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Sample records for full-scale mechanical prototype

  1. OPAL jet chamber full-scale prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, H M; Hauschild, M; Hartmann, H; Hegerath, A; Boerner, H; Burckhart, H J; Dittmar, M; Hammarstroem, R; Heuer, R D; Mazzone, L

    1986-12-01

    The concept of a jet chamber for the central detector of OPAL was tested with a full scale prototype. The design of this prototype, its mechanical and electrical structure and its support system for high voltage, gas, laser calibration, and readout are described. Operating experience was gathered since summer 1984. The chamber performance in terms of spatial resolution and particle identification capability is given.

  2. OPAL jet chamber full scale prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, H M; Hauschild, M; Hartmann, H; Hegerath, A; Boerner, H; Burckhart, H J; Dittmar, M; Hammarstroem, R; Heuer, R D; Mazzone, L

    1986-12-01

    The concept of a jet chamber for the central detector of OPAL has been tested with a full scale prototype. The design of this prototype, its mechanical and electrical structure and its support system for high voltage, gas, laser calibration and readout are described. Operating experience has been gathered since summer 1984. The chamber performance in terms of spatial resolution and particle identification capability is given.

  3. OPAL jet chamber full scale prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, H M; Hauschild, M; Hartmann, H; Hegerath, A; Boerner, H; Burckhart, H J; Dittmar, M; Hammarstreom, R; Heuer, R D; Mazzone, L

    1986-05-22

    The concept of a jet chamber for the central detector of OPAL has been tested with a full scale prototype. The design of this prototype, its mechanical and electrical structure and its support system for high voltage, gas, laser calibration and readout are described. The operating experience gathered since the summer of 1984 and the chamber performance as measured by its spatial resolution and ability to identify particles are also given.

  4. Mechanical performance of full-scale prototype quadrupole magnets for the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortella, J.M.; Wandesforde, A.; Devred, A.

    1992-08-01

    Six 5-m-long prototype quadrupole magnets have been built and cold-tested at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for the Superconducting Super Collider. Each of the magnets contained instrumentation to monitor the mechanical performance of the magnets during assembly and cold-testing. In addition, the instrumentation was used along with physical measurements as aids during magnet assembly. Quantities measured include coil pressures during assembly, cooldown, and magnet energization; axial thermal contraction of the magnets during cooldown; and axial force transmitted to the magnet end-plates. For the most part, mechanical measurements have proven repeatable and agree well with analysis

  5. Studies of a full-scale mechanical prototype line for the ANTARES neutrino telescope and tests of a prototype instrument for deep-sea acoustic measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ageron, M.; Kooijman, P.

    2007-01-01

    A full-scale mechanical prototype line was deployed to a depth of 2500 m to test the leak tightness of the electronics containers and the pressure-resistant properties of an electromechanical cable under evaluation for use in the ANTARES deep-sea neutrino telescope. During a month-long immersion

  6. Studies of a full-scale mechanical prototype line for the ANTARES neutrino telescope and tests of a prototype instrument for deep-sea acoustic measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ageron, M. [CPPM-Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, CNRS/IN2P3 et Universite de la Mediterranee, 163 Avenue de Luminy, Case 902, 13288 Marseille Cedex 9 (France); Aguilar, J.A. [IFIC-Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Edificios Investigacion de Paterna, CSIC-Universitat de Valencia, Apdo. de Correos 22085, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Albert, A. [GRPHE-Groupe de Recherche en Physique des Hautes Energies, Universite de Haute Alsace, 61 Rue Albert Camus, 68093 Mulhouse Cedex (France); Ameli, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita ' La Sapienza' e Sezione INFN, P.le Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Anghinolfi, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita e Sezione INFN, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Anton, G. [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Physikalisches Institut, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Anvar, S.; Ardellier-Desages, F. [DSM/DAPNIA-Direction des Sciences de la Matiere, Laboratoire de Recherche sur les lois Fondamentales de l' Univers, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Aslanides, E.; Aubert, J.-J. [CPPM-Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, CNRS/IN2P3 et Universite de la Mediterranee, 163 Avenue de Luminy, Case 902, 13288 Marseille Cedex 9 (France); Auer, R. [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Physikalisches Institut, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Barbarito, E. [Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica e Sezione INFN, Via E. Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Basa, S. [LAM-Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille, CNRS/INSU et Universite de Provence, Traverse du Siphon-Les Trois Lucs, BP 8, 13012 Marseille Cedex 12 (France); Battaglieri, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita e Sezione INFN, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Bazzotti, M.; Becherini, Y. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita e Sezione INFN, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy)] (and others)

    2007-11-01

    A full-scale mechanical prototype line was deployed to a depth of 2500 m to test the leak tightness of the electronics containers and the pressure-resistant properties of an electromechanical cable under evaluation for use in the ANTARES deep-sea neutrino telescope. During a month-long immersion study, line parameter data were taken using miniature autonomous data loggers and shore-based optical time domain reflectometry. Details of the mechanical prototype line, the electromechanical cable and data acquisition are presented. Data taken during the immersion study revealed deficiencies in the pressure resistance of the electromechanical cable terminations at the entry points to the electronics containers. The improvements to the termination, which have been integrated into subsequent detection lines, are discussed. The line also allowed deep-sea acoustic measurements with a prototype hydrophone system. The technical setup of this system is described, and the first results of the data analysis are presented.

  7. Studies of a full-scale mechanical prototype line for the ANTARES neutrino telescope and tests of a prototype instrument for deep-sea acoustic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ageron, M.; Aguilar, J.A.; Albert, A.; Ameli, F.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardellier-Desages, F.; Aslanides, E.; Aubert, J.-J.; Auer, R.; Barbarito, E.; Basa, S.; Battaglieri, M.; Bazzotti, M.; Becherini, Y.

    2007-01-01

    A full-scale mechanical prototype line was deployed to a depth of 2500 m to test the leak tightness of the electronics containers and the pressure-resistant properties of an electromechanical cable under evaluation for use in the ANTARES deep-sea neutrino telescope. During a month-long immersion study, line parameter data were taken using miniature autonomous data loggers and shore-based optical time domain reflectometry. Details of the mechanical prototype line, the electromechanical cable and data acquisition are presented. Data taken during the immersion study revealed deficiencies in the pressure resistance of the electromechanical cable terminations at the entry points to the electronics containers. The improvements to the termination, which have been integrated into subsequent detection lines, are discussed. The line also allowed deep-sea acoustic measurements with a prototype hydrophone system. The technical setup of this system is described, and the first results of the data analysis are presented

  8. Metallographic autopsies of full-scale ITER prototype cable-in-conduit conductors after full testing in SULTAN: 1. The mechanical role of copper strands in a CICC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanabria, Carlos; Lee, Peter J; Starch, William; Blum, Timothy; Larbalestier, David C; Devred, Arnaud; Jewell, Matthew C; Pong, Ian; Martovetsky, Nicolai

    2015-01-01

    Cables made with Nb 3 Sn-based superconductor strands will provide the 13 T maximum peak magnetic field of the ITER central solenoid (CS) coils and they must survive up to 60 000 electromagnetic cycles. Accordingly, prototype designs of CS cable-in-conduit-conductors (CICC) were electromagnetically tested over multiple magnetic field cycles and warm-up-cool-down scenarios in the SULTAN facility at CRPP. We report here a post-mortem metallographic analysis of two CS CICC prototypes which exhibited some rate of irreversible performance degradation during cycling. The standard ITER CS CICC cable design uses a combination of superconducting and Cu strands, and because the Lorentz force on the strand is proportional to the transport current in the strand, removing the copper strands (while increasing the Cu:SC ratio of the superconducting strands) was proposed as one way of reducing the strand load. In this study we compare the two alternative CICCs, with and without Cu strands, keeping in mind that the degradation after the SULTAN test was lower for the CICC without Cu strands. The post-mortem metallographic evaluation revealed that the overall strand transverse movement was 20% lower in the CICC without Cu strands and that the tensile filament fractures found were less, both indications of an overall reduction in high tensile strain regions. It was interesting to see that the Cu strands in the mixed cable design (with higher degradation) helped reduce the contact stresses on the high pressure side of the CICC, but in either case, the strain reduction mechanisms were not enough to suppress cyclic degradation. Advantages and disadvantages of each conductor design are discussed here aimed to understand the sources of the degradation. (paper)

  9. Construction and test of a full-scale prototype of an ATLAS muon spectrometer tracking chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biscossa, A.; Cambiaghi, M.; Conta, C.; Ferrari, R.; Fraternali, M.; Freddi, A.; Iuvino, G.; Lanza, A.; Livan, M.; Negri, A.; Polesello, G.; Rimoldi, A.; Vercellati, F.; Vercesi, V.; Bagnaia, P.; Bini, C.; Capradossi, G.; Ciapetti, G.; Creti, P.; De Zorzi, G.; Iannone, M.; Lacava, F.; Mattei, A.; Nisati, L.; Oberson, P.; Pontecorvo, L.; Rosati, S.; Veneziano, S.; Zullo, A.; Daly, C.H.; Davisson, R.; Guldenmann, H.; Lubatti, H.J.; Zhao, T.

    1999-01-01

    We have built a full scale prototype of the precision tracking chambers (Monitored Drift Tubes, MDT) for the muon spectrometer of the Atlas Experiment at the LHC collider. This article describes in detail the procedures used in constructing the drift tubes and in assembling the chamber. It presents data showing that the required mechanical precision has been achieved as well as test beam results displaying the over all chamber performance. The article presents data demonstrating the derivation of the space-time relation of the drift tubes by the autocalibration procedure using real data from the tracks crossing the chamber. Autocalibration is the procedure which must be used during run time

  10. The Belle II DEPFET pixel vertex detector. Development of a full-scale module prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemarenko, Mikhail

    2013-11-01

    The Belle II experiment, which will start after 2015 at the SuperKEKB accelerator in Japan, will focus on the precision measurement of the CP-violation mechanism and on the search for physics beyond the Standard Model. A new detection system with an excellent spatial resolution and capable of coping with considerably increased background is required. To address this challenge, a pixel detector based on DEPFET technology has been proposed. A new all silicon integrated circuit, called Data Handling Processor (DHP), is implemented in 65 nm CMOS technology. It is designed to steer the detector and preprocess the generated data. The scope of this thesis covers DHP tests and optimization as well the development of its test environment, which is the first Full-Scale Module Prototype of the DEPFET Pixel Vertex detector.

  11. The NET articulated boom: Preliminary investigations and justification for a full scale prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suppan, A.

    1990-12-01

    The articulated boom system is the favourite in-vessel handling system for NET which will be used to maintain or replace in-vessel components during short term interventions. The testbed EDITH is the prototype of this system and is the logical step between the proof of principle of the system, which is already performed by the JET articulated boom, and the operational equipment for NET. EDITH is required to demonstrate that maintenance of plasma facing components can be carried out with the anticipated reliability and time. To achieve this aim EDITH is based on the experience of the JET boom and will be constructed in full scale, supplemented by a full scale mock-up. A further goal of EDITH is to allow the testing of boom components and subassemblies. The results of preliminary investigations for the boom are summarized, the need of the testbed EDITH and a full scale mock-up is discussed and both EDITH and the mock-up are described. (orig.) [de

  12. Full-Scale Hollow Fiber Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator Prototype Development and Testing for Advanced Spacesuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bue, Grant; Trevino, Luis; Tsioulos, Gus; Mitchell, Keith; Dillon, Paul; Weaver, Gregg

    2009-01-01

    The spacesuit water membrane evaporator (SWME) is being developed to perform the thermal control function for advanced spacesuits to take advantage of recent advances in micropore membrane technology in providing a robust heat-rejection device that is potentially less sensitive to contamination than is the sublimator. Principles of a sheet membrane SWME design were demonstrated using a prototypic test article that was tested in a vacuum chamber at JSC in July 1999. The Membrana Celgard X50-215 microporous hollow fiber (HoFi) membrane was selected after recent contamination tests as the superior candidate among commercial alternatives for HoFi SWME prototype development. Although a number of design variants were considered, one that grouped the fiber layers into stacks, which were separated by small spaces and packaged into a cylindrical shape, was deemed best for further development. An analysis of test data showed that eight layer stacks of the HoFi sheets that had good exposure on each side of the stack would evaporate water with high efficiency. A design that has 15,000 tubes, with 18 cm of exposed tubes between headers has been built and tested that meets the size, weight, and performance requirements of the SWME. This full-scale prototype consists of 30 stacks, each of which are formed into a chevron shape and separated by spacers and organized into three sectors of ten nested stacks. Testing has been performed to show contamination resistance to the constituents expected to be found in potable water produced by the distillation processes. Other tests showed the sensitivity to surfactants.

  13. Manufacturing and testing of full scale prototype for ITER blanket shield block

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sa-Woong, E-mail: swkim12@nfri.re.kr [ITER Korea, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Duck-Hoi; Jung, Hun-Chea [ITER Korea, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sung-Ki [WONIL Co., Ltd., Haman (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Sung-Chan [POSCO Specialty Steel Co., Ltd., Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Zhang, Fu; Kim, Byoung-Yoon [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Ahn, Hee-Jae; Lee, Hyeon-Gon; Jung, Ki-Jung [ITER Korea, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • 316L(N)-IG forged steel was successfully fabricated and qualified. • Related R&D activities were implemented to resolve the fabrication issues. • SB #8 FSP was successfully manufactured with conventional fabrication techniques. • All of the validation tests were carried out and met the acceptance criteria. - Abstract: Based on the preliminary design of the ITER blanket shield block (SB) #8, the full scale prototype (FSP) has been manufactured and tested in accordance with pre-qualification program, and related R&D was performed to resolve the technical issues of fabrication. The objective of the SB pre-qualification program is to demonstrate the acceptable manufacturing quality by successfully passing the formal test program. 316L(N)-IG stainless steel forging blocks with 1.80L × 1.12W × 0.43t (m) were developed by using an electric arc furnace, and as a result, the material properties were satisfied with technical specification. In the course of applying conventional fabrication techniques such as cutting, milling, drilling and welding of the forged stainless steel block for the manufacturing of the SB #8 FSP, several technical problems have been addressed. And also, the hydraulic connector of cross-forged material re-melted by electro slag or vacuum arc requires the application of advanced joining techniques such as automatic bore TIG and friction welding. Many technical issues – drilling, welding, slitting, non-destructive test and so on – have been raised during manufacturing. Associated R&D including the computational simulation and coupon testing has been done in collaboration with relevant industries in order to resolve these engineering issues. This paper provides technical key issues and their possible resolutions addressed during the manufacture and formal test of the SB #8 FSP, and related R&D.

  14. Tests on full-scale prototypical passive containment condenser for SBWR's application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masoni, P.; Bianchini, G.; Billig, P.F.; Fitch, J.R.; Botti, S.; Cattadori, G.; Silverii, R.

    1995-01-01

    The paper gives a brief description of the experimental program Performance ANalysis and Testing of HEat Removal Systems (PANTHERS) aimed to demonstrate the thermal-hydraulic and structural performance of a full scale prototype of the Passive Containment Cooling (PCC) heat exchanger. Preliminary results of the experimental tests are given. These results show the thermal-hydraulic performance of the heat exchanger as a function of inlet pressure and of the air mass fraction for some steady-state performance tests and for a test in which the water level in the PCC pool is allowed to drop and the PCC tubes to uncover and for a test with non-condensable build-up. The experimental results are very positive and show a very good repeatability. The structural design of the heat exchanger is very robust: the unit has survived ten loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) cycles and more than 100 thermal-hydraulic performance tests. A detailed GE proprietary version of the Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRACG) model of the PANTHERS tests facility was developed and verified solely on the basis of as-designed test facility drawings and engineering judgement. No PANTHERS test data, including shakedown data, was used to guide the development of this model. Using the PANTHERS TRACG model, pre-test calculations of Tests No.15-1 and 23-1 from the Test group 3 of the PANTHERS test matrix were made. The key results from these calculations have been documented in this paper. For comparison, a second set of calculations was made using the simplified PCC representation from the SBWR containment TRACG input model used for containment performance evaluations. The results from the simplified model have been compared with those from the detailed PANTHERS model and with those from the tests; the reasons for the observed differences have been discussed. Given the limitation in the double-blind pre-test calculations, the results are very satisfying for both the heat removal and the total pressure drop

  15. Assembly and maintenance of full scale NIF amplifiers in the amplifier module prototype laboratory (AMPLAB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, J. A.

    1998-01-01

    Mechanical assembly and maintenance of the prototype National Ignition Facility amplifiers in the Amplifier Module Prototype Laboratory (AMPLAB) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory requires specialized equipment designed to manipulate large and delicate amplifier components in a safe and clean manner. Observations made during the operation of this assembly and maintenance equipment in AMPLAB provide design guidance for similar tools being built for the National Ignition Facility. Fixtures used for amplifier frame installation, laser slab and flashlamp cassette assembly, transport, and installation, and in-situ blastshield exchange are presented. Examples include a vacuum slab gripper, slab handling clean crane, slab cassette assembly fixture, sealed transport vehicle for slab cassette movement between the cleanroom and amplifier, slab cassette transfer fixture between the cleanroom and transport vehicle, and equipment needed for frame assembly unit, blastshield, an d flashlamp cassette installation and removal. The use of these tools for amplifier assembly, system reconfiguration, reflector replacement, and recovery from an abnormal occurrence such as a flashlamp explosion is described. Observations are made on the design and operation of these tools and their contribution to the final design

  16. Constor registered full-scale prototype drop test and measuring program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, S.; Diersch, R.; Quercetti, T.

    2004-01-01

    The CONSTOR registered steel-sandwich cask was developed as a cost-effective design by using conventional mechanical engineering technologies and commonly available materials. The CONSTOR registered consists of a cask body with an outer and an inner liner made of steel. At the upper end, the liners are welded to a ring made of forged steel. The space between the two liners is filled with heavy concrete named CONSTORIT for additional gamma and neutron shielding. The CONSTORIT consists of an iron aggregate frame and hardened cement paste. The liners of the cask and the forged head ring form the basis for the structural integrity, the CONSTORIT bears only a menial part of accident loads. The CONSTOR registered concept fulfils both the internationally valid IAEA criteria for transportation and the requirements for long-term intermediate storage in the US and various European countries. Since the beginning of the development of the CONSTOR registered design in the early nineties, two drop test series with half-scale models have already been performed. A full-scale model of a CONSTOR registered V for BWR inventory has been manufactured for the third drop test program starting in 2004, and will be presented in a first 9-meter drop test on the BAM drop test facility at Horstwalde near Berlin during the PATRAM 2004 Symposium. The transport package consists of a cask with a dummy basket, a puncture-resistant jacket and two impact limiters

  17. Beam test results of the first full-scale prototype of CMS RE 1/2 resistive plate chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying Jun; Ban Yong; Ye Yanlin; Cai Jianxin; Qian Sijin; Wang Quanjin; Liu Hongtao

    2005-01-01

    The authors reported the muon beam test results of the first full-scale prototype of CMS RE 1/2 Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC). The bakelite surface is treated using a special technology without oil to make it smooth enough. The full scale RE 1/2 RPC with honeycomb supporting frame is strong and thin enough to be fitted to the limited space of CMS design for the inner Forward RPC. The muon beam test was performed at CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF). The detection efficiency of this full scale RPC prototype is >95% even at very high irradiation background. The time resolution (less than 1.2 ns) and spatial resolution are satisfactory for the muon trigger device in future CMS experiments. The noise rate is also calculated and discussed

  18. Results and analysis of high heat flux tests on a full-scale vertical target prototype of ITER divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Missirlian, M.; Escourbiac, F.; Merola, M.; Bobin-Vastra, I.; Schlosser, J.; Durocher, A.

    2005-01-01

    After an extensive R and D development program, a full-scale divertor target prototype, manufactured with all the main features of the corresponding ITER divertor, was intensively tested in the high heat flux FE200 facility. The prototype consists of four units having a full monoblock geometry. The lower part (CFC armour) and the upper part (W armour) of each monoblock were joined to the solution annealed, quenched and cold worked CuCrZr tube by HIP technique. This paper summarises and analyses the main test results obtained on this prototype

  19. Damping Estimation of a Prototype Bucket Foundation for Offshore Wind Turbines Identified by Full Scale Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Mads; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2013-01-01

    -3.0 MW offshore wind turbine installed on a prototype bucket foundation. The foundation and the turbine tower are equipped with a monitoring system with 15 Kinemetrics force balance accelerometers and a Digitexx acquisition system. Using free vibration decays from “rotor-stop” tests and operational modal...

  20. Resonant Wave Energy Converters: Small-scale field experiments and first full-scale prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arena, Felice; Fiamma, Vincenzo; Iannolo, Roberto; Laface, Valentina; Malara, Giovanni; Romolo, Alessandra; Strati Federica Maria

    2015-01-01

    The Resonant Wave Energy Converter 3 (REWEC3) is a device belonging to the family of Oscillating Water Columns (OWCs), that can convert the energy of incident waves into electrical energy via turbines. In contrast to classical OWCs, it incorporates a small vertical U-shaped duct to connect the water column to the open wave field. This article shows the results of a small-scale field experiment involving a REWEC3 designed for working with a 2 kW turbine. Then, the next experimental activity on a REWEC3 installed in the NOEL laboratory with the collaboration of ENEA, is presented. Finally, the first prototype of ReWEC3 under construction in Civitavecchia (Rome, Italy) is shown. The crucial features of the construction stage are discussed and some initial performances are provided. [it

  1. The DOPAS full scale seal experiment (FSS): An industrial prototype for Cigeo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosgiraud, J.M.; Bourbon, X.; Pineau, F.; Foin, R.

    2015-01-01

    The Full Scale Seal (FSS) Experiment is one of different experiments implemented by ANDRA to demonstrate the technical construction feasibility and assess the performance of the horizontal seals to be built underground, at time of the progressive closure of the French Deep Geological Repository (Cigeo). FSS is built inside a reinforced concrete drift model (at scale 1:1 of a Cigeo drift) constructed for the purpose. The test site location is a warehouse in Saint-Dizier, France. The drift model has a 7.60 m long internal diameter and is 36 m long. Representative underground ambient conditions (temperature and hygrometry) are maintained within the drift during the seal construction operations. The seal per se is made of 3 components: a 14 m long bentonitic swelling core between 2 low pH self-compacting concrete/shotcrete 5 m long containment walls. The low pH self-compacting concrete (SCC) containment wall (some 240 m 3 ) is cast in one continuous pass (to avoid discontinuities), while the low pH shotcrete containment wall (some 240 m 3 ) is applied in multiple layers, with minimum curing time between two layers. The swelling clay core (some 750 m 3 ) is made of a bentonite pulverulent admixture, emplaced by using 2 augers working at a time in a continuous mode (the objective is to obtain a bentonite core as compact and homogeneous as possible before the re-saturation process start-up). On the drift model periphery, polycarbonate windows are provided for observation needs and reservations are integrated to the model structure for monitoring and coring needs. All the work sequences are video-taken and a timetable of operations is established to assess the overall time needed for building a complete seal at Cigeo. The present paper focuses on the construction story of the first low pH SCC containment wall as developed for FSS, the first technical outcomes and on the planned investigations to assess its construction compliance (via monitoring, coring and dismantling

  2. A full-scale prototype for the tracking chambers of the ALICE muon spectrometer. Part II- Electronics. Preamplifier; Read-out prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtat, P.; Charlet, D.; Lebon, S.; Martin, J.M.; Sellem, R.; Wanlin, E. [CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Service d' Electronique Physique; Douet, R.; Harroch, H.; Bimbot, L.; Jouan, D.; Kharmandarian, L.; Le Bornec, Y.; Mac Cormick, M.; Willis, N. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Institut de Physique Nucleaire

    1999-07-01

    A full scale prototype of one module of the first tracking station has already been constructed. It will be equipped with the new read-out electronics proposed for the final chambers. Before integration of the whole chain, tests have been carried out on the individual components in discrete circuit prototypes. The different parts of the chain are described, together with the tests performed. The final version with integrated circuits in then described. (author)

  3. A full-scale prototype for the tracking chambers of the ALICE muon spectrometer. Part II- Electronics. Preamplifier; Read-out prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtat, P.; Charlet, D.; Lebon, S.; Martin, J.M.; Sellem, R.; Wanlin, E.; Douet, R.; Harroch, H.; Bimbot, L.; Jouan, D.; Kharmandarian, L.; Le Bornec, Y.; Mac Cormick, M.; Willis, N.

    1999-01-01

    A full scale prototype of one module of the first tracking station has already been constructed. It will be equipped with the new read-out electronics proposed for the final chambers. Before integration of the whole chain, tests have been carried out on the individual components in discrete circuit prototypes. The different parts of the chain are described, together with the tests performed. The final version with integrated circuits in then described. (author)

  4. Progress of ITER full tungsten divertor technology qualification in Japan: Manufacturing full-scale plasma-facing unit prototypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezato, Koichiro; Suzuki, Satoshi; Seki, Yohji; Yamada, Hirokazu; Hirayama, Tomoyuki; Yokoyama, Kenji; Escourbiac, Frederic; Hirai, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • JADA has demonstrated the feasibility of manufacturing the full-W plasma-facing units (W-PFU). • The surface profiles of the W monoblocks of the W-PFU prototypes on the test frame to mimic the support structure of the ITER OVT were examined by using an optical three-dimensional measurement system. The results show the most W monoblock surface in the target part locates within + 0.25 mm from the CAD data. • The strict profile control with the profile tolerance of ±0.3 mm is imposed on the OVT to prevent the leading edges of the W monoblocks from over-heating. • The present full-scale prototyping demonstrates to satisfy this requirement on the surface profile. • It can be concluded that the technical maturities of JADA and its suppliers are as high as to start series manufacturing the ITER divertor components. - Abstract: Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is in progress for technology demonstration toward Full-tungsten (W) ITER divertor outer vertical target (OVT), especially, W monoblock technology that needs to withstand the repetitive heat load as high as 20 MW/m 2 for 10 s. Under the framework of the W divertor qualification program developed ITER organization, JAEA as Japanese Domestic Agency (JADA) manufactured seven full-scale plasma-facing unit (PFU) prototypes with the Japanese industries. Four prototypes that have 146 W monoblock joint with casted copper (Cu) interlayer passed successfully the ultrasonic testing. In the other three prototypes that have the different W/Cu interlayer joint, joint defects were found. The dimension measurements reveal the requirements of the gap between W monoblocks and the surface profile of PFU are feasible.

  5. Progress of ITER full tungsten divertor technology qualification in Japan: Manufacturing full-scale plasma-facing unit prototypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezato, Koichiro, E-mail: ezato.koichiro@jaea.go.jp [Department of ITER Project, Naka Fusion Institute, Sector of Fusion Research and Development, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan); Suzuki, Satoshi; Seki, Yohji; Yamada, Hirokazu; Hirayama, Tomoyuki; Yokoyama, Kenji [Department of ITER Project, Naka Fusion Institute, Sector of Fusion Research and Development, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan); Escourbiac, Frederic; Hirai, Takeshi [ITER Organization, route de vinon sur Verdon, 13067 St Paul lez Durance (France)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • JADA has demonstrated the feasibility of manufacturing the full-W plasma-facing units (W-PFU). • The surface profiles of the W monoblocks of the W-PFU prototypes on the test frame to mimic the support structure of the ITER OVT were examined by using an optical three-dimensional measurement system. The results show the most W monoblock surface in the target part locates within + 0.25 mm from the CAD data. • The strict profile control with the profile tolerance of ±0.3 mm is imposed on the OVT to prevent the leading edges of the W monoblocks from over-heating. • The present full-scale prototyping demonstrates to satisfy this requirement on the surface profile. • It can be concluded that the technical maturities of JADA and its suppliers are as high as to start series manufacturing the ITER divertor components. - Abstract: Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is in progress for technology demonstration toward Full-tungsten (W) ITER divertor outer vertical target (OVT), especially, W monoblock technology that needs to withstand the repetitive heat load as high as 20 MW/m{sup 2} for 10 s. Under the framework of the W divertor qualification program developed ITER organization, JAEA as Japanese Domestic Agency (JADA) manufactured seven full-scale plasma-facing unit (PFU) prototypes with the Japanese industries. Four prototypes that have 146 W monoblock joint with casted copper (Cu) interlayer passed successfully the ultrasonic testing. In the other three prototypes that have the different W/Cu interlayer joint, joint defects were found. The dimension measurements reveal the requirements of the gap between W monoblocks and the surface profile of PFU are feasible.

  6. Results and analysis of high heat flux tests on a full scale vertical target prototype of ITER divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Missirlian, M.; Escourbiac, F.; Schlosser, J.; Durocher, A.; Bobin-Vastra, I.

    2004-01-01

    After an extensive development program, a Full-Scale Divertor Target prototype (VTFS) manufactured with all the main features of the corresponding ITER divertor, was intensively tested in the high heat flux FE200 facility. The prototype consists of four units having a full mono-block geometry. The lower part (CFC armour) and the upper part (W armour) of each mono-block were joined to the solution annealed, quenched and cold worked CuCrZr tube by HIP technique. The CFC mono-block was successfully tested up to 1000 cycles at 23 MW/m 2 without any indication of failure. This value is well beyond the ITER design target of 300 cycles at 20 MW/m 2 . The W mono-block endured ∼600 cycles at 10 MW/m 2 . This value of flux is one order of magnitude higher than the ITER design target for the upper part of the vertical target. Fatigue damage is observed when pursuing the cycling up to 15 MW/m 2 . A first stress analysis seems to predict these factual results. However, macro-graphic examinations should bring a better damage valuation. Meanwhile, the fatigue testing will continue on the W healthy part of the VTFS prototype with castellation located on the heated surface (reducing the stresses close to the W-Cu interface). (authors)

  7. Results and analysis of high heat flux tests on a full scale vertical target prototype of ITER divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Missirlian, M.; Escourbiac, F.; Schlosser, J.; Durocher, A. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d' Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Merola, M. [EFDA Close Support Unit, Garching (Germany); Bobin-Vastra, I. [Framatome, 71 - Le Creusot (France)

    2004-07-01

    After an extensive development program, a Full-Scale Divertor Target prototype (VTFS) manufactured with all the main features of the corresponding ITER divertor, was intensively tested in the high heat flux FE200 facility. The prototype consists of four units having a full mono-block geometry. The lower part (CFC armour) and the upper part (W armour) of each mono-block were joined to the solution annealed, quenched and cold worked CuCrZr tube by HIP technique. The CFC mono-block was successfully tested up to 1000 cycles at 23 MW/m{sup 2} without any indication of failure. This value is well beyond the ITER design target of 300 cycles at 20 MW/m{sup 2}. The W mono-block endured {approx}600 cycles at 10 MW/m{sup 2}. This value of flux is one order of magnitude higher than the ITER design target for the upper part of the vertical target. Fatigue damage is observed when pursuing the cycling up to 15 MW/m{sup 2}. A first stress analysis seems to predict these factual results. However, macro-graphic examinations should bring a better damage valuation. Meanwhile, the fatigue testing will continue on the W healthy part of the VTFS prototype with castellation located on the heated surface (reducing the stresses close to the W-Cu interface). (authors)

  8. Field measurement of a Fermilab-built full scale prototype quadrupole magnet for the LHC interaction regions

    CERN Document Server

    Bossert, R; Di Marco, J; Fehér, S; Glass, H; Kerby, J S; Lamm, M J; Nobrega, A; Nicol, T H; Ogitsu, T; Orris, D; Page, T; Rabehl, Roger Jon; Sabbi, G L; Schlabach, P; Strait, J B; Sylvester, C D; Tartaglia, M; Tompkins, J C; Velev, G V; Zlobin, A V

    2002-01-01

    Superconducting low-beta quadrupole magnets for the interaction regions of the Large Hadron Collider have been developed by the US- LHC Accelerator Project. These 70 mm bore 5.5 m long quadrupoles are intended to operate in superfluid helium at 1.9 K with a nominal field gradient of 215 T/m. Following a series of 2 m long models, a full scale cryostated cold mass has been fabricated and cold tested at Fermilab. Magnetic field measurements of the prototype, including determination of the field axis using a single stretched wire, have been performed. These measurements and comparisons with results from the model magnets as well as field quality and alignment requirements are reported in this paper. (8 refs).

  9. Submission of the First Full Scale Prototype Chip for Upgraded ATLAS Pixel Detector at LHC, FE-I4A

    CERN Document Server

    Barbero, M; The ATLAS collaboration; Beccherle, R; Darbo, G; Dube, S; Elledge, D; Fleury, J; Fougeron, D; Garcia-Sciveres, M; Gensolen, F; Gnani, D; Gromov, V; Jensen, F; Hemperek, T; Karagounis, M; Kluit, R; Kruth, A; Mekkaoui, A; Menouni, M; Schipper, JD; Wermes, N; Zivkovic, V

    2010-01-01

    A new ATLAS pixel chip FE-I4 is being developed for use in upgraded LHC luminosity environments, including the near-term Insertable B-Layer (IBL) upgrade. FE-I4 is designed in a 130nm CMOS technology, presenting advantages in terms of radiation tolerance and digital logic density compared to the 250nm CMOS technology used for the current ATLAS pixel IC, FE-I3. The FE-I4 architecture is based on an array of 80x336 pixels, each 50x250um^2, consisting of analog and digital sections. In the summer 2010, a first full scale prototype FE-I4A was submitted for an engineering run. This IC features the full scale pixel array as well as the complex periphery of the future full-size FE-I4. The FE-I4A contains also various extra test features which should prove very useful for the chip characterization, but deviate from the needs for standard operation of the final FE-I4 for IBL. In this paper, focus will be brought to the various features implemented in the FE-I4A submission, while also underlining the main differences b...

  10. Test results on the long models and full scale prototypes of the second generation LHC arc dipoles

    CERN Document Server

    Billan, J; Bottura, L; Leroy, D; Pagano, O; Perin, R; Perini, D; Savary, F; Siemko, A; Sievers, P; Spigo, G; Vlogaert, J; Walckiers, L; Wyss, C; Rossi, L

    1999-01-01

    With the test of the first full scale prototype in June-July 1998, the R&D on the long superconducting dipoles based on the LHC design of 1993-95 has come to an end. This second generation of long magnets has a 56 mm coil aperture, is wound with 15 mm wide cable arranged in a 5 coil block layout. The series includes four 10 m long model dipoles, whose coils have been wound and collared in industry and the cold mass assembled and cryostated at CERN, as well as one 15 m long dipole prototype, manufactured totally in industry in the framework of a CERN-INFN collaboration for the LHC. After a brief description of particular features of the design and of the manufacturing, test results are reported and compared with the expectations. One magnet reached the record field for long model dipoles of 9.8 T but results have not been well reproducible from magnet to magnet. Guidelines for modifications that will appear in the next generation of long magnets, based on a six block coil design, are indicated in the concl...

  11. Full-scale prototyping of the Hitachi dual-purpose metal cask and verification of its heat transfer characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, N.; Ishida, N.; Ootsuka, M.; Kamoshida, M.; Hiranuma, T.; Doumori, S.; Hoshikawa, T.; Shimizu, M.; Kashiwakura, J.; Hayashi, M.

    2004-01-01

    Hitachi has been developing dual-purpose metal casks for transport and storage of spent nuclear fuels. The Hitachi cask, HDP69B can store 69 BWR fuel assemblies. The cask features are as follows. 1) The fuel basket is assembled mainly with plates of borated stainless steel. The plates are not welded, but cross-inserted into each other like the dividers in an egg carton. Since the borated stainless steel has relatively low heat conductivity, aluminum alloy plates are inserted along with some stainless steel plates to enhance heat removal ability. 2) Cured resin blocks are fitted into the inner shell of the cask for neutron shielding of the cask body. The resin blocks are surrounded by an aluminum casing which transfers heat of stored fuel from the inner shell to the outer shell of the cask. The block type shield structure eliminates the need for welding the heat transfer fins to the inner and outer shells. The weldless structures of the HDP69B lead to its enhanced manufacturability, but they complicate the heat transfer characteristics because there are gaps between such components as the aluminum casing and inner/outer shells. We carried out full-scale prototyping of the HDP69B and ran a heat transfer test using the prototype. The purposes of the heat transfer test were to check the heat removal ability of the HDP69B and to verify the safety analysis model for heat removal. Results of the heat transfer test and optimized analysis model for heat transfer characteristics of the HDP69B are the focus of this paper. The heat transfer test is summarized as follows. Sixty nine heaters simulating the shape and heat power of spent fuel assemblies were inserted into the fuel basket. After replacing the inner atmosphere with 0.1 MPa of helium, the heat transfer test was started. About 7 days were required to equilibrate the temperature distribution. The temperature at the center of the basket was 194 C. The results confirmed the HDP69B had sufficient heat removal ability. The

  12. Mechanical Pretreatment to Increase the Bioenergy Yield for Full-scale Biogas Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsapekos, Panagiotis; Kougias, Panagiotis; Angelidaki, Irini

    % compared to the untreated one. The digestion of meadow grass as an alternative co-substrate had positive impact on the energy yield of full-scale biogas reactors operating with cattle manure, pig manure or mixture of both. A preliminary analysis showed that the addition of meadow grass in a manure based...... biogas reactor was possible with biomass share of 10%, leading to energy production of 280 GJ/day. The digestion of pretreated meadow grass as alternative co-substrate had clearly positive impact in all the examined scenarios, leading to increased biogas production in the range of 10%-20%.......This study investigated the efficiency of commercially available harvesting machines for mechanical pretreatment of meadow grass, in order to enhance the energy yield per hectare. Excoriator was shown to be the most efficient mechanical pretreatment increasing the biogas yield of grass by 16...

  13. A Theoretical Investigation of Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel (COPV) Mechanics Applied to NASA Full Scale Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thesken, John C.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Phoenix, S. L.; Greene, N.; Palko, Joseph L.; Eldridge, Jeffrey; Sutter, James; Saulsberry, R.; Beeson, H.

    2009-01-01

    A theoretical investigation of the factors controlling the stress rupture life of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs) continues. Kevlar (DuPont) fiber overwrapped tanks are of particular concern due to their long usage and the poorly understood stress rupture process in Kevlar filaments. Existing long term data show that the rupture process is a function of stress, temperature and time. However due to the presence of a load sharing liner, the manufacturing induced residual stresses and the complex mechanical response, the state of actual fiber stress in flight hardware and test articles is not clearly known. This paper is a companion to a previously reported experimental investigation and develops a theoretical framework necessary to design full-scale pathfinder experiments and accurately interpret the experimentally observed deformation and failure mechanisms leading up to static burst in COPVs. The fundamental mechanical response of COPVs is described using linear elasticity and thin shell theory and discussed in comparison to existing experimental observations. These comparisons reveal discrepancies between physical data and the current analytical results and suggest that the vessel s residual stress state and the spatial stress distribution as a function of pressure may be completely different from predictions based upon existing linear elastic analyses. The 3D elasticity of transversely isotropic spherical shells demonstrates that an overly compliant transverse stiffness relative to membrane stiffness can account for some of this by shifting a thin shell problem well into the realm of thick shell response. The use of calibration procedures are demonstrated as calibrated thin shell model results and finite element results are shown to be in good agreement with the experimental results. The successes reported here have lead to continuing work with full scale testing of larger NASA COPV

  14. Evaluation of Thermal and Thermo-mechanical Behavior of Full-scale Energy Foundations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kyle D.

    This study focuses on the thermo-mechanical and thermal behavior of full-scale energy foundations installed as part of two buildings recently constructed in Colorado. The soil stratigraphy at each of the sites differed, but both foundations were expected to function as primarily end-bearing elements with a tip socketed into rock. The heat exchanger configurations were also different amongst the foundations at both sites, permitting evaluation of the role of heat exchange. A common thread for both energy foundation case histories was the monitoring of the temperature and axial strain within the foundations during heat exchange operations. The first case study involves an evaluation of the long-term thermo-mechanical response of two full-scale energy foundations installed at the new Denver Housing Authority (DHA) Senior Living Facility at 1099 Osage St. in Denver, Colorado. Due to the construction schedule for this project, the thermal properties of the foundations and surrounding subsurface could not be assessed using thermal response tests. However, instrumentation was incorporated into the foundations to assess their long-term heat exchange response as well as the thermo-mechanical strains, stresses, and displacements that occurred during construction and operation of the ground-source heat pump system. The temperature changes within the foundations during heating and cooling operations over a period of approximately 600 days ranged from 9 to 32 °C, respectively. The thermal axial stresses in the foundations were calculated from the measured strains, and ranged from 3.1 MPa during heating to --1.0 MPa during cooling. These values are within reasonable limits for reinforced concrete structures. The maximum thermal axial stress was observed near the toe of both foundations, which is consistent with trends expected for end-bearing toe boundary conditions. The greatest thermal axial strains were observed near the top of the foundations (upward expansion during

  15. Fluid mechanics of dynamic stall. II - Prediction of full scale characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, L. E.; Reding, J. P.

    1988-01-01

    Analytical extrapolations are made from experimental subscale dynamics to predict full scale characteristics of dynamic stall. The method proceeds by establishing analytic relationships between dynamic and static aerodynamic characteristics induced by viscous flow effects. The method is then validated by predicting dynamic test results on the basis of corresponding static test data obtained at the same subscale flow conditions, and the effect of Reynolds number on the static aerodynamic characteristics are determined from subscale to full scale flow conditions.

  16. Performance tests of a full scale prototype of the Belle II TOP counter with cosmic muons and 2.1 GeV/c positron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, Tomokatsu

    2014-12-01

    A time-of-propagation detector named TOP is a hadronic particle identification system for the Belle II experiment. We have produced a full scale prototype of the Belle II TOP counter and tested with cosmic muons at KEK and the 2.1 GeV/c positrons at SPring-8 LEPS beamline. The procedures for the quartz acceptance test and assembly worked well and the first quartz radiator was successfully fabricated. The obtained test data shows good agreement with Monte Carlo expectation. - Highlights: • We have successfully produced a full scale prototype of the Belle II TOP counter. • The prototype counter has been tested at KEK and SPring-8 LEPS beamline. • The obtained test data shows good agreement with Monte Carlo expectation.

  17. Single and two-phase similarity analysis of a reduced-scale natural convection loop relative to a full-scale prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botelho, David A.; Faccini, Jose L.H.

    2002-01-01

    The main topic in this paper is a new device being considered to improve nuclear reactor safety employing the natural circulation. A scaled experiment used to demonstrate the performance of the device is also described. We also applied a similarity analysis method for single and two-phase natural convection loop flow to the IEN CCN experiment and to an APEX like experiment to verify the degree of similarity relative to a full-scale prototype like the AP600. Most of the CCN similarity numbers that represent important single and two-phase similarity conditions are comparable to the APEX like loop non-dimensional numbers calculated employing the same methodology. Despite the much smaller geometric, pressure, and power scales, we conclude that the IEN CCN has single and two-phase natural circulation similarity numbers that represent fairly well the full-scale prototype. even lacking most complementary primary and safety systems, this IEN circuit provided a much valid experience to develop human, experimental, and analytical resources, besides its utilization as a training tool. (author)

  18. Full-scale test on coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical processes in engineered barrier system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moro, Yoshiji; Fujita, Tomoo; Kanno, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Akira.

    1994-01-01

    On dynamic behavior within artificial barrier in ground layer disposal of high level radioactive wastes, some phenomena such as exotherm from the wastes, penetration of groundwater from surrounding base rock, swelling pressure formation of buffer material due to penetration of groundwater, ground pressure change of the surrounding base rock, and so forth are supposed to affect each other. It is one of important problems from a viewpoint of elucidation of near field environment in the property evaluation study to evaluate such thermo-hydro-mechanical coupled phenomena. As results of the investigation from such reason and its application to actual test in accompany with execution of heating and water inserting test in the Big-Ben (Big-Bentonite facility), the following informations were obtained: (1) In heating and water inserting test, data on temperature distribution, water content ratio distribution and swelling pressure of each portion for 5 months could be obtained. (2) water migration due to water slope was divided to migrations due to steam and liquid water, of which models were made according to Fick and Darcy laws, respectively. (3) As a simulation of water migration, water diffusion coefficient due to temperature slope could be expressed almost by a model with nonlinearity to temperature. (G.K.)

  19. Proposal for a Full-Scale Prototype Single-Phase Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber and Detector Beam Test at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Kutter, T

    2015-01-01

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) will use a large liquid argon (LAr) detector to measure the CP violating phase, determine the neutrino mass hier- archy and perform precision tests of the three-flavor paradigm in long-baseline neutrino oscillations. The detector will consist of four modules each with a fiducial mass of 10 kt of LAr and due to its unprecedented size will allow sensitive searches for proton decay and the detection and measurement of electron neutrinos from core collapse supernovae [1]. The first 10 kt module will use single-phase LAr detection technique and be itself modular in design. The successful manufacturing, installation and operation of several full-scale detector components in a suitable configuration represents a critical engineering milestone prior to the construction and operation of the first full 10 kt DUNE detector module at the SURF underground site. A charged particle beam test of a prototype detector will provide critical calibration measurements as well as inva...

  20. Engineering design and prototype development of a full scale ultrasound system for virgin olive oil by means of numerical and experimental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clodoveo, Maria Lisa; Moramarco, Vito; Paduano, Antonello; Sacchi, Raffaele; Di Palmo, Tiziana; Crupi, Pasquale; Corbo, Filomena; Pesce, Vito; Distaso, Elia; Tamburrano, Paolo; Amirante, Riccardo

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the virgin olive oil extraction process is mainly to obtain the best quality oil from fruits, by only applying mechanical actions while guaranteeing the highest overall efficiency. Currently, the mechanical methods used to extract virgin oils from olives are basically of two types: the discontinuous system (obsolete) and the continuous one. Anyway the system defined as "continuous" is composed of several steps which are not all completely continuous, due to the presence of the malaxer, a device that works in batch. The aim of the paper was to design, realize and test the first full scale sono-exchanger for the virgin olive oil industry, to be placed immediately after the crusher and before the malaxer. The innovative device is mainly composed of a triple concentric pipe heat exchanger combined with three ultrasound probes. This mechanical solution allows both the cell walls (which release the oil droplets) along with the minor compounds to be destroyed more effectively and the heat exchange between the olive paste and the process water to be accelerated. This strategy represents the first step towards the transformation of the malaxing step from a batch operation into a real continuous process, thus improving the working capacity of the industrial plants. Considering the heterogeneity of the olive paste, which is composed of different tissues, the design of the sono-exchanger required a thorough fluid dynamic analysis. The thermal effects of the sono-exchanger were monitored by measuring the temperature of the product at the inlet and the outlet of the device; in addition, the measurement of the pigments concentration in the product allowed monitoring the mechanical effects of the sono-exchanger. The effects of the innovative process were also evaluated in terms of extra virgin olive oil yields and quality, evaluating the main legal parameters, the polyphenol and tocopherol content. Moreover, the activity of the polyphenol oxidase enzyme in the olive

  1. Fundamental Research on Percussion Drilling: Improved rock mechanics analysis, advanced simulation technology, and full-scale laboratory investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael S. Bruno

    2005-12-31

    This report summarizes the research efforts on the DOE supported research project Percussion Drilling (DE-FC26-03NT41999), which is to significantly advance the fundamental understandings of the physical mechanisms involved in combined percussion and rotary drilling, and thereby facilitate more efficient and lower cost drilling and exploration of hard-rock reservoirs. The project has been divided into multiple tasks: literature reviews, analytical and numerical modeling, full scale laboratory testing and model validation, and final report delivery. Literature reviews document the history, pros and cons, and rock failure physics of percussion drilling in oil and gas industries. Based on the current understandings, a conceptual drilling model is proposed for modeling efforts. Both analytical and numerical approaches are deployed to investigate drilling processes such as drillbit penetration with compression, rotation and percussion, rock response with stress propagation, damage accumulation and failure, and debris transportation inside the annulus after disintegrated from rock. For rock mechanics modeling, a dynamic numerical tool has been developed to describe rock damage and failure, including rock crushing by compressive bit load, rock fracturing by both shearing and tensile forces, and rock weakening by repetitive compression-tension loading. Besides multiple failure criteria, the tool also includes a damping algorithm to dissipate oscillation energy and a fatigue/damage algorithm to update rock properties during each impact. From the model, Rate of Penetration (ROP) and rock failure history can be estimated. For cuttings transport in annulus, a 3D numerical particle flowing model has been developed with aid of analytical approaches. The tool can simulate cuttings movement at particle scale under laminar or turbulent fluid flow conditions and evaluate the efficiency of cutting removal. To calibrate the modeling efforts, a series of full-scale fluid hammer

  2. Pseudodynamic tests on a full-scale 3-storey precast concrete building: Behavior of the mechanical connections and floor diaphragms

    OpenAIRE

    Bournas, Dionysios A.; Negro, Paolo; Molina, Francisco J.

    2013-01-01

    A full-scale three-storey precast building was tested under seismic conditions at the European Laboratory for Structural Assessment in the framework of the SAFECAST project. The unique research opportunity of testing a complete structural system was exploited to the maximum extent by subjecting the structure to a series of pseudodynamic (PsD) tests and by using four different structural layouts of the same mock-up, while 160 sensors were used to monitor the global and local response of each l...

  3. arXiv Performance of a full scale prototype detector at the BR2 reactor for the SoLid experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, Y.; Arnold, L.; Ban, G.; Beaumont, W.; Bongrand, M.; Boursette, D.; Castle, B.C.; Clark, K.; Coupé, B.; Cussans, D.; De Roeck, A.; D'Hondt, J.; Durand, D.; Fallot, M.; Ghys, L.; Giot, L.; Guillon, B.; Ihantola, S.; Janssen, X.; Kalcheva, S.; Kalousis, L.N.; Koonen, E.; Labare, M.; Lehaut, G.; Manzanillas, L.; Mermans, J.; Michiels, I.; Moortgat, C.; Newbold, D.; Park, J.; Pestel, V.; Petridis, K.; Piñera, I.; Pommery, G.; Popescu, L.; Pronost, G.; Rademacker, J.; Ryckbosch, D.; Ryder, N.; Saunders, D.; Schune, M.-H.; Simard, L.; Vacheret, A.; Van Dyck, S.; Van Mulders, P.; van Remortel, N.; Vercaemer, S.; Verstraeten, M.; Weber, A.; Yermia, F.

    2018-05-03

    The SoLid collaboration has developed a new detector technology to detect electron anti-neutrinos at close proximity to the Belgian BR2 reactor at surface level. A 288 kg prototype detector was deployed in 2015 and collected data during the operational period of the reactor and during reactor shut-down. Dedicated calibration campaigns were also performed with gamma and neutron sources. This paper describes the construction of the prototype detector with a high control on its proton content and the stability of its operation over a period of several months after deployment at the BR2 reactor site. All detector cells provide sufficient light yields to achieve a target energy resolution of better than 20%/√E(MeV). The capability of the detector to track muons is exploited to equalize the light response of a large number of channels to a precision of 3% and to demonstrate the stability of the energy scale over time. Particle identification based on pulse-shape discrimination is demonstrated with calibration so...

  4. Full-scale demonstration of treatment of mechanically separated organic residue in a bioreactor at VAM in Wijster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonk, H.; Woelders, H.

    1999-01-01

    At the VAM waste treatment company in Wijster a demonstration is in progress of bioreactor technology for the treatment of mechanically separated organic residue (MSOR) of a waste separation plant. This bioreactor is an in situ fermentation cell in which physical, chemical and biological processes

  5. Role of field testing and shaking table test on full scale structure for NPP seismic-safety, and its relation to computational mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Heki

    1988-01-01

    Field testing on the dynamic behavior of actual structures is significant for the seismic safety of nuclear power plants. For their mechanical components and piping systems, the full scale testings are also important as well as the in-situ test of buildings. In general, it is often observed that they don't behave as that of analytical model for the design. This article tries to discuss how such discrepancy is occurring, and how to overcome it. (author)

  6. Role of field testing and shaking table test on full scale structure for NPP seismic-safety, and its relation to computational mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Heki [Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo (Japan)

    1988-07-01

    Field testing on the dynamic behavior of actual structures is significant for the seismic safety of nuclear power plants. For their mechanical components and piping systems, the full scale testings are also important as well as the in-situ test of buildings. In general, it is often observed that they don't behave as that of analytical model for the design. This article tries to discuss how such discrepancy is occurring, and how to overcome it. (author)

  7. Mechanical Prototyping and Manufacturing Internship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenfell, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The internship was located at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Innovation Design Center (IDC), which is a facility where the JSC workforce can meet and conduct hands-on innovative design, fabrication, evaluation, and testing of ideas and concepts relevant to NASA's mission. The tasks of the internship included mechanical prototyping design and manufacturing projects in service of research and development as well as assisting the users of the IDC in completing their manufacturing projects. The first project was to manufacture hatch mechanisms for a team in the Systems Engineering and Project Advancement Program (SETMAP) hexacopter competition. These mechanisms were intended to improve the performance of the servomotors and offer an access point that would also seal to prevent cross-contamination. I also assisted other teams as they were constructing and modifying their hexacopters. The success of this competition demonstrated a proof of concept for aerial reconnaissance and sample return to be potentially used in future NASA missions. I also worked with Dr. Kumar Krishen to prototype an improved thermos and a novel, portable solar array. Computer-aided design (CAD) software was used to model the parts for both of these projects. Then, 3D printing as well as conventional techniques were used to produce the parts. These prototypes were then subjected to trials to determine the success of the designs. The solar array is intended to work in a cluster that is easy to set up and take down and doesn't require powered servomechanisms. It could be used terrestrially in areas not serviced by power grids. Both projects improve planetary exploration capabilities to future astronauts. Other projects included manufacturing custom rail brackets for EG-2, assisting engineers working on underwater instrument and tool cases for the NEEMO project, and helping to create mock-up parts for Space Center Houston. The use of the IDC enabled efficient completion of these projects at

  8. A Comparative Study on the Formation Mechanism of Wear Scars during the Partial and Full Scale Fretting Wear Tests of Spacer Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Ho; Shin, Chang Hwan; Oh, Dong Seok; Kang, Heung Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    traces without considering flow field effects. So, in this study, fretting wear tests of nuclear fuel rod with partial and full scale spacer girds have been performed to compare the morphology of wear scars at each test condition and to verify the flow field effect on the variation of fretting wear mechanism

  9. A Comparative Study on the Formation Mechanism of Wear Scars during the Partial and Full Scale Fretting Wear Tests of Spacer Grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Ho; Shin, Chang Hwan; Oh, Dong Seok; Kang, Heung Seok

    2012-01-01

    traces without considering flow field effects. So, in this study, fretting wear tests of nuclear fuel rod with partial and full scale spacer girds have been performed to compare the morphology of wear scars at each test condition and to verify the flow field effect on the variation of fretting wear mechanism

  10. NIF/LMJ prototype amplifier mechanical design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, J.

    1996-10-01

    Amplifier prototypes for the National Ignition Facility and the Laser Megajoule will be tested at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The prototype amplifier, which is an ensemble of modules from LLNL and Centre d'Etudes de Limeil-Valenton, is cassette-based with bottom access for maintenance. A sealed maintenance transfer vehicle which moves optical cassettes between the amplifier and the assembly cleanroom, and a vacuum gripper which holds laser slabs during cassette assembly will also be tested. The prototype amplifier will be used to verify amplifier optical performance, thermal recovery time, and cleanliness of mechanical operations

  11. Metallographic autopsies of full-scale ITER prototype cable-in-conduit conductors after full cyclic testing in SULTAN: II. Significant reduction of strand movement and strand damage in short twist pitch CICCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanabria, Carlos; Lee, Peter J; Starch, William; Larbalestier, David C; Devred, Arnaud

    2015-01-01

    Prototype cable-in-conduit-conductors (CICCs) destined for use in the toroidal field and central solenoid coils of the ITER experimental fusion reactor underwent severe cyclic loading in the SULTAN facility. Their autopsies revealed significant and permanent transverse strand migration due to the large Lorentz forces of the SULTAN test. The movement resulted in a 3%–7% void fraction increase on the low pressure (LP) side of the longer twist pitch CICCs. However, short twist pitch conductors exhibited less than 1% void fraction increase in the LP side, as well as a complete absence of the Nb 3 Sn filament fractures observed in the longer twist pitch conductors. We report here a detailed strand-to-cable analysis of short and longer ‘baseline’ twist pitch CICCs. It was found that the use of internal tin (IT) strands in the longer ‘baseline’ twist pitch CICCs can be beneficial possibly because of their superior stiffness—which better resist strand movement—while the use of bronze process strands showed more movement and poorer cyclic test performance. This was not the case for the short twist pitch CICC. Such conductor design seems to work well with both strand types. But it was found that despite the absence of filament fractures, the short twist pitch CICC made from the IT strands studied here developed severe strand distortion during cabling which resulted in diffusion barrier breaks and Sn contamination of the Cu stabilizer during the heat treatment. Conversely, the short twist pitch CICC made from bronze process strands preserved diffusion barrier integrity. (paper)

  12. Why Online Education Will Attain Full Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sener, John

    2010-01-01

    Online higher education has attained scale and is poised to take the next step in its growth. Although significant obstacles to a full scale adoption of online education remain, we will see full scale adoption of online higher education within the next five to ten years. Practically all higher education students will experience online education in…

  13. Performance evaluation of prototype mechanical cassava harvester ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Large-scale cassava harvesting, especially during the dry season, is a major constraint to its industrial demand and commercial production. Manual harvesting is slow and ... Results from field trials showed prototype harvesters weighing 268 – 310 kg can achieve optimum performance on ridged landforms. When harvested ...

  14. Strontium Removal: Full-Scale Ohio Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this presentation are to present a brief overview of past bench-scale research to evaluate the impact lime softening on strontium removal from drinking water and present full-scale drinking water treatment studies to impact of lime softening and ion exchange sof...

  15. Full scale solvent extraction remedial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cash, A.B.

    1992-01-01

    Sevenson Extraction Technology, Inc. has completed the development of the Soil Restoration Unit (initially developed by Terra-Kleen Corporation), a mobile, totally enclosed solvent extraction treatment facility for the removal of organic contaminated media is greater by a closed loop, counter current process that recycles all solvents. The solvents used are selected for the individual site dependant upon the contaminants, such as PCB's, oil, etc. and the soil conditions. A mixture of up to fourteen non-toxic solvents can be used for complicated sites. The full scale unit has been used to treat one superfund site, the Traband Site in Tulsa, Oklahoma, and is currently treating another superfund site, the Pinette's Salvage Yard Site in Washburn, Maine. The full scale Soil Restoration Unit has also been used at a non-superfund site, as part of a TSCA Research and Development permit. The results from these sites will be discussed in brief herein, and in more detail in the full paper

  16. Full-scale aircraft tire pressure tests

    OpenAIRE

    FABRE, C; BALAY, Jean Maurice; LERAT, P; MAZARS, A

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an outdoor full-scale test planned to improve experimental and theoretical knowledge related to the effects of aircraft internal tire inflation pressure on the behavior and damage of flexible pavement. Since modern aircraft can have tire pressures greater than 15 bar, the tests will focus on pressures from 15 bar to 17.5 bar. The experimental pavement located on the Toulouse-Blagnac airport in France will include up to seven al different test sections, representative of c...

  17. Full-scale aicraft tire pressure tests

    OpenAIRE

    FABRE, C; BALAY, Jean Maurice; LERAT, P; MAZARS, A

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an outdoor full-scale test planned to improve experimental and theoretical knowledge related to the effects of aircraft internal tire inflation pressure on the behavior and damage of flexible pavement. Since modern aircraft can have tire pressures greater than 15 bar, the tests focus on pressures from 15 to 17.5 bar. The experimental pavement located on the Toulouse-Blagnac airport in France will include up to seven al different test sections, representative of current ai...

  18. Pelamis wave energy converter. Verification of full-scale control using a 7th scale model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The Pelamis Wave Energy Converter is a new concept for converting wave energy for several applications including generation of electric power. The machine is flexibly moored and swings to meet the water waves head-on. The system is semi-submerged and consists of cylindrical sections linked by hinges. The mechanical operation is described in outline. A one-seventh scale model was built and tested and the outcome was sufficiently successful to warrant the building of a full-scale prototype. In addition, a one-twentieth scale model was built and has contributed much to the research programme. The work is supported financially by the DTI.

  19. ARKTOS full-scale evacuation tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seligman, B.; Hatfield, P. [ARKTOS Developments Ltd., Surrey, BC (Canada); Bercha, F. [Bercha Group, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-09-15

    The ARKTOS amphibious vehicle can be used for evacuation operations in both open water and ice conditions. It is approved as an evacuation system by various regulators, such as the United States Coast Guard, and is operational in several marine cold regions as an escape, evacuation, and rescue (EER) system. An EER research project was performed in 2006 that provided a general reliability evaluation of the ARKTOS system. However, the project did not have the benefit of detailed full-scale tests in order to validate the associated computer model in drill or non-life threatening evacuation conditions. This paper described a follow-up set of full-scale evacuation tests designed to provide more detailed information and validation data for the reliability that the computer model described in the 2006 research project. A description and photographic illustrations of the ARKTOS system were presented. The tests and subsequent analyses were described. Specifically, the paper described the observations, and presented the statistical results from the data collected, and compared observed results with predicted results of a probabilistic EER simulation computer model. Conclusions and recommendations for reliability improvements were also provided. It was concluded that under the benign conditions, the drill performance was satisfactory in all aspects, both in the evacuation activities and the rescue or de-boarding activities. 3 refs., 1 tab., 17 figs.

  20. Full-scale load tests of Pearl-Chain arches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halding, Philip Skov; Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup

    2017-01-01

    -Decks: First an investigation of the system’s elastic response (maximum load of 648kN), and second a demonstration of its collapse mechanism and ultimate capacity (maximum load of 970kN). The full-scale test showed formation of plastic hinges and clear warning signs are observed at 84% of the failure load......A full-scale load test is made of two Pearl-Chain (PC) concrete arches in order to evaluate the structural response and assess the design safety. Pearl-Chain structures and Pearl-Chain arches are invented and patented at the Technical University of Denmark. PC-Arches consist of specially designed....... The ultimate, experimental load capacity is 14% higher than the calculated mainly due to the assumed static system used for the calculation. In addition to the full-scale test bridge the first ever permanent PC-Bridge is erected in Denmark in 2015....

  1. Full Scale Experiment with Interactive Urban Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Esben Skouboe; Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Jensen, Ole B.

