2×/night were found to have significantly higher Mental Development Index (MDI) score, as compared to those without and those with more frequent nighttime awakenings. However, toddlers with nighttime awakenings for ≥ 3×/night had significantly lower MDI, as compared to those with fewer nighttime awakenings. Total sleep duration was not associated with any developmental indices in both infants and toddlers. Frequent nighttime awakenings are associated with poor cognitive functions in toddlers. Meanwhile, a nonlinear association between nighttime awakenings and cognitive performance was found among infants. The findings provide a developmental context for the effect of sleep on cognitive abilities in young children. Further longitudinal studies and interventional studies on the effects of parent-based sleep-focused intervention on cognitive abilities among young children are warranted. Copyright © 2018

  17. Hearing loss - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can allow many infants to develop normal language skills without delay. In infants born with hearing loss, ... therapy allow many children to develop normal language skills at the same age as their peers with ...

  18. Urinary catheter - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladder catheter - infants; Foley catheter - infants; Urinary catheter - neonatal ... A urinary catheter is a small, soft tube placed in the bladder. This article addresses urinary catheters in babies. WHY IS ...

  19. Caudal ropivacaine in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing; Ilett, K F; Reid, C

    2001-01-01

    Ropivacaine is a new long-acting amino-amide local anesthetic. However, there are no data on its use in infants. In the current study, the authors investigated the pharmacokinetics of caudal ropivacaine in 30 infants younger than 12 months.......Ropivacaine is a new long-acting amino-amide local anesthetic. However, there are no data on its use in infants. In the current study, the authors investigated the pharmacokinetics of caudal ropivacaine in 30 infants younger than 12 months....

  20. Effect of restricted pacifier use in breastfeeding term infants for increasing duration of breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar, Sharifah Halimah; Ho, Jacqueline J; Jahanfar, Shayesteh; Angolkar, Mubashir

    2016-08-30

    To successfully initiate and maintain breastfeeding for a longer duration, the World Health Organization's Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding recommends total avoidance of artificial teats or pacifiers for breastfeeding infants. Concerns have been raised that offering the pacifier instead of the breast to calm the infant may lead to less frequent episodes of breastfeeding and as a consequence may reduce breast-milk production and shorten duration of breastfeeding. To assess the effect of restricted versus unrestricted pacifier use in healthy full-term newborns whose mothers have initiated breastfeeding and intend to exclusively breastfeed, on the duration of breastfeeding, other breastfeeding outcomes and infant health. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 June 2016) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing restricted versus unrestricted pacifier use in healthy full-term newborns who have initiated breastfeeding. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. We found three trials (involving 1915 babies) for inclusion in the review, but have included only two trials (involving 1302 healthy full-term breastfeeding infants) in the analysis. Meta-analysis of the two combined studies showed that pacifier use in healthy breastfeeding infants had no significant effect on the proportion of infants exclusively breastfed at three months (risk ratio (RR) 1.01; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.96 to 1.07, two studies, 1228 infants), and at four months of age (RR 1.01; 95% CI 0.94 to 1.09, one study, 970 infants, moderate-quality evidence), and also had no effect on the proportion of infants partially breastfed at three months (RR 1.00; 95% CI 0.98 to 1.02, two studies, 1228 infants), and at four months of age (RR 0.99; 95% CI 0

  1. Levels of infants' urinary arsenic metabolites related to formula feeding and weaning with rice products exceeding the EU inorganic arsenic standard.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio J Signes-Pastor

    Full Text Available Early childhood inorganic arsenic (i-As exposure is of particular concern since it may adversely impact on lifetime health outcomes. Infants' urinary arsenic (As metabolites were analysed in 79 infants by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometric detection (IC-ICP-MS to evaluate i-As exposure pre- and post-weaning. Levels of i-As in rice-based weaning and infants' foods were also determined to relate to urinary As levels. Higher As levels, especially of monomethylarsonic acid (MMA and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA, were found in urine from formula fed infants compared to those breastfed. Urine from infants post-weaning consuming rice-products resulted in higher urinary MMA and DMA compared to the paired pre-weaning urine samples. The European Union (EU has regulated i-As in rice since 1st January 2016. Comparing infants' rice-based foods before and after this date, little change was found. Nearly ¾ of the rice-based products specifically marketed for infants and young children contained i-As over the 0.1 mg/kg EU limit. Efforts should be made to provide low i-As rice and rice-based products consumed by infants and young children that do not exceed the maximum i-As level to protect this vulnerable subpopulation.

  2. Effect of Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) Supplementation on Inflammatory Cytokine Levels in Infants at High Genetic Risk for Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, H. Peter; Boulware, David; Rodriguez, Henry; Donaldson, David; Chritton, Sonia; Rafkin-Mervis, Lisa; Krischer, Jeffrey; Skyler, Jay S.; Clare-Salzler, Michael

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from the inflammatory destruction of pancreatic β-cells. In the present study, we investigated the effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation on stimulated inflammatory cytokine production in white blood cells (WBC) from infants with a high genetic risk for T1D. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a multicenter, two-arm, randomized, double blind pilot trial of DHA supplementation, beginning either in the last trimester of pregnancy (41 infants) or in the first five months after birth (57 infants). Levels of DHA in infant and maternal red blood cell (RBC) membranes and in breast milk were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Inflammatory cytokines were assayed from whole blood culture supernatants using the Luminex Multiplex assay after stimulation with high dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS), 1μg/mL. RESULTS The levels of RBC DHA were increased by 61–100% in treated compared to control infants at ages 6 to 36 months. There were no statistically significant reductions in production of the inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β, TNFα or IL-12p40 at any of the 6 time points measured. The inflammatory marker, hsCRP, was significantly lower in breast-fed DHA-treated infants compared to all formula-fed infants at age 12 months. Three infants (two received DHA) were removed from the study as a result of developing ≥ two persistently positive biochemical islet autoantibodies. CONCLUSIONS This pilot trial showed that supplementation of infant diets with DHA is safe and fulfilled the pre-study goal of increasing infant RBC DHA levels by at least 20%. Inflammatory cytokine production was not consistently reduced. PMID:25039804

  3. Effect of docosahexaenoic acid supplementation on inflammatory cytokine levels in infants at high genetic risk for type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, H Peter; Boulware, David; Rodriguez, Henry; Donaldson, David; Chritton, Sonia; Rafkin-Mervis, Lisa; Krischer, Jeffrey; Skyler, Jay S; Clare-Salzler, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from the inflammatory destruction of pancreatic β-cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation on stimulated inflammatory cytokine production in white blood cells (WBC) from infants with a high genetic risk for T1D. This was a multicenter, two-arm, randomized, double-blind pilot trial of DHA supplementation, beginning either in the last trimester of pregnancy (41 infants) or in the first 5 months after birth (57 infants). Levels of DHA in infant and maternal red blood cell (RBC) membranes and in breast milk were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Inflammatory cytokines were assayed from whole blood culture supernatants using the Luminex multiplex assay after stimulation with high dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS), 1 µg/mL. The levels of RBC DHA were increased by 61-100% in treated compared to control infants at ages 6-36 months. There were no statistically significant reductions in production of the inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β, TNFα, or IL-12p40 at any of the six timepoints measured. The inflammatory marker, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), was significantly lower in breast-fed DHA-treated infants compared to all formula-fed infants at the age of 12 months. Three infants (two received DHA) were removed from the study as a result of developing ≥two persistently positive biochemical islet autoantibodies. This pilot trial showed that supplementation of infant diets with DHA is safe and fulfilled the pre-study goal of increasing infant RBC DHA levels by at least 20%. Inflammatory cytokine production was not consistently reduced. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Perinatal factors influencing infant feeding practices at birth: the Bedouin Infant Feeding Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, M R; Berendest, H W; Lewando-Hundt, G; Sarov, B; Naggan, L

    1991-04-01

    Bedouin Arab women delivering newborns at Soroka Medical Center, Israel, during 1 year were interviewed in hospital to determine the factors influencing infant feeding practices at birth. Eighty-six per cent breastfed, 11% breast and bottlefed, and 3% bottlefed at birth. Based on a multiple logistic regression analysis, the factors that significantly reduced the odds ratio (OR) of exclusive breastfeeding vs. breast and bottle feeding or bottle feeding at birth include: delivering during the high birth season (OR = 0.49); maternal recall of feeling unwell during pregnancy (OR = 0.59); delivering a low birthweight newborn (OR = 0.10); a newborn diagnosed with major malformations (OR = 0.30) or with major illnesses (OR = 0.32); and delivering by Caesarean section (OR = 0.09). In contrast, multiparae experienced an increased odds (OR = 1.67) of breastfeeding. Among primiparae, the factors that significantly reduced the odds of exclusive breastfeeding include: delivering during the high birth season (OR = 0.47); delivering a low birthweight newborn (OR = 0.12); and delivering by Caesarean section (OR = 0.18). Mothers of high-risk neonates and those who deliver by Caesarean section need to be educated about the benefits of exclusive breastfeeding. Young primiparae are a challenge and require qualitative and quantitative research into the reasons precluding exclusive breastfeeding.

  5. Early consumption of human milk oligosaccharides is inversely related to subsequent risk of respiratory and enteric disease in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepans, Mary Beth Flanders; Wilhelm, Susan L; Hertzog, Melody; Rodehorst, T Kim Callahan; Blaney, Susan; Clemens, Beth; Polak, Josef J; Newburg, David S

    2006-01-01

    A pilot study tested the relationship between human milk oligosaccharide consumption, oligosaccharide content of feces, and subsequent disease in breastfed infants. Forty-nine (49) mother-infant pairs provided milk and fecal samples 2 weeks postpartum; infant health was assessed through 2, 6, 12, and 24 weeks. LNF-II (lacto-N-fucopentaose II), a major human milk oligosaccharide, was measured to represent levels of total oligosaccharides consumed in milk and remaining in feces. LNF-II levels in milk at 2 weeks postpartum were associated with fewer infant respiratory problems by 6 weeks (p = 0.010), as were LNF-II levels in infant feces (p = 0.003). LNF-II levels in milk at 2 weeks were also associated with fewer respiratory problems by 12 weeks (p = 0.038), and fewer enteric problems by 6 weeks (p = 0.004) and 12 weeks (p = 0.045). Thus, consumption of human milk oligosaccharides through breastfeeding, represented by LNF-II, was associated with less reported respiratory and gastrointestinal illness in infants.

  6. Effect of Carotenoid Supplemented Formula on Carotenoid Bioaccumulation in Tissues of Infant Rhesus Macaques: A Pilot Study Focused on Lutein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sookyoung Jeon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lutein is the predominant carotenoid in the developing primate brain and retina, and may have important functional roles. However, its bioaccumulation pattern during early development is not understood. In this pilot study, we investigated whether carotenoid supplementation of infant formula enhanced lutein tissue deposition in infant rhesus macaques. Monkeys were initially breastfed; from 1 to 3 months of age they were fed either a formula supplemented with lutein, zeaxanthin, β-carotene and lycopene, or a control formula with low levels of these carotenoids, for 4 months (n = 2/group. All samples were analyzed by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC. Final serum lutein in the supplemented group was 5 times higher than in the unsupplemented group. All brain regions examined showed a selective increase in lutein deposition in the supplemented infants. Lutein differentially accumulated across brain regions, with highest amounts in occipital cortex in both groups. β-carotene accumulated, but zeaxanthin and lycopene were undetectable in any brain region. Supplemented infants had higher lutein concentrations in peripheral retina but not in macular retina. Among adipose sites, abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue exhibited the highest lutein level and was 3-fold higher in the supplemented infants. The supplemented formula enhanced carotenoid deposition in several other tissues. In rhesus infants, increased intake of carotenoids from formula enhanced their deposition in serum and numerous tissues and selectively increased lutein in multiple brain regions.

  7. Factors associated with not breastfeeding exclusively among mothers of a cohort of Pacific infants in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Sarnia; Williams, Maynard; Tukuitonga, Colin; Paterson, Janis

    2004-06-04

    This study investigated the association between not breastfeeding exclusively (among mothers of a cohort of Pacific infants in New Zealand) and several maternal, sociodemographic, and infant care factors. The data were gathered as part of the Pacific Islands Families (PIF) Study. Infant feeding information was obtained through interviews with mothers (6 weeks post-birth) and from hospital records for 1247 of the 1365 biological mothers. Factors significantly associated with not exclusively breastfeeding at hospital discharge included smoking, unemployment prior to pregnancy, years in New Zealand, not seeing a midwife during pregnancy, caesarean delivery, and twin birth status. Factors significantly associated with cessation (before 6 weeks post-birth) of exclusive breastfeeding (for mothers who initially breastfed exclusively) included smoking, employment prior to pregnancy, being in current employment, high parity, dummy use, not receiving a visit from Plunket, infant not discharged at the same time as the mother, infant not sharing the same room as the parent(s) at night, regular childcare, and having a home visit for the infant from a traditional healer. Aside from smoking, different factors were associated with initiation and maintenance of exclusive breastfeeding. Identification of risk factors should assist targeting women who are at heightened risk of not breastfeeding exclusively.

  8. Impact of Vitamin D Supplementation on Gross Motor Development of Healthy Term Infants: A Randomized Dose-Response Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicklow, Brandy; Gallo, Sina; Majnemer, Annette; Vanstone, Catherine; Comeau, Kathryn; Jones, Glenville; L'Abbe, Mary; Khamessan, Ali; Sharma, Atul; Weiler, Hope; Rodd, Celia

    2016-08-01

    In addition to benefits for bone health, vitamin D is implicated in muscle function in children and adults. To determine if vitamin D dosage positively correlated with gross motor development at 3 and 6 months of age. We hypothesized that higher doses would be associated with higher scores for gross motor skills. A consecutive sample of 55 healthy, term, and breastfed infants from Montreal, Canada were recruited from a randomized trial of vitamin D supplementation between 2009 and 2012. Infants were randomized to 400 International Units (IU) (n = 19), 800 IU (n = 18) or 1,200 IU (n = 18) vitamin D3/day. Motor performance at 3 and 6 months was quantified by the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS). Plasma vitamin D3 metabolites were measured by tandem mass spectrometry. AIMS scores did not differ at 3 months. However, total AIMS scores and sitting subscores were significantly higher at 6 months in infants receiving 400 IU/day compared to 800 IU/day and 1,200 IU/day groups (p gross motor achievements were significantly higher in infants receiving 400 IU/day vitamin D. Our findings also support longer infants being slightly delayed.

  9. Case report of acute vitamin D intoxication in an infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radlović Nedeljko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Vitamin D intoxication represents a rare and potentially serious pathological condition caused by the excess of calcium and phosphorus. We are presenting an infant with vitamin D intoxication due to excessive daily administration, as well as therapeutic procedures that prevented its adverse effects. Case Outline. A 1.5-month-old female infant, born at term, exclusively breastfed and without any complaints and abnormalities of physical findings, was observed due to the data that during the preceding month, by her mother’s mistake, she had received about 200,000 IU of vitamin D3. Laboratory analyses showed a high serum level of 25(OHD (>400 nmol/L and calcium (2.72 mmol/L, lowered PTH (6.6 pg/ml and high urinary calcium/creatinine ratio (1.6, while other findings, including urotract ultrasonography image, were within normal limits. Treatment based on the discontinuation of vitamin D administration, infant’s forced water intake, as well as the application of 2-month prednisolone and 4-month phenobarbitone and furosemide, resulted in complete normalization of the laboratory indicators of vitamin D overdose, as well as the prevention of its adverse effects. Conclusion. By timely recognition and adequate treatment, including triple therapy with prednisolone, phenobarbitone and furosemide, adverse effects of acute vitamin D intoxication can be prevented.

  10. Frequency of Antiretroviral Resistance Mutations among Infants Exposed to Single-Dose Nevirapine and Short Course Maternal Antiretroviral Regimens: ACTG A5207.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitti, Jane; Halvas, Elias K; Zheng, Lu; Panousis, Constantinos G; Kabanda, Joseph; Taulo, Frank; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Pape, Jean William; Lalloo, Umesh; Sprenger, Heather; Klingman, Karin L; Chan, Ellen S; McMahon, Deborah; Mellors, John W

    2014-11-01

    Intrapartum single-dose nevirapine (sdNVP) reduces HIV-1 perinatal transmission but selects NVP resistance among mothers and infants. We evaluated the frequency of antiretroviral resistance among infants with intrauterine HIV-1 infection exposed to sdNVP and maternal antenatal or breastfeeding antiretroviral therapy. This analysis included 429 infants from sub-Saharan Africa, India and Haiti whose 422 mothers received sdNVP plus maternal study treatment. At entry mothers had CD4>250/μL and were ART-naïve except for antenatal ZDV per local standard of care. Maternal study treatment started intrapartum and included ZDV/3TC, TDF/FTC or LPV/r for 7 or 21 days in a randomized factorial design. Infants received sdNVP study treatment and ZDV if local standard of care. Infant HIV RNA or DNA PCR and samples for genotype were obtained at birth and weeks 2, 4 and 12; infants who ever breast-fed were also tested at weeks 16, 24, 48 and 96. Samples from HIV-1-infected infants were tested for drug resistance by population genotype (ViroSeq). NVP or NRTI resistance mutations were assessed using the IAS-USA mutation list. Perinatal HIV-1 transmission occurred in 17 (4.0%) infants including 12 intrauterine infections. Resistance mutations were detected among 5 (42%) intrauterine-infected infants; of these, 3 had mutations conferring resistance to NVP alone, 1 had resistance to NRTI alone, and 1 had dual-class resistance mutations. Among the 2 infants with NRTI mutations, one (K70R) was likely maternally transmitted and one (K65R) occurred in the context of breastfeeding exposure to maternal antiretroviral therapy. Infants with intrauterine HIV infection are at risk of acquiring resistance mutations from exposure to maternal antiretroviral medications intrapartum and/or during breastfeeding. New approaches are needed to lower the risk of antiretroviral resistance in these infants.

  11. Exposure to secondhand smoke, exclusive breastfeeding and infant adiposity at age 5 months in the Healthy Start study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, B F; Sauder, K A; Starling, A P; Ringham, B M; Glueck, D H; Dabelea, D

    2017-08-01

    Infant adiposity may be influenced by several environmental risk factors, but few studies have explored these interactions. To examine the interaction between exposure to secondhand smoke and breastfeeding exclusivity on adiposity at age 5 months. We studied 813 mother-offspring pairs from the longitudinal Healthy Start study. Fat mass and fat-free mass were measured by air displacement plethysmography. Linear regression analyses were used to estimate the association between household smokers (none, any) with fat mass, fat-free mass, percent fat mass, weight-for-age z-score, weight-for-length z-score and BMI-for-age z-score as separate outcomes. Interaction terms between household smokers and breastfeeding exclusivity (secondhand smoke and a lack of exclusive breastfeeding was associated with increased adiposity at age 5 months. For example, within the not exclusively breastfed strata, exposure to secondhand smoke was associated with increased fat mass (0.1 kg; 95% CI: 0.0-0.2; P = 0.05). Conversely, within the exclusively breastfed strata, there was virtually no difference in fat mass between exposed and non-exposed infants (coefficient: -0.1; 95% CI: -0.3-0.1; P = 0.25). Our findings may inform new public health strategies with potential relevance for both smoking cessation and obesity prevention. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  12. [A longitudinal study of urban-rural growth differences among infants fed with breast milk in six economically better areas in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    To understand the differences between urban and rural breast-fed infants' growth patterns. In economically better regions of six provinces in China, 1147 urban and 1058 rural subjects were recruited by the project respectively, and their longitudinal weight, length, and head circumference were measured from birth to 12 months old. The monitoring frequency was 16 times in total. Analysis was conducted to compare the growth patterns between 497 of urban and 764 of rural subjects meeting the breast-fed babies definition by WHO. During the first year after birth, urban breast-feeding boys' weight, length, head circumference increased by 7.13 kg, 26.9 cm, and 12.4 cm respectively, and 6.60 kg, 26.1 cm, and 11.9 cm for girls. The corresponding values of rural population were 6.70 kg, 25.7 cm and 12.4 cm for boys, and 6.20 kg, 25.0 cm, and 11.8 cm for girls respectively. The gaps existed in the three physical indexes between urban and rural breastfeeding babies were 110 - 480 g, 1.2 - 2.0 cm and 0.1 - 0.6 cm for boys, and 200 - 510 g, 1.3 - 1.7 cm, and 0.4 - 0.6 cm for girls. In about 50% of monitoring age points, monthly increments of urban boy's weight presented higher than rural samples, but only 17% for girl's weight, and boy/girl's length and head circumference. The urban-rural regional gaps in breast-fed infants' physical development were not optimistic and seemed to be wider in boys than in girls. There are still large room for improvement for growth of infants in rural areas.

  13. Lutein Supplementation Increases Breast Milk and Plasma Lutein Concentrations in Lactating Women and Infant Plasma Concentrations but Does Not Affect Other Carotenoids123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, Christina L.; Oliver, Jeffery S.; Renzi, Lisa M.; Marriage, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    Lutein is a carotenoid that varies in breast milk depending on maternal intake. Data are lacking with regard to the effect of dietary lutein supplementation on breast milk lutein concentration during lactation and subsequent plasma lutein concentration in breast-fed infants. This study was conducted to determine the impact of lutein supplementation in the breast milk and plasma of lactating women and in the plasma of breast-fed infants 2–3 mo postpartum. Lutein is the dominant carotenoid in the infant brain and the major carotenoid found in the retina of the eye. Eighty-nine lactating women 4–6 wk postpartum were randomly assigned to be administered either 0 mg/d of lutein (placebo), 6 mg/d of lutein (low-dose), or 12 mg/d of lutein (high-dose). The supplements were consumed for 6 wk while mothers followed their usual diets. Breast milk carotenoids were measured weekly by HPLC, and maternal plasma carotenoid concentrations were measured at the beginning and end of the study. Infant plasma carotenoid concentrations were assessed at the end of the study. No significant differences were found between dietary lutein + zeaxanthin intake and carotenoid concentrations in breast milk and plasma or body mass index at baseline. Total lutein + zeaxanthin concentrations were greater in the low- and high-dose–supplemented groups than in the placebo group in breast milk (140% and 250%, respectively; P Lutein supplementation did not affect other carotenoids in lactating women or their infants. Lactating women are highly responsive to lutein supplementation, which affects plasma lutein concentrations in the infant. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01747668. PMID:24899160

  14. Lutein supplementation increases breast milk and plasma lutein concentrations in lactating women and infant plasma concentrations but does not affect other carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, Christina L; Oliver, Jeffery S; Renzi, Lisa M; Marriage, Barbara J

    2014-08-01

    Lutein is a carotenoid that varies in breast milk depending on maternal intake. Data are lacking with regard to the effect of dietary lutein supplementation on breast milk lutein concentration during lactation and subsequent plasma lutein concentration in breast-fed infants. This study was conducted to determine the impact of lutein supplementation in the breast milk and plasma of lactating women and in the plasma of breast-fed infants 2-3 mo postpartum. Lutein is the dominant carotenoid in the infant brain and the major carotenoid found in the retina of the eye. Eighty-nine lactating women 4-6 wk postpartum were randomly assigned to be administered either 0 mg/d of lutein (placebo), 6 mg/d of lutein (low-dose), or 12 mg/d of lutein (high-dose). The supplements were consumed for 6 wk while mothers followed their usual diets. Breast milk carotenoids were measured weekly by HPLC, and maternal plasma carotenoid concentrations were measured at the beginning and end of the study. Infant plasma carotenoid concentrations were assessed at the end of the study. No significant differences were found between dietary lutein + zeaxanthin intake and carotenoid concentrations in breast milk and plasma or body mass index at baseline. Total lutein + zeaxanthin concentrations were greater in the low- and high-dose-supplemented groups than in the placebo group in breast milk (140% and 250%, respectively; P Lutein supplementation did not affect other carotenoids in lactating women or their infants. Lactating women are highly responsive to lutein supplementation, which affects plasma lutein concentrations in the infant. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01747668. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Influence of milk-feeding type and genetic risk of developing coeliac disease on intestinal microbiota of infants: the PROFICEL study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giada De Palma

    Full Text Available Interactions between environmental factors and predisposing genes could be involved in the development of coeliac disease (CD. This study has assessed whether milk-feeding type and HLA-genotype influence the intestinal microbiota composition of infants with a family history of CD. The study included 164 healthy newborns, with at least one first-degree relative with CD, classified according to their HLA-DQ genotype by PCR-SSP DQB1 and DQA1 typing. Faecal microbiota was analysed by quantitative PCR at 7 days, and at 1 and 4 months of age. Significant interactions between milk-feeding type and HLA-DQ genotype on bacterial numbers were not detected by applying a linear mixed-model analysis for repeated measures. In the whole population, breast-feeding promoted colonization of C. leptum group, B. longum and B. breve, while formula-feeding promoted that of Bacteroides fragilis group, C. coccoides-E. rectale group, E. coli and B. lactis. Moreover, increased numbers of B. fragilis group and Staphylococcus spp., and reduced numbers of Bifidobacterium spp. and B. longum were detected in infants with increased genetic risk of developing CD. Analyses within subgroups of either breast-fed or formula-fed infants indicated that in both cases increased risk of CD was associated with lower numbers of B. longum and/or Bifidobacterium spp. In addition, in breast-fed infants the increased genetic risk of developing CD was associated with increased C. leptum group numbers, while in formula-fed infants it was associated with increased Staphylococcus and B. fragilis group numbers. Overall, milk-feeding type in conjunction with HLA-DQ genotype play a role in establishing infants' gut microbiota; moreover, breast-feeding reduced the genotype-related differences in microbiota composition, which could partly explain the protective role attributed to breast milk in this disorder.

  16. An Assessment of the Breastfeeding Practices and Infant Feeding Pattern among Mothers in Mauritius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashmika Motee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Proper breastfeeding practices are effective ways for reducing childhood morbidity and mortality. While many mothers understand the importance of breastfeeding, others are less knowledgeable on the benefits of breastfeeding and weaning. The aim in here is to assess breastfeeding pattern, infant formula feeding pattern, and weaning introduction in Mauritius and to investigate the factors that influence infant nutrition. 500 mothers were interviewed using a questionnaire which was designed to elicit information on infant feeding practices. Statistical analyses were done using SPSS (version 13.0, whereby chi-square tests were used to evaluate relationships between different selected variables. The prevalence of breastfeeding practice in Mauritius has risen from 72% in 1991 to 93.4% as found in this study, while only 17.9% breastfed their children exclusively for the first 6 months, and the mean duration of EBF (exclusive breastfeeding is 2.10 months. Complementary feeding was more commonly initiated around 4–6 months (75.2%. Despite the fact that 60.6% of mothers initiate breastfeeding and 26.1% of mothers are found to breastfeed up to 2 years, the practice of EBF for the first 6 months is low (17.9%. Factors found to influence infant feeding practices are type of delivery, parity, alcohol consumption, occupation, education, and breast problems.

  17. Recurrent wheezing in relation to environmental risk factors in infancy. A prospective study of 276 infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A; Husby, S

    1991-01-01

    Clinical course and environmental factors were recorded in a prospective study of 276 unselected infants followed from birth to the age of 18 months. The study was performed with a questionnaire at the age of 6 and 12 months and a physical examination at 18 months. Fifty-nine (21%) of the children...... had greater than or equal to 2 episodes of wheezing before they were 18 months old. A total of 58 (21%) of the children belonged to the lowest social class V, 182 (66%) were daily exposed to passive tobacco smoking at home and/or in daycare, 164 (59%) were breastfed greater than or equal to 3 months......, 192 (70%) were in daycare, 62 (22%) lived in flats and 167 (61%) were in daily contact with furred pets at home and/or in daycare. In social class V a preponderance of children were exposed to passive tobacco smoking, a majority were living in flats and a minority were breastfed greater than or equal...

  18. Specific infant feeding practices do not consistently explain variation in anthropometry at age 1 year in urban United States, Mexico, and China cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Jessica G; Guerrero, M Lourdes; Ruiz-Palacios, Guillermo M; Peng, Yong-mei; Herbers, Patricia M; Yao, Wen; Ortega, Hilda; Davidson, Barbara S; McMahon, Robert J; Morrow, Ardythe L

    2013-02-01

    Infant feeding practices generally influence infant growth, but it is unclear how introduction of specific foods affects growth across global populations. We studied 3 urban populations in the Global Exploration of Human Milk study to determine the association between infant feeding and anthropometry at 1 y of age. Three hundred sixty-five breastfeeding mother-infant pairs (120 US, 120 China, and 125 Mexico) were recruited soon after the infant's birth. Enrollment required agreement to breastfeed ≥75% for at least 3 mo. Weekly, 24-h, food frequency data were conducted on infants for 1 y and exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) duration and timing of specific complementary food introduction were calculated. Weight and length were measured at age 1 y and anthropometry Z-scores calculated using WHO standards. Cohorts in the 3 urban populations (Shanghai, China; Cincinnati, USA; and Mexico City, Mexico) differed by median EBF duration (5, 14, and 7 wk, respectively; P Mexico City infants (P < 0.001). Adjusting for nonfeeding covariates, the only feeding variable associated with anthropometry was EBF duration, which was modestly inversely associated with weight-for-age but not length-for-age or BMI Z-scores at 1 y. Although feeding variables differed by cohort, their impact on anthropometry differences was not consistent among cohorts. Overall, across these urban, international, breast-fed cohorts, differences in specific feeding practices did not explain the significant variation in anthropometry.

