WorldWideScience

Sample records for full scale rotors

  1. Boeing Smart Rotor Full-scale Wind Tunnel Test Data Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottapalli, Sesi; Hagerty, Brandon; Salazar, Denise

    2016-01-01

    A full-scale helicopter smart material actuated rotor technology (SMART) rotor test was conducted in the USAF National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames. The SMART rotor system is a five-bladed MD 902 bearingless rotor with active trailing-edge flaps. The flaps are actuated using piezoelectric actuators. Rotor performance, structural loads, and acoustic data were obtained over a wide range of rotor shaft angles of attack, thrust, and airspeeds. The primary test objective was to acquire unique validation data for the high-performance computing analyses developed under the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) Helicopter Quieting Program (HQP). Other research objectives included quantifying the ability of the on-blade flaps to achieve vibration reduction, rotor smoothing, and performance improvements. This data set of rotor performance and structural loads can be used for analytical and experimental comparison studies with other full-scale rotor systems and for analytical validation of computer simulation models. The purpose of this final data report is to document a comprehensive, highquality data set that includes only data points where the flap was actively controlled and each of the five flaps behaved in a similar manner.

  2. Tests of Full-Scale Helicopter Rotors at High Advancing Tip Mach Numbers and Advance Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggers, James C.; McCloud, John L., III; Stroub, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    As a continuation of the studies of reference 1, three full-scale helicopter rotors have been tested in the Ames Research Center 40- by SO-foot wind tunnel. All three of them were two-bladed, teetering rotors. One of the rotors incorporated the NACA 0012 airfoil section over the entire length of the blade. This rotor was tested at advance ratios up to 1.05. Both of the other rotors were tapered in thickness and incorporated leading-edge camber over the outer 20 percent of the blade radius. The larger of these rotors was tested at advancing tip Mach numbers up to 1.02. Data were obtained for a wide range of lift and propulsive force, and are presented without discussion.

  3. Blade Displacement Measurements of the Full-Scale UH-60A Airloads Rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrows, Danny A.; Burner, Alpheus W.; Abrego, Anita I.; Olson, Lawrence E.

    2011-01-01

    Blade displacement measurements were acquired during a wind tunnel test of the full-scale UH-60A Airloads rotor. The test was conducted in the 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel of the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex at NASA Ames Research Center. Multi-camera photogrammetry was used to measure the blade displacements of the four-bladed rotor. These measurements encompass a range of test conditions that include advance ratios from 0.15 to unique slowed-rotor simulations as high as 1.0, thrust coefficient to rotor solidity ratios from 0.01 to 0.13, and rotor shaft angles from -10.0 to 8.0 degrees. The objective of these measurements is to provide a benchmark blade displacement database to be utilized in the development and validation of rotorcraft computational tools. The methodology, system development, measurement techniques, and preliminary sample blade displacement measurements are presented.

  4. Blade Motion Correlation for the Full-Scale UH-60A Airloads Rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romander, Ethan A.; Meyn, Larry A.; Barrows, Danny; Burner, Alpheus

    2014-01-01

    Testing was successfully completed in May 2010 on a full-scale UH-60A rotor system in the USAF's National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel.[1] The primary objective of this NASA Army sponsored test program was to acquire a comprehensive set of validation-quality measurements ona full-scale pressure-instrumented rotor system at conditions that challenge the most sophisticated modeling andsimulation tools. The test hardware included the same rotor blades used during the UH-60A Airloads flight test.[2] Key measurements included rotor performance, blade loads, blade pressures, blade displacements, and rotorwake measurements using large-field Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Retro-reflective Background Oriented Schlieren (RBOS).

  5. Rotor blade full-scale fatigue testing technology and research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Hørlyk; Berring, Peter; Pavese, Christian

    Full scale fatigue test is an important part of the development and design of wind turbine blades. Testing is also needed for the approval of the blades in order for them to be used on large wind turbines. However, usually only one prototype blade is tested. Fatigue test of wind turbine blades...... was started in the beginning of the 1980´s and has been further developed since then. Structures in composite materials are generally difficult and time consuming to test for fatigue resistance. Therefore, several methods for testing of blades have been developed and exist today. These methods...... will be presented in this report giving the blade test facility operator a guide to choose the method that best fit the needs and economic constraints. The state of the art method is currently dual axis mass resonance, where the purpose of the test is to emulate the loads the blades encounter in operation....

  6. Fatigue life on a full scale test rig: Forged versus cast wind turbine rotor shafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, J.; Rauert, T.; Dalhoff, P.; Sander, M.

    2016-09-01

    To reduce uncertainties associated with the fatigue life of the highly safety relevant rotor shaft and also to review today's design practice, the fatigue behaviour will be tested on a full scale test rig. Until now tests on full scale wind turbine parts are not common. Therefore, a general lack of experience on how to perform accelerated life time tests for those components exists. To clarify how to transfer real conditions to the test environment, the arrangements and deviations for the upcoming experimental test are discussed in detail. In order to complete investigations of weight saving potentials, next to getting a better comprehension of the fatigue behaviour by executing a full scale test, a further outcome are suggestions for the usage of cast and forged materials regarding the fatigue and the remaining life of the rotor shaft. It is shown, that it is worthwhile to think about a material exchange for the forged rotor shaft.

  7. Blade Displacement Measurement Technique Applied to a Full-Scale Rotor Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrego, Anita I.; Olson, Lawrence E.; Romander, Ethan A.; Barrows, Danny A.; Burner, Alpheus W.

    2012-01-01

    Blade displacement measurements using multi-camera photogrammetry were acquired during the full-scale wind tunnel test of the UH-60A Airloads rotor, conducted in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel. The objectives were to measure the blade displacement and deformation of the four rotor blades as they rotated through the entire rotor azimuth. These measurements are expected to provide a unique dataset to aid in the development and validation of rotorcraft prediction techniques. They are used to resolve the blade shape and position, including pitch, flap, lag and elastic deformation. Photogrammetric data encompass advance ratios from 0.15 to slowed rotor simulations of 1.0, thrust coefficient to rotor solidity ratios from 0.01 to 0.13, and rotor shaft angles from -10.0 to 8.0 degrees. An overview of the blade displacement measurement methodology and system development, descriptions of image processing, uncertainty considerations, preliminary results covering static and moderate advance ratio test conditions and future considerations are presented. Comparisons of experimental and computational results for a moderate advance ratio forward flight condition show good trend agreements, but also indicate significant mean discrepancies in lag and elastic twist. Blade displacement pitch measurements agree well with both the wind tunnel commanded and measured values.

  8. Summary of Full-Scale Blade Displacement Measurements of the UH- 60A Airloads Rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrego, Anita I.; Meyn, Larry; Burner, Alpheus W.; Barrows, Danny A.