    2012-01-01

    and region of occupancy of persons in the town square were monitored in real time by computer vision analyses of thermal images from 3 cameras monitoring the twin square. The results of the computer vision analyses were used to control the illumination from 16 3.5 meter high RGB LED Lamps that were......This paper presents and discusses the results of a full-scale interactive urban illumination experiment. The experiment investigates how human motion intensities can be used as input for controlling the illumination of a town square in the city of Aalborg in Denmark. The trajectory, velocity...... distributed across the square in an irregular grid. The lamps were DMX controlled. Using architectural models as sketching tools, 4 different illumination designs were developed and tested for a week in January. The result shows that in general people immersed in the square did not notice that the light...

  2. Full scale turbine-missile casing exit tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, H.R.; Schamaun, J.T.; Sliter, G.E.

    1979-01-01

    Two full-scale tests have simulated the impact of a fragment from a failed turbine disk upon the steel casing of a low-pressure steam turbine with the objective of providing data for making more realistic assessments of turbine missile effects for nuclear power plant designers. Data were obtained on both the energy-absorbing mechanisms of the impact process and the post-impact trajectory of the fragment. (orig.)

  3. Eight plane IPND [Integration Prototype Near Detector] mechanical testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, A.; Guarino, V.; Wood, K.; Nephew, T.; Ayres, D.

    2008-01-01

    A mechanical test of an 8 plane IPND mechanical prototype, which was constructed using extrusions from the testing/tryout of the 16 cell prototype extrusion die in Argonne National Laboratory, was conducted. There were 4 vertical and 4 horizontal planes in this 8 plane IPND prototype. Each vertical plane had four 16 cell extrusions, while each horizontal plane had six 16 cell extrusions. Each plane was glued together using the formulation of Devcon adhesive, Devcon 60. The vertical extrusions used in the vertical planes shares the same dimensions as the horizontal extrusions in the horizontal planes with the average web thickness of 2.1 mm and the average wall thickness of 3.1 mm. This mechanical prototype was constructed with end-seals on the both ends of the vertical extrusions. The gaps were filled with epoxy between extrusions and end-seals. The overall dimension of IPND is 154.8 by 103.1 by 21.7 inches with the weight of approximately 1200 kg, as shown in a figure. Two similar mechanical tests of 3 layer and 11 layer prototypes have been done in order to evaluate the strength of the adhesive joint between extrusions in the NOvA detector. The test showed that the IPND prototype was able to sustain under the loading of weight of itself and scintillator. Two FEA models were built to verify the measurement data from the test. The prediction from FEA slice model seems correlated reasonably well to the test result, even under a 'rough' estimated condition for the wall thickness (from an untuned die) and an unknown property of 'garage type' extrusion. A full size of FEA 3-D model also agrees very well with the test data from strain gage readings. It is worthy to point out that the stress distribution of the structure is predominantly determined by the internal pressure, while the buckling stability relies more on the loading weight from the extrusions themselves and scintillate. Results of conducted internal pressure tests, including 3- cell, 11-cell and the IPND

  4. Flow Induced segregation in full scale castings with SCC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars Nyholm; Stang, Henrik; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2007-01-01

    induced segregation is a major risk during casting and it is not yet clear how this phenomenon should be modelled. In this paper testing and numerical simulations of full-scale wall castings are compared. Two different SCCs and three different filling methods were applied resulting in different flow...... patterns during form filling. Results show that the flow patterns have a major influence on the risk of flow induced segregation and the surface finish of the hardened concrete. A hypothesis for the mechanism of flow induced segregation is put forth....

  5. Wind Farm Wake Models From Full Scale Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Torben; Bak, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This investigation is part of the EU FP7 project “Distributed Control of Large-Scale Offshore Wind Farms”. The overall goal in this project is to develop wind farm controllers giving power set points to individual turbines in the farm in order to minimise mechanical loads and optimise power. One...... on real full scale data. The modelling is based on so called effective wind speed. It is shown that there is a wake for a wind direction range of up to 20 degrees. Further, when accounting for the wind direction it is shown that the two model structures considered can both fit the experimental data...

  6. Integration test of ITER full-scale vacuum vessel sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahira, M.; Koizumi, K.; Oka, K.

    2001-01-01

    The full-scale Sector Model Project, which was initiated in 1995 as one of the Large Seven R and D Projects, completed all R and D activities planned in the ITER-EDA period with the joint effort of the ITER Joint Central Team (JCT), the Japanese, the Russian Federation (RF) and the United States (US) Home Teams. The fabrication of a full-scale 18 toroidal sector, which is composed of two 9 sectors spliced at the port center, was successfully completed in September 1997 with the dimensional accuracy of ± 3 mm for the total height and total width. Both sectors were shipped to the test site in JAERI and the integration test was begun in October 1997. The integration test involves the adjustment of field joints, automatic Narrow Gap Tungsten Inert Gas (NG-TIG) welding of field joints with splice plates, and inspection of the joint by ultrasonic testing (UT), which are required for the initial assembly of ITER vacuum vessel. This first demonstration of field joint welding and performance test on the mechanical characteristics were completed in May 1998 and the all results obtained have satisfied the ITER design. In addition to these tests, the integration with the mid plane port extension fabricated by the Russian Home Team, and the cutting and re-welding test of field joints by using full-remotized welding and cutting system developed by the US Home Team, are planned as post EDA activities. (author)

  7. Integration test of ITER full-scale vacuum vessel sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahira, M.; Koizumi, K.; Oka, K.

    1999-01-01

    The full-scale Sector Model Project, which was initiated in 1995 as one of the Large Seven ITER R and D Projects, completed all R and D activities planned in the ITER-EDA period with the joint effort of the ITER Joint Central Team (JCT), the Japanese, the Russian Federation (RF) and the United States (US) Home Teams. The fabrication of a full-scale 18 toroidal sector, which is composed of two 9 sectors spliced at the port center, was successfully completed in September 1997 with the dimensional accuracy of - 3 mm for the total height and total width. Both sectors were shipped to the test site in JAERI and the integration test was begun in October 1997. The integration test involves the adjustment of field joints, automatic Narrow Gap Tungsten Inert Gas (NG-TIG) welding of field joints with splice plates, and inspection of the joint by ultrasonic testing (UT), which are required for the initial assembly of ITER vacuum vessel. This first demonstration of field joint welding and performance test on the mechanical characteristics were completed in May 1998 and the all results obtained have satisfied the ITER design. In addition to these tests, the integration with the mid plane port extension fabricated by the Russian Home Team, and the cutting and re-welding test of field joints by using full-remotized welding and cutting system developed by the US Home Team, are planned as post EDA activities. (author)

  8. Safety Performance Evaluations for the Vehicle Based Movable Barriers Using Full Scale Crash Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Minsoo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to develop a prototype of large-size movable barriers to protect roadside workers from incoming vehicles to the road work area with the following functions: maximization of work space in the right and left directions, convenient mobility, and minimization of impact without modification of the inside of movable barriers into traffic lanes and perform safety performance assessment on passengers through full scale crash tests. The large movable barrier was divided into folder type and telescope type and the development stage was now at the prototype phase. A full scale crash test was conducted prior to certification test at a level of 90%. The full scale crash test result showed that both types of folder type movable barrier and telescope type movable barrier satisfied the standard of the passenger safety performance evaluation at a level of 90%.

  9. Mechanical prototype of tracking chamber in station 2 in dimuon ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the design and choice of material for the chamber was finalised following the result of the simulation. ... The frames were made from several pieces joined together ... The measured values of the prototype deformation with and without the CPF.

  10. Hot Firing of a Full Scale Copper Tubular Combustion Chamber

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cooley, C

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the chamber design and hot firing test results for a full-scale copper tubular combustion chamber that has future application in a high-thrust, upper-stage expander cycle engine...

  11. Passive Infrared Signature Augmentation of Full-Scale Plastic Targets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gebus, Lisa M; Sanders, Jeffrey S

    2002-01-01

    ... (IR), and radar signatures of threat systems. To address this need, a program was initiated by TMO to augment an existing full-scale, vacuum-formed plastic target with sufficient signature fidelity to adequately stress U.S...

  12. Full-scale leaching study of commercial reactor waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalb, P.D.; Colombo, P.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes a full-scale leaching experiment which has been conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to study the release of radionuclides from actual commercial reactor waste forms. While many studies characterizing the leaching behavior of simulated laboratory-scale waste forms have been performed, this program represents one of the first attempts in the United States to quantify activity releases for real, full-scale waste forms. 5 references, 5 figures, 1 table

  13. Bacterial communities in full-scale wastewater treatment systems

    OpenAIRE

    Cydzik-Kwiatkowska, Agnieszka; Zieli?ska, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial metabolism determines the effectiveness of biological treatment of wastewater. Therefore, it is important to define the relations between the species structure and the performance of full-scale installations. Although there is much laboratory data on microbial consortia, our understanding of dependencies between the microbial structure and operational parameters of full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) is limited. This mini-review presents the types of microbial consortia in...

  14. Resistive Fault Current Limiter Prototypes: Mechanical and Electrical Analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martini, L; Arcos, I; Bocchi, M; Brambilla, R; Dalessandro, R; Frigerio, A; Rossi, V

    2006-01-01

    The problem of excessive short-circuit currents has become an important issue for power systems operators and there are clear indications for a growing interest in superconducting fault current limiter devices for MV and HV grids. In this work, we report on both simulation and electrical testing on single-phase SFCL prototypes developed in the framework of an Italian RTD project to be completed with a 3-phase SFCL unit by the end of 2005

  15. Mechanical design and fabrication of a prototype undulator for Indus-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veerabhadhraiah, T.; Sinha, Gautam; Prabhu, S.S.

    2011-01-01

    An Apple II type undulator is proposed for 2.5 GeV SRS. For initial studies of magnetic parameters and manufacturing feasibilities, a 6 periods prototype undulator of period length 72 mm and pole gap 20 mm is under development. Mechanical structure with stringent tolerances is required to achieve the required field quality. Stress analysis has been done to study the deflection under the magnetic forces. The prototype structure along with the magnet block holders has been made and mechanical dimensions and geometric tolerances have been measured. In this paper we present the preliminary mechanical design and assembly of static parts of prototype undulator structure. (author)

  16. Full-Scale Mark II CRT Program data report, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namatame, Ken; Kukita, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Nobuo; Shiba, Masayoshi

    1979-12-01

    The Full-Scale Mark II CRT (Containment Response Test) Program was initiated in April 1976 to provide a full-scale data basis for the evaluation of the pressure suppression pool hydrodynamic loads associated with a hypothetical LOCA in a BWR Mark II Containment. The test facility, completed in March 1979, is 1/18 in volume of a typical 1100 MWe Mark II, and has a wetwell which is a full-scale replica of one 20 0 -sector of that of the reference Mark II. The present report documents experimental data from TEST 0002, a medium size (100 mm) water blowdown test, performed by Hitachi Ltd. for JAERI as the second of the four shakedown tests. Test data is provided for the vessel depressurization, the pressure and temperature responses in the test containment, and especially for the chugging phenomena associated with low flux steam condensation in the pool. (author)

  17. Pelamis WEC - full-scale joint system test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yemm, R.

    2003-07-01

    This report describes the building and testing of a full-scale Pelamis Wave Energy Converter (WEC) two-axis joint system using a laboratory joint test rig. The main project objective to develop an intermediate demonstration model to confirm full scale control, hydraulic and data acquisition systems is discussed, and the key objectives of the programme are listed. Details are given of the semi-submerged articulated structure of cylindrical elements linked by hinged joints, and the integrated testing of all key components. A summary of the work programme and a description of the test rig are presented.

  18. Monitoring of full scale tensegrity skeletons under temperature change

    OpenAIRE

    KAWAGUCHI, Ken'ichi; OHYA, Shunji

    2009-01-01

    p. 224-231 Strain change in the members of full-scale tensegrity skeletons has been monitored for eight years. The one-day data of one of the tensegrity frame on the hottest and the coldest day in the record are reported and discussed. Kawaguchi, K.; Ohya, S. (2009). Monitoring of full scale tensegrity skeletons under temperature change. Symposium of the International Association for Shell and Spatial Structures. Editorial Universitat Politècnica de València. http://hdl.handle.net/10...

  19. Systems for animal exposure in full-scale fire tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.; Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    Two systems for exposing animals in full-scale fire tests are described. Both systems involve the simultaneous exposure of two animal species, mice and rats, in modular units; determination of mortality, morbidity, and behavioral response; and analysis of the blood for carboxyhemoglobin. The systems described represent two of many possible options for obtaining bioassay data from full-scale fire tests. In situations where the temperatures to which the test animals are exposed can not be controlled, analytical techniques may be more appropriate than bioassay techniques.

  20. HRP facility for fabrication of ITER vertical target divertor full scale plasma facing units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visca, Eliseo; Roccella, S.; Candura, D.; Palermo, M.; Rossi, P.; Pizzuto, A.; Sanguinetti, G.P.; Mancini, A.; Verdini, L.; Cacciotti, E.; Cerri, V.; Mugnaini, G.; Reale, A.; Giacomi, G.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • R&D activities for the manufacturing of ITER divertor high heat flux plasma-facing components (HHFC). • ENEA and Ansaldo have jointly manufactured several actively cooled monoblock mock-ups and prototypical components. • ENEA and ANSALDO NUCLEARE jointly participate to the European program for the qualification of the manufacturing technology for the ITER divertor IVT. • Successful manufacturing by HRP (Hot Radial Pressing) of first full-scale full-W armored IVT qualification prototype. - Abstract: ENEA and Ansaldo Nucleare S.p.A. (ANN) have being deeply involved in the European development activities for the manufacturing of the ITER Divertor Inner Vertical Target (IVT) plasma-facing components. During normal operation the heat flux deposited on the bottom segment of divertor is 5–10 MW/m 2 but the capability to remove up to 20 MW/m 2 during transient events of 10 s must also be demonstrated. In order to fulfill ITER requirements, ENEA has set up and widely tested a manufacturing process, named Hot Radial Pressing (HRP). The last challenge is now to fabricate full-scale prototypes of the IVT, aimed to be qualified for the next step, i.e. the series production. On the basis of the experience of manufacturing hundreds of small mock-ups, ENEA designed and installed a new suitable HRP facility. The objective of getting a final shaped plasma facing unit (PFU) that satisfies these requirements is an ambitious target because tolerances set by ITER/F4E are very tight. The setting-up of the equipment started with the fabrication of full scale and representative ‘dummies’ in which stainless steel instead of CFC or W was used for monoblocks. The results confirmed that dimensions were compliant with the required tolerances. The paper reports a brief description of the innovative HRP equipment and the dimensional check results after HRP of the first full-scale full-W PFU.

  1. HRP facility for fabrication of ITER vertical target divertor full scale plasma facing units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visca, Eliseo, E-mail: eliseo.visca@enea.it [Unità Tecnica Fusione, ENEA C. R. Frascati, via E. Fermi 45, IT-00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Roccella, S. [Unità Tecnica Fusione, ENEA C. R. Frascati, via E. Fermi 45, IT-00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Candura, D.; Palermo, M. [Ansaldo Nucleare S.p.A., Corso Perrone 25, IT-16152 Genova (Italy); Rossi, P.; Pizzuto, A. [Unità Tecnica Fusione, ENEA C. R. Frascati, via E. Fermi 45, IT-00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Sanguinetti, G.P. [Ansaldo Nucleare S.p.A., Corso Perrone 25, IT-16152 Genova (Italy); Mancini, A.; Verdini, L.; Cacciotti, E.; Cerri, V.; Mugnaini, G.; Reale, A.; Giacomi, G. [Unità Tecnica Fusione, ENEA C. R. Frascati, via E. Fermi 45, IT-00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • R&D activities for the manufacturing of ITER divertor high heat flux plasma-facing components (HHFC). • ENEA and Ansaldo have jointly manufactured several actively cooled monoblock mock-ups and prototypical components. • ENEA and ANSALDO NUCLEARE jointly participate to the European program for the qualification of the manufacturing technology for the ITER divertor IVT. • Successful manufacturing by HRP (Hot Radial Pressing) of first full-scale full-W armored IVT qualification prototype. - Abstract: ENEA and Ansaldo Nucleare S.p.A. (ANN) have being deeply involved in the European development activities for the manufacturing of the ITER Divertor Inner Vertical Target (IVT) plasma-facing components. During normal operation the heat flux deposited on the bottom segment of divertor is 5–10 MW/m{sup 2} but the capability to remove up to 20 MW/m{sup 2} during transient events of 10 s must also be demonstrated. In order to fulfill ITER requirements, ENEA has set up and widely tested a manufacturing process, named Hot Radial Pressing (HRP). The last challenge is now to fabricate full-scale prototypes of the IVT, aimed to be qualified for the next step, i.e. the series production. On the basis of the experience of manufacturing hundreds of small mock-ups, ENEA designed and installed a new suitable HRP facility. The objective of getting a final shaped plasma facing unit (PFU) that satisfies these requirements is an ambitious target because tolerances set by ITER/F4E are very tight. The setting-up of the equipment started with the fabrication of full scale and representative ‘dummies’ in which stainless steel instead of CFC or W was used for monoblocks. The results confirmed that dimensions were compliant with the required tolerances. The paper reports a brief description of the innovative HRP equipment and the dimensional check results after HRP of the first full-scale full-W PFU.

  2. Full scale demonstration of air-purifying pavement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballari, M.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Experiments concerning a full-scale demonstration of air purifying pavement in Hengelo, The Netherlands, are reported. The full width of the street was provided with concrete pavement containing TiO2 over a length of 150 m ("DeNOx street"). Another part of the street, about 100 m, was paved with

  3. Fatigue Assessment of Full-Scale Retrofitted Orthotropic Bridge Decks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teixeira De Freitas, S.; Kolstein, M.H.; Bijlaard, F.S.K.

    2017-01-01

    Full-scale fatigue tests were performed on two retrofitted orthotropic bridge decks (OBDs). The retrofitting systems consist of adding a second steel plate on the top of the existing deck. The aim is to reduce the stresses at the fatigue-sensitive details and therefore extend the fatigue life of

  4. Plan for 3-D full-scale earthquake testing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtani, K.

    2001-01-01

    Based on the lessons learnt from the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake, National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention plan to construct the 3-D Full-Scale Earthquake Testing Facility. This will be the world's largest and strongest shaking table facility. This paper describes the outline of the project for this facility. This facility will be completed in early 2005. (author)

  5. Full-scale ANANOX (R) system performance | Garuti | Water SA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports the results of the first experimental investigations carried out on the only existing full-scale plant that makes use of the biological treatment system known as ANANOX(R). This system was first set up by the Italian research staff at ENEA (Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Environment) and consists ...

  6. Prototype development of radio frequency cavity and quadrupole for ADSS - initial efforts by mechanical design and prototype development section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Manish; Kamble, Sunil; Choughule, L.S.; Kumar, Sunil; Patankar, S.R.; Phalke, V.M.; Dharmik, D.A.; Singh, Tejinder; Ram, Y.; Chaudhari, A.T.; Pathak, Kavindra; Prasad, N.K.; Marathe, V.V.; Matkar, A.W.

    2007-01-01

    Mechanical Design and Prototype Development Section has participated in the efforts for development of RF cavity and Quadrupole for ADSS. Recently prototype Super conducting RF cavity, Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ), Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) Simulation Chamber and related experimental setups were developed, fabricated and delivered for the characterisation of various relevant parameters. Under the program for development of Super conducting RF Cavity for high-energy section of LINAC of ADS first prototype RF Cavity of ETP copper was developed by machining and brazing process. The prototype cavity having elliptical and circular profile is the heart of this setup. The cavity is made up of two symmetrical cups joined together by welding or brazing. Various methods are being tried out by MD and PDS for the fabrication of cups and joining them together. Manufacturing of cup by machining and joining them by conventional brazing technique to make the cavity was the first step in this direction. Another method of manufacturing and joining viz forming of cup by deep drawing and joining them by EB welding is in progress. RFQ is a versatile and efficient system for accelerating ion beams especially at low energy. It works in quadrupole mode, which is at 350M Hz. RFQ Focuses, Bunches and Accelerates the beam simultaneously. The bunching is done in this RFQ, which results in more than 95% transmission where as in the normal buncher the transmission is less than 40%. The actual RFQ, which is designed for the PURNIMA facility, will be fabricated from OFHC copper that will accelerate a deuteron (D+) ion beam from 50keV to 400keV over its 1.37meter length. For the validation of manufacturing process and characterisation of various parameters at low frequency a 500mm long prototype RFQ in Aluminium with an accuracy of ± 25microns and surface finish of 1.6 micron has been fabricated by MD and PDS. A simplified simulation chamber to facilitate the development of RFQ for

  7. Confirmatory tests of full-scale condensers for SBWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masoni, P.; Botti, S.; Fitzsimmons, G.W.

    1993-01-01

    A full-scale isolation condenser and a full-scale passive containment cooling condenser for the Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR) will be tested to confirm the thermal-hydraulic and structural design characteristics of these components. The condensers provide vital roles in removing heat from the reactor vessel and the containment during certain design basis events. This paper describes the condensers and the test facilities which are under construction and summarizes the test objectives, the planned instrumentation, and the conditions to be tested. The results of some pre-test performance predictions, calculated with the TRACG code are presented. The results of the testing program are expected to demonstrate that the condenser designs will provide the required heat removal capacity and will survive the design basis temperature/pressure cycles without structural damage

  8. Full-scale mark II CRT program facility description report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namatame, Ken; Kukita, Yutaka; Ito, Hideo; Yamamoto, Nobuo; Shiba, Masayoshi

    1980-03-01

    Started in fiscal year 1977, the Full-Scale Mark II CRT (Containment Response Test) Program is proceeding for the period of five years. The primary objective of the CRT Program is to provide a data base for evaluation of the pressure suppression pool hydrodynamic loads associated with a postulated loss-of-coolant accident in the BWR Mark II containment system. The test facility was designed and constructed from fiscal year 1977 to 1978, and completed in March 1979. It is 1/18 in volume and has a wetwell which is a full-scale replica of one 20 0 -sector of that of a reference Mark II. This report describes design concepts, dimensions and constructions of the test facility, as well as specifications, locations and installation schemes of the measuring equipments. Results of soil structure inspection, vacuum breaker test and shaker test of the containment shell are given in the appendices. (author)

  9. Analysis of full scale impact into an abutment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fullard, K.; Dowler, H.J.; Soanes, T.P.T.

    1985-01-01

    A 60mph impact into a tunnel abutment, of a flask on a railway flatrol with following vehicles, is shown to be a much less severe event for the flask than a 9 metre drop test to IAEA regulations. This involves the use of mathematical models of the full scale event of the same type as were employed in studying the behaviour of quarter scale models. The latter were subject to actual impact testing as part of the validation process. (author)

  10. Bacterial communities in full-scale wastewater treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cydzik-Kwiatkowska, Agnieszka; Zielińska, Magdalena

    2016-04-01

    Bacterial metabolism determines the effectiveness of biological treatment of wastewater. Therefore, it is important to define the relations between the species structure and the performance of full-scale installations. Although there is much laboratory data on microbial consortia, our understanding of dependencies between the microbial structure and operational parameters of full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) is limited. This mini-review presents the types of microbial consortia in WWTP. Information is given on extracellular polymeric substances production as factor that is key for formation of spatial structures of microorganisms. Additionally, we discuss data on microbial groups including nitrifiers, denitrifiers, Anammox bacteria, and phosphate- and glycogen-accumulating bacteria in full-scale aerobic systems that was obtained with the use of molecular techniques, including high-throughput sequencing, to shed light on dependencies between the microbial ecology of biomass and the overall efficiency and functional stability of wastewater treatment systems. Sludge bulking in WWTPs is addressed, as well as the microbial composition of consortia involved in antibiotic and micropollutant removal.

  11. Full scale model studies of nuclear power stations for earthquake resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirillov, A.P.; Ambriashvili, Ju. K.; Kozlov, A.V.

    Behaviour of nuclear power plants and its equipments under seismic action is not well understood. In the absence of well established method for aseismic deisgn of nuclear power plants and its equipments, it is necessary to carry out experimental investigations on models, fragments and full scale structures. The present study includes experimental investigations of different scale models and on existing nuclear power stations under impulse and explosion effects simulating seismic loads. The experimental work was aimed to develop on model test procedure for nuclear power station and the evaluation of the possible range of dynamic stresses in structures and pipe lines. The results of full-scale investigations of the nuclear reactor show a good agreement of dynamic characteristics of the model and the prototype. The study confirms the feasibility of simulation of model for nuclear power plants. (auth.)

  12. Unikabeton Prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Asbjørn; Dombernowsky, Per

    2011-01-01

    The Unikabeton prototype structure was developed as the finalization of the cross-disciplinary research project Unikabeton, exploring the architectural potential in linking the computational process of topology optimisation with robot fabrication of concrete casting moulds. The project was elabor......The Unikabeton prototype structure was developed as the finalization of the cross-disciplinary research project Unikabeton, exploring the architectural potential in linking the computational process of topology optimisation with robot fabrication of concrete casting moulds. The project...... of Architecture was to develop a series of optimisation experiments, concluding in the design and optimisation of a full scale prototype concrete structure....

  13. A prototype of behavior selection mechanism based on emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guofeng; Li, Zushu

    2007-12-01

    In bionic methodology rather than in design methodology more familiar with, summarizing the psychological researches of emotion, we propose the biologic mechanism of emotion, emotion selection role in creature evolution and a anima framework including emotion similar to the classical control structure; and consulting Prospect Theory, build an Emotion Characteristic Functions(ECF) that computer emotion; two more emotion theories are added to them that higher emotion is preferred and middle emotion makes brain run more efficiently, emotional behavior mechanism comes into being. A simulation of proposed mechanism are designed and carried out on Alife Swarm software platform. In this simulation, a virtual grassland ecosystem is achieved where there are two kinds of artificial animals: herbivore and preyer. These artificial animals execute four types of behavior: wandering, escaping, finding food, finding sex partner in their lives. According the theories of animal ethnology, escaping from preyer is prior to other behaviors for its existence, finding food is secondly important behavior, rating is third one and wandering is last behavior. In keeping this behavior order, based on our behavior characteristic function theory, the specific functions of emotion computing are built of artificial autonomous animals. The result of simulation confirms the behavior selection mechanism.

  14. Implementation of the full-scale emplacement (FE) experiment at the Mont Terri rock laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Müller, H.R.; Garitte, B.; Vogt, T.; and others

    2017-04-15

    Opalinus Clay is currently being assessed as the host rock for a deep geological repository for high-level and low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes in Switzerland. Within this framework, the 'Full-Scale Emplacement' (FE) experiment was initiated at the Mont Terri rock laboratory close to the small town of St-Ursanne in Switzerland. The FE experiment simulates, as realistically as possible, the construction, waste emplacement, backfilling and early post-closure evolution of a spent fuel/vitrified high-level waste disposal tunnel according to the Swiss repository concept. The main aim of this multiple heater test is the investigation of repository-induced thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) coupled effects on the host rock at this scale and the validation of existing coupled THM models. For this, several hundred sensors were installed in the rock, the tunnel lining, the bentonite buffer, the heaters and the plug. This paper is structured according to the implementation timeline of the FE experiment. It documents relevant details about the instrumentation, the tunnel construction, the production of the bentonite blocks and the highly compacted 'granulated bentonite mixture' (GBM), the development and construction of the prototype 'backfilling machine' (BFM) and its testing for horizontal GBM emplacement. Finally, the plug construction and the start of all 3 heaters (with a thermal output of 1350 Watt each) in February 2015 are briefly described. In this paper, measurement results representative of the different experimental steps are also presented. Tunnel construction aspects are discussed on the basis of tunnel wall displacements, permeability testing and relative humidity measurements around the tunnel. GBM densities achieved with the BFM in the different off-site mock-up tests and, finally, in the FE tunnel are presented. Finally, in situ thermal conductivity and temperature measurements recorded during the first heating months

  15. Full-scale tornado-missile impact tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, A.E.; Sliter, G.E.; Burdette, E.G.

    1978-01-01

    Full-scale poles, pipes, and rods, representing postulated tornado-borne missiles, were rocket-propelled into reinforced concrete panels with thicknesses typical of walls and roofs in the auxillary buildings of nuclear power plants. Data from the 18 tests can be used directly for structural design or for validating design and analysis techniques. The test panels, constructed with 3000-psi design strength concrete and minimum allowable reinforcement, were 12, 18 and 24 in. thick with 15 X 15-ft unsupported spans. (Auth.)

  16. The latest full-scale PWR simulator in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimuru, Y.; Tagi, H.; Nakabayashi, T.

    2004-01-01

    The latest MHI Full-scale Simulator has an excellent system configuration, in both flexibility and extendability, and has highly sophisticated performance in PWR simulation by the adoption of CANAC-II and PRETTY codes. It also has an instructive character to display the plant's internal status, such as RCS condition, through animation. Further, the simulation has been verified to meet a functional examination at model plant, and with a scale model test result in a two-phase flow event, after evaluation for its accuracy. Thus, the Simulator can be devoted to a sophisticated and broad training course on PWR operation. (author)

  17. FULL SCALE REGENERABLE HEPA FILTER DESIGN USING SINTERED METAL FILTER ELEMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil Ramos; Kenneth Rubow; Ronald Sekellick

    2002-01-01

    A Department of Energy funded contract involved the development of porous metal as a HEPA filter, and the subsequent design of a full-scale regenerable HEPA filtration system (RHFS). This RHFS could replace the glass fiber HEPA filters currently being used on the high level waste (HLW) tank ventilation system with a system that would be moisture tolerant, durable, and cleanable in place. The origins of the contract are a 1996 investigation at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) regarding the use of porous metal as a HEPA filter material. This contract was divided into Phases I, IIA and IIB. Phase I of the contract evaluated simple filter cylinders in a simulated High Level Waste (HLW) environment and the ability to clean and regenerate the filter media after fouling. Upon the successful completion of Phase I, Phase IIA was conducted, which included lab scale prototype testing and design of a full-scale system. The work completed under Phase IIA included development of a full-scale system design, development of a filter media meeting the HEPA filtration efficiency that would also be regenerable using prescribed cleaning procedures, and the testing of a single element system prototype at Savannah River. All contract objectives were met. The filter media selected was a nickel material already under development at Mott, which met the HEPA filtration efficiency standard. The Mott nickel media met and exceeded the HEPA requirement, providing 99.99% removal against a requirement of 99.97%. Double open-ended elements of this media were provided to the Savannah River Test Center for HLW simulation testing in the single element prototype filter. These elements performed well and further demonstrated the practicality of a metallic media regenerable HEPA filter system. An evaluation of the manufacturing method on many elements demonstrated the reproducibility to meet the HEPA filtration requirement. The full-scale design of the Mott RHFS incorporated several important

  18. Full scale testing for investigation of wind turbine seismic response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prowell, I.; Veletzos, M.; Elgamal, A. [California Univ., San Diego, CA (United States). Dept. of Structural Engineering

    2008-07-01

    In 2007, much of the growth in wind energy development was concentrated in North America and Asia, two regions which periodically experience strong earthquakes that may impact the final turbine design. As such, rational prediction of seismic hazards must be considered in order to maintain and enhance the ability of wind power to compete economically with other energy sources. In response to this challenge, researchers at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) have experimentally investigated wind turbines to gain an understanding of expected earthquake forces. This paper described the experimental setup for a full scale shake table test of a 65 kW wind turbine. The turbine was excited perpendicular to the axis of the rotor with a seismic base shaking record scaled to various levels. The data was analyzed using simple but effective procedures to provide insight into the observed structural damping of the wind turbine. The experimental investigation showed that full scale seismic testing of wind turbines is possible and can provide valuable insight into dynamic behaviour of wind turbines. The results can be used to develop a more accurate picture of how wind turbines are impacted by earthquakes. The data regarding the low observed super-structure damping provides a basis for calibration and further development of verified design procedures. 20 refs., 3 tabs.

  19. Full Scale Test of a SSP 34m boxgirder 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Find Mølholt; Branner, Kim; Nielsen, Per Hørlyk

    was part of a proof of concept investigation for a patent. The tests were performed at the Blaest test facility in August 2007. The tests are an important part of a research project established in cooperation between Risø National Laboratory for sustainable energy – Technical university of Denmark, SSP......This report presents the setup and result from three static full-scale tests of the reinforced glass fiber/epoxy box girder used in a 34m wind turbine blade. One test was without reinforcement one with cap reinforcement and the final test was with rib reinforcement. The cap reinforcement test......-Technology A/S and Blaest (Blade test centre A/S) and it has been performed as a part of Find Mølholt Jensen’s PhD thesis. This report is the second data report containing the complete test data for the three full-scale tests. This report deals only with the test methods and the obtained results...

  20. Combustion Aerosols from Full-Scale Suspension-Firing of Wood Pellets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damø, Anne Juul; Wu, Hao; Frandsen, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of the present work were to investigate the aerosol formation mechanisms during full-scale suspension firing of wood, and, to evaluate the effect of coal fly ash addition on the formation of aerosols under different ash load conditions. Tests with suspension firing of 100 % wood...

  1. Relative gravimeter prototype based on micro electro mechanical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozy, A. S. A.; Nugroho, H. A.; Yusuf, M.

    2018-03-01

    This research to make gravity measurement system by utilizing micro electro mechanical system based sensor in Gal order. System design consists of three parts, design of hardware, software, and interface. The design of the hardware include of designing the sensor design to measure the value of a stable gravity acceleration. The ADXL345 and ADXL335 sensors are tuned to obtain stable measurements. The design of the instrumentation system the next stage by creating a design to integrate between the sensor, microcontroller, and GPS. The design of programming algorithm is done with Arduino IDE software. The interface design uses a 20x4 LCD display to display the gravity acceleration value and store data on the storage media. The system uses a box made of iron and plate leveling to minimize measurement errors. The sensor test shows the ADXL345 sensor has a more stable value. The system is examined by comparing with gravity measurement of gravimeter A-10 results in Bandung observation post. The result of system test resulted the average of system correction value equal to 0.19 Gal. The system is expected to use for mineral exploration, water supply analyze, and earthquake precursor.

  2. Polyethylene encapsulation full-scale technology demonstration. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalb, P.D.; Lageraaen, P.R.

    1994-10-01

    A full-scale integrated technology demonstration of a polyethylene encapsulation process, sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD), was conducted at the Environmental ampersand Waste Technology Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL.) in September 1994. As part of the Polymer Solidification National Effort, polyethylene encapsulation has been developed and tested at BNL as an alternative solidification technology for improved, cost-effective treatment of low-level radioactive (LLW), hazardous and mixed wastes. A fully equipped production-scale system, capable of processing 900 kg/hr (2000 lb/hr), has been installed at BNL. The demonstration covered all facets of the integrated processing system including pre-treatment of aqueous wastes, precise feed metering, extrusion processing, on-line quality control monitoring, and process control

  3. Design and Control of Full Scale Wave Energy Simulator System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik C.; Hansen, Anders Hedegaard; Hansen, Rico Hjerm

    2012-01-01

    For wave energy to become feasible it is a requirement that the efficiency and reliability of the power take-off (PTO) systems are significantly improved. The cost of installing and testing PTO-systems at sea are however very high, and the focus of the current paper is therefore on the design...... of a full scale wave simulator for testing PTO-systems for point absorbers. The main challenge is here to design a system, which mimics the behavior of a wave when interacting with a given PTO-system. The paper includes a description of the developed system, located at Aalborg University......, and the considerations behind the design. Based on the description a model of the system is presented, which, along with a description of the wave theory applied, makes the foundation for the control strategy. The objective of the control strategy is to emulate not only the wave behavior, but also the dynamic wave...

  4. Full-scale mark II CRT program data report, (5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukita, Yutaka; Namatame, Ken; Yamamoto, Nobuo; Takeshita, Isao; Shiba, Masayoshi

    1980-03-01

    The Full-Scale Mark II CRT (Containment Response Test) Program was initiated in 1977 to provide a data base for evaluation of the LOCA hydrodynamic loads for the Mark II pressure suppression system. The test facility is 1/18 in volume and has a wetwell which is a fullscale replica of one 20 0 -sector of that of a reference Mark II. This report documents test data obtained from TEST 2101, which is a medium size (74 mm) water break test performed on April 27, 1979. TEST 2101 was designed to roughly approximate an intermediate break accident in which so-called chugging phenomenon associated with low-flux steam condensation is anticipated to continue for a longer duration than in a large break accident. (author)

  5. Full scale tests of moisture buffer capacity of wall materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lone Hedegaard; Rode, Carsten; Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele

    2005-01-01

    that are harmful such as growth of house dust mites, surface condensation and mould growth. Therefore a series of experiments has been carried out in a full scale test facility to determine the moisture buffer effect of interior walls of cellular concrete and plaster board constructions. For the cellular concrete......Moisture buffer capacity of hygroscopic materials can be used to moderate peaks in the relative humidity (RH) of indoor air as well as moisture content variations in building materials and furnishing. This can help to ensure healthier indoor environments by preventing many processes...... of the changes of moisture content in specimens of the wall composites exposed to the same environment. It was found that the finishes had a big impact on the buffer performance of the underlying materials. Even though the untreated cellular concrete had a very high buffer capacity, the effect was strongly...

  6. Design and full scale test of a sand bed filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaercher, M.

    1991-01-01

    All French pressurized water reactor plants are equipped with a containment venting system. this system is designed and implemented by Electricite de France with the technical support of safety authorities (Institute of Protection and Nuclear Safety of Atomic Energy Commission). This paper covers the following items: main assumptions, sizing and design requirements; basic design of the filter resulting from PITEAS R and D program carried out between 1983 and 1989 at Cadarache nuclear center; full scale tests performed in 1990 on FUCHIA loop at Cadarache including description of the loop using plasma torches to generate CsOH aerosols in a steam - air flow, and preliminary results concerning thermohydraulic and thermic behavior under residual power simulated filtration efficiency with CsOH aerosols and iodine; complementary design, including hydrogen risk during condensation period, radiological shieldings of the filter, and heat removal after the filter closure; and conclusion on the validation of the filter

  7. Full scale experimental analysis of wind direction changes (EOD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose

    2007-01-01

    wind direction gust amplitudes associated with the investigated European sites are low compared to the recommended IEC- values. However, these values, as function of the mean wind speed, are difficult to validate thoroughly due to the limited number of fully correlated measurements....... the magnitudes of a joint gust event defined by a simultaneously wind speed- and direction change in order to obtain an indication of the validity of the magnitudes specified in the IEC code. The analysis relates to pre-specified recurrence periods and is based on full-scale wind field measurements. The wind......A coherent wind speed and wind direction change (ECD) load case is defined in the wind turbine standard. This load case is an essential extreme load case that e.g. may be design driving for flap defection of active stall controlled wind turbines. The present analysis identifies statistically...

  8. Simple biogas desulfurization by microaeration - Full scale experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeníček, P; Horejš, J; Pokorná-Krayzelová, L; Bindzar, J; Bartáček, J

    2017-08-01

    Hydrogen sulfide in biogas is common problem during anaerobic treatment of wastewater with high sulfate concentration (breweries, distilleries, etc.) and needs to be removed before biogas utilization. Physico-chemical desulfurization methods are energetically demanding and expensive compare to biochemical methods. Microaeration, i.e. dosing of small amount of air, is suitable and cost effective biochemical method of sulfide oxidation to elemental sulfur. It has been widely used in biogas plants, but its application in anaerobic reactors for wastewater treatment has been rarely studied or tested. The lack of full-scale experience with microaeration in wastewater treatment plants has been overcome by evaluating the results of seven microaerobic digesters in central Europe. The desulfurization efficiency has been more than 90% in most of the cases. Moreover, microaeration improved the degradability of COD and volatile suspended solids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A tentative programme towards a full scale energy amplifier

    CERN Document Server

    Rubbia, Carlo

    1996-01-01

    We present a proposal of a full scale demonstration plant of the Energy Amplifier (EA), following the conceptual design of Ref. [1]. Unlike the presently on going CERN experiments, reaction rates will be sufficiently massive to permit demonstrating the practical feasibility of energy generation on an industrial scale and to tackle the complete family chains of [1] the breeding process in Thorium fuel, [2] the burning of the self-generated Actinides, [3] the Plutonium (higher Actinides) burning of spent fuel from ordinary Reactors and [4] Fuel reprocessing/regeneration. The accelerator must provide a beam power which is commensurate to the rate of transformations which are sought. No existing accelerator can meet such a performance and a dedicated facility must be built. We describe an alternative based on the superconducting cavities (SC) now in standard use at the LEP \\[e^+-e^-\\] collider which is scheduled to terminate its operation by year 200 After this time, with reasonable modifications, the fully opera...

  10. Fire spread simulation of a full scale cable tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huhtanen, R.

    1999-11-01

    A fire simulation of a full scale tunnel was performed by using the commercial code EFFLUENT as the simulation platform. Estimation was made for fire spread on the stacked cable trays, possibility of fire spread to the cable trays on the opposite wall of the tunnel, detection time of smoke detectors in the smouldering phase and response of sprinkler heads in the flaming phase. According to the simulation, the rise of temperature in the smouldering phase is minimal, only of the order 1 deg C. The estimates of optical density of smoke show that normal smoke detectors should give an alarm within 2-4 minutes from the beginning of the smouldering phase, depending on the distance to the detector (in this case it was assumed that the thermal source connected to the smoke source was 50 W). The flow conditions at smoke detectors may be challenging, because the velocity magnitude is rather low at this phase. At 4 minutes the maximum velocity at the detectors is 0.12 m/s. During the flaming phase (beginning from 11 minutes) fire spreads on the stacked cable trays in an expected way, although the ignition criterion seems to perform poorly when ignition of new objects is considered. The Upper cable trays are forced to ignite by boundary condition definitions according to the experience found from ti full scale experiment and an earlier simulation. After 30 minutes the hot layer in the room becomes so hot that it speeds up the fire spread and the rate of heat release of burning objects. Further, the hot layer ignites the cable trays on the opposite wall of the tunnel after 45 minutes. It is estimated that the sprinkler heads would be activated at 20-22 minutes near the fire source and at 24-28 minutes little further from the fire source when fast sprinkler heads are used. The slow heads are activated between 26-32 minutes. (orig.)

  11. Phase III (full scale) agitated mixing test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruff, D.T.

    1994-01-01

    Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 2A (WRAP 2A) is the proposed second module of the WRAP facility. This facility will provide the required treatment for contact Handled (CH) Low Level (LL) Mixed Waste (MW) to allow its permanent disposal. Solidification of a portion of this waste using a cement based grout has been selected in order to reduce the toxicity and mobility of the waste in the disposal site. Mixing of the waste with the cement paste and material handling constraints/requirements associated with the mixed material is, therefore, a key process in the overall treatment strategy. This test plan addresses Phase 3, Full Scale Testing. The objectives of these tests are to determine if there are scale-up issues associated with the mixing results obtained in Phase 1 and 2 mixing tests, verify the workability of mixtures resulting from previous formulation development efforts (Waste Immobilization Development [WID]), and provide a baseline for WRAP 2A mixing equipment design. To this end, the following objectives are of particular interest: determine geometric influence of mixing blade at full scale (i.e., size, type, and location: height/offset); determine if similar results in terms of mixing effectiveness and product quality are achievable at this scale; determine if vibration is as effective at this larger scale in fluidizing the mixture and aiding in cleaning the vessel; determine if baffles or sweeping blades are needed to aid in mixing at the larger size and for cleaning the vessel; and determine quality of the poured monolithic product and investigate exotherm and filling influences at this larger size

  12. Thermal studies on a mechanical prototype of A BIS MDT chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Petridou, C; Wotschack, J; Zisis, A

    1998-01-01

    The deformations of a BIS MDT chamber owing to temperature gradients between the two multilayers and between the two Faraday cages were studied on a mechanical prototype. The influence of thermal insulation on the thermal behaviour of the chamber is also reported.

  13. Mechanical properties used for the qualification of transport casks: Prototype development and extension to serial production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salzbrenner, R.; Crenshaw, T.B.; Sorenson, K.B.

    1991-01-01

    A thorough understanding of the mechanical behavior of material in a specific cask is required to properly analyze the structural response of the cask. An appropriate way to establish this understanding is through laboratory testing of cask material. The laboratory testing that was done to support the MOSAIK Drop Test Program is summarized as an example of how mechanical properties can be mapped for a prototype cask. The broad range behavior to be understood. This is necessary for the proper application of fracture mechanics, and focuses on fracture toughness as the inherent materials property which quantifies the fracture resistance of a material. The understanding established by a mechanics to a particular prototype, behavior of a prototype must be correctly associated with parameters which can be measured on production casks. Since the production casks cannot be destructively tested, measurements are commonly made on sub-size specimens. This may prevent direct measurement of valid design properties. An additional database may then be required to establish the correlation between sub-size specimen measurements and valid design properties. This is illustrated by outlining the additional testing which would be necessary to allow the successful verification of the MOSAIK Drop Test Program to be extended from the prototype to serially produced casks

  14. Mechanical properties used for the qualification of transport casks: Prototype development and extension to serial production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salzbrenner, R.; Crenshaw, T.B.; Sorenson, K.B.

    1992-01-01

    A thorough understanding of the mechanical behavior of material in a specific cask is required to properly analyze the structural response of the cask. An appropriate way to establish this understanding is through laboratory testing of cask material. The laboratory testing that was done to support the MOSAIK Drop Test Program is summarized as an example of how mechanical properties can be mapped for a prototype cask. The broad range of measured properties allows the critical aspects of mechanical behavior to be understood. This is necessary for the proper application of fracture mechanics, and focuses on fracture toughness as the inherent materials property which quantifies the fracture resistance of a material. The general fracture mechanics approach and its application to specific cask designs are described elsewhere (Salzbrenner et al. 1990, Sorenson et al. 1992a, Sorenson et al. 1992b). The understanding established by a thorough mapping of the mechanical properties is necessary to apply fracture mechanics to a particular prototype, but it is not sufficient for qualifying serially produced casks. The mechanical behavior of a prototype must be correctly associated with parameters which can be measured on production casks. Since the production casks cannot be destructively tested, measurements are commonly made on sub-size specimens. This may prevent direct measurement of valid design properties. An additional database may then be required to establish the correlation between sub-size specimen measurements and valid design properties. This is illustrated by outlining the additional testing which would be necessary to allow the successful verification of the MOSAIK Drop Test Program to be extended from the prototype to serially produced casks

  15. Full scale demonstration of air-purifying pavement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballari, M.M.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The results of a demonstration project for photocatalytic pavement are shown. ► The photocatalytic performance was studied in a street as well as on lab scale. ► The outdoor monitoring was performed in different seasons and weather conditions. ► The NO x concentration was in average 19% lowered by the photocatalytic street. ► Under ideal weather conditions the NO x reduction reached up to 45%. -- Abstract: Experiments concerning a full-scale demonstration of air purifying pavement in Hengelo, The Netherlands, are reported. The full width of the street was provided with concrete pavement containing TiO 2 over a length of 150 m (“DeNO x street”). Another part of the street, about 100 m, was paved with normal paving blocks (“Control street”). The outdoor monitoring was done during 26 days for a period exceeding one year, and measured parameters included traffic intensity, NO, NO 2 and ozone concentrations, temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, and the visible and UV light irradiance. Prior and parallel to these field measurements, the used blocks were also measured in the lab to assess their performance. The NO x concentration was, on average, 19% (considering the whole day) and 28% (considering only afternoons) lower than the obtained values in the Control street. Under ideal weather conditions (high radiation and low relative humidity) a NO x concentration decrease of 45% could be observed

  16. Full-Scale Crash Test of an MD-500 Helicopter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littell, Justin

    2011-01-01

    A full-scale crash test was successfully conducted in March 2010 of an MD-500 helicopter at NASA Langley Research Center s Landing and Impact Research Facility. The reasons for conducting this test were threefold: 1 To generate data to be used with finite element computer modeling efforts, 2 To study the crashworthiness features typically associated with a small representative helicopter, and 3 To compare aircraft response to data collected from a previously conducted MD-500 crash test, which included an externally deployable energy absorbing (DEA) concept. Instrumentation on the airframe included accelerometers on various structural components of the airframe; and strain gages on keel beams, skid gear and portions of the skin. Three Anthropomorphic Test Devices and a specialized Human Surrogate Torso Model were also onboard to collect occupant loads for evaluation with common injury risk criteria. This paper presents background and results from this crash test conducted without the DEA concept. These results showed accelerations of approximately 30 to 50 g on the airframe at various locations, little energy attenuation through the airframe, and moderate to high probability of occupant injury for a variety of injury criteria.

  17. Characterization of AGIPD1.0: The full scale chip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mezza, D., E-mail: davide.mezza@psi.ch [Paul-Scherrer-Institute (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Allahgholi, A.; Arino-Estrada, G.; Bianco, L.; Delfs, A. [Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Dinapoli, R. [Paul-Scherrer-Institute (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Goettlicher, P. [Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Graafsma, H. [Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall (Sweden); Greiffenberg, D. [Paul-Scherrer-Institute (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Hirsemann, H.; Jack, S. [Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Klanner, R. [University of Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany); Klyuev, A. [Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Krueger, H. [University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Marras, A. [Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Mozzanica, A. [Paul-Scherrer-Institute (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Poehlsen, J. [Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Schmitt, B. [Paul-Scherrer-Institute (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Schwandt, J. [University of Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany); Sheviakov, I. [Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany); and others

    2016-12-01

    The AGIPD (adaptive gain integrating pixel detector) detector is a high frame rate (4.5 MHz) and high dynamic range (up to 10{sup 4} ·12.4 keV photons) detector with single photon resolution (down to 4 keV taking 5σ as limit and lowest noise settings) developed for the European XFEL (XFEL.EU). This work is focused on the characterization of AGIPD1.0, which is the first full scale version of the chip. The chip is 64×64 pixels and each pixel has a size of 200×200 μm{sup 2}. Each pixel can store up to 352 images at a rate of 4.5 MHz (corresponding to 220 ns). A detailed characterization of the AGIPD1.0 chip has been performed in order to assess the main performance of the ASIC in terms of gain, noise, speed and dynamic range. From the measurements presented in this paper a good uniformity of the gain, a noise around 320 e{sup −} (rms) in standard mode and around 240 e{sup −} (rms) in high gain mode has been measured. Furthermore a detailed discussion about the non-linear behavior after the gain switching is presented with both experimental results and simulations.

  18. Full scale dynamic testing of Paks nuclear power plant structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Rin, E.M.

    1995-01-01

    This report refers to the full-scale dynamic structural testing activities that have been performed in December 1994 at the Paks (H) Nuclear Power Plant, within the framework of: the IAEA Coordinated research Programme 'Benchmark Study for the Seismic Analysis and Testing of WWER-type Nuclear Power Plants, and the nuclear research activities of ENEL-WR/YDN, the Italian National Electricity Board in Rome. The specific objective of the conducted investigation was to obtain valid data on the dynamic behaviour of the plant's major constructions, under normal operating conditions, for enabling an assessment of their actual seismic safety to be made. As described in more detail hereafter, the Paks NPP site has been subjected to low level earthquake like ground shaking, through appropriately devised underground explosions, and the dynamic response of the plant's 1 st reactor unit important structures was appropriately measured and digitally recorded. In-situ free field response was measured concurrently and, moreover, site-specific geophysical and seismological data were simultaneously acquired too. The above-said experimental data is to provide basic information on the geophysical and seismological characteristics of the Paks NPP site, together with useful reference information on the true dynamic characteristics of its main structures and give some indications on the actual dynamic soil-structure interaction effects for the case of low level excitation

  19. Full-scale testing of waste package inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, T.; Kuribayashi, H.; Moriya, Y.; Fujisawa, H.; Takebayashi, N.

    1989-01-01

    In land disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) in Japan, it is legally required that the waste packages to be disposed of be inspected for conformance to applicable technical regulations prior to shipment from each existing power station. JGC has constructed a fully automatic waste package inspection system for the purpose of obtaining the required design data and proving the performance of the system. This system consists of three inspection units (for visual inspection, surface contamination/dose rate measurement and radioactivity/weight measurement), a labelling unit, a centralized control unit and a drum handling unit. The outstanding features of the system are as follows: The equipment and components are modularized and designed to be of the most compact size and the quality control functions are performed by an advanced centralized control system. The authors discuss how, as a result of the full-scale testing, it has been confirmed that this system satisfies all the performance requirements for the inspection of disposal packages

  20. Tracing disinfection byproducts in full-scale desalination plants

    KAUST Repository

    Le Roux, Julien

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the formation and the behavior of halogenated byproducts (regulated THMs and HAAs, as well as nitrogenous, brominated and iodinated DBPs including the emerging iodo-THMs) along the treatment train of full-scale desalination plants. One thermal multi-stage flash distillation (MSF) plant and two reverse osmosis (RO) plants located on the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia. DBPs formed during the prechlorination step were efficiently removed along the treatment processes (MSF or RO). Desalination plants fed with good seawater quality and using intermittent chlorine injection did not show high DBP formation and discharge. One RO plant with a lower raw water quality and using continuous chlorination at the intake formed more DBPs. In this plant, some non-regulated DBPs (e.g., dibromoacetonitrile and iodo-THMs) reached the product water in low concentrations (< 1.5 μg/L). Regulated THMs and HAAs were far below their maximum contamination levels set by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Substantial amounts of DBPs are disposed to the sea; low concentrations of DBPs were indeed detected in the water on shore of the desalination plants.

  1. Full-scale fire experiments on vertical horizontal cable trays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangs, J.; Keski-Rahkonen, O.

    1997-10-01

    Two full-scale fire experiments on PVC cables used in nuclear power plants were carried out, one with cables in vertical position and one with cables in horizontal position. The vertical cable bundle, 3 m high, 300 mm wide and 30 mm thick, was attached to a steel cable ladder. The vertical bundle experiment was carried out in nearly free space with three walls near the cable ladder guiding air flow in order to stabilise flames. The horizontal cable experiment was carried out in a small room with five cable bundles attached to steel cable ladders. Three of the 2 m long cable bundles were located in an array, equally spaced above each other near one long side of the room and two correspondingly near the opposite long side. The vertical cable bundle was ignited with a small propane gas burner beneath the lower edge of the bundle. The horizontal cable bundles were ignited with a small propane burner beneath the lowest bundle in an array of three bundles. Rate of heat release by means of oxygen consumption calorimetry, mass change, CO 2 , CO and smoke production rate and gas, wall and cable surface temperatures were measured as a function of time, as well as time to sprinkler operation and failure of test voltage in cables. Additionally, the minimum rate of heat release needed to ignite the bundle was determined. This paper concentrates on describing and recording the experimental set-up and the data obtained. (orig.)

  2. Development of Full-Scale Ultrathin Shell Reflector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durmuş Türkmen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is aimed that a new ultrathin shell composite reflector is developed considering different design options to optimize the stiffness/mass ratio, cost, and manufacturing. The reflector is an offset parabolic reflector with a diameter of 6 m, a focal length of 4.8 m, and an offset of 0.3 m and has the ability of folding and self-deploying. For Ku-band missions a full-scale offset parabolic reflector antenna is designed by considering different concepts of stiffening: (i reflective surface and skirt, (ii reflective surface and radial ribs, and (iii reflective surface, skirt, and radial ribs. In a preliminary study, the options are modeled using ABAQUS finite element program and compared with respect to their mass, fundamental frequency, and thermal surface errors. It is found that the option of reflective surface and skirt is more advantageous. The option is further analyzed to optimize the stiffness/mass ratio considering the design parameters of material thickness, width of the skirt, and ply angles. Using the TOPSIS method is determined the best reflector concept among thirty different designs. Accordingly, new design can be said to have some advantages in terms of mass, natural frequency, number of parts, production, and assembly than both SSBR and AstroMesh reflectors.

  3. Full scale demonstration of air-purifying pavement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballari, M.M., E-mail: ballari@santafe-conicet.gov.ar [Department of the Built Environment, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Brouwers, H.J.H., E-mail: jos.brouwers@tue.nl [Department of the Built Environment, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: ► The results of a demonstration project for photocatalytic pavement are shown. ► The photocatalytic performance was studied in a street as well as on lab scale. ► The outdoor monitoring was performed in different seasons and weather conditions. ► The NO{sub x} concentration was in average 19% lowered by the photocatalytic street. ► Under ideal weather conditions the NO{sub x} reduction reached up to 45%. -- Abstract: Experiments concerning a full-scale demonstration of air purifying pavement in Hengelo, The Netherlands, are reported. The full width of the street was provided with concrete pavement containing TiO{sub 2} over a length of 150 m (“DeNO{sub x} street”). Another part of the street, about 100 m, was paved with normal paving blocks (“Control street”). The outdoor monitoring was done during 26 days for a period exceeding one year, and measured parameters included traffic intensity, NO, NO{sub 2} and ozone concentrations, temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, and the visible and UV light irradiance. Prior and parallel to these field measurements, the used blocks were also measured in the lab to assess their performance. The NO{sub x} concentration was, on average, 19% (considering the whole day) and 28% (considering only afternoons) lower than the obtained values in the Control street. Under ideal weather conditions (high radiation and low relative humidity) a NO{sub x} concentration decrease of 45% could be observed.

  4. Full scale dynamic testing of Kozloduy NPP unit 5 structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Rin, E.M.

    1999-01-01

    As described in this report, the Kozloduy NPP western site has been subjected to low level earthquake-like ground shaking - through appropriately devised underground explosions - and the resulting dynamic response of the NPP reactor Unit 5 important structures appropriately measured and digitally recorded. In-situ free-field response was measured concurrently more than 100 m aside the main structures of interest. The collected experimental data provide reference information on the actual dynamic characteristics of the Kozloduy NPPs main structures, as well as give some useful indications on the dynamic soil-structure interaction effects for the case of low level excitation. Performing the present full-scale dynamic structural testing activities took advantage of the experience gained by ISMES during similar tests, lately performed in Italy and abroad (in particular, at the Paks NPP in 1994). The IAEA promoted dynamic testing of the Kozloduy NPP Unit 5 by means of pertinently designed buried explosion-induced ground motions which has provided a large amount of data on the dynamic structural response of its major structures. In the present report, the conducted investigation is described and the acquired digital data presented. A series of preliminary analyses were undertaken for examining in detail the ground excitation levels that were produced by these weak earthquake simulation experiments, as well as for inferring some structural characteristics and behaviour information from the collected data. These analyses ascertained the high quality of the collected digital data. Presumably due to soil-structure dynamic interaction effects, reduced excitation levels were observed at the reactor building foundation raft level with respect to the concurrent free-field ground motions. measured at a 140 m distance from the reactor building centre. Further more detailed and systematic analyses are worthwhile to be performed for extracting more complete information about the

  5. Pseudodynamic tests on a full-scale 3-storey precast concrete building: Global response

    OpenAIRE

    Negro, Paolo; Bournas, Dionysios A.; Molina, Francisco J.

    2013-01-01

    In the framework of the SAFECAST Project, a full-scale three-storey precast building was subjected to a series of pseudodynamic (PsD) tests in the European Laboratory for Structural Assessment (ELSA). The mock-up was constructed in such a way that four different structural configurations could be investigated experimentally. Therefore, the behaviour of various parameters like the types of mechanical connections (traditional as well as innovative) and the presence or absence of shear walls alo...

  6. Full scale leak test of the MEGAPIE containment hull

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samec, K

    2006-07-15

    The Full Scale Leak Test (FSLT) experiment is designed to replicate an accidental leak of Lead-Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) liquid metal from the MEGAPIE neutron spallation source. The neutron source is totally encased in an aluminum containment hull cooled by heavy water. Any liquid metal which would, in a hypothetical accident, leak into the helium-filled insulation gap between the source and the aluminum containment hull, would immediately impact the hull. Furthermore, during irradiation in the PSI SINQ facility, the LBE in the MEGAPIE Lower Liquid Metal Container (LLMC) accumulates radio-active substances which, in the event of a leak, must be cooled and contained under controlled conditions, as they may otherwise contaminate the facility. The FSLT experiment has been devised to fully test the structural integrity of the containment hull against a sudden liquid metal leak, and in addition, to resolve the peak temperature of he coolant, to validate the sensors used in detecting a leak and of proof-test the analytical methods used in predicting the consequences of a leak. The FSLT experiment has been analysed ahead of the test, and both thermal and structural aspects calculated using commercial codes. The predictions applied conservative assumptions to the analysis of the thermal shock so as to preclude the likelihood of an unforeseen failure of the hull. In this document, these initial predictions are compared to the temperature and strain data recorded in the experiment. Further analysis, to be published at a later stage, will focus on applying actual conditions realised in the experiment, as opposed to the envelope case used in the test predictions. The integrity of the containment hull under loads resulting from liquid metal-leak is therefore the focal point of the experiment described in the current document, and serves as a key reference test for the Iicensing of the facility. The data recorded during the SLT experiment shows that the MEGAPIE containment hull is

  7. Full scale leak test of the MEGAPIE containment hull

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samec, K.

    2006-07-01

    The Full Scale Leak Test (FSLT) experiment is designed to replicate an accidental leak of Lead-Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) liquid metal from the MEGAPIE neutron spallation source. The neutron source is totally encased in an aluminum containment hull cooled by heavy water. Any liquid metal which would, in a hypothetical accident, leak into the helium-filled insulation gap between the source and the aluminum containment hull, would immediately impact the hull. Furthermore, during irradiation in the PSI SINQ facility, the LBE in the MEGAPIE Lower Liquid Metal Container (LLMC) accumulates radio-active substances which, in the event of a leak, must be cooled and contained under controlled conditions, as they may otherwise contaminate the facility. The FSLT experiment has been devised to fully test the structural integrity of the containment hull against a sudden liquid metal leak, and in addition, to resolve the peak temperature of he coolant, to validate the sensors used in detecting a leak and of proof-test the analytical methods used in predicting the consequences of a leak. The FSLT experiment has been analysed ahead of the test, and both thermal and structural aspects calculated using commercial codes. The predictions applied conservative assumptions to the analysis of the thermal shock so as to preclude the likelihood of an unforeseen failure of the hull. In this document, these initial predictions are compared to the temperature and strain data recorded in the experiment. Further analysis, to be published at a later stage, will focus on applying actual conditions realised in the experiment, as opposed to the envelope case used in the test predictions. The integrity of the containment hull under loads resulting from liquid metal-leak is therefore the focal point of the experiment described in the current document, and serves as a key reference test for the Iicensing of the facility. The data recorded during the SLT experiment shows that the MEGAPIE containment hull is

  8. Damage evaluation under thermal fatigue of a vertical target full scale component for the ITER divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Missirlian, M.; Escourbiac, F.; Merola, M.; Durocher, A.; Bobin-Vastra, I.; Schedler, B.