  19. The metabolic activity of the enteric microflora and the pattern of sensitization in different types of feeding in healthy infants

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    S. V. Bogdanova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to investigate the metabolic activity of the enteric microflora and the rate of milk protein sensitization during different types of feeding in healthy infants of Moscow. A total of 200 apparently healthy children were followed up. According to feeding patterns, there were 100 formula-fed babies (a study group and 100 breast-fed ones (a comparison group. Subgroup 1 of the study group included 51 infants receiving formulas based on New Zealand goat's milk with prebiotics; Subgroup 2 consisted of 49 infants having formulas based on cow's milk-serum proteins with prebiotics. The metabolic activity of the enteric microflora was investigated by gas liquid chromatography; the concentrations of allergen-specific IgE and IgG antibodies against cow's and goat's milk proteins in coprofllrates were determined by noncompetitive enzyme immunoassay using special test systems (Allergopharma, Germany before and during the ingestion of the formulas with prebiotics. The use of the formulas containing prebiotics led to increases in acetic acid and butyric acid concentrations and anaerobic index in both subgroups. However, their highest values in the coproflltrates were observed in Subgroup 1 and breast-fed infants. Analysis of allergen-specific IgE and IgC antibodies before formula indigestion showed that the level of latent sensitization to goat's milk protein was substantially lower than that to cow's milk protein (+ Class 1 and + Class 2, respectively. Subgroup 1 showed a more pronounced tendency to decrease the rate of latent sensitization to these types of protein. Thus, the most pronounced positive tendency in the examined indicators was observed in babies receiving breast milk or formulas based on New Zealand goat's milk with prebiotics.

  20. Introduction of solid food to young infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Alice A; Inkelas, Moira; Slusser, Wendelin M; Maidenberg, Molly; Halfon, Neal

    2011-11-01

    Timing of the first introduction of solid food during infancy may have potential effects on life-long health. To understand the characteristics that are associated with the timing of infants' initial exposure to solid foods. The 2000 National Survey of Early Childhood Health (NSECH) was a nationally representative telephone survey of 2,068 parents of children aged 4-35 months, which profiled content and quality of health care for young children. African-American and Latino families were over-sampled. Analyses in this report include bivariate tests and logistic regressions. 62% of parents reported introducing solids to their child between 4-6 months of age. African-American mothers (OR=0.5 [0.3, 0.9]), English-speaking Latino mothers (OR=0.4 [0.2, 0.7]), White mothers with more than high school education (OR=0.5 [0.2, 1.0]), and mothers who breastfed for 4 months or longer (OR=0.4 [0.3, 0.7]) were less likely to introduce solids early. Most parents (92%) of children 4-9 months of age reported that their pediatric provider had discussed introduction of solids with them since the child's birth, and provider discussion of feeding was not associated with the timing of introduction of solids. Although most parents recall discussing the introduction of solid foods with their child's physician, several subgroups of mothers introduce solid foods earlier than the AAP recommendation of 4-6 months. More effective discussion of solid food introduction linked to counseling and support of breastfeeding by the primary health care provider may reduce early introduction of solids.

  1. Determination of water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins in tears and blood serum of infants and parents by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaksari, Maryam; Mazzoleni, Lynn R; Ruan, Chunhai; Kennedy, Robert T; Minerick, Adrienne R

    2017-02-01

    Tears serve as a viable diagnostic fluid with advantages including less invasive sample to collect and less complex to prepare for analysis. Several water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins were detected and quantified in human tears and compared with blood serum levels. Samples from 15 family pairs, each pair consisting of a four-month-old infant and one parent were analyzed; vitamin concentrations were compared between tears and blood serum for individual subjects, between infants and parents, and against self-reported dietary intakes. Water-soluble vitamins B 1 , B 2 , B 3 (nicotinamide), B 5 , B 9 and fat-soluble vitamin E (α-tocopherol) were routinely detected in tears and blood serum while fat-soluble vitamin A (retinol) was detected only in blood serum. Water-soluble vitamin concentrations measured in tears and blood serum of single subjects were comparable, while higher concentrations were measured in infants compared to their parents. Fat-soluble vitamin E concentrations were lower in tears than blood serum with no significant difference between infants and parents. Serum vitamin A concentrations were higher in parents than infants. Population trends were compiled and quantified using a cross correlation factor. Strong positive correlations were found between tear and blood serum concentrations of vitamin E from infants and parents and vitamin B 3 concentrations from parents, while slight positive correlations were detected for infants B 3 and parents B 1 and B 2 concentrations. Correlations between infants and parents were found for the concentrations of B 1 , B 2 , B 3 , and E in tears, and the concentrations of B 2, A, and E in blood serum. Stronger vitamin concentration correlations were found between infants and parents for the breast-fed infants, while no significant difference was observed between breast-fed and bottle-fed infants. This work is the first to demonstrate simultaneous vitamin A, B, and E detection and to quantify correlations between

  2. Growth and tolerance of infants fed formula supplemented with polydextrose (PDX and/or galactooligosaccharides (GOS: double-blind, randomized, controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Claude

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To ensure the suitability of an infant formula as the sole source of nutrition or provide benefits similar to outcomes in breastfed infants, advancements in formula composition are warranted as more research detailing the nutrient composition of human milk becomes available. This study was designed to evaluate growth and tolerance in healthy infants who received one of two investigational cow’s milk-based formulas with adjustments in carbohydrate, fat, and calcium content and supplemented with a prebiotic blend of polydextrose (PDX and galactooligosaccharides (GOS or GOS alone. Methods In this multi-center, double-blind, parallel-designed, gender-stratified prospective study 419 infants were randomized and consumed either a marketed routine cow’s milk-based infant formula (Control; Enfamil® LIPIL®, Mead Johnson Nutrition, Evansville, IN (n = 142 or one of two investigational formulas from 14 to 120 days of age. Investigational formulas were supplemented with 4 g/L (1:1 ratio of a prebiotic blend of PDX and GOS (PDX/GOS; n = 139 or 4 g/L of GOS alone (GOS; n = 138. Anthropometric measurements were taken at 14, 30, 60, 90, and 120 days of age. Daily recall of formula intake, tolerance, and stool characteristics was collected during study weeks 1 and 2 and 24-h recall was collected at 60, 90, and 120 days of age. Medically-confirmed adverse events were recorded throughout the study. Results There were no group differences in growth rate from 14 to 120 days of age. Discontinuation rates were not significantly different among study groups. No differences in formula intake or infant fussiness or gassiness were observed. During study weeks 1 and 2 and at 60 days of age stool consistency ratings were higher (i.e. softer stools for infants in the PDX/GOS and GOS groups versus Control and remained higher at 120 days for the PDX/GOS group (all P  Conclusions Investigational routine infant formulas

  3. FOOD ALLERGY IN INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.I. Balabolkin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the etiology, growth mechanisms, clinical implications, diagnostics and treatment of the infant food allergy. The author highlights the status of the allergy to the proteins of cow milk within this age group of children. Alongside the article describes the modern approaches to the diet therapy of the infants with the allergy to the proteins of cow milk.Key words: infant, food allergy, allergy to the proteins of cow milk, diet therapy.

  4. Iron status and systemic inflammation, but not gut inflammation, strongly predict gender-specific concentrations of serum hepcidin in infants in rural kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaeggi, T.; Moretti, D.; Kvalsvig, J.; Holding, P.A.; Tjalsma, H.; Kortman, G.A.M.; Joosten, I.; Mwangi, A.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2013-01-01

    Hepcidin regulation by competing stimuli such as infection and iron deficiency has not been studied in infants and it's yet unknown whether hepcidin regulatory pathways are fully functional in infants. In this cross-sectional study including 339 Kenyan infants aged 6.0+/-1.1 months (mean+/-SD), we

  5. New guidelines for managing cow's milk allergy in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Rosan

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of allergic disease has increased markedly over the last 50 years. Food allergy usually manifests in early childhood as part of the so-called atopic march and most commonly includes one or more of the following foods: cow's milk, hen's egg, soy, peanuts and tree nuts, wheat, sesame seed, kiwi fruit and seafood. In the UK about 2% of infants develop cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA), but as many as 15% of infants present with symptoms suggestive of an adverse reaction to cow's milk protein. The diagnosis of CMPA is based on one or more of the following: a detailed clinical history, allergy test results (skin prick testing [SPT] and/or specific immunoglobulin E [IgE]) and, if required, supervised incremental milk challenges. The majority of UK primary care centres do not have access to these tests and may also be unfamiliar with the interpretation or results. In addition, they do not have the facilities for supervised food challenges. Empirical treatment is often required pending confirmation of allergy or referral to a specialist centre, but requires clear guidelines. No consensus guidelines currently exist for the diagnosis and management of CMPA in the UK. An international task force has recently published proposed guidelines for the management of CMPA. These provide separate algorithms covering the diagnosis and management of CMPA for both breast-fed and formula-fed infants and discuss the use of hypoallergenic formulae, elimination diets and diagnostic tests. Revisions and adaptations for the UK market are required and are discussed in this article.

  6. Infants in cocktail parties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Rochelle S.

    2003-04-01

    Most work on listeners' ability to separate streams of speech has focused on adults. Yet infants also find themselves in noisy environments. In order to learn from their caregivers' speech in these settings, they must first separate it from background noise such as that from television shows and siblings. Previous work has found that 7.5-month-old infants can separate streams of speech when the target voice is more intense than the distractor voice (Newman and Jusczyk, 1996), when the target voice is known to the infant (Barker and Newman, 2000) or when infants are presented with an audiovisual (rather than auditory-only) signal (Hollich, Jusczyk, and Newman, 2001). Unfortunately, the paradigm in these studies can only be used on infants at least 7.5 months of age, limiting the ability to investigate how stream segregation develops over time. The present work uses a new paradigm to explore younger infants' ability to separate streams of speech. Infants aged 4.5 months heard a female talker repeat either their own name or another infants' name, while several other voices spoke fluently in the background. We present data on infants' ability to recognize their own name in this cocktail party situation. [Work supported by NSF and NICHD.

  7. Infant Feeding Decision-Making and the Influences of Social Support Persons Among First-Time African American Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiodu, Ifeyinwa V; Waters, Catherine M; Dailey, Dawn E; Lyndon, Audrey

    2017-04-01

    Background While breast milk is considered the gold standard of infant feeding, a majority of African American mothers are not exclusively breastfeeding their newborn infants. Objective The overall goal of this critical ethnographic research study was to describe infant feeding perceptions and experiences of African American mothers and their support persons. Methods Twenty-two participants (14 pregnant women and eight support persons) were recruited from public health programs and community based organizations in northern California. Data were collected through field observations, demographic questionnaires, and multiple in-person interviews. Thematic analysis was used to identify key themes. Results Half of the mothers noted an intention to exclusively breastfeed during the antepartum period. However, few mothers exclusively breastfed during the postpartum period. Many participants expressed guilt and shame for not being able to accomplish their antepartum goals. Life experiences and stressors, lack of breastfeeding role models, limited experiences with breastfeeding and lactation, and changes to the family dynamic played a major role in the infant feeding decision making process and breastfeeding duration. Conclusions for Practice Our observations suggest that while exclusivity goals were not being met, a considerable proportion of African American women were breastfeeding. Future interventions geared towards this population should include social media interventions, messaging around combination feeding, and increased education for identified social support persons. Public health measures aimed at reducing the current infant feeding inequities would benefit by also incorporating more culturally inclusive messaging around breastfeeding and lactation.

  8. Infant Feeding Decision-Making and the Influences of Social Support Persons among First-Time African American Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiodu, Ifeyinwa V.; Waters, Catherine M.; Dailey, Dawn E.; Lyndon, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    Background While breast milk is considered the gold standard of infant feeding, a majority of African American mothers are not exclusively breastfeeding their newborn infants. Purpose The overall goal of this critical ethnographic research study was to describe infant feeding perceptions and experiences of African American mothers and their support persons. Methods Twenty-two participants (14 pregnant women and eight support persons) were recruited from public health programs and community based organizations in northern California. Data were collected through field observations, demographic questionnaires, and multiple in-person interviews. Thematic analysis was used to identify key themes. Results Half of the mothers noted an intention to exclusively breastfeed during the antepartum period. However, few mothers exclusively breastfed during the postpartum period. Many participants expressed guilt and shame for not being able to accomplish their antepartum goals. Life experiences and stressors, lack of breastfeeding role models, limited experiences with breastfeeding and lactation, and changes to the family dynamic played a major role in the infant feeding decision making process and breastfeeding duration. Conclusion Our observations suggest that while exclusivity goals were not being met, a considerable proportion of African American women were breastfeeding. Future interventions geared towards this population should include social media interventions, messaging around combination feeding, and increased education for identified social support persons. Public health measures aimed at reducing the current infant feeding inequities would benefit by also incorporating more culturally inclusive messaging around breastfeeding and lactation. PMID:27565664

  9. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) Overview Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the unexplained death, usually during sleep, of a seemingly healthy baby ... year old. SIDS is sometimes known as crib death because the infants often die in their cribs. ...

  10. Infant discrimination of humanoid robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goh eMatsuda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, extremely humanlike robots called androids have been developed, some of which are already being used in the field of entertainment. In the context of psychological studies, androids are expected to be used in the future as fully controllable human stimuli to investigate human nature. In this study, we used an android to examine infant discrimination ability between human beings and non-human agents. Participants (N = 42 infants were assigned to three groups based on their age, i.e., 6- to 8-month-olds, 9- to 11-month-olds, and 12- to 14-month-olds, and took part in a preferential looking paradigm. Of three types of agents involved in the paradigm—a human, an android modeled on the human, and a mechanical-looking robot made from the android—two at a time were presented side-by-side as they performed a grasping action. Infants’ looking behavior was measured using an eye tracking system, and the amount of time spent focusing on each of three areas of interest (face, goal, and body was analyzed. Results showed that all age groups predominantly looked at the robot and at the face area, and that infants aged over 9 months watched the goal area for longer than the body area. There was no difference in looking times and areas focused on between the human and the android. These findings suggest that 6- to 14-month-olds are unable to discriminate between the human and the android, although they can distinguish the mechanical robot from the human.

  11. The effects of exclusive versus non-exclusive breastfeeding on specific infant morbidities in Conakry (Guinea

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    Jean-Marie Moutquin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background:This study examines the effect of exclusive versus non-exclusive breastfeeding on specific infant morbidities from birth to nine months, in Conakry (Guinea. Methods:A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1,167 mother-infant pairs who visited one of 20 immunization centres in Conakry for vaccination between the 45th and 270th days of the child’s life. Two data sources were used: the infant health book and an orally administered questionnaire completed with the mother. Data analyses included univariate cross-tabulations and multivariate logistic regression models to estimate the effect of breastfeeding on infant morbidity. Results:Exclusive breastfeeding decreased with the infant’s age. At six months of age, the proportion of infants who were exclusively breastfed was only 15.5%. After adjusting for the infant’s age, and the interaction between the type of breastfeeding and the infant’s age, exclusive breastfeeding significantly protected the infants against many of the studied morbidities (OR: 0.28, CI: 0.15-0.51 and specifically against diarrhoea (OR: 0.38; 95% CI: 0.17 – 0.86, respiratory infections (OR: 0.27; 95% CI: 0.14 – 0.50, and low growth rate (OR: 0.11; 95% CI: 0.02 – 0.46, but not for otitis, urinary infection, or meningitis. Conclusion:This investigation confirmed the protective effects of exclusive breastfeeding on some specific infant’s morbidities during the first nine months of life. The results of this study are of great importance for the development of an information program designed to encourage the exclusive breastfeeding among the mothers of Conakry, Guinea.

  12. Fructose in Breast Milk Is Positively Associated with Infant Body Composition at 6 Months of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goran, Michael I; Martin, Ashley A; Alderete, Tanya L; Fujiwara, Hideji; Fields, David A

    2017-02-16

    Dietary sugars have been shown to promote excess adiposity among children and adults; however, no study has examined fructose in human milk and its effects on body composition during infancy. Twenty-five mother-infant dyads attended clinical visits to the Oklahoma Health Sciences Center at 1 and 6 months of infant age. Infants were exclusively breastfed for 6 months and sugars in breast milk (i.e., fructose, glucose, lactose) were measured by Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and glucose oxidase. Infant body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at 1 and 6 months. Multiple linear regression was used to examine associations between breast milk sugars and infant body composition at 6 months of age. Fructose, glucose, and lactose were present in breast milk and stable across visits (means = 6.7 μg/mL, 255.2 μg/mL, and 7.6 g/dL, respectively). Despite its very low concentration, fructose was the only sugar significantly associated with infant body composition. A 1-μg/mL higher breast milk fructose was associated with a 257 g higher body weight ( p = 0.02), 170 g higher lean mass ( p = 0.01), 131 g higher fat mass ( p = 0.05), and 5 g higher bone mineral content ( p = 0.03). In conclusion, fructose is detectable in human breast milk and is positively associated with all components of body composition at 6 months of age.

  13. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Various Methods of Iron Deficiency Prevention in Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.А. Bielykh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the effectiveness of various methods of iron deficiency prevention in infants. Materials and Methods. Within 30-cluster regional epidemiological study on the prevalence of iodine and iron deficiency in children, we have analyzed the results of screening for anemia in 948 children, carried out questioning of mothers, determined the concentration of iron in breast milk. The effectiveness of preventive measures was assessed by indicators of iron supplementation of the body in 96 children depending on the existing method of iron prophylaxis. Results of the Study. It was found that the use by mother during lactation of iron-containing vitamin-mineral complexes had no effect on the iron content in breast milk. It is proved that administration of iron (III hydroxide polymaltose complex 1 mg/kg/day for 2 months is the most effective way to prevent iron deficiency in children who are exclusively breastfed.

  14. Infant Feeding and Risk of Type 1 Diabetes in Two Large Scandinavian Birth Cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Blix, Nicolai A.; Sander, Stine Dydensborg; Størdal, Ketil

    2017-01-01

    breastfeeding (HR per month 0.99 [95% CI 0.97–1.01]) and any breastfeeding (0.97 [0.92–1.03]). CONCLUSIONS: Suggestive evidence supports the contention that breastfeeding reduces the risk of type 1 diabetes. Among those who were breastfed, however, no evidence indicated that prolonging full or any breastfeeding......OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to study the relation between the duration of full and any breastfeeding and risk of type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We included two population-based cohorts of children followed from birth (1996–2009) to 2014 (Denmark) or 2015 (Norway). We analyzed data from...... a total of 155,392 children participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) and the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC). Parents reported infant dietary practices when their child was 6 and 18 months old. The outcome was clinical type 1 diabetes, ascertained from nationwide childhood...

  15. Estimation of infant dose and exposure to pethidine and norpethidine via breast milk following patient-controlled epidural pethidine for analgesia post caesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Tamimi, Y; Ilett, K F; Paech, M J; O'Halloran, S J; Hartmann, P E

    2011-04-01

    There is no information about the distribution of pethidine into breast milk and/or exposure of the breastfed infant during pethidine patient-controlled epidural analgesia after caesarean delivery. We conducted an observational study among 20 women. The mean (95% confidence interval) pethidine dose administered was 670 (346-818) mg over 41 (35-46) h. Maternal plasma and milk and neonatal plasma were collected near the time of pethidine cessation and 6h later. Absolute and relative infant doses via milk and infant exposure were calculated. Infant behaviour was assessed using the Neurologic and Adaptive Capacity Score. At first and second sampling times, mean absolute infant doses for pethidine were 20 (14-27) μg/kg/day and 10 (7-13) μg/kg/day, while mean relative infant doses were 0.7 (0.1-1.4)% and 0.3 (0.1-0.5)% respectively. Similar values for norpethidine (expressed as pethidine equivalents) were 21 (16-26) μg/kg/day and 22 (12-32) μg/kg/day; and 0.7 (0.3-1)% and 0.6 (0.2-1)% respectively. Mean pethidine and norpethidine concentrations in neonatal plasma were 3 (0-6.1) μg/L and 0.6 (0.2-1) μg/L. Compared with a time-matched maternal sample, the infant's exposure was 1.4 (0.2-2.8)% for pethidine and 0.4 (0.2-0.6)% for norpethidine. The mean (95% confidence interval) neurologic and adaptive capacity score was 33.6 (32.2-34.9). The combined absolute infant dose of pethidine and norpethidine received via milk was 1.8% of the neonatal therapeutic dose and the combined relative infant dose was below the 10% recommended safety level. Breastfed infants are at low risk of drug exposure when mothers self-administer epidural pethidine after caesarean delivery. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Stillbirth and Infant Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard

    2012-01-01

    mechanisms behind these associations remain largely unknown. Although maternal obesity is associated with a wide range of complications in the mother and neonate that may impair fetal and infant survival, the increased risk of stillbirth and infant mortality is virtually unchanged when accounting...

  17. Measuring Infant Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogartz, Richard S.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews three response rate measures (in a baseline measurement, immediately after acquisition, and at a long-term retention test) of infant memory that are used in experiments involving infants' conditioned kicking. Compares these measures to a new measure, the fraction of kicking rate remaining after the retention interval. Explains the…

  18. Quality Practices for Working with Infants and Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polk, Cheryl; Bogard, Kimber

    2016-01-01

    The science is unequivocal in showing that infants and toddlers begin learning very young, and the workforce must be equipped with the specific skills and practices to fully support this important period of development. A major conclusion in the 2015 report from the Institute of Medicine and the National Research Council, "Transforming the…

  19. Associations between human milk oligosaccharides and infant body composition in the first 6 mo of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderete, Tanya L; Autran, Chloe; Brekke, Benjamin E; Knight, Rob; Bode, Lars; Goran, Michael I; Fields, David A

    2015-12-01

    Evidence linking breastfeeding to reduced risk of developing childhood obesity is inconclusive, yet previous studies have not considered variation in specific components of breast milk that may affect early development. We examined whether differences in the composition of human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) correlate with infant growth and body composition at 1 and 6 mo of age. Twenty-five mother-infant dyads were recruited from the University Hospital at the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center. Infants were breastfed for 6 mo. Breast-milk and infant measures were obtained at 1 and 6 mo of infant age. HMO composition was analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography, and infant growth (length and weight) and body composition (percentage fat, total fat, lean mass) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Relations between HMOs and infant growth and body composition were examined by using multiple linear regression. A priori covariates included maternal prepregnancy body mass index, pregnancy weight gain, and infant age and sex. Higher HMO diversity and evenness at 1 mo were associated with lower total and percentage fat mass at 1 mo. At 1 mo, each 1-μg/mL increase in lacto-N-fucopentaose (LNFP) I was associated with a 0.40-kg lower infant weight (P = 0.03). At 6 mo, each 1-μg/mL increase in LNFPI was associated with a 1.11-kg lower weight (P = 0.03) and a 0.85-g lower lean mass (P = 0.01). At 6 mo, each 1-μg/mL increase in LNFPI was associated with a 0.79-g lower fat mass (P = 0.02), whereas disialyl-lacto-N-tetraose and LNFPII were associated with a 1.92-g (P = 0.02) and 0.42-g (P = 0.02) greater fat mass, respectively. At 6 mo, each 1-μg/mL increase in fucosyl-disialyl-lacto-N-hexaose and lacto-N-neotetraose was associated with 0.04% higher (P = 0.03) and 0.03% lower (P milk are associated with infant growth and body composition. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02535637. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. Visionaries or dreamers? The story of infant oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Arthur J; Quiñonez, Rocio B

    2011-01-01

    To review the early history of the promotion of oral health for infants and toddlers, the impact of the AAPD guideline on infant oral health care and ways to maximize health outcomes. Review of the literature. Concepts on primary prevention and early intervention were reported as early as the 19th century. Progress to positively impact the oral health of children has been made. Nevertheless, the advice of early scholars and clinicians that oral care and prevention must begin early with the caregivers and the emergence of the infant's first tooth have not been fully embraced by the profession. A historical perspective on oral health care for infants and toddlers has been presented. There is a need to move away from the surgical approach of managing oral disease and embrace the concepts of primary care beginning perinatally while more broadly addressing social determinants of health.

  1. Sun exposure and vitamin D supplementation in relation to vitamin D status of breastfeeding mothers and infants in the global exploration of human milk study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawodu, Adekunle; Davidson, Barbara; Woo, Jessica G; Peng, Yong-Mei; Ruiz-Palacios, Guillermo M; de Lourdes Guerrero, Maria; Morrow, Ardythe L

    2015-02-05

    Although vitamin D (vD) deficiency is common in breastfed infants and their mothers during pregnancy and lactation, a standardized global comparison is lacking. We studied the prevalence and risk factors for vD deficiency using a standardized protocol in a cohort of breastfeeding mother-infant pairs, enrolled in the Global Exploration of Human Milk Study, designed to examine longitudinally the effect of environment, diet and culture. Mothers planned to provide breast milk for at least three months post-partum and were enrolled at four weeks postpartum in Shanghai, China (n=112), Cincinnati, Ohio (n=119), and Mexico City, Mexico (n=113). Maternal serum 25(OH)D was measured by radioimmunoassay (obesity (p=0.03), season (p=0.001) and sites (p<0.001) predicted maternal vD status. vD deficiency in order of magnitude was found in 62%, 28%, and 6% of Mexican, Cincinnati and Shanghai infants, respectively (p<0.001). Season (p=0.022), adding formula feeding (p<0.001) and a higher sun index (p=0.085) predicted higher infant vD status. vD deficiency appears to be a global problem in mothers and infants, though the prevalence in diverse populations may depend upon sun exposure behaviors and vD supplementation. Greater attention to maternal and infant vD status starting during pregnancy is warranted worldwide.

  2. Specific Infant Feeding Practices Do Not Consistently Explain Variation in Anthropometry at Age 1 Year in Urban United States, Mexico, and China Cohorts12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Jessica G.; Guerrero, M. Lourdes; Ruiz-Palacios, Guillermo M.; Peng, Yong-mei; Herbers, Patricia M.; Yao, Wen; Ortega, Hilda; Davidson, Barbara S.; McMahon, Robert J.; Morrow, Ardythe L.

    2013-01-01

    Infant feeding practices generally influence infant growth, but it is unclear how introduction of specific foods affects growth across global populations. We studied 3 urban populations in the Global Exploration of Human Milk study to determine the association between infant feeding and anthropometry at 1 y of age. Three hundred sixty-five breastfeeding mother-infant pairs (120 US, 120 China, and 125 Mexico) were recruited soon after the infant’s birth. Enrollment required agreement to breastfeed ≥75% for at least 3 mo. Weekly, 24-h, food frequency data were conducted on infants for 1 y and exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) duration and timing of specific complementary food introduction were calculated. Weight and length were measured at age 1 y and anthropometry Z-scores calculated using WHO standards. Cohorts in the 3 urban populations (Shanghai, China; Cincinnati, USA; and Mexico City, Mexico) differed by median EBF duration (5, 14, and 7 wk, respectively; P Mexico City infants (P < 0.001). Adjusting for nonfeeding covariates, the only feeding variable associated with anthropometry was EBF duration, which was modestly inversely associated with weight-for-age but not length-for-age or BMI Z-scores at 1 y. Although feeding variables differed by cohort, their impact on anthropometry differences was not consistent among cohorts. Overall, across these urban, international, breast-fed cohorts, differences in specific feeding practices did not explain the significant variation in anthropometry. PMID:23236024

  3. Factors Distinguishing Positive Deviance Among Low-Income African American Women: A Qualitative Study on Infant Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Cecilia E; Masho, Saba W; Carlyle, Kellie E; Mosavel, Maghboeba

    2017-05-01

    Positive deviant individuals practice beneficial behaviors in spite of having qualities characterizing them as high risk for unhealthy behaviors. This study aimed to identify and understand factors distinguishing low-income African American women who breastfeed the longest (positive deviants) from those who breastfeed for a shorter duration or do not breastfeed. Seven mini-focus groups on infant-feeding attitudes and experiences were conducted with 25 low-income African American women, grouped by infant-feeding practice. Positive deviants, who had breastfed for 4 months or more, were compared with formula-feeding participants who had only formula fed their babies and short-term breastfeeding participants who had breastfed for 3 months or less. Positive deviant women had more schooling, higher income, breastfeeding intention, positive breastfeeding and unfavorable formula-feeding attitudes, higher self-efficacy, positive hospital and Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children experiences, more exclusive breastfeeding, and greater comfort breastfeeding in public. Short-term breastfeeding women varied in breastfeeding intention and self-efficacy, seemed to receive insufficient professional breastfeeding support, and supplemented breastfeeding with formula. Some showed ambivalence, concern with unhealthy behaviors, and discomfort with breastfeeding in public. Formula-feeding women intended to formula feed, feared breastfeeding, thought their behaviors were incompatible with breastfeeding, were comfortable with and found formula convenient, and received strong support to formula feed. Tapping into the strengths of positive deviants; tailoring interventions to levels of general and breastfeeding self-efficacy; increasing social, institutional, and community supports; and removing inappropriate formula promotion may offer promising strategies to increase breastfeeding among low-income African American women.