    2016-01-01

    Blade displacement measurements using multi-camera photogrammetry techniques were acquired for a full-scale UH-60A rotor, tested in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamic Complex 40-Foot by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel. The measurements, acquired over the full rotor azimuth, encompass a range of test conditions that include advance ratios from 0.15 to 1.0, thrust coefficient to rotor solidity ratios from 0.01 to 0.13, and rotor shaft angles from -10.0 to 8.0 degrees. The objective was to measure the blade displacements and deformations of the four rotor blades and provide a benchmark blade displacement database to be utilized in the development and validation of rotorcraft prediction techniques. An overview of the blade displacement measurement methodology, system development, and data analysis techniques are presented. Sample results based on the final set of camera calibrations, data reduction procedures and estimated corrections that account for registration errors due to blade elasticity are shown. Differences in blade root pitch, flap and lag between the previously reported results and the current results are small. However, even small changes in estimated root flap and pitch can lead to significant differences in the blade elasticity values.

  9. Full-scale measurements of aerodynamic induction in a rotor plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr; Hansen, Kurt S.

    2014-12-01

    Reliable modelling of aerodynamic induction is imperative for successful prediction of wind turbine loads and wind turbine dynamics when based on state-of- the-art aeroelastic tools. Full-scale LiDAR based wind speed measurements, with high temporal and spatial resolution, have been conducted in the rotor plane of an operating 2MW/80m wind turbine to perform detailed analysis the aerodynamic induction. The experimental setup, analyses of the spatial structure of the aerodynamic induction and subsequent comparisons with numerical predictions, using the HAWC2 aerolastic code, are presented.

  10. Full-scale measurements of aerodynamic induction in a rotor plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose

    2014-01-01

    in the rotor plane of an operating 2MW/80m wind turbine to perform detailed analysis the aerodynamic induction. The experimental setup, analyses of the spatial structure of the aerodynamic induction and subsequent comparisons with numerical predictions, using the HAWC2 aerolastic code, are presented.......Reliable modelling of aerodynamic induction is imperative for successful prediction of wind turbine loads and wind turbine dynamics when based on state-of- the-art aeroelastic tools. Full-scale LiDAR based wind speed measurements, with high temporal and spatial resolution, have been conducted...

  11. FUN3D Airload Predictions for the Full-Scale UH-60A Airloads Rotor in a Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Biedron, Robert T.

    2013-01-01

    An unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes solver for unstructured grids, FUN3D, is used to compute the rotor performance and airloads of the UH-60A Airloads Rotor in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamic Complex (NFAC) 40- by 80-foot Wind Tunnel. The flow solver is loosely coupled to a rotorcraft comprehensive code, CAMRAD-II, to account for trim and aeroelastic deflections. Computations are made for the 1-g level flight speed-sweep test conditions with the airloads rotor installed on the NFAC Large Rotor Test Apparatus (LRTA) and in the 40- by 80-ft wind tunnel to determine the influence of the test stand and wind-tunnel walls on the rotor performance and airloads. Detailed comparisons are made between the results of the CFD/CSD simulations and the wind tunnel measurements. The computed trends in solidity-weighted propulsive force and power coefficient match the experimental trends over the range of advance ratios and are comparable to previously published results. Rotor performance and sectional airloads show little sensitivity to the modeling of the wind-tunnel walls, which indicates that the rotor shaft-angle correction adequately compensates for the wall influence up to an advance ratio of 0.37. Sensitivity of the rotor performance and sectional airloads to the modeling of the rotor with the LRTA body/hub increases with advance ratio. The inclusion of the LRTA in the simulation slightly improves the comparison of rotor propulsive force between the computation and wind tunnel data but does not resolve the difference in the rotor power predictions at mu = 0.37. Despite a more precise knowledge of the rotor trim loads and flight condition, the level of comparison between the computed and measured sectional airloads/pressures at an advance ratio of 0.37 is comparable to the results previously published for the high-speed flight test condition.

  12. Loads Correlation of a Full-Scale UH-60A Airloads Rotor in a Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Hyeonsoo; Romander, Ethan A.

    2012-01-01

    Wind tunnel measurements of the rotor trim, blade airloads, and structural loads of a full-scale UH-60A Black Hawk main rotor are compared with calculations obtained using the comprehensive rotorcraft analysis CAMRAD II and a coupled CAMRAD II/OVERFLOW 2 analysis. A speed sweep at constant lift up to an advance ratio of 0.4 and a thrust sweep at constant speed into deep stall are investigated. The coupled analysis shows significant improvement over comprehensive analysis. Normal force phase is better captured and pitching moment magnitudes are better predicted including the magnitude and phase of the two stall events in the fourth quadrant at the deeply stalled condition. Structural loads are, in general, improved with the coupled analysis, but the magnitude of chord bending moment is still significantly underpredicted. As there are three modes around 4 and 5/rev frequencies, the structural responses to the 5/rev airloads due to dynamic stall are magnified and thus care must be taken in the analysis of the deeply stalled condition.

  13. Blade Deflection Measurements of a Full-Scale UH-60A Rotor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Lawrence E.; Abrego, Anita; Barrows, Danny A.; Burner, Alpheus W.

    2010-01-01

    Blade deflection (BD) measurements using stereo photogrammetry have been made during the individual blade control (IBC) testing of a UH-60A 4-bladed rotor system in the 40 by 80-foot test section of the National Full-Scale Aerodynamic Complex (NFAC). Measurements were made in quadrants one and two, encompassing advance ratios from 0.15 to 0.40, thrust coefficient/solidities from 0.05 to 0.12 and rotor-system drive shaft angles from 0.0 to -9.6 deg. The experiment represents a significant step toward providing benchmark databases to be utilized by theoreticians in the development and validation of rotorcraft prediction techniques. In addition to describing the stereo measurement technique and reporting on preliminary measurements made to date, the intent of this paper is to encourage feedback from the rotorcraft community concerning continued analysis of acquired data and to solicit suggestions for improved test technique and areas of emphasis for measurements in the upcoming UH-60A Airloads test at the NFAC.

  14. Full-scale S-76 rotor performance and loads at low speeds in the NASA Ames 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel. Vol. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Patrick M.

    1996-01-01

    A full-scale helicopter rotor test was conducted in the NASA Ames 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel with a four-bladed S-76 rotor system. Rotor performance and loads data were obtained over a wide range of rotor shaft angles-of-attack and thrust conditions at tunnel speeds ranging from 0 to 100 kt. The primary objectives of this test were (1) to acquire forward flight rotor performance and loads data for comparison with analytical results; (2) to acquire S-76 forward flight rotor performance data in the 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel to compare with existing full-scale 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel test data that were acquired in 1977; (3) to evaluate the acoustic capability of the 80- by 120- Foot Wind Tunnel for acquiring blade vortex interaction (BVI) noise in the low speed range and compare BVI noise with in-flight test data; and (4) to evaluate the capability of the 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel test section as a hover facility. The secondary objectives were (1) to evaluate rotor inflow and wake effects (variations in tunnel speed, shaft angle, and thrust condition) on wind tunnel test section wall and floor pressures; (2) to establish the criteria for the definition of flow breakdown (condition where wall corrections are no longer valid) for this size rotor and wind tunnel cross-sectional area; and (3) to evaluate the wide-field shadowgraph technique for visualizing full-scale rotor wakes. This data base of rotor performance and loads can be used for analytical and experimental comparison studies for full-scale, four-bladed, fully articulated rotor systems. Rotor performance and structural loads data are presented in this report.