    2007-01-01

    An extensive development programme has been carried out in the EU on high heat flux components within the ITER project. In this framework, a Full Scale Vertical Target (VTFS) prototype was manufactured with all the main features of the corresponding ITER divertor design. The fatigue cycling campaign on CFC and W armoured regions, proved the capability of such a component to meet the ITER requirements in terms of heat flux performances for the vertical target. This paper discusses thermographic examination and thermal fatigue testing results obtained on this component. The study includes thermal analysis, with a tentative proposal to evaluate with finite element approach the location/size of defects and the possible propagation during fatigue cycling

  9. Full-scale impact test data for tornado-missile design of nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, A.E.; Sliter, G.E.

    1977-01-01

    It is standard practice to consider the effects of low-probability impacts of tornado-borne debris (''tornado missiles'' such as utility poles and steel pipes) in the structural design of nuclear power plants in the United States. To provide data that can be used directly in the design procedure, a series of full-scale tornado-missile impact tests was performed. This paper is a brief summary of the results and conclusions from these tests. The tests consisted of reinforced concrete panels impacted by poles, pipes, and rods propelled by a rocket sled. The panels were constructed to current minimum standards and had thicknesses typical of auxiliary buildings of nuclear power plants. A specific objective was the determination of the impact velocities below which the panels do not experience backface scabbing. Another objective was to assess the adequacy of (1) conventional design formulae for penetration and scabbing and (2) conventional design methods for overall structural response. Test missiles and velocities represented those in current design standards. Missiles included utility poles, steel pipes, and steel bars. It is important to interpret the data in this paper in recognition that the test conditions represent conservative assumptions regarding maximum wind speeds, injection of the missile into the wind stream, aerodynamic trajectory, and orientation of missile at impact. Even with the severe assumptions made, the full-scale tests described demonstrate the ability of prototypical nuclear plant walls and roofs to provide adequate protection against postulated tornado-missile impact

  10. OTEC riser cable model and prototype testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, J. P.; Schultz, J. A.; Roblee, L. H. S.

    1981-12-01

    Two different OTEC riser cables have been developed to span the distance between a floating OTEC power plant and the ocean floor. The major design concerns for a riser cable in the dynamic OTEC environment are fatigue, corrosion, and electrical/mechanical aging of the cable components. The basic properties of the cable materials were studied through tests on model cables and on samples of cable materials. Full-scale prototype cables were manufactured and were tested to measure their electrical and mechanical properties and performance. The full-scale testing was culminated by the electrical/mechanical fatigue test, which exposes full-scale cables to simultaneous tension, bending and electrical loads, all in a natural seawater environment.

  11. Prototype of a mechanical assistance device for the wrists' flexion-extension movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Politti, Julio C; Puglisi, Lisandro J; Farfan, Fernando D

    2007-01-01

    Using CMU actuators, a Prototype of Mechanical Assistance Device for the Wrist's Flexion Movement (PMA) was developed and probed in a mechanical model, in order to be implemented in a future as a dynamic powered orthosis or as a rehabilitation assistant instrument. Two Mayor Actuators conformed by three CMU actuators arranged in a series configuration, allows to an artificial hand to be placed in four predefined positions: 0 0 , 20 0 , 40 0 and 60 0 . The synchronism and control of the actuators is achieved with the Programmable Control Module (PCM). It is capable to drive up to six CMU actuators, and possess two different modes of execution: a Manual mode and an Exercise mode. In the Manual Mode, the position of the hand responds directly to the commands of the keyboard of the front panel, and in the Exercise mode, the hand realizes a repetitive and programmed movement. The prototype was tested in 100 positions in the Manual Mode and for 225 works cycles in the Exercise Mode. The relative repetition error was less than 5% for both test. This prototype only consumes 4,15W, which makes it possible to be powered by small rechargeable batteries, allowing its use as a portable device

  12. Thermo-mechanical modelling and experimental validation of CLIC prototype module type 0

    CERN Document Server

    Kortelainen, Lauri; Koivurova, Hannu; Riddone, Germana; Österberg, Kenneth

    Micron level stability of the two-meter repetitive modules constituting the two main linacs is one of the most important requirements to achieve the luminosity goal for the Compact Linear Collider. Structural deformations due to thermal loads and related to the RF power dissipated inside the modules affect the alignment of the linacs and therefore the resulting luminosity performance. A CLIC prototype module has been assembled in a dedicated laboratory and a thermal test program has been started in order to study its thermo-mechanical behaviour. This thesis focuses on the finite elements modelling of the first CLIC prototype module 0. The aim of the modelling is to examine the temperature distributions and the resulting deformations of the module in different operating conditions defined in the thermal test program. The theoretical results have been compared to the experimental ones; the comparison shows that the results are in good agreement both for the thermal behaviour of the module and for the resulting ...

  13. On the mechanical prototypes of fundamental hydrodynamic invariants and slow manifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolzhansky, Feliks V

    2005-01-01

    Arnol'd's group-theoretical concept of generalized rigid body includes the Euler equations of motion of the classical gyroscope and ideal homogeneous fluid as particular representatives. Here, this concept is extended to motion in force fields with a scalar or vector potential and in a Coriolis force field. The concepts of generalized heavy top and generalized MHD system are introduced. As particular cases, they include, on the one hand, the Euler-Poisson equations of the classical heavy top and the Kirchhoff equations of motion of a solid body in a potential flow of an ideal incompressible fluid and, on the other hand, the Oberbeck-Boussinesq equations of motion of a heavy fluid and MHD equations. On this basis, mechanical prototypes are constructed for all known fundamental hydrodynamic invariants and global geophysical flows, including a prototype of the general atmospheric circulation. (reviews of topical problems)

  14. On the mechanical prototypes of fundamental hydrodynamic invariants and slow manifolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolzhansky, Feliks V

    2005-12-31

    Arnol'd's group-theoretical concept of generalized rigid body includes the Euler equations of motion of the classical gyroscope and ideal homogeneous fluid as particular representatives. Here, this concept is extended to motion in force fields with a scalar or vector potential and in a Coriolis force field. The concepts of generalized heavy top and generalized MHD system are introduced. As particular cases, they include, on the one hand, the Euler-Poisson equations of the classical heavy top and the Kirchhoff equations of motion of a solid body in a potential flow of an ideal incompressible fluid and, on the other hand, the Oberbeck-Boussinesq equations of motion of a heavy fluid and MHD equations. On this basis, mechanical prototypes are constructed for all known fundamental hydrodynamic invariants and global geophysical flows, including a prototype of the general atmospheric circulation. (reviews of topical problems)

  15. Design of a full scale model fuel assembly for full power production reactor flow excursion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, C.A.; Blake, J.E.; Rush, G.C.

    1990-01-01

    A novel full scale production reactor fuel assembly model was designed and built to study thermal-hydraulic effects of postulated Savannah River Site (SRS) nuclear reactor accidents. The electrically heated model was constructed to simulate the unique annular concentric tube geometry of fuel assemblies in SRS nuclear production reactors. Several major design challenges were overcome in order to produce the prototypic geometry and thermal-hydraulic conditions. The two concentric heater tubes (total power over 6 MW and maximum heat flux of 3.5 MW/m 2 ) (1.1E+6 BTU/(ft 2 hr)) were designed to closely simulate the thermal characteristics of SRS uranium-aluminum nuclear fuel. The paper discusses the design of the model fuel assembly, which met requirements of maintaining prototypic geometric and hydraulic characteristics, and approximate thermal similarity. The model had a cosine axial power profile and the electrical resistance was compatible with the existing power supply. The model fuel assembly was equipped with a set of instruments useful for code analysis, and durable enough to survive a number of LOCA transients. These instruments were sufficiently responsive to record the response of the fuel assembly to the imposed transient

  16. Full scale dynamic tests of Atucha II NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konno, T.; Alvarez, L.M.; Ceballos, M.A.; Prato, C.A.; Uchiyama, S.; Godoy, A.R.

    1995-01-01

    This paper summarizes the main results of a series of dynamic tests of the reactor building of Atucha II NPP performed to determine the dynamic properties of its massive structure deeply embedded in Quaternary soil deposits. Tests were performed under two different types of loading conditions: Steady state harmonic loads imposed by mechanical exciters and impulsive loads induced by dropping a weight on the ground surface in the vicinity. Natural frequencies and mode shapes were identified and the associated modal damping ratios were experimentally determined. Numerical analyses of the reactor building-foundation system by two different F.E. models were performed. One of them, based on an axisymmetric representation of the soil-structure system, was used to simulate the steady state vibration tests and to calculate the dynamic stiffness of the foundation slab and soil layers for comparison with those experimentally obtained. The other, a 3-D F.E. model of the superstructure, was used to assess the natural frequencies and mode shapes obtained from the tests, representing dynamic stiffness of the foundation with stiffness coefficients derived both from the tests and from the axisymmetric F.E. model. Good agreement of the natural frequencies given by two types of tests was generally found, with the largest difference between them in the fundamental frequency of the building. Estimates of modal damping derived from the tests showed significant differences depending on the technique used to calculate them. For the fundamental mode damping was found to be 23-42 %, gradually decreasing with frequency to 2-4 % for around 10 Hz. (author)

  17. Full scale dynamic tests of Atucha II NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prato, C.A.; Ceballos, M.A.; Konno, T.; Uchiyama, S.; Alvarez, L.M.; Godoy, A.R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarizes the main results of a series of dynamic tests of the reactor building of Atucha II NPP performed to determine the dynamic properties of its massive structure deeply embedded in quaternary soil deposits. Tests were performed under two different types of loading conditions: steady state harmonic loads imposed by mechanical exciters and impulsive loads induced by dropping a weight on the ground surface in the vicinity. Natural frequencies and mode shapes were identified and the associated modal damping ratios were experimentally determined. Numerical analyses of the reactor building-foundation system by two different F.E. models were performed. One of them, based on an axisymmetric representation of the soil-structure system, was used to simulate the steady state vibration tests and to calculate the dynamic stiffness of the foundation slab and soil layers for comparison with those experimentally obtained. The other, a 3-D F.E. model of the superstructure, was used to assess the natural frequencies and mode shapes obtained from the tests, representing dynamic stiffness of the foundation with stiffness coefficients derived both from the tests and from the axisymmetric F.E. model. Good agreement of the natural frequencies given by two types of tests were generally found, with the largest difference between them in the fundamental frequency of the building. Estimates of modal damping derived from the tests showed significant differences depending on the technique used to calculate them. For the fundamental mode, damping was found to be 23-42%, gradually decreasing with frequency to 2-4% for ∝10 Hz. (orig.)

  18. Full-scale physical model of landslide triggering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora, M.; Camporese, M.; Salandin, P.

    2013-12-01

    of our experiments is to reproduce the instability trigger that occurs in saturated or partially unsaturated conditions depending on the specific characteristics of the soil and its initial conditions; the retention curve of fine sand and the initial porosity are taken into account to highlight the hydrological condition of the surface layer during the trigger occurrence. Through our experimental setup we can investigate the succession of phases and their magnitude that cause the landslide trigger, in order to understand the instability mechanism that heavy rainfall can induce in fine sandy hillslopes. Particular attention is given on the role of water pressure head, not only with respect to the violation of Coulomb failure within a sloping soil, but also with respect to the subsequent deformation that involves the upper hillslope layers. In particular, we report here on the characterization of the sandy terrain used in the experiments and the preliminary results, together with a first discussion of the observed data.

  19. Analysis of panthers full-scale heat transfer tests with RELAP5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parlatan, Y.; Boyer, B.D.; Jo, J.; Rohatgi, S.

    1996-01-01

    The RELAP5 code is being assessed on the full-scale Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS) in the Performance ANalysis and Testing of HEat Removal Systems (PANTHERS) facility at Societa Informazioni Termoidrauliche (SIET) in Italy. PANTHERS is a test facility with fall-size prototype beat exchangers for the PCCS in support of the General Electric's (GE) Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR) program. PANTHERS tests with a low noncondensable gas concentration and with a high noncondensable gas concentration were analyzed with RELAP5. The results showed that beat transfer rate decreases significantly along the PCCS tubes. In the test case with a higher inlet noncondensable gas fraction, the PCCS removed 35% less heat than in the test case with the lower noncondensable gas fraction. The dominant resistance to the overall heat transfer is the condensation beat transfer resistance inside the tubes. This resistance increased by about 5-fold between the inlet and exit of the tube due to the build up of noncondensable gases along the tube. The RELAP5 calculations also predicted that 4% to 5% of the heat removed to the PCCS pool occurs in the inlet steam piping and PCCS upper and lower headers. These piping needs to be modeled for other tests systems. The full-scale PANTHERS predictions are also compared against 1/400 scale GIRAFFE tests. GIRAFFE has 33% larger heat surface area, but its efficiency is only 15% and 23% higher than PANTHERS for the two cases analyzed This was explained by the high heat transfer resistance inside the tubes near the exit

  20. Mechanical Design Concept of Fuel Assembly for Prototype GEN-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, K. H.; Lee, C. B.

    2014-01-01

    The prototype GEN-IV sodium-cooled fast reactor (PGSFR) is an advanced fast reactor plant design that utilizes compact modular pool-type reactors sized to enable factory fabrication and an affordable prototype test for design certification at minimum cost and risk. The design concepts of the fuel assembly (FA) were introduced for a PGSFR. Unlike that for the pressurized water reactor, there is a neutron shielding concept in the FA and recycling metal fuel. The PGSFR core is a heterogeneous, uranium-10% zirconium (U-10Zr) metal alloy fuel design with 112 assemblies: 52 inner core fuel assemblies, 60 outer core fuel assemblies, 6 primary control assemblies, 3 secondary control assemblies, 90 reflector assemblies and 102 B4C shield assemblies. This configuration is shown in Fig. 1. The core is designed to produce 150 MWe with an average temperature rise of 155 .deg. C. The inlet temperature is 390 .deg. C and the bulk outlet temperature is 545 .deg. C. The core height is 900 mm and the gas plenum length is 1,250 mm. A mechanical design of a fuel assembly for a PGSFR was established. The mechanical design concepts are well realized in the design. In addition to this, the analytical and experimental works will be carries out for verifying the design soundness

  1. Mechanical Design and Evaluation of the MP-11-Like Wire Scanner Prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Esparza, Sergio; Sedillo, James Daniel; Maestas, Alfred J.; Gilpatrick, John D.; Smith, Brian G.; Raybun, Joseph L.; Martinez, Jason P.; Sattler, F.D.; Gruchalla, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    A wire scanner (WS) is a linearly actuated diagnostic device that uses fiber wires (such as Tungsten or Silicon Carbide) to obtain the position and intensity profile of the proton beam at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) particle accelerator. LANSCE will be installing approximately 86 new WS in the near future as part of the LANSCE Risk Mitigation project. These 86 new WS include the replacement of many current WS and some newly added to the current linear accelerator and other beam lines. The reason for the replacement and addition of WS is that many of the existing actuators have parts that are no longer readily available and are difficult to find, thus making maintenance very difficult. One of the main goals is to construct the new WS with as many commercially-available-off-the-shelf components as possible. In addition, faster beam scans (both mechanically and in term of data acquisition) are desired for better operation of the accelerator. This document outlines the mechanical design of the new MP-11-like WS prototype and compares it to a previously built and tested SNS-like WS prototype.

  2. Mechanical Design and Evaluation of the MP-11-Like Wire Scanner Prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Esparza, Sergio [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sedillo, James Daniel [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Maestas, Alfred J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gilpatrick, John D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smith, Brian G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Raybun, Joseph L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Jason P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sattler, F. D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gruchalla, Michael E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-05-16

    A wire scanner (WS) is a linearly actuated diagnostic device that uses fiber wires (such as Tungsten or Silicon Carbide) to obtain the position and intensity profile of the proton beam at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) particle accelerator. LANSCE will be installing approximately 86 new WS in the near future as part of the LANSCE Risk Mitigation project. These 86 new WS include the replacement of many current WS and some newly added to the current linear accelerator and other beam lines. The reason for the replacement and addition of WS is that many of the existing actuators have parts that are no longer readily available and are difficult to find, thus making maintenance very difficult. One of the main goals is to construct the new WS with as many commercially-available-off-the-shelf components as possible. In addition, faster beam scans (both mechanically and in term of data acquisition) are desired for better operation of the accelerator. This document outlines the mechanical design of the new MP-11-like WS prototype and compares it to a previously built and tested SNS-like WS prototype.

  3. Mechanical Design Concept of Fuel Assembly for Prototype GEN-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, K. H.; Lee, C. B. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The prototype GEN-IV sodium-cooled fast reactor (PGSFR) is an advanced fast reactor plant design that utilizes compact modular pool-type reactors sized to enable factory fabrication and an affordable prototype test for design certification at minimum cost and risk. The design concepts of the fuel assembly (FA) were introduced for a PGSFR. Unlike that for the pressurized water reactor, there is a neutron shielding concept in the FA and recycling metal fuel. The PGSFR core is a heterogeneous, uranium-10% zirconium (U-10Zr) metal alloy fuel design with 112 assemblies: 52 inner core fuel assemblies, 60 outer core fuel assemblies, 6 primary control assemblies, 3 secondary control assemblies, 90 reflector assemblies and 102 B4C shield assemblies. This configuration is shown in Fig. 1. The core is designed to produce 150 MWe with an average temperature rise of 155 .deg. C. The inlet temperature is 390 .deg. C and the bulk outlet temperature is 545 .deg. C. The core height is 900 mm and the gas plenum length is 1,250 mm. A mechanical design of a fuel assembly for a PGSFR was established. The mechanical design concepts are well realized in the design. In addition to this, the analytical and experimental works will be carries out for verifying the design soundness.

  4. Physics design of experimental metal fuelled fast reactor cores for full scale demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devan, K.; Bachchan, Abhitab; Riyas, A.; Sathiyasheela, T.; Mohanakrishnan, P.; Chetal, S.C.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → In this study we made physics designs of experimental metal fast reactor cores. → Aim is for full-scale demonstration of fuel assemblies in a commercial power reactor. → Minimum power with adequate safety is considered. → In addition, fuel sustainability is also considered in the design. → Sodium bonded U-Pu-6%Zr and mechanically bonded U-Pu alloys are used. - Abstract: Fast breeder reactors based on metal fuel are planned to be in operation for the year beyond 2025 to meet the growing energy demand in India. A road map is laid towards the development of technologies required for launching 1000 MWe commercial metal breeder reactors with closed fuel cycle. Construction of a test reactor with metallic fuel is also envisaged to provide full-scale testing of fuel sub-assemblies planned for a commercial power reactor. Physics design studies have been carried out to arrive at a core configuration for this experimental facility. The aim of this study is to find out minimum power of the core to meet the requirements of safety as well as full-scale demonstration. In addition, fuel sustainability is also a consideration in the design. Two types of metallic fuel pins, viz. a sodium bonded ternary (U-Pu-6% Zr) alloy and a mechanically bonded binary (U-Pu) alloy with 125 μm thickness zirconium liner, are considered for this study. Using the European fast reactor neutronics code system, ERANOS 2.1, four metallic fast reactor cores are optimized and estimated their important steady state parameters. The ABBN-93 system is also used for estimating the important safety parameters. Minimum achievable power from the converter metallic core is 220 MWt. A 320 MWt self-sustaining breeder metal core is recommended for the test facility.

  5. Dish/Stirling Hybrid-Receiver Sub-Scale Tests and Full-Scale Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andraka, Charles; Bohn, Mark S.; Corey, John; Mehos, Mark; Moreno, James; Rawlinson, Scott

    1999-01-01

    We have designed and tested a prototype dish/Stirling hybrid-receiver combustion system. The system consists of a pre-mixed natural-gas burner heating a pin-finned sodium heat pipe. The design emphasizes simplicity, low cost, and ruggedness. Our test was on a 1/6 th -scale device, with a nominal firing rate of 18kWt, a power throughput of 13kWt, and a sodium vapor temperature of 750 ampersand deg;C. The air/fuel mixture was electrically preheated to 640 ampersand deg;C to simulate recuperation. The test rig was instrumented for temperatures, pressures, flow rates, overall leak rate, and exhaust emissions. The data verify our burner and heat-transfer models. Performance and post-test examinations validate our choice of materials and fabrication methods. Based on the 1/6 th -scale results, we are designing a till-scale hybrid receiver. This is a fully-integrated system, including burner, pin-fin primary heat exchanger, recuperator (in place of the electrical pre-heater used in the prototype system), solar absorber, and sodium heat pipe. The major challenges of the design are to avoid pre-ignition, achieve robust heat-pipe performance, and attain long life of the burner matrix, recuperator, and flue-gas seals. We have used computational fluid dynamics extensively in designing to avoid pre-ignition and for designing the heat-pipe wick, and we have used individual component tests and results of the 1/6 th -scale test to optimize for long life. In this paper, we present our design philosophy and basic details of our design. We describe the sub-scale test rig and compare test results with predictions. Finally, we outline the evolution of our full-scale design, and present its current status

  6. Performance of a full-scale ITER metal hydride storage bed in comparison with requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beloglazov, S.; Glugla, M.; Fanghaenel, E.; Perevezentsev, A.; Wagner, R.

    2008-01-01

    The storage of hydrogen isotopes as metal hydride is the technique chosen for the ITER Tritium Plant Storage and Delivery System (SDS). A prototype storage bed of a full-scale has been designed, manufactured and intensively tested at the Tritium Laboratory, addressing main performance parameters specified for the ITER application. The main requirements for the hydrogen storage bed are a strict physical limitation of the tritium storage capacity (currently 70 g T 2 ), a high supply flow rate of hydrogen isotopes, in-situ calorimetry capabilities with an accuracy of 1 g and a fully tritium compatible design. The pressure composition isotherm of the ZrCo hydrogen system, as a reference material for ITER, is characterised by significant slope. As a result technical implementation of the ZrCo hydride bed in the SDS system requires further considerations. The paper presents the experience from the operation of ZrCo getter bed including loading/de-loading operation, calorimetric loop performance, and active gas cooling of the bed for fast absorption operation. The implications of hydride material characteristics on the SDS system configuration and design are discussed. (authors)

  7. Construction and Tests of the Mechanical Structure for a Semi-Digital Hadronic Calorimeter Prototype within the CALICE Collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berenguer, J.

    2014-01-01

    The assembly of a mechanical structure used for a semi-digital hadronic calorimeter prototype, conceived and developed by the SDHCAL group within the CALICE collaboration, is presented in this note. CALICE is an international R and D collaboration dedicated to the development of calorimeters for future linear collider experiments. The design, assembly and quality control of this mechanical structure were entirely carried out at CIEMAT. This document contains a description of the prototype and its detectors, focusing on the design and assembly of the mechanical structure, which acts as well as the calorimeter absorber.. (Author)

  8. On the dominant noise components of tactical aircraft: Laboratory to full scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Christopher K. W.; Aubert, Allan C.; Spyropoulos, John T.; Powers, Russell W.

    2018-05-01

    This paper investigates the dominant noise components of a full-scale high performance tactical aircraft. The present study uses acoustic measurements of the exhaust jet from a single General Electric F414-400 turbofan engine installed in a Boeing F/A-18E Super Hornet aircraft operating from flight idle to maximum afterburner. The full-scale measurements are to the ANSI S12.75-2012 standard employing about 200 microphones. By comparing measured noise spectra with those from hot supersonic jets observed in the laboratory, the dominant noise components specific to the F/A-18E aircraft at different operating power levels are identified. At intermediate power, it is found that the dominant noise components of an F/A-18E aircraft are essentially the same as those of high temperature supersonic laboratory jets. However, at military and afterburner powers, there are new dominant noise components. Their characteristics are then documented and analyzed. This is followed by an investigation of their origin and noise generation mechanisms.

  9. Team training using full-scale reactor coolant pump seal mock-ups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, T.J.; Hamill, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    The use of full-scale reactor coolant pump (RCP) seal mock-ups has greatly enhanced Northeast Utilities' ability to effectively utilize the team training approach to technical training. With the advent of the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations accreditation come a new emphasis and standards for the integrated training of plant engineering personnel, maintenance mechanics, quality control personnel, and health physics personnel. The results of purchasing full-scale RCP mock-ups to pilot the concept of team training have far exceeded expectations and cost-limiting factors. The initial training program analysis identified RCP seal maintenance as a task that required training for maintenance department personnel. Due to radiation exposure considerations and the unavailability of actual plant equipment for training purposes, the decision was made to procure a mock-up of an RCP seal assembly and housing. This mock-up was designed to facilitate seal cartridge removal, disassembly, assembly, and installation, duplicating all internal components of the seal cartridge and housing area in exact detail

  10. Fabrication of the full scale separable first wall of ITER shielding blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosaku, Yasuo; Kuroda, Toshimasa; Hatano, Toshihisa; Enoeda, Mikio; Miki, Nobuharu; Akiba, Masato

    2002-10-01

    for SS block, water jet method was demonstrated to be applicable to the complicated slit structure required in the shield block fabrication. Also, the fabrication of full scale FW panel was performed. By the destructive observation of the test pieces of HIP joints, the soundness of the fabrication was clarified. In conclusion, essential fabrication technology for the full scale separable first wall panel has been established by this work. (author)

  11. Functionality enhancement of industrialized optical fiber sensors and system developed for full-scale pavement monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huaping; Liu, Wanqiu; He, Jianping; Xing, Xiaoying; Cao, Dandan; Gao, Xipeng; Hao, Xiaowei; Cheng, Hongwei; Zhou, Zhi

    2014-05-19

    Pavements always play a predominant role in transportation. Health monitoring of pavements is becoming more and more significant, as frequently suffering from cracks, rutting, and slippage renders them prematurely out of service. Effective and reliable sensing elements are thus in high demand to make prognosis on the mechanical properties and occurrence of damage to pavements. Therefore, in this paper, various types of functionality enhancement of industrialized optical fiber sensors for pavement monitoring are developed, with the corresponding operational principles clarified in theory and the performance double checked by basic experiments. Furthermore, a self-healing optical fiber sensing network system is adopted to accomplish full-scale monitoring of pavements. The application of optical fiber sensors assembly and self-healing network system in pavement has been carried out to validate the feasibility. It has been proved that the research in this article provides a valuable method and meaningful guidance for the integrity monitoring of civil structures, especially pavements.

  12. Structural Response and Failure of a Full-Scale Stitched Graphite-Epoxy Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegley, Dawn C.; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Bush, Harold G.

    2001-01-01

    Analytical and experimental results of the test for an all-composite full-scale wing box are presented. The wing box is representative of a section of a 220-passenger commercial transport aircraft wing box and was designed and constructed by The Boeing Company as part of the NASA Advanced Subsonics Technology (AST) program. The semi-span wing was fabricated from a graphite-epoxy material system with cover panels and spars held together using Kevlar stitches through the thickness. No mechanical fasteners were used to hold the stiffeners to the skin of the cover panels. Tests were conducted with and without low-speed impact damage, discrete source damage and repairs. Up-bending down-bending and brake roll loading conditions were applied. The structure with nonvisible impact damage carried 97% of Design Ultimate Load prior to failure through a lower cover panel access hole. Finite element and experimental results agree for the global response of the structure.

  13. Functionality Enhancement of Industrialized Optical Fiber Sensors and System Developed for Full-Scale Pavement Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaping Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Pavements always play a predominant role in transportation. Health monitoring of pavements is becoming more and more significant, as frequently suffering from cracks, rutting, and slippage renders them prematurely out of service. Effective and reliable sensing elements are thus in high demand to make prognosis on the mechanical properties and occurrence of damage to pavements. Therefore, in this paper, various types of functionality enhancement of industrialized optical fiber sensors for pavement monitoring are developed, with the corresponding operational principles clarified in theory and the performance double checked by basic experiments. Furthermore, a self-healing optical fiber sensing network system is adopted to accomplish full-scale monitoring of pavements. The application of optical fiber sensors assembly and self-healing network system in pavement has been carried out to validate the feasibility. It has been proved that the research in this article provides a valuable method and meaningful guidance for the integrity monitoring of civil structures, especially pavements.

  14. Mechanical and thermal behavior of a prototype support structure for a large silicon vertex detector (BCD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulderink, H.; Michels, N.; Joestlein, H.

    1989-01-01

    The Bottom Collider Detector (BCD) has been proposed as a device to study large numbers of events containing B mesons. To identify secondary vertices in hadronic events it will employ the most ambitious silicon strip tracking detector proposed to-date. This report will discuss results from measurements on a first mechanical/thermal model of the vertex detector support structure. The model that was built and used for the studies described here is made of brass. Brass was used because it is readily available and easily assembled by soft soldering, and, for appropriate thicknesses, it will behave similarly to the beryllium that will be used in the actual detector. The trough was built to full scale with the reinforcement webbing and the cooling channels in place. There were no detector modules in place. We plan, however, to install modules in the trough in the future. The purpose of the model was to address two concerns that have arisen about the proposed structure of the detector. The first is whether or not the trough will be stable enough. The trough must be very light in weight yet have a high degree of rigidity. Because of the 3m length of the detector there is question as to the stiffness of the proposed trough. The main concern is that there will sagging or movement of the trough in the middle region. The second problem is the heat load. There will be a great deal of heat generated by the electronics attached to the detector modules. So the question arises as to whether or not the silicon detectors can be kept cool enough so that when the actual experiment is run the readings will be valid. The heat may also induce motion by differential expansion of support components. 26 figs

  15. Analysis for mechanical consequences of a core disruptive accident in Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chellapandi, P.; Velusamy, K.; Chetal, S.C.; Bhoje, S.B.; Lal, H.; Sethi, V.S.

    2003-01-01

    The mechanical consequences of a core disruptive accident (CDA) in a fast breeder reactor are described. The consequences are development of deformations and strains in the vessels, intermediate heat exchangers (IHX) and decay heat exchangers (DHX), impact of sodium slug on the bottom surface of the top shield, sodium release to reactor containment building through top shield penetrations, sodium fire and consequent temperature and pressure rise in reactor containment building (RCB). These are quantified for 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) for a CDA with 100 MJ work potential. The results are validated by conducting a series of experiments on 1/30 and 1/13 scaled down models with increasing complexities. Mechanical energy release due to nuclear excursion is simulated by chemical explosion of specially developed low density explosive charge. Based on these studies, structural integrity of primary containment, IHX and DHX is demonstrated. The sodium release to RCB is 350 kg which causes pressure rise of 12 kPa in RCB. (author)

  16. On the ASR and ASR thermal residues characterization of full scale treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, G; Viotti, P; Luciano, A; Fino, D

    2014-02-01

    In order to obtain 85% recycling, several procedures on Automotive Shredder Residue (ASR) could be implemented, such as advanced metal and polymer recovery, mechanical recycling, pyrolysis, the direct use of ASR in the cement industry, and/or the direct use of ASR as a secondary raw material. However, many of these recovery options appear to be limited, due to the possible low acceptability of ASR based products on the market. The recovery of bottom ash and slag after an ASR thermal treatment is an option that is not usually considered in most countries (e.g. Italy) due to the excessive amount of contaminants, especially metals. The purpose of this paper is to provide information on the characteristics of ASR and its full-scale incineration residues. Experiments have been carried out, in two different experimental campaigns, in a full-scale tyre incineration plant specifically modified to treat ASR waste. Detailed analysis of ASR samples and combustion residues were carried out and compared with literature data. On the basis of the analytical results, the slag and bottom ash from the combustion process have been classified as non-hazardous wastes, according to the EU waste acceptance criteria (WAC), and therefore after further tests could be used in future in the construction industry. It has also been concluded that ASR bottom ash (EWC - European Waste Catalogue - code 19 01 12) could be landfilled in SNRHW (stabilized non-reactive hazardous waste) cells or used as raw material for road construction, with or without further treatment for the removal of heavy metals. In the case of fly ash from boiler or Air Pollution Control (APC) residues, it has been found that the Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations exceeded regulatory leaching test limits therefore their removal, or a stabilization process, would be essential prior to landfilling the use of these residues as construction material. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Full scale measurement of wind induced pressures : 1 configuration of wind induced pressures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, C.P.W.; Wijen, H.L.M.

    1994-01-01

    A research project 10 the spectral characteristics of wind induced pressures is in progress in Eindhoven. This project includes both wind tunnel and full scale measurements. Wind induced pressures are measured in full scale at the main building of Eindhoven University of Technology. This paper

  18. Evaluation of the airway of the SimMan full-scale patient simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesselfeldt, R; Kristensen, M S; Rasmussen, L S

    2005-01-01

    SimMan is a full-scale patient simulator, capable of simulating normal and pathological airways. The performance of SimMan has never been critically evaluated.......SimMan is a full-scale patient simulator, capable of simulating normal and pathological airways. The performance of SimMan has never been critically evaluated....

  19. Simulation in full-scale mock-ups: an ergonomics evaluation method?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simone Nyholm; Broberg, Ole

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents and exploratory study of four simulation sessions in full-scale mock-ups of future hospital facilities.......This paper presents and exploratory study of four simulation sessions in full-scale mock-ups of future hospital facilities....

  20. Catalyst-Assisted Manufacture of Olefins from Natural Gas liquids: Prototype Development and Full-Scale Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyvani, Majid [Lyondell Chemical Company, Houston, TX (United States); Ostroff, Craig [BASF Qtech Inc., Mississauga ON (Canada)

    2015-09-01

    The steam cracking of ethane to ethylene consumes the greatest amount energy of any process currently practiced by the US chemical industry. U.S. ethylene production consumed an estimated 450 trillion BTU of energy to produce nearly 53 billion pounds of ethylene in 2010. A significant portion of this energy consumption is to overcome the insulating effect of coke (carbonaceous deposits) on the internal surfaces of cracker furnace tubes. This buildup of coke is the result of both metal-catalyzed coke formation on the tube walls (“filamentous coke”), and deposition of gas-phase coke on the tube walls (“amorphous coke”). Coke buildup requires a continuous increase in energy input (firing of external coil tube wall) to achieve the same conversion of ethane feedstock to ethylene product, until the tubes must be taken out of service and the coke removed by steam treatment (“decoking”). This step interrupts production and increases the cost of ethylene. Coke buildup also shortens the coil life by increasing the rate of “creep” (sagging) that occurs due to higher temperature operation and migration of the deposited carbon into the coil metal.

  1. How far is smart rotor research and what steps need to be taken to build a full-scale prototype?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernhammer, L.O.; Van Kuik, G.A.M.; De Breuker, R.

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade research on the field of smart rotor has advanced significantly. Fundamental aerodynamics, structural and control concepts have been established and simulators created for distributed flaps on wind turbine blades, which are considered the most promising option. Also a proof of

  2. Fault detection and isolation for a full-scale railway vehicle suspension with multiple Kalman filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesussek, Mathias; Ellermann, Katrin

    2014-12-01

    Reliability and dependability in complex mechanical systems can be improved by fault detection and isolation (FDI) methods. These techniques are key elements for maintenance on demand, which could decrease service cost and time significantly. This paper addresses FDI for a railway vehicle: the mechanical model is described as a multibody system, which is excited randomly due to track irregularities. Various parameters, like masses, spring- and damper-characteristics, influence the dynamics of the vehicle. Often, the exact values of the parameters are unknown and might even change over time. Some of these changes are considered critical with respect to the operation of the system and they require immediate maintenance. The aim of this work is to detect faults in the suspension system of the vehicle. A Kalman filter is used in order to estimate the states. To detect and isolate faults the detection error is minimised with multiple Kalman filters. A full-scale train model with nonlinear wheel/rail contact serves as an example for the described techniques. Numerical results for different test cases are presented. The analysis shows that for the given system it is possible not only to detect a failure of the suspension system from the system's dynamic response, but also to distinguish clearly between different possible causes for the changes in the dynamical behaviour.

  3. Characterization of the Boundary Layer on Full-Scale Bluefin Tuna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Brian; Cipolla, Kimberly; Henoch, Charles

    2014-11-01

    The physics that enable tuna to cross large expanses of ocean while feeding and avoiding predators is not presently understood, and could involve complex control of turbulent boundary layer transition and drag reduction. Typical swimming speeds of Bluefin tuna are 1-2 m/s, but can be higher during strong accelerations. The goal of this work is to experimentally determine the approximate lateral location at which transition to turbulence occurs on the tuna for various speeds. The question is whether laminar flow or an advanced propulsion mechanism (or both) allows them to swim at high speeds. Uncertainties include the surface roughness of the skin, local favorable and adverse pressure gradients, and discontinuities such as the open mouth or juncture at the fins. Historically, much of the fluid mechanics work in the area of fish locomotion has focused on vortex shedding issues rather than the boundary layer. Here, the focus is obtaining information on the boundary layer characteristics of a rigid tuna model. A full scale model of a Pacific Bluefin tuna was fabricated using a mold made from an actual deceased tuna, preserving the surface features and details of the appendages. The model was instrumented with 32 wall pressure sensors and experiments performed in a tow tank. Results from flow visualization, drag and wall pressure measurements over a range of speeds and varying angles of attack will be presented.

  4. Design manufacturing and thermo-mechanical testing of a relevant size mono block divertor prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardella, A.; Vieider, G.; Di Pietro, E.; Orsini, A.; Febvre, M.; Guerreschi, U.; Reheis, N.; Bruno, L.

    1994-01-01

    Following a technological development of joining techniques between carbon fibre composite tiles and metallic tubes, and the manufacturing and testing of small size actively cooled mock-ups, a relevant size divertor prototype has been designed, manufactured and tested. The prototype consisted of a series of metallic tubes surrounded by CFC tiles, cooling collectors and a supporting system representative of a divertor dump plate for high power reactors. The tubes have been preliminary tested at the CEA 200 kW electron beam facility with uniform fluxes up to 5 MW/m 2 to select the best five tubes, which together with a sixth non tested tube have been then assembled to form the prototype. This has been tested at the JET high power neutral beam injector test facility. After screening tests the prototype has been subjected to thermal cycling at more than 15 MW/m 2 . (author) 12 refs.; 4 figs

  5. Evaluation of a flexible bronchoscope prototype designed for bronchoscopy during mechanical ventilation: a proof-of-concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nay, M-A; Auvet, A; Mankikian, J; Herve, V; Dequin, P-F; Guillon, A

    2017-06-01

    Bronchoscopy during mechanical ventilation of patients' lungs significantly affects ventilation because of partial obstruction of the tracheal tube, and may thus be omitted in the most severely ill patients. It has not previously been possible to reduce the external diameter of the bronchoscope without reducing the diameter of the suction channel, thus reducing the suctioning capacity of the device. We believed that a better-designed bronchoscope could improve the safety of bronchoscopy in patients whose lungs were ventilated. We designed a flexible bronchoscope prototype with a drumstick-shaped head consisting of a long, thin proximal portion; a short and large distal portion for camera docking; and a large suction channel throughout the length of the device. The aims of our study were to test the impact of our prototype on mechanical ventilation when inserted into the tracheal tube, and to assess suctioning capacity. We first tested the efficiency of the suction channel, and demonstrated that the suction flow of the prototype was similar to that of conventional adult bronchoscopes. We next evaluated the consequences of bronchoscopy when using the prototype on minute ventilation and intrathoracic pressures during mechanical ventilation: firstly, in vitro using a breathing simulator; and secondly, in vivo using a porcine model of pulmonary ventilation. The insertion of adult bronchoscopes into the tracheal tube immediately impaired the protective ventilation strategy employed, whereas the prototype preserved it. For the first time, we have developed an innovative flexible bronchoscope designed for bronchoscopy during invasive mechanical ventilation, that both preserved the protective ventilation strategy, and enabled efficient suction flow. © 2017 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  6. Experimental assessment of a three storey full-scale precast structure. SAFECAST Project: Work Package 4, Technical Report

    OpenAIRE

    NEGRO Paolo; BOURNAS DIONYSIOS; MOLINA RUIZ Francisco Javier; VIACCOZ Bernard; MAGONETTE Georges; CAPERAN Philippe

    2012-01-01

    In the framework of the SAFECAST Project, a full-scale three-storey precast building was subjected to a series of pseudodynamic (PsD) tests in the European Laboratory for Structural Assessment (ELSA) at the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission. The mock-up was constructed in such a way that four different structural configurations could be investigated experimentally. Therefore, the behaviour of various parameters like the types of mechanical connections (traditional as well as in...

  7. Conceptual Design on Primary Control Rod Drive Mechanism of a Prototype Gen-IV SFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Han; Koo, Gyeong Hoi

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the key concept of the drive mechanism, and suggests a required motor power and reducer gears to meet the functional design requirements, and a seismic response analysis of CRDM housing is performed to check its structural integrity. An AC servo motor is selected as a CRA driving power because it uses permanent magnets and is brushless type while DC motor needs a brush and a coil rotates. The control shim motor size is constrained by a housing diameter of 250mm. The driving system has several design requirements. To calculate the motor power, the drive shaft torque is needed. One part of the drive shaft has a lead screw, driving by a ball-nut. The ball screw driver torque (Tr) is calculated by some equations as follow; A servo motor with a nominal power of 100W, a nominal torque of 0.32 N-m (max. 0.48N-m) is selected considering a safety margin. Its diameter is about 50mm. The fast drive-in motor needs a strong power to insert enforcedly the stuck CRA into core within a required time. The motor sizes are calculated by the same procedure. The diameters are in the range of 80mm to 110mm by the insertion time (10 ∼ 24 seconds). The prototype Gen-IV SFR (sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) is of 150MWe capacity. The reactor has six primary control rod assemblies(CRAs). The primary control rod is used for power control, burn-up compensation and reactor shutdown in response to demands from the plant control or protection systems. The control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) consists of the drive motor assembly, the driveline, and its housing. The driveline consists of three concentric members of a drive shaft, a tension tube, and a position indicator rod, and it connects the drive motor assembly to the CRA. Main issue is that these many driving parts shall be enclosed within a limited housing diameter because the available pitch of CRDMs is limited by 300mm

  8. Conceptual Design on Primary Control Rod Drive Mechanism of a Prototype Gen-IV SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Han; Koo, Gyeong Hoi [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    This paper describes the key concept of the drive mechanism, and suggests a required motor power and reducer gears to meet the functional design requirements, and a seismic response analysis of CRDM housing is performed to check its structural integrity. An AC servo motor is selected as a CRA driving power because it uses permanent magnets and is brushless type while DC motor needs a brush and a coil rotates. The control shim motor size is constrained by a housing diameter of 250mm. The driving system has several design requirements. To calculate the motor power, the drive shaft torque is needed. One part of the drive shaft has a lead screw, driving by a ball-nut. The ball screw driver torque (Tr) is calculated by some equations as follow; A servo motor with a nominal power of 100W, a nominal torque of 0.32 N-m (max. 0.48N-m) is selected considering a safety margin. Its diameter is about 50mm. The fast drive-in motor needs a strong power to insert enforcedly the stuck CRA into core within a required time. The motor sizes are calculated by the same procedure. The diameters are in the range of 80mm to 110mm by the insertion time (10 ∼ 24 seconds). The prototype Gen-IV SFR (sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) is of 150MWe capacity. The reactor has six primary control rod assemblies(CRAs). The primary control rod is used for power control, burn-up compensation and reactor shutdown in response to demands from the plant control or protection systems. The control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) consists of the drive motor assembly, the driveline, and its housing. The driveline consists of three concentric members of a drive shaft, a tension tube, and a position indicator rod, and it connects the drive motor assembly to the CRA. Main issue is that these many driving parts shall be enclosed within a limited housing diameter because the available pitch of CRDMs is limited by 300mm.

  9. Full Scale Advanced Systems Testbed (FAST): Capabilities and Recent Flight Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    At the NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center research is being conducted into flight control technologies that will enable the next generation of air and space vehicles. The Full Scale Advanced Systems Testbed (FAST) aircraft provides a laboratory for flight exploration of these technologies. In recent years novel but simple adaptive architectures for aircraft and rockets have been researched along with control technologies for improving aircraft fuel efficiency and control structural interaction. This presentation outlines the FAST capabilities and provides a snapshot of the research accomplishments to date. Flight experimentation allows a researcher to substantiate or invalidate their assumptions and intuition about a new technology or innovative approach Data early in a development cycle is invaluable for determining which technology barriers are real and which ones are imagined Data for a technology at a low TRL can be used to steer and focus the exploration and fuel rapid advances based on real world lessons learned It is important to identify technologies that are mature enough to benefit from flight research data and not be tempted to wait until we have solved all the potential issues prior to getting some data Sometimes a stagnated technology just needs a little real world data to get it going One trick to getting data for low TRL technologies is finding an environment where it is okay to take risks, where occasional failure is an expected outcome Learning how things fail is often as valuable as showing that they work FAST has been architected to facilitate this type of testing for control system technologies, specifically novel algorithms and sensors Rapid prototyping with a quick turnaround in a fly-fix-fly paradigm Sometimes it's easier and cheaper to just go fly it than to analyze the problem to death The goal is to find and test control technologies that would benefit from flight data and find solutions to the real barriers to innovation. The FAST

  10. Full-scale experimentations on alternative materials in roads: analysis of study practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, D; Jullien, A; Kerzreho, J P; Chateau, L

    2009-03-01

    In France beginning in the 1990s, the topic of road construction using various alternative materials has given rise to several studies aimed at clarifying the technical and environmental feasibility of such an option. Although crucial to understanding and forecasting their behaviour in the field, an analysis of feedback from onsite experiences (back analysis) of roads built with alternative materials has not yet been carried out. The aim of the CAREX project (2003-2005) has been to fill this gap at the national scale. Based on a stress-response approach applied to both the alternative material and the road structure and including the description of external factors, a dedicated standardised framework for field data classification and analysis was adopted. To carry out this analysis, a set of 17 documented field experiments was identified through a specific national survey. It appears that a great heterogeneity exists in data processing procedures among studies. The description of material is acceptable while it is generally poor regarding external factors and structure responses. Structure monitoring is usually brief and mechanical loads too weak, which limits the significance of field testing. For future full-scale experiments, strengthening the realism within the testing conditions would be appropriate.

  11. Full scale test results for ship ice impact forces and pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghoneim, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    A set of full scale impact tests were carried out for the icebreakers Canmar Kigoriak and Robert LeMeur in first and multi-year ice conditions in the southern Beaufort Sea. Preliminary results of the testing program were published in Ghoneim et al. (1984). This paper presents some salient results of further analysis of the data. This includes a description of the different types of ice ramming mechanisms and the corresponding ice force time histories and ship response. A comparison between the bow force peak values for the kigoriak and the Robert LeMeur is made and the reasons for the difference are evaluated. The question of dynamic magnification of the response is investigated. The relationship between the peak impact force and the ramming velocity is evaluated for both ships and compared with theoretical and empirical formulations. Other parametric relationships are presented, including such parameters as force duration and relative magnitude of the impact and beaching bow forces. The added mass is evaluated from measured accelerations and calculated bow forces and are shown to be time dependent. The relationship between ice pressure and corresponding contact area is discussed. Finally, conclusions and recommendations are presented

  12. FULL-SCALE TREATMENT WETLANDS FOR METAL REMOVAL FROM INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, E; John Gladden, J

    2007-01-01

    The A-01 NPDES outfall at the Savannah River Site receives process wastewater discharges and stormwater runoff from the Savannah River National Laboratory. Routine monitoring indicated that copper concentrations were regularly higher than discharge permit limit, and water routinely failed toxicity tests. These conditions necessitated treatment of nearly one million gallons of water per day plus storm runoff. Washington Savannah River Company personnel explored options to bring process and runoff waters into compliance with the permit conditions, including source reduction, engineering solutions, and biological solutions. A conceptual design for a constructed wetland treatment system (WTS) was developed and the full-scale system was constructed and began operation in 2000. The overall objective of our research is to better understand the mechanisms of operation of the A-01 WTS in order to provide better input to design of future systems. The system is a vegetated surface flow wetland with a hydraulic retention time of approximately 48 hours. Copper, mercury, and lead removal efficiencies are very high, all in excess of 80% removal from water passing through the wetland system. Zinc removal is 60%, and nickel is generally unaffected. Dissolved organic carbon in the water column is increased by the system and reduces toxicity of the effluent. Concentrations of metals in the A-01 WTS sediments generally decrease with depth and along the flow path through the wetland. Sequential extraction results indicate that most metals are tightly bound to wetland sediments

  13. Investigation of Bearing Axial Cracking: Benchtop and Full-Scale Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Jonathan A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gould, Benjamin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Greco, Aaron [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-08-16

    The most common failure mode in wind turbine gearboxes is axial cracking in intermediate and high-speed-stage bearings, also commonly called white-etching cracks (WECs). Although these types of cracks have been reported for over a decade, the conditions leading to WECs, the process by which this failure culminates, and the reasons for their apparent prevalence in wind turbine gearboxes are all highly debated. This paper summarizes the state of a multipronged research effort to examine the causes of WECs in wind turbine gearbox bearings. Recent efforts have recreated WECs on a benchtop test rig in highly loaded sliding conditions, wherein it was found that the formation of a dark etching microstructure precedes the formation of a crack, and a crack precedes the formation of white-etching microstructure. A cumulative frictional sliding energy criterion has been postulated to predict the presence of WECs. Bearing loads have also been measured and predicted in steady state and transient drivetrain operations in dynamometer testing. In addition, both loads and sliding at full scale will be measured in planned uptower drivetrain testing. If the cumulative frictional sliding energy is the dominant mechanism that causes WECs, understanding the amount of frictional sliding energy that wind turbine bearings are subjected to in typical operations is the next step in the investigation. If highly loaded sliding conditions are found uptower, similar to the examined benchtop levels, appropriate mitigation solutions can be examined, ranging from new bearing coatings and improved lubricants to changes in gearbox designs and turbine operations.

  14. Full-scale HDR blowdown experiments as a tool for investigating dynamic fluid-structural coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieg, R.; Schlechtendahl, E.G.; Scholl, K.-H.; Schumann, U.

    1977-01-01

    As an answer to rigorous safety requirements in reactor technology an experimental-theoretical program has been established to investigate safety-relevant mechanical aspects of LWR-blowdown accidents. Part of the program are several full-scale blowdown experiments which will be performed in the former HDR-reactor. As the conceptional study confirms, the primary goal is to find out, how big the safety margins of present LWR's in the case of a blowdown actually are, rather than simply to show that essential parts of the reactor will withstand such an accident. However, to determine the safety margins, the physical phenomena involved in the blowdown process must be understood and appropriate wave of description must be found. Therefore the experimental program is accompanied by the development of theoretical models and computer codes. A survey is given over existing methods for coupled fluid structural dynamics. The following approaches are used: - Specific finite difference-code for integrated treatment of both fluid and structure in 3D-geometry using the fast cyclic reduction scheme for solving Poisson's equation. - Modification of mass and stiffness matrices of FEM-models for shell dynamics by reducing the 3D incompressible fluid problem to 2D with the boundary integral equation method. This presently developed method has the capacity to deal with general problems in fluid-structural coupling. (Auth.)

  15. FULL-SCALE TREATMENT WETLANDS FOR METAL REMOVAL FROM INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, E; John Gladden, J

    2007-03-22

    The A-01 NPDES outfall at the Savannah River Site receives process wastewater discharges and stormwater runoff from the Savannah River National Laboratory. Routine monitoring indicated that copper concentrations were regularly higher than discharge permit limit, and water routinely failed toxicity tests. These conditions necessitated treatment of nearly one million gallons of water per day plus storm runoff. Washington Savannah River Company personnel explored options to bring process and runoff waters into compliance with the permit conditions, including source reduction, engineering solutions, and biological solutions. A conceptual design for a constructed wetland treatment system (WTS) was developed and the full-scale system was constructed and began operation in 2000. The overall objective of our research is to better understand the mechanisms of operation of the A-01 WTS in order to provide better input to design of future systems. The system is a vegetated surface flow wetland with a hydraulic retention time of approximately 48 hours. Copper, mercury, and lead removal efficiencies are very high, all in excess of 80% removal from water passing through the wetland system. Zinc removal is 60%, and nickel is generally unaffected. Dissolved organic carbon in the water column is increased by the system and reduces toxicity of the effluent. Concentrations of metals in the A-01 WTS sediments generally decrease with depth and along the flow path through the wetland. Sequential extraction results indicate that most metals are tightly bound to wetland sediments.

  16. Investigation of the velocity field in a full-scale model of a cerebral aneurysm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roloff, Christoph; Bordás, Róbert; Nickl, Rosa; Mátrai, Zsolt; Szaszák, Norbert; Szilárd, Szabó; Thévenin, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We investigate flow fields inside a phantom model of a full-scale cerebral aneurysm. • An artificial blood fluid is used matching viscosity and density of real blood. • We present Particle Tracking results of fluorescent tracer particles. • Instantaneous model inlet velocity profiles and volume flow rates are derived. • Trajectory fields at three of six measurement planes are presented. -- Abstract: Due to improved and now widely used imaging methods in clinical surgery practise, detection of unruptured cerebral aneurysms becomes more and more frequent. For the selection and development of a low-risk and highly effective treatment option, the understanding of the involved hemodynamic mechanisms is of great importance. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), in vivo angiographic imaging and in situ experimental investigations of flow behaviour are powerful tools which could deliver the needed information. Hence, the aim of this contribution is to experimentally characterise the flow in a full-scale phantom model of a realistic cerebral aneurysm. The acquired experimental data will then be used for a quantitative validation of companion numerical simulations. The experimental methodology relies on the large-field velocimetry technique PTV (Particle Tracking Velocimetry), processing high speed images of fluorescent tracer particles added to the flow of a blood-mimicking fluid. First, time-resolved planar PTV images were recorded at 4500 fps and processed by a complex, in-house algorithm. The resulting trajectories are used to identify Lagrangian flow structures, vortices and recirculation zones in two-dimensional measurement slices within the aneurysm sac. The instantaneous inlet velocity distribution, needed as boundary condition for the numerical simulations, has been measured with the same technique but using a higher frame rate of 20,000 fps in order to avoid ambiguous particle assignment. From this velocity distribution, the time

  17. Full Scale Drinking Water System Decontamination at the Water Security Test Bed

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EPA’s Water Security Test Bed (WSTB) facility is a full-scale representation of a drinking water distribution system. In collaboration with the Idaho National...

  18. Full-scale Applications of Membrane Filtration in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holba, Marek; Plotěný, K.; Dvořák, L.; Gómez, M.; Růžičková, I.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 5 (2012), s. 479-486 ISSN 1863-0650 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : membrane bioreactors * wastewater treatment * full-scale application Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.046, year: 2012

  19. Determination of global ice loads on the ship using the measured full-scale motion data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Man Lee

    2016-07-01

    Full-scale data were acquired while the ARAON rammed old ice floes in the high Arctic. Estimated ice impact forces for two representative events showed 7–15 MN when ship operated in heavy ice conditions.

  20. Design, Fabrication and Test of a Full Scale Copper Tubular Combustion Chamber

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cooley, Christine

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the design fabrication and test of a full scale copper tubular combustion chamber as an enabling technology for future application in a high thrust upper-stage expander-cycle engine...

  1. Composting trial with BioFoam® products in a full scale commercial composting facility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, van der M.

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of the trial was to be able to judge whether BioFoam® material degrades at sufficient rate to be composted together with regular source separated municipal solid biowaste in a full scale industrial composting facility.

  2. Radiation dose in hysterosalpingography: modern 100mm fluorography vs. full-scale radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seppaenen, S.; Lehtinen, E.; Holli, H.

    1978-01-01

    Radiation doses of modern 100 mm fluorography and full-scale radiography were compared experimentally and applied to hysterosalpingography. It was determined that 100 mm fluorography reduced the doses by 28 to 29 percent per exposure and 37 to 47 percent per examination compared with full-scale radiography performed with fast tungstate screens in identical conditions (70 to 80 kV, 400 mA). The dose during one minute of videofluoroscopy was equivalent to the doses produced by one exposure in full-scale filming and three to four exposures in 100 mm filming. Although electronic magnification in 100 mm fluorography increases the doses by two or threefold, these are still less than the doses in full-scale radiography

  3. A Limited Evaluation of Full Scale Control Surface Deflection Drag (Have FUN)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reinhardt, R. B; Celi, Sean A; Geraghty, Jeffrey T; Stahl, James W; Glover, Victor J; Bowman, Geoffrey G

    2007-01-01

    The Have FUN (FUll Scale Numbers) Test Management Project was conducted at the request of the USAF TPS as an investigation into the drag caused by control surface deflection during dynamic soaring techniques...

  4. The full-scale Emplacement (FE) Experiment at the Mont Terri URL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, H.R.; Weber, H.P.; Koehler, S.; Vogt, T.; Vietor, T.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The Full-Scale Emplacement (FE) Experiment at the Mont Terri underground research laboratory (URL) is a full-scale heater test in a clay-rich formation. It simulates the construction, waste emplacement and backfilling of a spent fuel (SF) / vitrified high-level waste (HLW) repository tunnel as realistically as possible. The entire experiment implementation as well as the post-closure THM(C) evolution will be monitored using several hundred sensors. These are distributed in the host rock in the near- and far-field, the tunnel lining, the engineered barrier system and on the heaters. The aim of this experiment is to investigate HLW repository-induced thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) coupled effects on the host rock and the validation of existing coupled THM models. A further aim is the verification of the technical feasibility of constructing a 50 m repository section at full scale with all relevant components using standard industrial equipment. Finally, the experiment will demonstrate the canister and buffer emplacement procedures for underground conditions based on the Swiss disposal concept. Experimental layout The FE experiment is based on the Swiss disposal concept for SF / HLW. The 50 m long test gallery, at the end of the former MB test tunnel in the Mont Terri URL, will be realised with a diameter of approx. 3 m. In the experiment gallery, 3 heaters with dimensions similar to those of waste canisters will be emplaced on top of abutments built of bentonite blocks. The remaining space will be backfilled with compacted bentonite pellets. The experiment will be sealed off towards the start niche with a concrete plug holding the buffer in place and reducing air and water fluxes. The first scoping calculations and design modelling for the 'far-field' instrumentation have been completed; these works have been carried out using CodeBRIGHT and the multiphase flow simulator TOUGH2. With an initial heat output of 1500 W

  5. The tensile strength of mechanical joint prototype of lontar fiber composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bale, Jefri; Adoe, Dominggus G. H.; Boimau, Kristomus; Sakera, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    In the present study, an experimental activity has been programmed to investigate the effect of joint prototype configuration on tensile strength of lontar (Borassus Flabellifer) fiber composite. To do so, a series of tests were conducted to establish the tensile strength of different joint prototype configuration specimen of lontar fiber composite. In addition, post observation of macroscope was used to map damage behavior. The analysis of lontar fiber composite is a challenge since the material has limited information than others natural fiber composites materials. The results shown that, under static tensile loading, the tensile strength of 13 MPa produced by single lap joint of lontar fiber composite is highest compare to 11 MPa of tensile strength generated by step lap joint and double lap joint where produced the lowest tensile strength of 6 MPa. It is concluded that the differences of tensile strength depend on the geometric dimensions of the cross-sectional area and stress distribution of each joint prototype configuration.

  6. Converting Hangar High Expansion Foam Systems to Prevent Cockpit Damage: Full-Scale Validation Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    AFCEC-CO-TY-TR-2018-0001 CONVERTING HANGAR HIGH EXPANSION FOAM SYSTEMS TO PREVENT COCKPIT DAMAGE: FULL-SCALE VALIDATION TESTS Gerard G...manufacturer, or otherwise does not constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation , or approval by the United States Air Force. The views and...09-2017 Final Test Report May 2017 Converting Hangar High Expansion Foam Systems to Prevent Cockpit Damage: Full-Scale Validation Tests N00173-15-D

  7. Numerical simulations of a full-scale polymer electrolyte fuel cell with analysing systematic performance in an automotive application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Heesung

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A 3-D full-scale fuel cell performance is numerically simulated. • Generated and consumed power in the system is affected by operating condition. • Systematic analysis predicts the net power of conceptual PEFC stack. - Abstract: In fuel cell powered electric vehicles, the net power efficiency is a critical factor in terms of fuel economy and commercialization. Although the fuel cell stack produces enough power to drive the vehicles, the transferred power to the power train could be significantly reduced due to the power consumption to operate the system components of air blower and cooling module. Thus the systematic analysis on the operating condition of the fuel cell stack is essential to predict the net power generation. In this paper numerical simulation is conducted to characterize the fuel cell performance under various operating conditions. Three dimensional and full-scale fuel cell of the active area of 355 cm 2 is numerically modelled with 47.3 million grids to capture the complexities of the fluid dynamics, heat transfer and electrochemical reactions. The proposed numerical model requires large computational time and cost, however, it can be powerful to reasonably predict the fuel cell system performance at the early stage of conceptual design without requiring prototypes. Based on the model, it has been shown that the net power is reduced down to 90% of the gross power due to the power consumption of air blower and cooling module

  8. Full-scale demonstration of EBS construction technology II. Design, manufacturing and transportation of pre-fabricated EBS module (PEM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Hidekazu; Toguri, Satohito; Iwata, Yumiko; Kawakami, Susumu; Nagasawa, Yuji; Yoshida, Takeshi

    2008-01-01

    PEM was investigated as a full-scale demonstration for the design, manufacturing and construction by using simulated buffer material and overpack in consideration of horizontal emplacement. Also near full-scale tests were conducted to examine the applicability of air-bearing system which can be used to transport a heavy load at the drift tunnel as for PEM. With regard to PEM casing, design requirements were selected from the viewpoints of EBS performance and operation safety issues. The construction procedure was examined in consideration of the shapes of buffer material, which are previously positioned inside the casing. And design procedure of the casing was also examined and presented. A full-scale PEM casing as a longitudinally two-part divided cylinder type with connection flanges was manufactured by using carbon steel plate. The wall thickness of this non-leak tight type PEM casing was evaluated its mechanical integrity by 2-dimensional stress analysis in consideration of the emplacement condition on the drift tunnel basement. Mechanical integrity of a percolated type casing was also examined its mechanical integrity. Air-bearing unit, which originally apply to a flat/smooth surface, was modified to fit a curved surface of the drift tunnel. Two units were aligned with two parallel lines, which estimate to be able to lift 12 tons, about two-fifth of the total weight of full scale PEM. On the conducted transportation tests of the air-bearing units, considering the surface roughness of the drift tunnel, especially for its unevenness, capability and availability of the run-over such gaps were investigated. And effect of covering sheets which can improve the gapped surface into relatively smooth was also examined by using several candidate materials. Through these tests, combination of the covering sheets and the maximum available height difference were evaluated and identified. Also the maximum traction force to toe the loading was measured to design the air

  9. A knowledge-based support system for mechanical ventilation of the lungs. The KUSIVAR concept and prototype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudowski, R; Frostell, C; Gill, H

    1989-09-01

    The KUSIVAR is an expert system for mechanical ventilation of adult patients suffering from respiratory insufficiency. Its main objective is to provide guidance in respirator management. The knowledge base includes both qualitative, rule-based knowledge and quantitative knowledge expressed in the form of mathematical models (expert control) which is used for prediction of arterial gas tensions and optimization purposes. The system is data driven and uses a forward chaining mechanism for rule invocation. The interaction with the user will be performed in advisory, critiquing, semi-automatic and automatic modes. The system is at present in an advanced prototype stage. Prototyping is performed using KEE (Knowledge Engineering Environment) on a Sperry Explorer workstation. For further development and clinical use the expert system will be downloaded to an advanced PC. The system is intended to support therapy with a Siemens-Elema Servoventilator 900 C.