  4. Is infant exposure to antiretroviral drugs during breastfeeding quantitatively important? A systematic review and meta-analysis of pharmacokinetic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waitt, Catriona John; Garner, Paul; Bonnett, Laura Jayne; Khoo, Saye Hock; Else, Laura Jayne

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were to summarize antiretroviral drug concentrations in breast milk (BM) and exposure of breast-fed infants. Methods This was a systematic review of pharmacokinetic studies of HIV-positive women taking antiretrovirals that measured drugs in BM. The quality of pharmacokinetic and laboratory methods was assessed using pre-defined criteria. Pooled ratios and 95% CIs were calculated using the generalized inverse variance method and heterogeneity was estimated by the I2 statistic. PubMed Central, SCOPUS and LactMed databases were searched. No date or language restrictions were applied. Searches were conducted up to 10 November 2014. Clinical relevance was estimated by comparing ingested dose with the recommended therapeutic dose for each drug. Results Twenty-four studies were included. There was substantial variability in the clinical and laboratory methods used and in reported results. Relative to maternal plasma (MP), NRTIs accumulate in BM, with BM : MP ratios (95% CI estimates) from 0.89 to 1.21 (14 studies, 1159 paired BM and MP samples). NNRTI estimates were from 0.71 to 0.94 (17 studies, 965 paired samples) and PI estimates were from 0.17 to 0.21 (8 studies, 477 paired samples). Relative to the recommended paediatric doses, a breast-fed infant may ingest 8.4% (95% CI 1.9–15.0), 12.5% (95% CI 2.6–22.3) and 1.1% (95% CI 0–3.6) of lamivudine, nevirapine and efavirenz, respectively, via BM. Conclusions Transfer to untreated infants appears quantitatively important for some NRTIs and NNRTIs. The pharmacokinetic methods varied widely and we propose standards for the design, analysis and reporting of future pharmacokinetic studies of drug transfer during breastfeeding. PMID:25858354

  5. Essential fats: how do they affect growth and development of infants and young children in developing countries? A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Sandra L; Harika, Rajwinder K; Eilander, Ans; Osendarp, Saskia J M

    2011-10-01

    Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are known to play an essential role in the development of the brain and retina. Intakes in pregnancy and early life affect growth and cognitive performance later in childhood. However, total fat intake, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and DHA intakes are often low among pregnant and lactating women, infants and young children in developing countries. As breast milk is one of the best sources of ALA and DHA, breastfed infants are less likely to be at risk of insufficient intakes than those not breastfed. Enhancing intake of ALA through plant food products (soy beans and oil, canola oil, and foods containing these products such as lipid-based nutrient supplements) has been shown to be feasible. However, because of the low conversion rates of ALA to DHA, it may be more efficient to increase DHA status through increasing fish consumption or DHA fortification, but these approaches may be more costly. In addition, breastfeeding up to 2 years and beyond is recommended to ensure an adequate essential fat intake in early life. Data from developing countries have shown that a higher omega-3 fatty acid intake or supplementation during pregnancy may result in small improvements in birthweight, length and gestational age based on two randomized controlled trials and one cross-sectional study. More rigorous randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm this effect. Limited data from developing countries suggest that ALA or DHA supplementation during lactation and in infants may be beneficial for growth and development of young children 6-24 months of age in these settings. These benefits are more pronounced in undernourished children. However, there is no evidence for improvements in growth following omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in children >2 years of age. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Dietary intake of pregnant women and their infants in a poor black South African community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Mostert

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were (i to determine the dietary intake of women in a poor rural area during pregnancy and lactation, and (ii to determine the nutritional status and dietary intake of their infants at age 6 months. We recruited 46 women, below 40 years old, in their 2nd trimester of pregnancy. The subjects were living in a rural area of Limpopo Province. Their heights and weights were recorded, as were their diets during pregnancy and for the first 6 months after delivery. We also recorded weights, lengths, and dietary intake of the infants at 3 and 6 months after birth. The subjects were living in severe poverty: none had running water and almost all did their cooking over an open fire. None of the subjects smoked and only one consumed alcohol. The diets of the subjects consisted mainly of maize, brown bread, sweetened beverages (cold drink and tea, and small amounts of vegetables and chicken. The diets were adequate in protein but were marginal in energy and in dietary fibre, and may be deficient in numerous micronutrients, particularly calcium, iron, zinc, niacin, folate, and vitamins A, C, E, and B6. This was seen during pregnancy and lactation. Blood analysis 6 months after birth revealed normal levels of vitamins A and E and an absence of anaemia. Body mass index (BMI of the women was 23.9 } 5.3 kg/m2 (mean } SD when measured 6 months after birth. Those above 25 years old had a higher BMI than did younger subjects (25.5 vs. 22.2; p= 0.028. Overall, 24% were overweight (BMI 25-30 while 9% were obese (BMI > 30. Most infants (93% were breastfed for at least 6 months but exclusive breastfeeding was only done by 65% of mothers. One-third of breastfed infants also received formula. The use of formula while breastfeeding was twice as common among mothers aged above 25 years (46% vs. 23%. Early introduction of solid foods was very common in this group. Younger mothers introduced solids in the first month (51% more often compared with

  7. Reflux and GERD in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gastroenterology and Nutrition Nurses Print Share Reflux and GERD : Reflux and GERD in Infants Reflux and GERD in Infants It’s not uncommon for a baby ... happy, healthy childhood. Quick Facts about Reflux and GERD in Infants The majority of infants do not ...

  8. When Infants Talk, Infants Listen: Pre-Babbling Infants Prefer Listening to Speech with Infant Vocal Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masapollo, Matthew; Polka, Linda; Ménard, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    To learn to produce speech, infants must effectively monitor and assess their own speech output. Yet very little is known about how infants perceive speech produced by an infant, which has higher voice pitch and formant frequencies compared to adult or child speech. Here, we tested whether pre-babbling infants (at 4-6 months) prefer listening to…

  9. Health-related quality of life of infants from ethnic minority groups: the Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flink, Ilse J E; Beirens, Tinneke M J; Looman, Caspar; Landgraf, Jeanne M; Tiemeier, Henning; Mol, Henriette A; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Mackenbach, Johan P; Raat, Hein

    2013-04-01

    To assess whether the health-related quality of life of infants from ethnic minority groups differs from the health-related quality of life of native Dutch infants and to evaluate whether infant health and family characteristics explain the potential differences. We included 4,506 infants participating in the Generation R Study, a longitudinal birth cohort. When the child was 12 months, parents completed the Infant Toddler Quality of Life Questionnaire (ITQOL); ITQOL scale scores in each ethnic subgroup were compared with scores in the Dutch reference population. Influence of infant health and family characteristics on ITQOL scale scores were evaluated using multivariate regression models. Infants from ethnic minority groups presented significantly lower ITQOL scale scores compared to the Dutch subgroup (e.g., Temperament and Moods scale: median score of Turkish subgroup, 70.8 (IQR, 15.3); median score of Dutch subgroup, 80.6 (IQR, 13.9; P ethnic minority status and infant health-related quality of life. However, these factors could not fully explain all the differences in the ITQOL scale scores. Parent-reported health-related quality of life is lower in infants from ethnic minority groups compared to native Dutch infants, which could partly be explained by infant health and by family characteristics.

  10. Fully Depleted Charge-Coupled Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, Stephen E.

    2006-01-01

    We have developed fully depleted, back-illuminated CCDs that build upon earlier research and development efforts directed towards technology development of silicon-strip detectors used in high-energy-physics experiments. The CCDs are fabricated on the same type of high-resistivity, float-zone-refined silicon that is used for strip detectors. The use of high-resistivity substrates allows for thick depletion regions, on the order of 200-300 um, with corresponding high detection efficiency for near-infrared and soft x-ray photons. We compare the fully depleted CCD to the p-i-n diode upon which it is based, and describe the use of fully depleted CCDs in astronomical and x-ray imaging applications

  11. CMOS current controlled fully balanced current conveyor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chunhua; Zhang Qiujing; Liu Haiguang

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a current controlled fully balanced second-generation current conveyor circuit (CF-BCCII). The proposed circuit has the traits of fully balanced architecture, and its X-Y terminals are current controllable. Based on the CFBCCII, two biquadratic universal filters are also proposed as its applications. The CFBCCII circuits and the two filters were fabricated with chartered 0.35-μm CMOS technology; with ±1.65 V power supply voltage, the total power consumption of the CFBCCII circuit is 3.6 mW. Comparisons between measured and HSpice simulation results are also given.

  12. Fully exponentially correlated wavefunctions for small atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Frank E. [Department of Physics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 and Quantum Theory Project, University of Florida, P.O. Box 118435, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2015-01-22

    Fully exponentially correlated atomic wavefunctions are constructed from exponentials in all the interparticle coordinates, in contrast to correlated wavefunctions of the Hylleraas form, in which only the electron-nuclear distances occur exponentially, with electron-electron distances entering only as integer powers. The full exponential correlation causes many-configuration wavefunctions to converge with expansion length more rapidly than either orbital formulations or correlated wavefunctions of the Hylleraas type. The present contribution surveys the effectiveness of fully exponentially correlated functions for the three-body system (the He isoelectronic series) and reports their application to a four-body system (the Li atom)

  13. High Rates of All-cause and Gastroenteritis-related Hospitalization Morbidity and Mortality among HIV-exposed Indian Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripathy Srikanth

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-infected and HIV-exposed, uninfected infants experience a high burden of infectious morbidity and mortality. Hospitalization is an important metric for morbidity and is associated with high mortality, yet, little is known about rates and causes of hospitalization among these infants in the first 12 months of life. Methods Using data from a prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT trial (India SWEN, where HIV-exposed breastfed infants were given extended nevirapine, we measured 12-month infant all-cause and cause-specific hospitalization rates and hospitalization risk factors. Results Among 737 HIV-exposed Indian infants, 93 (13% were HIV-infected, 15 (16% were on HAART, and 260 (35% were hospitalized 381 times by 12 months of life. Fifty-six percent of the hospitalizations were attributed to infections; gastroenteritis was most common accounting for 31% of infectious hospitalizations. Gastrointestinal-related hospitalizations steadily increased over time, peaking around 9 months. The 12-month all-cause hospitalization, gastroenteritis-related hospitalization, and in-hospital mortality rates were 906/1000 PY, 229/1000 PY, and 35/1000 PY respectively among HIV-infected infants and 497/1000 PY, 107/1000 PY, and 3/1000 PY respectively among HIV-exposed, uninfected infants. Advanced maternal age, infant HIV infection, gestational age, and male sex were associated with higher all-cause hospitalization risk while shorter duration of breastfeeding and abrupt weaning were associated with gastroenteritis-related hospitalization. Conclusions HIV-exposed Indian infants experience high rates of all-cause and infectious hospitalization (particularly gastroenteritis and in-hospital mortality. HIV-infected infants are nearly 2-fold more likely to experience hospitalization and 10-fold more likely to die compared to HIV-exposed, uninfected infants. The combination of scaling up HIV PMTCT programs and implementing proven health

  14. Lutein Is Differentially Deposited across Brain Regions following Formula or Breast Feeding of Infant Rhesus Macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Sookyoung; Ranard, Katherine M; Neuringer, Martha; Johnson, Emily E; Renner, Lauren; Kuchan, Matthew J; Pereira, Suzette L; Johnson, Elizabeth J; Erdman, John W

    2018-01-01

    Lutein, a yellow xanthophyll, selectively accumulates in primate retina and brain. Lutein may play a critical role in neural and retinal development, but few studies have investigated the impact of dietary source on its bioaccumulation in infants. We explored the bioaccumulation of lutein in infant rhesus macaques following breastfeeding or formula-feeding. From birth to 6 mo of age, male and female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were either breastfed (BF) (n = 8), fed a formula supplemented with lutein, zeaxanthin, β-carotene, and lycopene (237, 19.0, 74.2, and 338 nmol/kg, supplemented formula-fed; SF) (n = 8), or fed a formula with low amounts of these carotenoids (38.6, 2.3, 21.5, and 0 nmol/kg, unsupplemented formula-fed; UF) (n = 7). The concentrations of carotenoids in serum and tissues were analyzed by HPLC. At 6 mo of age, the BF group exhibited significantly higher lutein concentrations in serum, all brain regions, macular and peripheral retina, adipose tissue, liver, and other tissues compared to both formula-fed groups (P Lutein concentrations were higher in the SF group than in the UF group in serum and all tissues, with the exception of macular retina. Lutein was differentially distributed across brain areas, with the highest concentrations in the occipital cortex, regardless of the diet. Zeaxanthin was present in all brain regions but only in the BF infants; it was present in both retinal regions in all groups but was significantly enhanced in BF infants compared to either formula group (P lutein concentrations compared to unsupplemented formula, concentrations were still well below those in BF infants. Regardless of diet, occipital cortex showed selectively higher lutein deposition than other brain regions, suggesting lutein's role in visual processing in early life. © 2018 American Society for Nutrition. All rights reserved.

  15. Infants-feeding practices and their relationship with socio-economic and health conditions in Lahore, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadia Ijaz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pakistan, has high infant mortality rate. Among every 1000 live births 0.76% becomes the victim of death due to malnutrition and fatal infections. Therefore, feeding modes and practices may serve as important factors for assessment of an infant's growth and nutritional status. This study was designed to assess the exclusive breast feeding rate, frequency of diseases during breast feeding, status of breast feeding along with weaning, level of education, occupation and socio-economic status of parents. Methods: In the descriptive and cross-sectional study, a total of one hundred (100 infants were included. The sampling technique was non-probability convenience sampling. This study was conducted at vaccination centers and children clinics in different hospitals in city of Lahore -Pakistan. Results: The results showed that 67% of the mothers exclusively breastfed their babies. 64% of the mothers had knowledge of exclusive breast feeding. The practice of breast feeding was found as 81% while artificial feeding was practiced among 19% of the mothers. Majority of the mothers started weaning their babies at the age 4 (31% and 6 months (32% whereas 28% mothers started after 6 months. 54% of mothers continued breastfeeding along with weaning. 72% of the mothers were aware of the importance of colostrum. Conclusion: Maternal education and women's employment have been found major determinants for breastfeeding. The result indicates that in Pakistan, mothers receive counseling on breast feeding which is quite satisfactory and feeding practices of infants are found as better in Pakistan.

  16. Diarrhea in infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    When your infant has diarrhea; When your baby has diarrhea; BRAT diet; Diarrhea in children ... Children who have diarrhea may have less energy, dry eyes, or a dry, sticky mouth. They may also not wet their diaper as ...

  17. Total parenteral nutrition - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007239.htm Total parenteral nutrition - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  18. Mechanical ventilator - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007240.htm Mechanical ventilator - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A mechanical ventilator is a machine that assists with breathing. ...

  19. Cow's milk - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002448.htm Cow's milk - infants To use the sharing features on ... year old, you should not feed your baby cow's milk, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics ( ...

  20. Infant Formula and Fluorosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Private Wells Infant Formula Fluorosis Public Health Service Recommendation Water Operators & Engineers Water Fluoridation Additives Shortages of Fluoridation Additives Drinking Water Pipe Systems CDC-Sponsored Water Fluoridation Training Links to Other ...

  1. Diarrhea in infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rare diseases such as cystic fibrosis . Diarrhea Causes Dehydration Infants and young children under age 3 can ... as: Apple juice Milk Fried foods Full-strength fruit juice Preventing Diaper Rash Your baby might get ...

  2. Ptosis - infants and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blepharoptosis - children; Congenital ptosis; Eyelid drooping - children; Eyelid drooping - amblyopia; Eyelid drooping - astigmatism ... Ptosis in infants and children is often due to a problem with the muscle that raises the eyelid. A nerve problem in the eyelid can ...

  3. Feeding tube - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007235.htm Feeding tube - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A feeding tube is a small, soft, plastic tube placed ...

  4. Abbott Infant Formula Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall since September 2010 related to infant formula distributed by Abbott. This list will be updated with publicly available...

  5. High blood pressure - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007329.htm High blood pressure - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. High blood pressure (hypertension) is an increase in the force of ...

  6. Quantum Fully Homomorphic Encryption with Verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alagic, Gorjan; Dulek, Yfke; Schaffner, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Fully-homomorphic encryption (FHE) enables computation on encrypted data while maintaining secrecy. Recent research has shown that such schemes exist even for quantum computation. Given the numerous applications of classical FHE (zero-knowledge proofs, secure two-party computation, obfuscation, e...

  7. Fully conditional specification in multivariate imputation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Buuren, S.; Brand, J. P.L.; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, C. G.M.; Rubin, D. B.

    2006-01-01

    The use of the Gibbs sampler with fully conditionally specified models, where the distribution of each variable given the other variables is the starting point, has become a popular method to create imputations in incomplete multivariate data. The theoretical weakness of this approach is that the

  8. Fully Integrated Biochip Platforms for Advanced Healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni De Micheli

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in microelectronics and biosensors are enabling developments of innovative biochips for advanced healthcare by providing fully integrated platforms for continuous monitoring of a large set of human disease biomarkers. Continuous monitoring of several human metabolites can be addressed by using fully integrated and minimally invasive devices located in the sub-cutis, typically in the peritoneal region. This extends the techniques of continuous monitoring of glucose currently being pursued with diabetic patients. However, several issues have to be considered in order to succeed in developing fully integrated and minimally invasive implantable devices. These innovative devices require a high-degree of integration, minimal invasive surgery, long-term biocompatibility, security and privacy in data transmission, high reliability, high reproducibility, high specificity, low detection limit and high sensitivity. Recent advances in the field have already proposed possible solutions for several of these issues. The aim of the present paper is to present a broad spectrum of recent results and to propose future directions of development in order to obtain fully implantable systems for the continuous monitoring of the human metabolism in advanced healthcare applications.

  9. Fully integrated biochip platforms for advanced healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrara, Sandro; Ghoreishizadeh, Sara; Olivo, Jacopo; Taurino, Irene; Baj-Rossi, Camilla; Cavallini, Andrea; de Beeck, Maaike Op; Dehollain, Catherine; Burleson, Wayne; Moussy, Francis Gabriel; Guiseppi-Elie, Anthony; De Micheli, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in microelectronics and biosensors are enabling developments of innovative biochips for advanced healthcare by providing fully integrated platforms for continuous monitoring of a large set of human disease biomarkers. Continuous monitoring of several human metabolites can be addressed by using fully integrated and minimally invasive devices located in the sub-cutis, typically in the peritoneal region. This extends the techniques of continuous monitoring of glucose currently being pursued with diabetic patients. However, several issues have to be considered in order to succeed in developing fully integrated and minimally invasive implantable devices. These innovative devices require a high-degree of integration, minimal invasive surgery, long-term biocompatibility, security and privacy in data transmission, high reliability, high reproducibility, high specificity, low detection limit and high sensitivity. Recent advances in the field have already proposed possible solutions for several of these issues. The aim of the present paper is to present a broad spectrum of recent results and to propose future directions of development in order to obtain fully implantable systems for the continuous monitoring of the human metabolism in advanced healthcare applications.

  10. Equipment for fully automatic radiographic pipe inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basler, G.; Sperl, H.; Weinschenk, K.

    1977-01-01

    The patent describes a device for fully automatic radiographic testing of large pipes with longitudinal welds. Furthermore the invention enables automatic marking of films in radiographic inspection with regard to a ticketing of the test piece and of that part of it where testing took place. (RW) [de

  11. Faster Fully-Dynamic minimum spanning forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jacob; Rotenberg, Eva; Wulff-Nilsen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    We give a new data structure for the fully-dynamic minimum spanning forest problem in simple graphs. Edge updates are supported in O(log4 n/log logn) expected amortized time per operation, improving the O(log4 n) amortized bound of Holm et al. (STOC’98, JACM’01).We also provide a deterministic data...

  12. Reducing infant mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, T R

    1994-01-01

    Public health and social policies at the population level (e.g., oral rehydration therapy and immunization) are responsible for the major reduction in infant mortality worldwide. The gap in infant mortality rates between developing and developed regions is much less than that in maternal mortality rates. This indicates that maternal and child health (MCH) programs and women's health care should be combined. Since 1950, 66% of infant deaths occur in the 1st 28 days, indicating adverse prenatal and intrapartum events (e.g., congenital malformation and birth injuries). Infection, especially pneumonia and diarrhea, and low birth weight are the major causes of infant mortality worldwide. An estimated US$25 billion are needed to secure the resources to control major childhood diseases, reduce malnutrition 50%, reduce child deaths by 4 million/year, provide potable water and sanitation to all communities, provide basic education, and make family planning available to all. This cost for saving children's lives is lower than current expenditures for cigarettes (US$50 billion in Europe/year). Vitamin A supplementation, breast feeding, and prenatal diagnosis of congenital malformations are low-cost strategies that can significantly affect infant well-being and reduce child mortality in many developing countries. The US has a higher infant mortality rate than have other developed countries. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the US National Institutes of Health are focusing on prematurity, low birth weight, multiple pregnancy, violence, alcohol abuse, and poverty to reduce infant mortality. Obstetricians should be important members of MCH teams, which also include traditional birth attendants, community health workers, nurses, midwives, and medical officers. We have the financial resources to allocate resources to improve MCH care and to reduce infant mortality.

  13. Autoshaping Infant Vocalizations

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, Alexander McNaughton

    1981-01-01

    A series of five experiments was conducted to determine whether operant or respondent factors controlled the emission of a particular vocalization ( "Q" ) by human infants 16 to 18 months old. Experiment 1 consisted of a pilot investigation of the effects of an autoshaping procedure on three infants' vocal behavior. All three subjects demonstrated increased emission of the target sound during the CR period. Experiments 2 through 4 attempted to replicate the findings of Experiment 1 under cont...

  14. A critical period of corticomuscular and EMG-EMG coherence detection in healthy infants aged 9-25weeks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritterband-Rosenbaum, Anina; Herskind, Anna; Li, Xi

    2017-01-01

    The early postnatal development of functional corticospinal connections in human infants is not fully clarified. We used EEG and EMG to investigate the development of corticomuscular and intramuscular coherence as indicators of functional corticospinal connectivity in healthy infants aged 1-66 we...

  15. Do infants fed directly from the breast have improved appetite regulation and slower growth during early childhood compared with infants fed from a bottle?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisher Jennifer O

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Behavioral mechanisms that contribute to the association between breastfeeding and reduced obesity risk are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that feeding human milk from the breast (direct breastfeeding has a more optimal association with subsequent child appetite regulation behaviors and growth, when compared to bottle-feeding. Methods Children (n = 109 aged 3- to 6- years were retrospectively classified as directly breastfed (fed exclusively at the breast, bottle-fed human milk, or bottle-fed formula in the first three months of life. Young children's appetite regulation was examined by measuring three constructs (satiety response, food responsiveness, enjoyment of food associated with obesity risk, using the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to test whether children bottle-fed either human milk or formula had reduced odds of high satiety and increased odds of high food responsiveness and high enjoyment of food compared to children fed directly from the breast. Current child weight status and growth trends from 6-36 months were also examined for their relation to direct breastfeeding and appetite regulation behaviors in early childhood. Results Children fed human milk in a bottle were 67% less likely to have high satiety responsiveness compared to directly breastfed children, after controlling for child age, child weight status, maternal race/ethnicity, and maternal education. There was no association of bottle-feeding (either human milk or formula with young children's food responsiveness and enjoyment of food. There was neither an association of direct breastfeeding with current child weight status, nor was there a clear difference between directly breastfed and bottle-fed children in growth trajectories from 6- to 36-months. More rapid infant changes in weight-for-age score were associated with lower satiety responsiveness

  16. 76 FR 36176 - Fully Developed Claim (Fully Developed Claims-Applications for Compensation, Pension, DIC, Death...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-0747] Fully Developed Claim (Fully Developed Claims--Applications for Compensation, Pension, DIC, Death Pension, and/or Accrued Benefits); Correction AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration, Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Notice; correction...

  17. Occurrence of oligosaccharides in feces of breast-fed babies in their first six months of life and the corresponding breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Simone; Schols, Henk A; van den Heuvel, Ellen G H M; Voragen, Alphons G J; Gruppen, Harry

    2011-11-29

    The characterization of oligosaccharides in the feces of breast-fed babies is a valuable tool for monitoring the gastrointestinal fate of human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs). In the present study we monitored fecal oligosaccharide profiles together with the HMO-profiles of the respective breast milks up to six months postpartum, by means of capillary electrophoresis-laser induced fluorescence detection and mass spectrometry. Eleven mother/child pairs were included. Mother's secretor- and Lewis-type included all combinations [Le(a-b+), Le(a+b-), Le(a-b-)]. The fecal HMO-profiles in the first few months of life are either predominantly composed of neutral or acidic HMOs and are possibly effected by the HMO-fingerprint in the respective breast milk. Independent of the initial presence of acidic or neutral fecal HMOs, a gradual change to blood-group specific oligosaccharides was observed. Their presence pointed to a gastrointestinal degradation of the feeding-related HMOs, followed by conjugation with blood group specific antigenic determinants present in the gastrointestinal mucus layer. Eleven of these 'hybrid'-oligosaccharides were annotated in this study. When solid food was introduced, no HMOs and their degradation- and metabolization products were recovered in the fecal samples. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Rainwater drained through fully filled pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, B; Koestel, P

    1989-02-01

    The conventional rainwater drainage system according to DIN 1986 always seems to be a point of problemacy in the building services as far as the occupancy of installation shafts and ducts is at stake. The excavation work and the necessary gravity lines are considered to be expensive. The consideration of the necessary slope complicates the installation additionally. Basing on those considerations, the raindraining system with fully filled pipes has been developed. DIN 1986, edition June 1988, part 1, point 6.1.1 allows to install rainwater pipes operated as planned, fully filled without slope. An enterprise specialised in building services investigated all system laws because only by a hydraulically exact balance, the function of the rainwater drainage system operated by negative and positive pressure can be insured. The results of those investigations are integrated in a computer program developed for this purpose.

  19. Developments towards a fully automated AMS system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steier, P.; Puchegger, S.; Golser, R.; Kutschera, W.; Priller, A.; Rom, W.; Wallner, A.; Wild, E.

    2000-01-01

    The possibilities of computer-assisted and automated accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements were explored. The goal of these efforts is to develop fully automated procedures for 'routine' measurements at the Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator (VERA), a dedicated 3-MV Pelletron tandem AMS facility. As a new tool for automatic tuning of the ion optics we developed a multi-dimensional optimization algorithm robust to noise, which was applied for 14 C and 10 Be. The actual isotope ratio measurements are performed in a fully automated fashion and do not require the presence of an operator. Incoming data are evaluated online and the results can be accessed via Internet. The system was used for 14 C, 10 Be, 26 Al and 129 I measurements

  20. FMFT. Fully massive four-loop tadpoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pikelner, Andrey [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2017-07-15

    We present FMFT - a package written in FORM that evaluates four-loop fully massive tadpole Feynman diagrams. It is a successor of the MATAD package that has been successfully used to calculate many renormalization group functions at three-loop order in a wide range of quantum field theories especially in the Standard Model. We describe an internal structure of the package and provide some examples of its usage.

  1. Fully NLO Parton Shower in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrzypek, M.; Jadach, S.; Slawinska, M.; Gituliar, O.; Kusina, A.; Placzek, W.

    2011-01-01

    The project of constructing a complete NLO-level Parton Shower Monte Carlo for the QCD processes developed in IFJ PAN in Krakow is reviewed. Four issues are discussed: (1) the extension of the standard inclusive collinear factorization into a new, fully exclusive scheme; (2) reconstruction of the LO Parton Shower in the new scheme; (3) inclusion of the exclusive NLO corrections into the hard process and (4) inclusion of the exclusive NLO corrections into the evolution (ladder) part. (authors)

  2. FMFT: fully massive four-loop tadpoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikelner, Andrey

    2018-03-01

    We present FMFT - a package written in FORM that evaluates four-loop fully massive tadpole Feynman diagrams. It is a successor of the MATAD package that has been successfully used to calculate many renormalization group functions at three-loop order in a wide range of quantum field theories especially in the Standard Model. We describe an internal structure of the package and provide some examples of its usage.