  15. Analysis and Prediction of Ice Shedding for a Full-Scale Heated Tail Rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreeger, Richard E.; Work, Andrew; Douglass, Rebekah; Gazella, Matthew; Koster, Zakery; Turk, Jodi

    2016-01-01

    When helicopters are to fly in icing conditions, it is necessary to consider the possibility of ice shed from the rotor blades. In 2013, a series of tests were conducted on a heated tail rotor at NASA Glenn's Icing Research Tunnel (IRT). The tests produced several shed events that were captured on camera. Three of these shed events were captured at a sufficiently high frame rate to obtain multiple images of the shed ice in flight that had a sufficiently long section of shed ice for analysis. Analysis of these shed events is presented and compared to an analytical Shedding Trajectory Model (STM). The STM is developed and assumes that the ice breaks off instantly as it reaches the end of the blade, while frictional and viscous forces are used as parameters to fit the STM. The trajectory of each shed is compared to that predicted by the STM, where the STM provides information of the shed group of ice as a whole. The limitations of the model's underlying assumptions are discussed in comparison to experimental shed events.

  16. Aerodynamic noise from wind turbines. Experiments with modification of full scale rotors, 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakobsen, J.; Andersen, B.

    1996-10-01

    Two series of measurements have been made where the noise from a wind turbine is measured during different modifications of its rotor. One series dealt with different shapes of trailing edge, while the other focused on the tip design. The investigations form a succession of earlier work and basically the same measurement technique was used. In the present investigation the pitch setting of the wind turbine was varied so that the significance of this parameter could be quantified as well. Measurement were made simultaneously of noise in the downwind direction and of the wind speed at 10 m height upwind of the wind turbine, both averaged over 1-minute periods. Regression analysis was made between the wind speed and the noise level in each 1/3-octave band in the range 50 Hz - 10 kHz. Intermittent background noise was omitted during the data collection, and stationary and wind-induced background noise was corrected for. The investigations of trailing edge noise gave no clear indication of an optimum trailing edge sharpness. The characteristic narrowband noise from trailing edge bluntness was demonstrated, and its dependence on trailing edge thickness, wind speed, and pitch setting was determined. The noise level of the narrowband has a `reverse` wind speed dependence; it decreases with increasing wind speed (and increasing angle of attack). In the tip noise investigation three tip shapes were tested, the original thick square tips with slightly rounded edges, an elliptically rounded thin tip shape, and an Ogee tip designed after the most quiet tip tested in the previous project. The round tip was slightly more noisy than the square tip, and the Ogee tip gave rise to a broadband noise around 2 kHz where the wind speed dependence was again `reversed`. (EG)

  17. Rotordynamic Evaluation of Full Scale Rotor on Tilting Pad Bearings with 0.1 and 0.3 Preload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weimin Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A system identification method for rotating machinery stability evaluation is investigated based on sine sweep excitation testing with electromagnetic actuator. The traditional MIMO FRF is transformed into dFRF from real number field to complex field with a transformation matrix, eliminating the influence of forward and backward modal overlap and providing higher accuracy to identify rotor’s first forward modal parameters using the rational polynomial method. The modal parameters are acquired for stability estimation. Furthermore, two sets of bearing with preloads of 0.1 and 0.3 under both load-on-pad (LOP and load-between-pad (LBP conditions are investigated. The effects of oil inlet pressure (1.0 bar–1.75 bar and temperature (43°C–51°C on the stability of rotor are investigated in detail. Results indicate that the stability of rotor will be improved by increasing the oil inlet temperature and pressure. It is found that the rotor is more stable on bearing with 0.1 preload than that of 0.3 preload. Load-on-pad provides more damping to rotor than load-between-pad. The method and outcomes of this paper can provide both theory basis and technology foundation for improving the rotor stability of centrifugal compressors.

  18. Design and preliminary tests of a blade tip air mass injection system for vortex modification and possible noise reduction on a full-scale helicopter rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegg, R. J.; Hosier, R. N.; Balcerak, J. C.; Johnson, H. K.

    1975-01-01

    Full-scale tests were conducted on the Langley helicopter rotor test facility as part of a study to evaluate the effectiveness of a turbulent blade tip air mass injection system in alleviating the impulsive noise (blade slap) caused by blade-vortex interaction. Although blade-slap conditions could not be induced during these tests, qualitative results from flow visualization studies using smoke showed that the differential velocity between the jet velocity and the rotor tip speed was a primary parameter controlling the vortex modification.

  19. Measurements of Tip Vortices from a Full-Scale UH-60A Rotor by Retro- Reflective Background Oriented Schlieren and Stereo Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schairer, Edward; Kushner, Laura K.; Heineck, James T.

    2013-01-01

    Positions of vortices shed by a full-scale UH-60A rotor in forward flight were measured during a test in the National Full- Scale Aerodynamics Complex at NASA Ames Research Center. Vortices in a region near the tip of the advancing blade were visualized from two directions by Retro-Reflective Background-Oriented Schlieren (RBOS). Correspondence of points on the vortex in the RBOS images from both cameras was established using epipolar geometry. The object-space coordinates of the vortices were then calculated from the image-plane coordinates using stereo photogrammetry. One vortex from the tip of the blade that had most recently passed was visible in most of the data. The visibility of the vortices was greatest at high thrust and low advance ratios. At these favorable conditions, vortices from the most recent passages of all four blades were detected. The vortex positions were in good agreement with PIV data for a case where PIV measurements were also made. RBOS and photogrammetry provided measurements of the angle at which each vortex passed through the PIV plane.

  20. Assessment of Scaled Rotors for Wind Tunnel Experiments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maniaci, David Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kelley, Christopher Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chiu, Phillip [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Rotor design and analysis work has been performed to support the conceptualization of a wind tunnel test focused on studying wake dynamics. This wind tunnel test would serve as part of a larger model validation campaign that is part of the Department of Energy Wind and Water Power Program’s Atmosphere to electrons (A2e) initiative. The first phase of this effort was directed towards designing a functionally scaled rotor based on the same design process and target full-scale turbine used for new rotors for the DOE/SNL SWiFT site. The second phase focused on assessing the capabilities of an already available rotor, the G1, designed and built by researchers at the Technical University of München.

  1. Panel/full-span free-wake coupled method for unsteady aerodynamics of helicopter rotor blade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tan Jianfeng; Wang Haowen

    2013-01-01

    A full-span free-wake method is coupled with an unsteady panel method to accurately predict the unsteady aerodynamics of helicopter rotor blades in hover and forward flight.The unsteady potential-based panel method is used to consider aerodynamics of finite thickness multi-bladed rotors,and the full-span free-wake method is applied to simulating dynamics of rotor wake.These methods are tightly coupled through trailing-edge Kutta condition and by converting doublet-wake panels to full-span vortex filaments.A velocity-field integration technique is also adopted to overcome singularity problem during the interaction between the rotor wake and blades.Helicopter rotors including Caradonna-Tung,UH-60A,and AH-1G rotors,are simulated in hover and forward flight to validate the accuracy of this approach.The predicted aerodynamic loads of rotor blades agree well with available measured data and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) results,and the unsteady dynamics of rotor wake is also well simulated.Compared to CFD,the present method obtains accurate results more efficiently and is suitable to rotorcraft aeroelastic analysis.