  10. Financial Analysis of Incentive Mechanisms to Promote Energy Efficiency: Case Study of a Prototypical Southwest Utility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappers, Peter; Goldman, Charles; Chait, Michele; Edgar, George; Schlegel, Jeff; Shirley, Wayne

    2009-03-04

    Many state regulatory commissions and policymakers want utilities to aggressively pursue energy efficiency as a strategy to mitigate demand and energy growth, diversify the resource mix, and provide an alternative to building new, costly generation. However, as the National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency (NAPEE 2007) points out, many utilities continue to shy away from aggressively expanding their energy efficiency efforts when their shareholder's fundamental financial interests are placed at risk by doing so. Thus, there is increased interest in developing effective ratemaking and policy approaches that address utility disincentives to pursue energy efficiency or lack of incentives for more aggressive energy efficiency efforts. New regulatory initiatives to promote increased utility energy efficiency efforts also affect the interests of consumers. Ratepayers and their advocates are concerned with issues of fairness, impacts on rates, and total consumer costs. From the perspective of energy efficiency advocates, the quid pro quo for utility shareholder incentives is the obligation to acquire all, or nearly all, achievable cost-effective energy efficiency. A key issue for state regulators and policymakers is how to maximize the cost-effective energy efficiency savings attained while achieving an equitable sharing of benefits, costs and risks among the various stakeholders. In this study, we modeled a prototypical vertically-integrated electric investor-owned utility in the southwestern US that is considering implementing several energy efficiency portfolios. We analyze the impact of these energy efficiency portfolios on utility shareholders and ratepayers as well as the incremental effect on each party when lost fixed cost recovery and/or utility shareholder incentive mechanisms are implemented. A primary goal of our quantitative modeling is to provide regulators and policymakers with an analytic framework and tools that assess the financial impacts of

  11. Implications of the Baltimore Rail Tunnel Fire for Full-Scale Testing of Shipping Casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halstead, R. J.; Dilger, F.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) does not currently require full-scale physical testing of shipping casks as part of its certification process. Stakeholders have long urged NRC to require full-scale testing as part of certification. NRC is currently preparing a full-scale casktesting proposal as part of the Package Performance Study (PPS) that grew out of the NRC reexamination of the Modal Study. The State of Nevada and Clark County remain committed to the position that demonstration testing would not be an acceptable substitute for a combination of full-scale testing, scale-model tests, and computer simulation of each new cask design prior to certification. Based on previous analyses of cask testing issues, and on preliminary findings regarding the July 2001 Baltimore rail tunnel fire, the authors recommend that NRC prioritize extra-regulatory thermal testing of a large rail cask and the GA-4 truck cask under the PPS. The specific fire conditions and other aspects of the full-scale extra-regulatory tests recommended for the PPS are yet to be determined. NRC, in consultation with stakeholders, must consider past real-world accidents and computer simulations to establish temperature failure thresholds for cask containment and fuel cladding. The cost of extra-regulatory thermal testing is yet to be determined. The minimum cost for regulatory thermal testing of a legal-weight truck cask would likely be $3.3-3.8 million

  12. Full scale demonstration of shotcrete sealing plug under realistic working conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barcena, Ignacio; Garcia-Sineriz, Jose-Luis

    2008-01-01

    shotcrete formulated to obtain a final low-pH prod uct and, therefore, testing of this specific material under realistic conditions is needed. The research activities carried out in this sense within the IP ESDRED have provided a low-pH concrete formulation suitable of being shotcreted. In a series of field tests, this concrete fulfilled the established functional requirements in terms of low pH, long distance pumpability and sprayability. Thereafter, a short low-pH shotcrete plug was successfully constructed and tested (load test to determine its bearing capacity) at the Aespoe URL. The feasibility of the construction in accordance to the established requirements was demonstrated, and the plug behaved as expected, showing a good enduring capacity under mechanical load. The results from the test provided valuable information on the mechanical behaviour of confined granite-shotcrete interfaces, which has been used for improving the plug design calculations. As a final step, a full-scale low-pH shotcrete plug has been constructed in the Grimsel URL to check the feasibility and performance of this type of plug construction under realistic conditions - swelling pressure exerted by the saturated bentonite and the local hydraulic gradient. The construction was successfully carried out in winter time, with no access by road to the Laboratory, and producing the concrete 'in situ', within a restricted space, what demonstrated its feasibility in the toughest conditions. The proposed paper is mainly focused on the construction of the full-scale tests and the results obtained. (author)

  13. A CAREM fuel assembly prototype construction in order to verify its mechanical design using hydrodynamic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aparicio, Gaspar; Di Marco, Agustin; Falcone, Jose M.; Giorgis, Miguel A.; Mathot, Sergio R.; Migliori, Julio; Orlando, Oscar S.; Restelli, Miguel A.; Ruggirello, Gabriel; Sapia, Gustavo C.; Zinzallari, Fausto; Bianchi, Daniel R.; Volpi, Ricardo M.

    2000-01-01

    The scope of this paper is to describe the activities of several Groups from three Atomic Centers (C. A. Bariloche, C. A. Ezeiza and C. A. Constituyentes), involved in the manufacturing of a CAREM fuel assembly prototype. The Design Group (UAIN-CAB) carried out the fuel assembly engineering. Cladding components were constructed by the Special Alloys Pilot Factory (UAMCN-CAE). Engineering Group (UACN-CAC) manufactured the parts to be processed, resorting to qualified suppliers. Elastic spacers were completely designed and constructed by this Group, and fuel rods, control rods, guide tubes and spacers were also welded here. Research Reactors Fuels Group (UACN-CAC) carried out the dimensional control of the elaborated parts, while Postirradiation Testing Group (UACN-CAC) performed the assembling of the fuel element. This paper also refers to the design and development of special equipment and devices, all of them required for the prototype construction. (author)

  14. Full-scale and time-scale heating experiments at Stripa: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, N.G.W.; Hood, Michael; California Univ., Berkeley

    1978-01-01

    Two full-scale heating experiments and a time-scale heating experiment have recently been started in granite 340 meters below surface. The purpose of the full-scale heating experiments is to assess the near-field effects of thermal loading for the design of an underground repository of nuclear wastes. That of the time-scale heating experiments is to obtain field data of the interaction between heaters and its effect on the rock mass during a period of about two years, which corresponds to about twenty years of full-scale operation. Geological features of the rock around each experiment have been mapped carefully, and temperatures, stresses and displacements induced in the rock by heating have been calculated in advance of the experiments. Some 800 different measurements are recorded at frequent intervals by a computer system situated underground. These data can be compared at any time with predictions made earlier on video display units underground

  15. Performance evaluation of a full-scale ABS resin manufacturing wastewater treatment plant: a case study in Tabriz Petrochemical Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shakerkhatibi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The measurement data regarding the influent and effluent of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP provides a general overview, demonstrating an overall performance of WWTP. Nevertheless, these data do not provide the suitable operational information for the optimization of individual units involved in a WWTP. A full-scale evolution of WWTP was carried out in this study via a reconciled data. Methods: A full-scale evolution of acrylonitrile, butadiene and styrene (ABS resin manufacturing WWTP was carried out. Data reconciliation technique was employed to fulfil the mass conservation law and also enhance the accuracy of the flow measurements. Daily average values from long-term measurements by the WWTP library along with the results of four sampling runs, were utilized for data reconciliation with further performance evaluation and characterization of WWTP. Results: The full-scale evaluation, based on balanced data showed that removal efficiency based on chemical oxygen demand (COD and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5 through the WWTP were 80% and 90%, respectively, from which only 28% of COD and 20% of BOD5 removal had occurred in biological reactor. In addition, the removal efficiency of styrene and acrylonitrile, throughout the plant, was approximately 90%. Estimation results employing Toxchem model showed that 43% of acrylonitrile and 85% of styrene were emitted into the atmosphere above water surfaces. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the volatilization of styrene and acrylonitrile is the main mechanism for their removal along with corresponded COD elimination from the WWTP.

  16. Assistance in MSD Research and Development: Part 2, Full scale field testing at mining operations: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worsey, P.N.; Canon, C.

    1988-06-01

    Full scale and field testing of a simple mechanical stemming aid is described. The aid comprises a solid unit placed in the stemming above the explosive column and is designed to improve blasting efficiency and reduce drilling and blasting costs. It is designed to work with back filled drill cuttings or any other suitable stemming material. The results of Phase I testing were highly successful, indicating that the stemming aid has technically an extremely good chance of success at full scale when constructed of low cost materials. Phase II of the stemming aid research and development program comprised of the testing of various forms of the stemming is at full scale in non-research oriented i.e. field settings. The stemming aid was field tested at 4 different sites for a variety of mining application: First in underground workings at the UMR experimental mine in one and three quarter inch diameter horizontal blast holes incorporated into full blast patterns; three and three and a half inch blast holes at two crushed rock/limestone quarries in the Rolla area and at a surface coal mine operation run by Peabody Coal Company at Lynnville, Indiana in which nine and seven eighths, ten and five eighths and fifteen and a quarter inch diameter blast holes were used for parting and overburden removal. 2 refs., 37 figs., 11 tabs.

  17. Full-scale demonstration of EBS construction technology I. Block, pellet and in-situ compaction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toguri, Satohito; Asano, Hidekazu; Takao, Hajime; Matsuda, Takeshi; Amemiya, Kiyoshi

    2008-01-01

    (i) Bentonite Block: Applicability of manufacturing technology of buffer material was verified by manufacturing of full scale bentonite ring which consists of one-eight (1/8) dividing block (Outside Diameter (OD): 2.220 mm H: 300 mm). Density characteristic, dimension and scale effect, which were considered the tunnel environment under transportation, were evaluated. Vacuum suction technology was selected as handling technology for the ring. Hoisting characteristic of vacuum suction technology was presented through evaluation of the mechanical property of buffer material, the friction between blocks, etc. by using a full-scale bentonite ring (OD 2.200 mm, H 300 mm). And design of bentonite block and emplacement equipment were presented in consideration of manufacturability of the block, stability of handling and improvement of emplacement efficiency. (ii) Bentonite Pellet Filling: Basic characteristics such as water penetration, swelling and thermal conductivity of various kinds of bentonite pellet were collected by laboratory scale tests. Applicability of pellet filling technology was evaluated by horizontal filling test using a simulated full-scale drift tunnel (OD 2.200 mm, L 6 m) . Filling density, grain size distribution, etc. were also measured. (iii) In-Situ Compaction of Bentonite: Dynamic compaction method (heavy weight fall method) was selected as in-situ compaction technology. Compacting examination which used a full scale disposal pit (OD 2.360 mm) was carried out. Basic specification of compacting equipment and applicability of in-situ compaction technology were presented. Density, density distribution of buffer material and energy acted on the wall of the pit, were also measured. (author)

  18. Hydrologic and Pollutant Removal Performance of a Full-Scale, Fully Functional Permeable Pavement Parking Lot

    Science.gov (United States)

    In accordance with the need for full-scale, replicated studies of permeable pavement systems used in their intended application (parking lot, roadway, etc.) across a range of climatic events, daily usage conditions, and maintenance regimes to evaluate these systems, the EPA’s Urb...

  19. Comparison of Test and Finite Element Analysis for Two Full-Scale Helicopter Crash Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annett, Martin S.; Horta,Lucas G.

    2011-01-01

    Finite element analyses have been performed for two full-scale crash tests of an MD-500 helicopter. The first crash test was conducted to evaluate the performance of a composite deployable energy absorber under combined flight loads. In the second crash test, the energy absorber was removed to establish the baseline loads. The use of an energy absorbing device reduced the impact acceleration levels by a factor of three. Accelerations and kinematic data collected from the crash tests were compared to analytical results. Details of the full-scale crash tests and development of the system-integrated finite element model are briefly described along with direct comparisons of acceleration magnitudes and durations for the first full-scale crash test. Because load levels were significantly different between tests, models developed for the purposes of predicting the overall system response with external energy absorbers were not adequate under more severe conditions seen in the second crash test. Relative error comparisons were inadequate to guide model calibration. A newly developed model calibration approach that includes uncertainty estimation, parameter sensitivity, impact shape orthogonality, and numerical optimization was used for the second full-scale crash test. The calibrated parameter set reduced 2-norm prediction error by 51% but did not improve impact shape orthogonality.

  20. Full-Scale Approximations of Spatio-Temporal Covariance Models for Large Datasets

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Bohai; Sang, Huiyan; Huang, Jianhua Z.

    2014-01-01

    of dataset and application of such models is not feasible for large datasets. This article extends the full-scale approximation (FSA) approach by Sang and Huang (2012) to the spatio-temporal context to reduce computational complexity. A reversible jump Markov

  1. URANIUM REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER USING A SMALL FULL-SCALE SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report presents background and history of water quality, the basis for design and nine months of actual operating data for a small, full-scale strong-base ion exchange system that is used to remove uranium from a water supply serving a school in Jefferson County, CO. Informa...

  2. Propeller efficiency at full scale : measurement system and mathematical model design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muntean, T.V.

    2012-01-01

    What is propeller efficiency at full scale? This question is asked equally by ship operators and by propeller and propulsion system manufacturers. The question reflects the need to measure propeller efficiency at full physical scale and during regular operation of the vessel. The question has a

  3. Fate of pharmaceuticals in full-scale source separated sanitation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butkovskyi, A.; Hernandez Leal, L.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.; Zeeman, G.

    2015-01-01

    Removal of 14 pharmaceuticals and 3 of their transformation products was studied in a full-scale source separated sanitation system with separate collection and treatment of black water and grey water. Black water is treated in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor followed by

  4. Database of full-scale laboratory experiments on wave-driven sand transport processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werf, Jebbe J.; Schretlen, Johanna Lidwina Maria; Ribberink, Jan S.; O'Donoghue, Tom

    2009-01-01

    A new database of laboratory experiments involving sand transport processes over horizontal, mobile sand beds under full-scale non-breaking wave and non-breaking wave-plus-current conditions is described. The database contains details of the flow and bed conditions, information on which quantities

  5. Full-Scale Continuous Mini-Reactor Setup for Heterogeneous Grignard Alkylation of a Pharmaceutical Intermediate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Jønch; Holm, Thomas; Rahbek, Jesper P.

    2013-01-01

    A reactor setup consisting of two reactors in series has been implemented for a full-scale, heterogeneous Grignard alkylation. Solutions pass from a small filter reactor into a static mixer reactor with multiple side entries, thus combining continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and plug flow...

  6. Dynamic radar cross section measurements of a full-scale aircraft for RCS modelling validation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Schalkwyk, Richard F

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the process followed in generating a high fidelity reference data set for radar cross section (RCS) modelling validation for a full-scale aircraft, is presented. An overview of two dynamic RCS measurement campaigns, involving both...

  7. Design of full scale wave simulator for testing Power Take Off systems for wave energy converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, H. C.; Hansen, R. H.; Hansen, Anders Hedegaard

    2016-01-01

    is therefore on the design and commissioning of a full scale wave simulator for testing PTO-systems for point absorbers. The challenge is to be able to design a system, which mimics the behavior of a wave when interacting with a given PTO-system – especially when considering discrete type PTO...

  8. Operational experience with a seasonally operated full-scale membrane bioreactor plant

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gómez, M.; Dvořák, L.; Růžičková, I.; Holba, Marek; Wanner, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 121, OCT 2012 (2012), s. 241-247 ISSN 0960-8524 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : full-scale membrane bioreactor * soluble microbibal products * nutrient removal * fouling * microbiological effluent quality Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 4.750, year: 2012

  9. Cyanobacteria, Toxins and Indicators: Full-Scale Monitoring & Bench-Scale Treatment Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summary of: 1) Lake Erie 2014 bloom season full-scale treatment plant monitoring data for cyanobacteria and cyanobacteria toxins; 2) Follow-up work to examine the impact of pre-oxidation on suspensions of intact toxin-producing cyanobacterial cells.

  10. Prediction of Full-Scale Propulsion Power using Artificial Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Benjamin Pjedsted; Larsen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Full scale measurements of the propulsion power, ship speed, wind speed and direction, sea and air temperature from four different loading conditions, together with hind cast data of wind and sea properties; and noon report data has been used to train an Artificial Neural Network for prediction...

  11. Microbial diversity in a full-scale anaerobic reactor treating high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbial characteristics in the up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB) of a full-scale high concentration cassava alcohol wastewater plant capable of anaerobic hydrocarbon removal were analyzed using cultivation-independent molecular methods. Forty-five bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and 24 ...

  12. Genome-based microbial ecology of anammox granules in a full-scale wastewater treatment system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speth, D.R.; Zandt, M.H. in 't; Guerrero Cruz, S.; Dutilh, B.E.; Jetten, M.S.M.

    2016-01-01

    Partial-nitritation anammox (PNA) is a novel wastewater treatment procedure for energy-efficient ammonium removal. Here we use genome-resolved metagenomics to build a genome-based ecological model of the microbial community in a full-scale PNA reactor. Sludge from the bioreactor examined here is

  13. Regeneration of Exhausted Arsenic Adsorptive media of a Full Scale Treatment System

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation will describe the method and results of laboratory tests showing the feasibility of regenerating exhausted, iron-based, adsorptive media and the results of a follow up regeneration test at a full scale system in Twentynine Palms CA. The laboratory studies on se...

  14. Interpersonal Transport of Droplet Nuclei among Three Manikins in a Full-Scale Test Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Li; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on occupants’ exposure of droplet nuclei exhaled by one susceptible in a full-scale test room. Three breathing thermal manikins are standing in the middle of room and both the process in the microenvironment and in the macroenvironment are considered. A diffusive ceiling has been...

  15. Interpersonal Transport of Expiratory Aerosols among Three Manikins in a Full-Scale Test Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Li; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on occupants’ exposure of aerosols exhaled by one susceptible in a full-scale test room. Three breathing thermal manikins are standing in the middle of room and both the process in the microenvironment and in the macroenvironment are considered. A diffusive ceiling has been...

  16. Enhanced sealing project (ESP): design, construction and monitoring of a full-scale shaft seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, D.; Martino, J.; Kim, C.S.; Holowick, B.; Kwong, G.; Jonsson, E.; Palonen, E.; DeCombarieu, M.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The Enhanced Sealing Project (ESP) consists of instrumenting and monitoring a full-scale shaft seal installed to permanently close the access shaft for Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's (AECL's) Underground Research Laboratory (URL) at the intersection of an ancient low dipping thrust fault. The URL was built to provide a facility where concepts for long-term management of Canada's nuclear fuel waste in a deep geological repository could be studied. Operated since the early 1980's, this facility provided much of the technical information used in developing the deep geological repository concept submitted by AECL to the Government of Canada in 1994 and continued to provide valuable technical data after that submission. In 2003, a decision was made to discontinue operation of the URL and ultimately decommission and permanently close the underground portion of this facility. As part of the Nuclear Legacy Liability Program (NLLP) being funded by Natural Resources Canada (NRCan), facilities including the URL that are no longer part of AECL's mandate or operations are being decommissioned. Included in this work is the installation of seals at the intersection of the access shaft and ventilation raise with a deep fracture zone in order to limit the potential for mixing of deeper saline and shallower less saline groundwater. The funding available from NRCan was limited to the seal installation, with no mandate to provide any more than basic hydrological monitoring of the rock mass at a considerable distance from these seals, and so the opportunity to monitor a full-scale shaft seal similar to one for a deep geological repository would have been lost. The ESP arose from the recognition by a number of organizations that the URL closure presented a unique opportunity to monitor the evolution of a full-scale repository-type shaft seal in a very well-characterized and otherwise undisturbed rock mass. As

  17. Large scale breeder reactor plant prototype mechanical pump conceptual design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-07-01

    This report includes engineering memorandums, drawings, key feature descriptions, and other data. Some of the reports, such as manufacturability and some stress analysis, were done by consultants for Byron Jackson. Review of this report indicates that the design is feasible. The pump can be manufactured to system and specification requirements. The overall length and weight of some pieces will require special consideration, but is within the scope of equipment and technology available today. The fabricated parts are large and heavy, but can be manufactured and machined. Only the high temperature is unique to this size, since previous sodium pumps were smaller. Nondestructive tests as required by the Code are described and are feasible. The performance test of the prototype has been studied thoroughly. It is feasible for a cold water test. There are some problem areas. However, all of them can be solved. Development needs include building and testing a small scale model.

  18. Full-scale tests of spent-nuclear-fuel shipping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, H.R.; Huerta, M.

    1976-01-01

    Sandia Laboratories will be conducting, for the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration, a series of tests involving spent-nuclear-fuel shipping systems. Large shipping casks in the 20500 to 70000-kg range will be included in the following full-scale tests: (1) Runaway tractor-trailer crash into a solid concrete barrier while carrying a shipping cask. (2) High-speed locomotive grade-crossing impact with a truck carrying a shipping cask. (3) High-speed derailment, collision, and fire involving a special railcar and shipping cask. The hardware and testing procedures for each of the tests are described. The analysis conducted in advance of the tests addresses the modelling technique used and a description of the scale-model tests. Analytical modelling being done before running the full-scale tests is also described. (author)

  19. Ancillary Frequency Control of Direct Drive Full-Scale Converter Based Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Su, Chi; Fang, Jiakun

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation model of a wind power plant based on a MW-level variable speed wind turbine with a full-scale back-to-back power converter developed in the simulation tool of DIgSILENT Power Factory. Three different kinds of ancillary frequency control strategies, namely inertia...... control strategies are effective means for providing ancillary frequency control of variable speed wind turbines with full-scale back-to-back power converters....... emulation, primary frequency control and secondary frequency control, are proposed in order to improve the frequency stability of power systems. The modified IEEE 39-bus test system with a large-scale wind power penetration is chosen as the studied power system. Simulation results show that the proposed...

  20. Septic tank combined with anaerobic filter and conventional UASB: results from full scale plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. A. da Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion is an important alternative for domestic wastewater treatment, especially in warm climate regions. Two full-scale anaerobic schemes were investigated: septic tank combined with anaerobic filter (S T A NF and conventional UASB reactors. Treated effluents from these systems were subjected to disinfection by chlorination. The operational performance of 56 full-scale plants (36 S T A NF and 20 UASB provided a realistic view. Findings showed that the plants operated with low OLR (< 2.0 kg COD/m³.day. Despite this, the removal of organic material was below values suggested by the literature (around 60% for COD. A removal of 4.0 Log10 units of total coliform and E. coli can be reached with residual chlorine (R CL of at least 2.0 Cl-Cl2/l. Although UASB plants have performed better, improvement of maintenance is needed in both treatment configurations.

  1. Experimental study on the connection property of full-scale composite member

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panpan, Cao; Qing, Sun

    2018-01-01

    The excellent properties of composite result in its increasingly application in electric power construction, however there are less experimental studies on full-scale composite member connection property. Full-scale experiments of the connection property between E-glass fiber/epoxy reinforced polymer member and steel casing in practical engineering have been conducted. Based on the axial compression test of the designed specimens, the failure process and failure characteristics were observed, the load-displacement curves and strain distribution of the specimens were obtained. The finite element analysis was used to get the tensile connection strength of the component. The connection property of the components was analyzed to provide basis of the casing connection of GFRP application in practical engineering.

  2. Full scale mock-up tests for rod bundle thermal-hydraulics in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugawara, S.

    1995-01-01

    This poster describes tests aimed at development and validation of principal design methodology of rod bundle thermal-hydraulics correlations. The works are based on domestic data base using the full-scale mock-up test facilities. The scope of the tests comprises DNB heat flux, transient DNB heat flux, post DNB heat transfer, pressure drop and void distribution. The works have been performed under collaboration among electric facilities, NPP vendors, universities, governmental corporations. 1 tab., 14 figs

  3. On the 'hysteresis' effect in the biological nitrogen removal :theory and full scale experimental evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatano, F.

    1996-01-01

    The wastewater treatments plants localized in the Ruhr River (Germany), generally present a typical wastewater temperature variation curve during the winter period. These temperature changes produce specific effects on the nitrogen removal efficiencies in the activated sludge systems. The so called 'hysteresis' phenomenon is responsible for these effects. The paper deals with some simplified theoretical considerations and with a full scale experimental evaluations of the effects caused by the hysteresis phenomenon in the biological nitrogen removal

  4. Mathematical modeling of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from full-scale wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Bing-Jie; Ye, Liu; Law, Yingyu; Byers, Craig; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2013-07-16

    Mathematical modeling of N2O emissions is of great importance toward understanding the whole environmental impact of wastewater treatment systems. However, information on modeling of N2O emissions from full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) is still sparse. In this work, a mathematical model based on currently known or hypothesized metabolic pathways for N2O productions by heterotrophic denitrifiers and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) is developed and calibrated to describe the N2O emissions from full-scale WWTPs. The model described well the dynamic ammonium, nitrite, nitrate, dissolved oxygen (DO) and N2O data collected from both an open oxidation ditch (OD) system with surface aerators and a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system with bubbling aeration. The obtained kinetic parameters for N2O production are found to be reasonable as the 95% confidence regions of the estimates are all small with mean values approximately at the center. The model is further validated with independent data sets collected from the same two WWTPs. This is the first time that mathematical modeling of N2O emissions is conducted successfully for full-scale WWTPs. While clearly showing that the NH2OH related pathways could well explain N2O production and emission in the two full-scale plants studied, the modeling results do not prove the dominance of the NH2OH pathways in these plants, nor rule out the possibility of AOB denitrification being a potentially dominating pathway in other WWTPs that are designed or operated differently.

  5. Full-Scale Mark II CRT program data report No. 11 (TEST 1204)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukita, Yutaka; Takeshita, Isao; Yamamoto, Nobuo; Namatame, Ken; Shiba, Masayoshi

    1981-03-01

    Recorded data for TEST 1204 conducted on the Full-Scale Mark II CRT (Containment Response Test) Facility are presented. The TEST 1204 is the fourth test run of a series of steam discharge pool swell tests. The test conditions are similar to those of the TEST 1203 except for lower initial pool temperature. The test was successful and the maximum level of pool surface was fairly lower than in the TEST 1203 due to the lower pool temperature. (author)

  6. Calibration of a complex activated sludge model for the full-scale wastewater treatment plant

    OpenAIRE

    Liwarska-Bizukojc, Ewa; Olejnik, Dorota; Biernacki, Rafal; Ledakowicz, Stanislaw

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the results of the calibration of the complex activated sludge model implemented in BioWin software for the full-scale wastewater treatment plant are presented. Within the calibration of the model, sensitivity analysis of its parameters and the fractions of carbonaceous substrate were performed. In the steady-state and dynamic calibrations, a successful agreement between the measured and simulated values of the output variables was achieved. Sensitivity analysis revealed that u...

  7. How well do 46 full-scale Danish anaerobic digesters at wastewater treatment plants perform?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin Hjorth; Kirkegaard, Rasmus Hansen; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    (2016): Identifying the abundant and active microorganisms common to full-scale anaerobic digesters. bioRxiv.doi.org/10.1101/104620. 2. McIlroy, S.J., R.H. Kirkegaard, B. McIlroy, M. Nierychlo, J.M. Kristensen, S.M. Karst, M. Albertsen and P.H. Nielsen (2017): MiDAS 2.0: An ecosystem-specific taxonomy...

  8. Terry Turbopump Expanded Operating Band Full-Scale Component and Basic Science Detailed Test Plan - Final.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborn, Douglas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Solom, Matthew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This document details the milestone approach to define the true operating limitations (margins) of the Terry turbopump systems used in the nuclear industry for Milestone 3 (full-scale component experiments) and Milestone 4 (Terry turbopump basic science experiments) efforts. The overall multinational-sponsored program creates the technical basis to: (1) reduce and defer additional utility costs, (2) simplify plant operations, and (3) provide a better understanding of the true margin which could reduce overall risk of operations.

  9. Impact of compost process conditions on organic micro pollutant degradation during full scale composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadef, Yumna; Poulsen, Tjalfe Gorm; Bester, Kai

    2015-06-01

    Knowledge about the effects of oxygen concentration, nutrient availability and moisture content on removal of organic micro-pollutants during aerobic composting is at present very limited. Impact of oxygen concentration, readily available nitrogen content (NH4(+), NO3(-)), and moisture content on biological transformation of 15 key organic micro-pollutants during composting, was therefore investigated using bench-scale degradation experiments based on non-sterile compost samples, collected at full-scale composting facilities. In addition, the adequacy of bench-scale composting experiments for representing full-scale composting conditions, was investigated using micro-pollutant concentration measurements from both bench- and full-scale composting experiments. Results showed that lack of oxygen generally prevented transformation of organic micro-pollutants. Increasing readily available nitrogen content from about 50 mg N per 100 g compost to about 140 mg N per 100 g compost actually reduced micro-pollutant transformation, while changes in compost moisture content from 50% to 20% by weight, only had minor influence on micro-pollutant transformation. First-order micro-pollutant degradation rates for 13 organic micro-pollutants were calculated using data from both full- and bench-scale experiments. First-order degradation coefficients for both types of experiments were similar and ranged from 0.02 to 0.03 d(-1) on average, indicating that if a proper sampling strategy is employed, bench-scale experiments can be used to represent full-scale composting conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Genome-based microbial ecology of anammox granules in a full-scale wastewater treatment system

    OpenAIRE

    Speth, D.R.; Zandt, M.H. in 't; Guerrero Cruz, S.; Dutilh, B.E.; Jetten, M.S.M.

    2016-01-01

    Partial-nitritation anammox (PNA) is a novel wastewater treatment procedure for energy-efficient ammonium removal. Here we use genome-resolved metagenomics to build a genome-based ecological model of the microbial community in a full-scale PNA reactor. Sludge from the bioreactor examined here is used to seed reactors in wastewater treatment plants around the world; however, the role of most of its microbial community in ammonium removal remains unknown. Our analysis yielded 23 near-complete d...

  11. Autonomous smart sensor network for full-scale structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Jennifer A.; Mechitov, Kirill A.; Spencer, B. F., Jr.; Agha, Gul A.

    2010-04-01

    The demands of aging infrastructure require effective methods for structural monitoring and maintenance. Wireless smart sensor networks offer the ability to enhance structural health monitoring (SHM) practices through the utilization of onboard computation to achieve distributed data management. Such an approach is scalable to the large number of sensor nodes required for high-fidelity modal analysis and damage detection. While smart sensor technology is not new, the number of full-scale SHM applications has been limited. This slow progress is due, in part, to the complex network management issues that arise when moving from a laboratory setting to a full-scale monitoring implementation. This paper presents flexible network management software that enables continuous and autonomous operation of wireless smart sensor networks for full-scale SHM applications. The software components combine sleep/wake cycling for enhanced power management with threshold detection for triggering network wide tasks, such as synchronized sensing or decentralized modal analysis, during periods of critical structural response.

  12. DEMONSTRATION OF A FULL-SCALE RETROFIT OF THE ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom Hrdlicka; William Swanson

    2005-12-01

    The Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector (AHPC), developed in cooperation between W.L. Gore & Associates and the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), is an innovative approach to removing particulates from power plant flue gas. The AHPC combines the elements of a traditional baghouse and electrostatic precipitator (ESP) into one device to achieve increased particulate collection efficiency. As part of the Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII), this project was demonstrated under joint sponsorship from the U.S. Department of Energy and Otter Tail Power Company. The EERC is the patent holder for the technology, and W.L. Gore & Associates was the exclusive licensee for this project. The project objective was to demonstrate the improved particulate collection efficiency obtained by a full-scale retrofit of the AHPC to an existing electrostatic precipitator. The full-scale retrofit was installed on an electric power plant burning Powder River Basin (PRB) coal, Otter Tail Power Company's Big Stone Plant, in Big Stone City, South Dakota. The $13.4 million project was installed in October 2002. Project related testing concluded in December 2005. The following Final Technical Report has been prepared for the project entitled ''Demonstration of a Full-Scale Retrofit of the Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector Technology'' as described in DOE Award No. DE-FC26-02NT41420. The report presents the operation and performance results of the system.

  13. Aerobic Sludge Granulation in a Full-Scale Sequencing Batch Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerobic granulation of activated sludge was successfully achieved in a full-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR with 50,000 m3 d−1 for treating a town’s wastewater. After operation for 337 days, in this full-scale SBR, aerobic granules with an average SVI30 of 47.1 mL g−1, diameter of 0.5 mm, and settling velocity of 42 m h−1 were obtained. Compared to an anaerobic/oxic plug flow (A/O reactor and an oxidation ditch (OD being operated in this wastewater treatment plant, the sludge from full-scale SBR has more compact structure and excellent settling ability. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE analysis indicated that Flavobacterium sp., uncultured beta proteobacterium, uncultured Aquabacterium sp., and uncultured Leptothrix sp. were just dominant in SBR, whereas uncultured bacteroidetes were only found in A/O and OD. Three kinds of sludge had a high content of protein in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS. X-ray fluorescence (XRF analysis revealed that metal ions and some inorganics from raw wastewater precipitated in sludge acted as core to enhance granulation. Raw wastewater characteristics had a positive effect on the granule formation, but the SBR mode operating with periodic feast-famine, shorter settling time, and no return sludge pump played a crucial role in aerobic sludge granulation.

  14. Assessments of CHF correlations based on full-scale rod bundle experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sardh, K.; Becker, K.M.

    1986-02-01

    In the present study the Barnett, the Becker, the Biasi, the CISE-4, the XN-1, the EPRI and the Bezrukov burnout correlations have been compared with burnout measurements obtained with full scale 81, 64, 36 and 37-rod bundles. The total power as well as the local power hypothesis was employed for the comparisons. The results clearly indicated that the Biasi and the CISE-4 correlations do not predict the burnout conditions in full-scale rod bundles. Since, these correlations yield non-conservative results their use in computer programs as for instance RELAP, TRAC or NORA should be avoided. Considering that the effects of spacers were not included in the predictions, the Becker and the Bezrukov correlations were in excellent agreement with the experimental data. However, it should be pointed out that the Bezrukov correlation only covered the 70 and 90 bar data, while the Becker correlation agreed with the experimental data in the whole pressure range between 30 and 90 bar. The Barnett, the XN-1 and the EPRI correlations were also in satisfactory agreement with the experiments. We therefore conclude that for predictions of the burnout conditions in full-scale BWR rod bundles the Becker correlation should be employed. (author)

  15. Architectural prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2004-01-01

    A major part of software architecture design is learning how specific architectural designs balance the concerns of stakeholders. We explore the notion of "architectural prototypes", correspondingly architectural prototyping, as a means of using executable prototypes to investigate stakeholders...

  16. Full-Scale Structural and NDI Validation Tests of Bonded Composite Doublers for Commercial Aircraft Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roach, D.; Walkington, P.

    1999-02-01

    Composite doublers, or repair patches, provide an innovative repair technique which can enhance the way aircraft are maintained. Instead of riveting multiple steel or aluminum plates to facilitate an aircraft repair, it is possible to bond a single Boron-Epoxy composite doubler to the damaged structure. Most of the concerns surrounding composite doubler technology pertain to long-term survivability, especially in the presence of non-optimum installations, and the validation of appropriate inspection procedures. This report focuses on a series of full-scale structural and nondestructive inspection (NDI) tests that were conducted to investigate the performance of Boron-Epoxy composite doublers. Full-scale tests were conducted on fuselage panels cut from retired aircraft. These full-scale tests studied stress reductions, crack mitigation, and load transfer capabilities of composite doublers using simulated flight conditions of cabin pressure and axial stress. Also, structures which modeled key aspects of aircraft structure repairs were subjected to extreme tension, shear and bending loads to examine the composite laminate's resistance to disbond and delamination flaws. Several of the structures were loaded to failure in order to determine doubler design margins. Nondestructive inspections were conducted throughout the test series in order to validate appropriate techniques on actual aircraft structure. The test results showed that a properly designed and installed composite doubler is able to enhance fatigue life, transfer load away from damaged structure, and avoid the introduction of new stress risers (i.e. eliminate global reduction in the fatigue life of the structure). Comparisons with test data obtained prior to the doubler installation revealed that stresses in the parent material can be reduced 30%--60% through the use of the composite doubler. Tests to failure demonstrated that the bondline is able to transfer plastic strains into the doubler and that

  17. Modeling a full-scale primary sedimentation tank using artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamal El-Din, A; Smith, D W

    2002-05-01

    Modeling the performance of full-scale primary sedimentation tanks has been commonly done using regression-based models, which are empirical relationships derived strictly from observed daily average influent and effluent data. Another approach to model a sedimentation tank is using a hydraulic efficiency model that utilizes tracer studies to characterize the performance of model sedimentation tanks based on eddy diffusion. However, the use of hydraulic efficiency models to predict the dynamic behavior of a full-scale sedimentation tank is very difficult as the development of such models has been done using controlled studies of model tanks. In this paper, another type of model, namely artificial neural network modeling approach, is used to predict the dynamic response of a full-scale primary sedimentation tank. The neuralmodel consists of two separate networks, one uses flow and influent total suspended solids data in order to predict the effluent total suspended solids from the tank, and the other makes predictions of the effluent chemical oxygen demand using data of the flow and influent chemical oxygen demand as inputs. An extensive sampling program was conducted in order to collect a data set to be used in training and validating the networks. A systematic approach was used in the building process of the model which allowed the identification of a parsimonious neural model that is able to learn (and not memorize) from past data and generalize very well to unseen data that were used to validate the model. Theresults seem very promising. The potential of using the model as part of a real-time process control system isalso discussed.

  18. Unsteady aerodynamics simulation of a full-scale horizontal axis wind turbine using CFD methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Xin; Gu, Rongrong; Pan, Pan; Zhu, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A full-scale HAWT is simulated under operational conditions of wind shear and yaw. • The CFD method and sliding mesh are adopted to complete the calculation. • Thrust and torque of blades reach the peak and valley at the same time in wind shear. • The wind turbine produces yaw moment during the whole revolution in yaw case. • The torques and thrusts of the three blades present cyclical changes. - Abstract: The aerodynamic performance of wind turbines is significantly influenced by the unsteady flow around the rotor blades. The research on unsteady aerodynamics for Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWTs) is still poorly understood because of the complex flow physics. In this study, the unsteady aerodynamic configuration of a full-scale HAWT is simulated with consideration of wind shear, tower shadow and yaw motion. The calculated wind turbine which contains tapered tower, rotor overhang and tilted rotor shaft is constructed by making reference of successfully commercial operated wind turbine designed by NEG Micon and Vestas. A validated CFD method is utilized to analyze unsteady aerodynamic characteristics which affect the performance on such a full-scale HAWT. The approach of sliding mesh is used to carefully deal with the interface between static and moving parts in the flow field. The annual average wind velocity and wind profile in the atmospheric border are applied as boundary conditions. Considering the effects of wind shear and tower shadow, the simulation results show that the each blade reaches its maximum and minimum aerodynamic loads almost at the same time during the rotation circle. The blade–tower interaction imposes great impact on the power output performance. The wind turbine produces yaw moment during the whole revolution and the maximum aerodynamic loads appear at the upwind azimuth in the yaw computation case.

  19. The effect of primary sedimentation on full-scale WWTP nutrient removal performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, S; van Loosdrecht, M C M; Flameling, A G; Colprim, J; Meijer, S C F

    2010-06-01

    Traditionally, the performance of full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is measured based on influent and/or effluent and waste sludge flows and concentrations. Full-scale WWTP data typically have a high variance which often contains (large) measurement errors. A good process engineering evaluation of the WWTP performance is therefore difficult. This also makes it usually difficult to evaluate effect of process changes in a plant or compare plants to each other. In this paper we used a case study of a full-scale nutrient removing WWTP. The plant normally uses presettled wastewater, as a means to increase the nutrient removal the plant was operated for a period by-passing raw wastewater (27% of the influent flow). The effect of raw wastewater addition has been evaluated by different approaches: (i) influent characteristics, (ii) design retrofit, (iii) effluent quality, (iv) removal efficiencies, (v) activated sludge characteristics, (vi) microbial activity tests and FISH analysis and, (vii) performance assessment based on mass balance evaluation. This paper demonstrates that mass balance evaluation approach helps the WWTP engineers to distinguish and quantify between different strategies, where others could not. In the studied case, by-passing raw wastewater (27% of the influent flow) directly to the biological reactor did not improve the effluent quality and the nutrient removal efficiency of the WWTP. The increase of the influent C/N and C/P ratios was associated to particulate compounds with low COD/VSS ratio and a high non-biodegradable COD fraction. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Introducing sequential managed aquifer recharge technology (SMART) - From laboratory to full-scale application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnery, Julia; Wing, Alexandre D; Kautz, Jessica; Drewes, Jörg E

    2016-07-01

    Previous lab-scale studies demonstrated that stimulating the indigenous soil microbial community of groundwater recharge systems by manipulating the availability of biodegradable organic carbon (BDOC) and establishing sequential redox conditions in the subsurface resulted in enhanced removal of compounds with redox-dependent removal behavior such as trace organic chemicals. The aim of this study is to advance this concept from laboratory to full-scale application by introducing sequential managed aquifer recharge technology (SMART). To validate the concept of SMART, a full-scale managed aquifer recharge (MAR) facility in Colorado was studied for three years that featured the proposed sequential configuration: A short riverbank filtration passage followed by subsequent re-aeration and artificial recharge and recovery. Our findings demonstrate that sequential subsurface treatment zones characterized by carbon-rich (>3 mg/L BDOC) to carbon-depleted (≤1 mg/L BDOC) and predominant oxic redox conditions can be established at full-scale MAR facilities adopting the SMART concept. The sequential configuration resulted in substantially improved trace organic chemical removal (i.e. higher biodegradation rate coefficients) for moderately biodegradable compounds compared to conventional MAR systems with extended travel times in an anoxic aquifer. Furthermore, sorption batch experiments with clay materials dispersed in the subsurface implied that sorptive processes might also play a role in the attenuation and retardation of chlorinated flame retardants during MAR. Hence, understanding key factors controlling trace organic chemical removal performance during SMART allows for systems to be engineered for optimal efficiency, resulting in improved removal of constituents at shorter subsurface travel times and a potentially reduced physical footprint of MAR installations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Design features of a full-scale high-level waste vitrification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemens, D.H.; Bonner, W.F.

    1976-08-01

    A system has been designed and is currently under construction for vitrification of commercial high-level waste. The process consists of a spray calciner coupled to an in-can melter. Due to the high radiation levels expected, this equipment is designed for totally remote operation and maintenance. The in-cell arrangement of this equipment has been developed cooperatively with a nuclear fuel reprocessor. The system will be demonstrated both full scale with nonradioactive simulated waste and pilot scale with actual high-level waste

  2. The optimization of aircraft seat cushion fire-blocking layers. Full Scale: Test description and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutter, K. J.; Duskin, F. E.

    1982-01-01

    Full-scale burn tests were conducted on thirteen different seat cushion configurations in a cabin fire simulator. The fire source used was a quartz lamp radiant energy panel with a propane pilot flame. During each test, data were recorded for cushion temperatures, radiant heat flux, rate of weight loss of test specimens, and cabin temperatures. When compared to existing passenger aircraft seat cushions, the test specimens incorporating a fire barrier and those fabricated from advance materials, using improved construction methods, exhibited significantly greater fire resistance.

  3. Calibration and validation of a phenomenological influent pollutant disturbance scenario generator using full-scale data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores Alsina, Xavier; Saagi, Ramesh; Lindblom, Erik Ulfson

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the full-scale feasibility of the phenomenological dynamic influent pollutant disturbance scenario generator (DIPDSG) that was originally used to create the influent data of the International Water Association (IWA) Benchmark Simulation Model No. 2 (BSM...... rainfall patterns (climate change) or influent biodegradability (process uncertainty) on the generated time series; 2) a demonstration of how to reduce the cost/workload of measuring campaigns by filling the gaps due to missing data in the influent profiles; and, 3) a critical discussion of the presented...

  4. Full-scale mark II CRT program data report, No. 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeshita, Isao; Yamamoto, Nobuo; Kukita, Yutaka; Namatame, Ken; Shiba, Masayoshi

    1980-07-01

    Recorded data for TEST 1202 conducted on the Full-Scale Mark II CRT (Containment Responce Test) Facility are presented. The TEST 1202 is a test under the condition of steam discharge with a large break diameter (240 mm) and the second one of the steam discharge pool swell test series. It is also one of the parametric tests with different break diameters, i.e. TEST 1201 (200 mm), TEST 1202 (240 mm) and TEST 1203 (220 mm). The test was successful and a value of 225 kPa/s was obtained as the initial pressurization rate in the drywell. (author)

  5. Full-Scale Mark II CRT program data report no. 10 (TEST 1203)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukita, Yutaka; Takeshita, Isao; Yamamoto, Nobuo; Namatame, Ken; Shiba, Masayoshi

    1981-03-01

    Recorded data for TEST 1203 conducted on the Full-Scale Mark II CRT (Containment Response Test) Facility are presented. The test 1203 is the third test run of a series of steam discharge pool swell test. It is one of the tests where break diameter was varied parametrically, i.e., TEST 1201 (200 mm), TEST 1202 (240 mm) and TEST 1203 (220 mm). The test was successfully conducted. A drywell initial pressurization rate of 188 kPa/s was obtained, which is approximately equal to what is postulated for a hypothetical DBA (Design Basis Accident) LOCA in the BWR Mark II containment. (author)

  6. Investigation of the gypsum quality at three full-scale wet flue gas desulphurisation plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Brian Brun; Kiil, Søren; Johnsson, Jan Erik

    2011-01-01

    In the present study the gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) quality at three full-scale wet flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) plants and a pilot plant were examined and compared. Gypsum quality can be expressed in terms of moisture content (particle size and morphology dependent) and the concentration of residual......, low moisture content and low impurity content). An episode concerning a sudden deterioration in the gypsum dewatering properties was furthermore investigated, and a change in crystal morphology, as well as an increased impurity content (aluminium, iron and fluoride), was detected....

  7. Effect of agitation time on nutrient distribution in full-scale CSTR biogas digesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, Philipp; Nägele, Hans-Joachim; Oechsner, Hans; Ruile, Stephan

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the impact of reduced mixing time in a full-scale CSTR biogas reactor from 10 to 5 and to 2min in half an hour on the distribution of DM, acetic acid and FOS/TAC as a measure to cut electricity consumption. The parameters in the digestate were unevenly distributed with the highest concentration measured at the point of feeding. By reducing mixing time, the FOS/TAC value increases by 16.6%. A reduced mixing time of 2min lead to an accumulation of 15% biogas in the digestate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Full scale tests on remote handled FFTF fuel assembly waste handling and packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, C.R.; Cash, R.J.; Dawson, S.A.; Strode, J.N.

    1986-01-01

    Handling and packaging of remote handled, high activity solid waste fuel assembly hardware components from spent FFTF reactor fuel assemblies have been evaluated using full scale components. The demonstration was performed using FFTF fuel assembly components and simulated components which were handled remotely using electromechanical manipulators, shielding walls, master slave manipulators, specially designed grapples, and remote TV viewing. The testing and evaluation included handling, packaging for current and conceptual shipping containers, and the effects of volume reduction on packing efficiency and shielding requirements. Effects of waste segregation into transuranic (TRU) and non-transuranic fractions also are discussed

  9. Characterisation and full-scale production testing of multifunctional surfaces for deep drawing applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godi, Alessandro; Grønbæk, J.; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2017-01-01

    assisted polishing. Advanced methods are employed to characterise the tools' surface topographies, detecting the surface features and analysing them separately according to their specific function. Four different multifunctional dies as well as two un-textured references are selected for testing. The tests......Full-scale deep drawing tests using tools featuring multifunctional surfaces are carried out in a production environment. Multifunctional tools display regularly spaced, transversal grooves for lubricant retention obtained by hard-turning, separated by smooth bearing plateaus realized by robot...

  10. Effect of operating conditions and reactor configuration on efficiency of full-scale biogas plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Boe, Kanokwan; Ellegaard, L.

    2005-01-01

    A study on 18 full-scale centralized biogas plants was carried out in order to find significant operational factors influencing productivity and stability of the plants. It was found that the most plants were operating relatively stable with volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration below 1.5 g....../l. VFA concentration increase was observed in occasions with dramatic overloading or other disturbances such as operational temperature changes. Ammonia was found to be a significant factor for stability. A correlation between increased residual biogas production and high ammonia was found. When ammonia...

  11. Identification of active denitrifiers in full-scale nutrient removal wastewater treatment systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mcllroy, Simon; Starnawska, Anna; Starnawski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Denitrification is essential to the removal of nitrogen from wastewater during treatment, yet an understanding of the diversity of the active denitrifying bacteria responsible in full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is lacking. In this study, stable-isotope probing (SIP) was applied......-labelled complex substrate was used for SIP incubations, under nitrite-reducing conditions, in order to maximize the capture of the potentially metabolically diverse denitrifiers likely present. Members of the Rhodoferax, Dechloromonas, Sulfuritalea, Haliangium and Thermomonas were represented in the 16S rRNA gene...

  12. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant full-scale feed preparation testing with water and process simulant slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaskill, J.R.; Larson, D.E.; Abrigo, G.P.

    1996-03-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant was intended to convert selected, pretreated defense high-level waste and transuranic waste from the Hanford Site into a borosilicate glass. A full-scale testing program was conducted with nonradioactive waste simulants to develop information for process and equipment design of the feed-preparation system. The equipment systems tested included the Slurry Receipt and Adjustment Tank, Slurry Mix Evaporator, and Melter-Feed Tank. The areas of data generation included heat transfer (boiling, heating, and cooling), slurry mixing, slurry pumping and transport, slurry sampling, and process chemistry. 13 refs., 129 figs., 68 tabs

  13. Anaerobic digestion foaming in full-scale biogas plants: A survey on causes and solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Boe, Kanokwan; O-Thong, Sompong

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion foaming is a common operation problem in biogas plants with negative impacts on the biogas plants economy and environment. A survey of 16 Danish full-scale biogas plants on foaming problems revealed that most of them had experienced foaming in their processes up to three times...... of foaming in this case. Moreover, no difference in bacterial communities between the foaming and non-foaming reactors was observed, showing that filamentous bacteria were not the main reason for foaming in this case. © IWA Publishing 2014....

  14. Full-Scale Mark II CRT program data report no. 12 (TEST 1205)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeshita, Isao; Kukita, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Nubuo; Namatame, Ken; Shiba, Masayoshi

    1981-03-01

    Recorded data for TEST 1205 conducted on the Full-Scale Mark II CRT (Containment Response Test) Facility are presented. The TEST 1205 is the fifth test run of a series of steam discharge pool swell tests. The test conditions are similar to those of the TEST 1203 except that the vacuum breaker was locked close. The test was successful and the comparison of the TEST 1205 and the TEST 1203 results shows that the vacuum breaker may have some effects to reduce the wetwell airspace pressurization, and thus to reduce the upward force to diaphram floor during a pool swell. (author)

  15. Full-scale Mark II CRT program: dynamic response evaluation test of pressure transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukita, Yutaka; Namatame, Ken; Takeshita, Isao; Shiba, Masayoshi

    1982-12-01

    A dynamic response evaluation test of pressure transducers was conducted in support of the JAERI Full-Scale Mark II CRT (Containment Response Test) Program. The test results indicated that certain of the cavity-type transducers used in the early blowdown test had undesirable response characteristics. The transducer mounting scheme was modified to avoid trapping of air bubbles in the pressure transmission tubing attached to the transducers. The dynamic response of the modified transducers was acceptable within the frequency range of 200 Hz. (author)

  16. Quantum mechanical study of solvent effects in a prototype SN2 reaction in solution: Cl- attack on CH3Cl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuechler, Erich R; York, Darrin M

    2014-02-07

    The nucleophilic attack of a chloride ion on methyl chloride is an important prototype SN2 reaction in organic chemistry that is known to be sensitive to the effects of the surrounding solvent. Herein, we develop a highly accurate Specific Reaction Parameter (SRP) model based on the Austin Model 1 Hamiltonian for chlorine to study the effects of solvation into an aqueous environment on the reaction mechanism. To accomplish this task, we apply high-level quantum mechanical calculations to study the reaction in the gas phase and combined quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical simulations with TIP3P and TIP4P-ew water models and the resulting free energy profiles are compared with those determined from simulations using other fast semi-empirical quantum models. Both gas phase and solution results with the SRP model agree very well with experiment and provide insight into the specific role of solvent on the reaction coordinate. Overall, the newly parameterized SRP Hamiltonian is able to reproduce both the gas phase and solution phase barriers, suggesting it is an accurate and robust model for simulations in the aqueous phase at greatly reduced computational cost relative to comparably accurate ab initio and density functional models.

  17. MX-80 Bentonite. Thermal-Hydro-Mechanical Characterisation Performed at CIEMAT in the Context of the Prototype Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villar, M. V.

    2005-01-01

    This document details the results of the thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) characterisation of the commercial MX-80 bentonite performed by CIEMAT from 2001 to 2004 in the context of a project carried out at the AEspoe Hard Rock Laboratory (Sweden), the Prototype Repository. The swelling pressure and the permeability of the bentonite compacted to different dry densities has been determined, as well as the influence of the permeant salinity on hydraulic conductivity. The influence of salinity on the retention capacity of the compacted bentonite has been studied. For that, a new methodology has been designed. Water retention curves have been determined at temperatures of 20 and 60 0 C. Suction controlled odometer tests have been performed at 20oC. Finally, the behaviour of the MX-80 bentonite has been compared to that of the Spanish FEBEX bentonite. (Author) 13 refs

  18. MX-80 Bentonite. thermal-Hydro-Mechanical Characterisation Performed at CIEMAT in the Context of the Prototype Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villar, M. V.

    2005-07-01

    This document details the results of the thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) characterisation of the commercial MX-80 bentonite performed by CIEMAT from 2001 to 2004 in the context of a project carried out at the AEspoe Hard Rock Laboratory (Sweden), the Prototype Repository. The swelling pressure and the permeability of the bentonite compacted to different dry densities has been determined, as well as the influence of the permeant salinity on hydraulic conductivity. The influence of salinity on the retention capacity of the compacted bentonite has been studied. For that, a new methodology has been designed. Water retention curves have been determined at temperatures of 20 and 60oC. Suction controlled odometer tests have been performed at 20oC. Finally, the behaviour of the MX-80 bentonite has been compared to that of the Spanish FEBEX bentonite. (Author) 13 refs.

  19. Are anticoagulant independent mechanical valves within reach-fast prototype fabrication and in vitro testing of innovative bi-leaflet valve models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotten, Lawrence N; Siegel, Rolland

    2015-08-01

    Exploration for causes of prosthetic valve thrombogenicity has frequently focused on forward or post-closure flow detail. In prior laboratory studies, we uncovered high amplitude flow velocities of short duration close to valve closure implying potential for substantial shear stress with subsequent initiation of blood coagulation pathways. This may be relevant to widely accepted clinical disparity between mechanical and tissue valves vis-à-vis thrombogenicity. With a series of prototype bi-leaflet mechanical valves, we attempt reduction of closure related velocities with the objective of identifying a prototype valve with thrombogenic potential similar to our tissue valve control. This iterative design approach may find application in preclinical assessment of valves for anticoagulation independence. Tested valves included: prototype mechanical bi-leaflet BVs (n=56), controls (n=2) and patented early prototype mechanicals (n=2) from other investigators. Pulsatile and quasi-steady flow systems were used for testing. Projected dynamic valve area (PDVA) was measured using previously described novel technology. Flow velocity over the open and closing periods was determined by volumetric flow rate/PDVA. For the closed valve interval, use was made of data obtained from quasi-steady back pressure/flow tests. Performance was ranked by a proposed thrombogenicity potential index (TPI) relative to tissue and mechanical control valves. Optimization of the prototype valve designs lead to a 3-D printed model (BV3D). For the mitral/aortic site, BV3D has lower TPI (1.10/1.47) relative to the control mechanical valve (3.44/3.93) and similar to the control tissue valve (ideal TPI ≤1.0). Using unique technology, rapid prototyping and thrombogenicity ranking, optimization of experimental valves for reduced thrombogenic potential was expedited and simplified. Innovative mechanical valve configurations were identified that merit consideration for further development which may bring

  20. LS-DYNA Analysis of a Full-Scale Helicopter Crash Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annett, Martin S.

    2010-01-01

    A full-scale crash test of an MD-500 helicopter was conducted in December 2009 at NASA Langley's Landing and Impact Research facility (LandIR). The MD-500 helicopter was fitted with a composite honeycomb Deployable Energy Absorber (DEA) and tested under vertical and horizontal impact velocities of 26 ft/sec and 40 ft/sec, respectively. The objectives of the test were to evaluate the performance of the DEA concept under realistic crash conditions and to generate test data for validation of a system integrated LS-DYNA finite element model. In preparation for the full-scale crash test, a series of sub-scale and MD-500 mass simulator tests was conducted to evaluate the impact performances of various components, including a new crush tube and the DEA blocks. Parameters defined within the system integrated finite element model were determined from these tests. The objective of this paper is to summarize the finite element models developed and analyses performed, beginning with pre-test and continuing through post test validation.

  1. Monitoring of full-scale hydrodynamic cavitation pretreatment in agricultural biogas plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garuti, Mirco; Langone, Michela; Fabbri, Claudio; Piccinini, Sergio

    2018-01-01

    The implementation of hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) pretreatment for enhancing the methane potential from agricultural biomasses was evaluated in a full scale agricultural biogas plant, with molasses and corn meal as a supplementary energy source. HC batch tests were run to investigate the influence on methane production, particle size and viscosity of specific energy input. 470kJ/kgTS was chosen for the full-scale implementation. Nearly 6-months of operational data showed that the HC pretreatment maximized the specific methane production of about 10%, allowing the biogas plant to get out of the fluctuating markets of supplementary energy sources and to reduce the methane emissions. HC influenced viscosity and particle size of digestate, contributing to reduce the energy demand for mixing, heating and pumping. In the light of the obtained results the HC process appears to be an attractive and energetically promising alternative to other pretreatments for the degradation of biomasses in biogas plant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Full scale simulations of accidents on spent-nuclear-fuel shipping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, H.R.

    1978-01-01

    In 1977 and 1978, five first-of-a-kind full scale tests of spent-nuclear-fuel shipping systems were conducted at Sandia Laboratories. The objectives of this broad test program were (1) to assess and demonstrate the validity of current analytical and scale modeling techniques for predicting damage in accident conditions by comparing predicted results with actual test results, and (2) to gain quantitative knowledge of extreme accident environments by assessing the response of full scale hardware under actual test conditions. The tests were not intended to validate the present regulatory standards. The spent fuel cask tests fell into the following configurations: crashes of a truck-transport system into a massive concrete barrier (100 and 130 km/h); a grade crossing impact test (130 km/h) involving a locomotive and a stalled tractor-trailer; and a railcar shipping system impact into a massive concrete barrier (130 km/h) followed by fire. In addition to collecting much data on the response of cask transport systems, the program has demonstrated thus far that current analytical and scale modeling techniques are valid approaches for predicting vehicular and cask damage in accident environments. The tests have also shown that the spent casks tested are extremely rugged devices capable of retaining their radioactive contents in very severe accidents

  3. Full-scale mark II CRT program data report no. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukita, Yutaka; Namatame, Ken; Yamamoto, Nobuo; Takeshita, Isao; Shiba, Masayoshi

    1980-03-01

    The Full-Scale Mark II CRT (Containment Response Test) Program was initiated in 1977 to provide a data base for evaluation of the LOCA hydrodynamic loads in the BWR Mark II pressure suppression system. The test facility is 1/18 in volume and has a wetwell which is a full-scale replica of one 20 0 -sector of that of a reference Mark II. This report documents test data obtained from TEST 3102, which is a large (200 mm) water break test performed on June 29, 1979. The test was performed for a supernominal break area (approx. 160% of the scaled break area for a postulated double-ended break in the recirculation line) to obtain vent steam mass fluxes ranging up to the maximum design value of the actual plants. Before the initiation of the test more than 90% of the drywell air was replaced by steam and transferred into wetwell airspace to reduce the air content in the vent flow during the test. Because of this pre-test treatment (so-called prepurging) the test data obtained for high- and intermediate-steam-flux condensation oscillations are believed to be to a high degree on conservative side. (author)

  4. Full scaled tests of the KERENA trademark containment cooling condenser at the INKA test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leyer, Stephan; Maisberger, Fabian; Lineva, Natalia; Wagner, Thomas; Doll, Mathias; Herbst, Vasilli; Wich, Michael

    2010-01-01

    KERENA trademark is a medium-capacity boiling water reactor. It combines passive safety systems with active safety equipment of service-proven design. The passive systems utilize basic laws of physics, such as gravity and natural convection, enabling them to function without any power supply or actuation by instrumentation and control (I and C) equipment. They are designed to bring the plant to a safe and stable condition without the aid of active systems. Furthermore, the passive safety features partially replace the active systems, which reduces costs significantly and provides a safe, reliable and economically competitive plant design. At the new test facility at Karlstein called INKA (Integral Test Stand Karlstein), the key components of the KERENA trademark passive safety concept - the Emergency Condenser (EC), the Containment Cooling Condenser (CCC) and the passive core flooding system (PCFS) - are presently under full-scale testing,. Integral system tests will also be performed to show how the passive safety systems interact under various anticipated accident conditions and to demonstrate the ability of the passive systems to bring the plant to a safe and stable condition without the aid of active systems or actuation by I and C signals. The passive pressure pulse transmitter (PPPT) will be included in these integral tests. In this report the experimental setup and the first test results with the full scaled Containment Cooling Condenser will be described. (orig.)