  3. Fully probabilistic design of hierarchical Bayesian models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Quinn, A.; Kárný, Miroslav; Guy, Tatiana Valentine

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 369, č. 1 (2016), s. 532-547 ISSN 0020-0255 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-13502S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Fully probabilistic design * Ideal distribution * Minimum cross-entropy principle * Bayesian conditioning * Kullback-Leibler divergence * Bayesian nonparametric modelling Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 4.832, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/AS/karny-0463052.pdf

  4. Fully implicit kinetic modelling of collisional plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousseau, V.A.

    1996-05-01

    This dissertation describes a numerical technique, Matrix-Free Newton Krylov, for solving a simplified Vlasov-Fokker-Planck equation. This method is both deterministic and fully implicit, and may not have been a viable option before current developments in numerical methods. Results are presented that indicate the efficiency of the Matrix-Free Newton Krylov method for these fully-coupled, nonlinear integro-differential equations. The use and requirement for advanced differencing is also shown. To this end, implementations of Chang-Cooper differencing and flux limited Quadratic Upstream Interpolation for Convective Kinematics (QUICK) are presented. Results are given for a fully kinetic ion-electron problem with a self consistent electric field calculated from the ion and electron distribution functions. This numerical method, including advanced differencing, provides accurate solutions, which quickly converge on workstation class machines. It is demonstrated that efficient steady-state solutions can be achieved to the non-linear integro-differential equation, obtaining quadratic convergence, without incurring the large memory requirements of an integral operator. Model problems are presented which simulate plasma impinging on a plate with both high and low neutral particle recycling typical of a divertor in a Tokamak device. These model problems demonstrate the performance of the new solution method

  5. Maternal intake of methyl-group donors affects DNA methylation of metabolic genes in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, Sara; Ghosh, Manosij; Duca, Radu Corneliu; Bekaert, Bram; Freson, Kathleen; Huybrechts, Inge; Langie, Sabine A S; Koppen, Gudrun; Devlieger, Roland; Godderis, Lode

    2017-01-01

    Maternal nutrition during pregnancy and infant nutrition in the early postnatal period (lactation) are critically involved in the development and health of the newborn infant. The Maternal Nutrition and Offspring's Epigenome (MANOE) study was set up to assess the effect of maternal methyl-group donor intake (choline, betaine, folate, methionine) on infant DNA methylation. Maternal intake of dietary methyl-group donors was assessed using a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Before and during pregnancy, we evaluated maternal methyl-group donor intake through diet and supplementation (folic acid) in relation to gene-specific ( IGF2 DMR, DNMT1 , LEP , RXRA ) buccal epithelial cell DNA methylation in 6 months old infants ( n  = 114) via pyrosequencing. In the early postnatal period, we determined the effect of maternal choline intake during lactation (in mothers who breast-fed for at least 3 months) on gene-specific buccal DNA methylation ( n  = 65). Maternal dietary and supplemental intake of methyl-group donors (folate, betaine, folic acid), only in the periconception period, was associated with buccal cell DNA methylation in genes related to growth ( IGF2 DMR), metabolism ( RXRA ), and appetite control ( LEP ). A negative association was found between maternal folate and folic acid intake before pregnancy and infant LEP (slope = -1.233, 95% CI -2.342; -0.125, p  = 0.0298) and IGF2 DMR methylation (slope = -0.706, 95% CI -1.242; -0.107, p  = 0.0101), respectively. Positive associations were observed for maternal betaine (slope = 0.875, 95% CI 0.118; 1.633, p  = 0.0241) and folate (slope = 0.685, 95% CI 0.245; 1.125, p  = 0.0027) intake before pregnancy and RXRA methylation. Buccal DNMT1 methylation in the infant was negatively associated with maternal methyl-group donor intake in the first and second trimester of pregnancy and negatively in the third trimester. We found no clear association between maternal choline intake

  6. Pareidolia in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Masaharu; Mugitani, Ryoko

    2015-01-01

    Faces convey primal information for our social life. This information is so primal that we sometimes find faces in non-face objects. Such illusory perception is called pareidolia. In this study, using infants' orientation behavior toward a sound source, we demonstrated that infants also perceive pareidolic faces. An image formed by four blobs and an outline was shown to infants with or without pure tones, and the time they spent looking at each blob was compared. Since the mouth is the unique sound source in a face and the literature has shown that infants older than 6 months already have sound-mouth association, increased looking time towards the bottom blob (pareidolic mouth area) during sound presentation indicated that they illusorily perceive a face in the image. Infants aged 10 and 12 months looked longer at the bottom blob under the upright-image condition, whereas no differences in looking time were observed for any blob under the inverted-image condition. However, 8-month-olds did not show any difference in looking time under both the upright and inverted conditions, suggesting that the perception of pareidolic faces, through sound association, comes to develop at around 8 to 10 months after birth.

  7. Pareidolia in infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaharu Kato

    Full Text Available Faces convey primal information for our social life. This information is so primal that we sometimes find faces in non-face objects. Such illusory perception is called pareidolia. In this study, using infants' orientation behavior toward a sound source, we demonstrated that infants also perceive pareidolic faces. An image formed by four blobs and an outline was shown to infants with or without pure tones, and the time they spent looking at each blob was compared. Since the mouth is the unique sound source in a face and the literature has shown that infants older than 6 months already have sound-mouth association, increased looking time towards the bottom blob (pareidolic mouth area during sound presentation indicated that they illusorily perceive a face in the image. Infants aged 10 and 12 months looked longer at the bottom blob under the upright-image condition, whereas no differences in looking time were observed for any blob under the inverted-image condition. However, 8-month-olds did not show any difference in looking time under both the upright and inverted conditions, suggesting that the perception of pareidolic faces, through sound association, comes to develop at around 8 to 10 months after birth.

  8. Regional differences in milk and complementary feeding patterns in infants participating in an international nutritional type 1 diabetes prevention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nucci, Anita M; Virtanen, Suvi M; Sorkio, Susa; Bärlund, Sonja; Cuthbertson, David; Uusitalo, Ulla; Lawson, Margaret L; Salonen, Marja; Berseth, Carol L; Ormisson, Anne; Lehtonen, Eveliina; Savilahti, Erkki; Becker, Dorothy J; Dupré, John; Krischer, Jeffrey P; Knip, Mikael; Åkerblom, Hans K

    2017-07-01

    Differences in breastfeeding, other milk feeding and complementary feeding patterns were evaluated in infants at increased genetic risk with and without maternal type 1 diabetes (T1D). The Trial to Reduce IDDM in the Genetically at Risk is an international nutritional primary prevention double-blinded randomized trial to test whether weaning to extensively hydrolyzed vs. intact cow's milk protein formula will decrease the development of T1D-associated autoantibodies and T1D. Infant diet was prospectively assessed at two visits and seven telephone interviews between birth and 8 months. Countries were grouped into seven regions: Australia, Canada, Northern Europe, Southern Europe, Central Europe I, Central Europe II and the United States. Newborn infants with a first-degree relative with T1D and increased human leukocyte antigen-conferred susceptibility to T1D were recruited. A lower proportion of infants born to mothers with than without T1D were breastfed until 6 months of age in all regions (range, 51% to 60% vs. 70% to 80%). Complementary feeding patterns differed more by region than by maternal T1D. In Northern Europe, a higher proportion of infants consumed vegetables and fruits daily compared with other regions. Consumption of meat was more frequent in all European regions, whereas cereal consumption was most frequent in Southern Europe, Canada and the United States. Maternal T1D status was associated with breastfeeding and other milk feeding patterns similarly across regions but was unrelated to the introduction of complementary foods. Infant feeding patterns differed significantly among regions and were largely inconsistent with current recommended guidelines. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Breastfeeding and Red Meat Intake Are Associated with Iron Status in Healthy Korean Weaning-age Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jeana; Chang, Ju Young; Shin, Sue; Oh, Sohee

    2017-06-01

    The present study investigated risk factors for iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) during late infancy, including feeding type and complementary feeding (CF) practice. Healthy term Korean infants (8-15 months) were weighed, and questionnaires regarding delivery, feeding, and weaning were completed by their caregivers. We also examined levels of hemoglobin, serum iron/total iron-binding capacity, serum ferritin, and mean corpuscular volume (MCV). Among 619 infants, ID and IDA were present in 174 infants (28.1%) and 87 infants (14.0%), respectively. The 288 infants with exclusively/mostly breastfeeding until late infancy (BFL) were most likely to exhibit ID (53.1%) and IDA (28.1%). The risk of ID was independently associated with BFL (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 47.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 18.3-122.9), male sex (aOR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.2-2.9), fold weight gain (aOR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.5-4.6), and perceived inadequacy of red meat intake (aOR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.0-2.7). In addition to the risk factors for ID, Cesarean section delivery (aOR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.1-3.2) and low parental CF-related knowledge (aOR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.5-5.2) were risk factors for IDA. In conclusion, prolonged breastfeeding and perceived inadequacy of red meat intake may be among the important feeding-related risk factors of ID and IDA. Therefore, more meticulous education and monitoring of iron-rich food intake, such as red meat, with iron supplementation or iron status testing during late infancy if necessary, should be considered for breastfed Korean infants, especially for those with additional risk factors for ID or IDA. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  10. Infant nutrition in Saskatoon: barriers to infant food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partyka, Brendine; Whiting, Susan; Grunerud, Deanna; Archibald, Karen; Quennell, Kara

    2010-01-01

    We explored infant nutrition in Saskatoon by assessing current accessibility to all forms of infant nourishment, investigating challenges in terms of access to infant nutrition, and determining the use and effectiveness of infant nutrition programs and services. We also examined recommendations to improve infant food security in Saskatoon. Semi-structured community focus groups and stakeholder interviews were conducted between June 2006 and August 2006. Thematic analysis was used to identify themes related to infant feeding practices and barriers, as well as recommendations to improve infant food security in Saskatoon. Our study showed that infant food security is a concern among lower-income families in Saskatoon. Barriers that limited breastfeeding sustainability or nourishing infants through other means included knowledge of feeding practices, lack of breastfeeding support, access and affordability of infant formula, transportation, and poverty. Infant nutrition and food security should be improved by expanding education and programming opportunities, increasing breastfeeding support, and identifying acceptable ways to provide emergency formula. If infant food security is to be addressed successfully, discussion and change must occur in social policy and family food security contexts.

  11. Infant feeding in Eastern Scotland: a longitudinal mixed methods evaluation of antenatal intentions and postnatal satisfaction--the Feeding Your Baby study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symon, Andrew G; Whitford, Heather; Dalzell, Janet

    2013-07-01

    breast-feeding initiation rates have improved in Scotland, but exclusive and partial breast-feeding rates fall rapidly for several reasons. We aimed to examine whether antenatal feeding intention was associated with satisfaction with infant feeding method; and to explore the similarities and differences in infant feeding experience of women with different antenatal feeding intention scores. antenatal questionnaire assessment of infant feeding intentions, based on the theory of planned behaviour; two-weekly postnatal follow-up of infant feeding practice by text messaging; final telephone interview to determine reasons for and satisfaction with infant feeding practice. 355 women in eastern Scotland were recruited antenatally; 292 completed postnatal follow up. Antenatal feeding intentions broadly predicted postnatal practice. The highest satisfaction scores were seen in mothers with no breast-feeding intention who formula fed from birth, and those with high breast-feeding intention who breastfed for more than 8 weeks. The lowest satisfaction scores were seen in those with high intention scores who only managed to breast feed for less than 3 weeks. This suggests that satisfaction with infant feeding is associated with achieving feeding goals, whether artificial milk or breast feeding. Reasons for stopping breast feeding were broadly similar over time (too demanding, pain, latching, perception of amount of milk, lack of professional support, sibling jealousy). Perseverance appeared to mark out those women who managed to breast feed for longer; this was seen across the socio-economic spectrum. Societal and professional pressure to breast feed was commonly experienced. satisfaction with actual infant feeding practice is associated with antenatal intention; levels are higher for those meeting their goals, whether formula feeding from birth or breast feeding for longer periods. Perceived pressure to breast feed raises questions about informed decision making. Identifying

  12. CDC WONDER: Mortality - Infant Deaths

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mortality - Infant Deaths (from Linked Birth / Infant Death Records) online databases on CDC WONDER provide counts and rates for deaths of children under 1 year...

  13. Infant Statistical Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffran, Jenny R.; Kirkham, Natasha Z.

    2017-01-01

    Perception involves making sense of a dynamic, multimodal environment. In the absence of mechanisms capable of exploiting the statistical patterns in the natural world, infants would face an insurmountable computational problem. Infant statistical learning mechanisms facilitate the detection of structure. These abilities allow the infant to compute across elements in their environmental input, extracting patterns for further processing and subsequent learning. In this selective review, we summarize findings that show that statistical learning is both a broad and flexible mechanism (supporting learning from different modalities across many different content areas) and input specific (shifting computations depending on the type of input and goal of learning). We suggest that statistical learning not only provides a framework for studying language development and object knowledge in constrained laboratory settings, but also allows researchers to tackle real-world problems, such as multilingualism, the role of ever-changing learning environments, and differential developmental trajectories. PMID:28793812

  14. Argentina to fully privatize state owned YPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Argentina's Congress has voted to fully privatize state petroleum company Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales (YPF), a move the government expects to net at least $8 billion. Despite some political opposition, the vote was 119-10 in favor, with one abstention and opposition party members refusing to participate in the vote. Argentina's President Carlos Menem had threatened to authorize YPF privatization by decree if there was no quorum for a vote. YPF is responsible for 40% of Argentina's oil production. The country h as been self-sufficient in crude since 1982. Current production is 563,472 b/d, and proved reserves of oil and gas are valued at $7 billion

  15. Infant and toddlers' feeding practices and obesity amongst low-income families in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Cruz, Arturo; Bacardi-Gascon, Montserrat; Pichardo-Osuna, Alexandra; Mandujano-Trujillo, Zally; Castillo-Ruiz, Octelina

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors of childhood obesity among infants and toddlers from low-income families from three cities in Mexico. This is a cross-sectional study of mothers and their infants and toddlers attending a vaccination centre at three primary care clinics in Tijuana, Tuxtla, and Reynosa. Anthropometric measurements of the mothers and children were conducted at the clinic and a questionnaire was administered to the mother. Eight-hundred and ten mothers and their 5 to 24 months old infants participated in the study. Average age for the mothers was 24 (21-28) years, and 57% of them were either overweight or obese. The children's average age was 12.7 (5-24) months. Overall overweight prevalence in this sample was 11% and obesity 8%, these increased with age, from 3% for overweight and 6 % for obesity before 6 months, to 13 and 10% between 12 to 24 months respectively. Thirty-five percent of infants were breastfed>or=6 month and 92% were introduced to other solid foods before 6 months. Introduction of high-fat content snacks (HFS) and carbonated and non-carbonated sweetened (CSD) drinks starts before 6 months and more than sixty percent of the children between 12 to 24 months of age were eating HFS and CSD sweetened drinks at least once a week. Consumption of snacks and CSD sweetened drinks (>or=1 week) was associated with being overweight and obese (crude), OR, 1.82; 95% CI=1.24-2.65 (p=0.002). These results suggest that preventive programs should be initiated during pregnancy and continued.

  16. Breastfeeding, infant formula supplementation, and Autistic Disorder: the results of a parent survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schultz Stephen T

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although Autistic Disorder is associated with several congenital conditions, the cause for most cases is unknown. The present study was undertaken to determine whether breastfeeding or the use of infant formula supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid is associated with Autistic Disorder. The hypothesis is that breastfeeding and use of infant formula supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid/arachidonic acid are protective for Autistic Disorder. Methods This is a case-control study using data from the Autism Internet Research Survey, an online parental survey conducted from February to April 2005 with results for 861 children with Autistic Disorder and 123 control children. The analyses were performed using logistic regression. Results Absence of breastfeeding when compared to breastfeeding for more than six months was significantly associated with an increase in the odds of having autistic disorder when all cases were considered (OR 2.48, 95% CI 1.42, 4.35 and after limiting cases to children with regression in development (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.01, 3.78. Use of infant formula without docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid supplementation versus exclusive breastfeeding was associated with a significant increase in the odds of autistic disorder when all cases were considered (OR 4.41, 95% CI 1.24, 15.7 and after limiting cases to children with regression in development (OR 12.96, 95% CI 1.27, 132. Conclusion The results of this preliminary study indicate that children who were not breastfed or were fed infant formula without docosahexaenoic acid/arachidonic acid supplementation were significantly more likely to have autistic disorder.

  17. Infant Mortality and Hispanic Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Infant Mortality Statistics from the 2013 Period Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set. National Vital Statistics Reports . Table 5. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr64/nvsr64_09.pdf [PDF | 994KB] Infant deaths and mortality rates for the top 4 leading cause of death ...

  18. Innovations: Infant and Toddler Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Kay; Miller, Linda G.

    This book provides teachers of infants and toddlers with an in-depth guide to infant and toddler development, theories of growth and development, and best practices in early childhood education. The chapters are: (1) "Innovations: Infant and Toddler Development," looking at the underlying principles of developmental and interactional…

  19. Breast-feeding and complementary feeding practices in the first 6 months of life among Norwegian-Somali and Norwegian-Iraqi infants: the InnBaKost survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, Navnit Kaur; Andersen, Lene Frost; Sellen, Daniel; Mosdøl, Annhild; Torheim, Liv Elin

    2016-03-01

    To examine breast-feeding and complementary feeding practices during the first 6 months of life among Norwegian infants of Somali and Iraqi family origin. A cross-sectional survey was performed during March 2013-February 2014. Data were collected using a semi-quantitative FFQ adapted from the second Norwegian national dietary survey among infants in 2006-2007. Somali-born and Iraqi-born mothers living in eastern Norway were invited to participate. One hundred and seven mothers/infants of Somali origin and eighty mothers/infants of Iraqi origin participated. Breast-feeding was almost universally initiated after birth. Only 7 % of Norwegian-Somali and 10 % of Norwegian-Iraqi infants were exclusively breast-fed at 4 months of age. By 1 month of age, water had been introduced to 30 % of Norwegian-Somali and 26 % of Norwegian-Iraqi infants, and infant formula to 44 % and 34 %, respectively. Fifty-four per cent of Norwegian-Somali and 68 % of Norwegian-Iraqi infants had been introduced to solid or semi-solid foods at 4 months of age. Breast-feeding at 6 months of age was more common among Norwegian-Somali infants (79 %) compared with Norwegian-Iraqi infants (58 %; P=0·001). Multivariate analyses indicated no significant factors associated with exclusive breast-feeding at 3·5 months of age. Factors positively associated with breast-feeding at 6 months were country of origin (Somalia) and parity (>2). Breast-feeding initiation was common among Iraqi-born and Somali-born mothers, but the exclusive breast-feeding period was shorter than recommended in both groups. The study suggests that there is a need for new culture-specific approaches to support exclusive breast-feeding and complementary feeding practices among foreign-born mothers living in Norway.

  20. Cesarean Section, Formula Feeding, and Infant Antibiotic Exposure: Separate and Combined Impacts on Gut Microbial Changes in Later Infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Yasmin

    2017-09-01

    vaginally and exclusively formula fed became less enriched with family Veillonellaceae and Clostridiaceae, showed unchanging levels of Ruminococcaceae, and exhibited a greater decline in the Rikenellaceae/Bacteroidaceae ratio compared to their breastfed, vaginally delivered counterparts. These changes were also evident in cesarean-delivered infants to a lesser extent. The clinical relevance of these trajectories of microbial change is that they culminate in taxon-specific abundances in the gut microbiota of later infancy, which we and others have observed to be associated with food sensitization.

  1. Fully 3D GPU PET reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herraiz, J.L., E-mail: joaquin@nuclear.fis.ucm.es [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Departmento Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Espana, S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Cal-Gonzalez, J. [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Departmento Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Vaquero, J.J. [Departmento de Bioingenieria e Ingenieria Espacial, Universidad Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Desco, M. [Departmento de Bioingenieria e Ingenieria Espacial, Universidad Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Unidad de Medicina y Cirugia Experimental, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Madrid (Spain); Udias, J.M. [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Departmento Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain)

    2011-08-21

    Fully 3D iterative tomographic image reconstruction is computationally very demanding. Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) has been proposed for many years as potential accelerators in complex scientific problems, but it has not been used until the recent advances in the programmability of GPUs that the best available reconstruction codes have started to be implemented to be run on GPUs. This work presents a GPU-based fully 3D PET iterative reconstruction software. This new code may reconstruct sinogram data from several commercially available PET scanners. The most important and time-consuming parts of the code, the forward and backward projection operations, are based on an accurate model of the scanner obtained with the Monte Carlo code PeneloPET and they have been massively parallelized on the GPU. For the PET scanners considered, the GPU-based code is more than 70 times faster than a similar code running on a single core of a fast CPU, obtaining in both cases the same images. The code has been designed to be easily adapted to reconstruct sinograms from any other PET scanner, including scanner prototypes.

  2. Fully 3D GPU PET reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herraiz, J.L.; Espana, S.; Cal-Gonzalez, J.; Vaquero, J.J.; Desco, M.; Udias, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Fully 3D iterative tomographic image reconstruction is computationally very demanding. Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) has been proposed for many years as potential accelerators in complex scientific problems, but it has not been used until the recent advances in the programmability of GPUs that the best available reconstruction codes have started to be implemented to be run on GPUs. This work presents a GPU-based fully 3D PET iterative reconstruction software. This new code may reconstruct sinogram data from several commercially available PET scanners. The most important and time-consuming parts of the code, the forward and backward projection operations, are based on an accurate model of the scanner obtained with the Monte Carlo code PeneloPET and they have been massively parallelized on the GPU. For the PET scanners considered, the GPU-based code is more than 70 times faster than a similar code running on a single core of a fast CPU, obtaining in both cases the same images. The code has been designed to be easily adapted to reconstruct sinograms from any other PET scanner, including scanner prototypes.

  3. Fully populated VCM or the hidden parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kermarrec G.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Least-squares estimates are trustworthy with minimal variance if the correct stochastic model is used. Due to computational burden, diagonal models that neglect correlations are preferred to describe the elevation dependency of the variance of GPS observations. In this contribution, an improved stochastic model based on a parametric function to take correlations between GPS phase observations into account is presented. Built on an adapted and flexible Mátern function accounting for spatiotemporal variabilities, its parameters can be fixed thanks to Maximum Likelihood Estimation or chosen apriori to model turbulent tropospheric refractivity fluctuations. In this contribution, we will show in which cases and under which conditions corresponding fully populated variance covariance matrices (VCM replace the estimation of a tropospheric parameter. For this equivalence “augmented functional versus augmented stochastic model” to hold, the VCM should be made sufficiently largewhich corresponds to computing small batches of observations. A case study with observations from a medium baseline of 80 km divided into batches of 600 s shows improvement of up to 100 mm for the 3Drms when fully populated VCM are used compared with an elevation dependent diagonal model. It confirms the strong potential of such matrices to improve the least-squares solution, particularly when ambiguities are let float.

  4. Communication: Fully coherent quantum state hopping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martens, Craig C., E-mail: cmartens@uci.edu [University of California, Irvine, California 92697-2025 (United States)

    2015-10-14

    In this paper, we describe a new and fully coherent stochastic surface hopping method for simulating mixed quantum-classical systems. We illustrate the approach on the simple but unforgiving problem of quantum evolution of a two-state quantum system in the limit of unperturbed pure state dynamics and for dissipative evolution in the presence of both stationary and nonstationary random environments. We formulate our approach in the Liouville representation and describe the density matrix elements by ensembles of trajectories. Population dynamics are represented by stochastic surface hops for trajectories representing diagonal density matrix elements. These are combined with an unconventional coherent stochastic hopping algorithm for trajectories representing off-diagonal quantum coherences. The latter generalizes the binary (0,1) “probability” of a trajectory to be associated with a given state to allow integers that can be negative or greater than unity in magnitude. Unlike existing surface hopping methods, the dynamics of the ensembles are fully entangled, correctly capturing the coherent and nonlocal structure of quantum mechanics.

  5. Fully CMOS-compatible titanium nitride nanoantennas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, Justin A., E-mail: jabriggs@stanford.edu [Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, 348 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, 496 Lomita Mall, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Naik, Gururaj V.; Baum, Brian K.; Dionne, Jennifer A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, 496 Lomita Mall, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Petach, Trevor A.; Goldhaber-Gordon, David [Department of Physics, Stanford University, 382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2016-02-01

    CMOS-compatible fabrication of plasmonic materials and devices will accelerate the development of integrated nanophotonics for information processing applications. Using low-temperature plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD), we develop a recipe for fully CMOS-compatible titanium nitride (TiN) that is plasmonic in the visible and near infrared. Films are grown on silicon, silicon dioxide, and epitaxially on magnesium oxide substrates. By optimizing the plasma exposure per growth cycle during PEALD, carbon and oxygen contamination are reduced, lowering undesirable loss. We use electron beam lithography to pattern TiN nanopillars with varying diameters on silicon in large-area arrays. In the first reported single-particle measurements on plasmonic TiN, we demonstrate size-tunable darkfield scattering spectroscopy in the visible and near infrared regimes. The optical properties of this CMOS-compatible material, combined with its high melting temperature and mechanical durability, comprise a step towards fully CMOS-integrated nanophotonic information processing.

  6. The effect of enteral and parenteral feeding on secretion of orexigenic peptides in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sztefko Krystyna

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The feeding in the first months of the life seems to influence the risks of obesity and affinity to some diseases including atherosclerosis. The mechanisms of these relations are unknown, however, the modification of hormonal action can likely be taken into account. Therefore, in this study the levels of ghrelin and orexin A - peripheral and central peptide from the orexigenic gut-brain axis were determined. Methods Fasting and one hour after the meal plasma concentrations of ghrelin and orexin were measured in breast-fed (group I; n = 17, milk formula-fed (group II; n = 16 and highly hydrolyzed, hypoallergic formula-fed (group III; n = 14 groups, age matched infants (mean 4 months as well as in children with iv provision of nutrients (glucose - group IV; n = 15; total parenteral nutrition - group V; n = 14. Peptides were determined using EIA commercial kits. Results Despite the similar caloric intake in orally fed children the fasting ghrelin and orexin levels were significantly lower in the breast-fed children (0.37 ± 0.17 and 1.24 ± 0.29 ng/ml, respectively than in the remaining groups (0.5 ± 0.27 and 1.64 ± 0.52 ng/ml, respectively in group II and 0.77 ± 0.27 and 2.04 ± 1.1 ng/ml, respectively, in group III. The postprandial concentrations of ghrelin increased to 0.87 ± 0.29 ng/ml, p Conclusion The highly hydrolyzed diet strongly affects fasting and postprandial ghrelin and orexin plasma concentrations with possible negative effect on short- and long-time effects on development. Also total parenteral nutrition with the continuous stimulation and lack of fasting/postprandial modulation might be responsible for disturbed development in children fed this way.

  7. Feeding practices for infants and young children during and after common illness. Evidence from South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo, Víctor M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Global evidence shows that children's growth deteriorates rapidly during/after illness if foods and feeding practices do not meet the additional nutrient requirements associated with illness/convalescence. To inform policies and programmes, we conducted a review of the literature published from 1990 to 2014 to document how children 0–23 months old are fed during/after common childhood illnesses. The review indicates that infant and young child feeding (IYCF) during common childhood illnesses is far from optimal. When sick, most children continue to be breastfed, but few are breastfed more frequently, as recommended. Restriction/withdrawal of complementary foods during illness is frequent because of children's anorexia (perceived/real), poor awareness of caregivers' about the feeding needs of sick children, traditional beliefs/behaviours and/or suboptimal counselling and support by health workers. As a result, many children are fed lower quantities of complementary foods and/or are fed less frequently when they are sick. Mothers/caregivers often turn to family/community elders and traditional/non‐qualified practitioners to seek advice on how to feed their sick children. Thus, traditional beliefs and behaviours guide the use of ‘special’ feeding practices, foods and diets for sick children. A significant proportion of mothers/caregivers turn to the primary health care system for support but receive little or no advice. Building the knowledge, skills and capacity of community health workers and primary health care practitioners to provide mothers/caregivers with accurate and timely information, counselling and support on IYCF during and after common childhood illnesses, combined with large‐scale communication programmes to address traditional beliefs and norms that may be harmful, is an urgent priority to reduce the high burden of child stunting in South Asia. PMID:26840205

  8. Infant-mother and infant-sibling attachment in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooya, Haatembo; Sichimba, Francis; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian

    2016-12-01

    This study, the first in Zambia using the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP) to observe attachment relationships and the "very first" observational study of infant-sibling attachment, examined patterns of infant-mother and infant-sibling attachment, and tested their association. We included siblings who were substantially involved in caregiving activities with their younger siblings. We hypothesized that infants would develop attachment relationships to both mothers and siblings; the majority of infants would be classified as securely attached to both caregivers, and infant-mother and infant-sibling attachment would be unrelated. The sample included 88 low-income families in Lusaka, Zambia (average of 3.5 children; SD = 1.5). The SSP distributions (infant-mother) were 59% secure, 24% avoidant and 17% resistant, and 46% secure, 20% avoidant, 5% resistant and 29% disorganized for three- and four-way classifications, respectively. The infant-sibling classifications were 42% secure, 23% avoidant and 35% resistant, and 35% secure, 23% avoidant, 9% resistant and 33% disorganized for three- and four-way classifications, respectively. Infant-mother and infant-sibling attachment relationships were not associated.

  9. Infant - newborn development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is on the changing table. Consider the following important safety tips: Be aware of poisons (household cleaners, cosmetics, ... middle of the back seat. It is very important for the driver to pay attention to driving, not playing with the infant. If you need ...

  10. Neuroprotection in Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Berger

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Preterm infants born before the 30th week of pregnancy are especially at risk of perinatal brain damage which is usually a result of cerebral ischemia or an ascending intrauterine infection. Prevention of preterm birth and early intervention given signs of imminent intrauterine infection can reduce the incidence of perinatal cerebral injury. It has been shown that administering magnesium intravenously to women at imminent risk of a preterm birth leads to a significant reduction in the likelihood of the infant developing cerebral palsy and motor skill dysfunction. It has also been demonstrated that delayed clamping of the umbilical cord after birth reduces the rate of brain hemorrhage among preterm infants by up to 50%. In addition, mesenchymal stem cells seem to have significant neuroprotective potential in animal experiments, as they increase the rate of regeneration of the damaged cerebral area. Clinical tests of these types of therapeutic intervention measures appear to be imminent. In the last trimester of pregnancy, the serum concentrations of estradiol and progesterone increase significantly. Preterm infants are removed abruptly from this estradiol and progesterone rich environment. It has been demonstrated in animal experiments that estradiol and progesterone protect the immature brain from hypoxic-ischemic lesions. However, this neuroprotective strategy has unfortunately not yet been subject to sufficient clinical investigation.