  2. Rotor scale model tests for power conversion unit of GT-MHR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxi, C.B., E-mail: baxicb1130@hotmail.com [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Telengator, A.; Razvi, J. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    The gas turbine modular helium reactor (GT-MHR) combines a modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) nuclear heat source with a closed Brayton gas-turbine cycle power conversion unit (PCU) for thermal to electric energy conversion. The PCU has a vertical orientation and is supported on electromagnetic bearings (EMB). The rotor scale model (RSM) tests are intended to directly model the control of EMB and rotor dynamic characteristics of the full-scale GT-MHR turbo-machine (TM). The objectives of the RSM tests are to: Bullet Confirm the EMB control system design for the GT-MHR turbo machine over the full-range of operation. Bullet Confirm the redundancy and on-line maintainability features that have been specified for the EMBs. Bullet Provide a benchmark for validation of analytical tools that will be used for independent analyses of the EMB subsystem design. Bullet Provide experience with the installation, operation and maintenance of EMBs supporting multiple rotors with flexible couplings. As with the full-scale TM, the RSM incorporates two rotors that are joined by a flexible coupling. Each of the rotors is supported on one axial and two radial EMBs. Additional devices, similar in concept to radial EMBs, are installed to simulate magnetic and/or mechanical forces representing those that would be seen by the exciter, generator, compressors and turbine. Overall, the lengths of the RSM rotor is about 1/3rd that of the full-scale TM, while the diameters are approximately 1/5th scale. The design and sizing of the rotor is such that the number and values of critical speeds in the RSM are the same as in the full-scale TM. The EMBs are designed such that their response to rotor dynamic forces is representative of the full-scale TM. The fabrication and assembly of the RSM was completed at the end of 2008. All start up adjustments were finished in December 2009. To-date the generator rotor has been supported in the EMBs and rotated up to 1800 rpm. Final tests are

  3. Full scale lightning test technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walko, L. C.; Schneider, J. G.

    1980-01-01

    A test technique was developed for applying a full scale mean value (30 kiloampere peak) simulated lightning return stroke current on a complete flight ready aircraft to assess the threat of lightning to aircraft electrical circuits. A computer-aided generator design was used to establish the parameters of the test system. Data from previous work done on development of low inductance current paths determined the basic system configuration.

  4. Full-Scale Tunnel (FST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1929-01-01

    Modified propeller and spinner in Full-Scale Tunnel (FST) model. On June 26, 1929, Elton W. Miller wrote to George W. Lewis proposing the construction of a model of the full-scale tunnel. 'The excellent energy ratio obtained in the new wind tunnel of the California Institute of Technology suggests that before proceeding with our full scale tunnel design, we ought to investigate the effect on energy ratio of such factors as: 1. small included angle for the exit cone; 2. carefully designed return passages of circular section as far as possible, without sudden changes in cross sections; 3. tightness of walls. It is believed that much useful information can be obtained by building a model of about 1/16 scale, that is, having a closed throat of 2 ft. by 4 ft. The outside dimensions would be about 12 ft. by 25 ft. in plan and the height 4 ft. Two propellers will be required about 28 in. in diameter, each to be driven by direct current motor at a maximum speed of 4500 R.P.M. Provision can be made for altering the length of certain portions, particularly the exit cone, and possibly for the application of boundary layer control in order to effect satisfactory air flow. This model can be constructed in a comparatively short time, using 2 by 4 framing with matched sheathing inside, and where circular sections are desired they can be obtained by nailing sheet metal to wooden ribs, which can be cut on the band saw. It is estimated that three months will be required for the construction and testing of such a model and that the cost will be approximately three thousand dollars, one thousand dollars of which will be for the motors. No suitable location appears to exist in any of our present buildings, and it may be necessary to build it outside and cover it with a roof.' George Lewis responded immediately (June 27) granting the authority to proceed. He urged Langley to expedite construction and to employ extra carpenters if necessary. Funds for the model came from the FST project

  5. Detection of a fatigue crack in a rotor system using full-spectrum based estimation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C Shravankumar; Rajiv Tiwari

    2016-02-01

    The force due to crack switching has multiple harmonic components of the spin speed. These components excite the rotor both in the same and reverse directions of the rotor spin. A full-spectrum method using complex Fast Fourier transform equations is developed to obtain force coefficients and displacement coefficients (forward and reverse). These coefficients are then used as an input to developed identification algorithms. Fault parameters identified are the additive stiffness due to crack, disc eccentricity due to unbalance, and system viscous damping. An extended algorithm estimates the crack forces. The algorithms are numerically tested.

  6. Insights into Airframe Aerodynamics and Rotor-on-Wing Interactions from a 0.25-Scale Tiltrotor Wind Tunnel Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, L. A.; Lillie, D.; McCluer, M.; Yamauchi, G. K.; Derby, M. R.

    2001-01-01

    A recent experimental investigation into tiltrotor aerodynamics and acoustics has resulted in the acquisition of a set of data related to tiltrotor airframe aerodynamics and rotor and wing interactional aerodynamics. This work was conducted in the National Full-scale Aerodynamics Complex's (NFAC) 40-by-80 Foot Wind Tunnel, at NASA Ames Research Center, on the Full-Span Tilt Rotor Aeroacoustic Model (TRAM). The full-span TRAM wind tunnel test stand is nominally based on a quarter-scale representation of the V-22 aircraft. The data acquired will enable the refinement of analytical tools for the prediction of tiltrotor aeromechanics and aeroacoustics.

  7. Large Rotor Test Apparatus

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This test apparatus, when combined with the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex, produces a thorough, full-scale test capability. The Large Rotor Test Apparatus...

  8. Thermal analysis of both ventilated and full disc brake rotors with frictional heat generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belhocine A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In automotive engineering, the safety aspect has been considered as a number one priority in development of a new vehicle. Each single system has been studied and developed in order to meet safety requirements. Instead of having air bags, good suspension systems, good handling and safe cornering, one of the most critical systems in a vehicle is the brake system. The objective of this work is to investigate and analyze the temperature distribution of rotor disc during braking operation using ANSYS Multiphysics. The work uses the finite element analysis techniques to predict the temperature distribution on the full and ventilated brake discs and to identify the critical temperature of the rotor. The analysis also gives us the heat flux distribution for the two discs.

  9. Power Performance Test on a Full-Scale Wind Turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Wangsness, Erik Brevik

    2014-01-01

    There is a standard made by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) for how a power performance test on a full-scale wind turbine should be performed. By using this standard as a guideline, I have performed a power performance test on the 3 MW wind turbine at Valsneset. This was done by measuring the incoming wind towards the wind turbine rotor area with a lidar in conjunction with a cup anemometer at a 33 m high meteorological mast (met-mast). The lidar and cup anemometer measure...

  10. Mach number scaling of helicopter rotor blade/vortex interaction noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighton, Kenneth P.; Harris, Wesley L.