  5. Non-machinery dialysis that achieves blood purification therapy without using full-scale dialysis machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Takaya; Onoda, Mistutaka; Matsuura, Tomohiko; Sugimura, Jun; Obara, Wataru; Sato, Toshiya; Takahashi, Mihoko; Chiba, Kenta; Abe, Tomiya

    2017-09-01

    An electrical or water supply and a blood purification machine are required for renal replacement therapy. There is a possibility that acute kidney injury can occur in large numbers and on a wide scale in the case of a massive earthquake, and there is the potential risk that the current supply will be unable to cope with acute kidney injury cases. However, non-machinery dialysis requires exclusive circuits and has the characteristic of not requiring the full-scale dialysis machines. We performed perfusion experiments that used non-machinery dialysis and recent blood purification machines in 30-min intervals, and the effectiveness of non-machinery dialysis was evaluated by the assessing the removal efficiency of potassium, which causes lethal arrhythmia during acute kidney injury. The non-machinery dialysis potassium removal rate was at the same level as continuous blood purification machines with a dialysate flow rate of 5 L/h after 15 min and continuous blood purification machines with a dialysate flow rate of 3 L/h after 30 min. Non-machinery dialysis required an exclusive dialysate circuit, the frequent need to replace bags, and new dialysate exchanged once every 30 min. However, it can be seen as an effective renal replacement therapy for crush-related acute kidney injury patients, even in locations or facilities not having the full-scale dialysis machines.

  6. Results of full scale dry injection tests at MSW-incinerators using a new active absorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felsvang, K.S.; Helvind, O.

    1991-01-01

    Worldwide incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) has been utilized to reduce the volume of waste to be disposed of. Increasing environmental concerns over the potential air pollution impacts have led to emission limits for pollutants such as HCl, SO 2 , particulate, and more recently also for mercury and dioxins. For a certain size of incinerators, dry sorbent injection is the preferred technology for air pollution control. This paper describes the development of a new active sorbent, Scansorb, which is particularly suited for use in dry injection processes. The new sorbent is a lime based product with adjustable properties. Scansorb can be produced with a specific surface area of 30 to 100 m 2 /g. Pilot plant development work has shown that a considerable reduction in the absorbent quantity can be achieved when Scansorb is used instead of commercial hydrated lime. Full scale tests performed at four different MSW incinerators have confirmed the viability of the new active absorbent. The full scale tests have demonstrated that more than 50% SO 2 removal can be achieved with Scansorb at quantities much less than with commercial hydrated lime

  7. Microbial Community Composition and Ultrastructure of Granules from a Full-Scale Anammox Reactor

    KAUST Repository

    Gonzalez-Gil, Graciela

    2014-12-11

    Granules in anammox reactors contain besides anammox bacteria other microbial communities whose identity and relationship with the anammox bacteria are not well understood. High calcium concentrations are often supplied to anammox reactors to obtain sufficient bacterial aggregation and biomass retention. The aim of this study was to provide the first characterization of bacterial and archaeal communities in anammox granules from a full-scale anammox reactor and to explore on the possible role of calcium in such aggregates. High magnification imaging using backscattered electrons revealed that anammox bacteria may be embedded in calcium phosphate precipitates. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments showed, besides anammox bacteria (Brocadiacea, 32 %), substantial numbers of heterotrophic bacteria Ignavibacteriacea (18 %) and Anaerolinea (7 %) along with heterotrophic denitrifiers Rhodocyclacea (9 %), Comamonadacea (3 %), and Shewanellacea (3 %) in the granules. It is hypothesized that these bacteria may form a network in which heterotrophic denitrifiers cooperate to achieve a well-functioning denitrification system as they can utilize the nitrate intrinsically produced by the anammox reaction. This network may provide a niche for the proliferation of archaea. Hydrogenotrophic methananogens, which scavenge the key fermentation product H2, were the most abundant archaea detected. Cells resembling the polygon-shaped denitrifying methanotroph Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera were observed by electron microscopy. It is hypothesized that the anammox process in a full-scale reactor triggers various reactions overall leading to efficient denitrification and a sink of carbon as biomass in anammox granules.

  8. Full-scale experimental validation of decentralized damage identification using wireless smart sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Shinae; Sim, Sung-Han; Jo, Hongki; Spencer Jr, Billie F

    2012-01-01

    Wireless smart sensor networks (WSSN) facilitate a new paradigm for structural health monitoring (SHM) of civil infrastructure. Conventionally, SHM systems employing wired sensors and centralized data acquisition have been used to characterize the state of a structure; however, widespread implementation has been limited due to high costs and difficulties in installation. WSSN offer a unique opportunity to overcome such difficulties. Recent developments have realized low-cost, smart sensors with on-board computation and wireless communication capabilities, making deployment of a dense array of sensors on large civil structures both economical and feasible. Wireless smart sensors (WSS) have shown their tremendous potential for SHM in recent full-scale bridge monitoring examples. However, structural damage identification using on-board computation capability in a WSSN, a primary objective of SHM, has yet to reach its full potential. This paper presents full-scale validation of a damage identification strategy using a decentralized network of Imote2 nodes on a historic steel truss bridge. A total of 24 WSS nodes with 144 sensor channels are deployed on the bridge to validate the developed damage identification software. The performance of this decentralized damage identification strategy is demonstrated on the WSSN by comparing its results with those from the traditional centralized approach, as well as visual inspection. (paper)

  9. Novel cost effective full scale mussel shell bioreactors for metal removal and acid neutralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiLoreto, Z A; Weber, P A; Olds, W; Pope, J; Trumm, D; Chaganti, S R; Heath, D D; Weisener, C G

    2016-12-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) impacted waters are a worldwide concern for the mining industry and countries dealing with this issue; both active and passive technologies are employed for the treatment of such waters. Mussel shell bioreactors (MSB) represent a passive technology that utilizes waste from the shellfish industry as a novel substrate. The aim of this study is to provide insight into the biogeochemical dynamics of a novel full scale MSB for AMD treatment. A combination of water quality data, targeted geochemical extractions, and metagenomic analyses were used to evaluate MSB performance. The MSB raised the effluent pH from 3.4 to 8.3 while removing up to ∼99% of the dissolved Al, and Fe and >90% Ni, Tl, and Zn. A geochemical gradient was observed progressing from oxidized to reduced conditions with depth. The redox conditions helped define the microbial consortium that consists of a specialized niche of organisms that influence elemental cycling (i.e. complex Fe and S cycling). MSB technology represents an economic and effective means of full scale, passive AMD treatment that is an attractive alternative for developing economies due to its low cost and ease of implementation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mitigation of tank 241-SY-101 by pump mixing: Results of full-scale testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, C.W.; Hudson, J.D.; Friley, J.R.; Panisko, F.E.; Antoniak, Z.I.; Irwin, J.J.; Fadeff, J.G.; Efferding, L.F.; Michener, T.E.; Kirch, N.W.

    1994-06-01

    The Full-Scale Mixer Pump Test Program was performed in Hanford Tank 241-SY-101 from February 4 to April 13, 1994, to confirm the long-term operational strategy for flammable gas mitigation and to demonstrate that mixing can control the gas release and waste level. Since its installation on July 3, 1993, the current pump, operating only a few hours per week, has proved capable of mixing the waste sufficiently to release gas continuously instead of in large episodic events. The results of Full-Scale Testing demonstrated that the pump can control gas release and waste level for long-term mitigation, and the four test sequences formed the basis for the long-term operating schedule. The last test sequence, jet penetration tests, showed that the current pump jet creates flow near the tank wall and that it can excavate portions of the bottom sludge layer if run at maximum power. Pump mixing has altered the open-quote normal close-quote configuration of the waste; most of the original nonconvective sludge has been mixed with the supernatant liquid into a mobile convective slurry that has since been maintained by gentle pump operation and does not readily return to sludge

  11. Mixing characterisation of full-scale membrane bioreactors: CFD modelling with experimental validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannock, M; Wang, Y; Leslie, G

    2010-05-01

    Membrane Bioreactors (MBRs) have been successfully used in aerobic biological wastewater treatment to solve the perennial problem of effective solids-liquid separation. The optimisation of MBRs requires knowledge of the membrane fouling, biokinetics and mixing. However, research has mainly concentrated on the fouling and biokinetics (Ng and Kim, 2007). Current methods of design for a desired flow regime within MBRs are largely based on assumptions (e.g. complete mixing of tanks) and empirical techniques (e.g. specific mixing energy). However, it is difficult to predict how sludge rheology and vessel design in full-scale installations affects hydrodynamics, hence overall performance. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) provides a method for prediction of how vessel features and mixing energy usage affect the hydrodynamics. In this study, a CFD model was developed which accounts for aeration, sludge rheology and geometry (i.e. bioreactor and membrane module). This MBR CFD model was then applied to two full-scale MBRs and was successfully validated against experimental results. The effect of sludge settling and rheology was found to have a minimal impact on the bulk mixing (i.e. the residence time distribution).

  12. The HyperV Full-Scale Contoured-Gap Coaxial Plasma Railgun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockington, Samuel; Case, Andrew; Messer, Sarah; Bomgardner, Richard; Elton, Raymond; Wu, Linchun; Witherspoon, F. Douglas

    2009-11-01

    HyperV has been developing pulsed plasma injected coaxial railguns with a contoured gap profile designed to mitigate the blowby instability. Previous work using half-scale guns has been successful in launching 150 μg plasmas at 90 km/s [1]. In order to meet the original goal of 200 μg at 200 km/s the full-scale coaxial plasma gun has been constructed, and initial testing is beginning. This new plasma gun consists of two machined aluminum electrodes and a UHMW polyethylene breech insulator. The gun is breech fed by 64 ablative polyethylene capillary discharge units identical to the half-scale gun units. Maximum accelerator energy storage has also been increased 50%. Refractory coatings may be necessary to allow full current (˜800 kA) operation. The outer electrode includes 24 small diagnostic ports for optical and magnetic probe access to the plasma inside the gun to allow direct measurement of the plasma armature dynamics. Initial test data from the full-scale coax gun will be presented along with plans for future testing. Work supported by the U.S. DOE Office of Fusion Energy Sciences.[4pt] [1] F. D. Witherspoon, A. Case, S. Messer, R. Bomgardner, M. Phillips, S. Brockington, R. Elton, ``Contoured Gap Coaxial Plasma Gun with Injected Plasma Armature'' Rev. Sci. Instr. submitted (2009)

  13. Considerations on the design and financial feasibility of full-scale membrane bioreactors for municipal applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brepols, Ch; Schäfer, H; Engelhardt, N

    2010-01-01

    Based on the practical experience in design and operation of three full-scale membrane bioreactors (MBR) for municipal wastewater treatment that were commissioned since 1999, an overview on the different design concepts that were applied to the three MBR plants is given. The investment costs and the energy consumption of the MBRs and conventional activated sludge (CAS) plants (with and without tertiary treatment) in the Erft river region are compared. It is found that the specific investment costs of the MBR plants are lower than those of comparable CAS with tertiary treatment. A comparison of the specific energy demand of MBRs and conventional WWTPs is given. The structure of the MBRs actual operational costs is analysed. It can be seen that energy consumption is only responsible for one quarter to one third of all operational expenses. Based on a rough design and empirical cost data, a cost comparison of a full-scale MBR and a CAS is carried out. In this example the CAS employs a sand filtration and a disinfection in order to achieve comparable effluent quality. The influence of membrane lifetime on life cycle cost is assessed.

  14. UPTF experiment: Effect of full-scale geometry on countercurrent flow behaviour in PWR downcomer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebert, J.; Weiss, P.

    1989-01-01

    Four separate effects tests (13 runs) have been performed at UPTF - a 1:1 scale test facility - to investigate the thermal-hydraulic phenomena in the full-scale downcomer of a PWR during end-of-blowdown, refill and reflood phases. Special attention has been paid to the effects of geometry - cold leg arrangement - and ECC-water subcooling on downcomer countercurrent flow and ECC bypass behaviour. A synopsis of the most significant events and a comparison of countercurrent flow limitation (CCFL) data from UPTF and 1/5 scale test facility of Creare are given. The CCFL results of UPTF are compared to data predicted by an empirical correlation developed at Creare, based on the modified dimensionless Wallis parameter J * . A significant effect of cold leg arrangement on CCFL was observed leading to strongly heterogeneous flow condition in the downcomer. CCFL in front of cold leg 1 adjacent to the broken loop exists even for very low steam flow rates. Therefore the benefit of strong water subcooling is not as much as expected. The existing flooding correlation of Creare predicts the full-scale downcomer CCFL insufficiently. New flooding correlations are required to describe the CCFL process adequately. (orig.)

  15. Microbial community composition and ultrastructure of granules from a full-scale anammox reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Gil, Graciela; Sougrat, Rachid; Behzad, Ali R; Lens, Piet N L; Saikaly, Pascal E

    2015-07-01

    Granules in anammox reactors contain besides anammox bacteria other microbial communities whose identity and relationship with the anammox bacteria are not well understood. High calcium concentrations are often supplied to anammox reactors to obtain sufficient bacterial aggregation and biomass retention. The aim of this study was to provide the first characterization of bacterial and archaeal communities in anammox granules from a full-scale anammox reactor and to explore on the possible role of calcium in such aggregates. High magnification imaging using backscattered electrons revealed that anammox bacteria may be embedded in calcium phosphate precipitates. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments showed, besides anammox bacteria (Brocadiacea, 32%), substantial numbers of heterotrophic bacteria Ignavibacteriacea (18%) and Anaerolinea (7%) along with heterotrophic denitrifiers Rhodocyclacea (9%), Comamonadacea (3%), and Shewanellacea (3%) in the granules. It is hypothesized that these bacteria may form a network in which heterotrophic denitrifiers cooperate to achieve a well-functioning denitrification system as they can utilize the nitrate intrinsically produced by the anammox reaction. This network may provide a niche for the proliferation of archaea. Hydrogenotrophic methananogens, which scavenge the key fermentation product H2, were the most abundant archaea detected. Cells resembling the polygon-shaped denitrifying methanotroph Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera were observed by electron microscopy. It is hypothesized that the anammox process in a full-scale reactor triggers various reactions overall leading to efficient denitrification and a sink of carbon as biomass in anammox granules.

  16. Summary of Full-Scale Blade Displacement Measurements of the UH- 60A Airloads Rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrego, Anita I.; Meyn, Larry; Burner, Alpheus W.; Barrows, Danny A.

    2016-01-01

    Blade displacement measurements using multi-camera photogrammetry techniques were acquired for a full-scale UH-60A rotor, tested in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamic Complex 40-Foot by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel. The measurements, acquired over the full rotor azimuth, encompass a range of test conditions that include advance ratios from 0.15 to 1.0, thrust coefficient to rotor solidity ratios from 0.01 to 0.13, and rotor shaft angles from -10.0 to 8.0 degrees. The objective was to measure the blade displacements and deformations of the four rotor blades and provide a benchmark blade displacement database to be utilized in the development and validation of rotorcraft prediction techniques. An overview of the blade displacement measurement methodology, system development, and data analysis techniques are presented. Sample results based on the final set of camera calibrations, data reduction procedures and estimated corrections that account for registration errors due to blade elasticity are shown. Differences in blade root pitch, flap and lag between the previously reported results and the current results are small. However, even small changes in estimated root flap and pitch can lead to significant differences in the blade elasticity values.

  17. Numerical study on the hydrodynamic characteristics of biofouled full-scale net cage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Chun-wei; Zhao, Yun-peng; Dong, Guo-hai

    2015-06-01

    The effect of biofouling on the hydrodynamic characteristics of the net cage is of particular interest as biofouled nettings can significantly reduce flow of well-oxygenated water reaching the stocked fish. For computational efficiency, the porous-media fluid model is proposed to simulate flow through the biofouled plane net and full-scale net cage. The porous coefficients of the porous-media fluid model can be determined from the quadratic-function relationship between the hydrodynamic forces on a plane net and the flow velocity using the least squares method. In this study, drag forces on and flow fields around five plane nets with different levels of biofouling are calculated by use of the proposed model. The numerical results are compared with the experimental data of Swift et al. (2006) and the effectiveness of the numerical model is presented. On that basis, flow through full-scale net cages with the same level of biofouling as the tested plane nets are modeled. The flow fields inside and around biofouled net cages are analyzed and the drag force acting on a net cage is estimated by a control volume analysis method. According to the numerical results, empirical formulas of reduction in flow velocity and load on a net cage are derived as function of drag coefficient of the corresponding biofouled netting.

  18. Full scale trials for qualification of the manufacture of the ITER TF coils in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsui, Kunihiro, E-mail: matsui.kunihiro@jaea.go.jp; Hemmi, Tsutomu; Kajitani, Hideki; Yamane, Minoru; Mizutani, Takumi; Nakano, Toshihide; Takano, Katsutoshi; Ando, Shinji; Koizumi, Norikiyo

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • High accuracy conductor winding of 0.1% was achieved in TF coil fabrication. • Conductor elongation due to heat treatment satisfied with the expected value of 0.06% ± 0.02%. • Commissioning of a transfer tooling without adding strain to conductor was completed. • Commissioning of a conductor insulation and CP welding was successfully completed. - Abstract: JAEA performed full-scale trials to qualify and optimize manufacturing procedure of TF coil fabrication prior to series production. In the full-scale trials, conductor winding, heat treatment, conductor transfer, conductor insulation and cover plate (CP) welding trials were performed to resolve some technical issues and to demonstrate the fabrication procedure. The followings are major achievement. (1) High accuracy conductor winding of 0.01%, (2) the evaluation of 0.06% conductor elongation due to heat treatment, (3) conductor transfer in a radial plate (RP) groove with addition strain under 0.1%, (4) conductor insulation without breakage of the insulation tape and (5) flatness of 2 mm of the double pancake (DP) by CP welding. Then JAEA started the 1st TF coil fabrication from March 2014, and has already completed ten conductor windings and heat treatment of nine windings.

  19. Graphene as a Prototypical Model for Two-Dimensional Continuous Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Lambin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews a few problems where continuous-medium theory specialized to two-dimensional media provides a qualitatively correct picture of the mechanical behavior of graphene. A critical analysis of the parameters involved is given. Among other results, a simple mathematical description of a folded graphene sheet is proposed. It is also shown how the graphene–graphene adhesion interaction is related to the cleavage energy of graphite and its C 33 bulk elastic constant.

  20. Evaluation of the Structural Response and Failure of a Full-Scale Stitched Graphite-Epoxy Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegley, Dawn C.; Bush, Harold G.; Lovejoy, Andrew E.

    2001-01-01

    Analytical and experimental results for an all-composite full-scale wing box are presented. The wing box is representative of a section of a 220-passenger commercial transport aircraft wing box and was designed and constructed by The Boeing Company as part of the NASA Advanced Subsonics Technology (AST) program. The semi-span wing was fabricated from a graphite-epoxy material system with cover panels and spars held together using Kevlar stitches through the thickness. No mechanical fasteners were used to hold the stiffeners to the skin of the cover panels. Tests were conducted with and without low-speed impact damage, discrete source damage and repairs. Upbending, down-bending and brake roll loading conditions were applied. The structure with nonvisible impact damage carried 97% of Design Ultimate Load prior to failure through a lower cover panel access hole. Finite element and experimental results agree for the global response of the structure.

  1. AC loss, interstrand resistance and mechanical properties of prototype EU DEMO TF conductors up to 30 000 load cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagotintsev, K.; Nijhuis, A.

    2018-07-01

    Two prototype Nb3Sn cable-in-conduit conductors conductors were designed and manufactured for the toroidal field (TF) magnet system of the envisaged European DEMO fusion reactor. The AC loss, contact resistance and mechanical properties of two sample conductors were tested in the Twente Cryogenic Cable Press under cyclic load up to 30 000 cycles. Though both conductors were designed to operate at 82 kA in a background magnetic field of 13.6 T, they reflect different approaches with respect to the magnet winding pack assembly. The first approach is based on react and wind technology while the second is the more common wind and react technology. Each conductor was tested first for AC loss in virgin condition without handling. The impact of Lorentz load during magnet operation was simulated using the cable press. In the press each conductor specimen was subjected to transverse cyclic load up to 30 000 cycles in liquid helium bath at 4.2 K. Here a summary of results for AC loss, contact resistance, conductor deformation, mechanical heat production and conductor stiffness evolution during cycling of the load is presented. Both conductors showed similar mechanical behaviour but quite different AC loss. In comparison with previously tested ITER TF conductors, both DEMO TF conductors possess very low contact resistance resulting in high coupling loss. At the same time, load cycling has limited impact on properties of DEMO TF conductors in comparison with ITER TF conductors.

  2. Mechanical and Thermal Characterisation of a TT Half-Module Prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Lehner, F; Pangilinan, M; Siegler, M

    2005-01-01

    This note describes the mechanical effects of thermal cycles on a TT half-module, to demonstrate that the detectors can withstand the expected thermal gradients without damage. The stress transferred by the carbon fiber rails and the ceramic to the silicon sensors was investigated, and the deformation that occurred during these tests was measured by strain gauges that were attached to sensors on a test half-module. In addition, heat transfer through the carbon fiber rails was studied. Furthermore, we present a comparison of different materials proposed to build the carbon fiber rails of the modules.

  3. One-fifth-scale and full-scale fuel element rocking tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nau, P.V.; Olsen, B.E.

    1978-06-01

    Using 1 / 5 -scale and 1 / 1 -scale (prototype H451) fuel elements, one, two, or three stacked elements on a clamped base element were rocked from an initial release position. Relative displacement, rock-down loads, and dowel pin shear forces were measured. A scaled comparison between 1 / 5 -scale and 1 / 1 -scale results was made to evaluate the model scaling laws, and an error analysis was performed to assess the accuracy and usefulness of the test data

  4. Tests of Full-Scale Helicopter Rotors at High Advancing Tip Mach Numbers and Advance Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggers, James C.; McCloud, John L., III; Stroub, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    As a continuation of the studies of reference 1, three full-scale helicopter rotors have been tested in the Ames Research Center 40- by SO-foot wind tunnel. All three of them were two-bladed, teetering rotors. One of the rotors incorporated the NACA 0012 airfoil section over the entire length of the blade. This rotor was tested at advance ratios up to 1.05. Both of the other rotors were tapered in thickness and incorporated leading-edge camber over the outer 20 percent of the blade radius. The larger of these rotors was tested at advancing tip Mach numbers up to 1.02. Data were obtained for a wide range of lift and propulsive force, and are presented without discussion.

  5. Study on the Contra-Rotating Propeller system design and full-scale performance prediction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keh-Sik Min

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A ship's screw-propeller produces thrust by rotation and, at the same time, generates rotational flow behind the propeller. This rotational flow has no contribution to the generation of thrust, but instead produces energy loss. By recovering part of the lost energy in the rotational flow, therefore, it is possible to improve the propulsion efficiency. The contra-rotating propeller (CRP system is the representing example of such devices. Unfortunately, however, neither a design method nor a full-scale performance prediction procedure for the CRP system has been well established yet. The authors have long performed studies on the CRP system, and some of the results from the authors’ studies shall be presented and discussed.

  6. Disintegration of excess activated sludge--evaluation and experience of full-scale applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zábranská, J; Dohányos, M; Jenícek, P; Kutil, J

    2006-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge can be improved by introducing a disintegration of excess activated sludge as a pretreatment process. The disintegration brings a deeper degradation of organic matter and less amount of output sludge for disposal, a higher production of biogas and consequently energy yield, in some cases suppression of digesters foaming and better dewaterability. The full-scale application of disintegration by a lysate-thickening centrifuge was monitored long term in three different WWTPs. The evaluation of contribution of disintegration to biogas production and digested sludge quality was assessed and operational experience is discussed. Increment of specific biogas production was evaluated in the range of 15-26%, organic matter in digested sludge significantly decreased to 48-49%. Results proved that the installation of a disintegrating centrifuge in WWTPs of different sizes and conditions would be useful and beneficial.

  7. Full-Scale Field Test of a Blade-Integrated Dual-Telescope Wind Lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Tegtmeier; Sjöholm, Mikael; Angelou, Nikolas

    . Simultaneously, data regarding wind speed, rotational speed, and pitch angle recorded by the turbine was logged as well as data from a nearby met mast. The encouraging results of this first campaign include wind speed measurements at 20 Hz data rate along the rotor plane, acquired during the co...... in the top and bottom of the rotor plane. Conclusion We present here what we believe is the first successful wind speed measurements from a dual-telescope lidar installed on the blade of an operating wind turbine. The full-scale field test performed in the summer of 2012 has clearly demonstrated...... the possibility of integrating lidar telescopes into turbine blades as well as the capability of the lidar to measure the required wind speeds and to operate in the challenging environment of a rotating spinner and vibrating blade. The use of two separate telescopes allows a direct measurement of the blade’s AOA...

  8. Modelling and Testing of Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter Towards Full Scale Deployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parmeggiani, Stefano

    -commercial stage in which it has proven difficult to secure the necessary funding for the deployment of a full-scale demonstrator unit. The work presented aims at easing this process, by increasing public and scientific knowledge of the device, as well as by showing the latest progress in its development. Research....... This is mainly due to the development of an updated overtopping model specifically suited to Wave Dragon, which allows greater quality to predictions of the primary energy absorption of the device compared to previous versions. At the same time an equitable approach has been described and used in the performance......, the research has also provided a deeper insight into the physics of the overtopping process by individually assessing the influence of related device configuration and wave features, which goes beyond the present application and may be used for other overtopping WECs as well. Comprehensive analysis...

  9. Full scale validation of helminth ova (Ascaris suum) inactivation by different sludge treatment processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulsrud, B.; Gjerde, B.; Lundar, A.

    2003-07-01

    The Norwegian sewage sludge regulation requires disinfection (hygienisation) of all sludges for land application, and one of the criteria is that disinfected sludge should not contain viable helminth ova. All disinfection processes have to be designed and operated in order to comply with this criteria, and four processes employed in Norway (thermophilic aerobic pre-treatment, pre-pasteurisation, thermal vacuum drying in membrane filter presses and lime treatment) have been tested in full scale by inserting semipermeable bags of Ascaris suum eggs into the processes for certain limes. For lime treatment supplementary laboratory tests have been conducted. The paper presents the results of the experiments, and it could be concluded that all processes, except lime treatment, could be operated at less stringent time-temperature regimes than commonly experienced at Norwegian plants today. (author)

  10. Characterizing the Influence of Abstraction in Full-Scale Wind Turbine Nacelle Testing: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schkoda, Ryan; Bibo, Amin; Guo, Yi; Lambert, Scott; Wallen, Robb

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing interest in full-scale wind turbine nacelle testing to complement individual component testing. As a result, several wind turbine nacelle test benches have been built to perform such testing with the intent of loading the integrated components as they are in the field. However, when mounted on a test bench the nacelle is not on the top of a tower and does not have blades attached to it--this is a form of abstraction. This paper aims to quantify the influence of such an abstraction on the dynamic response of the nacelle through a series of simulation case studies. The responses of several nacelle components are studied including the main bearing, main shaft, gearbox supports, generator, and yaw bearing interface. Results are presented to highlight the differences in the dynamic response of the nacelle caused by the abstraction. Additionally, the authors provide recommendations for mitigating the effects of the abstraction.

  11. Full-scale operating experience of deep bed denitrification filter achieving phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husband, Joseph A; Slattery, Larry; Garrett, John; Corsoro, Frank; Smithers, Carol; Phipps, Scott

    2012-01-01

    The Arlington County Wastewater Pollution Control Plant (ACWPCP) is located in the southern part of Arlington County, Virginia, USA and discharges to the Potomac River via the Four Mile Run. The ACWPCP was originally constructed in 1937. In 2001, Arlington County, Virginia (USA) committed to expanding their 113,500 m³/d, (300,000 pe) secondary treatment plant to a 151,400 m³/d (400,000 pe) to achieve effluent total nitrogen (TN) to phosphorus (TP) phosphorus, to very low concentrations. This paper will review the steps from concept to the first year of operation, including pilot and full-scale operating data and the capital cost for the denitrification filters.

  12. Full Scale Measurements of the Hydro-Elastic Response of Large Container Ships for Decision Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent

    scale measurements from four container ships of 4,400 TEU, 8,600 TEU, 9,400 TEU and 14,000 TEU Primarily, strains measured near the deck amidships are used. Furthermore, measurements of motions and the encountered sea state are available for one of the ships. The smallest ship is in operation...... frequency with the waves. Together with the relatively high design speed and often pronounced bow flare this makes large container ship more sensitive to slamming and, consequently, the effects of wave-induced hull girder vibrations. From full scale strain measurements of individual, measured hull girder......The overall topic of this thesis is decision support for operation of ships and several aspects are covered herein. However, the main focus is on the wave-induced hydro-elastic response of large container ships and its implications on the structural response. The analyses are based mainly on full...

  13. FLASH Technology: Full-Scale Hospital Waste Water Treatments Adopted in Aceh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rame; Tridecima, Adeodata; Pranoto, Hadi; Moesliem; Miftahuddin

    2018-02-01

    A Hospital waste water contains a complex mixture of hazardous chemicals and harmful microbes, which can pose a threat to the environment and public health. Some efforts have been carried out in Nangroe Aceh Darussalam (Aceh), Indonesia with the objective of treating hospital waste water effluents on-site before its discharge. Flash technology uses physical and biological pre-treatment, followed by advanced oxidation process based on catalytic ozonation and followed by GAC and PAC filtration. Flash Full-Scale Hospital waste water Treatments in Aceh from different district have been adopted and investigated. Referring to the removal efficiency of macro-pollutants, the collected data demonstrate good removal efficiency of macro-pollutants using Flash technologies. In general, Flash technologies could be considered a solution to the problem of managing hospital waste water.

  14. Electrical testing of the full-scale model of the NSTX HHFW antenna array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, P. M.; Swain, D. W.; Wilgen, J. B.; Fadnek, A.; Sparks, D. O.

    1999-01-01

    The 30 MHz high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) antenna array for NSTX consists of 12 current straps, evenly spaced in the toroidal direction. Each pair of straps is connected as a half-wave resonant loop and will be driven by one transmitter, allowing rapid phase shift between transmitters. A decoupling network using shunt stub tuners has been designed to compensate for the mutual inductive coupling between adjacent current straps, effectively isolating the six transmitters from one another. One half of the array, consisting of six full-scale current strap modules, three shunt stub decouplers, and powered by three phase-adjustable rf amplifiers had been built for electrical testing at ORNL. Low power testing includes electrical characterization of the straps, operation and performance of the decoupler system, and mapping of the rf fields in three dimensions

  15. Modeling and Design of a Full-Scale Rotor Blade with Embedded Piezocomposite Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalovs, A.; Barkanov, E.; Ruchevskis, S.; Wesolowski, M.

    2017-05-01

    An optimization methodology for the design of a full-scale rotor blade with an active twist in order to enhance its ability to reduce vibrations and noise is presented. It is based on a 3D finite-element model, the planning of experiments, and the response surface technique to obtain high piezoelectric actuation forces and displacements with a minimum actuator weight and energy applied. To investigate an active twist of the helicopter rotor blade, a structural static analysis using a 3D finite-element model was carried out. Optimum results were obtained at two possible applications of macrofiber composite actuators. The torsion angle found from the finite-element simulation of helicopter rotor blades was successfully validated by its experimental values, which confirmed the modeling accuracy.

  16. Structural degradation of a large composite wind turbine blade in a full-scale fatigue test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xiao

    carried out at a coupon level to characterize fatigue degradation of composite materials, there is no much study focusing on fatigue degradation of rotor blades at a fullscale structural level. Do structural properties of composite blades degrade in a similar manner to what has been observed in material...... tests at a coupon level? What might be the concerns one should take into account when predicting residual structural properties of rotor blades? To answer, at least to a partial extent, these questions, this study conducts a full-scale fatigue test on a 47m composite rotor blade according to IEC 61400......Wind turbine blades are expected to sustain a high number of loading cycles typically up to a magnitude of 1,000 million during their targeted service lifetime of 20-25 years. Structural properties of composite blades degrade with the time. Although substantial studies, such as [1,2], have been...

  17. Controlling Urban Lighting by Human Motion Patterns results from a full Scale Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Esben Skouboe; Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Jensen, Ole B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a full-scale experiment investigating the use of human motion intensities as input for interactive illumination of a town square in the city of Aalborg in Denmark. As illuminators sixteen 3.5 meter high RGB LED lamps were used. The activity on the square was monitored by three...... thermal cameras and analysed by computer vision software from which motion intensity maps and peoples trajectories were estimated and used as input to control the interactive illumination. The paper introduces a 2-layered interactive light strategy addressing ambient and effect illumination criteria...... totally four light scenarios were designed and tested. The result shows that in general people immersed in the street lighting did not notice that the light changed according to their presence or actions, but people watching from the edge of the square noticed the interaction between the illumination...

  18. Genome-based microbial ecology of anammox granules in a full-scale wastewater treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speth, Daan R; In 't Zandt, Michiel H; Guerrero-Cruz, Simon; Dutilh, Bas E; Jetten, Mike S M

    2016-03-31

    Partial-nitritation anammox (PNA) is a novel wastewater treatment procedure for energy-efficient ammonium removal. Here we use genome-resolved metagenomics to build a genome-based ecological model of the microbial community in a full-scale PNA reactor. Sludge from the bioreactor examined here is used to seed reactors in wastewater treatment plants around the world; however, the role of most of its microbial community in ammonium removal remains unknown. Our analysis yielded 23 near-complete draft genomes that together represent the majority of the microbial community. We assign these genomes to distinct anaerobic and aerobic microbial communities. In the aerobic community, nitrifying organisms and heterotrophs predominate. In the anaerobic community, widespread potential for partial denitrification suggests a nitrite loop increases treatment efficiency. Of our genomes, 19 have no previously cultivated or sequenced close relatives and six belong to bacterial phyla without any cultivated members, including the most complete Omnitrophica (formerly OP3) genome to date.

  19. Optimization-based methodology for wastewater treatment plant synthesis – a full scale retrofitting case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozkurt, Hande; Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2015-01-01

    Existing wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) need retrofitting in order to better handle changes in the wastewater flow and composition, reduce operational costs as well as meet newer and stricter regulatory standards on the effluent discharge limits. In this study, we use an optimization based...... technologies. The superstructure optimization problem is formulated as a Mixed Integer (non)Linear Programming problem and solved for different scenarios - represented by different objective functions and constraint definitions. A full-scale domestic wastewater treatment plant (265,000 PE) is used as a case...... framework to manage the multi-criteria WWTP design/retrofit problem for domestic wastewater treatment. The design space (i.e. alternative treatment technologies) is represented in a superstructure, which is coupled with a database containing data for both performance and economics of the novel alternative...

  20. USB environment measurements based on full-scale static engine ground tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, M. B.; Harkonen, D. L.; Reed, J. B.

    1976-01-01

    Flow turning parameters, static pressures, surface temperatures, surface fluctuating pressures and acceleration levels were measured in the environment of a full-scale upper surface blowing (USB) propulsive lift test configuration. The test components included a flightworthy CF6-50D engine, nacelle, and USB flap assembly utilized in conjunction with ground verification testing of the USAF YC-14 Advanced Medium STOL Transport propulsion system. Results, based on a preliminary analysis of the data, generally show reasonable agreement with predicted levels based on model data. However, additional detailed analysis is required to confirm the preliminary evaluation, to help delineate certain discrepancies with model data, and to establish a basis for future flight test comparisons.

  1. TESTING OF A FULL-SCALE ROTARY MICROFILTER FOR THE ENHANCED PROCESS FOR RADIONUCLIDES REMOVAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, D; David Stefanko, D; Michael Poirier, M; Samuel Fink, S

    2009-01-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) researchers are investigating and developing a rotary microfilter for solid-liquid separation applications in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. One application involves use in the Enhanced Processes for Radionuclide Removal (EPRR) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). To assess this application, the authors performed rotary filter testing with a full-scale, 25-disk unit manufactured by SpinTek Filtration with 0.5 micron filter media manufactured by Pall Corporation. The filter includes proprietary enhancements by SRNL. The most recent enhancement is replacement of the filter's main shaft seal with a John Crane Type 28LD gas-cooled seal. The feed material was SRS Tank 8F simulated sludge blended with monosodium titanate (MST). Testing examined total insoluble solids concentrations of 0.06 wt % (126 hours of testing) and 5 wt % (82 hours of testing). The following are conclusions from this testing.

  2. Secondary clarifier hybrid model calibration in full scale pulp and paper activated sludge wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreckovic, G.; Hall, E.R. [British Columbia Univ., Dept. of Civil Engineering, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Thibault, J. [Laval Univ., Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Ste-Foy, PQ (Canada); Savic, D. [Exeter Univ., School of Engineering, Exeter (United Kingdom)

    1999-05-01

    The issue of proper model calibration techniques applied to mechanistic mathematical models relating to activated sludge systems was discussed. Such calibrations are complex because of the non-linearity and multi-model objective functions of the process. This paper presents a hybrid model which was developed using two techniques to model and calibrate secondary clarifier parts of an activated sludge system. Genetic algorithms were used to successfully calibrate the settler mechanistic model, and neural networks were used to reduce the error between the mechanistic model output and real world data. Results of the modelling study show that the long term response of a one-dimensional settler mechanistic model calibrated by genetic algorithms and compared to full scale plant data can be improved by coupling the calibrated mechanistic model to as black-box model, such as a neural network. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Full-Scale Approximations of Spatio-Temporal Covariance Models for Large Datasets

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Bohai

    2014-01-01

    Various continuously-indexed spatio-temporal process models have been constructed to characterize spatio-temporal dependence structures, but the computational complexity for model fitting and predictions grows in a cubic order with the size of dataset and application of such models is not feasible for large datasets. This article extends the full-scale approximation (FSA) approach by Sang and Huang (2012) to the spatio-temporal context to reduce computational complexity. A reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo (RJMCMC) algorithm is proposed to select knots automatically from a discrete set of spatio-temporal points. Our approach is applicable to nonseparable and nonstationary spatio-temporal covariance models. We illustrate the effectiveness of our method through simulation experiments and application to an ozone measurement dataset.

  4. Properties important to mixing and simulant recommendations for WTP full-scale vessel testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Martino, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-12-01

    Full Scale Vessel Testing (FSVT) is being planned by Bechtel National, Inc., to demonstrate the ability of the standard high solids vessel design (SHSVD) to meet mixing requirements over the range of fluid properties planned for processing in the Pretreatment Facility (PTF) of the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Testing will use simulated waste rather than actual Hanford waste. Therefore, the use of suitable simulants is critical to achieving the goals of the test program. WTP personnel requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to assist with development of simulants for use in FSVT. Among the tasks assigned to SRNL was to develop a list of waste properties that are important to pulse-jet mixer (PJM) performance in WTP vessels with elevated concentrations of solids.

  5. Bacterial community structure of a full-scale biofilter treating pig house exhaust air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Anja; Pedersen, Kristina Hadulla; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    2011-01-01

    Biological air filters represent a promising tool for treating emissions of ammonia and odor from pig facilities. Quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and 16S rRNA gene sequencing were used to investigate the bacterial community structure and diversity in a full-scale biofilter ...... consisting of two consecutive compartments (front and back filter). The analysis revealed a highly specialized bacterial community of limited diversity, dominated by a few groups of Betaproteobacteria (especially Comamonas) and diverse Bacteroidetes. Actinobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria......, and betaproteobacterial ammoniaoxidizers (Nitrosomonas eutropha/Nitrosococcus mobilis-lineage) were also quantitatively important. Only a few quantitative differences existed between the two filter compartments at the group level, with a lower relative abundance of Actinobacteria and a higher relative abundance...

  6. Calibration of Airframe and Occupant Models for Two Full-Scale Rotorcraft Crash Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annett, Martin S.; Horta, Lucas G.; Polanco, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Two full-scale crash tests of an MD-500 helicopter were conducted in 2009 and 2010 at NASA Langley's Landing and Impact Research Facility in support of NASA s Subsonic Rotary Wing Crashworthiness Project. The first crash test was conducted to evaluate the performance of an externally mounted composite deployable energy absorber under combined impact conditions. In the second crash test, the energy absorber was removed to establish baseline loads that are regarded as severe but survivable. Accelerations and kinematic data collected from the crash tests were compared to a system integrated finite element model of the test article. Results from 19 accelerometers placed throughout the airframe were compared to finite element model responses. The model developed for the purposes of predicting acceleration responses from the first crash test was inadequate when evaluating more severe conditions seen in the second crash test. A newly developed model calibration approach that includes uncertainty estimation, parameter sensitivity, impact shape orthogonality, and numerical optimization was used to calibrate model results for the second full-scale crash test. This combination of heuristic and quantitative methods was used to identify modeling deficiencies, evaluate parameter importance, and propose required model changes. It is shown that the multi-dimensional calibration techniques presented here are particularly effective in identifying model adequacy. Acceleration results for the calibrated model were compared to test results and the original model results. There was a noticeable improvement in the pilot and co-pilot region, a slight improvement in the occupant model response, and an over-stiffening effect in the passenger region. This approach should be adopted early on, in combination with the building-block approaches that are customarily used, for model development and test planning guidance. Complete crash simulations with validated finite element models can be used

  7. Bacteriophage removal in a full-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) - Implications for wastewater reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnell, Sarah; Ebdon, James; Buck, Austen; Tupper, Martyn; Taylor, Huw

    2015-04-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the potential removal efficacy of viruses in a full-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) wastewater reuse system, using a range of indigenous and 'spiked' bacteriophages (phages) of known size and morphology. Samples were taken each week for three months from nine locations at each treatment stage of the water recycling plant (WRP) and tested for a range of microbiological parameters (n = 135). Mean levels of faecal coliforms were reduced to 0.3 CFU/100 ml in the MBR product and were undetected in samples taken after the chlorination stage. A relatively large reduction (5.3 log) in somatic coliphages was also observed following MBR treatment. However, F-specific and human-specific (GB124) phages were less abundant at all stages, and demonstrated log reductions post-MBR of 3.5 and 3.8, respectively. In 'spiking' experiments, suspended 'spiked' phages (MS2 and B-14) displayed post-MBR log reductions of 2.25 and 2.30, respectively. The removal of these suspended phages, which are smaller than the membrane pore size (0.04 μm), also highlights the possible role of the membrane biofilm as an effective additional barrier to virus transmission. The findings from this study of a full-scale MBR system demonstrate that the enumeration of several phage groups may offer a practical and conservative way of assessing the ability of MBR to remove enteric viruses of human health significance. They also suggest that phage removal in MBR systems may be highly variable and may be closely related on the one hand to both the size and morphology of the viruses and, on the other, to whether or not they are attached to solids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Bench-scale and full-scale studies of nitric oxides reduction by gaseous fuel reburning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, S.; Xiang, J.; Sun, L.S.; Hu, S.; Zhu, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers are significant contributors to atmospheric pollution. China has specified more rigorous legal limits for NOx emissions from power plants. As a result of the need to reduce NOx emissions, cost-effective NOx reduction strategies must be explored. This paper presented detailed experimental studies on a gaseous fuel reburning process that was performed in a 36 kilowatt bench-scale down-fired furnace to define the optimal reburning operating conditions when different Chinese coals were fired in the furnace. In addition, the combustion system of a 350 megawatt full-scale boiler was retrofitted according to the experimental results. Finally, the gaseous fuel reburning was applied to the retrofitted full-scale boiler. The purpose of the study was to obtain a better understanding of the influence of the key parameters on nitric oxide (NO) reduction efficiency of the reburning process and demonstrate the gaseous fuel reburning on a 350 MWe coal-fired boiler in China. The paper described the experimental procedure with particular reference to the experimental facility and measurement; a schematic diagram of the experimental system; experimental fuels; and characteristics of coals for the reburning experiments. Results that were presented included influence of reburn zone residence time; influence of gaseous reburn fuel per cent; influence of excess air coefficient; and unburned carbon in fly ash. It was concluded that both an above 50 per cent NO reduction efficiency and low carbon loss can be obtained by the gaseous fuel reburning process under the optimal operating conditions. 20 refs., 5 tabs., 10 figs

  9. Experimental investigation on full scale RC beam-column joint of NPP structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thandavamoorthy, T.S.; Lakshmanan, N.; Reddy, G.R.; Kushwaha, H.S.

    2003-01-01

    The Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) structures in India are constructed using reinforced concrete. The beam-column joint in these structures are critical sub-assemblages because they ensure continuity of a structure and transfer forces from one element to another. Under seismic excitation, the beam-column joint region is subjected to horizontal and vertical shear forces whose magnitudes are typically many times higher than those within the adjacent beams and columns. In view of the increased incidence of seismicity in the country, the safety of these structures against earthquake loading assumes greater significance. There is a growing need to look into the seismic safety aspect of existing RC frame type structures in NPPs, which have been designed as per codes prevalent at the time of their construction. Seismic performance of such joints has not been studied extensively in India. Therefore experimental testing of full scale joint identical to those available in the existing NPP structures, was carried out to study its behaviour and evaluate its capacity. The size of the beam of the joint was 2000 mm x 610 mm x 915 mm and column 2915 mm x 610 mm x 915 mm. The percentage reinforcement of the beam was 4.95 and column 1.5. Such full scale and heavily reinforced concrete joint was cast successfully in the laboratory and tested under monotonic loading. The paper presents a complete description of the experimental testing, observations made during testing as for cracking, deflection and rotation of joint, discussion of results obtained, etc. Conclusions drawn from the investigation are also presented. (author)

  10. Mechanical design, fabrication and initial tests on prototype drift tube linac at IUAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacharias, J.; Mehta, R.; Hariwal, R.V.; Ajithkumar, B.P.

    2011-01-01

    The Drift Tube Linac (DTL) project is a major subsection of High Current Injector project at Inter University Accelerator Centre (IUAC). It has been designed to accelerate ions from 180 keV/u to 1.8 MeV/u, using six IH type RF resonators operating at 97 MHz. The required output energy of the DTL is decided by the minimum input velocity of nearly 6% of velocity of light, required for the existing superconducting LINAC. IH type resonators are the preferred choice for multiple gap DTL applications due to their high shunt impedance values. The mechanical design and CNC machining of parts and assembly of DTL were carried out at IUAC to validate the electrical design. (author)

  11. Control and data acquisition of the ITER full-scale ion source for the neutral beam test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luchetta, Adriano; Manduchi, Gabriele; Taliercio, Cesare; Paolucci, Francesco; Sartori, Filippo; Svensson, Lennart; Labate, Carmelo Vincenzo; Breda, Mauro; Capobianco, Roberto; Molon, Federico; Moressa, Modesto; Simionato, Paola; Zampiva, Enrico; Barbato, Paolo; Polato, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper describes the requirements and architecture of the control and data acquisition system of the ITER full-ion source experiment in the neutral beam test facility. • The system architecture integrates various popular software frameworks. • Slow control is based on the EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System) framework. • Fast control is based on the MARTe (Multi-threaded Application Real-Time executor) framework. • Data acquisition is based on the MDSplus framework. - Abstract: The neutral beam test facility, which is under construction in Padova, Italy, is developing the ITER full-scale ion source for the ITER heating neutral beam injectors, referred to as the SPIDER experiment, and the full-size prototype injector, referred to as MITICA. The SPIDER control and data acquisition system (CODAS) has been developed and its construction will start in 2014. Slow control and data acquisition will be based on the ITER CODAC core system software suite that has been designed to facilitate the integration of ITER plant systems with CODAC. Fast control and data acquisition will use solutions specific to the test facility, as the corresponding concepts are not ready-to-use in the ITER design. The ITER hardware catalog for fast control has been taken into consideration. The software development will be based on the integration of MDSplus and MARTe, two framework software packages that are well known in the fusion community, targeting data organization and fast real-time control, respectively. The paper revises the system requirements and the system design and shows the results already achieved in terms of system integration. In addition, the paper will report the experience in the usage of different cooperating software frameworks and in the integration of industrial procured plant systems.

  12. Control and data acquisition of the ITER full-scale ion source for the neutral beam test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luchetta, Adriano, E-mail: adriano.luchetta@igi.cnr.it [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete SpA), Padova (Italy); Manduchi, Gabriele; Taliercio, Cesare [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete SpA), Padova (Italy); Paolucci, Francesco; Sartori, Filippo [Fusion for Energy, Barcelona (Spain); Svensson, Lennart [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90046 St. Paul Lez Durance (France); Labate, Carmelo Vincenzo [Association ENEA-CREATE, Department of Engineering, University of Naples “Parthenope” (Italy); Breda, Mauro; Capobianco, Roberto; Molon, Federico; Moressa, Modesto; Simionato, Paola; Zampiva, Enrico; Barbato, Paolo; Polato, Sandro [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete SpA), Padova (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • This paper describes the requirements and architecture of the control and data acquisition system of the ITER full-ion source experiment in the neutral beam test facility. • The system architecture integrates various popular software frameworks. • Slow control is based on the EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System) framework. • Fast control is based on the MARTe (Multi-threaded Application Real-Time executor) framework. • Data acquisition is based on the MDSplus framework. - Abstract: The neutral beam test facility, which is under construction in Padova, Italy, is developing the ITER full-scale ion source for the ITER heating neutral beam injectors, referred to as the SPIDER experiment, and the full-size prototype injector, referred to as MITICA. The SPIDER control and data acquisition system (CODAS) has been developed and its construction will start in 2014. Slow control and data acquisition will be based on the ITER CODAC core system software suite that has been designed to facilitate the integration of ITER plant systems with CODAC. Fast control and data acquisition will use solutions specific to the test facility, as the corresponding concepts are not ready-to-use in the ITER design. The ITER hardware catalog for fast control has been taken into consideration. The software development will be based on the integration of MDSplus and MARTe, two framework software packages that are well known in the fusion community, targeting data organization and fast real-time control, respectively. The paper revises the system requirements and the system design and shows the results already achieved in terms of system integration. In addition, the paper will report the experience in the usage of different cooperating software frameworks and in the integration of industrial procured plant systems.

  13. Forest Protection and Reforestation in Costa Rica: Evaluation of a Clean Development Mechanism Prototype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subak

    2000-09-01

    / Costa Rica has recently established a program that provides funds for reforestation and forest protection on private lands, partly through the sale of carbon certificates to industrialized countries. Countries purchasing these carbon offsets hope one day to receive credit against their own commitments to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. Costa Rica has used the proceeds of the sale of carbon offsets to Norway to help finance this forest incentive program, called the Private Forestry Project, which pays thousands of participants to reforest or protect forest on their lands. The Private Forestry Project is accompanied by a monitoring program conducted by Costa Rican forest engineers that seeks to determine net carbon storage accomplished on these lands each year. The Private Forestry Project, which is officially registered as an Activity Implemented Jointly, is a possible model for bundled projects funded by the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) established by the 1997 Kyoto Protocol to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. It also serves as an interesting example for the CDM because it was designed by a developing country host-not by an industrialized country investor. Accordingly, it reflects the particular "sustainable development" objectives of the host country or at least the host planners. Early experience in implementing the Private Forestry Project is evaluated in light of the main objectives of the CDM and its precursor-Activities Implemented Jointly. It is concluded that the project appears to meet the criteria of global cost-effectiveness and financing from non-ODA sources. The sustainable development implications of the project are specific to the region and would not necessarily match the ideals of all investing and developing countries. The project may be seen to achieve additional greenhouse gas abatement when compared against some (although not all) baselines.

  14. Collaborative Prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Marcel; Horst, Willem

    2014-01-01

    of the prototyping process, the actual prototype was used as a tool for communication or development, thus serving as a platform for the cross-fertilization of knowledge. In this way, collaborative prototyping leads to a better balance between functionality and usability; it translates usability problems into design......This paper presents an inductive study that shows how collaborative prototyping across functional, hierarchical, and organizational boundaries can improve the overall prototyping process. Our combined action research and case study approach provides new insights into how collaborative prototyping...... can provide a platform for prototype-driven problem solving in early new product development (NPD). Our findings have important implications for how to facilitate multistakeholder collaboration in prototyping and problem solving, and more generally for how to organize collaborative and open innovation...

  15. Full-Scale Cask Testing and Public Acceptance of Spent Nuclear Fuel Shipments - 12254

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilger, Fred [Black Mountain Research, Henderson, NV 81012 (United States); Halstead, Robert J. [State of Nevada Agency for Nuclear Projects Carson City, NV 80906 (United States); Ballard, James D. [Department of Sociology, California State University, Northridge Northridge, CA 91330 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Full-scale physical testing of spent fuel shipping casks has been proposed by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) 2006 report on spent nuclear fuel transportation, and by the Presidential Blue Ribbon Commission (BRC) on America's Nuclear Future 2011 draft report. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 2005 proposed full-scale testing of a rail cask, and considered 'regulatory limits' testing of both rail and truck casks (SRM SECY-05-0051). The recent U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) cancellation of the Yucca Mountain project, NRC evaluation of extended spent fuel storage (possibly beyond 60-120 years) before transportation, nuclear industry adoption of very large dual-purpose canisters for spent fuel storage and transport, and the deliberations of the BRC, will fundamentally change assumptions about the future spent fuel transportation system, and reopen the debate over shipping cask performance in severe accidents and acts of sabotage. This paper examines possible approaches to full-scale testing for enhancing public confidence in risk analyses, perception of risk, and acceptance of spent fuel shipments. The paper reviews the literature on public perception of spent nuclear fuel and nuclear waste transportation risks. We review and summarize opinion surveys sponsored by the State of Nevada over the past two decades, which show consistent patterns of concern among Nevada residents about health and safety impacts, and socioeconomic impacts such as reduced property values along likely transportation routes. We also review and summarize the large body of public opinion survey research on transportation concerns at regional and national levels. The paper reviews three past cask testing programs, the way in which these cask testing program results were portrayed in films and videos, and examines public and official responses to these three programs: the 1970's impact and fire testing of spent fuel truck casks at Sandia National

  16. Linear and Non-linear Numerical Sea-keeping Evaluation of a Fast Monohull Ferry Compared to Full Scale Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhaohui; Folsø, Rasmus; Bondini, Francesca

    1999-01-01

    , full-scale measurements have been performed on board a 128 m monohull fast ferry. This paper deals with the results from these full-scale measurements. The primary results considered are pitch motion, midship vertical bending moment and vertical acceleration at the bow. Previous comparisons between...

  17. Performance evaluation of full scale UASB reactor in treating stillage wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Mirsepasi , H. R. Honary , A. R. Mesdaghinia, A. H. Mahvi , H. Vahid , H. Karyab

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactors have been widely used for treatment of industrial wastewater. In this study two full-scale UASB reactors were investigated. Volume of each reactor was 420 m3. Conventional parameters such as pH, temperature and efficiency of COD, BOD, TOC removal in each reactor were investigated. Also several initial parameters in designing and operating of UASB reactors, such as upflow velocity, organic loading rate (OLR and hydraulic retention time were investigated. After modifying in operation conditions in UASB-2 reactor, average COD removal efficiency at OLR of 10–11 kg COD / m3 day was 55 percent. In order to prevent solids from settling, upflow velocity was increased to 0.35 m/h. Also to prevent solids from settling, the hydraulic retention time of wastewater in UASB-2 reactor was increased from 200 to 20 hours. This was expected that with good operation of UASB-2 reactor and with expanding of granules in the bed of the reactor, COD removal efficiency will be increased to more than 80 percent. But, because of deficiency on granulation and operation in UASB-2 reactor, this was not achieved. COD removal efficiency in the UASB-1 reactor was little. To enhance COD efficiency of UASB-1 reactor, several parameters were needed to be changed. These changes included enhancing of OLRs and upflow velocity, decreasing hydraulic retention time and operating with new sludge.

  18. A Comparative Analysis of Two Full-Scale MD-500 Helicopter Crash Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littell, Justin D.

    2011-01-01

    Two full scale crash tests were conducted on a small MD-500 helicopter at NASA Langley Research Center fs Landing and Impact Research Facility. One of the objectives of this test series was to compare airframe impact response and occupant injury data between a test which outfitted the airframe with an external composite passive energy absorbing honeycomb and a test which had no energy absorbing features. In both tests, the nominal impact velocity conditions were 7.92 m/sec (26 ft/sec) vertical and 12.2 m/sec (40 ft/sec) horizontal, and the test article weighed approximately 1315 kg (2900 lbs). Airframe instrumentation included accelerometers and strain gages. Four Anthropomorphic Test Devices were also onboard; three of which were standard Hybrid II and III, while the fourth was a specialized torso. The test which contained the energy absorbing honeycomb showed vertical impact acceleration loads of approximately 15 g, low risk for occupant injury probability, and minimal airframe damage. These results were contrasted with the test conducted without the energy absorbing honeycomb. The test results showed airframe accelerations of approximately 40 g in the vertical direction, high risk for injury probability in the occupants, and substantial airframe damage.

  19. Full scale monitoring of the twin chimneys of the rovinari power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayati I.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper deals with the structural identification and monitoring of two twin chimneys in very close arrangement. Due to twin arrangement, important interference effects are expected to modify the chimney response to wind action, causing vortex shedding and state-dependent excitation associated to the oscillatory motion of the leeward chimney, in and out of the windward chimney wake. The complexity of the physics of this problem is increased by the dependency of the aerodynamics of circular cylinders on Reynolds number; however, there is a weakness of literature about cylinders behaviour at critical and super-critical range of Reynolds number, due to experimental limitations. Also the International Committee on Industrial Chimneys (CICIND does not provide, at present, any specific technical guideline about twin chimneys whose interaxis distance is less or equal two times the diameter, as in this case. For this reason a Tuned Mass Damper (TMD has been installed in order to increase the damping of the chimney, as merely suggested. This work aims at assessing the effectiveness of the installed TMD and characterizing the tower dynamic behaviour itself due to the wind excitation, as well as providing full scale measurements for twin cylinders configuration at high Reynolds numbers.

  20. Quick-start of full-scale anaerobic digestion (AD) using aeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagerkvist, Anders, E-mail: al@ltu.se; Pelkonen, Markku; Wikström, Tommy

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • A fast, and original, start up procedure for anaerobic digestors has been applied at full scale. • The development of a methanogenic culture has been documented using fluorescent in situ hybridization. • The technique can be widely applied. - Abstract: A conventional 1300 m{sup 3} continuously stirred anaerobic tank reactor at the city of Boden, north Sweden, which was receiving a feed of both sewage sludge and food waste, was put out of operation due to the build-up of a float phase. The reactor was emptied and cleaned. At start-up there was no methanogenic sludge available, so an unconventional start-up procedure was applied: The reactor was rapidly (8 days with 1200 kg of total solids (TS) added daily) filled with thickened, and slightly acidic sewage sludge, showing only slight methane generation, which was subsequently heated to 55 °C. Then compressed air was blown into the digester and within a month a fully functional methanogenic culture was established. The transfer from acidogenic to methanogenic conditions happened in about one week. As a start-up technique this is fast and cost efficient, it only requires the access of a compressor, electricity and a source of air. In total, about 16 tonnes of oxygen were used. It is proposed that this method may also be used as an operational amendment technique, should a reactor tend to acidify.

  1. Quick-start of full-scale anaerobic digestion (AD) using aeration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagerkvist, Anders; Pelkonen, Markku; Wikström, Tommy

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A fast, and original, start up procedure for anaerobic digestors has been applied at full scale. • The development of a methanogenic culture has been documented using fluorescent in situ hybridization. • The technique can be widely applied. - Abstract: A conventional 1300 m 3 continuously stirred anaerobic tank reactor at the city of Boden, north Sweden, which was receiving a feed of both sewage sludge and food waste, was put out of operation due to the build-up of a float phase. The reactor was emptied and cleaned. At start-up there was no methanogenic sludge available, so an unconventional start-up procedure was applied: The reactor was rapidly (8 days with 1200 kg of total solids (TS) added daily) filled with thickened, and slightly acidic sewage sludge, showing only slight methane generation, which was subsequently heated to 55 °C. Then compressed air was blown into the digester and within a month a fully functional methanogenic culture was established. The transfer from acidogenic to methanogenic conditions happened in about one week. As a start-up technique this is fast and cost efficient, it only requires the access of a compressor, electricity and a source of air. In total, about 16 tonnes of oxygen were used. It is proposed that this method may also be used as an operational amendment technique, should a reactor tend to acidify

  2. Performance Evaluations of Three Silt Fence Practices Using a Full-Scale Testing Apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Alan Bugg

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Erosion and sediment controls on construction sites minimize environmental impacts from sediment-laden stormwater runoff. Silt fence, a widely specified perimeter control practice on construction projects used to retain sediment on-site, has limited performance-based testing data. Silt fence failures and resultant sediment losses are often the result of structural failure. To better understand silt fence performance, researchers at the Auburn University-Erosion and Sediment Control Testing Facility (AU-ESCTF have evaluated three silt fence options to determine possible shortcomings using standardized full-scale testing methods. These methods subject silt fence practices to simulated, in-field conditions typically experienced on-site without the variability of field testing or the limited application of small-scale testing. Three different silt fence practices were tested to evaluate performance, which included: (1 Alabama Department of Transportation (ALDOT Trenched Silt Fence, (2 ALDOT Sliced Silt Fence, and (3 Alabama Soil and Water Conservation Committee (AL-SWCC Trenched Silt Fence. This study indicates that the structural performance of a silt fence perimeter control is the most important performance factor in retaining sediment. The sediment retention performance of these silt fence practices was 82.7%, 66.9% and 90.5%, respectively. When exposed to large impoundment conditions, both ALDOT Trench and Sliced Silt Fence practices failed structurally, while the AL-SWCC Trenched Silt Fence did not experience structural failure.

  3. Report on full-scale horizontal cable tray fire tests, FY 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riches, W.M.

    1988-09-01

    In recent years, there has been much discussion throughout industry and various governmental and fire protection agencies relative to the flammability and fire propagation characteristics of electrical cables in open cable trays. It has been acknowledged that under actual fire conditions, in the presence of other combustibles, electrical cable insulation can contribute to combustible fire loading and toxicity of smoke generation. Considerable research has been conducted on vertical cable tray fire propagation, mostly under small scale laboratory conditions. In July 1987, the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory initiated a program of full scale, horizontal cable tray fire tests, in the absence of other building combustible loading, to determine the flammability and rate of horizontal fire propagation in cable tray configurations and cable mixes typical of those existing in underground tunnel enclosures and support buildings at the Laboratory. The series of tests addressed the effects of ventilation rates and cable tray fill, fire fighting techniques, and effectiveness and value of automatic sprinklers, smoke detection and cable coating fire barriers in detecting, controlling or extinguishing a cable tray fire. This report includes a description of the series of fire tests completed in June 1988, as well as conclusions reached from the test results

  4. Assembly of a Full-Scale External Tank Barrel Section Using Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Chip; Adams, Glynn

    1999-01-01

    A full-scale pathfinder barrel section of the External Tank for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Space Transport System (Space Shuttle) has been assembled at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) via a collaborative effort between NASA/MSFC and Lockheed Martin Michoud Space Systems. The barrel section is 27.5 feet in diameter and 15 feet in height. The barrel was assembled using Super-Light-Weight (SLWT), orthogrid, Al-Li 2195 panel sections and a single longeron panel. A vertical weld tool at MSFC was modified to accommodate FSW and used to assemble the barrel. These modifications included the addition of a FSW weld head and new controller hardware and software, the addition of a backing anvil and the replacement of the clamping system with individually actuated clamps. Weld process 4evelopment was initially conducted to optimize the process for the welds required for completing the assembly. The variable thickness welds in the longeron section were conducted via both two-sided welds and with the use of a retractable pin tool. The barrel assembly was completed in October 1998. Details of the vertical weld tool modifications and the assembly process are presented.