  11. Infant Visual Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Susan A.; Feldman, Judith F.; Jankowski, Jeffery J.

    2004-01-01

    Visual recognition memory is a robust form of memory that is evident from early infancy, shows pronounced developmental change, and is influenced by many of the same factors that affect adult memory; it is surprisingly resistant to decay and interference. Infant visual recognition memory shows (a) modest reliability, (b) good discriminant…

  12. Colic in infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, P.L.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Colic in infants leads one in six families (17%) with children to consult a health professional. One systematic review of 15 community-based studies found a wide variation in prevalence, which depended on study design and method of recording. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a

  13. Chikungunya infection in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Menezes Bezerra Duarte

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: the infection of chikungunya virus presents clinical manifestations variables, particularly in infants in which may present multiple cutaneous manifestations. Description: a case series study was carried out in an analytical character of 14 infants (>28 days to < 2 years old admitted in a hospital between November 2015 and January 2016 with suspected case of chikungunya, by a specific IgM reactive serology. Patients positive for dengue fever, Zika virus, bacterial infections and other exanthematic diseases were excluded. Fever and cutaneous alterations were the most frequent clinical manifestations in 100% of the cases, followed by irritability (64.3%, vomits and arthralgia/arthritis in 35.7% each. Three children presented alterations in the cerebrospinal fluid compatible to meningitis. Anemia frequency was 85.7%. The median white blood cells count was 7.700/mm3 (2.600 to 20.300/mm3. High levels of aminotransferases were observed in three cases (230 to 450 U/L. Antibiotic therapy was indicated in 64.3% of the cases. Two infants needed opioid derivatives for analgesia while others took acetaminophen and/or dipyrone. Discussion: the study shows evident multi-systemic involvement of chikungunya infection in infants. The treatment is supportive, giving special attention to hydration, analgesia, skin care, and rational use of antibiotic therapy.

  14. Milk Allergy in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Milk Allergy in Infants KidsHealth / For Parents / Milk Allergy in ... Alergia a la leche en bebés About Milk Allergy People of any age can have a milk ...

  15. Early psychomotor development of low-risk preterm infants: Influence of gestational age and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Domenico M; Brogna, Claudia; Sini, Francesca; Romeo, Mario G; Cota, Francesco; Ricci, Daniela

    2016-07-01

    The influence of gestational age and gender in the neurodevelopment of infants during the first year of age is not yet fully elucidated. The purpose of this study was to identify the early occurrence of neurodevelopmental differences, between very preterm, late preterm and term born infants and the possible influence of the gender on the neurodevelopment in early infancy. A total of 188 low-risk infants, 69 very preterms, 71 late-preterms, and 48 term infants were assessed at 3, 6, 9, 12 months corrected age using the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination (HINE). At two years of age infants performed the Mental Developmental Index (MDI) of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. The main results indicate that both very preterms and late-preterms showed significant lower global scores than term born infants at each evaluation (p development of infants assessed during the first 2 years of life. Copyright © 2016 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Airway Microbiota in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid from Clinically Well Infants with Cystic Fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa A Laguna

    Full Text Available Upper airway cultures guide the identification and treatment of lung pathogens in infants with cystic fibrosis (CF; however, this may not fully reflect the spectrum of bacteria present in the lower airway. Our objectives were to characterize the airway microbiota using bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF from asymptomatic CF infants during the first year of life and to investigate the relationship between BALF microbiota, standard culture and clinical characteristics.BALF, nasopharyngeal (NP culture and infant pulmonary function testing data were collected at 6 months and one year of age during periods of clinical stability from infants diagnosed with CF by newborn screening. BALF was analyzed for total bacterial load by qPCR and for bacterial community composition by 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing. Clinical characteristics and standard BALF and NP culture results were recorded over five years of longitudinal follow-up.12 BALF samples were collected from 8 infants with CF. Streptococcus, Burkholderia, Prevotella, Haemophilus, Porphyromonas, and Veillonella had the highest median relative abundance in infant CF BALF. Two of the 3 infants with repeat BALF had changes in their microbial communities over six months (Morisita-Horn diversity index 0.36, 0.38. Although there was excellent percent agreement between standard NP and BALF cultures, these techniques did not routinely detect all bacteria identified by sequencing.BALF in asymptomatic CF infants contains complex microbiota, often missed by traditional culture of airway secretions. Anaerobic bacteria are commonly found in the lower airways of CF infants.

  17. Fully Printed Flexible and Stretchable Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Suoming

    Through this thesis proposal, the author has demonstrated series of flexible or stretchable sensors including strain gauge, pressure sensors, display arrays, thin film transistors and photodetectors fabricated by a direct printing process. By adopting the novel serpentine configuration with conventional non-stretchable materials silver nanoparticles, the fully printed stretchable devices are successfully fabricated on elastomeric substrate with the demonstration of stretchable conductors that can maintain the electrical properties under strain and the strain gauge, which could be used to measure the strain in desired locations and also to monitor individual person's finger motion. And by investigating the intrinsic stretchable materials silver nanowires (AgNWs) with the conventional configuration, the fully printed stretchable conductors are achieved on various substrates including Si, glass, Polyimide, Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and Very High Bond (VHB) tape with the illustration of the capacitive pressure sensor and stretchable electroluminescent displays. In addition, intrinsically stretchable thin-film transistors (TFTs) and integrated logic circuits are directly printed on elastomeric PDMS substrates. The printed devices utilize carbon nanotubes and a type of hybrid gate dielectric comprising PDMS and barium titanate (BaTiO3) nanoparticles. The BaTiO3/PDMS composite simultaneously provides high dielectric constant, superior stretchability, low leakage, as well as good printability and compatibility with the elastomeric substrate. Both TFTs and logic circuits can be stretched beyond 50% strain along either channel length or channel width directions for thousands of cycles while showing no significant degradation in electrical performance. Finally, by applying the SWNTs as the channel layer of the thin film transistor, we successfully fabricate the fully printed flexible photodetector which exhibits good electrical characteristics and the transistors exhibit

  18. Eosinophilic colitis in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozinsky, Adriana Chebar; Morais, Mauro Batista de

    2014-01-01

    To review the literature for clinical data on infants with allergic or eosinophilic colitis. MEDLINE search of all indexes was performed using the words "colitis or proctocolitis and eosinophilic" or "colitis or proctocolitis and allergic" between 1966 and February of 2013. All articles that described patients' characteristics were selected. A total of 770 articles were identified, of which 32 met the inclusion criteria. The 32 articles included a total of 314 infants. According to the available information, 61.6% of infants were male and 78.6% were younger than 6 months. Of the 314 patients, 49.0% were fed exclusively breast milk, 44.2% received cow's milk protein, and 6.8% received soy protein. Diarrheal stools were described in 28.3% of patients. Eosinophilia was found in 43.8% (115/263) of infants. Colonic or rectal biopsy showed infiltration by eosinophils (between 5 and 25 per high-power field) in 89.3% (236/264) of patients. Most patients showed improvement with the removal of the protein in cow's milk from their diet or the mother's diet. Allergy challenge tests with cow's milk protein were cited by 12 of the 32 articles (66 patients). Eosinophilic colitis occurs predominantly in the first six months of life and in males. Allergy to cow's milk was considered the main cause of eosinophilic colitis. Exclusion of cow's milk from the diet of the lactating mother or from the infant's diet is generally an effective therapeutic measure. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Eosinophilic colitis in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Chebar Lozinsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To review the literature for clinical data on infants with allergic or eosinophilic colitis. DATA SOURCE: MEDLINE search of all indexes was performed using the words ''colitis or procto-colitis and eosinophilic'' or ''colitis or proctocolitis and allergic'' between 1966 and February of 2013. All articles that described patients' characteristics were selected. DATA SYNTHESIS: A total of 770 articles were identified, of which 32 met the inclusion criteria. The 32 articles included a total of 314 infants. According to the available information, 61.6% of infants were male and 78.6% were younger than 6 months. Of the 314 patients, 49.0% were fed exclusively breast milk, 44.2% received cow's milk protein, and 6.8% received soy protein. Diarrheal stools were described in 28.3% of patients. Eosinophilia was found in 43.8% (115/263 of infants. Colonic or rectal biopsy showed infiltration by eosinophils (between 5 and 25 perhigh-power field in 89.3% (236/264 of patients. Most patients showed improvement with theremoval of the protein in cow's milk from their diet or the mother's diet. Allergy challenge tests with cow's milk protein were cited by 12 of the 32 articles (66 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Eosinophilic colitis occurs predominantly in the first six months of life and in males. Allergy to cow's milk was considered the main cause of eosinophilic colitis. Exclusion of cow'smilk from the diet of the lactating mother or from the infant's diet is generally an effective therapeutic measure.

  20. Human Milk, Environmental Toxins and Pollution of Our Infants: Disturbing Findings during the First Six Months of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackmann, Gerd-Michael

    2006-06-01

    Toxic organochlorine compounds (OC) are transmitted from mother to infant during lactation. OC are ingested by and stored in their offspring. Different harmful effects later in life have been attributed to the body pollution with these OC, although these findings are still discussed in an argumentative manner, since first other investigators could demonstrate beneficial effects of breast-feeding despite elevated OC concentrations, and second the benefits of breast-feeding are an unchallenged fact, especially in those countries, where infant formulas are not available. It was the aim of the present study to determine the lactational uptake of different OC (polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and DDE) in breast-fed vs. bottle-fed infants up to six months of age. With the written informed consent of the parents, blood samples were taken from each ten breast-fed and bottle-fed infants, respectively. The specimens were immediately centrifuged, and serum was stored in glass tubes without an anticoagulant up to analysis. Three higher-chlorinated PCB congeners (IUPAC Nos. 138, 153, and 180), HCB, and DDE, the main metabolite of DDT in mammals, were determined with capillary gas chromatography with electron capture detection. In addition, reliability was tested with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Possible correlations of OC with personal data were tested with a standard multivariate regression model. Differences between study groups were tested on mean differences with Wilcoxons test for independent samples. We could demonstrate that breast-fed infants have significantly (p<0.0001) elevated serum concentrations of all OC as early as at the age of six weeks (90%), which over and above nearly doubled further until the age of six months. (Median (μg/L); A=six weeks; B=six months): PCB 138, A: 0.40 vs. 0.09; B: 0.72 vs. 0.07; PCB 153, A: 0.57 vs. 0.11; B: 0.99 vs. 0.09; PCB 180, A: 0.33 vs. 0.04; B: 0.58 vs. 0.02; PCB (sum of the three PCB

  1. A Fully Automated Penumbra Segmentation Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagenthiraja, Kartheeban; Ribe, Lars Riisgaard; Hougaard, Kristina Dupont

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Perfusion- and diffusion weighted MRI (PWI/DWI) is widely used to select patients who are likely to benefit from recanalization therapy. The visual identification of PWI-DWI-mismatch tissue depends strongly on the observer, prompting a need for software, which estimates potentially...... salavageable tissue, quickly and accurately. We present a fully Automated Penumbra Segmentation (APS) algorithm using PWI and DWI images. We compare automatically generated PWI-DWI mismatch mask to mask outlined manually by experts, in 168 patients. Method: The algorithm initially identifies PWI lesions......) at 600∙10-6 mm2/sec. Due to the nature of thresholding, the ADC mask overestimates the DWI lesion volume and consequently we initialized level-set algorithm on DWI image with ADC mask as prior knowledge. Combining the PWI and inverted DWI mask then yield the PWI-DWI mismatch mask. Four expert raters...

  2. Simulations of fully deformed oscillating flux tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karampelas, K.; Van Doorsselaere, T.

    2018-02-01

    Context. In recent years, a number of numerical studies have been focusing on the significance of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in the dynamics of oscillating coronal loops. This process enhances the transfer of energy into smaller scales, and has been connected with heating of coronal loops, when dissipation mechanisms, such as resistivity, are considered. However, the turbulent layer is expected near the outer regions of the loops. Therefore, the effects of wave heating are expected to be confined to the loop's external layers, leaving their denser inner parts without a heating mechanism. Aim. In the current work we aim to study the spatial evolution of wave heating effects from a footpoint driven standing kink wave in a coronal loop. Methods: Using the MPI-AMRVAC code, we performed ideal, three dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of footpoint driven transverse oscillations of a cold, straight coronal flux tube, embedded in a hotter environment. We have also constructed forward models for our simulation using the FoMo code. Results: The developed transverse wave induced Kelvin-Helmholtz (TWIKH) rolls expand throughout the tube cross-section, and cover it entirely. This turbulence significantly alters the initial density profile, leading to a fully deformed cross section. As a consequence, the resistive and viscous heating rate both increase over the entire loop cross section. The resistive heating rate takes its maximum values near the footpoints, while the viscous heating rate at the apex. Conclusions: We conclude that even a monoperiodic driver can spread wave heating over the whole loop cross section, potentially providing a heating source in the inner loop region. Despite the loop's fully deformed structure, forward modelling still shows the structure appearing as a loop. A movie attached to Fig. 1 is available at http://https://www.aanda.org

  3. Lidar Cloud Detection with Fully Convolutional Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, E.; Flynn, D.

    2017-12-01

    The vertical distribution of clouds from active remote sensing instrumentation is a widely used data product from global atmospheric measuring sites. The presence of clouds can be expressed as a binary cloud mask and is a primary input for climate modeling efforts and cloud formation studies. Current cloud detection algorithms producing these masks do not accurately identify the cloud boundaries and tend to oversample or over-represent the cloud. This translates as uncertainty for assessing the radiative impact of clouds and tracking changes in cloud climatologies. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program has over 20 years of micro-pulse lidar (MPL) and High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) instrument data and companion automated cloud mask product at the mid-latitude Southern Great Plains (SGP) and the polar North Slope of Alaska (NSA) atmospheric observatory. Using this data, we train a fully convolutional network (FCN) with semi-supervised learning to segment lidar imagery into geometric time-height cloud locations for the SGP site and MPL instrument. We then use transfer learning to train a FCN for (1) the MPL instrument at the NSA site and (2) for the HSRL. In our semi-supervised approach, we pre-train the classification layers of the FCN with weakly labeled lidar data. Then, we facilitate end-to-end unsupervised pre-training and transition to fully supervised learning with ground truth labeled data. Our goal is to improve the cloud mask accuracy and precision for the MPL instrument to 95% and 80%, respectively, compared to the current cloud mask algorithms of 89% and 50%. For the transfer learning based FCN for the HSRL instrument, our goal is to achieve a cloud mask accuracy of 90% and a precision of 80%.

  4. A novel fully integrated handheld gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massari, R.; Ucci, A.; Campisi, C.; Scopinaro, F.; Soluri, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present an innovative, fully integrated handheld gamma camera, namely designed to gather in the same device the gamma ray detector with the display and the embedded computing system. The low power consumption allows the prototype to be battery operated. To be useful in radioguided surgery, an intraoperative gamma camera must be very easy to handle since it must be moved to find a suitable view. Consequently, we have developed the first prototype of a fully integrated, compact and lightweight gamma camera for radiopharmaceuticals fast imaging. The device can operate without cables across the sterile field, so it may be easily used in the operating theater for radioguided surgery. The prototype proposed consists of a Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) array coupled with a proprietary scintillation structure based on CsI(Tl) crystals. To read the SiPM output signals, we have developed a very low power readout electronics and a dedicated analog to digital conversion system. One of the most critical aspects we faced designing the prototype was the low power consumption, which is mandatory to develop a battery operated device. We have applied this detection device in the lymphoscintigraphy technique (sentinel lymph node mapping) comparing the results obtained with those of a commercial gamma camera (Philips SKYLight). The results obtained confirm a rapid response of the device and an adequate spatial resolution for the use in the scintigraphic imaging. This work confirms the feasibility of a small gamma camera with an integrated display. This device is designed for radioguided surgery and small organ imaging, but it could be easily combined into surgical navigation systems.

  5. A novel fully integrated handheld gamma camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massari, R.; Ucci, A.; Campisi, C. [Biostructure and Bioimaging Institute (IBB), National Research Council of Italy (CNR), Rome (Italy); Scopinaro, F. [University of Rome “La Sapienza”, S. Andrea Hospital, Rome (Italy); Soluri, A., E-mail: alessandro.soluri@ibb.cnr.it [Biostructure and Bioimaging Institute (IBB), National Research Council of Italy (CNR), Rome (Italy)

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we present an innovative, fully integrated handheld gamma camera, namely designed to gather in the same device the gamma ray detector with the display and the embedded computing system. The low power consumption allows the prototype to be battery operated. To be useful in radioguided surgery, an intraoperative gamma camera must be very easy to handle since it must be moved to find a suitable view. Consequently, we have developed the first prototype of a fully integrated, compact and lightweight gamma camera for radiopharmaceuticals fast imaging. The device can operate without cables across the sterile field, so it may be easily used in the operating theater for radioguided surgery. The prototype proposed consists of a Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) array coupled with a proprietary scintillation structure based on CsI(Tl) crystals. To read the SiPM output signals, we have developed a very low power readout electronics and a dedicated analog to digital conversion system. One of the most critical aspects we faced designing the prototype was the low power consumption, which is mandatory to develop a battery operated device. We have applied this detection device in the lymphoscintigraphy technique (sentinel lymph node mapping) comparing the results obtained with those of a commercial gamma camera (Philips SKYLight). The results obtained confirm a rapid response of the device and an adequate spatial resolution for the use in the scintigraphic imaging. This work confirms the feasibility of a small gamma camera with an integrated display. This device is designed for radioguided surgery and small organ imaging, but it could be easily combined into surgical navigation systems.

  6. Timing of Introduction of Complementary Foods to US Infants, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Chloe M; Hamner, Heather C; Perrine, Cria G; Scanlon, Kelley S

    2018-03-01

    Although there has been inconsistency in recommendations regarding the optimal time for introducing complementary foods, most experts agree that introduction should not occur before 4 months. Despite recommendations, studies suggest that 20% to 40% of US infants are introduced to foods at younger than 4 months. Previous studies focused on the introduction of solid foods and are not nationally representative. Our aims were to provide a nationally representative estimate of the timing of introduction of complementary foods and to describe predictors of early (introduction. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 2009-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. The study included 1,482 children aged 6 to 36 months. Timing of first introduction to complementary foods (anything other than breast milk or formula) was analyzed. Prevalence estimates of first introduction to complementary foods are presented by month. Logistic regression was used to assess characteristics associated with early (introduction. In this sample, 16.3% of US infants were introduced to complementary foods at introduction varied by breastfeeding status; race/Hispanic origin; Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children participation; and maternal age. In adjusted analyses, only breastfeeding status remained significant; infants who never breastfed or stopped at introduction in this nationally representative sample than previous studies that included only solids. However, many young children were still introduced to complementary foods earlier than recommended. Strategies to support caregivers to adhere to infant feeding guidelines may be needed. Copyright © 2018 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Using pharmacokinetics to predict the effects of pregnancy and maternal-infant transfer of drugs during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Gail D

    2006-12-01

    Knowledge of pharmacokinetics and the use of a mechanistic-based approach can improve our ability to predict the effects of pregnancy for medications when data are limited. Despite the many physiological changes that occur during pregnancy that could theoretically affect absorption, bioavailability does not appear to be altered. Decreased albumin and alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein concentrations during pregnancy will result in decreased protein binding for highly bound drugs. For drugs metabolised by the liver, this can result in misinterpretation of total plasma concentrations of low extraction ratio drugs and overdosing of high extraction ratio drugs administered by non-oral routes. Renal clearance and the activity of the CYP isozymes, CYP3A4, 2D6 and 2C9, and uridine 5'-diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase are increased during pregnancy. In contrast, CYP1A2 and 2C19 activity is decreased. The dose of a drug an infant receives during breastfeeding is dependent on the amount excreted into the breast milk, the daily volume of milk ingested and the average plasma concentration of the mother. The lipophilicity, protein binding and ionisation properties of a drug will determine how much is excreted into the breast milk. The milk to plasma concentration ratio has large inter- and intrasubject variability and is often not known. In contrast, protein binding is usually known. An extensive literature review was done to identify case reports including infant concentrations from breast-fed infants exposed to maternal drugs. For drugs that were at least 85% protein bound, measurable concentrations of drug in the infant did not occur if there was no placental exposure immediately prior to or during delivery. Knowledge of the protein binding properties of a drug can provide a quick and easy tool to estimate exposure of an infant to medication from breastfeeding.

  8. Diversity of bifidobacteria within the infant gut microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Turroni

    Full Text Available The human gastrointestinal tract (GIT represents one of the most densely populated microbial ecosystems studied to date. Although this microbial consortium has been recognized to have a crucial impact on human health, its precise composition is still subject to intense investigation. Among the GIT microbiota, bifidobacteria represent an important commensal group, being among the first microbial colonizers of the gut. However, the prevalence and diversity of members of the genus Bifidobacterium in the infant intestinal microbiota has not yet been fully characterized, while some inconsistencies exist in literature regarding the abundance of this genus.In the current report, we assessed the complexity of the infant intestinal bifidobacterial population by analysis of pyrosequencing data of PCR amplicons derived from two hypervariable regions of the 16 S rRNA gene. Eleven faecal samples were collected from healthy infants of different geographical origins (Italy, Spain or Ireland, feeding type (breast milk or formula and mode of delivery (vaginal or caesarean delivery, while in four cases, faecal samples of corresponding mothers were also analyzed.In contrast to several previously published culture-independent studies, our analysis revealed a predominance of bifidobacteria in the infant gut as well as a profile of co-occurrence of bifidobacterial species in the infant's intestine.

  9. Engineering aspects of a fully mirrored endoscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terra, A.; Huber, A.; Schweer, B.; Mertens, Ph.; Arnoux, G.; Balshaw, N.; Brezinsek, S.; Egner, S.; Hartl, M.; Kampf, D.; Klammer, J.; Lambertz, H.T.; Morlock, C.; Murari, A.; Reindl, M.; Sanders, S.; Sergienko, G.; Spencer, G.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Replacement of JET diagnostics to match the new ITER-like Wall. ► The endoscope test ITER-like design with only mirror based optics. ► Withstanding and diagnostic capability during Plasma operation and disruptions. ► Engineering process from design to installation and procurement. -- Abstract: The development of optical diagnostics, like endoscopes, compatible with the ITER environment (metallic plasma facing components, neutron proof optics, etc.) is a challenge, but current tokamaks such as JET provide opportunities to test fully working concepts. This paper describes the engineering aspects of a fully mirrored endoscope that has recently been designed, procured and installed on JET. The system must operate in a very strict environment with high temperature, high magnetic fields up to B = 4 T and rapid field variations (∂B/∂t ∼ 100 T/s) that induce high stresses due to eddy currents in the front mirror assembly. It must be designed to withstand high mechanical loads especially during disruptions, which lead to acceleration of about 7 g at 14 Hz. For the JET endoscope, when the plasma thermal loading, direct and indirect, was added to the assumed disruption loads, the reserve factor, defined as a ratio of yield strength over summed up von Mises stresses, was close to 1 for the mirror components. To ensure reliable operation, several analyses were performed to evaluate the thermo-mechanical performance of the endoscope and a final validation was obtained from mechanical and thermal tests, before the system's final installation in May 2011. During the tests, stability of the field of view angle variation was kept below 1° despite the high thermal gradient on endoscope head (∂T/∂x ∼ 500 K/m). In parallel, to ensure long time operation and to prevent undesirable performance degradation, a shutter system was also implemented in order to reduce impurity deposition on in-vessel mirrors but also to allow in situ transmission calibration

  10. Fully 3D refraction correction dosimetry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manjappa, Rakesh; Makki, S Sharath; Kanhirodan, Rajan; Kumar, Rajesh; Vasu, Ram Mohan

    2016-01-01

    The irradiation of selective regions in a polymer gel dosimeter results in an increase in optical density and refractive index (RI) at those regions. An optical tomography-based dosimeter depends on rayline path through the dosimeter to estimate and reconstruct the dose distribution. The refraction of light passing through a dose region results in artefacts in the reconstructed images. These refraction errors are dependant on the scanning geometry and collection optics. We developed a fully 3D image reconstruction algorithm, algebraic reconstruction technique-refraction correction (ART-rc) that corrects for the refractive index mismatches present in a gel dosimeter scanner not only at the boundary, but also for any rayline refraction due to multiple dose regions inside the dosimeter. In this study, simulation and experimental studies have been carried out to reconstruct a 3D dose volume using 2D CCD measurements taken for various views. The study also focuses on the effectiveness of using different refractive-index matching media surrounding the gel dosimeter. Since the optical density is assumed to be low for a dosimeter, the filtered backprojection is routinely used for reconstruction. We carry out the reconstructions using conventional algebraic reconstruction (ART) and refractive index corrected ART (ART-rc) algorithms. The reconstructions based on FDK algorithm for cone-beam tomography has also been carried out for comparison. Line scanners and point detectors, are used to obtain reconstructions plane by plane. The rays passing through dose region with a RI mismatch does not reach the detector in the same plane depending on the angle of incidence and RI. In the fully 3D scanning setup using 2D array detectors, light rays that undergo refraction are still collected and hence can still be accounted for in the reconstruction algorithm. It is found that, for the central region of the dosimeter, the usable radius using ART-rc algorithm with water as RI matched

  11. Fully 3D refraction correction dosimetry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjappa, Rakesh; Makki, S Sharath; Kumar, Rajesh; Vasu, Ram Mohan; Kanhirodan, Rajan

    2016-02-21

    The irradiation of selective regions in a polymer gel dosimeter results in an increase in optical density and refractive index (RI) at those regions. An optical tomography-based dosimeter depends on rayline path through the dosimeter to estimate and reconstruct the dose distribution. The refraction of light passing through a dose region results in artefacts in the reconstructed images. These refraction errors are dependant on the scanning geometry and collection optics. We developed a fully 3D image reconstruction algorithm, algebraic reconstruction technique-refraction correction (ART-rc) that corrects for the refractive index mismatches present in a gel dosimeter scanner not only at the boundary, but also for any rayline refraction due to multiple dose regions inside the dosimeter. In this study, simulation and experimental studies have been carried out to reconstruct a 3D dose volume using 2D CCD measurements taken for various views. The study also focuses on the effectiveness of using different refractive-index matching media surrounding the gel dosimeter. Since the optical density is assumed to be low for a dosimeter, the filtered backprojection is routinely used for reconstruction. We carry out the reconstructions using conventional algebraic reconstruction (ART) and refractive index corrected ART (ART-rc) algorithms. The reconstructions based on FDK algorithm for cone-beam tomography has also been carried out for comparison. Line scanners and point detectors, are used to obtain reconstructions plane by plane. The rays passing through dose region with a RI mismatch does not reach the detector in the same plane depending on the angle of incidence and RI. In the fully 3D scanning setup using 2D array detectors, light rays that undergo refraction are still collected and hence can still be accounted for in the reconstruction algorithm. It is found that, for the central region of the dosimeter, the usable radius using ART-rc algorithm with water as RI matched

  12. Women's autonomy and social support and their associations with infant and young child feeding and nutritional status: community-based survey in rural Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaei, Shirin; Contreras, Mariela; Zelaya Blandón, Elmer; Persson, Lars-Åke; Hjern, Anders; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the associations of women's autonomy and social support with infant and young child feeding practices (including consumption of highly processed snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages) and nutritional status in rural Nicaragua. Cross-sectional study. Feeding practices and children's nutritional status were evaluated according to the WHO guidelines complemented with information on highly processed snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages. Women's autonomy was assessed by a seventeen-item questionnaire covering dimensions of financial independence, household-, child-, reproductive and health-related decision making and freedom of movement. Women's social support was determined using the Duke-UNC Functional Social Support Questionnaire. The scores attained were categorized into tertiles. Los Cuatro Santos area, rural Nicaragua. A total of 1371 children 0-35 months of age. Children of women with the lowest autonomy were more likely to be exclusively breast-fed and continue to be breast-fed, while children of women with middle level of autonomy had better complementary feeding practices. Children of women with the lowest social support were more likely to consume highly processed snacks and/or sugar-sweetened beverages but also be taller. While lower levels of autonomy and social support were independently associated with some favourable feeding and nutrition outcomes, this may not indicate a causal relationship but rather that these factors reflect other matters of importance for child care.

  13. NUCLEOTIDES IN INFANT FEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.G. Mamonova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the application of nucleotides-metabolites, playing a key role in many biological processes, for the infant feeding. The researcher provides the date on the nucleotides in the women's milk according to the lactation stages. She also analyzes the foreign experience in feeding newborns with nucleotides-containing milk formulas. The article gives a comparison of nucleotides in the adapted formulas represented in the domestic market of the given products.Key words: children, feeding, nucleotides.

  14. PVT Panels. Fully renewable and competitive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakker, M.; Strootman, K.J.; Jong, M.J.M.