    1985-01-01

    A parametric study of model helicopter rotor blade slap due to blade vortex interaction (BVI) was conducted in a 5 by 7.5-foot anechoic wind tunnel using model helicopter rotors with two, three, and four blades. The results were compared with a previously developed Mach number scaling theory. Three- and four-bladed rotor configurations were found to show very good agreement with the Mach number to the sixth power law for all conditions tested. A reduction of conditions for which BVI blade slap is detected was observed for three-bladed rotors when compared to the two-bladed baseline. The advance ratio boundaries of the four-bladed rotor exhibited an angular dependence not present for the two-bladed configuration. The upper limits for the advance ratio boundaries of the four-bladed rotors increased with increasing rotational speed.

  11. Why Online Education Will Attain Full Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sener, John

    2010-01-01

    Online higher education has attained scale and is poised to take the next step in its growth. Although significant obstacles to a full scale adoption of online education remain, we will see full scale adoption of online higher education within the next five to ten years. Practically all higher education students will experience online education in…

  12. Education, Wechler's Full Scale IQ and "g."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colom, Roberto; Abad, Francisco J.; Garcia, Luis F.; Juan-Espinosa, Manuel

    2002-01-01

    Investigated whether average Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) differences can be attributed to "g" using the Spanish standardization sample of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale III (WAIS III) (n=703 females and 666 men). Results support the conclusion that WAIS III FSIQ does not directly or exclusively measure "g" across the full range…

  13. Wind tunnel testing of a full scale helicopter blade section with an upstream active Gurney flap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loendersloot, R.; Freire Gomez, J.; Booker, J.D.

    2014-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests were performed on an aerofoil section comparable to that of a full scale helicopter blade section with an upstream active Gurney flap in the framework of the European project CleanSky ITD Green RotorCraft. A modified NACA0012 profile was used, with 23 Kulite pressure transducers em

  14. Measured Boundary Layer Transition and Rotor Hover Performance at Model Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overmeyer, Austin D.; Martin, Preston B.

    2017-01-01

    An experiment involving a Mach-scaled, 11:08 f t: diameter rotor was performed in hover during the summer of 2016 at NASA Langley Research Center. The experiment investigated the hover performance as a function of the laminar to turbulent transition state of the boundary layer, including both natural and fixed transition cases. The boundary layer transition locations were measured on both the upper and lower aerodynamic surfaces simultaneously. The measurements were enabled by recent advances in infrared sensor sensitivity and stability. The infrared thermography measurement technique was enhanced by a paintable blade surface heater, as well as a new high-sensitivity long wave infrared camera. The measured transition locations showed extensive amounts, x=c>0:90, of laminar flow on the lower surface at moderate to high thrust (CT=s > 0:068) for the full blade radius. The upper surface showed large amounts, x=c > 0:50, of laminar flow at the blade tip for low thrust (CT=s layer transition models in CFD and rotor design tools. The data is expected to be used as part of the AIAA Rotorcraft SimulationWorking Group

  15. Segmented Ultralight Pre-Aligned Rotor for Extreme-Scale Wind Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loth, E.; Steele, A.; Ichter, B.; Selig, M.; Moriarty, P.

    2012-01-01

    To alleviate the mass-scaling issues associated with conventional upwind rotors of extreme-scale turbines, a downwind rotor concept is proposed which employs fixed blade curvature based on force alignment at rated conditions. For a given peak stress constraint, the reduction in downwind cantilever loads allows reduced shell and spar thickness, and thus a reduced blade mass as compared with a conventional upwind rotor, especially as rotor sizes approach extreme-scales. To quantify this mass reduction, a Finite Element Analysis was conducted for a 10 MW rated rotor based on the NREL offshore 5 MW baseline wind turbine. The results show that this 'pre-alignment' yields a net downstream deflection of 32 deg, a downward hub-pitch angle of 6 deg, a 20% increase in blade length (to maintain the same radius as the conventional blade), and a net mass savings of about 50% through decreased shell and spar thicknesses. The pre-alignment may also allow a more straightforward and efficient segmentation of the blade since shear stresses near joints are substantially reduced. Segmenting, in turn, can dramatically reduce costs associated with fabrication, transport and assembly for extreme-scale off-shore systems. The pre-aligned geometric curvature can also help alleviate tower wake effects on the blades since blade tips (where shadow effects can be most problematic) are shifted downstream where the tower wake is weaker. In addition, the portion of the tower that is upstream of the blade tips can be faired with an externally-rotating aerodynamic shroud. Furthermore, the downwind rotor can allow a floating off-shore tri-pod platform to reduce tower weight and yaw-control requirements. A simple economic analysis of the segmented ultralight pre-aligned rotor (SUPAR) concept suggests that the overall system cost savings can be as much as 25%, indicating that more detailed (numerical and experimental) investigations are warranted.

  16. Wind Tunnel Testing of a 120th Scale Large Civil Tilt-Rotor Model in Airplane and Helicopter Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore, Colin R.; Willink, Gina C.; Russell, Carl R.; Amy, Alexander R.; Pete, Ashley E.

    2014-01-01

    In April 2012 and October 2013, NASA and the U.S. Army jointly conducted a wind tunnel test program examining two notional large tilt rotor designs: NASA's Large Civil Tilt Rotor and the Army's High Efficiency Tilt Rotor. The approximately 6%-scale airframe models (unpowered) were tested without rotors in the U.S. Army 7- by 10-foot wind tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. Measurements of all six forces and moments acting on the airframe were taken using the wind tunnel scale system. In addition to force and moment measurements, flow visualization using tufts, infrared thermography and oil flow were used to identify flow trajectories, boundary layer transition and areas of flow separation. The purpose of this test was to collect data for the validation of computational fluid dynamics tools, for the development of flight dynamics simulation models, and to validate performance predictions made during conceptual design. This paper focuses on the results for the Large Civil Tilt Rotor model in an airplane mode configuration up to 200 knots of wind tunnel speed. Results are presented with the full airframe model with various wing tip and nacelle configurations, and for a wing-only case also with various wing tip and nacelle configurations. Key results show that the addition of a wing extension outboard of the nacelles produces a significant increase in the lift-to-drag ratio, and interestingly decreases the drag compared to the case where the wing extension is not present. The drag decrease is likely due to complex aerodynamic interactions between the nacelle and wing extension that results in a significant drag benefit.

  17. Full Scale Experiment with Interactive Urban Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Esben Skouboe; Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Jensen, Ole B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses the results of a full-scale interactive urban illumination experiment. The experiment investigates how human motion intensities can be used as input for controlling the illumination of a town square in the city of Aalborg in Denmark. The trajectory, velocity...... changed according to their presence or actions, whereas people watching from the outside noticed to a larger degree the interaction between the illumination and the immersed persons. We seek to develop new knowledge about the experience of responsive environments and to explore technical, social...