  5. Subscale and Full-Scale Testing of Buckling-Critical Launch Vehicle Shell Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilburger, Mark W.; Haynie, Waddy T.; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Roberts, Michael G.; Norris, Jeffery P.; Waters, W. Allen; Herring, Helen M.

    2012-01-01

    New analysis-based shell buckling design factors (aka knockdown factors), along with associated design and analysis technologies, are being developed by NASA for the design of launch vehicle structures. Preliminary design studies indicate that implementation of these new knockdown factors can enable significant reductions in mass and mass-growth in these vehicles and can help mitigate some of NASA s launch vehicle development and performance risks by reducing the reliance on testing, providing high-fidelity estimates of structural performance, reliability, robustness, and enable increased payload capability. However, in order to validate any new analysis-based design data or methods, a series of carefully designed and executed structural tests are required at both the subscale and full-scale level. This paper describes recent buckling test efforts at NASA on two different orthogrid-stiffened metallic cylindrical shell test articles. One of the test articles was an 8-ft-diameter orthogrid-stiffened cylinder and was subjected to an axial compression load. The second test article was a 27.5-ft-diameter Space Shuttle External Tank-derived cylinder and was subjected to combined internal pressure and axial compression.

  6. Seasonal evaluation of disinfection by-products throughout two full-scale drinking water treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xin; Cui, Chongwei; Yu, Shuili

    2017-07-01

    Carbonyl compounds can occur alpha-hydrogens or beta-diketones substitution reactions with disinfectants contributed to halogenated by-products formation. The objective of this research was to study the occurrence and fate of carbonyl compounds as ozonation by-products at two full-scale drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) using different disinfectants for one year. The quality of the raw water used in both plants was varied according to the season. The higher carbonyl compounds concentrations were found in raw water in spring. Up to 15 (as the sum of both DWTPs) of the 24 carbonyl compounds selected for this work were found after disinfection. The dominant carbonyl compounds were formaldehyde, glyoxal, methyl-glyoxal, fumaric, benzoic, protocatechuic and 3-hydroxybenzoic acid at both DWTPs. In the following steps in each treatment plant, the concentration patterns of these carbonyl compounds differed depending on the type of disinfectant applied. Benzaldehyde was the only aromatic aldehyde detected after oxidation with ozone in spring. As compared with DWTP 1, five new carbonyl compounds were formed (crotonaldehyde, benzaldehyde, formic, oxalic and malonic acid) disinfection by ozone, and the levels of the carbonyl compounds increased. In addition, pre-ozonation (PO) and main ozonation (OZ) increased the levels of carbonyl compounds, however coagulation/flocculation (CF), sand filtration (SF) and granular activated carbon filtration (GAC) decreased the levels of carbonyl compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Numerical forensic model for the diagnosis of a full-scale RC floor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed B. Shuraim

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of an investigation on the diagnosis and assessment of a full-scale reinforced concrete floor utilizing a 3-D forensic model developed in the framework of plasticity-damage approach. Despite the advancement in nonlinear finite element formulations and models, there is a need to verify models on nontrivial challenging structures. Various standards on strengthening existing structures consider numerical diagnosis as a major stage involving safety and economical aspects. Accordingly, model validity is a major issue that should preferably be examined against realistic large-scale tests. This was done in this study by investigating a one-story joist floor with wide shallow beams supported on columns. The surveyed cracking patterns on the entire top side of the floor were reproduced by the forensic model to a reasonable degree in terms of orientation and general location. Concrete principal plastic tensile strain was shown to be a good indirect indicator of cracking patterns. However, identifying the underlying reasons of major cracks in the floor required correlating with other key field parameters including deflections, and internal moments. Therefore, the ability of the forensic model to reproduce the surveyed damage state of the floor provided a positive indication on the material models, spatial representation, and parameter selection. Such models can be used as forensic tools for assessing the existing conditions as required by various standards and codes.

  8. CFD analysis of a full-scale ceramic kiln module under actual operating conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Massimo; Montorsi, Luca; Stefani, Matteo; Venturelli, Matteo

    2017-11-01

    The paper focuses on the CFD analysis of a full-scale module of an industrial ceramic kiln under actual operating conditions. The multi-dimensional analysis includes the real geometry of a ceramic kiln module employed in the preheating and firing sections and investigates the heat transfer between the tiles and the burners' flame as well as the many components that comprise the module. Particular attention is devoted to the simulation of the convective flow field in the upper and lower chambers and to the effects of radiation on the different materials is addressed. The assessment of the radiation contribution to the tiles temperature is paramount to the improvement of the performance of the kiln in terms of energy efficiency and fuel consumption. The CFD analysis is combined to a lumped and distributed parameter model of the entire kiln in order to simulate the module behaviour at the boundaries under actual operating conditions. Finally, the CFD simulation is employed to address the effects of the module operating conditions on the tiles' temperature distribution in order to improve the temperature uniformity as well as to enhance the energy efficiency of the system and thus to reduce the fuel consumption.

  9. Shake Table Testing of an Elevator System in a Full-Scale Five-Story Building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiang; Hutchinson, Tara C; Astroza, Rodrigo; Conte, Joel P; Restrepo, José I; Hoehler, Matthew S; Ribeiro, Waldir

    2017-03-01

    This paper investigates the seismic performance of a functional traction elevator as part of a full-scale five-story building shake table test program. The test building was subjected to a suite of earthquake input motions of increasing intensity, first while the building was isolated at its base, and subsequently while it was fixed to the shake table platen. In addition, low-amplitude white noise base excitation tests were conducted while the elevator system was placed in three different configurations, namely, by varying the vertical location of its cabin and counterweight, to study the acceleration amplifications of the elevator components due to dynamic excitations. During the earthquake tests, detailed observation of the physical damage and operability of the elevator as well as its measured response are reported. Although the cabin and counterweight sustained large accelerations due to impact during these tests, the use of well-restrained guide shoes demonstrated its effectiveness in preventing the cabin and counterweight from derailment during high-intensity earthquake shaking. However, differential displacements induced by the building imposed undesirable distortion of the elevator components and their surrounding support structure, which caused damage and inoperability of the elevator doors. It is recommended that these aspects be explicitly considered in elevator seismic design.

  10. Full-scale laboratory drilling tests on sandstone and dolomite. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, A. D.; Green, S. J.; Rogers, L. A.

    1977-08-01

    Full-scale laboratory drilling experiments were performed under simulated downhole conditions to determine what effect changing various drilling parameters has on penetration rate. The two rock types, typical of deep oil and gas reservoirs, used for the tests were Colton Sandstone and Bonne Terre Dolomite. Drilling was performed with standard 7/sup 7///sub 8/ inch rotary insert bits and water base mud. The results showed the penetration rate to be strongly dependent on bit weight, rotary speed and borehole mud pressure. There was only a small dependence on mud flow rate. The drilling rate decreased rapidly with increasing borehole mud pressure for borehole pressures up to about 2,000 psi. Above this pressure, the borehole pressure and rotary speeds had a smaller effect on penetration rate. The penetration rate was then dependent mostly on the bit weight. Penetration rate per horsepower input was also shown to decrease at higher mud pressures and bit weights. The ratio of horizontal confining stress to axial overburden stress was maintained at 0.7 for simulated overburden stresses between 0 and 12,800 psi. For this simulated downhole stress state, the undrilled rock sample was within the elastic response range and the confining pressures were found to have only a small or negligible effect on the penetration rate. Visual examination of the bottomhole pattern of the rocks after simulated downhole drilling, however, revealed ductile chipping of the Sandstone, but more brittle behavior in the Dolomite.

  11. Comparative performance evaluation of full-scale anaerobic and aerobic wastewater treatment processes in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Sperling, M; Oliveira, S C

    2009-01-01

    This article evaluates and compares the actual behavior of 166 full-scale anaerobic and aerobic wastewater treatment plants in operation in Brazil, providing information on the performance of the processes in terms of the quality of the generated effluent and the removal efficiency achieved. The observed results of effluent concentrations and removal efficiencies of the constituents BOD, COD, TSS (total suspended solids), TN (total nitrogen), TP (total phosphorus) and FC (faecal or thermotolerant coliforms) have been compared with the typical expected performance reported in the literature. The treatment technologies selected for study were: (a) predominantly anaerobic: (i) septic tank + anaerobic filter (ST + AF), (ii) UASB reactor without post-treatment (UASB) and (iii) UASB reactor followed by several post-treatment processes (UASB + POST); (b) predominantly aerobic: (iv) facultative pond (FP), (v) anaerobic pond followed by facultative pond (AP + FP) and (vi) activated sludge (AS). The results, confirmed by statistical tests, showed that, in general, the best performance was achieved by AS, but closely followed by UASB reactor, when operating with any kind of post-treatment. The effluent quality of the anaerobic processes ST + AF and UASB reactor without post-treatment was very similar to the one presented by facultative pond, a simpler aerobic process, regarding organic matter.

  12. Full Scale Bioreactor Landfill for Carbon Sequestration and Greenhouse Emission Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Kathy Sananikone; Don Augenstein

    2005-03-30

    The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works constructed a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective was to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entailed the construction of a 12-acre module that contained a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells were highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Liquid addition commenced in the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and the 6-acre anaerobic cell. Construction of the 2.5-acre aerobic cell and biofilter has been completed. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

  13. Seasonal variations of microbial community in a full scale oil field produced water treatment plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Xie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the microbial community in a full scale anaerobic baffled reactor and sequencing batch reactor system for oil-produced water treatment in summer and winter. The community structures of fungi and bacteria were analyzed through polymerase chain reaction–denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and Illumina high-throughput sequencing, respectively. Chemical oxygen demand effluent concentration achieved lower than 50 mg/L level after the system in both summer and winter, however, chemical oxygen demand removal rates after anaerobic baffled reactor treatment system were significant higher in summer than that in winter, which conformed to the microbial community diversity. Saccharomycotina, Fusarium, and Aspergillus were detected in both anaerobic baffled reactor and sequencing batch reactor during summer and winter. The fungal communities in anaerobic baffled reactor and sequencing batch reactor were shaped by seasons and treatment units, while there was no correlation between abundance of fungi and chemical oxygen demand removal rates. Compared to summer, the total amount of the dominant hydrocarbon degrading bacteria decreased by 10.2% in anaerobic baffled reactor, resulting in only around 23% of chemical oxygen demand was removed in winter. Although microbial community significantly varied in the three parallel sulfide reducing bacteria, the performance of these bioreactors had no significant difference between summer and winter.

  14. CFD study of temperature distribution in full scale boiler adopting in-furnace coal blending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadhil, S S A; Hasini, H; Shuaib, N H

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the investigation of temperature characteristics of an in-furnace combustion using different coals in a 700 MW full scale boiler. Single mixture fraction approach is adopted for combustion model of both primary and secondary coals. The primary coal was based on the properties of Adaro which has been used as the design coal for the boiler under investigation. The secondary blend coal was selected based on sub-bituminous coal with higher calorific value. Both coals are simultaneously injected into the furnace at alternate coal burner elevations. The general prediction of the temperature contours at primary combustion zone shows identical pattern compared with conventional single coal combustion in similar furnace. Reasonable agreement was achieved by the prediction of the average temperature at furnace exit. The temperature distribution is at different furnace elevation is non-uniform with higher temperature predicted at circumferential 'ring-like' region at lower burner levels for both cases. The maximum flame temperature is higher at the elevation where coal of higher calorific value is injected. The temperature magnitude is within the accepTable limit and the variations does not differ much compared to the conventional single coal combustion.

  15. A novel full scale experimental characterization of wind turbine aero-acoustic noise sources - preliminary results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Bertagnolio, Franck; Fischer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    of the blade and the noise on the ground in a distance of about one rotor diameter. In total six surface microphones were used to measure the SP at the leading edge (LE) and trailing edge (TE) of the blade. In parallel noise was measured by eight microphones placed on plates on the ground around the turbine......The paper describes a novel full scale experiment on a 500 kW wind turbine with the main objective to characterize the aero-acoustic noise sources. The idea behind the instrumentation is to study the link and correlation between the surface pressure (SP) fluctuations in the boundary layer...... in equidistant angles on a circle with a radius of about one rotor diameter. The data were analyzed in segments of 2.2 s which is the time for one rotor revolution. The spectra for the TE microphones on the suction side of the blade show a characteristic roll-off pattern around a frequency of 600-700 Hz...

  16. Full scale monitoring of wind and traffic induced response of a suspension bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheynet Etienne

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a full-scale analysis of wind and traffic-induced vibrations of a long-span suspension bridge in complex terrain. Several wind and acceleration sensors have been installed along the main span on Lysefjord Bridge in Norway. In the present study, three days of continuous records are analysed. Traffic-induced vibrations are dominant at low and moderated wind speed, with non-negligible effects on the overall bridge response for heavy vehicles only. Traffic and wind-induced vibrations are compared in terms of root mean square of the acceleration response, and three simples approaches are proposed to isolate records dominated by wind-induced vibration. The first one relies on the separation of nocturnal and diurnal samples. The second one is based on the evaluation of the time-varying root mean square of the acceleration response. The last one evaluates the relative importance of the high frequency domain of the acceleration bridge response. It appears that traffic-induced vibrations may have to be taken into account for the buffeting analysis of long-span bridge under moderated wind.

  17. Mecoprop (MCPP) removal in full-scale rapid sand filters at a groundwater-based waterworks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Mathilde Jørgensen; Arvin, Erik; Corfitzen, Charlotte B.

    2014-01-01

    and secondary rapid sand filters. Water quality parameters were measured throughout the waterworks, and they behaved as designed for. MCPP was removed in secondary rapid sand filters — removal was the greatest in the sand filters in the filter line with the highest contact time (63min). In these secondary sand...... in the full-scale system. Therefore, microcosms were set up with filter sand, water and 14C-labelled MCPP at an initial concentration of 0.2μg/L. After 24h, 79–86% of the initial concentration of MCPP was removed. Sorption removed 11–15%, while the remaining part was removed by microbial processes, leading...... to a complete mineralisation of 13–18%. Microbial removal in the filter sand was similar at different depths of the rapid sand filter, while the amount of MCPP which adsorbed to the filter sand after 48h decreased with depth from 21% of the initial MCPP in the top layer to 7% in the bottom layer...

  18. Full-Scale Turbofan Engine Noise-Source Separation Using a Four-Signal Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.; Arechiga, Rene O.

    2016-01-01

    Contributions from the combustor to the overall propulsion noise of civilian transport aircraft are starting to become important due to turbofan design trends and expected advances in mitigation of other noise sources. During on-ground, static-engine acoustic tests, combustor noise is generally sub-dominant to other engine noise sources because of the absence of in-flight effects. Consequently, noise-source separation techniques are needed to extract combustor-noise information from the total noise signature in order to further progress. A novel four-signal source-separation method is applied to data from a static, full-scale engine test and compared to previous methods. The new method is, in a sense, a combination of two- and three-signal techniques and represents an attempt to alleviate some of the weaknesses of each of those approaches. This work is supported by the NASA Advanced Air Vehicles Program, Advanced Air Transport Technology Project, Aircraft Noise Reduction Subproject and the NASA Glenn Faculty Fellowship Program.

  19. Calibration of a complex activated sludge model for the full-scale wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liwarska-Bizukojc, Ewa; Olejnik, Dorota; Biernacki, Rafal; Ledakowicz, Stanislaw

    2011-08-01

    In this study, the results of the calibration of the complex activated sludge model implemented in BioWin software for the full-scale wastewater treatment plant are presented. Within the calibration of the model, sensitivity analysis of its parameters and the fractions of carbonaceous substrate were performed. In the steady-state and dynamic calibrations, a successful agreement between the measured and simulated values of the output variables was achieved. Sensitivity analysis revealed that upon the calculations of normalized sensitivity coefficient (S(i,j)) 17 (steady-state) or 19 (dynamic conditions) kinetic and stoichiometric parameters are sensitive. Most of them are associated with growth and decay of ordinary heterotrophic organisms and phosphorus accumulating organisms. The rankings of ten most sensitive parameters established on the basis of the calculations of the mean square sensitivity measure (δ(msqr)j) indicate that irrespective of the fact, whether the steady-state or dynamic calibration was performed, there is an agreement in the sensitivity of parameters.

  20. 454 pyrosequencing analyses of bacterial and archaeal richness in 21 full-scale biogas digesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, Carina; Al-Soud, Waleed A; Larsson, Madeleine; Alm, Erik; Yekta, Sepehr S; Svensson, Bo H; Sørensen, Søren J; Karlsson, Anna

    2013-09-01

    The microbial community of 21 full-scale biogas reactors was examined using 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene sequences. These reactors included seven (six mesophilic and one thermophilic) digesting sewage sludge (SS) and 14 (ten mesophilic and four thermophilic) codigesting (CD) various combinations of wastes from slaughterhouses, restaurants, households, etc. The pyrosequencing generated more than 160,000 sequences representing 11 phyla, 23 classes, and 95 genera of Bacteria and Archaea. The bacterial community was always both more abundant and more diverse than the archaeal community. At the phylum level, the foremost populations in the SS reactors included Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Spirochetes, and Euryarchaeota, while Firmicutes was the most prevalent in the CD reactors. The main bacterial class in all reactors was Clostridia. Acetoclastic methanogens were detected in the SS, but not in the CD reactors. Their absence suggests that methane formation from acetate takes place mainly via syntrophic acetate oxidation in the CD reactors. A principal component analysis of the communities at genus level revealed three clusters: SS reactors, mesophilic CD reactors (including one thermophilic CD and one SS), and thermophilic CD reactors. Thus, the microbial composition was mainly governed by the substrate differences and the process temperature. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of water quality on nitrifier regrowth in two full-scale drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Daniel B; Van Dyke, Michele I; Anderson, William B; Huck, Peter M

    2015-12-01

    The potential for regrowth of nitrifying microorganisms was monitored in 2 full-scale chloraminated drinking water distribution systems in Ontario, Canada, over a 9-month period. Quantitative PCR was used to measure amoA genes from ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), and these values were compared with water quality parameters that can influence nitrifier survival and growth, including total chlorine, ammonia, temperature, pH, and organic carbon. Although there were no severe nitrification episodes, AOB and AOA were frequently detected at low concentrations in samples collected from both distribution systems. A culture-based presence-absence test confirmed the presence of viable nitrifiers. AOB were usually present in similar or greater numbers than AOA in both systems. As well, AOB showed higher regrowth potential compared with AOA in both systems. Statistically significant correlations were measured between several water quality parameters of relevance to nitrification. Total chlorine was negatively correlated with both nitrifiers and heterotrophic plate count (HPC) bacteria, and ammonia levels were positively correlated with nitrifiers. Of particular importance was the strong correlation between HPC and AOB, which reinforced the usefulness of HPC as an operational parameter to measure general microbiological conditions in distribution systems.

  2. Static and fatigue experimental tests on a full scale fuselage panel and FEM analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Sepe

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A fatigue test on a full scale panel with complex loading condition and geometry configuration has been carried out using a triaxial test machine. The demonstrator is made up of two skins which are linked by a transversal butt-joint, parallel to the stringer direction. A fatigue load was applied in the direction normal to the longitudinal joint, while a constant load was applied in the longitudinal joint direction. The test panel was instrumented with strain gages and previously quasi-static tests were conducted to ensure a proper load transferring to the panel. In order to support the tests, geometric nonlinear shell finite element analyses were conducted to predict strain and stress distributions. The demonstrator broke up after about 177000 cycles. Subsequently, a finite element analysis (FEA was carried out in order to correlate failure events; due to the biaxial nature of the fatigue loads, Sines criterion was used. The analysis was performed taking into account the different materials by which the panel is composed. The numerical results show a good correlation with experimental data, successfully predicting failure locations on the panel.

  3. Full scale vibration test on nuclear power plant auxiliary building: Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langer, V.; Tinic, S.; Berger, E.; Zwicky, P.; Prater, E.G.

    1987-01-01

    In connection with the construction of the reinforced concrete auxiliary building housing the two boric water tanks (so-called BOTA building) of the Beznau Nuclear Power Plant in Switzerland the opportunity was given to carry out full scale vibration tests in November 1985. The overall aim of the tests was to validate computational models and parameters widely used in the seismic analysis of the structures and critical components of nuclear power plants. The scope of the experimental investigation was the determination of the eigenfrequencies and damping values for the fundamental soil-structure interaction (SSI) modes. The excitation level was aimed to be as high as feasibly possible. A working group was formed of representatives of the owner, NOK, the consulting firm Basler and Hofmann and the ETH to supervise the project. The project's main phases were the planning and execution of the tests, the evaluation of recorded data, numerical simulation of the tests using different computer models and finally the comparison and interpretation of measured and computed results

  4. Domestic Wastewater Reuse in Concrete Using Bench-Scale Testing and Full-Scale Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoup M. Ghrair

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Demand for fresh water by the construction sector is expected to increase due to the high increase in the growth of construction activities in Jordan. This study aims to evaluate the potential of scale-up of the application of treated domestic wastewater in concrete from bench-scale to a full-scale. On the lab scale, concrete and mortar mixes using Primary and Secondary Treated Wastewater (PTW, STW and Distilled Water (DW were cast and tested after various curing ages (7, 28, 120, and 200 days. Based on wastewater quality, according to IS 456-2000, the STW is suitable for mortar and concrete production. Mortar made with STW at curing time up to 200 days has no significant negative effect on the mortar’s compressive strength. Conversely, the PTW exceeded the maximum permissible limits of total organic content and E coli. for concrete mixing-water. Using PTW results, a significant increase in the initial setting time of up to 16.7% and a decrease in the concrete workability are observed. In addition, using PTW as mixing water led to a significant reduction in the compressive strength up to 19.6%. The results that came out from scaling up to real production operation of ready-mix concrete were in harmony with the lab-scale results.

  5. Flame spread and smoke temperature of full-scale fire test of car fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayan Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Full-scale experiments using two 4-door sedan passenger cars, placed side by side in the reverse direction, were carried out to establish the burning behavior and describe the spread of fire to adjacent car. The temperature was measured by thermocouples. Radiant heat flux was measured with heat flux gauge placed at a distance of 5 m, at the right side of the car. Four cameras were placed inside the car and in the fire test room recording burning behavior during the test. Engine compartment was ignited by a sponge dipped with little gasoline. During the experiment, the ignition was initiated in the engine compartment of car I and approximately 20 min were enough time for fire to spread into the second car. Fully-developed burning of two cars occurred at 29 min. It was observed that the flame spread through car roof faster than through the bottom of car compartment. The fire followed a slow rate spread from engine compartment to car cab. The temperature inside the car peaked at the point of 900 °C. The peak smoke temperatures at every location were measured at the range of 89–285 °C. The smoke production at the time of 11 min to 15 min 50 s of fire was 1.76 m3/s, which was obtained through indirect calculation method.

  6. Full Scale Test of a SSP 34m box girder 1. Data report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Find Mølholt; Branner, Kim; Nielsen, Per Hørlyk

    This report presents the setup and result of a full-scale test of a reinforced glass fibre/epoxy box girder used in 34m wind turbine blade. The tests were performed at the Blaest test facility in August 2006. The test is an important part of a research project established in cooperation between...... Risø DTU, the National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy at the Technical University of Denmark -, SSP-Technology A/S and Blaest (Blade test centre A/S) and it has been performed as a part of Find Mølholt Jensen‟s PhD study. This report contains the complete test data for the final test, in which...... the box girder was loaded until failure. A comprehensive description of the test setup is given. This report deals only with tests and results. There are no conclusions on the data in this report, but references are given to publications, where the data are used and compared with FEM etc. Various kinds...

  7. Comparison of organic emissions from laboratory and full-scale thermal degradation of sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirey, D.A.; Striebich, R.C.; Dellinger, B.; Bostian, H.E.

    1991-01-01

    Samples of sewage sludge burned at one fluidized-bed and three multiple-hearth incinerators were subjected to laboratory flow reactor thermal decomposition testing in both pyrolytic and oxidative atmospheres. The time/temperature conditions of the laboratory testing were established to simulate as closely as possible full-scale incineration conditions so that a direct comparison of results could be made. The laboratory test results indicated that biomass decomposition products, not toxic industrial contaminants, comprised the majority of the emissions. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, acrylonitrile, and acetonitrile were consistently the most environmentally significant products of thermal degradation. Comparison of the results from this study with those obtained in field tests was complicated by an apparent loss of volatile chlorocarbons from the sludge samples received for laboratory testing. However, qualitative comparison of emission factors derived from lab and field results for those compounds observed in both studies, showed reasonably good correlation for the pyrolysis testing. Results suggested that the upper stages of multiple-hearth units may vaporize many volatile components of the sludge before they enter the combustion stages of the incinerator and thus represent a direct source of introduction of pollutants into the atmosphere

  8. Copper and zinc removal from roof runoff: from research to full-scale adsorber systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, M; Boller, M

    2006-01-01

    Large, uncoated copper and zinc roofs cause environmental problems if their runoff is infiltrated into the underground or discharged into receiving waters. Since source control is not always feasible, barrier systems for efficient copper and zinc removal are recommended in Switzerland. During the last few years, research carried out in order to test the performance of GIH-calcite adsorber filters as a barrier system. Adsorption and mass transport processes were assessed and described in a mathematical model. However, this model is not suitable for practical design, because it does not give explicit access to design parameters such as adsorber diameter and adsorber bed depth. Therefore, for e.g. engineers, an easy to use design guideline for GIH-calcite adsorber systems was developed, mainly based on the mathematical model. The core of this guideline is the design of the depth of the GIH-calcite adsorber layer. The depth is calculated by adding up the GIH depth for sorption equilibrium and the depth for the mass transfer zone (MTZ). Additionally, the arrangement of other adsorber system components such as particle separation and retention volume was considered in the guideline. Investigations of a full-scale adsorber confirm the successful application of this newly developed design guideline for the application of GIH-calcite adsorber systems in practice.

  9. Full Scale 3D Preoperative Planning System of the Ankle Joint Replacement Surgery with Multimedia System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuh-Ping Sun

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study is intended to develop a computer-aided pre-surgical planning and simulating system in a multimedia environment for ankle joint replacement surgery. This system uses full-scale 3D reverse engineering techniques in design and development of the pre-surgical planning modules for ankle joint replacement surgery. This planning system not only develops the real-scale 3D image of the artificial ankle joint but also provides a detailed interior measurement of the ankle joint from various cutting planes. In this study, we apply the multimedia user interface to integrate different software functions into a surgical planning system with integrated functions. The functions include 3D model image acquisition, cutting, horizontal shifting and rotation of related bones (tibia and talus of the ankle joint in the predetermined time. For related bones of the ankle joint, it can also be used to design artificial ankle joints for adults in Taiwan. Those planning procedures can be recorded in this system for further research and investigation. Furthermore, since this system is a multimedia user interface, surgeons can use this system to plan and find a better and more efficient surgical approach before surgery. A database is available for this system to update and expand, which can provide different users with clinical cases as per their experience and learning.

  10. Overview of the Transport Rotorcraft Airframe Crash Testbed (TRACT) Full Scale Crash Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annett, Martin; Littell, Justin

    2015-01-01

    The Transport Rotorcraft Airframe Crash Testbed (TRACT) full-scale tests were performed at NASA Langley Research Center's Landing and Impact Research Facility in 2013 and 2014. Two CH-46E airframes were impacted at 33-ft/s forward and 25-ft/s vertical combined velocities onto soft soil, which represents a severe, but potentially survivable impact scenario. TRACT 1 provided a baseline set of responses, while TRACT 2 included retrofits with composite subfloors and other crash system improvements based on TRACT 1. For TRACT 2, a total of 18 unique experiments were conducted to evaluate Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATD) responses, seat and restraint performance, cargo restraint effectiveness, patient litter behavior, and activation of emergency locator transmitters and crash sensors. Combinations of Hybrid II, Hybrid III, and ES-2 ATDs were placed in forward and side facing seats and occupant results were compared against injury criteria. The structural response of the airframe was assessed based on accelerometers located throughout the airframe and using three-dimensional photogrammetric techniques. Analysis of the photogrammetric data indicated regions of maximum deflection and permanent deformation. The response of TRACT 2 was noticeably different in the horizontal direction due to changes in the cabin configuration and soil surface, with higher acceleration and damage occurring in the cabin. Loads from ATDs in energy absorbing seats and restraints were within injury limits. Severe injury was likely for ATDs in forward facing passenger seats.

  11. Practical research of free standing rack. Seismic experiment study on full scale free standing rack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Akihisa; Nekomoto, Yoshitsugu; Morita, Hideyuki; Taniguchi, Katsuhiko; Okuno, Daisaku; Matsuoka, Toshihiro; Chigusa, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    The spent fuel taken out of a plant reactor is temporarily stored in a spent fuel rack. This fuel will often have to be stored in the rack for long periods before it can be moved to a reprocessing facility. Therefore, the spent fuel rack must have a high tolerance against big seismic loads. The free standing spent fuel rack has been developed as the optimal equipment meeting these requirements. It can be placed on the spent fuel pool floor without fixation to any support structure. Response of the free standing rack is reduced by the effect of the water and friction force on the spent fuel pool floor. For nuclear plant safety, it is necessary to understand the free standing rack behavior under earthquake in pools to verify the design of free standing racks and peripheral components. Several tests on a shaking table have been conducted on full-scale one free standing rack in air and in water, and sliding and rocking have been measured. The rack response is very complex and the study necessitates to take into account the sliding, the rocking, the effect of the water and of the arrangement of the fuel assemblies inside. (author)

  12. Long-term interactions of full-scale cemented waste simulates with salt brines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kienzler, B.; Borkel, C.; Metz, V.; Schlieker, M.

    2016-07-01

    Since 1967 radioactive wastes have been disposed of in the Asse II salt mine in Northern Germany. A significant part of these wastes originated from the pilot reprocessing plant WAK in Karlsruhe and consisted of cemented NaNO{sub 3} solutions bearing fission products, actinides, as well as process chemicals. With respect to the long-term behavior of these wastes, the licensing authorities requested leaching experiments with full scale samples in relevant salt solutions which were performed since 1979. The experiments aimed at demonstrating the transferability of results obtained with laboratory samples to real waste forms and at the investigation of the effects of the industrial cementation process on the properties of the waste forms. This research program lasted until 2013. The corroding salt solutions were sampled several times and after termination of the experiments, the solid materials were analyzed by various methods. The results presented in this report cover the evolution of the solutions and the chemical and mineralogical characterization of the solids including radionuclides and waste components, and the paragenesis of solid phases (corrosion products). The outcome is compared to the results of model calculations. For safety analysis, conclusions are drawn on radionuclide retention, evolution of the geochemical environment, evolution of the density of solutions, and effects of temperature and porosity of the cement waste simulates on cesium mobilization.

  13. Experimental Study on Full-Scale Beams Made by Reinforced Alkali Activated Concrete Undergoing Flexure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfardini, Linda; Minelli, Fausto

    2016-08-30

    Alkali Activated Concrete (AAC) is an alternative kind of concrete that uses fly ash as a total replacement of Portland cement. Fly ash combined with alkaline solution and cured at high temperature reacts to form a binder. Four point bending tests on two full scale beams made with AAC are described in this paper. Companion small material specimens were also casted with the aim of properly characterizing this new tailored material. The beam's length was 5000 mm and the cross section was 200 mm × 300 mm. The AAC consisted of fly ash, water, sand 0-4 mm and coarse aggregate 6-10 mm; and the alkaline solution consisted of sodium hydroxide mixed with sodium silicate. No cement was utilized. The maximum aggregate size was 10 mm; fly ash was type F, containing a maximum calcium content of 2%. After a rest period of two days, the beam was cured at 60 °C for 24 h. Data collected and critically discussed included beam deflection, crack patterns, compressive and flexural strength and elastic modulus. Results show how AAC behavior is comparable with Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) based materials. Nonlinear numerical analyses are finally reported, promoting a better understanding of the structural response.

  14. Full-scale measurements of smoke transport and deposition in ventilation system ductwork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.A.; Fenton, D.L.

    1985-07-01

    This study is part of an effort to obtain experimental data in support of the fire accident analysis computer code FIRAC, which was developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. FIRAC can predict the transient movement of aerosolized or gaseous material throughout the complex ventilation systems of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. We conducted a preliminary set of full-scale material depletion/modification experiments to help assess the accuracy of the code's aerosol depletion model. Such tests were performed under realistic conditions using real combustion products in full-sized ducts at typical airflow rates. To produce a combustion aerosol, we burned both polystyrene and polymethyl methacrylate, the most and least smoky fuels typically found in fuel cycle plants, under varied ventilation (oxygen-lean and oxygen-rich) conditions. Aerosol mass deposition, size, and concentration measurements were performed. We found that as much as approx.25% of polystyrene smoke mass and as little as 2% of the polymethyl methacrylate generated at the entrance to a 15.2-m duct is deposited on the duct walls. We also compared our experimental results with theoretical equations currently used in FIRAC. 28 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs

  15. Long-term interactions of full-scale cemented waste simulates with salt brines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kienzler, B.; Borkel, C.; Metz, V.; Schlieker, M.

    2016-01-01

    Since 1967 radioactive wastes have been disposed of in the Asse II salt mine in Northern Germany. A significant part of these wastes originated from the pilot reprocessing plant WAK in Karlsruhe and consisted of cemented NaNO 3 solutions bearing fission products, actinides, as well as process chemicals. With respect to the long-term behavior of these wastes, the licensing authorities requested leaching experiments with full scale samples in relevant salt solutions which were performed since 1979. The experiments aimed at demonstrating the transferability of results obtained with laboratory samples to real waste forms and at the investigation of the effects of the industrial cementation process on the properties of the waste forms. This research program lasted until 2013. The corroding salt solutions were sampled several times and after termination of the experiments, the solid materials were analyzed by various methods. The results presented in this report cover the evolution of the solutions and the chemical and mineralogical characterization of the solids including radionuclides and waste components, and the paragenesis of solid phases (corrosion products). The outcome is compared to the results of model calculations. For safety analysis, conclusions are drawn on radionuclide retention, evolution of the geochemical environment, evolution of the density of solutions, and effects of temperature and porosity of the cement waste simulates on cesium mobilization.

  16. FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

    2002-01-01

    The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches while providing superior environmental protection. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition, maximum landfill gas generation and capture, and minimum long-term environmental consequences. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report

  17. Active vibration control of a full scale aircraft wing using a reconfigurable controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Shashikala; Renjith Kumar, T. G.; Raja, S.; Dwarakanathan, D.; Subramani, H.; Karthikeyan, C.

    2016-01-01

    This work highlights the design of a Reconfigurable Active Vibration Control (AVC) System for aircraft structures using adaptive techniques. The AVC system with a multichannel capability is realized using Filtered-X Least Mean Square algorithm (FxLMS) on Xilinx Virtex-4 Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) platform in Very High Speed Integrated Circuits Hardware Description Language, (VHDL). The HDL design is made based on Finite State Machine (FSM) model with Floating point Intellectual Property (IP) cores for arithmetic operations. The use of FPGA facilitates to modify the system parameters even during runtime depending on the changes in user's requirements. The locations of the control actuators are optimized based on dynamic modal strain approach using genetic algorithm (GA). The developed system has been successfully deployed for the AVC testing of the full-scale wing of an all composite two seater transport aircraft. Several closed loop configurations like single channel and multi-channel control have been tested. The experimental results from the studies presented here are very encouraging. They demonstrate the usefulness of the system's reconfigurability for real time applications.

  18. Full-scale and laboratory-scale anaerobic treatment of citric acid production wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colleran, E; Pender, S; Philpott, U; O'Flaherty, V; Leahy, B

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews the operation of a full-scale, fixed-bed digester treating a citric acid production wastewater with a COD:sulphate ratio of 3-4:1. Support matrix pieces were removed from the digester at intervals during the first 5 years of operation in order to quantify the vertical distribution of biomass within the digester. Detailed analysis of the digester biomass after 5 years of operation indicated that H2 and propionate-utilising SRB had outcompeted hydrogenophilic methanogens and propionate syntrophs. Acetoclastic methanogens were shown to play the dominant role in acetate conversion. Butyrate and ethanol-degrading syntrophs also remained active in the digester after 5 years of operation. Laboratory-scale hybrid reactor treatment at 55 degrees C of a diluted molasses influent, with and without sulphate supplementation, showed that the reactors could be operated with high stability at volumetric loading rates of 24 kgCOD.m-3.d-1 (12 h HRT). In the presence of sulphate (2 g/l-1; COD/sulphate ratio of 6:1), acetate conversion was severely inhibited, resulting in effluent acetate concentrations of up to 4000 mg.l-1.

  19. Three dimensional numerical simulation of a full scale CANDU reactor moderator to study temperature fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarchami, Araz; Ashgriz, Nasser; Kwee, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • 3D model of a Candu reactor is modeled to investigate flow distribution. • The results show the temperature distribution is not symmetrical. • Temperature contours show the hot regions at the top left-hand side of the tank. • Interactions of momentum flows and buoyancy flows create circulation zones. • The results indicate that the moderator tank operates in the buoyancy driven mode. -- Abstract: Three dimensional numerical simulations are conducted on a full scale CANDU Moderator and transient variations of the temperature and velocity distributions inside the tank are determined. The results show that the flow and temperature distributions inside the moderator tank are three dimensional and no symmetry plane can be identified. Competition between the upward moving buoyancy driven flows and the downward moving momentum driven flows in the center region of the tank, results in the formation of circulation zones. The moderator tank operates in the buoyancy driven mode and any small disturbances in the flow or temperature makes the system unstable and asymmetric. Different types of temperature fluctuations are noted inside the tank: (i) large amplitude are at the boundaries between the hot and cold; (ii) low amplitude are in the core of the tank; (iii) high frequency fluctuations are in the regions with high velocities and (iv) low frequency fluctuations are in the regions with lower velocities

  20. Seasonal variations of microbial community in a full scale oil field produced water treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Q.; Bai, S.; Li, Y.; Liu, L.; Wang, S.; Xi, J.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the microbial community in a full scale anaerobic baffled reactor and sequencing batch reactor system for oil-produced water treatment in summer and winter. The community structures of fungi and bacteria were analyzed through polymerase chain reaction–denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and Illumina high throughput sequencing, respectively. Chemical oxygen demand effluent concentration achieved lower than 50 mg/L level after the system in both summer and winter, however, chemical oxygen demand removal rates after anaerobic baffled reactor treatment system were significant higher in summer than that in winter, which conformed to the microbial community diversity. Saccharomycotina, Fusarium, and Aspergillus were detected in both anaerobic baffled reactor and sequencing batch reactor during summer and winter. The fungal communities in anaerobic baffled reactor and sequencing batch reactor were shaped by seasons and treatment units, while there was no correlation between abundance of fungi and chemical oxygen demand removal rates. Compared to summer, the total amount of the dominant hydrocarbon degrading bacteria decreased by 10.2% in anaerobic baffled reactor, resulting in only around 23% of chemical oxygen demand was removed in winter. Although microbial community significantly varied in the three parallel sulfide reducing bacteria, the performance of these bioreactors had no significant difference between summer and winter.

  1. Performance Investigation of a Full-Scale Hybrid Composite Bull Gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBerge, Kelsen; Handschuh, Robert; Roberts, Gary; Thorp, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid composite gears have been investigated as a weight saving technology for rotorcraft transmissions. These gears differ from conventional steel gears in that the structural material between the shaft interface and the gear rim is replaced with a lightweight carbon fiber composite. The work discussed here is an extension of previous coupon level hybrid gear tests to a full-scale bull gear. The NASA Glenn Research Center High-Speed Helical Gear Rig was modified for this program allowing several hybrid gear web configurations to be tested while utilizing the same gear rim. Testing was performed on both a baseline (steel) web configuration and a hybrid (steel-composite)configuration. Vibration, orbit and temperature data were recorded and compared between configurations. Vibration levels did not differ greatly between the hybrid and steel configurations, nor did temperature differential between inlet and outlet. While orbit shape displayed differences between the hybrid and baseline configurations, the general overall amplitude was comparable. The hybrid configuration discussed here successfully ran at 3300 hp(2,460 kW), however, progressive growth of the orbit while running at this test condition discontinued the test. Researchers continue to search for the cause of this orbit shift.

  2. Full scale lightning surge tests of distribution transformers and secondary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goedde, G.L.; Dugan, R.C. Sr.; Rowe, L.D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that low-side surges are known to cause failures of distribution transformers. They also subject load devices to overvoltages. A full-scale model of a residential service has been set up in a laboratory and subjected to impulses approximating lightning strokes. The tests were made to determine the impulse characteristics of the secondary system and to test the validity of previous analyses. Among the variables investigated were stroke location, the balance of the surges in the service cable, and the effectiveness of arrester protection. Low-side surges were found to consist of two basic components: the natural frequency of the system and the inductive response of the system to the stoke current. The latter component is responsible for transformer failures while the former may be responsible for discharge spots often found around secondary bushings. Arresters at the service entrance are effective in diverting most of the energy from a lightning strike, but may not protect sensitive loads. Additional local protection is also needed. The tests affirmed previous simulations and uncovered additional phenomena as well

  3. Analysis of a bending test on a full-scale PWR hot leg elbow containing a surface crack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delliou, P. le [Electricite de France, EDF, 77 - Moret-sur-Loing (France). Dept. MTC; Julisch, P.; Hippelein, K. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Staatliche Materialpruefungsanstalt; Bezdikian, G. [Electricite de France, EDF, 92 - Paris la Defense (France). Direction Production Transport

    1998-11-01

    EDF, in co-operation with Framatome, has conducted a large research programme on the mechanical behaviour of thermally aged cast duplex stainless steel elbows, which are part of the main primary circuit of French PWR. One important task of this programme consisted of testing a full-scale PWR hot leg elbow. The elbow contained a semi-elliptical circumferential notch machined on the outer surface of the intrados as well as casting defects located on the flanks. To simulate the end-of-life condition of the component regarding material toughness, it had undergone a 2400 hours ageing heat treatment at 400 C. The test preparation and execution, as well as the material characterization programme, were committed to MPA. The test was conducted under constant internal pressure and in-plane bending (opening mode) at 200 C. For safety reasons, it took place on an open air-site: the Meppen military test ground. At the maximum applied moment (6000 kN.m), the notch did not initiate. This paper presents the experimental results and the fracture mechanics analysis of the test, based on finite element calculations. (orig.)

  4. Simultaneous biological nutrient removal: evaluation of autotrophic denitrification, heterotrophic nitrification, and biological phosphorus removal in full-scale systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littleton, Helen X; Daigger, Glen T; Strom, Peter F; Cowan, Robert A

    2003-01-01

    Simultaneous biological nutrient removal (SBNR) is the biological removal of nitrogen and phosphorus in excess of that required for biomass synthesis in a biological wastewater treatment system without defined anaerobic or anoxic zones. Evidence is growing that significant SBNR can occur in many systems, including the aerobic zone of systems already configured for biological nutrient removal. Although SBNR systems offer several potential advantages, they cannot be fully realized until the mechanisms responsible for SBNR are better understood. Consequently, a research program was initiated with the basic hypothesis that three mechanisms might be responsible for SBNR: the reactor macroenvironment, the floc microenvironment, and novel microorganisms. Previously, the nutrient removal capabilities of seven full-scale, staged, closed-loop bioreactors known as Orbal oxidation ditches were evaluated. Chemical analysis and microbiological observations suggested that SBNR occurred in these systems. Three of these plants were further examined in this research to evaluate the importance of novel microorganisms, especially for nitrogen removal. A screening tool was developed to determine the relative significance of the activities of microorganisms capable of autotrophic denitrification and heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification in biological nutrient removal systems. The results indicated that novel microorganisms were not substantial contributors to SBNR in the plants studied. Phosphorus metabolism (anaerobic release, aerobic uptake) was also tested in one of the plants. Activity within the mixed liquor that was consistent with current theories for phosphorus-accumulating organisms (PAOs) was observed. Along with other observations, this suggests the presence of PAOs in the facilities studied.

  5. Treatment of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances in U.S. full-scale water treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleman, Timothy D; Higgins, Christopher P; Quiñones, Oscar; Vanderford, Brett J; Kolstad, Chad; Zeigler-Holady, Janie C; Dickenson, Eric R V

    2014-03-15

    The near ubiquitous presence of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in humans has raised concerns about potential human health effects from these chemicals, some of which are both extremely persistent and bioaccumulative. Because some of these chemicals are highly water soluble, one major pathway for human exposure is the consumption of contaminated drinking water. This study measured concentrations of PFASs in 18 raw drinking water sources and 2 treated wastewater effluents and evaluated 15 full-scale treatment systems for the attenuation of PFASs in water treatment utilities throughout the U.S. A liquid-chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry method was used to enable measurement of a suite of 23 PFASs, including perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluorosulfonic acids (PFSAs). Despite the differences in reporting levels, the PFASs that were detected in >70% of the source water samples (n = 39) included PFSAs, perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (74%), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (79%), and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (84%), and PFCAs, perfluoropentanoic acid (74%), perfluorohexanoic acid (79%), perfluoroheptanoic acid (74%), and perfluorooctanoic acid (74%). More importantly, water treatment techniques such as ferric or alum coagulation, granular/micro-/ultra- filtration, aeration, oxidation (i.e., permanganate, ultraviolet/hydrogen peroxide), and disinfection (i.e., ozonation, chlorine dioxide, chlorination, and chloramination) were mostly ineffective in removing PFASs. However, anion exchange and granular activated carbon treatment preferably removed longer-chain PFASs and the PFSAs compared to the PFCAs, and reverse osmosis demonstrated significant removal for all the PFASs, including the smallest PFAS, perfluorobutanoic acid. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Hydrodynamic parameters estimation from self-potential data in a controlled full scale site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidichimo, Francesco; De Biase, Michele; Rizzo, Enzo; Masi, Salvatore; Straface, Salvatore

    2015-03-01

    A multi-physical approach developed for the hydrodynamic characterization of porous media using hydrogeophysical information is presented. Several pumping tests were performed in the Hydrogeosite Laboratory, a controlled full-scale site designed and constructed at the CNR-IMAA (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche - Istituto di Metodologia per l'Analisi Ambientale), in Marsico Nuovo (Basilicata Region, Southern Italy), in order to obtain an intermediate stage between laboratory experiments and field survey. The facility consists of a pool, used to study water infiltration processes, to simulate the space and time dynamics of subsurface contamination phenomena, to improve and to find new relationship between geophysical and hydrogeological parameters, to test and to calibrate new geophysical techniques and instruments. Therefore, the Hydrogeosite Laboratory has the advantage of carrying out controlled experiments, like in a flow cell or sandbox, but at field comparable scale. The data collected during the experiments have been used to estimate the saturated hydraulic conductivity ks [ms-1] using a coupled inversion model working in transient conditions, made up of the modified Richards equation describing the water flow in a variably saturated porous medium and the Poisson equation providing the self-potential ϕ [V], which naturally occurs at points of the soil surface owing to the presence of an electric field produced by the motion of underground electrolytic fluids through porous systems. The result obtained by this multi-physical numerical approach, which removes all the approximations adopted in previous works, makes a useful instrument for real heterogeneous aquifer characterization and for predictive analysis of its behavior.

  7. Fate of pharmaceuticals in full-scale source separated sanitation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butkovskyi, A; Hernandez Leal, L; Rijnaarts, H H M; Zeeman, G

    2015-11-15

    Removal of 14 pharmaceuticals and 3 of their transformation products was studied in a full-scale source separated sanitation system with separate collection and treatment of black water and grey water. Black water is treated in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor followed by oxygen-limited autotrophic nitrification-denitrification in a rotating biological contactor and struvite precipitation. Grey water is treated in an aerobic activated sludge process. Concentration of 10 pharmaceuticals and 2 transformation products in black water ranged between low μg/l to low mg/l. Additionally, 5 pharmaceuticals were also present in grey water in low μg/l range. Pharmaceutical influent loads were distributed over two streams, i.e. diclofenac was present for 70% in grey water, while the other compounds were predominantly associated to black water. Removal in the UASB reactor fed with black water exceeded 70% for 9 pharmaceuticals out of the 12 detected, with only two pharmaceuticals removed by sorption to sludge. Ibuprofen and the transformation product of naproxen, desmethylnaproxen, were removed in the rotating biological contactor. In contrast, only paracetamol removal exceeded 90% in the grey water treatment system while removal of other 7 pharmaceuticals was below 40% or even negative. The efficiency of pharmaceutical removal in the source separated sanitation system was compared with removal in the conventional sewage treatment plants. Furthermore, effluent concentrations of black water and grey water treatment systems were compared with predicted no-effect concentrations to assess toxicity of the effluent. Concentrations of diclofenac, ibuprofen and oxazepam in both effluents were higher than predicted no-effect concentrations, indicating the necessity of post-treatment. Ciprofloxacin, metoprolol and propranolol were found in UASB sludge in μg/g range, while pharmaceutical concentrations in struvite did not exceed the detection limits. Copyright © 2015

  8. Evaluation Criteria and Results of Full Scale Testing of Bridge Abutment Made from Reinforced Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Maciej; Rybak, Jarosław

    2017-10-01

    Structures made of reinforced soil can be evaluated for their safety based on a load testing. Measurement results are essentially evaluated by displacements of surcharge (mainly in vertical direction) and facing elements (mainly in horizontal direction). Displacements are within several tenths to several millimetres and they can be taken by common geodetic equipment. Due to slow soil consolidation (progress of displacements) under constant load, observations should be made over several days or even weeks or months. A standard procedure of heating of geotextiles, used in laboratory conditions to simulate long term behaviour cannot be used in a natural scale. When the load is removed, the soil unloading occurs. Both the progress of displacements and soil unloading after unloading of the structure are the key presumptions for evaluating its safety (stability). Assessment of measuring results must be preceded by assuming even the simplest model of the structure, so as it could be possible to estimate the expected displacements under controlled load. In view of clearly random nature of soil parameters of retaining structure composed of reinforced soil and due to specific erection technology of reinforced soil structure, the assessment of its condition is largely based on expert’s judgment. It is an essential and difficult task to interpret very small displacements which are often enough disturbed by numerous factors like temperature, insolation, precipitation, vehicles, etc. In the presented paper, the authors tried to establish and juxtapose some criteria for a load test of a bridge abutment and evaluate their suitability for decision making. Final remarks are based on authors experience from a real full scale load test.

  9. Lessons learned from full-scale vibration tests on nuclear power plant auxiliary structure in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, E.; Tinic, S.

    1988-01-01

    The Beznau Nuclear Power Plant is located in northern Switzerland. The plant is owned and operated by the Nordostschweizerische Kraftwerke AG (NOK) in Baden, Switzerland. It is a twin unit plant (2 x 350 MWe) which was designed in the early 1960's and placed into commercial operation between 1969 and 1971. In connection with a major backfit project, which will improve the safety of the plant against external events, the free-standing boric water tanks had to be relocated and were replaced by two boric water tanks in a new building (the so called BOTA-building). It enabled to plan and perform full scale vibration tests.The scope of experimental investigation was to determine the eigenfrequencies and damping values for fundamental soil-structure interaction. The vibration tests allowed identification of the important modes of the soil-structure system in the range 3 to 15 Hz. The excitation was strung enough to generate accelerations in the structure comparable to those of a small earthquake. From the comparisons of computed and measured results it is concluded that the rocking frequency can be reasonably well predicted by either Finite Element or Lumped Parameter models with springs simulating the soil-foundation stiffness, provided in the case of the latter the embedment is taken into account. The prediction of the amplitude of structural response appears to be more difficult, as shown by the differences in the mode shapes. In the frequency range 8 to 10 Hz the agreement between computed and test results was less satisfactory. The actual structural behaviour turned out to be more complex than expected and needs further investigation with the aid of more refined models for the soil-structure system

  10. Identifying the underlying causes of biological instability in a full-scale drinking water supply system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nescerecka, Alina; Juhna, Talis; Hammes, Frederik

    2018-05-15

    Changes in bacterial concentration and composition in drinking water during distribution are often attributed to biological (in)stability. Here we assessed temporal biological stability in a full-scale distribution network (DN) supplied with different types of source water: treated and chlorinated surface water and chlorinated groundwater produced at three water treatment plants (WTP). Monitoring was performed weekly during 12 months in two locations in the DN. Flow cytometric total and intact cell concentration (ICC) measurements showed considerable seasonal fluctuations, which were different for two locations. ICC varied between 0.1-3.75 × 10 5  cells mL -1 and 0.69-4.37 × 10 5  cells mL -1 at two locations respectively, with ICC increases attributed to temperature-dependent bacterial growth during distribution. Chlorinated water from the different WTP was further analysed with a modified growth potential method, identifying primary and secondary growth limiting compounds. It was observed that bacterial growth in the surface water sample after chlorination was primarily inhibited by phosphorus limitation and secondly by organic carbon limitation, while carbon was limiting in the chlorinated groundwater samples. However, the ratio of available nutrients changed during distribution, and together with disinfection residual decay, this resulted in higher bacterial growth potential detected in the DN than at the WTP. In this study, bacterial growth was found to be higher (i) at higher water temperatures, (ii) in samples with lower chlorine residuals and (iii) in samples with less nutrient (carbon, phosphorus, nitrogen, iron) limitation, while this was significantly different between the samples of different origin. Thus drinking water microbiological quality and biological stability could change during different seasons, and the extent of these changes depends on water temperature, the water source and treatment. Furthermore, differences in primary

  11. Full-scale horizontal cable-tray tests: Fire-propagation characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    At the Fermi National Accelerator Center (Fermilab), as at any high-energy physics laboratory, the experimental program depends on complex arrays of equipment that require years to assemble and place in service. These equipment arrays are typically located in enclosed tunnels or experimental halls and could be destroyed by rapidly propagating, uncontrolled fire. Cable trays, both vertical and horizontal, are an integral and ubiquitous component of these installations. Concurrently, throughout industry and within the professional fire-fighting community, there has been concern over the flammability and fire propagation characteristics of electrical cables in open cable trays. While some information was available concerning fire propagation in vertical cable trays, little was known about fires in horizontal cable trays. In view of the potential for loss of equipment and facilities, not to mention the programmatic impact of a fire, Fermilab initiated a program of full-scale, horizontal cable-tray fire tests to determine the flammability and rate of horizontal fire propagation in cable-tray configurations and cable mixed typical of those existing in underground tunnel enclosures and support buildings as Fermilab. This series of tests addressed the effects of ventilation rates and cable-tray fill, fire-fighting techniques, and the effectiveness and value of automatic sprinklers, smoke detection, and cable-coating fire barriers in detecting, controlling, or extinguishing a cable-tray fire. Detailed descriptions of each fire test, including sketches of cable-tray configuration and contents, instrumentation, ventilation rates, Fermilab Fire Department personnel observations, photographs, and graphs of thermocouple readings are available in a report of these tests prepared by the Fermilab Safety Section

  12. Lessons learned from full-scale vibration tests on nuclear power plant auxiliary structure in Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, E [Basler and Hofmann AG, Consulting Engineers, Zurich (Switzerland); Tinic, S [Nordostschweizerische Kraftwerke AG, Baden (Switzerland)

    1988-07-01

    The Beznau Nuclear Power Plant is located in northern Switzerland. The plant is owned and operated by the Nordostschweizerische Kraftwerke AG (NOK) in Baden, Switzerland. It is a twin unit plant (2 x 350 MWe) which was designed in the early 1960's and placed into commercial operation between 1969 and 1971. In connection with a major backfit project, which will improve the safety of the plant against external events, the free-standing boric water tanks had to be relocated and were replaced by two boric water tanks in a new building (the so called BOTA-building). It enabled to plan and perform full scale vibration tests.The scope of experimental investigation was to determine the eigenfrequencies and damping values for fundamental soil-structure interaction. The vibration tests allowed identification of the important modes of the soil-structure system in the range 3 to 15 Hz. The excitation was strung enough to generate accelerations in the structure comparable to those of a small earthquake. From the comparisons of computed and measured results it is concluded that the rocking frequency can be reasonably well predicted by either Finite Element or Lumped Parameter models with springs simulating the soil-foundation stiffness, provided in the case of the latter the embedment is taken into account. The prediction of the amplitude of structural response appears to be more difficult, as shown by the differences in the mode shapes. In the frequency range 8 to 10 Hz the agreement between computed and test results was less satisfactory. The actual structural behaviour turned out to be more complex than expected and needs further investigation with the aid of more refined models for the soil-structure system.

  13. Assessment of virus removal by managed aquifer recharge at three full-scale operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Walter Q; Kitajima, Masaaki; Wing, Alexandre D; Regnery, Julia; Drewes, Jörg E; Pepper, Ian L; Gerba, Charles P

    2014-01-01

    Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) systems such as riverbank filtration and soil-aquifer treatment all involve the use of natural subsurface systems to improve the quality of recharged water (i.e. surface water, stormwater, reclaimed water) before reuse. During MAR, water is either infiltrated via basins, subsurface injected or abstracted from wells adjacent to rivers. The goal of this study was to assess the removal of selected enteric viruses and a potential surrogate for virus removal at three full-scale MAR systems located in different regions of the United States (Arizona, Colorado, and California). Samples of source water (i.e., river water receiving treated wastewater and reclaimed water) before recharge and recovered groundwater at all three sites were tested for adenoviruses, enteroviruses, Aichi viruses and pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Samples of groundwater positive for any virus were also tested for the presence of infectious virus by cell culture. PMMoV was the most commonly detected virus in the groundwater samples. Infectious enteric viruses (reovirus) were only detected in one groundwater sample with a subsurface residence time of 5 days. The results suggested that in groundwater with a residence time of greater than 14 days all of the viruses are removed below detection indicating a 1 to greater than 5 log removal depending upon the type of virus. Given its behavior, PMMoV may be suitable to serve as a conservative tracer of enteric virus removal in managed aquifer treatment systems.

  14. Full Scale Field Trial of the Low Temperature Mercury Capture Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locke, James [CONSOL Energy Inc., South Park, PA (United States); Winschel, Richard [CONSOL Energy Inc., South Park, PA (United States)

    2012-05-21

    CONSOL Energy Inc., with partial funding from the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory, designed a full-scale installation for a field trial of the Low-Temperature Mercury Control (LTMC) process, which has the ability to reduce mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants by over 90 percent, by cooling flue gas temperatures to approximately 230°F and absorbing the mercury on the native carbon in the fly ash, as was recently demonstrated by CONSOL R&D on a slip-stream pilot plant at the Allegheny Energy Mitchell Station with partial support by DOE. LTMC has the potential to remove over 90 percent of the flue gas mercury at a cost at least an order of magnitude lower (on a $/lb mercury removed basis) than activated carbon injection. The technology is suitable for retrofitting to existing and new plants, and, although it is best suited to bituminous coal-fired plants, it may have some applicability to the full range of coal types. Installation plans were altered and moved from the original project host site, PPL Martins Creek plant, to a second host site at Allegheny Energy's R. Paul Smith plant, before installation actually occurred at the Jamestown (New York) Board of Public Utilities (BPU) Samuel A. Carlson (Carlson) Municipal Generating Station Unit 12, where the LTMC system was operated on a limited basis. At Carlson, over 60% mercury removal was demonstrated by cooling the flue gas to 220-230°F at the ESP inlet via humidification. The host unit ESP operation was unaffected by the humidification and performed satisfactorily at low temperature conditions.

  15. Treating high-mercury-containing lamps using full-scale thermal desorption technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, T C; You, S J; Yu, B S; Chen, C M; Chiu, Y C

    2009-03-15

    The mercury content in high-mercury-containing lamps are always between 400 mg/kg and 200,000 mg/kg. This concentration is much higher than the 260 mg/kg lower boundary recommended for the thermal desorption process suggested by the US Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. According to a Taiwan EPA survey, about 4,833,000 cold cathode fluorescent lamps (CCFLs), 486,000 ultraviolet lamps and 25,000 super high pressure mercury lamps (SHPs) have been disposed of in the industrial waste treatment system, producing 80, 92 and 9 kg-mercury/year through domestic treatment, offshore treatment and air emissions, respectively. To deal with this problem we set up a full-scale thermal desorption process to treat and recover the mercury from SHPs, fluorescent tube tailpipes, fluorescent tubes containing mercury-fluorescent powder, and CCFLs containing mercury-fluorescent powder and monitor the use of different pre-heating temperatures and desorption times. The experimental results reveal that the average thermal desorption efficiency of SHPs and fluorescent tube tailpipe were both 99.95%, while the average thermal desorption efficiencies of fluorescent tubes containing mercury-fluorescent powder were between 97% and 99%. In addition, a thermal desorption efficiency of only 69.37-93.39% was obtained after treating the CCFLs containing mercury-fluorescent powder. These differences in thermal desorption efficiency might be due to the complexity of the mercury compounds contained in the lamps. In general, the thermal desorption efficiency of lamps containing mercury-complex compounds increased with higher temperatures.

  16. Full Scale Model Test of Consolidation Acceleration on Soft Soil deposition with Combination of Timber Pile and PVD (Hybrid Pile)

    OpenAIRE

    Sandyutama, Y.; Samang, L.; Imran, A. M.; Harianto4, T.

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to analyze the effect of composite pile-PVD (hybrid pile) as the reinforcement in embankment on soft soil by the means of numerical simulation and Full-Scale Trial Embankment. The first phase cunducted by numerical analysis and obtained 6-8 meters hybrid pile length effective. Full-Scale trial embankment. was installed hybrid pile of 6 m and preloading of 4,50 height. Full-scale tests were performed to investigate the performances of Hybrid pile reinforcement. This research...

  17. Full-scale turbine-missile concrete impact experiments. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodfin, R.L.