    2003-10-01

    A photovoltaic/thermal (PVT) panel is a combination of photovoltaic cells with a solar thermal collector, generating solar electricity and solar heat simultaneously. PVT panels generate more solar energy per unit surface area than a combination of separate PV panels and solar thermal collectors, and share the aesthetic advantage of PV. After several years of research, PVT panels have been developed into a product that is now ready for market introduction. One of the most promising system concepts, consisting of 25 m 2 of PVT panels and a ground coupled heat pump, has been simulated in TRNSYS, and has been found to be able to fully cover both the building related electricity and heat consumption, while keeping the long-term average ground temperature constant. The cost and payback time of such a system have been determined; it has been found that the payback time of this system is approximately two-thirds of the payback time of an identical system but with 21 m 2 of PV panels and 4 m 2 of solar thermal collectors. Finally, by looking at the expected growth in the PV and solar thermal collector market, the market potential for for PVT panels has been found to be very large

  15. A new fully automated TLD badge reader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, S.; Ratna, P.; Kulkarni, M.S.

    2003-01-01

    At present personnel monitoring in India is being carried out using a number of manual and semiautomatic TLD badge Readers and the BARC TL dosimeter badge designed during 1970. Of late the manual TLD badge readers are almost completely replaced by semiautomatic readers with a number of performance improvements like use of hot gas heating to reduce the readout time considerably. PC based design with storage of glow curve for every dosimeter, on-line dose computation and printout of dose reports, etc. However the semiautomatic system suffers from the lack of a machine readable ID code on the badge and the physical design of the dosimeter card not readily compatible for automation. This paper describes a fully automated TLD badge Reader developed in the RSS Division, using a new TLD badge with machine readable ID code. The new PC based reader has a built-in reader for reading the ID code, in the form of an array of holes, on the dosimeter card. The reader has a number of self-diagnostic features to ensure a high degree of reliability. (author)

  16. Fully inkjet-printed microwave passive electronics

    KAUST Repository

    McKerricher, Garret

    2017-01-30

    Fully inkjet-printed three-dimensional (3D) objects with integrated metal provide exciting possibilities for on-demand fabrication of radio frequency electronics such as inductors, capacitors, and filters. To date, there have been several reports of printed radio frequency components metallized via the use of plating solutions, sputtering, and low-conductivity pastes. These metallization techniques require rather complex fabrication, and do not provide an easily integrated or versatile process. This work utilizes a novel silver ink cured with a low-cost infrared lamp at only 80 °C, and achieves a high conductivity of 1×107 S m−1. By inkjet printing the infrared-cured silver together with a commercial 3D inkjet ultraviolet-cured acrylic dielectric, a multilayer process is demonstrated. By using a smoothing technique, both the conductive ink and dielectric provide surface roughness values of <500 nm. A radio frequency inductor and capacitor exhibit state-of-the-art quality factors of 8 and 20, respectively, and match well with electromagnetic simulations. These components are implemented in a lumped element radio frequency filter with an impressive insertion loss of 0.8 dB at 1 GHz, proving the utility of the process for sensitive radio frequency applications.

  17. The first LHC sector is fully interconnected

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Sector 7-8 is the first sector of the LHC to become fully operational. All the magnets, cryogenic line, vacuum chambers and services are interconnected. The cool down of this sector can soon commence. LHC project leader Lyn Evans, the teams from CERN's AT/MCS, AT/VAC and AT/MEL groups, and the members of the IEG consortium celebrate the completion of the first LHC sector. The 10th of November was a red letter day for the LHC accelerator teams, marking the completion of the first sector of the machine. The magnets of sector 7-8, together with the cryogenic line, the vacuum chambers and the distribution feedboxes (DFBs) are now all completely interconnected. Sector 7-8 has thus been closed and is the first LHC sector to become operational. The interconnection work required several thousand electrical, cryogenic and insulating connections to be made on the 210 interfaces between the magnets in the arc, the 30 interfaces between the special magnets and the interfaces with the cryogenic line. 'This represent...

  18. Fully Resolved Simulations of 3D Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryggvason, Gretar; Xia, Huanxiong; Lu, Jiacai

    2017-11-01

    Numerical simulations of Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) (or Fused Filament Fabrication) where a filament of hot, viscous polymer is deposited to ``print'' a three-dimensional object, layer by layer, are presented. A finite volume/front tracking method is used to follow the injection, cooling, solidification and shrinking of the filament. The injection of the hot melt is modeled using a volume source, combined with a nozzle, modeled as an immersed boundary, that follows a prescribed trajectory. The viscosity of the melt depends on the temperature and the shear rate and the polymer becomes immobile as its viscosity increases. As the polymer solidifies, the stress is found by assuming a hyperelastic constitutive equation. The method is described and its accuracy and convergence properties are tested by grid refinement studies for a simple setup involving two short filaments, one on top of the other. The effect of the various injection parameters, such as nozzle velocity and injection velocity are briefly examined and the applicability of the approach to simulate the construction of simple multilayer objects is shown. The role of fully resolved simulations for additive manufacturing and their use for novel processes and as the ``ground truth'' for reduced order models is discussed.

  19. A fully implantable rodent neural stimulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, D. W. J.; Grayden, D. B.; Shepherd, R. K.; Fallon, J. B.

    2012-02-01

    The ability to electrically stimulate neural and other excitable tissues in behaving experimental animals is invaluable for both the development of neural prostheses and basic neurological research. We developed a fully implantable neural stimulator that is able to deliver two channels of intra-cochlear electrical stimulation in the rat. It is powered via a novel omni-directional inductive link and includes an on-board microcontroller with integrated radio link, programmable current sources and switching circuitry to generate charge-balanced biphasic stimulation. We tested the implant in vivo and were able to elicit both neural and behavioural responses. The implants continued to function for up to five months in vivo. While targeted to cochlear stimulation, with appropriate electrode arrays the stimulator is well suited to stimulating other neurons within the peripheral or central nervous systems. Moreover, it includes significant on-board data acquisition and processing capabilities, which could potentially make it a useful platform for telemetry applications, where there is a need to chronically monitor physiological variables in unrestrained animals.

  20. Microaneurysm detection using fully convolutional neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudzik, Piotr; Majumdar, Somshubra; Calivá, Francesco; Al-Diri, Bashir; Hunter, Andrew

    2018-05-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a microvascular complication of diabetes that can lead to sight loss if treated not early enough. Microaneurysms are the earliest clinical signs of diabetic retinopathy. This paper presents an automatic method for detecting microaneurysms in fundus photographies. A novel patch-based fully convolutional neural network with batch normalization layers and Dice loss function is proposed. Compared to other methods that require up to five processing stages, it requires only three. Furthermore, to the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first paper that shows how to successfully transfer knowledge between datasets in the microaneurysm detection domain. The proposed method was evaluated using three publicly available and widely used datasets: E-Ophtha, DIARETDB1, and ROC. It achieved better results than state-of-the-art methods using the FROC metric. The proposed algorithm accomplished highest sensitivities for low false positive rates, which is particularly important for screening purposes. Performance, simplicity, and robustness of the proposed method demonstrates its suitability for diabetic retinopathy screening applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Fully inkjet-printed microwave passive electronics

    KAUST Repository

    McKerricher, Garret; Vaseem, Mohammad; Shamim, Atif

    2017-01-01

    Fully inkjet-printed three-dimensional (3D) objects with integrated metal provide exciting possibilities for on-demand fabrication of radio frequency electronics such as inductors, capacitors, and filters. To date, there have been several reports of printed radio frequency components metallized via the use of plating solutions, sputtering, and low-conductivity pastes. These metallization techniques require rather complex fabrication, and do not provide an easily integrated or versatile process. This work utilizes a novel silver ink cured with a low-cost infrared lamp at only 80 °C, and achieves a high conductivity of 1×107 S m−1. By inkjet printing the infrared-cured silver together with a commercial 3D inkjet ultraviolet-cured acrylic dielectric, a multilayer process is demonstrated. By using a smoothing technique, both the conductive ink and dielectric provide surface roughness values of <500 nm. A radio frequency inductor and capacitor exhibit state-of-the-art quality factors of 8 and 20, respectively, and match well with electromagnetic simulations. These components are implemented in a lumped element radio frequency filter with an impressive insertion loss of 0.8 dB at 1 GHz, proving the utility of the process for sensitive radio frequency applications.

  2. The Development of Peripheral Vision in Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guez, Jean R.

    This study investigated the extent of infant peripheral vision, specifically the extent of infants' constricted field, or tunnel vision. Thirteen infants, 2 to 5 months old, were tested using a psychophysical procedure to obtain contrast sensitivity thresholds at four retinal loci (-40, -15, +15, +40 deg.). Infants were placed in an infant bed in…

  3. Bone densitometry in infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barden, H.S.; Mazess, R.B.

    1988-01-01

    Bone mineral mass and density can be measured noninvasively by various absorptiometric procedures. Two methods, dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA) and quantitative computed tomography, have widespread application in adults but only limited use in children. One method, single-photon absorptiometry (SPA), has been used extensively in adults and children and has been modified for use in infants. The radius shaft has been used for most research on infants. However, the difficulty of using older SPA methods on this small bone (4 to 7 mm width) has led a few investigators to measure the shaft of the humerus. The typical precision of measurement in a newborn is about 5% with the use of computerized rectilinear scanners for the radius; older linear scanners have a precision error of 5% to 10% on the humerus. Linear scanners cannot measure precisely the radius in individual neonates. The SPA scans typically take about 5 minutes. The DPA technique using 153 Gd has been modified for use on smaller animals (5 to 10 kg monkeys and dogs), but it has not been used on infants because DPA scans take 20 minutes. New methods using x-ray absorptiometry allow rapid (1 minute), precise (1%) measurements in the perinate. The need for a soft tissue bolus is eliminated, and both the axial and peripheral skeletons can be measured with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Ultrasonic measurements do not yet offer adequate precision in the neonate, given the limited biologic range of values. 83 references

  4. Infant-Directed Speech Drives Social Preferences in 5-Month-Old Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachner, Adena; Hannon, Erin E.

    2011-01-01

    Adults across cultures speak to infants in a specific infant-directed manner. We asked whether infants use this manner of speech (infant- or adult-directed) to guide their subsequent visual preferences for social partners. We found that 5-month-old infants encode an individuals' use of infant-directed speech and adult-directed speech, and use this…

  5. Quantitative assessment of breastfeeding practices and determination of the quantity of maternal milk consumed by infants aged up to 6 months using isotope dilution technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Haloui, Noureddine; El Manchawy, Imane; Zahrou, Fatima-Ezzahra; El Hamdouchi, Asmaa; Aguenaou, Hassan; Rjimati, El Arbi

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Aims: 1- Determination of the quantity of maternal milk consumed using isotope dilution technique. 2-Determination of zinc content of maternal milk and blood. Methods: This study was carried out in Hôpital d’Enfant in Rabat on 32 women of whom 12 were paired to small birth weight infants. The method used is based on the administration of deuterium and the collection of samples of saliva from the mother and the baby during the following 14 days. The FTIR is used to determine the amount of milk consumed by the baby and the maternal body composition. The zinc status in the maternal blood and milk is analysed using the ICP-SM. Results: The use, for the first time in Morocco, of isotopic techniques based on deuterium enrichment of saliva reveals a regression of exclusive breastfeeding in the country. In fact, the prevalence of babies exclusively breastfed is 33,3% for the first month, 26,7% at 3 months and only 12,5% at 6 months. As for the maternal milk intake, the amount of milk consumed during the 1st and 3rd months of life by the babies exclusively breastfed (respectively 690,3 ± 163,1 g/d and 891,8 ± 206,8 g/d) is significantly high compared to babies not exclusively breastfed (respectively 466,2 ± 189,1 g/d and 442,0 ± 117,5 g/d). The amount of milk consumed by the babies exclusively breastfed covers their energy requirements for the first 6 months. However, the body composition shows that babies born to mothers with percentage of body fat > 27% present a superior daily milk intake compared to babies born to mothers with percentage of body fat < 27%. The zinc content of maternal milk decreases between the first and sixth month of life. It is slightly lower in the milk of women paired to low birth weight babies. As for zinc content of maternal blood, results show low levels in the two study groups. Discussion: This study, the first one to be conducted in North of Africa, gives a better idea about the amount of milk consumed by babies less than 6

  6. Highly efficient fully transparent inverted OLEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, J.; Winkler, T.; Hamwi, S.; Schmale, S.; Kröger, M.; Görrn, P.; Johannes, H.-H.; Riedl, T.; Lang, E.; Becker, D.; Dobbertin, T.; Kowalsky, W.

    2007-09-01

    One of the unique selling propositions of OLEDs is their potential to realize highly transparent devices over the visible spectrum. This is because organic semiconductors provide a large Stokes-Shift and low intrinsic absorption losses. Hence, new areas of applications for displays and ambient lighting become accessible, for instance, the integration of OLEDs into the windshield or the ceiling of automobiles. The main challenge in the realization of fully transparent devices is the deposition of the top electrode. ITO is commonly used as transparent bottom anode in a conventional OLED. To obtain uniform light emission over the entire viewing angle and a low series resistance, a TCO such as ITO is desirable as top contact as well. However, sputter deposition of ITO on top of organic layers causes damage induced by high energetic particles and UV radiation. We have found an efficient process to protect the organic layers against the ITO rf magnetron deposition process of ITO for an inverted OLED (IOLED). The inverted structure allows the integration of OLEDs in more powerful n-channel transistors used in active matrix backplanes. Employing the green electrophosphorescent material Ir(ppy) 3 lead to IOLED with a current efficiency of 50 cd/A and power efficiency of 24 lm/W at 100 cd/m2. The average transmittance exceeds 80 % in the visible region. The on-set voltage for light emission is lower than 3 V. In addition, by vertical stacking we achieved a very high current efficiency of more than 70 cd/A for transparent IOLED.

  7. Towards a Fully Conservative Water Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, L. B.; Vionnet, C. A.; Younger, P. L.; Parkin, G.

    2001-12-01

    Hydrological modeling is nowadays an essential tool in many aspects of water resources assessment and management. For practical purposes, hydrological models may be defined as mathematical procedures, which transform meteorological input data such as precipitation and evapotranspiration into hydrological output values such as riverflows. Conceptual water balance models are one kind of hydrological models still quite popular among engineers and scientists for three main reasons: firstly the "book-keeping" procedure they are based upon makes them computationally inexpensive, secondly, they require far less data than any physically based model, and thirdly, once calibrated and validated, they can yield the proper order of magnitude of the water cycle component on the basin under investigation. A common criticism of water balance models is their lack of sound theoretical basis. In this work a fully conservative water balance model for basin applications which takes into account physical processes is presented. The two-storage level model contains four calibration parameters: a, b, l and Umax. The saturated storage component resembles the abcd model by Thomas, corrected by the presence of the aquifer storativity coefficient s and the river-aquifer interface conductance l. The resulting model is capable of estimating monthly basin-average of actual evapotranspiration, soil moisture, effective groundwater recharge, groundwater level fluctuations, baseflows and direct runoff using an integral form of the mass conservation law in the saturated/unsaturated layers. The model was applied to a 600 Km2 catchment in the United Kingdom. An eight-year record was used for calibration, while a similar record was reserved for validation of model results. Total streamflows as well as baseflows calculated by the model were compared with observed and estimated data. A quite good agreement was obtained. Finally, simulated groundwater levels were compared with observation data collected at

  8. Cyst(e)ine requirements in enterally fed very low birth weight preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedijk, Maaike A; Voortman, Gardi; van Beek, Ron H T; Baartmans, Martin G A; Wafelman, Leontien S; van Goudoever, Johannes B

    2008-03-01

    Optimal nutrition is of utmost importance for the preterm infant's later health and developmental outcome. Amino acid requirements for preterm infants differ from those for term and older infants, because growth rates differ. Some nonessential amino acids, however, cannot be sufficiently synthesized endogenously. Cyst(e)ine is supposed to be such a conditionally essential amino acid in preterm infants. The objective of this study was to determine, at 32 and 35 weeks' postmenstrual age, cyst(e)ine requirements in fully enterally fed very low birth weight preterm infants with gestational ages of ine requirement was determined with the indicator amino acid oxidation technique ([1-(13)C]phenylalanine) after 24-hour adaptation. Fractional [1-(13)C]phenylalanine oxidation was established in 47 very low birth weight preterm infants (mean gestational age: 28 weeks +/- 1 week SD; birth weight: 1.07 kg +/- 0.21 kg SD). Increase in dietary cyst(e)ine intake did not result in a decrease in fractional [1-(13)C]phenylalanine oxidation. These data do not support the hypothesis that endogenous cyst(e)ine synthesis is limited in very low birth weight preterm infants with gestational ages of ine requirement is ine is probably not a conditionally essential amino acid in these infants.

  9. Growth of HIV-Exposed Uninfected Infants in the First 6 Months of Life in South Africa: The IeDEA-SA Collaboration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erna Morden

    Full Text Available HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU infants are a growing population in sub-Saharan Africa especially with the increasing coverage of more effective prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT antiretroviral therapy regimens. This study describes the characteristics of South African HEU infants, investigates factors impacting birth weight and assesses their growth within the first 28 weeks of life.This is a retrospective cohort based on routine clinical data from two South African PMTCT programmes. Data were collected between 2007 and 2013. Linear regression assessed factors affecting birth weight-for-age z-scores (WAZ while growth (longitudinal WAZ was assessed using mixed effects models.We assessed the growth of 2621 HEU infants (median birth WAZ was -0.65 (IQR -1.46; 0.0 and 51% were male. The feeding modalities practised were as follows: 0.5% exclusive breastfeeding, 7.9% breastfeeding with unknown exclusivity, 0.08% mixed breastfeeding and 89.2% formula feeding. Mothers with CD4 <200 cells/μl delivered infants with a lower birth WAZ (adjusted ß -0.253 [95% CI -0.043; -0.072], p = 0.006 compared to mothers with aCD4 ≥500 cells/μl. Similarly, mothers who did not receive antiretroviral drugs delivered infants with a lower birth WAZ (adjusted ß -0.39 [95% CI -0.67; -0.11], p = 0.007 compared to mothers who received antenatal antiretrovirals. Infants with a birth weight <2 500g (ß 0.070 [95% CI 0.061; 0.078], p <0.0001 experienced faster growth within the first 28 weeks of life compared to infants with a birth weight ≥2 500g. Infants with any breastfeeding exposure experienced slower longitudinal growth compared to formula fed infants (adjusted ß -0.012 [95% CI 0.021; -0.003], p = 0.011.Less severe maternal disease and the use of antiretrovirals positively impacts birth weight in this cohort of South African HEU infants. Formula feeding was common with breastfed infants experiencing marginally slower longitudinal growth.

  10. 7 CFR 718.304 - Failure to fully comply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... authorized in accordance with § 718.305 if the participant made a good faith effort to comply fully with the... FSA approval official to have made a good faith effort to comply fully with the terms and conditions...

  11. Towards a Scalable Fully-Implicit Fully-coupled Resistive MHD Formulation with Stabilized FE Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shadid, J N; Pawlowski, R P; Banks, J W; Chacon, L; Lin, P T; Tuminaro, R S

    2009-06-03

    This paper presents an initial study that is intended to explore the development of a scalable fully-implicit stabilized unstructured finite element (FE) capability for low-Mach-number resistive MHD. The discussion considers the development of the stabilized FE formulation and the underlying fully-coupled preconditioned Newton-Krylov nonlinear iterative solver. To enable robust, scalable and efficient solution of the large-scale sparse linear systems generated by the Newton linearization, fully-coupled algebraic multilevel preconditioners are employed. Verification results demonstrate the expected order-of-acuracy for the stabilized FE discretization of a 2D vector potential form for the steady and transient solution of the resistive MHD system. In addition, this study puts forth a set of challenging prototype problems that include the solution of an MHD Faraday conduction pump, a hydromagnetic Rayleigh-Bernard linear stability calculation, and a magnetic island coalescence problem. Initial results that explore the scaling of the solution methods are presented on up to 4096 processors for problems with up to 64M unknowns on a CrayXT3/4. Additionally, a large-scale proof-of-capability calculation for 1 billion unknowns for the MHD Faraday pump problem on 24,000 cores is presented.

  12. Evaluation of vitamin D prophylaxis in 3-36-month-old infants and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Alper; Kendirci, Mustafa; Kondolot, Meda; Kardas, Fatih; Akın, Leyla

    2017-05-01

    Vitamin D (VD) deficiency (VDD) is still a population-based health problem that affects people at different ages. The aim of this study was to evaluate VD prophylaxis for the prevention of VDD in (3-36)-month-old infants and children. Infants and children aged between 3 and 36 months, with different etiologies, admitted to outpatient and inpatient clinics from October 2010 to October 2011 at the Children's Hospital of Erciyes University, were enrolled for the study. Their VD intake (if used; time of initiation, dosage and compliance) and nutritional status (breast-fed, formula or complementary fed) were noted. In order to study seasonal VD changes, the levels of serum calcium, phosphorus and magnesium, alkaline phosphatase activity (PLA), plasma parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 25 hydroxyvitamin 25(OH)D levels were measured at the beginning of VD supplementation during the four seasons. A total of 316 subjects were enrolled in the study, consisting of 202 (63.9%) outpatient and 114 (26.1%) inpatient groups. From these subjects, 304 (96.2%) were supplemented with VD; whereas 12 (3.8%) were not. Out of the subjects supplemented with VD, 237 (75%) initiated VD after the second week of life, 267 (87.8%) were given three drops of VD daily and 209 (66.1%) had taken VD regularly. The plasma 25(OH)D levels were found to be lower in the inpatient group than the outpatient group (29.35 ng/mL and 34.35 ng/mL, respectively). The plasma 25(OH)D levels were lower during the spring and winter. VDD and VD insufficiency (VDI) was found in 31 (9.8%) and 30 (9.5%) subjects, respectively. The plasma 25(OH)D levels were lower in inpatient and breast-fed only subjects and in winter and spring. The national VD augmentation program seems to be beneficial for the prevention of VDD, but VDD/VDI seems to still be an important health problem.

  13. Infant Mortality and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infant mortality rates than the overall population, however statistics for Asian American subgroups are very limited for ... 1 0.4 Source: CDC 2015. Infant Mortality Statistics from the 2013 Period Linked Birth/Infant Death ...

  14. Mother-Infant and Father-Infant Interaction Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Carol J.

    A total of 20 infants 8 months of age were videotaped in dyads with each parent during 10 minutes of free play in a laboratory setting, to investigate reciprocal behavior among parents and their infants. Questionnaire data on parents' caretaking involvement were also collected. Findings indicated that mothers and fathers did not differ on the…

  15. New approach to solve symmetric fully fuzzy linear systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    concepts of fuzzy set theory and then define a fully fuzzy linear system of equations. .... To represent the above problem as fully fuzzy linear system, we represent x .... Fully fuzzy linear systems can be solved by Linear programming approach, ...

  16. Deciphering infant mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrut, Sylvie; Pouillard, Violette; Richmond, Peter; Roehner, Bertrand M.

    2016-12-01

    This paper is about infant mortality. In line with reliability theory, "infant" refers to the time interval following birth during which the mortality (or failure) rate decreases. This definition provides a systems science perspective in which birth constitutes a sudden transition falling within the field of application of the Transient Shock (TS) conjecture put forward in Richmond and Roehner (2016c). This conjecture provides predictions about the timing and shape of the death rate peak. It says that there will be a death rate spike whenever external conditions change abruptly and drastically and also predicts that after a steep rise there will be a much longer hyperbolic relaxation process. These predictions can be tested by considering living organisms for which the transient shock occurs several days after birth. Thus, for fish there are three stages: egg, yolk-sac and young adult phases. The TS conjecture predicts a mortality spike at the end of the yolk-sac phase and this timing is indeed confirmed by observation. Secondly, the hyperbolic nature of the relaxation process can be tested using very accurate Swiss statistics for postnatal death rates spanning the period from one hour immediately after birth through to age 10 years. It turns out that since the 19th century despite a significant and large reduction in infant mortality, the shape of the age-specific death rate has remained basically unchanged. Moreover the hyperbolic pattern observed for humans is also found for small primates as recorded in the archives of zoological gardens. Our overall objective is to identify a series of cases which start from simple systems and move step by step to more complex organisms. The cases discussed here we believe represent initial landmarks in this quest.

  17. The Association of Bifidobacterium breve BR03 and B632 is Effective to Prevent Colics in Bottle-fed Infants: A Pilot, Controlled, Randomized, and Double-Blind Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giglione, Enza; Prodam, Flavia; Bellone, Simonetta; Monticone, Sonia; Beux, Sheila; Marolda, Agostina; Pagani, Alessia; Di Gioia, Diana; Del Piano, Mario; Mogna, Giovanni; Bona, Gianni

    To assess the effectiveness of Bifidobacterium breve B632 and BR03 association in the reduction of infants crying over time. The second endpoint was to observe the effect of the same strains on daily evacuations and on the number of regurgitations and vomits. Infant colics represent a clinical condition in childhood, characterized by an uncontrollable crying that occurs without any apparent organic cause. An altered intestinal microbiota composition in the very first months may induce intestinal colics in infants. Thus far, no treatment is really effective for this problem, but recent literature shows an increasing attention toward probiotics. A total of 83 subjects were enrolled, 60 breastfed infants and 23 bottle-fed infants. Sixty of them carried out the study: 29 infants were given probiotics, whereas 31 placebo. During the 90 days of the study, parents were asked to give 5 drops of active product (10 viable cells/strain) or placebo and to daily take note of: minutes of crying, number, color, and consistency of evacuations, and number of regurgitations or vomits. No significant differences were detected in the infants treated with probiotics, compared with placebo group (P=0.75). The analysis of the 3 months of treatment demonstrated that during the third month, the probiotic group cried 12.14 minutes on average and the placebo cried 46.65 minutes. This difference is statistically significant (P=0.016). The evidence of the usefulness of some probiotic strains in the treatment and prevention of infant colics is growing, and therefore their use in clinical practice is spreading.

  18. Prenatal meditation influences infant behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ka Po

    2014-11-01

    Meditation is important in facilitating health. Pregnancy health has been shown to have significant consequences for infant behaviors. In view of limited studies on meditation and infant temperament, this study aims to explore the effects of prenatal meditation on these aspects. The conceptual framework was based on the postulation of positive relationships between prenatal meditation and infant health. A randomized control quantitative study was carried out at Obstetric Unit, Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Hong Kong. 64 pregnant Chinese women were recruited for intervention and 59 were for control. Outcome measures were cord blood cortisol, infant salivary cortisol, and Carey Infant Temperament Questionnaire. Cord blood cortisol level of babies was higher in the intervention group (pmeditation can influence fetal health. Carey Infant Temperament Questionnaire showed that the infants of intervention group have better temperament (pmeditation in relation to child health. Present study concludes the positive effects of prenatal meditation on infant behaviors and recommends that pregnancy care providers should provide prenatal meditation to pregnant women. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Parents bereaved by infant death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte M.; Elklit, Ask; Olff, Miranda

    2013-01-01

    stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and potential correlates in 634 mothers and fathers up to 18 years (M=3.4 years) after the death of their infant. Members of a private national support organization for parents bereaved by infant death were contacted and asked to participate in the study. Participants...

  20. Binaural Perception in Young Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundy, Robert S.

    This paper describes three experiments which demonstrated the presence of binaural perception abilities (the ability to use both ears) in 4-month-old but not in 2-month-old infants. All of the experiments employed a visual fixation habituation-dishabituation paradigm in which infants were given a series of visual fixation trials while binaural…

  1. Infants' Recognition Memory for Hue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H.

    1976-01-01

    Fifty 4-month-old infants were habituated to one wavelength of light and then tested for recognition with the original and two new spectral lights. After short- and long-term delays with different types of retroactive interference, the results indicated that the infants' recognition memory for hue was quite resilient to interference or delay. (JMB)

  2. Determinants of Infant Behaviour IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss, B. M., Ed.

    This volume consists of reports of individual studies and surveys of research work on mother-infant interactions. It is divided into two parts. The first section presents a wide range of studies on mother-infant relations as exhibited in the behavior of animals. The second part, concerning human behavior, includes studies on the natural history of…

  3. Infant Mortality: An American Tragedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Christiane B.

    1990-01-01

    Assesses the complex problem of infant deaths in America and reviews the policy options before the nation. High infant mortality rates have been attributed to population heterogeneity, poverty, or differences in the way health services are organized. Links health policy issues to the larger issue of social and economic equity. (AF)

  4. Infant colic: mechanisms and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeevenhooven, Judith; Browne, Pamela D.; Hoir, L' Monique; Weerth, de Carolina; Benninga, M.A.

    2018-01-01

    Infant colic is a commonly reported phenomenon of excessive crying in infancy with an enigmatic and distressing character. Despite its frequent occurrence, little agreement has been reached on the definition, pathogenesis or the optimal management strategy for infant colic. This Review aims to

  5. Infant feeding practices and determinants of poor breastfeeding behavior in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yotebieng, Marcel; Chalachala, Jean Lambert; Labbok, Miriam; Behets, Frieda

    2013-10-01

    Although breastfeeding is almost universally accepted in the Democratic Republic (DR) of Congo, by the age of 2 to 3 months 65% of children are receiving something other than human milk. We sought to describe the infant feeding practices and determinants of suboptimal breastfeeding behaviors in DR Congo. Survey questionnaire administered to mothers of infants aged ≤ 6 months and healthcare providers who were recruited consecutively at six selected primary health care facilities in Kinshasa, the capital. All 66 mothers interviewed were breastfeeding. Before initiating breastfeeding, 23 gave their infants something other than their milk, including: sugar water (16) or water (2). During the twenty-four hours prior to interview, 26 (39%) infants were exclusively breastfed (EBF), whereas 18 (27%), 12 (18%), and 10 (15%) received water, tea, formula, or porridge, respectively, in addition to human milk. The main reasons for water supplementation included "heat" and cultural beliefs that water is needed for proper digestion of human milk. The main reason for formula supplementation was the impression that the baby was not getting enough milk; and for porridge supplementation, the belief that the child was old enough to start complementary food. Virtually all mothers reported that breastfeeding was discussed during antenatal clinic visit and half reported receiving help regarding breastfeeding from a health provider either after birth or during well-child clinic visit. Despite a median of at least 14 years of experience in these facilities, healthcare workers surveyed had little to no formal training on how to support breastfeeding and inadequate breastfeeding-related knowledge and skills. The facilities lacked any written policy about breastfeeding. Addressing cultural beliefs, training healthcare providers adequately on breastfeeding support skills, and providing structured breastfeeding support after maternity discharge is needed to promote EBF in the DR Congo.