  18. Partitioned Fluid-Structure Interaction for Full Rotor Computations Using CFD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinz, Joachim Christian

    ) based aerodynamic model which is computationally cheap but includes several limitations and corrections in order to account for three-dimensional and unsteady eects. The present work discusses the development of an aero-elastic simulation tool where high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD......In the design of modern wind turbines with long and slender rotor blades it becomes increasingly important to model and understand the evolving aero-elastic eects in more details. Standard stateof-the-art aero-elastic simulation tools for wind turbines usually employ a blade element momentum (BEM......) is used to model the aerodynamics of the flexible wind turbine rotor. Respective CFD computations are computationally expensive but do not show the limitations of the BEM-based models. It is one of the first times that high-fidelity fluid-structure interaction (FSI) simulations are used to model the aero...

  19. Full-Scale Tunnel (FST) model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1929-01-01

    Model of Full-Scale Tunnel (FST) under construction. On June 26, 1929, Elton W. Miller wrote to George W. Lewis proposing the construction of a model of the full-scale tunnel . 'The excellent energy ratio obtained in the new wind tunnel of the California Institute of Technology suggests that before proceeding with our full scale tunnel design, we ought to investigate the effect on energy ratio of such factors as: 1. Small included angle for the exit cone; 2. Carefully designed return passages of circular section as far as possible, without sudden changes in cross sections; 3. Tightness of walls. It is believed that much useful information can be obtained by building a model of about 1/16 scale, that is, having a closed throat of 2 ft. by 4 ft. The outside dimensions would be about 12 ft. by 25 ft. in plan and the height 4 ft. Two propellers will be required about 28 in. in diameter, each to be driven by direct current motor at a maximum speed of 4500 R.P.M. Provision can be made for altering the length of certain portions, particularly the exit cone, and possibly for the application of boundary layer control in order to effect satisfactory air flow. This model can be constructed in a comparatively short time, using 2 by 4 framing with matched sheathing inside, and where circular sections are desired they can be obtained by nailing sheet metal to wooden ribs, which can be cut on the band saw. It is estimated that three months will be required for the construction and testing of such a model and that the cost will be approximately three thousand dollars, one thousand dollars of which will be for the motors. No suitable location appears to exist in any of our present buildings, and it may be necessary to build it outside and cover it with a roof.' George Lewis responded immediately (June 27) granting the authority to proceed. He urged Langley to expedite construction and to employ extra carpenters if necessary. Funds for the model came from the FST project. In a 1979

  20. ARKTOS full-scale evacuation tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seligman, B.; Hatfield, P. [ARKTOS Developments Ltd., Surrey, BC (Canada); Bercha, F. [Bercha Group, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-09-15

    The ARKTOS amphibious vehicle can be used for evacuation operations in both open water and ice conditions. It is approved as an evacuation system by various regulators, such as the United States Coast Guard, and is operational in several marine cold regions as an escape, evacuation, and rescue (EER) system. An EER research project was performed in 2006 that provided a general reliability evaluation of the ARKTOS system. However, the project did not have the benefit of detailed full-scale tests in order to validate the associated computer model in drill or non-life threatening evacuation conditions. This paper described a follow-up set of full-scale evacuation tests designed to provide more detailed information and validation data for the reliability that the computer model described in the 2006 research project. A description and photographic illustrations of the ARKTOS system were presented. The tests and subsequent analyses were described. Specifically, the paper described the observations, and presented the statistical results from the data collected, and compared observed results with predicted results of a probabilistic EER simulation computer model. Conclusions and recommendations for reliability improvements were also provided. It was concluded that under the benign conditions, the drill performance was satisfactory in all aspects, both in the evacuation activities and the rescue or de-boarding activities. 3 refs., 1 tab., 17 figs.

  1. Methods for testing of geometrical down-scaled rotor blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branner, Kim; Berring, Peter

    as requirements for experimental facilities are very demanding and furthermore the time for performing the experimental test campaign and the cost are not well suitable for most research projects. This report deals with the advantages, disadvantages and open questions of using down-scaled testing on wind turbine...

  2. Tone and Broadband Noise Separation from Acoustic Data of a Scale-Model Counter-Rotating Open Rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sree, David; Stephens, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Renewed interest in contra-rotating open rotor technology for aircraft propulsion application has prompted the development of advanced diagnostic tools for better design and improved acoustical performance. In particular, the determination of tonal and broadband components of open rotor acoustic spectra is essential for properly assessing the noise control parameters and also for validating the open rotor noise simulation codes. The technique of phase averaging has been employed to separate the tone and broadband components from a single rotor, but this method does not work for the two-shaft contra-rotating open rotor. A new signal processing technique was recently developed to process the contra-rotating open rotor acoustic data. The technique was first tested using acoustic data taken of a hobby aircraft open rotor propeller, and reported previously. The intent of the present work is to verify and validate the applicability of the new technique to a realistic one-fifth scale open rotor model which has 12 forward and 10 aft contra-rotating blades operating at realistic forward flight Mach numbers and tip speeds. The results and discussions of that study are presented in this paper.

  3. Tone and Broadband Noise Separation from Acoustic Data of a Scale-Model Contra-Rotating Open Rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sree, Dave; Stephens, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Renewed interest in contra-rotating open rotor technology for aircraft propulsion application has prompted the development of advanced diagnostic tools for better design and improved acoustical performance. In particular, the determination of tonal and broadband components of open rotor acoustic spectra is essential for properly assessing the noise control parameters and also for validating the open rotor noise simulation codes. The technique of phase averaging has been employed to separate the tone and broadband components from a single rotor, but this method does not work for the two-shaft contra-rotating open rotor. A new signal processing technique was recently developed to process the contra-rotating open rotor acoustic data. The technique was first tested using acoustic data taken of a hobby aircraft open rotor propeller, and reported previously. The intent of the present work is to verify and validate the applicability of the new technique to a realistic one-fifth scale open rotor model which has 12 forward and 10 aft contra-rotating blades operating at realistic forward flight Mach numbers and tip speeds. The results and discussions of that study are presented in this paper.

  4. Coherent dynamics in the rotor tip shear layer of utility scale wind turbines

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xiaolei; Barone, Matthew; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2015-01-01

    Recent field experiments conducted in the near-wake (up to 0.5 rotor diameters downwind of the rotor) of a 2.5 MW wind turbine using snow-based super-large-scale particle image velocimetery (SLPIV) (Hong et al., Nature Comm., vol. 5, 2014, no. 4216) were successful in visualizing tip vortex cores as areas devoid of snowflakes. The so-visualized snow voids, however, suggested tip vortex cores of complex shape consisting of circular cores with distinct elongated comet-like tails. We employ large-eddy simulation (LES) to elucidate the structure and dynamics of the complex tip vortices identified experimentally. The LES is shown to reproduce vortex cores in good qualitative agreement with the SLPIV results, essentially capturing all vortex core patterns observed in the field in the tip shear layer. We show that the visualized vortex patterns are the result of energetic coherent dynamics in the rotor tip shear layer driven by interactions between the tip vortices and a second set of counter-rotating spiral vortice...