    1983-02-01

    Four full-scale experiments were conducted at Sandia National Laboratories' rocket sled facility to provide data on the response of reinforced concrete containment walls to impact and penetration by postulated turbine-produced missiles. The missiles' mass, velocity, and attitude, and the steel liner thickness, were varied. A 1476-kg, 120 0 segment cut from a shrunk-on turbine disc was used for three experiments, and a 2100-kg, 137 0 segment of another disc was used for one experiment. The targets were concrete panels fabricated of commercial ready-mix concrete of strength 24 to 28 MPa at 28 days and heavily reinforced (approx. = 5% by volume) with No. 18 (57-mm-dai) bars. Impacts were perpendicular to the targets at their centers. Three impacts were with the sharp corner of the missile forward (piercing) and one was with the rounded side forward (blunt). Rebar strains, liner strains, and rear face kinematic quantities were recorded for each test. Internal pressure pulses generated by the impacts were recorded on two tests. High-speed camera coverage was extensive. Depth of penetration was the primary measure diameter. Penetration depths into the 1.37-m-thick panels ranged from 33 cm for the blunt impact of the 1476-kg missile at 92 m/s to 65 cm for the piercing impact of the 2100-kg missile at 115m/s. Impact at the piercing attitude caused significantly more severe rear face cracking than did impact at the blunt attitude, but since rear face panel displacements in excess of 6 cm and velocities greater than 7 m/s were measured, results suggested that impact at a blunt attitude might cause scabbing at lower velocities than impact at a piercing attidude. In these tests, the presence of a 9.5-mm-thick steel liner on the rear face of the panel in the latter two tests precluded scabbing. Results also indicated that design formulas in common use give conservative results

  18. Full-scale flight tests of aircraft morphing structures using SMA actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabe, James H.; Calkins, Frederick T.; Ruggeri, Robert T.

    2007-04-01

    In August of 2005 The Boeing Company conducted a full-scale flight test utilizing Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) actuators to morph an engine's fan exhaust to correlate exhaust geometry with jet noise reduction. The test was conducted on a 777-300ER with GE-115B engines. The presence of chevrons, serrated aerodynamic surfaces mounted at the trailing edge of the thrust reverser, have been shown to greatly reduce jet noise by encouraging advantageous mixing of the free, and fan streams. The morphing, or Variable Geometry Chevrons (VGC), utilized compact, light weight, and robust SMA actuators to morph the chevron shape to optimize the noise reduction or meet acoustic test objectives. The VGC system was designed for two modes of operation. The entirely autonomous operation utilized changes in the ambient temperature from take-off to cruise to activate the chevron shape change. It required no internal heaters, wiring, control system, or sensing. By design this provided one tip immersion at the warmer take-off temperatures to reduce community noise and another during the cooler cruise state for more efficient engine operation, i.e. reduced specific fuel consumption. For the flight tests a powered mode was added where internal heaters were used to individually control the VGC temperatures. This enabled us to vary the immersions and test a variety of chevron configurations. The flight test demonstrated the value of SMA actuators to solve a real world aerospace problem, validated that the technology could be safely integrated into the airplane's structure and flight system, and represented a large step forward in the realization of SMA actuators for production applications. In this paper the authors describe the development of the actuator system, the steps required to integrate the morphing structure into the thrust reverser, and the analysis and testing that was required to gain approval for flight. Issues related to material strength, thermal environment, vibration

  19. Long-Term Bacterial Dynamics in a Full-Scale Drinking Water Distribution System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E I Prest

    Full Text Available Large seasonal variations in microbial drinking water quality can occur in distribution networks, but are often not taken into account when evaluating results from short-term water sampling campaigns. Temporal dynamics in bacterial community characteristics were investigated during a two-year drinking water monitoring campaign in a full-scale distribution system operating without detectable disinfectant residual. A total of 368 water samples were collected on a biweekly basis at the water treatment plant (WTP effluent and at one fixed location in the drinking water distribution network (NET. The samples were analysed for heterotrophic plate counts (HPC, Aeromonas plate counts, adenosine-tri-phosphate (ATP concentrations, and flow cytometric (FCM total and intact cell counts (TCC, ICC, water temperature, pH, conductivity, total organic carbon (TOC and assimilable organic carbon (AOC. Multivariate analysis of the large dataset was performed to explore correlative trends between microbial and environmental parameters. The WTP effluent displayed considerable seasonal variations in TCC (from 90 × 103 cells mL-1 in winter time up to 455 × 103 cells mL-1 in summer time and in bacterial ATP concentrations (<1-3.6 ng L-1, which were congruent with water temperature variations. These fluctuations were not detected with HPC and Aeromonas counts. The water in the network was predominantly influenced by the characteristics of the WTP effluent. The increase in ICC between the WTP effluent and the network sampling location was small (34 × 103 cells mL-1 on average compared to seasonal fluctuations in ICC in the WTP effluent. Interestingly, the extent of bacterial growth in the NET was inversely correlated to AOC concentrations in the WTP effluent (Pearson's correlation factor r = -0.35, and positively correlated with water temperature (r = 0.49. Collecting a large dataset at high frequency over a two year period enabled the characterization of previously

  20. Long-Term Bacterial Dynamics in a Full-Scale Drinking Water Distribution System

    KAUST Repository

    Prest, E. I.; Weissbrodt, D. G.; Hammes, F.; Van Loosdrecht, M. C M; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.

    2016-01-01

    Large seasonal variations in microbial drinking water quality can occur in distribution networks, but are often not taken into account when evaluating results from short-term water sampling campaigns. Temporal dynamics in bacterial community characteristics were investigated during a two-year drinking water monitoring campaign in a full-scale distribution system operating without detectable disinfectant residual. A total of 368 water samples were collected on a biweekly basis at the water treatment plant (WTP) effluent and at one fixed location in the drinking water distribution network (NET). The samples were analysed for heterotrophic plate counts (HPC), Aeromonas plate counts, adenosine-tri-phosphate (ATP) concentrations, and flow cytometric (FCM) total and intact cell counts (TCC, ICC), water temperature, pH, conductivity, total organic carbon (TOC) and assimilable organic carbon (AOC). Multivariate analysis of the large dataset was performed to explore correlative trends between microbial and environmental parameters. The WTP effluent displayed considerable seasonal variations in TCC (from 90 × 103 cells mL-1 in winter time up to 455 × 103 cells mL-1 in summer time) and in bacterial ATP concentrations (<1–3.6 ng L-1), which were congruent with water temperature variations. These fluctuations were not detected with HPC and Aeromonas counts. The water in the network was predominantly influenced by the characteristics of the WTP effluent. The increase in ICC between the WTP effluent and the network sampling location was small (34 × 103 cells mL-1 on average) compared to seasonal fluctuations in ICC in the WTP effluent. Interestingly, the extent of bacterial growth in the NET was inversely correlated to AOC concentrations in the WTP effluent (Pearson’s correlation factor r = -0.35), and positively correlated with water temperature (r = 0.49). Collecting a large dataset at high frequency over a two year period enabled the characterization of previously

  1. Micropollutants removal by full-scale UV-C/sulfate radical based Advanced Oxidation Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Chueca, J; Laski, E; García-Cañibano, C; Martín de Vidales, M J; Encinas, Á; Kuch, B; Marugán, J

    2018-07-15

    The high chemical stability and the low biodegradability of a vast number of micropollutants (MPs) impede their correct treatment in urban wastewater treatment plants. In most cases, the chemical oxidation is the only way to abate them. Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) have been experimentally proved as efficient in the removal of different micropollutants at lab-scale. However, there is not enough information about their application at full-scale. This manuscript reports the application of three different AOPs based on the addition of homogeneous oxidants [hydrogen peroxide, peroxymonosulfate (PMS) and persulfate anions (PS)], in the UV-C tertiary treatment of Estiviel wastewater treatment plant (Toledo, Spain) previously designed and installed in the facility for disinfection. AOPs based on the photolytic decomposition of oxidants have been demonstrated as more efficient than UV-C radiation alone on the removal of 25 different MPs using low dosages (0.05-0.5 mM) and very low UV-C contact time (4-18 s). Photolysis of PMS and H 2 O 2 reached similar average MPs removal in all the range of oxidant dosages, obtaining the highest efficiency with 0.5 mM and 18 s of contact time (48 and 55% respectively). Nevertheless, PMS/UV-C reached slightly higher removal than H 2 O 2 /UV-C at low dosages. So, these treatments are selective to degrade the target compounds, obtaining different removal efficiencies for each compound regarding the oxidizing agent, dosages and UV-C contact time. In all the cases, H 2 O 2 /UV-C is more efficient than PMS/UV-C, comparing the ratio cost:efficiency (€/m 3 ·order). Even H 2 O 2 /UV-C treatments are more efficient than UV-C alone. Thus, the addition of 0.5 mM of H 2 O 2 compensates the increased of UV-C contact time and therefore the increase of electrical consumption, that it should be need to increase the removal of MPs by UV-C treatments alone. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Traveling-wave reactors: A truly sustainable and full-scale resource for global energy needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, T.; Petroski, R.; Hejzlar, P.; Zimmerman, G.; McAlees, D.; Whitmer, C.; Touran, N.; Hejzlar, J.; Weave, K.; Walter, J. C.; McWhirter, J.; Ahlfeld, C.; Burke, T.; Odedra, A.; Hyde, R.; Gilleland, J.; Ishikawa, Y.; Wood, L.; Myhrvold, N.; Gates Iii, W. H.

    2010-01-01

    mankind's anticipated energy needs for as long as the sun shines and the rain falls. Moreover, TWRs can naturally retain their efficiently-expended fuel for century length time-scales, so that they intrinsically pose minimal safety and security transportation hazards in addition to being full-scale carbon-free energy sources. This paper describes how TWRs could help move the global energy economy to a more sustainable footing. An economic case and potential impacts on the global energy system are explored. The paper also provides an overview of the practical engineering embodiment of the TWR, new computational tools we have developed for modeling TWRs, the degradation of the plutonium vector in used fuel from TWRs and advanced technological options for re-purposing fuel to extract more of its potential energy. (authors)

  3. Full scale BWR containment LOCA response test at the INKA test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, Thomas; Leyer, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    KERENA is an innovative boiling water reactor concept with passive safety systems (Generation III+) of AREVA. The reactor is an evolutionary design of operating BWRs (Generation II). In order to verify the functionality and performance of the KERENA safety concept required for the transient and accident management, the test facility “Integral Teststand Karlstein” (INKA) was built at Karlstein (Germany). It is a mock-up of the KERENA boiling water reactor containment, with integrated pressure suppression system. The complete chain of passive safety components is available. The passive components and the levels are represented in full scale. The volume scaling of the containment compartments is approximately 1:24. The reactor pressure vessel (RPV) is simulated via the steam accumulator of the Karlstein Large Valve Test Facility. This vessel provides an energy storage capacity of approximately 1/6 of the KERENA RPV and is supplied by a Benson boiler with a thermal power of 22 MW. With respect to the available power supply, the containment- and system-sizing of the facility is by far the largest one of its kind worldwide. From 2009 to 2012, several single component tests were conducted (Emergency Condenser, Containment Cooling Condenser, Core Flooding System etc.). On March 21st, 2013, the worldwide first large-scale only passively managed integral accident test of a boiling water reactor was simulated at INKA. The integral test measured the combined response of the KERENA passive safety systems to the postulated initiating event was the “Main Steam Line Break” (MSLB) inside the Containment with decay heat simulation. The results of the performed integral test (MSLB) showed that the passive safety systems alone are capable to bring the plant to stable conditions meeting all required safety targets with sufficient margins. Therefore the test verified the function of those components and the interplay between them as response to an anticipated accident scenario

  4. Long-Term Bacterial Dynamics in a Full-Scale Drinking Water Distribution System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prest, E I; Weissbrodt, D G; Hammes, F; van Loosdrecht, M C M; Vrouwenvelder, J S

    2016-01-01

    Large seasonal variations in microbial drinking water quality can occur in distribution networks, but are often not taken into account when evaluating results from short-term water sampling campaigns. Temporal dynamics in bacterial community characteristics were investigated during a two-year drinking water monitoring campaign in a full-scale distribution system operating without detectable disinfectant residual. A total of 368 water samples were collected on a biweekly basis at the water treatment plant (WTP) effluent and at one fixed location in the drinking water distribution network (NET). The samples were analysed for heterotrophic plate counts (HPC), Aeromonas plate counts, adenosine-tri-phosphate (ATP) concentrations, and flow cytometric (FCM) total and intact cell counts (TCC, ICC), water temperature, pH, conductivity, total organic carbon (TOC) and assimilable organic carbon (AOC). Multivariate analysis of the large dataset was performed to explore correlative trends between microbial and environmental parameters. The WTP effluent displayed considerable seasonal variations in TCC (from 90 × 103 cells mL-1 in winter time up to 455 × 103 cells mL-1 in summer time) and in bacterial ATP concentrations (water temperature variations. These fluctuations were not detected with HPC and Aeromonas counts. The water in the network was predominantly influenced by the characteristics of the WTP effluent. The increase in ICC between the WTP effluent and the network sampling location was small (34 × 103 cells mL-1 on average) compared to seasonal fluctuations in ICC in the WTP effluent. Interestingly, the extent of bacterial growth in the NET was inversely correlated to AOC concentrations in the WTP effluent (Pearson's correlation factor r = -0.35), and positively correlated with water temperature (r = 0.49). Collecting a large dataset at high frequency over a two year period enabled the characterization of previously undocumented seasonal dynamics in the distribution

  5. Long-Term Bacterial Dynamics in a Full-Scale Drinking Water Distribution System

    KAUST Repository

    Prest, E. I.

    2016-10-28

    Large seasonal variations in microbial drinking water quality can occur in distribution networks, but are often not taken into account when evaluating results from short-term water sampling campaigns. Temporal dynamics in bacterial community characteristics were investigated during a two-year drinking water monitoring campaign in a full-scale distribution system operating without detectable disinfectant residual. A total of 368 water samples were collected on a biweekly basis at the water treatment plant (WTP) effluent and at one fixed location in the drinking water distribution network (NET). The samples were analysed for heterotrophic plate counts (HPC), Aeromonas plate counts, adenosine-tri-phosphate (ATP) concentrations, and flow cytometric (FCM) total and intact cell counts (TCC, ICC), water temperature, pH, conductivity, total organic carbon (TOC) and assimilable organic carbon (AOC). Multivariate analysis of the large dataset was performed to explore correlative trends between microbial and environmental parameters. The WTP effluent displayed considerable seasonal variations in TCC (from 90 × 103 cells mL-1 in winter time up to 455 × 103 cells mL-1 in summer time) and in bacterial ATP concentrations (<1–3.6 ng L-1), which were congruent with water temperature variations. These fluctuations were not detected with HPC and Aeromonas counts. The water in the network was predominantly influenced by the characteristics of the WTP effluent. The increase in ICC between the WTP effluent and the network sampling location was small (34 × 103 cells mL-1 on average) compared to seasonal fluctuations in ICC in the WTP effluent. Interestingly, the extent of bacterial growth in the NET was inversely correlated to AOC concentrations in the WTP effluent (Pearson’s correlation factor r = -0.35), and positively correlated with water temperature (r = 0.49). Collecting a large dataset at high frequency over a two year period enabled the characterization of previously

  6. Near-infrared spectroscopy for process and substrate supervision of a full-scale biogas plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobi, Hans Fabian

    2012-07-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate the possible use of near-infrared spectroscopy in the supervision of the biogas production process or parts thereof. It was examined, whether the surveillance of (a) the process and (b) substrate was feasible. The following tasks were accomplished to this end: 1. Development, construction and assembly of suitable NIRS-metrology, development of proper control-software as well as of strategies for data acquisition and data handling, 2. calculation and validation of regression models on the basis of acquired spectra and reference data for (a) suitable parameters of the biogas process, (b) composition and biogas potential of the substrate, 3. calculation of continuous time series of all parameters in order to prove the possibility of continuous surveillance, 4. integrated processing of continuously calculated biogas potentials together with plant data for the prediction of the biogas production behavior of the biogas plant. A near-infrared spectrometer was installed and equipped with NIR-measuring heads of own design and construction on a full-scale agricultural biogas plant. For 500 days spectra were continuously logged at (a) a pipe flowed through by fermenter slurry and (b) the feeding station, where silage passed. Based on regularly withdrawn reference samples and the corresponding spectra regression models were calibrated for the several constituents. Continuously logged spectra were used to calculate time series with the aid of the regression models for each constituent. Models and time series were established for the following parameters: (a) process parameters: volatile fatty acids, acetic acid, propionic acid, dry matter, volatile solids; (b) substrate parameters: dry matter, volatile solids, crude fiber, crude fat, crude protein, nitrogen-free extracts, experimentally assessed biogas potential, theoretically assessed biogas potential. Despite the partially low quality of the models it was possible to follow the course of

  7. Prototyping Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Tamke, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the role of the prototyping in digital architecture. During the past decade, a new research field has emerged exploring the digital technology’s impact on the way we think, design and build our environment. In this practice the prototype, the pavilion, installation or demonstr......This paper examines the role of the prototyping in digital architecture. During the past decade, a new research field has emerged exploring the digital technology’s impact on the way we think, design and build our environment. In this practice the prototype, the pavilion, installation...

  8. Modal Parameters Evaluation in a Full-Scale Aircraft Demonstrator under Different Environmental Conditions Using HS 3D-DIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Jesús Molina-Viedma

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In real aircraft structures the comfort and the occupational performance of crewmembers and passengers are affected by the presence of noise. In this sense, special attention is focused on mechanical and material design for isolation and vibration control. Experimental characterization and, in particular, experimental modal analysis, provides information for adequate cabin noise control. Traditional sensors employed in the aircraft industry for this purpose are invasive and provide a low spatial resolution. This paper presents a methodology for experimental modal characterization of a front fuselage full-scale demonstrator using high-speed 3D digital image correlation, which is non-invasive, ensuring that the structural response is unperturbed by the instrumentation mass. Specifically, full-field measurements on the passenger window area were conducted when the structure was excited using an electrodynamic shaker. The spectral analysis of the measured time-domain displacements made it possible to identify natural frequencies and full-field operational deflection shapes. Changes in the modal parameters due to cabin pressurization and the behavior of different local structural modifications were assessed using this methodology. The proposed full-field methodology allowed the characterization of relevant dynamic response patterns, complementing the capabilities provided by accelerometers.

  9. Pre-Flight Ground Testing of the Full-Scale HIFiRE-1 at Fully Duplicated Flight Conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wadhams, Tim P; MacLean, Matthew G; Holden, Michael S; Mundy, Erik

    2008-01-01

    As part of an experimental study to obtain detailed heating and pressure data over the full-scale HIFiRE-1 flight geometry, CUBRC has completed a 30-run matrix of ground tests, sponsored by the AFOSR...

  10. Characterization of Membrane Foulants in Full-scale and Lab-scale Membrane Bioreactors for Wastewater Treatment and Reuse

    KAUST Repository

    Matar, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    full-scale MBRs differed significantly from the source community (i.e. activated sludge), and random immigration of species from the source community was unlikely to shape the community structure of biofilms. Also, a core biofouling community was shared

  11. Enrichment and cultivation of a sulfide-oxidizing bacteria consortium for its deploying in full-scale biogas desulfurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González Sánchez, Armando; Flores Márquez, Trinidad Eliseo; Revah, Sergio; Morgan Sagastume, Juan Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Operational experiences and strategies to get suitable chemolithoautotrophic sulfide-oxidizing biomass from activated sludge wastewater treatment plant for its deploying in a full-scale biogas desulfurization plant are described. An economic nutrient source was applied to foster microbial selection and rapid growth. Respirometry was implemented on full-scale installations to monitor the ability of the specialized bacteria consortium to oxidize reduced sulfur i.e. H 2 S. During the deployment in the full-scale desulfurization reactor, intermittent sulfide feed from biogas scrubbing was performed to accelerate the startup the desulfurization process. - Highlights: • A simple method for reaching high amounts of specialized sulfide-oxidizing bacterial consortium from activated sludge was developed. • The full-scale desulfurization process can be continuously monitored by respirometry allowing fast decision making if problems arise. • The dissolved sulfide concentration was estimated with an empirical correlation between measurements of ORP, dissolved oxygen and pH

  12. Full-scale tank car rollover tests - survivability of top fittings and top fittings protective structures : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Full-scale rollover crash tests were performed on three non-pressure tank carbodies to validate previous analytical work and : determine the effectiveness of two different types of protective structures in protecting the top fittings. The tests were ...

  13. Testing of Full Scale Flight Qualified Kevlar Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Nathanael; Saulsberry, Regor; Yoder, Tommy; Forsyth, Brad; Thesken, John; Phoenix, Leigh

    2007-01-01

    Many decades ago NASA identified a need for low-mass pressure vessels for carrying various fluids aboard rockets, spacecraft, and satellites. A pressure vessel design known as the composite overwrapped pressure vessel (COPV) was identified to provide a weight savings over traditional single-material pressure vessels typically made of metal and this technology has been in use for space flight applications since the 1970's. A typical vessel design consisted of a thin liner material, typically a metal, overwrapped with a continuous fiber yarn impregnated with epoxy. Most designs were such that the overwrapped fiber would carry a majority of load at normal operating pressures. The weight advantage for a COPV versus a traditional singlematerial pressure vessel contributed to widespread use of COPVs by NASA, the military, and industry. This technology is currently used for personal breathing supply storage, fuel storage for auto and mass transport vehicles and for various space flight and aircraft applications. The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was recently asked to review the operation of Kevlar 2 and carbon COPVs to ensure they are safely operated on NASA space flight vehicles. A request was made to evaluate the life remaining on the Kevlar COPVs used on the Space Shuttle for helium and nitrogen storage. This paper provides a review of Kevlar COPV testing relevant to the NESC assessment. Also discussed are some key findings, observations, and recommendations that may be applicable to the COPV user community. Questions raised during the investigations have revealed the need for testing to better understand the stress rupture life and age life of COPVs. The focus of this paper is to describe burst testing of Kevlar COPVs that has been completed as a part of an the effort to evaluate the effects of ageing and shelf life on full scale COPVs. The test articles evaluated in this discussion had a diameter of 22 inches for S/N 014 and 40 inches for S/N 011. The

  14. Identification of aeroelastic forces and static drag coefficients of a twin cable bridge stay from full-scale ambient vibration measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acampora, Antonio; Georgakis, Christos T.; Macdonald, J.H.G.

    2014-01-01

    Despite much research in recent years, large amplitude vibrations of inclined cables continue to be of concern for cable-stayed bridges. Various excitation mechanisms have been suggested, including rain-wind excitation, dry inclined cable galloping, high reduced velocity vortex shedding...... and excitation from the deck and/or towers. Although there have been many observations of large cable vibrations on bridges, there are relatively few cases of direct full-scale cable vibration and wind measurements, and most research has been based on wind tunnel tests and theoretical modelling.This paper...... presents results from full-scale measurements on the special arrangement of twin cables adopted for the Øresund Bridge. The monitoring system records wind and weather conditions, as well as accelerations of certain cables and a few locations on the deck and tower. Using the Eigenvalue Realization Algorithm...

  15. Novel shear capacity testing of ASR damaged full scale concrete bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup; Hansen, Søren Gustenhoff; Barbosa, Ricardo Antonio

    2014-01-01

    A large number of concrete bridges in Denmark have to undergo wide-ranging maintenance work to prevent deterioration due to aggressive Alkali Silica Reaction (ASR). This destructive mechanism results in extensive cracking which is believed to affect the load carrying capacity of the structure...

  16. Identification of aeroelastic forces on bridge cables from full-scale measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acampora, Antonio; Macdonald, J.H.G.; Georgakis, Christos

    2011-01-01

    Despite much research in recent years, large amplitude vibrations of inclined cables continue to be of concern for cable-stayed bridges. Various mechanisms have been suggested for their excitation, including rain-wind excitation, dry inclined cable galloping, high reduced velocity vortex shedding...... Bridge. The system records wind conditions and weather conditions, as well as accelerations of certain cables and a few locations on the deck and tower. Using state-of-the-art methods of output-only system identification, the vibration modes of the cables have been identified. From these modes...

  17. Full scale heavily reinforced concrete beam-column joints of NPP structures-quality assurance and construction in the laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thandavamoorthy, T.S.; Vimalanandam, V.; Anandavalli, N.; Reddy, G.R.

    2003-01-01

    Under the current design philosophy, reactor structures are to be designed to withstand large inelastic deformation caused by strong and severe ground motion. The design of the main structural elements and their connections are to be such that they always fail in ductile mode. This will ensure large energy absorption capacity of the structures under seismic excitation and avoid sudden and brittle failure of the structure. Over the years, a number of experimental investigations have been carried out on RC beam- column joints to study their behaviour and strength. However, these studies mostly pertain to small scale joints of moment resisting frame of residential buildings and commercial complexes. Information on full scale joints existing in NPP structures are scanty. Therefore, experimental programme was planned in the laboratory to construct identical large sized joints with the same reinforcement percentage and detail as that of the existing joints in NPP structures built in 1960's. The cross-sectional dimensions of the beam and column of the joint were 610 mm x 915 mm. The beam was reinforced with 24 numbers of 36 mm bars. Column was reinforced with 4 numbers of 36 mm diameter bars and various other sizes. M25 grade concrete was used for casting of the specimen. The mix proportion was 1:1.657:2.63. The slump achieved was 75 mm to 100 mm. The health of the specimen was monitored by conducting ultrasonic testing with TICO instrument. The paper presents details of the size of the specimen and reinforcement, testing of steel bars for the evaluation of their mechanical properties, procedure of casting of specimen and its health monitoring. (author)

  18. Full-Scale Testing of Pipeline Unplugging Technologies - NuVision's Fluidic Wave-Action Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokaltun, S.; McDaniel, D.; Varona, J.; Patel, R.; Awwad, A.; Roelant, D.; Keszler, E.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a technical evaluation of a pipeline unplugging method that can be used as a feasible tool to clean fouled pipes at Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The unplugging method depends on running water against the plugged section in the pipeline for multiple times and breaking the mechanical bonds of the material that hold the plug together. The working principles of the method are similar to beach erosion since a water wave is generated using the suction and drive mechanisms caused by the system in the pipeline that erodes the plug from one end. The technology tested also is capable of creating an external force on the plug that helps the unplugging process however this characteristic of the technology was not tested during the testing reported in this work. More focus was given to the erosion capability of the technology and how wave characteristics affected that. Results obtained demonstrated that there is a correlation between the suction and drive characteristics of the wave generated in the pipeline with the maximum pressures attained in the plug region, the velocity of the wave prior to colliding with the plug and the erosion. It was found that the technology was most effective in unplugging Phosphate based chemical plugs and Kaolin clay based plugs while it took more time to erode Aluminum based plugs for the same pipeline test layouts. (authors)

  19. Increase of anaerobic degradation of particulate organic matter in full-scale biogas plants by mechanical maceration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Hinrich; Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2000-01-01

    of a macerator make it attractive to use this pretreatment method for a more complete degradation of particulate organic matter. investigation of the size distribution of the fibers showed that a change in biogas potential was not correlated to a smaller size of the fibers. Results from the macerators indicate......% by pretreatment of the whole feed in the macerator before the reactor was observed. implementation concepts with a treatment of the fibers alone after separation from the manure showed to be not efficient due to a low recovery of organic matter in the fibers by the separation unit. The low operational costs...

  20. Solution Prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Efeoglu, Arkin; Møller, Charles; Serie, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This paper outlines an artifact building and evaluation proposal. Design Science Research (DSR) studies usually consider encapsulated artifact that have relationships with other artifacts. The solution prototype as a composed artifact demands for a more comprehensive consideration in its systematic...... environment. The solution prototype that is composed from blending product and service prototype has particular impacts on the dualism of DSR’s “Build” and “Evaluate”. Since the mix between product and service prototyping can be varied, there is a demand for a more agile and iterative framework. Van de Ven......’s research framework seems to fit this purpose. Van de Ven allows for an iterative research approach to problem solving with flexible starting point. The research activity is the result between the iteration of two dimensions. This framework focuses on the natural evaluation, particularly on ex...

  1. Full-scale and time-scale heating experiments at Stripa: preliminary results. Technical project report No. 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, N.G.W.; Hood, M.

    1978-12-01

    Two full-scale heating experiments and a time-scale heating experiment have recently been started in granite 340 meters below surface. The purpose of the full-scale heating experiments is to assess the near-field effects of thermal loading for the design of an underground repository of nuclear wastes. That of the time-scale heating experiments is to obtain field data of the interaction between heaters and its effect on the rock mass during a period of about two years, which corresponds to about twenty years of full-scale operation. Geological features of the rock around each experiment have been mapped carefully, and temperatures, stresses and displacements induced in the rock by heating have been calculated in advance of the experiments. Some 800 different measurements are recorded at frequent intervals by a computer system situated underground. These data can be compared at any time with predictions made earlier on video display units underground

  2. Analysis, scale modeling, and full-scale tests of low-level nuclear-waste-drum response to accident environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huerta, M.; Lamoreaux, G.H.; Romesberg, L.E.; Yoshimura, H.R.; Joseph, B.J.; May, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    This report describes extensive full-scale and scale-model testing of 55-gallon drums used for shipping low-level radioactive waste materials. The tests conducted include static crush, single-can impact tests, and side impact tests of eight stacked drums. Static crush forces were measured and crush energies calculated. The tests were performed in full-, quarter-, and eighth-scale with different types of waste materials. The full-scale drums were modeled with standard food product cans. The response of the containers is reported in terms of drum deformations and lid behavior. The results of the scale model tests are correlated to the results of the full-scale drums. Two computer techniques for calculating the response of drum stacks are presented. 83 figures, 9 tables

  3. The dominant acetate degradation pathway/methanogenic composition in full-scale anaerobic digesters operating under different ammonia levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotidis, Ioannis; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Angelidaki, Irini

    2014-01-01

    Ammonia is a major environmental factor influencing biomethanation in full-scale anaerobic digesters. In this study, the effect of different ammonia levels on methanogenic pathways and methanogenic community composition of full-scale biogas plants was investigated. Eight full-scale digesters...... operating under different ammonia levels were sampled, and the residual biogas production was followed in fed-batch reactors. Acetate, labelled in the methyl group, was used to determine the methanogenic pathway by following the 14CH4 and 14CO2 production. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation was used...... to determine the methanogenic communities’ composition. Results obtained clearly demonstrated that syntrophic acetate oxidation coupled with hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis was the dominant pathway in all digesters with high ammonia levels (2.8–4.57 g NH4 +-N L−1), while acetoclastic methanogenic pathway...

  4. Assessment of the degradation efficiency of full-scale biogas plants: A comparative study of degradation indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Nges, Ivo Achu; Lu, Wenjing; Wang, Haoyu

    2017-11-01

    Increasing popularity and applications of the anaerobic digestion (AD) process has necessitated the development and identification of tools for obtaining reliable indicators of organic matter degradation rate and hence evaluate the process efficiency especially in full-scale, commercial biogas plants. In this study, four biogas plants (A1, A2, B and C) based on different feedstock, process configuration, scale and operational performance were selected and investigated. Results showed that the biochemical methane potential (BMP) based degradation rate could be use in incisively gauging process efficiency in lieu of the traditional degradation rate indicators. The BMP degradation rates ranged from 70 to 90% wherein plants A2 and C showed the highest throughput. This study, therefore, corroborates the feasibility of using the BMP degradation rate as a practical tool for evaluating process performance in full-scale biogas processes and spots light on the microbial diversity in full-scale biogas processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Full-scale borehole sealing test in salt under simulated downhole conditions. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheetz, B.E.; Licastro, P.H.; Roy, D.M.

    1986-05-01

    Large-scale testing of the permeability by brine of a salt/grout sample designed to simulate a borehole plug was conducted. The results of these tests showed that a quantity of fluid equivalent to a permeability of 3 microdarcys was collected during the course of the test. This flow rate was used to estimate the smooth bore aperture. Details of this test ware presented in Volume 1 of this report. This report, Volume 2, covers post-test characterization including a detailed study of the salt/grout interface, as well as determination of the physical/mechanical properties of grout samples molded at Terra Tek, Inc. at the time of the large-scale test. Additional studies include heat of hydration, radial stress, and longitudinal volume changes for an equivalent grout mixture

  6. Experimental Set-up and Full-scale measurements in the ‘Cube'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Heiselberg, Per

    The Cube' is an outdoor test facility located at the main campus of Aalborg University. It has been built in the fall of 2005 with the purpose of detailed investigations of the DSF performance, development of the empirical test cases for validation and further improvements of various building...... of any power supplied to the experimental zone in order to maintain the necessary thermal conditions. An accuracy of these measurements is justified by the quality of the facility construction: ‘the Cube' is very well insulated and tight....... simulation software for the modelling of buildings with double skin facades in the frame of IEA ECBCS ANNEX 43/SHC Task 34, Subtask EDouble Skin Facade. The test facility is designed to be flexible for a choice of the DSF operational modes, natural or mechanical flow conditions, different types of shading...

  7. Technology status of spray calcination--vitrification of high-level liquid waste for full-scale application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeley, R.B.; Bonner, W.F.; Larson, D.E.

    1977-01-01

    Spray calcination and vitrification technology for stabilization of high-level nuclear wastes has been developed to the point that initiation of technology transfer to an industrial-sized facility could begin. This report discusses current process and equipment development status together with additional R and D studies and engineering evaluations needed. Preliminary full-scale process and equipment descriptions are presented. Technology application in a full-scale plant would blend three distinct maintenance design philosophies, depending on service life anticipated: (1) totally remote maintenance with limited viewing and handling equipment, (2) totally remote maintenance with extensive viewing and handling equipment, and (3) contact maintenance

  8. Pervious concrete fill in Pearl-Chain Bridges: Using small-scale results in full-scale implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Mia Schou Møller; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Truelsen, R.

    2016-01-01

    distribution and strength properties is determined for 800 mm high blocks cast in different numbers of layers, and (2) full-scale implementation in a 26 m long Pearl-Chain Bridge. With a layer thickness of 27 cm, the small-scale tests indicated homogenous results; however, for the full-scale implementation......Pearl-Chain Bridge technology is a new prefabricated arch solution for highway bridges. This study investigates the feasibility of pervious concrete as a filling material in Pearl-Chain Bridges. The study is divided into two steps: (1) small-scale tests where the variation in vertical void...

  9. SRM Internal Flow Tests and Computational Fluid Dynamic Analysis. Volume 2; CFD RSRM Full-Scale Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This document presents the full-scale analyses of the CFD RSRM. The RSRM model was developed with a 20 second burn time. The following are presented as part of the full-scale analyses: (1) RSRM embedded inclusion analysis; (2) RSRM igniter nozzle design analysis; (3) Nozzle Joint 4 erosion anomaly; (4) RSRM full motor port slag accumulation analysis; (5) RSRM motor analysis of two-phase flow in the aft segment/submerged nozzle region; (6) Completion of 3-D Analysis of the hot air nozzle manifold; (7) Bates Motor distributed combustion test case; and (8) Three Dimensional Polysulfide Bump Analysis.

  10. Underwater floating robot-fish: a comparative analysis of the results of mathematical modelling and full-scale tests of the prototype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatsun Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a comparative analysis of the results of computer mathematical modelling of the motion of the underwater robot-fish implemented by using the MATLAB / Simulink package and fullscale tests of an experimental model developed in the laboratory of mechatronics and robotics of the SouthWest State University.

  11. W4E HYDROPOWER DIRECT DRIVE IN-LINE HYDROTURBINE GENERATOR FULL SCALE PROTOTYPE VALIDATION TESTING REPORT MAY 2013 ALDEN LABORATORIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Chad W [GZA GeoEnvironmental,Inc.

    2013-09-24

    The W4E is a patent-pending, direct-drive, variable force turbine/generator. The equipment generates electricity through the water dependent engagement of a ring of rotating magnets with coils mounted on a stator ring. Validation testing of the W4e was performed at Alden Laboratories in the Spring of 2013. The testing was independently observed and validated by GZA GeoEnvironmental, Inc. The observations made during testing and the results of the testing are included in the Test Summary Report

  12. Enhanced sealing project: monitoring the THM response of a full-scale shaft seal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, D.A.; Martino, J.B.; Holowick, B.; Priyanto, D. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Pinawa, MB (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Closure of the subsurface facilities at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's (AECL) Underground Research Laboratory (URL) was completed in 2010 with installation of a concrete surface cap. Additionally, as part of decommissioning, seals were installed at the penetration of the shafts through the major hydro-geological feature known as Fracture Zone 2 (FZ2). The seal construction was funded by Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) under the Nuclear Legacy Liabilities Program (NLLP). The shaft seals at the URL were based on the composite seal concept developed for application in a deep geological repository for disposal of used nuclear fuel. The access shaft seal consists of two 3-m thick concrete segments that rigidly confine a 6-m long section of swelling clay-based material (40% bentonite clay - 60% sand by dry mass). Monitoring of the regional groundwater recovery following flooding of the lower shaft is a closure requirement and was included in the design. It was widely recognized that the installation of the seals at the URL represented a unique opportunity to monitor the evolution of the type of seal that might be installed in an actual repository but the NLLP mandate did not include any monitoring of shaft seal evolution. As a result the Enhanced Sealing Project (ESP) partnership composed of NWMO, Posiva, SKB and ANDRA was established and a set of 68 instruments (containing 100 sensors) were installed to monitor the evolution of the seal. In the first year of operation sensors have monitored the following parameters in the ESP: thermal evolution and strain of the concrete components, thermal, hydraulic and mechanical changes in the clay component and its contacts with the rock and concrete confinement. Additionally, monitoring of the near-field and regional groundwater evolution has been undertaken. Monitoring of the short-term thermal-mechanical evolution of the concrete components was successfully accomplished and only a small temperature rise occurred due to

  13. Enhanced sealing project: monitoring the THM response of a full-scale shaft seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, D.A.; Martino, J.B.; Holowick, B.; Priyanto, D.

    2011-01-01

    Closure of the subsurface facilities at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's (AECL) Underground Research Laboratory (URL) was completed in 2010 with installation of a concrete surface cap. Additionally, as part of decommissioning, seals were installed at the penetration of the shafts through the major hydro-geological feature known as Fracture Zone 2 (FZ2). The seal construction was funded by Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) under the Nuclear Legacy Liabilities Program (NLLP). The shaft seals at the URL were based on the composite seal concept developed for application in a deep geological repository for disposal of used nuclear fuel. The access shaft seal consists of two 3-m thick concrete segments that rigidly confine a 6-m long section of swelling clay-based material (40% bentonite clay - 60% sand by dry mass). Monitoring of the regional groundwater recovery following flooding of the lower shaft is a closure requirement and was included in the design. It was widely recognized that the installation of the seals at the URL represented a unique opportunity to monitor the evolution of the type of seal that might be installed in an actual repository but the NLLP mandate did not include any monitoring of shaft seal evolution. As a result the Enhanced Sealing Project (ESP) partnership composed of NWMO, Posiva, SKB and ANDRA was established and a set of 68 instruments (containing 100 sensors) were installed to monitor the evolution of the seal. In the first year of operation sensors have monitored the following parameters in the ESP: thermal evolution and strain of the concrete components, thermal, hydraulic and mechanical changes in the clay component and its contacts with the rock and concrete confinement. Additionally, monitoring of the near-field and regional groundwater evolution has been undertaken. Monitoring of the short-term thermal-mechanical evolution of the concrete components was successfully accomplished and only a small temperature rise occurred due to

  14. Qualification testing and full-scale demonstration of titanium-treated zeolite for sludge wash processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalton, W.J.

    1997-06-30

    Titanium-treated zeolite is a new ion-exchange material that is a variation of UOP (formerly Union Carbide) IONSIV IE-96 zeolite (IE-96) that has been treated with an aqueous titanium solution in a proprietary process. IE-96 zeolite, without the titanium treatment, has been used since 1988 in the West Valley Demonstration Project`s (WVDP) Supernatant Treatment System (STS) ion-exchange columns to remove Cs-137 from the liquid supernatant solution. The titanium-treated zeolite (TIE-96) was developed by Battelle-Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). Following successful lab-scale testing of the PNL-prepared TIE-96, UOP was selected as a commercial supplier of the TIE-96 zeolite. Extensive laboratory tests conducted by both the WVDP and PNL indicate that the TIE-96 will successfully remove comparable quantities of Cs-137 from Tank 8D-2 high-level radioactive liquid as was done previously with IE-96. In addition to removing Cs-137, TIE-96 also removes trace quantities of Pu, as well as Sr-90, from the liquid being processed over a wide range of operating conditions: temperature, pH, and dilution. The exact mechanism responsible for the Pu removal is not fully understood. However, the Pu that is removed by the TIE-96 remains on the ion-exchange column under anticipated sludge wash processing conditions. From May 1988 to November 1990, the WVDP processed 560,000 gallons of liquid high-level radioactive supernatant waste stored in Tank 8D-2. Supernatant is an aqueous salt solution comprised primarily of soluble sodium salts. The second stage of the high-level waste treatment process began November 1991 with the initiation of sludge washing. Sludge washing involves the mixing of Tank 8D-2 contents, both sludge and liquid, to dissolve the sulfate salts present in the sludge. Two sludge washes were required to remove sulfates from the sludge.

  15. Software Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Fiol, Guilherme; Hanseler, Haley; Crouch, Barbara Insley; Cummins, Mollie R.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Health information exchange (HIE) between Poison Control Centers (PCCs) and Emergency Departments (EDs) could improve care of poisoned patients. However, PCC information systems are not designed to facilitate HIE with EDs; therefore, we are developing specialized software to support HIE within the normal workflow of the PCC using user-centered design and rapid prototyping. Objective To describe the design of an HIE dashboard and the refinement of user requirements through rapid prototyping. Methods Using previously elicited user requirements, we designed low-fidelity sketches of designs on paper with iterative refinement. Next, we designed an interactive high-fidelity prototype and conducted scenario-based usability tests with end users. Users were asked to think aloud while accomplishing tasks related to a case vignette. After testing, the users provided feedback and evaluated the prototype using the System Usability Scale (SUS). Results Survey results from three users provided useful feedback that was then incorporated into the design. After achieving a stable design, we used the prototype itself as the specification for development of the actual software. Benefits of prototyping included having 1) subject-matter experts heavily involved with the design; 2) flexibility to make rapid changes, 3) the ability to minimize software development efforts early in the design stage; 4) rapid finalization of requirements; 5) early visualization of designs; 6) and a powerful vehicle for communication of the design to the programmers. Challenges included 1) time and effort to develop the prototypes and case scenarios; 2) no simulation of system performance; 3) not having all proposed functionality available in the final product; and 4) missing needed data elements in the PCC information system. PMID:27081404

  16. Full scale demonstration of thermoactive constructions; Fuldskala demonstration af termoaktive konstruktioner. Hovedrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-02-15

    The project idea is to use prefabricated thermo-active building structures (TABS) as concrete slabs with embedded plastic pipes (PEX). The active concrete slabs are used both as cooling and heating system, peak load limiting (levelling out the peak load) and as energy storage. Based on results from a DTU pilot project, the building owner, Middelfart Sparekasse (a Danish bank), decided to use thermo-active structures for a new 5380 m{sup 2} large headquarter. The objective was to reduce electricity consumption for cooling and ventilation by 75-80 %, thereby making it easier to comply with the more stringent energy requirements. Significant energy savings using this technology have been documented. Electricity consumption for cooling and ventilation was reduced by about 12-13 kWh/m{sup 2}/year, corresponding to about 60%. The electricity savings have a potential to become even higher. The actual consumption is due to a number of factors. 1) The building has not only natural ventilation, but also mechanical ventilation, which has been in operation more than expected. 2) The building architecture contains a significant proportion of glass, causing increased cooling demand. 3) Commissioning of cooling and ventilation systems has been ongoing during the measurement period and is still ongoing. So in that light, 60% electricity saving is a good result. It is documented that TABS can yield a constant cooling performance of at least 30 W/m{sup 2} even with false ceiling covering 70-80% of the area under the thermo-active slabs. TABS are in many ways an optimal and indispensable solution, which not only minimizes electricity consumption for cooling and ventilation, but also has significant benefits in terms of improved indoor climate and in longer term large total economic gains. With the use of TABS in office buildings, the typical indoor climate discomfort associated with air cooling and ventilation (drag, noise, dust) are avoided, and in buildings with natural ventilation

  17. Hydrologic and Pollutant Removal Performance of a Full-Scale, Fully Functional Permeable Pavement Parking Lot - paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    To meet the need for long-term, full-scale, replicated studies of permeable pavement systems used in their intended application (parking lot, roadway, etc.) across a range of climatic events, daily usage conditions, and maintenance regimes to evaluate these systems, the EPA’s Urb...

  18. Experience with the design and start up of two full-scale UASB plants in Brazil: enhancements and drawbacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernicharo, C A L; Almeida, P G S; Lobato, L C S; Couto, T C; Borges, J M; Lacerda, Y S

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the main drawbacks and enhancements experienced with the design and start up of two full-scale UASB plants in Brazil. The topics addressed are related to blockage of inlet pipes, scum accumulation, seed sludge for the start-up, corrosion and gas leakage, odour generation and sludge management. The paper describes the main improvements achieved.

  19. Design and performance of a full-scale spray calciner for nonradioactive high-level-waste-vitrification studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, F.A.

    1981-06-01

    In the spray calcination process, liquid waste is spray-dried in a heated-wall spray dryer (termed a spray calciner), and then it may be combined in solid form with a glass-forming frit. This mixture is then melted in a continuous ceramic melter or in an in-can melter. Several sizes of spray calciners have been tested at PNL- laboratory scale, pilot scale and full scale. Summarized here is the experience gained during the operation of PNL's full-scale spray calciner, which has solidified approx. 38,000 L of simulated acid wastes and approx. 352,000 L of simulated neutralized wastes in 1830 h of processing time. Operating principles, operating experience, design aspects, and system descriptions of a full-scale spray calciner are discussed. Individual test run summaries are given in Appendix A. Appendices B and C are studies made by Bechtel Inc., under contract by PNL. These studies concern, respectively, feed systems for the spray calciner process and a spray calciner vibration analysis. Appendix D is a detailed structural analysis made at PNL of the spray calciner. These appendices are included in the report to provide a complete description of the spray calciner and to include all major studies made concerning PNL's full-scale spray calciner

  20. Graduate Student WAIS-III Scoring Accuracy Is a Function of Full Scale IQ and Complexity of Examiner Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Christopher J.; Richard, David C. S.

    2005-01-01

    Research on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III) suggests that practicing clinical psychologists and graduate students make item-level scoring errors that affect IQ, index, and subtest scores. Studies have been limited in that Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ) and examiner administration,…

  1. Genome based analysis of a novel Chloroflexi in full-scale anaerobic digesters treating waste activated sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIlroy, Simon Jon; Kirkegaard, Rasmus Hansen; Albertsen, Mads

    Key to optimised design and operation of full-scale anaerobic digesters is an understanding of the organisms responsible. As one of the most abundant phyla in these systems, the Chloroflexi likely make a substantial contribute to system function. Here we apply state-of-the-art molecular methods t...

  2. Damage Assessment of a Full-Scale Six-Story wood-frame Building Following Triaxial shake Table Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. van de Lindt; Rakesh Gupta; Shiling Pei; Kazuki Tachibana; Yasuhiro Araki; Douglas Rammer; Hiroshi Isoda

    2012-01-01

    In the summer of 2009, a full-scale midrise wood-frame building was tested under a series of simulated earthquakes on the world's largest shake table in Miki City, Japan. The objective of this series of tests was to validate a performance-based seismic design approach by qualitatively and quantitatively examining the building's seismic performance in terms of...

  3. Operations and Maintenance Manual for Full-Scale Bioventing System at FSA-1, Air Force Plant 4, Fort Worth, Texas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    This Operations and Maintenance (O&M) Manual has been created as a guide for monitoring and maintaining the performance of the full-scale bioventing blower system and vent well plumbing at FSA-1 at Air Force Plant 4 (AFP4), Texas...

  4. Long-term performance and fouling analysis of full-scale direct nanofiltration (NF) installations treating anoxic groundwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beyer, F.; Rietman, B.M.; Zwijnenburg, A.; Brink, van den P.; Vrouwenvelder, J.S.; Jarzembowska, M.; Laurinonyte, J.; Stams, A.J.M.; Plugge, C.M.

    2014-01-01

    Long-term performance and fouling behavior of four full-scale nanofiltration (NF) plants, treating anoxic groundwater at 80% recovery for drinking water production, were characterized and compared with oxic NF and reverse osmosis systems. Plant operating times varied between 6 and 10 years and

  5. Bacterial community structure and variation in a full-scale seawater desalination plant for drinking water production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belila, A.; El-Chakhtoura, J.; Otaibi, N.; Muyzer, G.; Gonzalez-Gil, G.; Saikaly, P.E.; van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.; Vrouwenvelder, J.S.

    2016-01-01

    Microbial processes inevitably play a role in membrane-based desalination plants, mainly recognized as membrane biofouling. We assessed the bacterial community structure and diversity during different treatment steps in a full-scale seawater desalination plant producing 40,000 m3/d of drinking

  6. Membrane biofilm communities in full-scale membrane bioreactors are not randomly assembled and consist of a core microbiome

    KAUST Repository

    Matar, Gerald Kamil

    2017-06-21

    Finding efficient biofouling control strategies requires a better understanding of the microbial ecology of membrane biofilm communities in membrane bioreactors (MBRs). Studies that characterized the membrane biofilm communities in lab-and pilot-scale MBRs are numerous, yet similar studies in full-scale MBRs are limited. Also, most of these studies have characterized the mature biofilm communities with very few studies addressing early biofilm communities. In this study, five full-scale MBRs located in Seattle (Washington, U.S.A.) were selected to address two questions concerning membrane biofilm communities (early and mature): (i) Is the assembly of biofilm communities (early and mature) the result of random immigration of species from the source community (i.e. activated sludge)? and (ii) Is there a core membrane biofilm community in full-scale MBRs? Membrane biofilm (early and mature) and activated sludge (AS) samples were collected from the five MBRs, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing was applied to investigate the bacterial communities of AS and membrane biofilms (early and mature). Alpha and beta diversity measures revealed clear differences in the bacterial community structure between the AS and biofilm (early and mature) samples in the five full-scale MBRs. These differences were mainly due to the presence of large number of unique but rare operational taxonomic units (∼13% of total reads in each MBR) in each sample. In contrast, a high percentage (∼87% of total reads in each MBR) of sequence reads was shared between AS and biofilm samples in each MBR, and these shared sequence reads mainly belong to the dominant taxa in these samples. Despite the large fraction of shared sequence reads between AS and biofilm samples, simulated biofilm communities from random sampling of the respective AS community revealed that biofilm communities differed significantly from the random assemblages (P < 0.001 for each MBR), indicating that the biofilm communities (early

  7. Replicating the microbial community and water quality performance of full-scale slow sand filters in laboratory-scale filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haig, Sarah-Jane; Quince, Christopher; Davies, Robert L; Dorea, Caetano C; Collins, Gavin

    2014-09-15

    Previous laboratory-scale studies to characterise the functional microbial ecology of slow sand filters have suffered from methodological limitations that could compromise their relevance to full-scale systems. Therefore, to ascertain if laboratory-scale slow sand filters (L-SSFs) can replicate the microbial community and water quality production of industrially operated full-scale slow sand filters (I-SSFs), eight cylindrical L-SSFs were constructed and were used to treat water from the same source as the I-SSFs. Half of the L-SSFs sand beds were composed of sterilized sand (sterile) from the industrial filters and the other half with sand taken directly from the same industrial filter (non-sterile). All filters were operated for 10 weeks, with the microbial community and water quality parameters sampled and analysed weekly. To characterize the microbial community phyla-specific qPCR assays and 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene were used in conjunction with an array of statistical techniques. The results demonstrate that it is possible to mimic both the water quality production and the structure of the microbial community of full-scale filters in the laboratory - at all levels of taxonomic classification except OTU - thus allowing comparison of LSSF experiments with full-scale units. Further, it was found that the sand type composing the filter bed (non-sterile or sterile), the water quality produced, the age of the filters and the depth of sand samples were all significant factors in explaining observed differences in the structure of the microbial consortia. This study is the first to the authors' knowledge that demonstrates that scaled-down slow sand filters can accurately reproduce the water quality and microbial consortia of full-scale slow sand filters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessment of online monitoring strategies for measuring N2O emissions from full-scale wastewater treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Ricardo; Rodriguez-Caballero, A; Oehmen, Adrian; Pijuan, Maite

    2016-08-01

    Clark-Type nitrous oxide (N2O) sensors are routinely used to measure dissolved N2O concentrations in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), but have never before been applied to assess gas-phase N2O emissions in full-scale WWTPs. In this study, a full-scale N2O gas sensor was tested and validated for online gas measurements, and assessed with respect to its linearity, temperature dependence, signal saturation and drift prior to full-scale application. The sensor was linear at the concentrations tested (0-422.3, 0-50 and 0-10 ppmv N2O) and had a linear response up to 2750 ppmv N2O. An exponential correlation between temperature and sensor signal was described and predicted using a double exponential equation while the drift did not have a significant influence on the signal. The N2O gas sensor was used for online N2O monitoring in a full-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treating domestic wastewater and results were compared with those obtained by a commercial online gas analyser. Emissions were successfully described by the sensor, being even more accurate than the values given by the commercial analyser at N2O concentrations above 500 ppmv. Data from this gas N2O sensor was also used to validate two models to predict N2O emissions from dissolved N2O measurements, one based on oxygen transfer rate and the other based on superficial velocity of the gas bubble. Using the first model, predictions for N2O emissions agreed by 98.7% with the measured by the gas sensor, while 87.0% similarity was obtained with the second model. This is the first study showing a reliable estimation of gas emissions based on dissolved N2O online data in a full-scale wastewater treatment facility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Kinematical simulation of robotic complex operation for implementing full-scale additive technologies of high-end materials, composites, structures, and buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antsiferov, S. I.; Eltsov, M. Iu; Khakhalev, P. A.

    2018-03-01

    This paper considers a newly designed electronic digital model of a robotic complex for implementing full-scale additive technologies, funded under a Federal Target Program. The electronic and digital model was used to solve the problem of simulating the movement of a robotic complex using the NX CAD/CAM/CAE system. The virtual mechanism was built and the main assemblies, joints, and drives were identified as part of solving the problem. In addition, the maximum allowed printable area size was identified for the robotic complex, and a simulation of printing a rectangular-shaped article was carried out.

  10. Boring of full scale deposition holes at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Operational experiences including boring performance and a work time analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Christer [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Johansson, Aasa [SWECO, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-12-01

    Thirteen experimental deposition holes similar to those in the present KBS-3 design have been bored at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory, Oskarshamn, Sweden. The objective with the boring program was to test and demonstrate the current technique for boring of large vertical holes in granitic rock. Conclusions and results from this project is used in the planning process for the deposition holes that will be bored in the real repository for spent nuclear fuel. The boreholes are also important for three major projects. The Prototype Repository, the Canister Retrieval Test and the Demonstration project will all need full-scale deposition holes for their commissioning. The holes are bored in full scale and have a radius of 1.75 m and a depth of 8.5 m. To bore the holes an existing TBM design was modified to produce a novel type Shaft Boring Machine (SBM) suitable for boring 1.75 m diameter holes from a relatively small tunnel. The cutter head was equipped with two types of roller cutters: two row carbide button cutters and disc cutters. Removal of the cuttings was made with a vacuum suction system. The boring was monitored and boring parameters recorded by a computerised system for the evaluation of the boring performance. During boring of four of the holes temperature, stress and strain measurements were performed. Acoustic emission measurements were also performed during boring of these four holes. The results of these activities will not be discussed in this report since they are reported separately. Criteria regarding nominal borehole diameter, deviation of start and end centre point, surface roughness and performance of the machine were set up according to the KBS-3 design and were fulfilled with a fair margin. The average total time for boring one deposition hole during this project was 105 hours.

  11. Boring of full scale deposition holes at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Operational experiences including boring performance and a work time analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Christer; Johansson, Aasa

    2002-12-01

    Thirteen experimental deposition holes similar to those in the present KBS-3 design have been bored at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory, Oskarshamn, Sweden. The objective with the boring program was to test and demonstrate the current technique for boring of large vertical holes in granitic rock. Conclusions and results from this project is used in the planning process for the deposition holes that will be bored in the real repository for spent nuclear fuel. The boreholes are also important for three major projects. The Prototype Repository, the Canister Retrieval Test and the Demonstration project will all need full-scale deposition holes for their commissioning. The holes are bored in full scale and have a radius of 1.75 m and a depth of 8.5 m. To bore the holes an existing TBM design was modified to produce a novel type Shaft Boring Machine (SBM) suitable for boring 1.75 m diameter holes from a relatively small tunnel. The cutter head was equipped with two types of roller cutters: two row carbide button cutters and disc cutters. Removal of the cuttings was made with a vacuum suction system. The boring was monitored and boring parameters recorded by a computerised system for the evaluation of the boring performance. During boring of four of the holes temperature, stress and strain measurements were performed. Acoustic emission measurements were also performed during boring of these four holes. The results of these activities will not be discussed in this report since they are reported separately. Criteria regarding nominal borehole diameter, deviation of start and end centre point, surface roughness and performance of the machine were set up according to the KBS-3 design and were fulfilled with a fair margin. The average total time for boring one deposition hole during this project was 105 hours

  12. An ergonomics prototype of adjustable chin stands aid for visual mechanical inspection at electronic manufacturing-based company in Kuantan, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Nurainaa; Mat Yahya, Nafrizuan

    2018-04-01

    Chin stands aid is a device designed to reduce fatigue on the chin during the Visual Mechanical Inspection (VMI) task for operators in TT Electronic Sdn Bhd, Kuantan, Malaysia. It is also used to reduce cycle time and also improve employee well-being in terms of comfort. In this project, a 3D model of chin stands aid with an ergonomics approach is created using SOLIDWORKS software. Two different concepts were designed and the best one is chosen based on the Pugh concept selection method, concept screening and also concept scoring. After the selection of concepts is done, a prototype of chin stands aid will be developed and a simulation of the prototype is performed. The simulation has been executed by using Workbench ANSYS software as a tool. Stress analysis, deformation analysis, and fatigue analysis have been done to know the strength and lifespan of the product. The prototype also has been tested to know the functionality and also comfortability for the user to use the chin stands aid.

  13. Microstructure and mechanical properties of open-cellular biomaterials prototypes for total knee replacement implants fabricated by electron beam melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murr, L E; Amato, K N; Li, S J; Tian, Y X; Cheng, X Y; Gaytan, S M; Martinez, E; Shindo, P W; Medina, F; Wicker, R B

    2011-10-01

    Total knee replacement implants consisting of a Co-29Cr-6Mo alloy femoral component and a Ti-6Al-4V tibial component are the basis for the additive manufacturing of novel solid, mesh, and foam monoliths using electron beam melting (EBM). Ti-6Al-4V solid prototype microstructures were primarily α-phase acicular platelets while the mesh and foam structures were characterized by α(')-martensite with some residual α. The Co-29Cr-6Mo containing 0.22% C formed columnar (directional) Cr(23)C(6) carbides spaced ~2 μm in the build direction, while HIP-annealed Co-Cr alloy exhibited an intrinsic stacking fault microstructure. A log-log plot of relative stiffness versus relative density for Ti-6Al-4V and Co-29Cr-6Mo open-cellular mesh and foams resulted in a fitted line with a nearly ideal slope, n = 2.1. A stress shielding design graph constructed from these data permitted mesh and foam implant prototypes to be fabricated for compatible bone stiffness. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Feasibility and Performance of Full-Scale In-situ Remediation of TCE by ERD in Clay Tills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, Mette Martina; Damgaard, Ida; Chambon, Julie Claire Claudia

    The feasibility and performance of full-scale applications of ERD in clay tills were investigated in a research project including 2 sites in Denmark, which have been undergoing remediation since 2006. At both sites organic substrates and bioaugmentation cultures have been injected in TCE-contamin......The feasibility and performance of full-scale applications of ERD in clay tills were investigated in a research project including 2 sites in Denmark, which have been undergoing remediation since 2006. At both sites organic substrates and bioaugmentation cultures have been injected in TCE......-contaminated clay till. An integrated investigative approach consisting of water and clay core sample analysis, including stable isotopes and specific degraders, as well as analysis for chlorinated solvents, degradation products, donor fermentation products and redox-sensitive parameters combined with modelling has...

  15. Full Scale Investigation of the Dynamic Heat Storage of Concrete Decks with PCM and Enhanced Heat Transfer Surface Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the full-scale experimental investigation of the dynamic heat storage potential of the prefabricated hollow core deck elements with and without phase change material (PCM) and with and without increased bottom surface area of the decks. In the presented investigation five types...... of hollow core decks with different surfaces on the bottom are investigated: reference deck made of standard concrete and flat surface, deck with special mortar grooved tiles, deck with flat mortar tiles, deck with grooved mortar and phase change material tiles, deck with flat mortar and phase change...... material tiles. The experimental investigation presented in the paper is performed in the specially designed modified hot box apparatus that allows maintaining periodic steady-state tests with the full-scale concrete deck elements. The presented research investigates if the extended surface area and PCM...

  16. A study on the effect of flat plate friction resistance on speed performance prediction of full scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Dong-Woo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Flat plate friction lines hare been used in the process to estimate speed performance of full-scale ships in model tests. The results of the previous studies showed considerable differences in determining form factors depending on changes in plate friction lines and Reynolds numbers. These differences had a great influence on estimation of speed performance of full-scale ships. This study- was conducted in two parts. In the first part, the scale effect of the form factor depending on change in the Reynolds number was studied based on CFD, in connection with three kinds of friction resistance curves: the ITTC-1957, the curve proposed by Grigson (1993; 1996, and the curve developed by Katsui et al (2005. In the second part, change in the form factor by three kinds of

  17. Full scale model push-off test of reinforced concrete block with 51 mm dia. deformed steel bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyagi, Y.