  6. Evolution of gut Bifidobacterium population in healthy Japanese infants over the first three years of life: a quantitative assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpal, Ravinder; Kurakawa, Takashi; Tsuji, Hirokazu; Takahashi, Takuya; Kawashima, Kazunari; Nagata, Satoru; Nomoto, Koji; Yamashiro, Yuichiro

    2017-08-30

    Bifidobacteria are important members of human gut microbiota; however, quantitative data on their early-life dynamics is limited. Here, using a sensitive reverse transcription-qPCR approach, we demonstrate the carriage of eight signature infant-associated Bifidobacterium species (B. longum, B. breve, B. bifidum, B. catenulatum group, B. infantis, B. adolescentis, B. angulatum and B. dentium) in 76 healthy full-term vaginally-born infants from first day to three years of life. About 21% babies carry bifidobacteria at first day of life (6.2 ± 1.9 log 10  cells/g feces); and this carriage increases to 64% (8.0 ± 2.2), 79% (8.5 ± 2.1), 97% (9.3 ± 1.8), 99% (9.6 ± 1.6), and 100% (9.7 ± 0.9) at age 7 days, 1, 3 and 6 months, and 3 years, respectively. B. longum, B. breve, B. catenulatum group and B. bifidum are among the earliest and abundant bifidobacterial clades. Interestingly, infants starting formula-feed as early as first week of life have higher bifidobacterial carriage compared to exclusively breast-fed counterparts. Bifidobacteria demonstrate an antagonistic correlation with enterobacteria and enterococci. Further analyses also reveal a relatively lower/ delayed bifidobacterial carriage in cesarean-born babies. The study presents a quantitative perspective of the early-life gut Bifidobacterium colonization and shows how factors such as birth and feeding modes could influence this acquisition even in healthy infants.

  7. Primary hyperoxaluria in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manel Jellouli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The infantile form of primary hyperoxaluria type-1 (PH-1 is characterized by a rapid progression to the end-stage renal disease (ESRD due to both increased oxalate load and reduced glomerular filtration rate. In the literature, data on this form are limited. The purpose of this study is to analyze retrospectively the clinical, biological, and radiological features of children who were diagnosed with PH-1 during the 1styear of life. We reviewed the records of all children with PH-1 diagnosed and followed-up at our department between January 1995 and December 2013. Among them, only infants younger than 12 months of age were retrospectively enrolled in the study. Fourteen infants with the median age of two months were enrolled in the study. At diagnosis, 11 patients had ESRD. All patients had nephrocalcinosis and two of them had calculi. The diagnosis was established in nine patients on the basis of the positive family history of PH-1, bilateral nephrocalcinosis, and quantitative crystalluria. In four patients, the diagnosis was made with molecular analysis of DNA. Kidney biopsy contributed to the diagnosis in one patient. During follow-up, two patients were pyridoxine sensitive and preserved renal function. Seven among 11 patients who had ESRD died, four patients are currently undergoing peritoneal dialysis. Children with infantile PH and ESRD are at high risk of early death. Peritoneal dialysis is not a treatment of choice. Combined liver-kidney transplantation is mandatory.

  8. Nutritional status, exclusive breastfeeding and management of acute respiratory illness and diarrhea in the first 6 months of life in infants from two regions of Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktaria, V; Lee, K J; Bines, J E; Watts, E; Satria, C D; Atthobari, J; Nirwati, H; Kirkwood, C D; Soenarto, Y; Danchin, M H

    2017-12-21

    Infant morbidity and mortality rates remain high in Indonesia, with acute respiratory illnesses (ARI) and diarrhea the leading two health problems in children under 5 years. We aimed to describe the nutritional status, feeding practice and case management of ARI and diarrhea of infants from two regions of Indonesia during the first 6 months of life. This study was an observational study conducted in parallel to an immunogenicity and efficacy trial of an oral rotavirus vaccine (RV3-BB) in the Klaten and Yogyakarta regions, Indonesia. Mothers were interviewed at 3 time points: within the first 6 days of their infant's life, and at 8-10 and 22-24 weeks of age. Questions asked included pregnancy history, infant nutritional status, feeding status and health of infants within up to 2 weeks prior to the assessment. Between February 2013 and January 2014, 233 mother-infant pairs were recruited. 60% (136/223) of infants were exclusively breastfed (EBF) until 6 months of age with the strongest support for EBF reported by mothers themselves 70% (101/223) and 25% (36/223) from their partners. At 6 months, 6% (14/223) of infants were underweight and severely underweight; 4% (8/ 223) wasted and severely wasted; and 12% (28/223) were stunted and severely stunted. Non-recommended medication use was high, with 54% (21/39) of infants with reported cough within 2 weeks of an assessment receiving cough medication, 70% (27 /39) an antihistamine, 26% (10/39) a mucolytic and 15% (6 /39) an oral bronchodilator. At age 22-24 week, infants with reported diarrhea within 2 weeks of an assessment had low use of oral rehydration solutions (ORS) (3/21;14%) and zinc therapy (2/ 21;10%). In this unique observational study, breastfeeding rates of 60% at 6 months were below the Indonesian national target of >75%. Adherence to WHO guidelines for management of ARI and diarrhea was poor, with high use of non-recommended cough medications and oral bronchodilators in the first 6 months of life

  9. Infant Cries Rattle Adult Cognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Dudek

    Full Text Available The attention-grabbing quality of the infant cry is well recognized, but how the emotional valence of infant vocal signals affects adult cognition and cortical activity has heretofore been unknown. We examined the effects of two contrasting infant vocalizations (cries vs. laughs on adult performance on a Stroop task using a cross-modal distraction paradigm in which infant distractors were vocal and targets were visual. Infant vocalizations were presented before (Experiment 1 or during each Stroop trial (Experiment 2. To evaluate the influence of infant vocalizations on cognitive control, neural responses to the Stroop task were obtained by measuring electroencephalography (EEG and event-related potentials (ERPs in Experiment 1. Based on the previously demonstrated existence of negative arousal bias, we hypothesized that cry vocalizations would be more distracting and invoke greater conflict processing than laugh vocalizations. Similarly, we expected participants to have greater difficulty shifting attention from the vocal distractors to the target task after hearing cries vs. after hearing laughs. Behavioral results from both experiments showed a cry interference effect, in which task performance was slower with cry than with laugh distractors. Electrophysiology data further revealed that cries more than laughs reduced attention to the task (smaller P200 and increased conflict processing (larger N450, albeit differently for incongruent and congruent trials. Results from a correlation analysis showed that the amplitudes of P200 and N450 were inversely related, suggesting a reciprocal relationship between attention and conflict processing. The findings suggest that cognitive control processes contribute to an attention bias to infant signals, which is modulated in part by the valence of the infant vocalization and the demands of the cognitive task. The findings thus support the notion that infant cries elicit a negative arousal bias that is

  10. Exclusive Breastfeeding among Preterm Low Birth Weight Infants at One Month Follow-up after Hospital Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishrat Jahan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Establishment and maintenance of breastfeeding in preterm low birth weight (PT LBW neonates after discharge from hospital is challenging and may be affected by multiple factors. We designed this study to find out the association of these factors with breastfeeding in our population. Objectives: To observe the rate of exclusive breasrfeeding (EBF among the PT LBW neonates at one month follow up and to identify the factors that are related with the maintenance of EBF. Materials and Methods: This observational study was conducted during the period from July 2009 to October 2011 in Enam Medical College Hospital (EMCH. Preterm infants ≤ 34 wks gestation, stayed in the NICU for >3 days and discharged home were eligible. Mothers were interviewed at one month follow-up after discharge. Infants who were given only breast milk up to 4 weeks were termed as “Exclusively breastfed (EBF” and who were given formula milk in addition were labeled as “Nonexclusively breastfed (NEBF”. Baseline information regarding maternal demography, delivery of the baby, feeding during discharge was taken from database of neonatal ward. Results: Among 89 infants, 37 (42% were female and 52 (58% were male, including 5 twins. Gestational age ranged from 29 to 34 weeks (mean 32±2, and birth weight ranged from 1100 to 2200 grams (mean 1763±20 g. At one month follow up visit 19% (17/89 were found to be NEBF and 81% were EBF. Factors significantly associated with EBF were shorter duration of hospital stay (p=0.001, method of feeding at discharge (p=0.001, mode of delivery (p=0.004, below average socio-economic status (p=0.03, maternal education (p=0.02, number of antenatal visits (p=0.02 and larger birth weight (p=0.038. Conclusion: A variety of factors may affect EBF in PT LBW babies. Extensive counseling of the mothers during antenatal visits, counseling of the family members regarding the advantages of exclusive breastfeeding is necessary. Support should be

  11. Exploring infant feeding practices: cross-sectional surveys of South Western Sydney, Singapore, and Ho Chi Minh City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Timothy Yong Qun; Ung, Andrew; Qian, Shelley; Nguyen, Jessie Thanh; An, Yvonne; Mudgil, Poonam; Whitehall, John

    2017-06-13

    Infant feeding practices are known to influence the child's long-term health. Studies have associated obesity and other diseases with reduced breastfeeding and early introduction of high calorie beverages (HCBs). The rising prevalence of obesity is already a problem in most developed countries, especially Australia, but cultural differences are influential. Our aim is to examine and compare infant feeding practices and educational levels of respondents through questionnaires in three culturally different sites: Campbelltown (South Western Sydney), Australia, Singapore and Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam (HCMC). Consenting parents and carers (aged ≥18 years old) of at least one child (≤6 years old) were recruited from paediatric clinics in Campbelltown, Singapore and HCMC. Participants completed an infant feeding practices questionnaire regarding breastfeeding, beverage and solid initiation in addition to the parent's ethnicity, age, and educational level. Data was analysed quantitatively using SPSS. Two hundred eighty-three participants were recruited across the three sites, HCMC (n = 84), Campbelltown (n = 108), and Singapore (n = 91). 237 (82.6%) children were breastfed but in all only 100 (60.2%) were exclusively breastfed for five months or more. There was a statistical difference in rates of breast feeding between each region. HCMC (n = 18, 21.4%) had the lowest, followed by Campbelltown (n = 35, 32.4%), and then Singapore (n = 47, 51.7%). There was also a difference in rates of introduction of HCBs by 3 years of age, with those in HCMC (n = 71, 84.5%) were higher than Campbelltown (n = 71, 65.8%) and Singapore (n = 48, 52.8%). The educational level of respondents was lower in Vietnam where only 46.4% (n = 39) had completed post-secondary education, compared to 75.0% (n = 81) in Campbelltown and 75.8% (n = 69) in Singapore. Rates of breast feeding were inversely correlated with rates of introduction of HCB and positively related to

  12. Errors in anthropometric measurements in neonates and infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Harrison

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of methods used in Cape Town hospitals and clinics for the measurement of weight, length and age in neonates and infants became suspect during a survey of 12 local authority and 5 private sector clinics in 1994-1995 (Harrison et al. 1998. A descriptive prospective study to determine the accuracy of these methods in neonates at four maternity hospitals [ 2 public and 2 private] and infants at four child health clinics of the Cape Town City Council was carried out. The main outcome measures were an assessment of three currently used methods namely to measure crown-heel length with a measuring board, a mat and a tape measure; a comparison of weight differences when an infant is fully clothed, naked and in napkin only; and the differences in age estimated by calendar dates and by a specially designed electronic calculator. The results showed that the current methods which are used to measure infants in Cape Town vary widely from one institution to another. Many measurements are inaccurate and there is a real need for uniformity and accuracy. This can only be implemented by an effective education program so as to ensure that accurate measurements are used in monitoring the health of young children in Cape Town and elsewhere.

  13. Neutron- and photon-activation detection limits in breast milk analysis for prospective dose evaluation of the suckling infant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsipenyuk, Yu.M.; Firsov, V.I.; Cantone, M.C.

    2009-01-01

    Complex situations related to the environment, as in the regions affected by the Chernobyl accident and regions in which nuclear weapons testing were undertaken, as in Semipalatinsk, could be reflected in the trace element content in mothers' milk. The evaluation of fractional transfer to milk of ingested or inhaled activity and of the corresponding dose coefficients for the infant, following a mothers' radioactive intake, can take advantage from wide-ranging studies of elemental and radionuclide contents in mothers' milk. In this work the possibility to determine elements, such as Ru, Zr, Nb, Te, Ce, Th, U, in milk powder has been investigated. Although results from elemental analyses of breast milk are to be found in the literature, the determination of the identified elements has attracted poor attention since they are not considered essential elements from a biological point of view. Nevertheless, in the case of radioactive releases to the environment, such data could be of interest in evaluation of dose to the breast-fed infant

  14. Feasibility of Metatranscriptome Analysis from Infant Gut Microbiota: Adaptation to Solid Foods Results in Increased Activity of Firmicutes at Six Months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floor Hugenholtz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Newborns are rapidly colonized by microbes and their intestinal tracts contain highly dynamic and rapidly developing microbial communities in the first months of life. In this study, we describe the feasibility of isolating mRNA from rapidly processed faecal samples and applying deep RNA-Seq analysis to provide insight into the active contributors of the microbial community in early life. Specific attention is given to the impact of removing rRNA from the mRNA on the phylogenetic and transcriptional profiling and its analysis depth. A breastfed baby was followed in the first six months of life during adaptation to solid food, dairy products, and formula. It was found that, in the weaning period, the total transcriptional activity of Actinobacteria, mainly represented by Bifidobacterium, decreased while that of Firmicutes increased over time. Moreover, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, including the canonical Bifidobacteria as well as Collinsella, were found to be important contributors to carbohydrate fermentation and vitamin biosynthesis in the infant intestine. Finally, the expression of Lactobacillus rhamnosus-like genes was detected, likely following transfer from the mother who consumed L. rhamnosus GG. The study indicates that metatranscriptome analysis of the infant gut microbiota is feasible on infant stool samples and can be used to provide insight into the core activities of the developing community.

  15. Pattern recognition receptor-mediated cytokine response in infants across 4 continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolen, Kinga K; Ruck, Candice E; Fortuno, Edgardo S; Ho, Kevin; Dimitriu, Pedro; Mohn, William W; Speert, David P; Cooper, Philip J; Esser, Monika; Goetghebuer, Tessa; Marchant, Arnaud; Kollmann, Tobias R

    2014-03-01

    Susceptibility to infection as well as response to vaccination varies among populations. To date, the underlying mechanisms responsible for these clinical observations have not been fully delineated. Because innate immunity instructs adaptive immunity, we hypothesized that differences between populations in innate immune responses may represent a mechanistic link to variation in susceptibility to infection or response to vaccination. Determine whether differences in innate immune responses exist among infants from different continents of the world. We determined the innate cytokine response following pattern recognition receptor (PRR) stimulation of whole blood from 2-year-old infants across 4 continents (Africa, North America, South America, and Europe). We found that despite the many possible genetic and environmental exposure differences in infants across 4 continents, innate cytokine responses were similar for infants from North America, South America, and Europe. However, cells from South African infants secreted significantly lower levels of cytokines than did cells from infants from the 3 other sites, and did so following stimulation of extracellular and endosomal but not cytosolic PRRs. Substantial differences in innate cytokine responses to PRR stimulation exist among different populations of infants that could not have been predicted. Delineating the underlying mechanism(s) for these differences will not only aid in improving vaccine-mediated protection but possibly also provide clues for the susceptibility to infection in different regions of the world. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation in hospitalized infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornik, Christoph P; Graham, Eric M; Hill, Kevin; Li, Jennifer S; Ofori-Amanfo, George; Clark, Reese H; Smith, P Brian

    2016-10-01

    Hospitalized infants requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) represent a high-risk group. Recent data on risk factors for mortality following CPR in this population are lacking. We hypothesized that infant demographic characteristics, diagnoses, and levels of cardiopulmonary support at the time of CPR requirement would be associated with survival to hospital discharge following CPR. Retrospective cohort study. All infants receiving CPR on day of life 2 to 120 admitted to 348 Pediatrix Medical Group neonatal intensive care units from 1997 to 2012. We collected data on demographics, interventions, center volume, and death prior to NICU discharge. We evaluated predictors of death after CPR using multivariable logistic regression with generalized estimating equations to account for clustering of the data by center. Our cohort consisted of 2231 infants receiving CPR. Of these, 1127 (51%) survived to hospital discharge. Lower gestational age, postnatal age, 5-min APGAR, congenital anomaly, and markers of severity of illness were associated with higher mortality. Mortality after CPR did not change significantly over time (Cochran-Armitage test for trend p=0.35). Mortality following CPR in infants is high, particularly for less mature, younger infants with congenital anomalies and those requiring cardiopulmonary support prior to CPR. Continued focus on at risk infants may identify targets for CPR prevention and improve outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Exposure to tobacco smoke and infant crying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.; Lanting, C.I.; Crone, M.R.; Wouwe, J.P. van

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To examine the association of excessive infant crying with maternal smoking during and after pregnancy, paternal smoking, and smoking by other people in the living environment of the infant. Methods: We collected data on infant crying and smoking in a Dutch national sample of 5845 infants aged

  18. Exposure to tobacco smoke and infant crying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, SA; Lanting, Caren; Crone, MR; Van Wouwe, JP

    Aim: To examine the association of excessive infant crying with maternal smoking during and after pregnancy, paternal smoking, and smoking by other people in the living environment of the infant. Methods: We collected data on infant crying and smoking in a Dutch national sample of 5845 infants aged

  19. Prenatal Cocaine Exposure and Infant Cortisol Reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiden, Rina D.; Veira, Yvette; Granger, Douglas A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on infant hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and reactivity at 7 months of infant age. Participants were 168 caregiver-infant dyads (87 cocaine exposed, 81 not cocaine exposed; 47% boys). Maternal behavior, caregiving instability, and infant growth and behavior were assessed,…

  20. Infant Coping with Everyday Stressful Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karraker, Katherine Hildebrandt; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Mothers of 6 cohorts of infants at ages 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 months were interviewed to determine their children's responses to potentially stressful daily events. Found older infants and temperamentally more difficult infants experienced more events and reacted with distress to a greater proportion of the events than did younger infants and…

  1. Docosahexaenoic Acid and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Term Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, Suzanne; Simmer, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid, is essential for normal brain development. DHA is found predominantly in seafood, fish oil, breastmilk and supplemented formula. DHA intake in Western countries is often below recommendations. Observational studies have demonstrated an association between DHA intake in pregnancy and neurodevelopment of offspring but cannot fully adjust for confounding factors that influence child development. Randomised clinical trials of DHA supplementation during pregnancy and/or lactation, and of term infants, have not shown a consistent benefit nor harm on neurodevelopment of healthy children born at term. The evidence does not support DHA supplementation of healthy pregnant and lactating women, nor healthy infants. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Dating fractures in infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halliday, K.E., E-mail: kath.halliday@nuh.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, Nottingham University Hospitals, Queen' s Medical Centre, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Broderick, N J; Somers, J M [Department of Radiology, Nottingham University Hospitals, Queen' s Medical Centre, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Hawkes, R [Department of Radiology, Paul O' Gorman Building, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    Aim: To document the timing of the appearance of the radiological features of fracture healing in a group of infants in which the date of injury was known and to assess the degree of interobserver agreement. Materials and methods: Three paediatric radiologists independently assessed 161 images of 37 long bone fractures in 31 patients aged 0-44 months. The following features were assessed: soft-tissue swelling, subperiosteal new bone formation (SPNBF), definition of fracture line, presence or absence of callus, whether callus was well or ill defined, and the presence of endosteal callus. Results: Agreement between observers was only moderate for all discriminators except SPNBF. SPNBF was invariably seen after 11 days but was uncommon before this time even in the very young. In one case SPNBF was seen at 4 days. Conclusion: With the exception of SPNBF, the criteria relied on to date fractures are either not reproducible or are poor discriminators of fracture age.

  3. Dating fractures in infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halliday, K.E.; Broderick, N.J.; Somers, J.M.; Hawkes, R.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To document the timing of the appearance of the radiological features of fracture healing in a group of infants in which the date of injury was known and to assess the degree of interobserver agreement. Materials and methods: Three paediatric radiologists independently assessed 161 images of 37 long bone fractures in 31 patients aged 0-44 months. The following features were assessed: soft-tissue swelling, subperiosteal new bone formation (SPNBF), definition of fracture line, presence or absence of callus, whether callus was well or ill defined, and the presence of endosteal callus. Results: Agreement between observers was only moderate for all discriminators except SPNBF. SPNBF was invariably seen after 11 days but was uncommon before this time even in the very young. In one case SPNBF was seen at 4 days. Conclusion: With the exception of SPNBF, the criteria relied on to date fractures are either not reproducible or are poor discriminators of fracture age.

  4. Early infant adipose deposition is positively associated with the n-6 to n-3 fatty acid ratio in human milk independent of maternal BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, M C; Young, B E; Lemas, D J; Palmer, C E; Hernandez, T L; Barbour, L A; Friedman, J E; Krebs, N F; MacLean, P S

    2017-04-01

    Excessive infant weight gain in the first 6-month of life is a powerful predictor of childhood obesity and related health risks. In mice, omega-6 fatty acids (FAs) serve as potent ligands driving adipogenesis during early development. The ratio of omega-6 relative to omega-3 (n-6/n-3) FA in human milk (HM) has increased threefold over the last 30 years, but the impact of this shift on infant adipose development remains undetermined. This study investigated how maternal obesity and maternal dietary FA (as reflected in maternal red blood cells (RBCs) composition) influenced HM n-6 and n-3 FAs, and whether the HM n-6/n-3 ratio was associated with changes in infant adipose deposition between 2 weeks and 4 months postpartum. Forty-eight infants from normal weight (NW), overweight (OW) and obese (OB) mothers were exclusively or predominantly breastfed over the first 4 months of lactation. Mid-feed HM and maternal RBC were collected at either transitional (2 weeks) or established (4 months) lactation, along with infant body composition assessed using air-displacement plethysmography. The FA composition of HM and maternal RBC was measured quantitatively by lipid mass spectrometry. In transitional and established HM, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was lower (P=0.008; 0.005) and the arachidonic acid (AA)/DHA+eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) ratio was higher (P=0.05; 0.02) in the OB relative to the NW group. Maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and AA/DHA+EPA ratios in transitional and established HM were moderately correlated (P=0.018; 0.001). Total infant fat mass was increased in the upper AA/DHA+EPA tertile of established HM relative to the lower tertile (P=0.019). The amount of changes in infant fat mass and percentage of body fat were predicted by AA/EPA+DHA ratios in established HM (P=0.038; 0.010). Perinatal infant exposures to a high AA/EPA+DHA ratio during the first 4 months of life, which is primarily reflective of maternal dietary FA, may significantly contribute to

  5. Copenhagen infant mental health project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Væver, Mette Skovgaard; Smith-Nielsen, Johanne; Lange, Theis

    2016-01-01

    such as physical and mental health, educational and labor market success, social network and establishing of family. Secure attachment is associated with optimal outcomes in all developmental domains in childhood, and both insecure and disorganized attachment are associated with a range of later problems......Background: Infant mental health is a significant public health issue as early adversity and exposure to early childhood stress are significant risk factors that may have detrimental long-term developmental consequences for the affected children. Negative outcomes are seen on a range of areas...... in the City of Copenhagen, Denmark. During the project a general population of an estimated 17.600 families with an infant aged 2–12 months are screened for two known infant mental health risks, maternal postnatal depression and infant social withdrawal. Eligible families (N = 314), who agree to participate...

  6. Infant Reflux: Diagnosis and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and children, endoscopy is usually done under general anesthesia. Treatment Infant reflux usually clears up by itself. ... Has evidence of an inflamed esophagus Has chronic asthma and reflux Surgery Rarely, the lower esophageal sphincter ...

  7. FDA Abbott Infant Formula Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — On September 22, 2010, Abbott issued a voluntary recall of certain Similac powdered infant formula after identifying a common warehouse beetle (both larvae and...

  8. Home apnea monitor use - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000755.htm Home apnea monitor use - infants To use the sharing ... portable. Why is an Apnea Monitor Used at Home? A monitor may be needed when: Your baby ...

  9. Reducing mother-to-child transmission of HIV: findings from an early infant diagnosis program in south-south region of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoje Chukwuemeka

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early diagnosis of HIV in infants provides a critical opportunity to strengthen follow-up of HIV-exposed children and assure early access to antiretroviral (ARV treatment for infected children. This study describes findings from an Early Infant Diagnosis (EID program and the effectiveness of a prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT intervention in six health facilities in Cross-River and Akwa-Ibom states, south-south Nigeria. Methods This was a retrospective study. Records of 702 perinatally exposed babies aged six weeks to 18 months who had a DNA PCR test between November 2007 and July 2009 were reviewed. Details of the ARV regimen received to prevent mother-to-child transmission (MTCT, breastfeeding choices, HIV test results, turn around time (TAT for results and post test ART enrolment status of the babies were analysed. Results Two-thirds of mother-baby pairs received ARVs and 560 (80% babies had ever been breastfed. Transmission rates for mother-baby pairs who received ARVs for PMTCT was 4.8% (CI 1.3, 8.3 at zero to six weeks of age compared to 19.5% (CI 3.0, 35.5 when neither baby nor mother received an intervention. Regardless of intervention, the transmission rates for babies aged six weeks to six months who had mixed feeding was 25.6% (CI 29.5, 47.1 whereas the transmission rates for those who were exclusively breastfed was 11.8% (CI 5.4, 18.1. Vertical transmission of HIV was eight times (AOR 7.8, CI: 4.52-13.19 more likely in the sub-group of mother-baby pairs who did not receive ARVS compared with mother-baby pairs that did receive ARVs. The median TAT for test results was 47 days (IQR: 35-58. A follow-up of 125 HIV positive babies found that 31 (25% were enrolled into a paediatric ART program, nine (7% were known to have died before the return of their DNA PCR results, and 85 (67% could not be traced and were presumed to be lost-to-follow-up. Conclusion Reduction of MTCT of HIV is possible with

  10. Social theory and infant feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Clinicians, public health advisors, nutritionists and others have been attempting to increase breastfeeding rates for the last few decades, with varying degrees of success. We need social science researchers to help us understand the role of infant feeding in the family. Some researchers in the area of food and nutrition have found Pierre Bourdieu's theoretical framework helpful. In this editorial, I introduce some of Bourdieu's ideas and suggest researchers interested in infant feeding should consider testing these theories. PMID:21676218

  11. Treatment with paracetamol in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arana, A; Morton, N S; Hansen, Tom Giedsing

    2001-01-01

    Paracetamol (N-acetyl-p-amino-phenol) or acetaminophen has become the most widely used analgesic and antipyretic in children. However, there is a wide discrepancy between the extent to which paracetamol is used and the limited available pharmacological data in small infants. The purpose...... of this article is to present a review of the current literature regarding the use of paracetamol in neonates and infants with a particular emphasis on pharmacological issues....

  12. Osborne Reynolds pipe flow: direct numerical simulation from laminar to fully-developed turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian, R. J.; Wu, X.; Moin, P.; Baltzer, J. R.

    2014-11-01

    Osborne Reynolds' pipe experiment marked the onset of modern viscous flow research, yet the detailed mechanism carrying the laminar state to fully-developed turbulence has been quite elusive, despite notable progress related to dynamic edge-state theory. Here, we continue our direct numerical simulation study on this problem using a 250R long, spatially-developing pipe configuration with various Reynolds numbers, inflow disturbances, and inlet base flow states. For the inlet base flow, both fully-developed laminar profile and the uniform plug profile are considered. Inlet disturbances consist of rings of turbulence of different width and radial location. In all the six cases examined so far, energy norms show exponential growth with axial distance until transition after an initial decay near the inlet. Skin-friction overshoots the Moody's correlation in most, but not all, the cases. Another common theme is that lambda vortices amplified out of susceptible elements in the inlet disturbances trigger rapidly growing hairpin packets at random locations and times, after which infant turbulent spots appear. Mature turbulent spots in the pipe transition are actually tight concentrations of hairpin packets looking like a hairpin forest. The plug flow inlet profile requires much stronger disturbances to transition than the parabolic profile.