  5. A novel full scale experimental characterization of wind turbine aero-acoustic noise sources - preliminary results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Bertagnolio, Franck; Fischer, Andreas;

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes a novel full scale experiment on a 500 kW wind turbine with the main objective to characterize the aero-acoustic noise sources. The idea behind the instrumentation is to study the link and correlation between the surface pressure (SP) fluctuations in the boundary layer...... of the blade and the noise on the ground in a distance of about one rotor diameter. In total six surface microphones were used to measure the SP at the leading edge (LE) and trailing edge (TE) of the blade. In parallel noise was measured by eight microphones placed on plates on the ground around the turbine...

  6. Coherent dynamics in the rotor tip shear layer of utility-scale wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaolei; Hong, Jiarong; Barone, Matthew; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2016-10-01

    Recent field experiments conducted in the near-wake (up to 0.5 rotor diameters downwind of the rotor) of a 2.5 MW wind turbine using snow-based super-large-scale particle image velocimetery (SLPIV) (Hong et al., Nature Comm., vol. 5, 2014, no. 4216) were successful in visualizing tip vortex cores as areas devoid of snowflakes. The so-visualized snow voids, however, suggested tip vortex cores of complex shape consisting of circular cores with distinct elongated comet-like tails. We employ large-eddy simulation (LES) to elucidate the structure and dynamics of the complex tip vortices identified experimentally. The LES is shown to reproduce vortex cores in good qualitative agreement with the SLPIV results, essentially capturing all vortex core patterns observed in the field in the tip shear layer. We show that the visualized vortex patterns are the result of energetic coherent dynamics in the rotor tip shear layer driven by interactions between the tip vortices and a second set of counter-rotating spiral vortices intertwined with the tip vortices. We further show that the mean flow within the region where such rich coherent dynamics occur satisfies the instability criterion proposed by Leibovich and Stewartson (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 126, 1983, pp. 335--356), indicating that the instability uncovered by the SLPIV and the LES is of centrifugal type. This study highlights the feasibility of employing snow voids to visualize tip vortices and demonstrates the enormous potential of integrating SLPIV with LES as a powerful tool for gaining novel insights into the wakes of utility scale wind turbines.

  7. Energy from Swastika-Shaped Rotors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCulloch M. E.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available It is suggested here that a swastika-shaped rotor exposed to waves will rotate in the di- rection its arms are pointing (towards the arm-tips due to a sheltering effect. A formula is derived to predict the motion obtainable from swastika rotors of different sizes given the ocean wave height and phase speed and it is suggested that the rotor could provide a new, simpler method of wave energy generation. It is also proposed that the swastika rotor could generate energy on a smaller scale from sound waves and Brownian motion, and potentially the zero point field.

  8. Nearfield Unsteady Pressures at Cruise Mach Numbers for a Model Scale Counter-Rotation Open Rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, David B.

    2012-01-01

    An open rotor experiment was conducted at cruise Mach numbers and the unsteady pressure in the nearfield was measured. The system included extensive performance measurements, which can help provide insight into the noise generating mechanisms in the absence of flow measurements. A set of data acquired at a constant blade pitch angle but various rotor speeds was examined. The tone levels generated by the front and rear rotor were found to be nearly equal when the thrust was evenly balanced between rotors.

  9. Full load shop testing of 18,000-hp gas turbine driven centrifugal compressor for offshore platform service: Evaluation of rotor dynamics performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, R. G.; Simpson, M.

    1985-01-01

    The results for in-plant full load testing of a 13.4 MW (18000 HP) gas turbine driven centrifugal compressor are presented and compared to analytical predictions of compressor rotor stability. Unique problems from both oil seals and labyrinth gas seals were encountered during the testing. The successful resolution of these problems are summarized.

  10. Design Optimization of a Transonic-Fan Rotor Using Numerical Computations of the Full Compressible Navier-Stokes Equations and Simplex Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Aziz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The design of a transonic-fan rotor is optimized using numerical computations of the full three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. The CFDRC-ACE multiphysics module, which is a pressure-based solver, is used for the numerical simulation. The code is coupled with simplex optimization algorithm. The optimization process is started from a suitable design point obtained using low fidelity analytical methods that is based on experimental correlations for the pressure losses and blade deviation angle. The fan blade shape is defined by its stacking line and airfoil shape which are considered the optimization parameters. The stacking line is defined by lean, sweep, and skews, while blade airfoil shape is modified considering the thickness and camber distributions. The optimization has been performed to maximize the rotor total pressure ratio while keeping the rotor efficiency and surge margin above certain required values. The results obtained are verified with the experimental data of Rotor 67. In addition, the results of the optimized fan indicate that the optimum design is found to be leaned in the direction of rotation and has a forward sweep from the hub to mean section and backward sweep to the tip. The pressure ratio increases from 1.427 to 1.627 at the design speed and mass flow rate.

  11. Full scale computer simulators in anesthesia training and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Anne K

    2004-05-01

    With the advent of competency-based curriculum, technology such as full scale computer simulators have acquired an increasingly important role in anesthesia both in training and evaluation. This article reviews the current role of full scale computer simulators in teaching and evaluation in anesthesia. This review draws from existing anesthesia and medical education literature in order to examine and assess the current role of full scale computer simulators in anesthesia education today. The last decade has witnessed a major increase in the use of full scale computer simulators in anesthesia. Many applications have been found for these simulators including teaching and training, evaluation and research. Despite the increasing use and application of full scale computers in anesthesia in the area of teaching and training, definitive studies evaluating its cost effectiveness, its efficacy compared to traditional training methods or its impact on patient outcome are still pending. Although there is some preliminary evidence of reliability and validity in using the simulator to evaluate clinical competence, development in this area has not progressed enough to justify its use in formal, summative evaluation of competence in anesthesia at this time. As technology acquires an increasingly important role in medical education, full scale computer simulators represent an exciting potential in anesthesia. However, the full potential and role of simulators in anesthesia is still in development and will require a dovetailing of clinical theory and practice with current research in medical education.

  12. Full-scale implementation of external nitrification biological nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    driniev

    preliminary design of this full-scale plant and initial implementation. Introduction ... activated sludge (AS) system, the nitrification process is removed from the .... system. Design concept ... This latter mass fraction distribution is the one recom-.

  13. A numerical investigation of the role of the turbine rotor scale and the nacelle on wake meandering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foti, Daniel; Yang, Xiaolei; Shen, Lian; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2016-11-01

    Recent analysis of a hydrokinetic turbine and laboratory scale wind turbine reveal that the turbine nacelle has a considerable effect on the turbulence kinetic energy and wake meandering. However, the role of the nacelle on wake meandering for utility-scale wind turbines has not been fully investigated. In this work, a numerical investigation using large eddy simulations of four wind turbines with rotor diameters ranging from laboratory to utility scale reveals similar turbulent structures in the far wake and a comparable wake meandering Strouhal number regardless of rotor size. By reconstructing the wake meandering with three dimensional spatio-temporal filtering process, first proposed in Foti et al., the statistics of the dynamics of the wake meandering are quantified in terms of amplitude and wavelength. Results indicate that the wavelength of wake meandering can be properly scaled by rotor diameter of the turbines for both simulations with and without a nacelle model. The meandering amplitude, on the other hand, is larger for the simulation with a nacelle. This is further quantitative evidence that a nacelle model is imperative to accurately capturing wake meandering. This work was supported by Department of Energy (DE-EE0002980, DE-EE0005482 and DE-AC04-94AL85000), and Sandia National Laboratories.