    1981-01-01

    The conclusions of this study are as follows; (1) The equation previously derived from small scale specimens, to predict the shear strength of push-off specimens including both initially cracked and uncracked, can conservatively estimate the experimental data of full scale specimens to the same extent as small scale ones. (2) The equation previously derived from small scale specimens, to predict the shear strength of initially cracked push-off specimens with reinforcements inclined to the shear plane, agrees reasonably well with the experimental data of full scale speciemens. (3) The concrete strength and yield strength of reinforcement theoretically set the balanced reinforcement ratio of the shear area above which the shear strength of specimens is constant. (4) The theoretical shear strength of push-off specimens overestimates the experimental data by about 25%. (orig./HP)

  18. Calculations of 3D full-scale VVER fuel assembly and core models using MCU and BIPR-7A codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleshin, Sergey S.; Bikeev, Artem S.; Bolshagin, Sergey N.; Kalugin, Mikhail A.; Kosourov, Evgeniy K.; Pavlovichev, Aleksandr M.; Pryanichnikov, Aleksandr V.; Sukhino-Khomenko, Evgenia A.; Shcherenko, Anna I.; Shcherenko, Anastasia I.; Shkarovskiy, Denis A. [Nuclear Research Centre ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-15

    Two types of calculations were made to compare BIPR-7A and MCU results for 3D full-scale models. First EPS (emergency protection system) efficiency and in-core power distributions were analyzed for an equilibrium fuel load of VVER-1000 assuming its operation within an 18-month cycle. Computations were performed without feedbacks and with fuel burnup distributed over the core. After 3D infinite lattices of full-scale VVER-1000 fuel assemblies (A's) with uranium fuel 4.4% enrichment and uranium-erbium fuel 4.4% enrichment and Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} 1 % wt were considered. Computations were performed with feedbacks and fuel burnup at the constant power level. For different time moments effective multiplication factor and power distribution were obtained. EPS efficiency and reactivity effects at chosen time moments were analyzed.

  19. A method for projecting full-scale performance of CO/sub 2/ flooding in the Willard Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilhartz, H.L.; Charlson, G.S.; Stalkup, F.I.; Miller, C.C.

    1985-01-01

    A non-producing CO/sub 2/ flood tertiary recovery test was recently completed in the Willard Unit of Wasson Field. Flood responses during waterflood and alternate injection of CO/sub 2/ and water were monitored at a logging observation well using compensated neutron and pulsed neutron logs. A pressure core was taken to measure residual oil saturations at the test conclusion. The overall objective of the testing was to obtain information for evaluating the potential for full-scale CO/sub 2/ flooding in the unit. Out method for making this evaluation involves: (1) defining CO/sub 2/ flood displacement efficiency and representing this efficiency in a miscible flood reservoir simulator; (2) defining a representative average reservoir description; and (3) projecting full-scale CO/sub 2/ flood performance with the simulator. The paper provides a status report on progress to assess CO/sub 2/ flooding potential for the Willard Unit in this manner

  20. Summary report on close-coupled subsurface barrier technology: Initial field trials to full-scale demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiser, J.H.

    1997-09-01

    The primary objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate the installation and measure the performance of a close-coupled barrier for the containment of subsurface waste or contaminant migration. A close-coupled barrier is produced by first installing a conventional, low-cost, cement-grout containment barrier followed by a thin lining of a polymer grout. The resultant barrier is a cement-polymer composite that has economic benefits derived from the cement and performance benefits from the durable and resistant polymer layer. The technology has matured from a regulatory investigation of the issues concerning the use of polymers to laboratory compatibility and performance measurements of various polymer systems to a pilot-scale, single column injection at Sandia to full-scale demonstration. The feasibility of the close-coupled barrier concept was proven in a full-scale cold demonstration at Hanford, Washington and then moved to the final stage with a full-scale demonstration at an actual remediation site at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). At the Hanford demonstration the composite barrier was emplaced around and beneath a 20,000 liter tank. The secondary cement layer was constructed using conventional jet grouting techniques. Drilling was completed at a 45 degree angle to the ground, forming a cone-shaped barrier. The primary barrier was placed by panel jet-grouting with a dual-wall drill stem using a two part polymer grout. The polymer chosen was a high molecular weight acrylic. At the BNL demonstration a V-trough barrier was installed using a conventional cement grout for the secondary layer and an acrylic-gel polymer for the primary layer. Construction techniques were identical to the Hanford installation. This report summarizes the technology development from pilot- to full-scale demonstrations and presents some of the performance and quality achievements attained

  1. Influence of sludge properties and hydraulic loading on the performance of secondary settling tanks--full-scale operational results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestner, R J; Günthert, F Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    Full-scale investigations at a WWTP with a two-stage secondary settling tank process revealed relationships between significant operating parameters and performance in terms of effluent suspended solids concentration. Besides common parameters (e.g. surface overflow rate and sludge volume loading rate) feed SS concentration and flocculation time must be considered. Concentration of the return activated sludge may help to estimate the performance of existing secondary settling tanks.

  2. Thermal-hydraulic model of the primary coolant circuits for the full-scale training facility with WWER-1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroshilin, A.E.; Zhukavin, A.P.; Pryakhin, V.N.

    1992-01-01

    The mathematical model realized in the full-scale educational facility for NPP operator training is described. The RETACT computational complex providing real time process simulation for all regimes including the maximum credible accident is used for calculation of thermohydraulic parameters of the primary coolant circuits and steam generator under stationary and transient conditions. The two-velocity two-temperature model of one-dimensional steam-water flow containing uncondensed gases is realized in the program

  3. Terry Turbopump Expanded Operating Band Full-Scale Component and Basic Science Detailed Test Plan-Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solom, Matthew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Severe Accident Analysis Dept.; Ross, Kyle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Severe Accident Analysis Dept.; Cardoni, Jeffrey N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Severe Accident Analysis Dept.; Osborn, Douglas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Severe Accident Analysis Dept.

    2017-08-01

    This document details the milestone approach to define the true operating limitations (margins) of the Terry turbopump systems used in the nuclear industry for Milestone 3 (full-scale component experiments) and Milestone 4 (Terry turbopump basic science experiments) efforts. The overall multinational-sponsored program creates the technical basis to: (1) reduce and defer additional utility costs, (2) simplify plant operations, and (3) provide a better understanding of the true margin which could reduce overall risk of operations.

  4. Airframe Noise Prediction of a Full Aircraft in Model and Full Scale Using a Lattice Boltzmann Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fares, Ehab; Duda, Benjamin; Khorrami, Mehdi R.

    2016-01-01

    Unsteady flow computations are presented for a Gulfstream aircraft model in landing configuration, i.e., flap deflected 39deg and main landing gear deployed. The simulations employ the lattice Boltzmann solver PowerFLOW(Trademark) to simultaneously capture the flow physics and acoustics in the near field. Sound propagation to the far field is obtained using a Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings acoustic analogy approach. Two geometry representations of the same aircraft are analyzed: an 18% scale, high-fidelity, semi-span model at wind tunnel Reynolds number and a full-scale, full-span model at half-flight Reynolds number. Previously published and newly generated model-scale results are presented; all full-scale data are disclosed here for the first time. Reynolds number and geometrical fidelity effects are carefully examined to discern aerodynamic and aeroacoustic trends with a special focus on the scaling of surface pressure fluctuations and farfield noise. An additional study of the effects of geometrical detail on farfield noise is also documented. The present investigation reveals that, overall, the model-scale and full-scale aeroacoustic results compare rather well. Nevertheless, the study also highlights that finer geometrical details that are typically not captured at model scales can have a non-negligible contribution to the farfield noise signature.

  5. Full-scale performance of selected starch-based biodegradable polymers in sludge dewatering and recommendation for applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kuangxin; Stüber, Johan; Schubert, Rabea-Luisa; Kabbe, Christian; Barjenbruch, Matthias

    2018-01-01

    Agricultural reuse of dewatered sludge is a valid route for sludge valorization for small and mid-size wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) due to the direct utilization of nutrients. A more stringent of German fertilizer ordinance requires the degradation of 20% of the synthetic additives like polymeric substance within two years, which came into force on 1 January 2017. This study assessed the use of starch-based polymers for full-scale dewatering of municipal sewage sludge. The laboratory-scale and pilot-scale trials paved the way for full-scale trials at three WWTPs in Germany. The general feasibility of applying starch-based 'green' polymers in full-scale centrifugation was demonstrated. Depending on the sludge type and the process used, the substitution potential was up to 70%. Substitution of 20-30% of the polyacrylamide (PAM)-based polymer was shown to achieve similar total solids (TS) of the dewatered sludge. Optimization of operational parameters as well as machinery set up in WWTPs is recommended in order to improve the shear stability force of sludge flocs and to achieve higher substitution potential. This study suggests that starch-based biodegradable polymers have great potential as alternatives to synthetic polymers in sludge dewatering.

  6. Full-scale wind-tunnel tests of high-lift system modifications on a carrier based fighter aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyn, Larry A.; Zell, Peter T.; Hagan, John L.; Schoch, David

    1993-01-01

    Modifications to the high-lift system of a full-scale F/A-I8A were tested in the 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel of the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex at the NASA Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, California. The objective was to measure the effect of simple modifications on the aerodynamic performance of the high-lift system. The modifications included the placement of a straight fairing in the shroud cove above the trailing-edge flap and the addition of seals to prevent air leakage through the hinge lines of the leading-edge flap, the trailing-edge shroud, and the wing fold. The test was carried out on an actual F/A-18A with it's flaps deployed in the landing approach configuration. The angle of attack ranged from 0 to 16 degrees and the wind speed was 100 knots. At an angle of attack of 8 degrees, the trimmed lift coefficient was improved by 0.09 with all wing seals in place. This corresponds to a reduction in the approach speed for the F/A-I8A of about 5 knots. The seal along the wing fold hinge, a feature present on many naval aircraft, provided one third of the total increment in trimmed lift. A comparison of the full-scale wind-tunnel results with those obtained from flight test is also presented.

  7. Ice Accretions and Full-Scale Iced Aerodynamic Performance Data for a Two-Dimensional NACA 23012 Airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addy, Harold E., Jr.; Broeren, Andy P.; Potapczuk, Mark G.; Lee, Sam; Guffond, Didier; Montreuil, Emmanuel; Moens, Frederic

    2016-01-01

    This report documents the data collected during the large wind tunnel campaigns conducted as part of the SUNSET project (StUdies oN Scaling EffecTs due to ice) also known as the Ice-Accretion Aerodynamics Simulation study: a joint effort by NASA, the Office National d'Etudes et Recherches Aérospatiales (ONERA), and the University of Illinois. These data form a benchmark database of full-scale ice accretions and corresponding ice-contaminated aerodynamic performance data for a two-dimensional (2D) NACA 23012 airfoil. The wider research effort also included an analysis of ice-contaminated aerodynamics that categorized ice accretions by aerodynamic effects and an investigation of subscale, low- Reynolds-number ice-contaminated aerodynamics for the NACA 23012 airfoil. The low-Reynolds-number investigation included an analysis of the geometric fidelity needed to reliably assess aerodynamic effects of airfoil icing using artificial ice shapes. Included herein are records of the ice accreted during campaigns in NASA Glenn Research Center's Icing Research Tunnel (IRT). Two different 2D NACA 23012 airfoil models were used during these campaigns; an 18-in. (45.7-cm) chord (subscale) model and a 72-in. (182.9-cm) chord (full-scale) model. The aircraft icing conditions used during these campaigns were selected from the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA's) Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 25 Appendix C icing envelopes. The records include the test conditions, photographs of the ice accreted, tracings of the ice, and ice depth measurements. Model coordinates and pressure tap locations are also presented. Also included herein are the data recorded during a wind tunnel campaign conducted in the F1 Subsonic Pressurized Wind Tunnel of ONERA. The F1 tunnel is a pressured, high- Reynolds-number facility that could accommodate the full-scale (72-in. (182.9-cm) chord) 2D NACA 23012 model. Molds were made of the ice accreted during selected test runs of the full-scale model

  8. Microbial Community Composition of Polyhydroxyalkanoate-Accumulating Organisms in Full-Scale Wastewater Treatment Plants Operated in Fully Aerobic Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshiki, Mamoru; Onuki, Motoharu; Satoh, Hiroyasu; Mino, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    The removal of biodegradable organic matter is one of the most important objectives in biological wastewater treatments. Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA)-accumulating organisms (PHAAOs) significantly contribute to the removal of biodegradable organic matter; however, their microbial community composition is mostly unknown. In the present study, the microbial community composition of PHAAOs was investigated at 8 full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), operated in fully aerobic mode, by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis and post-FISH Nile blue A (NBA) staining techniques. Our results demonstrated that 1) PHAAOs were in the range of 11–18% in the total number of cells, and 2) the microbial community composition of PHAAOs was similar at the bacterial domain/phylum/class/order level among the 8 full-scale WWTPs, and dominant PHAAOs were members of the class Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria. The microbial community composition of α- and β-proteobacterial PHAAOs was examined by 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis and further by applying a set of newly designed oligonucleotide probes targeting 16S rRNA gene sequences of α- or β-proteobacterial PHAAOs. The results demonstrated that the microbial community composition of PHAAOs differed in the class Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria, which possibly resulted in a different PHA accumulation capacity among the WWTPs (8.5–38.2 mg-C g-VSS−1 h−1). The present study extended the knowledge of the microbial diversity of PHAAOs in full-scale WWTPs operated in fully aerobic mode. PMID:23257912

  9. Full-Scaled Advanced Systems Testbed: Ensuring Success of Adaptive Control Research Through Project Lifecycle Risk Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlock, Kate M.

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Dryden Flight Research Center completed flight testing of adaptive controls research on the Full-Scale Advance Systems Testbed (FAST) in January of 2011. The research addressed technical challenges involved with reducing risk in an increasingly complex and dynamic national airspace. Specific challenges lie with the development of validated, multidisciplinary, integrated aircraft control design tools and techniques to enable safe flight in the presence of adverse conditions such as structural damage, control surface failures, or aerodynamic upsets. The testbed is an F-18 aircraft serving as a full-scale vehicle to test and validate adaptive flight control research and lends a significant confidence to the development, maturation, and acceptance process of incorporating adaptive control laws into follow-on research and the operational environment. The experimental systems integrated into FAST were designed to allow for flexible yet safe flight test evaluation and validation of modern adaptive control technologies and revolve around two major hardware upgrades: the modification of Production Support Flight Control Computers (PSFCC) and integration of two, fourth-generation Airborne Research Test Systems (ARTS). Post-hardware integration verification and validation provided the foundation for safe flight test of Nonlinear Dynamic Inversion and Model Reference Aircraft Control adaptive control law experiments. To ensure success of flight in terms of cost, schedule, and test results, emphasis on risk management was incorporated into early stages of design and flight test planning and continued through the execution of each flight test mission. Specific consideration was made to incorporate safety features within the hardware and software to alleviate user demands as well as into test processes and training to reduce human factor impacts to safe and successful flight test. This paper describes the research configuration

  10. A Non-Intrusive Cyber Physical Social Sensing Solution to People Behavior Tracking: Mechanism, Prototype, and Field Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yunjian; Zhou, Zhenyu; Chen, Fei; Duan, Peng; Guo, Zhen; Mumtaz, Shahid

    2017-01-13

    Tracking people's behaviors is a main category of cyber physical social sensing (CPSS)-related people-centric applications. Most tracking methods utilize camera networks or sensors built into mobile devices such as global positioning system (GPS) and Bluetooth. In this article, we propose a non-intrusive wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi)-based tracking method. To show the feasibility, we target tracking people's access behaviors in Wi-Fi networks, which has drawn a lot of interest from the academy and industry recently. Existing methods used for acquiring access traces either provide very limited visibility into media access control (MAC)-level transmission dynamics or sometimes are inflexible and costly. In this article, we present a passive CPSS system operating in a non-intrusive, flexible, and simplified manner to overcome above limitations. We have implemented the prototype on the off-the-shelf personal computer, and performed real-world deployment experiments. The experimental results show that the method is feasible, and people's access behaviors can be correctly tracked within a one-second delay.

  11. A Non-Intrusive Cyber Physical Social Sensing Solution to People Behavior Tracking: Mechanism, Prototype, and Field Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjian Jia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tracking people’s behaviors is a main category of cyber physical social sensing (CPSS-related people-centric applications. Most tracking methods utilize camera networks or sensors built into mobile devices such as global positioning system (GPS and Bluetooth. In this article, we propose a non-intrusive wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi-based tracking method. To show the feasibility, we target tracking people’s access behaviors in Wi-Fi networks, which has drawn a lot of interest from the academy and industry recently. Existing methods used for acquiring access traces either provide very limited visibility into media access control (MAC-level transmission dynamics or sometimes are inflexible and costly. In this article, we present a passive CPSS system operating in a non-intrusive, flexible, and simplified manner to overcome above limitations. We have implemented the prototype on the off-the-shelf personal computer, and performed real-world deployment experiments. The experimental results show that the method is feasible, and people’s access behaviors can be correctly tracked within a one-second delay.

  12. Reduction of methane emission from landfills using bio-mitigation systems – from lab tests to full scale implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Scheutz, Charlotte

    , or open or closed bed biofilter systems. The objective of this paper is to describe the relationship between research on process understanding of the oxidation of landfill gas contained methane and the up-scale to full bio-mitigation systems implemented at landfills. The oxidation of methane is controlled...... for implementing a bio-mitigation system is presented, and the reported landfill-implemented bio-mitigation systems either established as full-scale or pilot-scale systems are reviewed. It is concluded that bio-mitigation systems have a large potential for providing cost-efficient mitigation options for reducing...

  13. Evaluation of the Strength Variation of Normal and Lightweight Self-Compacting Concrete in Full Scale Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseinali, M.; Ranjbar, M. M.; Rezvani, S. M.

    2011-01-01

    -destructive testing. Self-compacting concrete (SCC) and lightweight self-compacting concrete (LWSCC) with different admixtures were tested and compared with normal concrete (NC). The results were also compared with results for standard cubic samples. The results demonstrate the effect of concrete type on the in situ......The strength of cast concrete along the height and length of large structural members might vary due to inadequate compaction, segregation, bleeding, head pressure, and material type. The distribution of strength within a series of full scale reinforced concrete walls was examined using non...

  14. Experimental evaluation of the oxygen transfer in bubble aeration systems. Full scale experiences in lengthened activated sludge reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreottola, G.; Ragazzi, M.; Tatano, F.

    1999-01-01

    The results of some full-scale oxygen transfer measurements conduced at the lengthened activate sludge tanks of two WWTPs of Trentino Region, are presented and discussed. As far at the tests in clean water are concerned, the non-liner regression method seems non accurate; important conclusion on the correlation between oxygen transfer process and typical parameters (i.e., fine-bubble diffusers, specific air flux) are derived. As far as the test in the wastewater is concerned, an increase of α-value from the inlet to the end of aeration tanks has been observed in the 'Andalo' WWTP [it

  15. Surveillance and Monitoring Program Full-Scale Experiments to Evaluate the Potential for Corrosion in 3013 Containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narlesky, Joshua Edward [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Berg, John M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Duque, Juan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Harradine, David Martin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hill, Dallas Dwight [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kaczar, Gregory Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lillard, R. Scott [Univ. of Akron, OH (United States); Lopez, Annabelle Sarita [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Martinez, Max Alfonso [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Peppers, Larry G. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rios, Daniel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Romero, Edward L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stroud, Mary Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Trujillo, Leonardo Alberto [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Veirs, Douglas Kirk [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wilson, Kennard Virden Jr. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Worl, Laura Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-21

    A set of six long-term, full-scale experiments were initiated to determine the type and extent of corrosion that occurs in 3013 containers packaged with chloride-bearing plutonium oxide materials. The materials were exposed to a high relative humidity environment representative of actual packaging conditions for the materials in storage. The materials were sealed in instrumented, inner 3013 containers with corrosion specimens designed to test the corrosiveness of the environment inside the containers under various conditions. This report focuses on initial loading conditions that are used to establish a baseline to show how the conditions change throughout the storage lifetime of the containers.

  16. A Full-Scale Study of Exhaled Droplet Dispersion in the Microenvironment around one and two Persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Li, Yuguo; Khalegi, Farzad

    Airborne cross infection is based on transmission of microorganisms attached to exhaled droplets or particles. Traditionally two transmission routes are considered, namely via droplet nuclei ( 5-10 μm), and they correspond to two infection routes: droplet infection...... and airborne infection. A transition may take place from droplet-borne infection to airborne infection, because the exhaled droplets may evaporate in the air and droplets become droplet nuclei. Full-scale experiments on the movement of droplet nuclei (airborne infection) have been performed in a number...

  17. Noise-Source Separation Using Internal and Far-Field Sensors for a Full-Scale Turbofan Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.; Miles, Jeffrey H.

    2009-01-01

    Noise-source separation techniques for the extraction of the sub-dominant combustion noise from the total noise signatures obtained in static-engine tests are described. Three methods are applied to data from a static, full-scale engine test. Both 1/3-octave and narrow-band results are discussed. The results are used to assess the combustion-noise prediction capability of the Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP). A new additional phase-angle-based discriminator for the three-signal method is also introduced.

  18. Full-scale vibration tests of Atucha II N.P.P. Part I: objectives, instrumentation and test description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konno, T.; Tsugawa, T.; Sala, G.; Friebe, T.M.; Prato, C.A.; Godoy, A.R.

    1995-01-01

    The main purpose of the tests was to provide experimental data on the dynamic characteristics of the main reactor building and adjacent structures of a full-scale nuclear power plant built on deep Quaternary soil deposits. Test results were intended to provide a benchmark case for control and calibration of state-of-the-art numerical techniques used for engineering design of new plants and assessment of existing facilities. Interpretation of test results and calibration of numerical analyses are described in other associated papers. (author). 5 figs

  19. Characterization of Membrane Foulants in Full-scale and Lab-scale Membrane Bioreactors for Wastewater Treatment and Reuse

    KAUST Repository

    Matar, Gerald

    2015-12-01

    Membrane bioreactors (MBRs) offer promising solution for wastewater treatment and reuse to address the problem of water scarcity. Nevertheless, this technology is still facing challenges associated with membrane biofouling. This phenomenon has been mainly investigated in lab-scale MBRs with little or no insight on biofouling in full-scale MBR plants. Furthermore, the temporal dynamics of biofouling microbial communities and their extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) are less studied. Herein, a multidisciplinary approach was adopted to address the above knowledge gaps in lab- and full-scale MBRs. In the full-scale MBR study, 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing with multivariate statistical analysis revealed that the early and mature biofilm communities from five full-scale MBRs differed significantly from the source community (i.e. activated sludge), and random immigration of species from the source community was unlikely to shape the community structure of biofilms. Also, a core biofouling community was shared between the five MBR plants sampled despite differences in their operating conditions. In the lab-scale MBR studies, temporal dynamics of microbial communities and their EPS products were monitored on different hydrophobic and hydrophilic membranes during 30 days. At the early stages of filtration (1 d), the same early colonizers belonging to the class Betaproteobacteria were identified on all the membranes. However, their relative abundance decreased on day 20 and 30, and sequence reads belonging to the phylum Firmicutes and Chlorobi became dominant on all the membranes on day 20 and 30. In addition, the intrinsic membrane characteristic did not select any specific EPS fractions at the initial stages of filtration and the same EPS foulants developed with time on the hydrophobic and hydrophilic membranes. Our results indicated that the membrane surface characteristics did not select for specific biofouling communities or EPS foulants, and the same early

  20. Force Tests of the Boeing XB-47 Full-Scale Empennage in the Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunton, Lynn W.

    1947-01-01

    A wind-tunnel investigation of the Boeing XB-47 full-scale empennage was conducted to provide, prior to flight tests, data required on the effectiveness of the elevator and rudder. The XB-47 airplane is a jet-propelled medium bomber having wing and tail surfaces swept back 35 degrees. The investigation included tests of the effectiveness of the elevator with normal straight sides, with a buldged trailing edge, and with a modified hinge-line gap and tests of the effectiveness of the rudder with a normal straight-sided tab and with a bulged tab.

  1. RGO-coated elastic fibres as wearable strain sensors for full-scale detection of human motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Qing; Wang, Qi; Zang, Siyao; Mao, Guoming; Zhang, Jinnan; Ren, Xiaomin

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we chose highly-elastic fabric fibres as the functional carrier and then simply coated the fibres with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) using plasma treatment, dip coating and hydrothermal reduction steps, finally making a wearable strain sensor. As a result, the full-scale detection of human motions, ranging from bending joints to the pulse beat, has been achieved by these sensors. Moreover, high sensitivity, good stability and excellent repeatability were realized. The good sensing performances and economical fabrication process of this wearable strain sensor have strengthened our confidence in practical applications in smart clothing, smart fabrics, healthcare, and entertainment fields.

  2. 1:1 (dis)section - Learning through full-scale dissection and transformations of abandoned buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Mo Michelsen Stochholm; Keiding, Tina Bering

    2018-01-01

    This paper reports on four transformation workshops. The aim was to provide first-year students with an understanding of the relation between the section as a semantic representation and the materiality, structure and spatial relations of a concrete building. The culmination of each workshop...... was a full-scale dissection and transformation of an abandoned house. As we shall see, the workshops fulfilled not only the intended learning goals, but created an unforeseen and unique context for learning about the relations between building, place and place....

  3. Full Scale Earth Fault Experiments on 10 kV laboratory network with comparative Measurements on Conventional CT's and VT's

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Stefan; Nielsen, Hans Ove; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we present a result of a full scale earth fault carried out on the 10 kV research/laboratory distribution network at Kyndbyvaerket Denmark in May 2001. The network is compensated through a Petersen-Coil and current and voltage measurements were measured on conventional current....... The necessity of high bandwidth measurement equipment for earth fault measurements on compensated distribution networks can be undermined, since it will be shown that the transient signal transfer through conventional CT?s and VT?s for further signal analysis is sufficient. Caused the inadequacy three phase...

  4. Full-scale and in-situ tests on the structures and sites of Kozloduy and Belene NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simeonov, S.

    1995-01-01

    This paper includes a detailed list of full scale and in-situ tests that were carried out on the structures and the sites of Kozloduy and Belene nuclear power plants. This involves reactor buildings and turbine halls of the five Kozloduy units, foundations of deaerator and turbine of unit 1, boreholes near channels for additional technical water supply, boreholes near units 2, 3 and 5, boreholes near the concrete center. Special measurement profile and gravel embankment of Belene NPP are included as well

  5. Digestion performance and microbial community in full-scale methane fermentation of stillage from sweet potato-shochu production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tsutomu; Tang, Yueqin; Urakami, Toyoshi; Morimura, Shigeru; Kida, Kenji

    2014-02-01

    Sweet potato shochu is a traditional Japanese spirit produced mainly in the South Kyushu area in Japan. The amount of stillage reaches approximately 8 x 10(5) tons per year. Wastewater mainly containing stillage from the production of sweet potato-shochu was treated thermophilically in a full-scale treatment plant using fixed-bed reactors (8 reactors x 283 m3). Following the addition of Ni2+ and Co2+, the reactors have been stably operated for six years at a high chemical oxygen demand (COD) loading rate of 14 kg/(m3 x day). Analysis of coenzyme content and microbial communities indicated that similar microbial communities were present in the liquid phase and on the fiber carriers installed in reactors. Bacteria in the phyla Firmicutes as well as Bacteroidetes were dominant bacteria, and Methanosarcina thermophila as well as Methanothermobacter crinale were dominant methanogens in the reactors. This study reveals that stillage from sweet potato-shochu production can be treated effectively in a full-scale fixed-bed reactor under thermophilic conditions with the help of Ni2+ and Co2+. The high diversity of bacterial community and the coexistence of both aceticlastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogens contributed to the excellent fermentation performance.

  6. Decontamination factor Improvement and Waste Reduction of Full-scaled Evaporation System for Liquid Radioactive Waste Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Tae; Ju, Young Jong; Seol, Jeung Gun; Cho, Nam Chan [KNF, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Dong Hwan; Kim, Yun Kwan [Jeontech Co., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Liquid radioactive waste is produced from nuclear power plants, nuclear research centers, radiopharmaceuticals and nuclear fuel fabrication plants, etc. Ion-exchange, chemical precipitation, evaporation, filtration, liquid/solid extraction and centrifugal are applied to treat the liquid waste. Chemical precipitation requires low capital and operation cost. However, it produces large amount of secondary waste and has low DF (decontamination factor). Evaporation process removes variety of radionuclides in high DF. But, it also has problems in scaling and foaming [3, 4]. In this study, it is investigated that the effect of switching lime precipitation and centrifugal processes to evaporation system for improvement of removal efficiency and decrease of waste in full-scaled radioactive wastewater treatment plant. By swapping full-scaled wastewater treatment system from the centrifugal and the lime precipitation to the evaporator and the crystallizer in the nuclear fuel fabrication plant, it was possible to increase removal efficiency and to minimize waste productivity. Radioactivity concentration of effluent is decreased from 0.01 Bq/mL to ND level. Besides, waste production was reduced from 15 drums/yr to 2 drums/yr (87%).

  7. Feasibility and Performance of Full-Scale In-situ Remediation of TCE by ERD in Clay Tills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, Mette Martina; Damgaard, Ida; Chambon, Julie Claire Claudia

    The feasibility and performance of full-scale applications of ERD in clay tills were investigated in a research project including 2 sites in Denmark, which have been undergoing remediation since 2006. At both sites organic substrates and bioaugmentation cultures have been injected in TCE-contamin......The feasibility and performance of full-scale applications of ERD in clay tills were investigated in a research project including 2 sites in Denmark, which have been undergoing remediation since 2006. At both sites organic substrates and bioaugmentation cultures have been injected in TCE...... been applied. The results showed that the chlorinated solvent TCE was converted into its daughter products (cDCE, VC and ethene) but complete conversion of contaminants to ethene (as expected) was not achieved within a timeframe of 4 years. Large variation in the effect of ERD in the clay matrix...... features in some parts of the clay tills. The bioactive zones may expand in zones where both donor and chlorinated compounds are present. In some cores TCE was depleted (degraded to DCE) in zones up to 1.8 m thick – an extent which could not be explained by diffusive loss to narrow bioactive zones. Hence...

  8. The tunnel sealing experiment: The construction and performance of full scale clay and concrete bulkheads at elevated pressure and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martino, J.B.; Dixon, D.A.; Vignal, B.; Fujita, T.

    2006-01-01

    Concepts for deep geologic disposal of radioactive waste, as proposed by many international organizations, include bulkheads or plugs in the shaft, or at the entrances to disposal rooms, or both. The seals are primarily to prevent groundwater transport of radioisotopes along underground openings but also provide a measure of security by restricting tunnel access. The safety of the respective disposal systems relies on the combined performance of the natural barriers (host rock) and engineered barriers (the waste form, the waste container, the buffer barrier, the room, tunnel and shaft backfill and sealing materials). To understand the functionality of these systems it is important to study them in whole or in part at full scale. One such study was the Tunnel Sealing Experiment (TSX), a full-scale tunnel seal component study. The TSX showed it is possible to construct tunnel seals that limit axial flow under high hydraulic gradient and elevated temperature. The clay and concrete bulkheads had seepage rates of 1 mL/min and 10 mL/min at ambient temperature. Elevated temperatures caused a further decrease in seepage past the concrete bulkhead to approximately 2-3 mL/min. (author)

  9. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) technology for monitoring biological foaming in activated sludge: full scale plant verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J W; Cha, D K; Kim, I; Son, A; Ahn, K H

    2008-02-01

    Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) technology was evaluated as a monitoring tool for quantification of Gordonia amarae in activated sludge systems. The fatty acid, 19:1 alcohol, which was identified as a unique fatty acid in G. amarae was not only confirmed to be present in foaming plant samples, but the quantity of the signature peak correlated closely with the degree of foaming. Foaming potential experiment provided a range of critical foaming levels that corresponded to G. amarae population. This range of critical Gordonia levels was correlated to the threshold signature FAME amount. Six full-scale wastewater treatment plants were selected based on a survey to participate in our full-scale study to evaluate the potential application of the FAME technique as the Gordonia monitoring tool. Greater amounts of signature FAME were extracted from the mixed liquor samples obtained from treatment plants experiencing Gordonia foaming problems. The amounts of signature FAME correlated well with the conventional filamentous counting technique. These results demonstrated that the relative abundance of the signature FAMEs can be used to quantitatively monitor the abundance of foam-causing microorganism in activated sludge.

  10. Development of a new steady state zero-dimensional simulation model for woody biomass gasification in a full scale plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formica, Marco; Frigo, Stefano; Gabbrielli, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A simulation model with Aspen Plus is created for a full scale biomass gasification plant. • Test results, equipment data and control logics are considered in the simulation model. • The simulation results are in agreement with the experimental data. • The gasifying air temperature affects largely the energy performance of the gasification plant. • Increasing the equivalent ratio implies a strong reduction of the gasification efficiency. - Abstract: A new steady state zero-dimensional simulation model for a full-scale woody biomass gasification plant with fixed-bed downdraft gasifier has been developed using Aspen Plus®. The model includes the technical characteristics of all the components (gasifier, cyclone, exchangers, piping, etc.) of the plant and works in accordance with its actual main control logics. Simulation results accord with those obtained during an extensive experimental activity. After the model validation, the influence of operating parameters such as the equivalent ratio, the biomass moisture content and the gasifying air temperature on syngas composition have been analyzed in order to assess the operative behavior and the energy performance of the experimental plant. By recovering the sensible heat of the syngas at the outlet of the gasifier, it is possible to obtain higher values of the gasifying air temperature and an improvement of the overall gasification performances.

  11. Radar Echo Scattering Modeling and Image Simulations of Full-scale Convex Rough Targets at Terahertz Frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Jingkun

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Echo simulation is a precondition for developing radar imaging systems, algorithms, and subsequent applications. Electromagnetic scattering modeling of the target is key to echo simulation. At terahertz (THz frequencies, targets are usually of ultra-large electrical size that makes applying classical electromagnetic calculation methods unpractical. In contrast, the short wavelength makes the surface roughness of targets a factor that cannot be ignored, and this makes the traditional echo simulation methods based on point scattering hypothesis in applicable. Modeling the scattering characteristics of targets and efficiently generating its radar echoes in THz bands has become a problem that must be solved. In this paper, a hierarchical semi-deterministic modeling method is proposed. A full-wave algorithm of rough surfaces is used to calculate the scattered field of facets. Then, the scattered fields of all facets are transformed into the target coordinate system and coherently summed. Finally, the radar echo containing phase information can be obtained. Using small-scale rough models, our method is compared with the standard high-frequency numerical method, which verifies the effectiveness of the proposed method. Imaging results of a full-scale cone-shape target is presented, and the scattering model and echo generation problem of the full-scale convex targets with rough surfaces in THz bands are preliminary solved; this lays the foundation for future research on imaging regimes and algorithms.

  12. Minimizing N2O emissions and carbon footprint on a full-scale activated sludge sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Caballero, A; Aymerich, I; Marques, Ricardo; Poch, M; Pijuan, M

    2015-03-15

    A continuous, on-line quantification of the nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from a full-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) placed in a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was performed in this study. In general, N2O emissions from the biological wastewater treatment system were 97.1 ± 6.9 g N2O-N/Kg [Formula: see text] consumed or 6.8% of the influent [Formula: see text] load. In the WWTP of this study, N2O emissions accounted for over 60% of the total carbon footprint of the facility, on average. Different cycle configurations were implemented in the SBR aiming at reaching acceptable effluent values. Each cycle configuration consisted of sequences of aerated and non-aerated phases of different time length being controlled by the ammonium set-point fixed. Cycles with long aerated phases showed the largest N2O emissions, with the consequent increase in carbon footprint. Cycle configurations with intermittent aeration (aerated phases up to 20-30 min followed by short anoxic phases) were proven to effectively reduce N2O emissions, without compromising nitrification performance or increasing electricity consumption. This is the first study in which a successful operational strategy for N2O mitigation is identified at full-scale. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of a continuous motorcycle protection barrier system using computer simulation and full-scale crash testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atahan, Ali O; Hiekmann, J Marten; Himpe, Jeffrey; Marra, Joseph

    2018-07-01

    Road restraint systems are designed to minimize the undesirable effects of roadside accidents and improve safety of road users. These systems are utilized at either side or median section of roads to contain and redirect errant vehicles. Although restraint systems are mainly designed against car, truck and bus impacts there is an increasing pressure by the motorcycle industry to incorporate motorcycle protection systems into these systems. In this paper development details of a new and versatile motorcycle barrier, CMPS, coupled with an existing vehicle barrier is presented. CMPS is intended to safely contain and redirect motorcyclists during a collision event. First, crash performance of CMPS design is evaluated by means of a three dimensional computer simulation program LS-DYNA. Then full-scale crash tests are used to verify the acceptability of CMPS design. Crash tests were performed at CSI proving ground facility using a motorcycle dummy in accordance with prEN 1317-8 specification. Full-scale crash test results show that CMPS is able to successfully contain and redirect dummy with minimal injury risk on the dummy. Damage on the barrier is also minimal proving the robustness of the CMPS design. Based on the test findings and further review by the authorities the implementation of CMPS was recommended at highway system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Full-scale measurements and system identification on Sutong cable-stayed bridge during Typhoon Fung-Wong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Tao, Tianyou; Guo, Tong; Li, Jian; Li, Aiqun

    2014-01-01

    The structural health monitoring system (SHMS) provides an effective tool to conduct full-scale measurements on existing bridges for essential research on bridge wind engineering. In July 2008, Typhoon Fung-Wong lashed China and hit Sutong cable-stayed bridge (SCB) in China. During typhoon period, full-scale measurements were conducted to record the wind data and the structural vibration responses were collected by the SHMS installed on SCB. Based on the statistical method and the spectral analysis technique, the measured data are analyzed to obtain the typical parameters and characteristics. Furthermore, this paper analyzed the measured structural vibration responses and indicated the vibration characteristics of the stay cable and the deck, the relationship between structural vibrations and wind speed, the comparison of upstream and downstream cable vibrations, the effectiveness of cable dampers, and so forth. Considering the significance of damping ratio in vibration mitigation, the modal damping ratios of the SCB are identified based on the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) combined with the random decrement technique (RDT). The analysis results can be used to validate the current dynamic characteristic analysis methods, buffeting calculation methods, and wind tunnel test results of the long-span cable-stayed bridges.

  15. Full-Scale Measurements and System Identification on Sutong Cable-Stayed Bridge during Typhoon Fung-Wong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The structural health monitoring system (SHMS provides an effective tool to conduct full-scale measurements on existing bridges for essential research on bridge wind engineering. In July 2008, Typhoon Fung-Wong lashed China and hit Sutong cable-stayed bridge (SCB in China. During typhoon period, full-scale measurements were conducted to record the wind data and the structural vibration responses were collected by the SHMS installed on SCB. Based on the statistical method and the spectral analysis technique, the measured data are analyzed to obtain the typical parameters and characteristics. Furthermore, this paper analyzed the measured structural vibration responses and indicated the vibration characteristics of the stay cable and the deck, the relationship between structural vibrations and wind speed, the comparison of upstream and downstream cable vibrations, the effectiveness of cable dampers, and so forth. Considering the significance of damping ratio in vibration mitigation, the modal damping ratios of the SCB are identified based on the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT combined with the random decrement technique (RDT. The analysis results can be used to validate the current dynamic characteristic analysis methods, buffeting calculation methods, and wind tunnel test results of the long-span cable-stayed bridges.

  16. A room-temperature liquid calorimeter prototype for the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandenburg, G.W.; Geer, S.H.; Oliver, J.; Sadowski, E.; Theriot, D.

    1990-01-01

    Calorimeters will be an extremely important part of SSC detectors as they have been in existing collider detectors. The main issues that need to be addressed are: (1) energy resolution of jets and electrons, (2) segmentation, (3) hermiticity, (4) response time, and (5) radiation resistance. An attractive possibility on all these counts is the use of room-temperature liquids together with uranium, as pioneered by UA1. The authors are planning a prototype calorimeter which consists of a sealed vessel containing both the radiator plates and the readout pads. This geometry has been appropriately named the swimming pool design. The general mechanical starting point is similar to the SLD liquid argon calorimeters. The points they wish to address are the following: (1) Simple and reliable modular construction techniques, (2) Satisfactory electrical connections with minimal geometric impact, (3) The necessity of isolating radiator plates and liquid to maintain purity, (4) What materials can be immersed without compromising the liquid purity. The design and construction of the swimming pool electromagnetic calorimeter prototype is being carried out at the Harvard High Energy Physics Laboratory. This is one of the first attempts to build a full-scale prototype of such a design

  17. Construction and Tests of the Mechanical Structure for a Semi-Digital Hadronic Calorimeter Prototype within the CALICE Collaboration; Construccion y Pruebas de la Estructura Mecanica para un Prototipo de Calorimetro Hadronico con Lectura Semidigital dentro de la Colaboracion CALICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berenguer, J.

    2014-07-01

    The assembly of a mechanical structure used for a semi-digital hadronic calorimeter prototype, conceived and developed by the SDHCAL group within the CALICE collaboration, is presented in this note. CALICE is an international R and D collaboration dedicated to the development of calorimeters for future linear collider experiments. The design, assembly and quality control of this mechanical structure were entirely carried out at CIEMAT. This document contains a description of the prototype and its detectors, focusing on the design and assembly of the mechanical structure, which acts as well as the calorimeter absorber.. (Author)

  18. Design and Analysis of Subscale and Full-Scale Buckling-Critical Cylinders for Launch Vehicle Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilburger, Mark W.; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Thornburgh, Robert P.; Rankin, Charles

    2012-01-01

    NASA s Shell Buckling Knockdown Factor (SBKF) project has the goal of developing new analysis-based shell buckling design factors (knockdown factors) and design and analysis technologies for launch vehicle structures. Preliminary design studies indicate that implementation of these new knockdown factors can enable significant reductions in mass and mass-growth in these vehicles. However, in order to validate any new analysis-based design data or methods, a series of carefully designed and executed structural tests are required at both the subscale and full-scale levels. This paper describes the design and analysis of three different orthogrid-stiffeNed metallic cylindrical-shell test articles. Two of the test articles are 8-ft-diameter, 6-ft-long test articles, and one test article is a 27.5-ft-diameter, 20-ft-long Space Shuttle External Tank-derived test article.

  19. Seismic test of a full scale model of five-story stone Pagoda of Sang-Gye-Sa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. K.; Park, C. U.; Jung, C. K.; Ryu, H.; Fujita, Kaori

    1999-01-01

    There occurred a moderate size earthquake of M=5 at Whagae-Myun, Hadong-Gun, Kyongsangnam-Do of Korea. It caused severe damage to the buildings and other structures in Sang-Gye-Sa, a famous and beautiful Buddhist Temple. The 5-story stone pagoda was standing in front of Keumdang. The top component tipped over and fell to the ground during the earthquake. In order to have accurate and quantitative estimate of the intensity of earthquake, a full-scale replica is made through rigorous verification process. The completed model was mounted on the shaking table and subjected to the seismic tests. It was observed that the top component overturned at 0.16 G of EPGA when the NS component of the 1940 El Centro earthquake records was used as the input motion. A brief history of this project is presented and important test results are reported and their implication is discussed

  20. Development of Simplified and Dynamic Model for Double Glazing Unit Validated with Full-Scale Facade Element

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Mingzhe; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Heiselberg, Per

    2012-01-01

    The project aims at developing simplified calculation methods for the different features that influence energy demand and indoor environment behind “intelligent” glazed façades. This paper describes how to set up simplified model to calculate the thermal and solar properties (U and g value......) together with comfort performance (internal surface temperature of the glazing) of a double glazing unit. Double glazing unit is defined as 1D model with nodes representing different layers of material. Several models with different number of nodes and position of these are compared and verified in order...... to find a simplified method which can calculate the performance as accurately as possible. The calculated performance in terms of internal surface temperature is verified with experimental data collected in a full-scale façade element test facility at Aalborg University (DK). The advantage...

  1. Aerodynamic noise characterization of a full-scale wind turbine through high-frequency surface pressure measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertagnolio, Franck; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Bak, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate and characterize the high-frequency surface pressure fluctuations on a full-scale wind turbine blade and in particular the influence of the atmospheric turbulence. As these fluctuations are highly correlated to the sources of both turbulent inflow noise...... and trailing edge noise, recognized to be the two main sources of noise from wind turbines, this work contributes to a more detailed insight into noise from wind turbines. The study comprises analysis and interpretation of measurement data that were acquired during an experimental campaign involving a 2 MW...... wind turbine with a 80 m diameter rotor as well as measurements of an airfoil section tested in a wind tunnel. The turbine was extensively equipped in order to monitor the local inflow onto the rotating blades. Further a section of the 38 m long blade was instrumented with 50 microphones flush...

  2. Development of Experimental Icing Simulation Capability for Full-Scale Swept Wings: Hybrid Design Process, Years 1 and 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Gustavo; Bragg, Mike; Triphahn, Chris; Wiberg, Brock; Woodard, Brian; Loth, Eric; Malone, Adam; Paul, Bernard; Pitera, David; Wilcox, Pete; hide

    2017-01-01

    This report presents the key results from the first two years of a program to develop experimental icing simulation capabilities for full-scale swept wings. This investigation was undertaken as a part of a larger collaborative research effort on ice accretion and aerodynamics for large-scale swept wings. Ice accretion and the resulting aerodynamic effect on large-scale swept wings presents a significant airplane design and certification challenge to air frame manufacturers, certification authorities, and research organizations alike. While the effect of ice accretion on straight wings has been studied in detail for many years, the available data on swept-wing icing are much more limited, especially for larger scales.

  3. Acoustic measurements of a full-scale rotor with four tip shapes. Volume 1: Text, appendices A and B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, M.

    1984-01-01

    A full-scale helicopter with four different blade-tip geometries was tested in the 40- by 80-foot wind tunnel at Ames Research Center. Performance, loads, and noise were measured. The four tip shapes tested were rectangular, tapered, swept, and swept-tapered. Noise measurements from that test are presented in the form of tables and plots. The noise data include measurements of the sound pressure level in dB, dBA, and tone-corrected PNdB, for all of the conditions tested. Detailed measurements, 1/3-octave spectra and time-histories for some selected data are included as well as plots of dBA as function of test condition. Some performance measurements are given to aid interpretation of the noise data.

  4. Rain events and their effect on effluent quality studied at a full scale activated sludge treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilén, B M; Lumley, D; Mattsson, A; Mino, T

    2006-01-01

    The effect of rain events on effluent quality dynamics was studied at a full scale activated sludge wastewater treatment plant which has a process solution incorporating pre-denitrification in activated sludge with post-nitrification in trickling filters. The incoming wastewater flow varies significantly due to a combined sewer system. Changed flow conditions have an impact on the whole treatment process since the recirculation to the trickling filters is set by the hydraulic limitations of the secondary settlers. Apart from causing different hydraulic conditions in the plant, increased flow due to rain or snow-melting, changes the properties of the incoming wastewater which affects process performance and effluent quality, especially the particle removal efficiency. A comprehensive set of on-line and laboratory data were collected and analysed to assess the impact of rain events on the plant performance.

  5. Full Scale Test SSP 34m blade, edgewise loading LTT. Extreme load and PoC_InvE Data report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Magda; Roczek-Sieradzan, Agnieszka; Jensen, Find Mølholt

    This report is the second report covering the research and demonstration project “Eksperimentel vingeforskning: Strukturelle mekanismer i nutidens og fremtidens store vinger under kombineret last”, supported by the EUDP program. A 34m wind turbine blade from SSP-Technology A/S has been tested...... in edgewise direction (LTT). The blade has been submitted to thorough examination by means of strain gauges, displacement transducers and a 3D optical measuring system. This data report presents results obtained during full scale testing of the blade up to 80% Risø load, where 80% Risø load corresponds to 100...... stresses in the adhesive joints. Test results from measurements with the reinforcement have been compared to results without the coupling. The report presents only the relevant results for the 80% Risø load and the results applicable for the investigation of the influence of the invention on the profile...

  6. Reliability and Energy Loss in Full-scale Wind Power Converter Considering Grid Codes and Wind Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dao; Blaabjerg, Frede; Franke, Toke

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing penetration of the wind power, reliable operation and cost-effective wind energy production are of more and more importance. As one of the promising configurations, the cost on reliability and production losses of permanent-magnet synchronous generator based full-scale wind......, if the specific designed wind turbine system operates at different wind classes, it can be seen that higher wind class level results in lower lifetime of the power converter. In respect to the cost of the reactive power, either the OE or the UE reactive power increases the energy loss per year significantly...... power converter is studied considering the grid code with reactive power production as well as the annual wind profile. Regarding the reliability, it is found that either the Over-Excited (OE) or the Under-Excited (UE) reactive power injection threatens the lifespan under all wind classes. Meanwhile...

  7. Co-firing of Coal with Biomass and Waste in Full-scale Suspension-fired Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam-Johansen, Kim; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2013-01-01

    and boiler manufacturers to optimize design and operation and minimize cost and environmental impact using alternative fuels in suspension fired boilers. Our contribution has been made via a combination of full-scale measuring campaigns, pilot-scale studies, lab-scale measurements and modeling tools....... The research conducted has addressed many issues important for co-firing, i.e. fuel processing, ash induced boiler deposit formation and corrosion, boiler chamber fuel conversion and emission formation, influence on flue gas cleaning equipment and the utilization of residual products. This paper provides...... research has provided results with implications for operation of milling and burner equipment, appropriate fuel mixing strategies, minimization of ash deposit formation and corrosion, minimization of NO formation, appropriate operation of SCR catalyst equipment and utilization of residual products...

  8. Report on the design and operation of a full-scale anaerobic dairy manure digester. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppinger, E.; Brautigam, J.; Lenart, J.; Baylon, D.

    1979-12-01

    A full-scale anaerobic digester on the Monroe State Dairy Farm was operated and monitored for 24 months with funding provided by the United States Department of Energy, Fuels from Biomass Systems Branch. During the period of operation, operating parameters were varied and the impact of those changes is described. Operational experiences and system component performance are discussed. Internal digester mixing equipment was found to be unnecessary, and data supporting this conclusion are given. An influent/effluent heat exchanger was installed and tested, and results of the tests are included. Recommendations for digester design and operation are presented. Biological stability was monitored, and test results are given. Gas production rates and system net energy are analyzed. The economics of anaerobic digestion are evaluated based on various financing options, design scales, and expected benefits. Under many circumstances digesters are feasible today, and a means of analysis is given.

  9. Metagenomic binning reveals the functional roles of core abundant microorganisms in twelve full-scale biogas plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campanaro, Stefano; Treu, Laura; Kougias, Panagiotis

    2018-01-01

    and environmental factors on MAGs abundance and to investigate the methanogenic performance of the biogas plants. Prediction of the functional properties of MAGs was obtained analyzing their KEGG pathways and their carbohydrate active domains. Network analysis allowed investigation of species-species associations......The aim of this work was to elucidate the microbial ecology in twelve mesophilic and thermophilic full-scale biogas plants using a genome-centric metagenomic approach. In this study both biogas plants treating manure and those treating sludge from waste water treatment plants were considered...... and shed light on syntrophic interactions between members belonging to the anaerobic digestion dark matter (phylum Fermentibacteria). By stratifying and comparing different levels of information, it was predicted that some MAGs have a crucial role in the manure-supplemented thermophilic biogas plants...

  10. Application of light-initiated explosive for simulating x-ray blowoff impulse effects on a full scale reentry vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benham, R.A.; Mathews, F.H.; Higgins, P.B.

    1976-01-01

    Laboratory nuclear effects testing allows the study of reentry vehicle response to simulated exoatmospheric x-ray encounters. Light-initiated explosive produces the nearly simultaneous impulse loading of a structure by using a spray painted coating of explosive which is detonated by an intense flash of light. A lateral impulse test on a full scale reentry vehicle is described which demonstrates that the light-initiated explosive technique can be extended to the lateral loading of very large systems involving load discontinuities. This experiment required the development of a diagnostic method for verifying the applied impulse, and development of a large light source for simultaneously initiating the explosive over the surface of the vehicle. Acceptable comparison between measured strain response and code predictions is obtained. The structural capability and internal response of a vehicle subjected to an x-ray environment was determined from a light-initiated explosive test

  11. USB environment measurements based on full-scale static engine ground tests. [Upper Surface Blowing for YC-14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, M. B.; Harkonen, D. L.; Reed, J. B.

    1976-01-01

    Flow turning parameters, static pressures, surface temperatures, surface fluctuating pressures and acceleration levels were measured in the environment of a full-scale upper surface blowing (USB) propulsive-lift test configuration. The test components included a flightworthy CF6-50D engine, nacelle and USB flap assembly utilized in conjunction with ground verification testing of the USAF YC-14 Advanced Medium STOL Transport propulsion system. Results, based on a preliminary analysis of the data, generally show reasonable agreement with predicted levels based on model data. However, additional detailed analysis is required to confirm the preliminary evaluation, to help delineate certain discrepancies with model data and to establish a basis for future flight test comparisons.

  12. Validation of a plant-wide phosphorus modelling approach with minerals precipitation in a full-scale WWTP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbamba, Christian Kazadi; Flores Alsina, Xavier; Batstone, Damien John

    2016-01-01

    approach describing ion speciation and ion pairing with kinetic multiple minerals precipitation. Model performance is evaluated against data sets from a full-scale wastewater treatment plant, assessing capability to describe water and sludge lines across the treatment process under steady-state operation...... plant. Dynamic influent profiles were generated using a calibrated influent generator and were used to study the effect of long-term influent dynamics on plant performance. Model-based analysis shows that minerals precipitation strongly influences composition in the anaerobic digesters, but also impacts......The focus of modelling in wastewater treatment is shifting from single unit to plant-wide scale. Plant wide modelling approaches provide opportunities to study the dynamics and interactions of different transformations in water and sludge streams. Towards developing more general and robust...

  13. Successful full-scale deployments of advanced PGPR enhanced phytoremediation systems (PEPS) for decontamination of petroleum and salt impacted soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, B.; Huang, X.D.; Gerhardt, K.; Yu, X.M.; Liddycoat, S.; Lu, X.; Nykamp, J.; McCallum, B.; MacNeill, G.; Mosley, P.; Gurska, J.; Knezevich, N.; Zhong, H.; Gerwing, P. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation described a phytoremediation system designed to remediate salt and petroleum contaminated sites. Phytoremediation techniques are cheaper than traditional methods of remediating soils. The phytoremediation process is comprised of volatilization, phytodegradation, and chelation processes. Plants uptake contaminants via a rhizodegradation process. The plants provide biomass for rapid remediation with a restoration time frame of between 2 to 3 years. PGPR enhanced phytoremediation systems (PEPS) have been studied over a 10 year period and successfully applied at polycyclic hydrocarbon (PHC) contaminated sites, gas stations, and salt-contaminated sites throughout Canada. Soils are tilled in order to expose contaminants to sunlight. hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria are then applied, followed by the application of a plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) phytoremediation system that is typically applied to grass species prior to planting. Case studies of full-scale sites used to prove the concept for both salt and hydrocarbon contaminated soils were presented. tabs., figs.

  14. Functionally relevant microorganisms to enhanced biological phosphorus removal performance at full-scale wastewater treatment plants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, April Z; Saunders, A; Neethling, J B; Stensel, H D; Blackall, L L

    2008-08-01

    The abundance and relevance ofAccumulibacter phosphatis (presumed to be polyphosphate-accumulating organisms [PAOs]), Competibacter phosphatis (presumed to be glycogen-accumulating organisms [GAOs]), and tetrad-forming organisms (TFOs) to phosphorus removal performance at six full-scale enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) wastewater treatment plants were investigated. Coexistence of various levels of candidate PAOs and GAOs were found at these facilities. Accumulibacter were found to be 5 to 20% of the total bacterial population, and Competibacter were 0 to 20% of the total bacteria population. The TFO abundance varied from nondetectable to dominant. Anaerobic phosphorus (P) release to acetate uptake ratios (P(rel)/HAc(up)) obtained from bench tests were correlated positively with the abundance ratio of Accumulibacter/(Competibacter +TFOs) and negatively with the abundance of (Competibacter +TFOs) for all plants except one, suggesting the relevance of these candidate organisms to EBPR processes. However, effluent phosphorus concentration, amount of phosphorus removed, and process stability in an EBPR system were not directly related to high PAO abundance or mutually exclusive with a high GAO fraction. The plant that had the lowest average effluent phosphorus and highest stability rating had the lowest P(rel)/HAc(up) and the most TFOs. Evaluation of full-scale EBPR performance data indicated that low effluent phosphorus concentration and high process stability are positively correlated with the influent readily biodegradable chemical oxygen demand-to-phosphorus ratio. A system-level carbon-distribution-based conceptual model is proposed for capturing the dynamic competition between PAOs and GAOs and their effect on an EBPR process, and the results from this study seem to support the model hypothesis.

  15. Application of the Hybrid Simulation Method for the Full-Scale Precast Reinforced Concrete Shear Wall Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaixian Chen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid simulation (HS testing method combines physical test and numerical simulation, and provides a viable alternative to evaluate the structural seismic performance. Most studies focused on the accuracy, stability and reliability of the HS method in the small-scale tests. It is a challenge to evaluate the seismic performance of a twelve-story pre-cast reinforced concrete shear-wall structure using this HS method which takes the full-scale bottom three-story structural model as the physical substructure and the elastic non-linear model as the numerical substructure. This paper employs an equivalent force control (EFC method with implicit integration algorithm to deal with the numerical integration of the equation of motion (EOM and the control of the loading device. Because of the arrangement of the test model, an elastic non-linear numerical model is used to simulate the numerical substructure. And non-subdivision strategy for the displacement inflection point of numerical substructure is used to easily realize the simulation of the numerical substructure and thus reduce the measured error. The parameters of the EFC method are calculated basing on analytical and numerical studies and used to the actual full-scale HS test. Finally, the accuracy and feasibility of the EFC-based HS method is verified experimentally through the substructure HS tests of the pre-cast reinforced concrete shear-wall structure model. And the testing results of the descending stage can be conveniently obtained from the EFC-based HS method.

  16. Monitoring of Wind Turbine Gearbox Condition through Oil and Wear Debris Analysis: A Full-Scale Testing Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, Shuangwen

    2016-10-01

    Despite the wind industry's dramatic development during the past decade, it is still challenged by premature turbine subsystem/component failures, especially for turbines rated above 1 MW. Because a crane is needed for each replacement, gearboxes have been a focal point for improvement in reliability and availability. Condition monitoring (CM) is a technique that can help improve these factors, leading to reduced turbine operation and maintenance costs and, subsequently, lower cost of energy for wind power. Although technical benefits of CM for the wind industry are normally recognized, there is a lack of published information on the advantages and limitations of each CM technique confirmed by objective data from full-scale tests. This article presents first-hand oil and wear debris analysis results obtained through tests that were based on full-scale wind turbine gearboxes rated at 750 kW. The tests were conducted at the 2.5-MW dynamometer test facility at the National Wind Technology Center at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The gearboxes were tested in three conditions: run-in, healthy, and damaged. The investigated CM techniques include real-time oil condition and wear debris monitoring, both inline and online sensors, and offline oil sample and wear debris analysis, both onsite and offsite laboratories. The reported results and observations help increase wind industry awareness of the benefits and limitations of oil and debris analysis technologies and highlight the challenges in these technologies and other tribological fields for the Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers and other organizations to help address, leading to extended gearbox service life.

  17. Experiences from the full-scale implementation of a new two-stage vertical flow constructed wetland design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langergraber, Guenter; Pressl, Alexander; Haberl, Raimund

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the results of the first full-scale implementation of a two-stage vertical flow constructed wetland (CW) system developed to increase nitrogen removal. The full-scale system was constructed for the Bärenkogelhaus, which is located in Styria at the top of a mountain, 1,168 m above sea level. The Bärenkogelhaus has a restaurant with 70 seats, 16 rooms for overnight guests and is a popular site for day visits, especially during weekends and public holidays. The CW treatment system was designed for a hydraulic load of 2,500 L.d(-1) with a specific surface area requirement of 2.7 m(2) per person equivalent (PE). It was built in fall 2009 and started operation in April 2010 when the restaurant was re-opened. Samples were taken between July 2010 and June 2013 and were analysed in the laboratory of the Institute of Sanitary Engineering at BOKU University using standard methods. During 2010 the restaurant at Bärenkogelhaus was open 5 days a week whereas from 2011 the Bärenkogelhaus was open only on demand for events. This resulted in decreased organic loads of the system in the later period. In general, the measured effluent concentrations were low and the removal efficiencies high. During the whole period the ammonia nitrogen effluent concentration was below 1 mg/L even at effluent water temperatures below 3 °C. Investigations during high-load periods, i.e. events like weddings and festivals at weekends, with more than 100 visitors, showed a very robust treatment performance of the two-stage CW system. Effluent concentrations of chemical oxygen demand and NH4-N were not affected by these events with high hydraulic loads.

  18. Modelling and Control of the Wavestar Prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rico Hjerm; Kramer, Morten M.

    2011-01-01

    Algorithm (WPEA), applied to the full-scale Wavestar Prototype for maximizing energy extraction. The WPEA is optimized based on simulations of the point absorbers in different sea states. Hence, a presentation of a hydrodynamic model of the Wavestar is included in the paper. A simplified Power Take-Off (PTO......) is also added to the model, enabling the optimization of the WPEA to take into account the PTO constraints of PTO bandwidth and force limitations. The predicted results of the optimized WPEA are compared to real measurements from theWavestar Prototype, showing good compliance....

  19. RK-TBA prototype RF source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houck, T.; Anderson, D.; Giordano, G.

    1996-01-01

    A prototype rf power source based on the Relativistic Klystron Two-Beam Accelerator (RK-TBA) concept is being constructed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory to study physics, engineering, and costing issues. The prototype is described and compared to a full scale design appropriate for driving the Next Linear Collider (NLC). Specific details of the induction core tests and pulsed power system are presented. The 1-MeV, 1.2-kA induction gun currently under construction is also described in detail

  20. Mechanical Design of the Radio-Isotope Source Driver Module for an Initial Prototype of Medium Dose Rate Brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ari Satmoko; Tri Harjanto; Hendra Prasetia

    2012-01-01

    High dose rate brachytherapy equipment for therapy against cervical cancer is developed by empowering local products. An Iridium-192 with 5 Curies of energy is used. The source is wrapped in a capsule and combined with a wire diameter of 1 mm and length 1800 mm. The therapy is carried out by inserting the radiation source into the patient's body through an applicator. The system for loading-unloading the isotope source is divided into three modules: the source driver module, the source container modules, and channel distributor module. In this paper, the discussion is focused on engineering activities of the first module that serves to drive forward and backward position of the Iridium-192 isotope sources. The activity begins with the development of preliminary design sketches that produces drawings of mechanical components required. Furthermore, the calculations are carried out in order to establish the main component specifications. From this stage, a stepper motor type M66-A50K-G10 as a mechanical driver is chosen. The next stage is developing the detailed design and producing detailed drawings for all components. The fabrication of each component refers to the detailed design drawings. All components are assembled completely into the source driver module. Test also shows that the module works manually well. By rotating the manual handle in both directions, the tip of the wire moves alternately in forward and backward directions. (author)