  13. Design of a statically balanced fully compliant grasper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, A.J.; Gallego Sanchez, J.A.; Herder, Justus Laurens

    2015-01-01

    Monolithic and thus fully compliant surgical graspers are promising when they provide equal or better force feedback than conventional graspers. In this work for the first time a fully compliant grasper is designed to exhibit zero stiffness and zero operation force. The design problem is addressed

  14. Testicular teratoma, mimicking a simple testicular cyst, in an infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Renzo, Dacia; Persico, Antonello; Sindici, Giulia; Lelli Chiesa, Pierluigi

    2013-09-01

    Prepubertal testicular tumors are rare, and teratoma is the second most frequent histologic type. Its typical features are those of a hard and painless scrotal mass at clinical examination, and nonhomogeneous, echoic, often with calcifications at ultrasonography. Rare but reported is the atypical presentation as a transilluminating scrotal mass, due to the presence of some internal cystic areas, detectable at ultrasonography. We report the case of an infant with a transilluminating scrotal mass, mimicking at ultrasonography and surgery a simple, fully liquid cyst, which the pathologic examination revealed to be mature cystic testicular teratoma. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Paternal perception of infant sleep risks and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Heather M; Mullins, Samantha H; Miller, Beverly K; Aitken, Mary E

    2018-04-10

    about infant sleep safety, but are not fully practicing all aspects of safe sleep. Targeted messaging towards male caregivers that includes factual information and statistics along with representing males in a positive light is desired.

  16. Presentation of an infant with nutritional deficiency dermatitis as the initial manifestation of cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojković Anđelka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cystic fibrosis (CF is a multisystemic autosomal recessive disease most frequently recognized by characteristic respiratory and/or digestive manifestations. Exceptionally rare, as is the case with the infant we are presenting, the initial sign of the disease can be nutritional deficiency dermatitis (NDD. Case Outline. A three-month-old male infant of young and healthy non-consanguineous parents, born at term after the first uneventful pregnancy, was hospitalized due to atopic dermatitis (AD-like skin changes, failure to thrive and normochromic anemia (Hb 60 g/L. As exclusively breast-fed, failure to thrive was attributed to hypogalactia and skin changes to nutritional allergy, so that, besides exclusion of cow’s milk protein and other highly allergenic foods in mother’s diet, hypoallergenic milk formula was added to the child’s diet. However, dietetic measures were without effect, and the child was re-hospitalized at age 4.5 months, this time in the condition of severe malnutrition with hypoproteinemic edemas, extensive dermatitis, moderate hepatosplenomegaly and recurrent normochromic anemia (Hb 57 g/L. After plasma-free erythrocyte transfusion, correction of hypoalbuminemia and two-week parenteral and semi-elementary nutrition resulted in gradual recovery of the child, also including the resolution of skin changes. Having in mind the clinical course of the disease, as well as the response to applied therapeutic measures, CF was suspected as the cause of the child’s problems, which was also confirmed by a high level of sweat chlorine (92 mmol/L and DNA analysis (∆F508/∆F508. Conclusion. Our experience indicates that NDD, as the initial manifestation of CF, should be also kept in mind in differential diagnosis of the infant’s AD-like changes.

  17. [Late preterm infants in Spain: Experience of the 34-36 Neonatal Group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Reymundo, Mercedes; Demestre, Xavier; Calvo, María José; Ginovart, Gemma; Jiménez, Ana; Hurtado, José Antonio

    2018-05-01

    Late preterm (LP) infants (34 -36 weeks of gestation) are the largest group of preterm infants and also the least studied so far. In order to improve their care and reduce the impact of their increased morbidity and mortality, it is essential to know the current situation in Spain. Clinical-epidemiological variables of the LP population of 34 participating hospitals were prospectively collected from 1 April 2011 to 31 March 2016, and were then compared with the Minimum Perinatal Data Set for term births in the database. Of the 9,121 LP studied, 21.7% of 34, 30.8% of 35, and 47.5% of 36 weeks of gestation. The mortality rate was 2.8%. More than one-quarter (27.7%) were multiple pregnancies. Maternal disease were identified in 47.1% and 41.4% were pathological gestation. Just under half (47.9%) were by Caesarean section and 18.8% were of unknown origin or unjustified. No known cause of prematurity was found in 29%, and 3.1% were recognized as unjustified?caesarean?. Just under half (47%) of the LP were breastfed, and 58.6% required admission to neonatology, with 15.2% to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Coded diagnoses were recorded in 46.2%, with the most frequent being jaundice, 43.5%, hypoglycaemia, 30%, and respiratory disorders with 28.7%. The large sample of LP studied helps us to highlight the higher neonatal mortality and morbidity that this population suffers and the unavoidable relationship of its incidence with multiparity, maternal aging, and the still numerous inductions of labour and unjustified elective caesareans. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Maternal depression and anxiety, social synchrony, and infant regulation of negative and positive emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granat, Adi; Gadassi, Reuma; Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva; Feldman, Ruth

    2017-02-01

    Maternal postpartum depression (PPD) exerts long-term negative effects on infants; yet the mechanisms by which PPD disrupts emotional development are not fully clear. Utilizing an extreme-case design, 971 women reported symptoms of depression and anxiety following childbirth and 215 high and low on depressive symptomatology reported again at 6 months. Of these, mothers diagnosed with major depressive disorder (n = 22), anxiety disorders (n = 19), and controls (n = 59) were visited at 9 months. Mother-infant interaction was microcoded for maternal and infant's social behavior and synchrony. Infant negative and positive emotional expression and self-regulation were tested in 4 emotion-eliciting paradigms: anger with mother, anger with stranger, joy with mother, and joy with stranger. Infants of depressed mothers displayed less social gaze and more gaze aversion. Gaze and touch synchrony were lowest for depressed mothers, highest for anxious mothers, and midlevel among controls. Infants of control and anxious mothers expressed less negative affect with mother compared with stranger; however, maternal presence failed to buffer negative affect in the depressed group. Maternal depression chronicity predicted increased self-regulatory behavior during joy episodes, and touch synchrony moderated the effects of PPD on infant self-regulation. Findings describe subtle microlevel processes by which maternal depression across the postpartum year disrupts the development of infant emotion regulation and suggest that diminished social synchrony, low differentiation of attachment and nonattachment contexts, and increased self-regulation during positive moments may chart pathways for the cross-generational transfer of emotional maladjustment from depressed mothers to their infants. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Importance of maternal diet in the training of the infant's immune system during gestation and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeurink, P V; Knipping, K; Wiens, F; Barańska, K; Stahl, B; Garssen, J; Krolak-Olejnik, B

    2018-02-02

    Latest forecasts predict that half of the European population will be allergic within the coming 15 years, with food allergies contributing substantially to the total burden; preventive measures are urgently needed. Unfortunately, all attempted alimentary strategies for primary prevention of allergic diseases through allergen avoidance so far have failed. This also holds true for the prevention of food allergies in breastfed infants by the common practice of excluding certain foods with allergenic potential from the maternal diet. As a preventive measure, therefore, exclusion diets should be discouraged. They can exhaust nursing mothers and negatively impact both their nutritional status as well as their motivation to breastfeed. A prolonged exclusion diet may be indicated solely in cases of doctor-diagnosed food allergy following rigid medical tests (e.g. double-blind placebo-controlled food challenges). Indicated cases usually involve exclusion of only a few food items. Continued breastfeeding is generally important for many aspects of the infant's health, including the training of the infant's immune responses to foreign compounds and avoidance of overshooting inflammatory responses. Recent studies suggest that the presence of maternal dietary proteins in amniotic fluid, cord blood, and human milk might support the induction of tolerance towards solid foods in infants. These are exactly the same species of proteins or remnants thereof that, in comparatively few cases, trigger allergic responses. However, the insight that the proteins of maternal dietary origin in human milk are more likely to be cure (or, more precise, directing prevention) than curse has still largely evaded the attention of health care professionals consulted by worried breastfeeding mothers. In this paper, we summarize recent literature on the importance of exposure to dietary proteins in the establishment of immunological tolerance and hence prevention of allergic disease. Multiple

  20. Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding of preterm infants. Results from a prospective national cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragnhild Maastrup

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Evidence-based knowledge of how to guide the mothers of preterm infants in breastfeeding establishment is contradictive or sparse. The aim was to investigate the associations between pre-specified clinical practices for facilitating breastfeeding, and exclusive breastfeeding at discharge as well as adequate duration thereof. METHODS: A prospective survey based on questionnaires was conducted with a Danish national cohort, comprised of 1,221 mothers and their 1,488 preterm infants with a gestational age of 24-36 weeks. Adjusted for covariates, the pre-specified clinical practices were analysed by multiple logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: At discharge 68% of the preterm infants were exclusively breastfed and 17% partially. Test-weighing the infant, and minimizing the use of a pacifier, showed a protective effect to exclusive breastfeeding at discharge (OR 0.6 (95% CI 0.4-0.8 and 0.4 (95% CI 0.3-0.6, respectively. The use of nipple shields (OR 2.3 (95% CI 1.6-3.2 and the initiation of breast milk expression later than 48 hours postpartum (OR 4.9 (95% CI 1.9-12.6 were associated with failure of exclusive breastfeeding at discharge. The clinical practices associated with an inadequate breastfeeding duration were the initiation of breast milk expression at 12-24 hours (OR 1.6 (95% CI 1.0-2.4 and 24-48 hours (OR 1.8 (95% CI 1.0-3.1 vs. before six hours postpartum, and the use of nipple shields (OR 1.4 (95% CI 1.1-1.9. CONCLUSION: Early initiation of breast milk pumping before 12 hours postpartum may increase breastfeeding rates, and it seems that the use of nipple shields should be restricted. The use of test-weighing and minimizing the use of a pacifier may promote the establishment of exclusive breastfeeding, but more research is needed regarding adequate support to the mother when test-weighing is ceased, as more of these mothers ceased exclusive breastfeeding at an early stage after discharge.

  1. Mercury in breast milk - a health hazard for infants in gold mining areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose-O'Reilly, Stephan; Lettmeier, Beate; Roider, Gabriele; Siebert, Uwe; Drasch, Gustav

    2008-10-01

    Breast-feeding can be a source of mercury exposure for infants. The main concern up to now is methyl-mercury exposure of women at child-bearing age. Certain fish species have high levels of methyl-mercury leading to consumer's advisory guidelines in regard of fish consumption to protect infants from mercury exposure passing through breast milk. Little is known about the transfer of inorganic mercury passing through breast milk to infants. Epidemiological studies showed negative health effects of inorganic mercury in gold mining areas. Small-scale gold miners use mercury to extract the gold from the ore. Environmental and health assessments of gold mining areas in Indonesia, Tanzania and Zimbabwe showed a high exposure with inorganic mercury in these gold mining areas, and a negative health impact of the exposure to the miners and the communities. This paper reports about the analysis and the results of 46 breast milk samples collected from mercury-exposed mothers. The median level of 1.87mug/l is fairly high compared to other results from literature. Some breast milk samples showed very high levels of mercury (up to 149mug/l). Fourteen of the 46 breast milk samples exceed 4mug/l which is considered to be a "high" level. US EPA recommends a "Reference Dose" of 0.3mug inorganic mercury/kg body weight/day [United States Environmental Protection Agency, 1997. Volume V: Health Effects of Mercury and Mercury Compounds. Study Report EPA-452/R-97-007: US EPA]. Twenty-two of the 46 children from these gold mining areas had a higher calculated total mercury uptake. The highest calculated daily mercury uptake of 127mug exceeds by far the recommended maximum uptake of inorganic mercury. Further systematic research of mercury in breast milk from small-scale gold mining areas is needed to increase the knowledge about the bio-transfer of mercury from mercury vapour-exposed mothers passing through breast milk to the breast-fed infant.

  2. The difficulty with responding to policy changes for HIV and infant feeding in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Paoli Marina

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When and how to wean breastfed infants exposed to HIV infection has provoked extensive debate, particularly in low-income countries where safe alternatives to breastfeeding are rarely available. Although there is global consensus on optimal infant-feeding practices in the form of guidelines, practices are sub-optimal in much of sub-Saharan Africa. Policy-makers and health workers face many challenges in adapting and implementing these guidelines. Methods This paper is based on in-depth interviews with five policy-makers and 11 providers of interventions to prevent mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT of HIV, participant observations during clinic sessions and site visits. Results The difficulties with adapting the global infant-feeding guidelines in Malawi have affected the provision of services. There was a lack of consensus on HIV and infant-feeding at all levels and general confusion about the 2006 guidelines, particularly those recommending continued breastfeeding after six months if replacement feeding is not acceptable, feasible, affordable, sustainable and safe. Health workers found it particularly difficult to advise women to continue breastfeeding after six months. They worried that they would lose the trust of the PMTCT clients and the population at large, and they feared that continued breastfeeding was unsafe. Optimal support for HIV-infected women was noted in programmes where health workers were multi-skilled; coordinated their efforts and had functional, multidisciplinary task forces and engaged communities. The recent 2009 recommendations are the first to support antiretroviral (ARV use by mothers or children during breastfeeding. Besides promoting maternal health and providing protection against HIV infection in children, the new Rapid Advice has the potential to resolve the difficulties and confusion experienced by health workers in Malawi. Conclusions The process of integrating new evidence into

  3. Infant eczema, infant sleeping problems, and mental health at 10 years of age: the prospective birth cohort study LISAplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, J; Chen, C-M; Apfelbacher, C; Romanos, M; Lehmann, I; Herbarth, O; Schaaf, B; Kraemer, U; von Berg, A; Wichmann, H-E; Heinrich, J

    2011-03-01

    Cross-sectional studies suggest an association between eczema and mental health problems, possibly modified by sleeping problems, but prospective evidence is missing. We aimed to prospectively investigate the relationship between infant eczema (within first 2 years of age), infant sleeping problems (within first 2 years of age), and the risk of mental health problems at 10 years of age. Between 1997 and 1999, a population-based birth cohort was recruited in Munich, Leipzig, Wesel, and Bad Honnef, Germany, and followed until 10 years of age. Physician-diagnosed eczema, parent-reported sleeping problems, and known environmental risk factors for atopy were regularly assessed until 10 years of age. Mental health was measured using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (parent version) at 10 years of age. We applied logistic regression modeling adjusting for environmental and lifestyle factors, allergic comorbidity, and family history of eczema. From the original cohort of 3097 neonates, 1658 (54%) were followed until age 10, while 1578 (51%) were eligible for analysis. In the fully adjusted model, children with infant eczema were at increased risk of hyperactivity/inattention at 10 years of age [odds ratio (OR) 1.78; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.02-3.09]. Infant eczema with concurrent sleeping problems predicted emotional problems [OR 2.63; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.20-5.76] and conduct problems (OR 3.03; 95% CI 1.01-9.12) at 10 years of age. Infant eczema with concurrent sleeping problems appears to be a risk factor for the development of mental health problems. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Ontogenetic view on PIVKA-II in the development of prothrombin synthesis in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. G. Ivanko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to study the content of PIVKA-II in the blood serum as an integrative measure of latent vitamin K deficiency in breastfed infants aged from the birth to 6 months of life. Materials and methods. 178 children aged from the birth to 6 months of life who were born without birth injuries in the term of 38–41 of weeks gestation with a weight 2800–4200 g were examined. The immunoenzyme assay for PIVKA-II study was performed with ANTIBODY RESEARCH kit PIVKA-II ELISA Kit (USA Results. Children who had not received postnatal prophylactic injection of vitamin K1 in dose of 1 mg intramuscularly in their majority (62 % had abnormally elevated serum PIVKA-II (>40 Au/ml at the first week of life. In 92 % of children who had received a prophylactic dose of vitamin K1 immediately after birth, PIVKA-II was in a normal limit. The normal concentrations of PIVKA-II were observed in children aged 2–6 months regardless of vitamin K prophylactics. The situation worsened dramatically in children who were treated with antibiotics because more than 50 % of these children have experienced high PIVKA-II values. Conclusions. Almost all the children in their first week of life whom for any reasons vitamin K1 was not prescribed have exhibited an elevation of PIVKA-II in blood serum. This indicates an inborn deficiency of vitamin K experienced by fetuses and newborns. Prophylactic injection of vitamin K1 to newborns normalizes the processes of prothrombin carboxylation and PIVKA-II concentrations are getting normal. Children, who did not receive vitamin K1 after the birth, during the first month of life spontaneously normalize the PIVKA-II concentrations. The improvement of prothrombin carboxylation is obviously connected with the colon microbiota development which can provide children with well absorbed vitamin K2 (menaquinone. In 55.5 % of breastfed children aged up to 6 months who had received antibiotics the PIVKA-II appeared elevated again

  5. Recommendations for Infant Feeding Policy and Programs in Dzimauli Region, South Africa: Results From the MAL-ED Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushaphi, Lindelani Fhumudzani; Mahopo, Tjale Cloupas; Nesamvuni, Cebisa Noxolo; Baloyi, Brenda; Mashau, Ellen; Richardson, Jeniata; Dillingham, Rebecca; Guerrant, Richard; Ambikapathi, Ramya; Bessong, Pascal

    2017-09-01

    There is strong evidence that exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) in the first 6 months of life reduces the risk of diseases in infancy and in later life. To understand the maternal reasoning that influences optimum infant feeding practices of caregivers in semirural communities of Limpopo province. Nested qualitative study among mothers in an ongoing birth cohort study was conducted; structured and semi-structured interviews were used to collect data. Data from 234 infants after 6 months of follow-up was included for quantitative analysis. Four focus discussion groups comprising 7 to 10 caregivers were used to obtain perception of mothers on breastfeeding. A semi-structured interview guide was used to stimulate discussions. Thematic content analyses were conducted to identify the main themes that influence breastfeeding practices of caregivers. Over 90% of the caregivers initiated breastfeeding after delivery. However, less than 1% of mothers practiced EBF by 3 months, and none of the children were exclusively breastfed for up to 6 months. All caregivers introduced non-breast milk liquids and solids by the second month of child's life. Common reasons for introducing non-breast milk foods included insufficiency of breast milk production, going back to work or school, and influence by elderly women (mothers/mothers-in-law) and church members. Exclusive breastfeeding was not practiced in this community due to cultural and religious beliefs and misinformation. The involvement of elderly women and church members in infant feeding education and promotion programs and the dissemination of breastfeeding information through mobile phones to younger mothers are recommended.

  6. INFANT MORTALITY MAR URAL POPULATION OF MEERUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Prakash

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available A cross sectional study was conducted in eight selected villages of Meerut District [UJP.} to find out infant mortality rate alongwith other various health care delivery practices associated with this. An infant mortality rate of 106.7/1000 LB was found in the study population. Infant mortality was higher in female infants, infants of mothers not availed antenatal care, not received tetanus toxoid, delivered by untrained personnel and where cow-dung was applied to cord stump. Among the causes of infant deaths prematurity or low birth weight was the commonest cause followed by respiratory infections, diarrhoeal diseases and tetanus neonatorum

  7. Maternal milk protects infants against bronchiolitis during the first year of life. Results from an Italian cohort of newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanari, Marcello; Prinelli, Federica; Adorni, Fulvio; Di Santo, Simona; Faldella, Giacomo; Silvestri, Michela; Musicco, Massimo

    2013-06-01

    Bronchiolitis is one of the primary causes of hospitalization in infancy. We evaluated the effect of breastfeeding on the occurrence of hospitalization for bronchiolitis in the first year of life. In a prospective cohort study, 1,814 newborns of =33 weeks of gestational age (wGA) were enrolled in 30 Italian Neonatology Units and followed-up for 1 year to assess hospitalizations for bronchiolitis. Children were grouped as 'never breastfed' and 'ever breastfed'; these latter were further divided into those 'exclusively breastfed' and 'breastfed associated with milk formula'. The risk of hospitalization for bronchiolitis was evaluated with survival analysis, and hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence interval [95% CI] were calculated. Among enrolled newborns 22.9% were 'never breastfed'; in the breastfed group, 65% were 'exclusively breastfed' and 35% were 'breastfed with associated milk formula'. At 12 months of age, the risk of hospitalization for bronchiolitis was significantly higher in the 'never breastfed' group (HR: 1.57; 95% CI: 1.00-2.48). 'Breastfed associated with formula milk' and 'exclusively breastfed' groups were at similar risk of hospitalization for bronchiolitis. This observed protective effect of maternal milk was not explained by the higher prevalence of conditions able to increase the risk of bronchiolitis among 'never breastfed newborns'. Breastfeeding, even in association with formula milk, reduces the risk of hospitalization for bronchiolitis during the first year of life. Encouraging breastfeeding might be an effective/inexpensive measure of prevention of lower respiratory tract infections in infancy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Early skin-to-skin contact between healthy late preterm infants and their parents: an observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyqvist, Kerstin H; Rosenblad, Andreas; Volgsten, Helena; Funkquist, Eva-Lotta; Mattsson, Elisabet

    2017-01-01

    caesarean section ( p  = 0.003), and 1.6 (0.1-3.1) hours longer for infants exclusively breastfed at discharge ( p  = 0.040). During the second day, the mean (95% CI) time of SSC with fathers was 3.0 (0.6-5.4) hours shorter for each additional kg of birthweight ( p  = 0.014), 2.0 (0.5-3.6) hours longer for infants born during night-time ( p  = 0.011), 2.9 (1.4-4.4) hours longer if the mother was primipara ( p  milk feeds were given. None of the other predictors, i.e., mother's age, gestational age, or induction of labor were significantly associated with infants' SSC with mothers or fathers during any of the first two days after birth. Future studies are warranted that investigate duration of SSC between late preterm infants and their parents separately and the associations with breastfeeding and other variables of clinical importance.

  9. Infant Mortality and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Infant Health & Mortality Infant Mortality and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders While the overall ... data for this ethnic group is limited. Infant Mortality Rate Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live ...

  10. Infant Mortality and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... American Indian/Alaska Native > Infant Health & Mortality Infant Mortality and American Indians/Alaska Natives American Indian/Alaska ... as compared to non-Hispanic white mothers. Infant Mortality Rate: Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live ...

  11. Outcomes for Extremely Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Hannah C.; Costarino, Andrew T.; Stayer, Stephen A.; Brett, Claire; Cladis, Franklyn; Davis, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Premature birth is a significant cause of infant and child morbidity and mortality. In the United States, the premature birth rate, which had steadily increased during the 1990s and early 2000s, has decreased annually for four years and is now approximately 11.5%. Human viability, defined as gestational age at which the chance of survival is 50%, is currently approximately 23–24 weeks in developed countries. Infant girls, on average, have better outcomes than infant boys. A relatively uncomplicated course in the intensive care nursery for an extremely premature infant results in a discharge date close to the prenatal EDC. Despite technological advances and efforts of child health experts during the last generation, the extremely premature infant (less than 28 weeks gestation) and extremely low birth weight infant (ELBW) (CPAP, mechanical ventilation, and exogenous surfactant increased survival and spurred the development of neonatal intensive care in the 1970s through the early 1990s. Routine administration of antenatal steroids during premature labor improved neonatal mortality and morbidity in the late 1990s. The recognition that chronic postnatal administration of steroids to infants should be avoided may have improved outcomes in the early 2000s. Evidence from recent trials attempting to define the appropriate target for oxygen saturation in preterm infants suggests arterial oxygen saturation between 91–95% (compared to 85–89%) avoids excess mortality. However, final analyses of data from these trials have not been published, so definitive recommendations are still pending The development of neonatal neurocognitive care visits may improve neurocognitive outcomes in this high-risk group. Long-term follow up to detect and address developmental, learning, behavioral, and social problems is critical for children born at these early gestational ages. The striking similarities in response to extreme prematurity in the lung and brain imply that agents and

  12. Wearable Sensor Systems for Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihua Zhu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Continuous health status monitoring of infants is achieved with the development and fusion of wearable sensing technologies, wireless communication techniques and a low energy-consumption microprocessor with high performance data processing algorithms. As a clinical tool applied in the constant monitoring of physiological parameters of infants, wearable sensor systems for infants are able to transmit the information obtained inside an infant’s body to clinicians or parents. Moreover, such systems with integrated sensors can perceive external threats such as falling or drowning and warn parents immediately. Firstly, the paper reviews some available wearable sensor systems for infants; secondly, we introduce the different modules of the framework in the sensor systems; lastly, the methods and techniques applied in the wearable sensor systems are summarized and discussed. The latest research and achievements have been highlighted in this paper and the meaningful applications in healthcare and behavior analysis are also presented. Moreover, we give a lucid perspective of the development of wearable sensor systems for infants in the future.

  13. Sensorial saturation for infants' pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellieni, Carlo Valerio; Tei, Monica; Coccina, Francesca; Buonocore, Giuseppe

    2012-04-01

    Sensorial saturation (SS) is a multisensorial stimulation consisting of delicate tactile, gustative, auditory and visual stimuli. This procedure consists of simultaneously: attracting the infant's attention by massaging the infant's face; speaking to the infant gently, but firmly, and instilling a sweet solution on the infant's tongue. We performed a systematic Medline search of for articles focusing on human neonatal studies related to SS. The search was performed within the last 10 years and was current as of January 2012. We retrieved 8 articles that used a complete form of SS and 2 articles with an incomplete SS. Data show that the use of SS is effective in relieving newborns' pain. Oral solution alone are less effective than SS, but the stimuli without oral sweet solution are ineffective. the partial forms of SS have some effectiveness, but minor than the complete SS. Only one article showed lack of SS as analgesic method, after endotracheal suctioning. SS can be used for all newborns undergoing blood samples or other minor painful procedures. It is more effective than oral sugar alone. SS also promotes interaction between nurse and infant and is a simple effective form of analgesia for the neonatal intensive care unit.

  14. Excessive crying in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Halpern

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Review the literature on excessive crying in young infants, also known as infantile colic, and its effects on family dynamics, its pathophysiology, and new treatment interventions. Data source: The literature review was carried out in the Medline, PsycINFO, LILACS, SciELO, and Cochrane Library databases, using the terms “excessive crying,” and “infantile colic,” as well technical books and technical reports on child development, selecting the most relevant articles on the subject, with emphasis on recent literature published in the last five years. Summary of the findings: Excessive crying is a common symptom in the first 3 months of life and leads to approximately 20% of pediatric consultations. Different prevalence rates of excessive crying have been reported, ranging from 14% to approximately 30% in infants up to 3 months of age. There is evidence linking excessive crying early in life with adaptive problems in the preschool period, as well as with early weaning, maternal anxiety and depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and other behavioral problems. Several pathophysiological mechanisms can explain these symptoms, such as circadian rhythm alterations, central nervous system immaturity, and alterations in the intestinal microbiota. Several treatment alternatives have been described, including behavioral measures, manipulation techniques, use of medication, and acupuncture, with controversial results and effectiveness. Conclusion: Excessive crying in the early months is a prevalent symptom; the pediatrician's attention is necessary to understand and adequately manage the problem and offer support to exhausted parents. The prescription of drugs of questionable action and with potential side effects is not a recommended treatment, except in extreme situations. The effectiveness of dietary treatments and use of probiotics still require confirmation. There is incomplete evidence regarding alternative treatments

  15. Fully deuterated microorganisms: Tools in magnetic resonance and neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crespi, H.L.

    1988-01-01

    Current work at Argonne emphasizes the use of fully deuterated algae and cyanobacteria as tools in the study of photosynthesis and as a source of complex substrates for the culture of engineered overproducing bacteria. 17 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  16. Measles: Make Sure Your Child Is Fully Immunized

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Measles: Make Sure Your Child is Fully Immunized Language: ... also become infected if they are not protected. Measles in the U.S. From January 2 to March ...

  17. Fully differential cross sections for heavy particle impact ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGovern, M; Walters, H R J [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Queen' s University, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Assafrao, D; Mohallem, J R [Laboratorio de Atomos e Moleculas Especiais, Departamento de Fisica, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, P.O Box 702, 30123-970 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Whelan, Colm T, E-mail: mmcgovern06@qub.ac.u [Department of Physics, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529-0116 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    We describe a procedure for extracting fully differential ionization cross sections from an impact parameter coupled pseudostate treatment of the collision. Some examples from antiproton impact ionization of atomic Hydrogen are given.

  18. Multi-Branch Fully Convolutional Network for Face Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Bai, Yancheng; Ghanem, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Face detection is a fundamental problem in computer vision. It is still a challenging task in unconstrained conditions due to significant variations in scale, pose, expressions, and occlusion. In this paper, we propose a multi-branch fully

  19. Solving Fully Fuzzy Linear System of Equations in General Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yousefzadeh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we propose an approach for computing the positive solution of a fully fuzzy linear system where the coefficient matrix is a fuzzy $nimes n$ matrix. To do this, we use arithmetic operations on fuzzy numbers that introduced by Kaffman in and convert the fully fuzzy linear system into two $nimes n$ and $2nimes 2n$ crisp linear systems. If the solutions of these linear systems don't satisfy in positive fuzzy solution condition, we introduce the constrained least squares problem to obtain optimal fuzzy vector solution by applying the ranking function in given fully fuzzy linear system. Using our proposed method, the fully fuzzy linear system of equations always has a solution. Finally, we illustrate the efficiency of proposed method by solving some numerical examples.

  20. Fully-distributed randomized cooperation in wireless sensor networks

    KAUST Repository

    Bader, Ahmed

    2015-01-07

    When marrying randomized distributed space-time coding (RDSTC) to geographical routing, new performance horizons can be created. In order to reach those horizons however, routing protocols must evolve to operate in a fully distributed fashion. In this letter, we expose a technique to construct a fully distributed geographical routing scheme in conjunction with RDSTC. We then demonstrate the performance gains of this novel scheme by comparing it to one of the prominent classical schemes.