  14. Large scale dynamics in a turbulent compressible rotor/stator cavity flow at high Reynolds number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachize, C.; Verhille, G.; Le Gal, P.

    2016-08-01

    This paper reports an experimental investigation of a turbulent flow confined within a rotor/stator cavity of aspect ratio close to unity at high Reynolds number. The experiments have been driven by changing both the rotation rate of the disk and the thermodynamical properties of the working fluid. This fluid is sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) whose physical properties are adjusted by imposing the operating temperature and the absolute pressure in a pressurized vessel, especially near the critical point of SF6 reached for T c = 45.58 ◦C, P c = 37.55 bar. This original set-up allows to obtain Reynolds numbers as high as 2 × 107 together with compressibility effects as the Mach number can reach 0.5. Pressure measurements reveal that the resulting fully turbulent flow shows both a direct and an inverse cascade as observed in rotating turbulence and in accordance with Kraichnan conjecture for 2D-turbulence. The spectra are however dominated by low-frequency peaks, which are subharmonics of the rotating disk frequency, involving large scale structures at small azimuthal wavenumbers. These modes appear for a Reynolds number around 105 and experience a transition at a critical Reynolds number Re c ≈ 106. Moreover they show an unexpected nonlinear behavior that we understand with the help of a low dimensional amplitude equations.

  15. From lab to full-scale ultrafiltration in microalgae harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenten, I. G.; Steven, S.; Dwiputra, A.; Khoiruddin; Hakim, A. N.

    2017-07-01

    Ponding system is generally used for microalgae cultivation. However, selection of appropriate technology for the harvesting process is challenging due to the low cell density of cultivated microalgae from the ponding system and the large volume of water to be handled. One of the promising technologies for microalgae harvesting is ultrafiltration (UF). In this study, the performance of UF during harvesting of microalgae in a lab- and a full-scale test is investigated. The performances of both scales are compared and analyzed to provide an understanding of several aspects which affect the yield produced from lab and actual conditions. Furthermore, a unique self-standing non-modular UF is introduced in the full-scale test. The non-modular UF exhibits several advantages, such as simple piping and connection, single pump for filtration and backwashing, and smaller footprint. With those advantages, the non-modular UF could be a promising technology for microalgae harvesting in industrial-scale.

  16. A regular Strouhal number for large-scale instability in the far wake of a rotor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okulov, Valery; Naumov, Igor V.; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming;

    2014-01-01

    The flow behind a model of a wind turbine rotor is investigated experimentally in a water flume using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and laser Doppler anemometry (LDA). The study performed involves a three-bladed wind turbine rotor designed using the optimization technique of Glauert (Aerodynam...... visualizations and a reconstruction of the flow field using LDA and PIV measurements it is found that the wake dynamics is associated with a precession (rotation) of the helical vortex core....... Theory, vol. IV, 1935, pp. 169–360). The wake properties are studied for different tip speed ratios and free stream speeds. The data for the various rotor regimes show the existence of a regular Strouhal number associated with the development of an instability in the far wake of the rotor. From...

  17. Systems for animal exposure in full-scale fire tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.; Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    Two systems for exposing animals in full-scale fire tests are described. Both systems involve the simultaneous exposure of two animal species, mice and rats, in modular units; determination of mortality, morbidity, and behavioral response; and analysis of the blood for carboxyhemoglobin. The systems described represent two of many possible options for obtaining bioassay data from full-scale fire tests. In situations where the temperatures to which the test animals are exposed can not be controlled, analytical techniques may be more appropriate than bioassay techniques.

  18. Microbial community analysis of a full-scale DEMON bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Martinez, Alejandro; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Alejandro; Muñoz-Palazon, Barbara; Garcia-Ruiz, Maria-Jesus; Osorio, Francisco; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Gonzalez-Lopez, Jesus

    2015-03-01

    Full-scale applications of autotrophic nitrogen removal technologies for the treatment of digested sludge liquor have proliferated during the last decade. Among these technologies, the aerobic/anoxic deammonification process (DEMON) is one of the major applied processes. This technology achieves nitrogen removal from wastewater through anammox metabolism inside a single bioreactor due to alternating cycles of aeration. To date, microbial community composition of full-scale DEMON bioreactors have never been reported. In this study, bacterial community structure of a full-scale DEMON bioreactor located at the Apeldoorn wastewater treatment plant was analyzed using pyrosequencing. This technique provided a higher-resolution study of the bacterial assemblage of the system compared to other techniques used in lab-scale DEMON bioreactors. Results showed that the DEMON bioreactor was a complex ecosystem where ammonium oxidizing bacteria, anammox bacteria and many other bacterial phylotypes coexist. The potential ecological role of all phylotypes found was discussed. Thus, metagenomic analysis through pyrosequencing offered new perspectives over the functioning of the DEMON bioreactor by exhaustive identification of microorganisms, which play a key role in the performance of bioreactors. In this way, pyrosequencing has been proven as a helpful tool for the in-depth investigation of the functioning of bioreactors at microbiological scale.

  19. China First Full-scale Comprehensive Drilling Test Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Ailin

    1997-01-01

    @@ The full-scale comprehensive drilling test unit built in Daqing Oilfields is the first one in China which can simulate the bottom-hole environments and the working conditions of drilling string with well depth up to 6 000 m.

  20. Characterization of convective heating in full scale wildland fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bret Butler

    2010-01-01

    Data collected in the International Crown Fire modeling Experiment during 1999 are evaluated to characterize the magnitude and duration of convective energy heating in full scale crown fires. To accomplish this objective data on total and radiant incident heat flux, air temperature, and horizontal and vertical gas velocities were evaluated. Total and radiant energy...

  1. Full-Scale Theater Production and Foreign Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan-Scheutz, Colleen; Colangelo, Laura M.

    2004-01-01

    This article reports a case study designed to explore the effectiveness of full-scale, authentic-text theater production for second language learning. Based on the results of preproduction and postproduction tests completed by cast and crew members, as well as the observations of all involved, the authors maintain that the diverse communication…

  2. Acoustic testing of a 1.5 pressure ratio low tip speed fan with a serrated rotor (QEP fan B scale model). [reduction of engine noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazin, S. B.; Paas, J. E.; Minzner, W. R.

    1973-01-01

    A scale model of the bypass flow region of a 1.5 pressure ratio, single stage, low tip speed fan was tested with a serrated rotor leading edge to determine its effects on noise generation. The serrated rotor was produced by cutting teeth into the leading edge of the nominal rotor blades. The effects of speed and exhaust nozzle area on the scale models noise characteristics were investigated with both the nominal rotor and serrated rotor. Acoustic results indicate the serrations reduced front quadrant PNL's at takeoff power. In particular, the 200 foot (61.0 m) sideline noise was reduced from 3 to 4 PNdb at 40 deg for nominal and large nozzle operation. However, the rear quadrant maximum sideline PNL's were increased 1.5 to 3 PNdb at approach thust and up to 2 PNdb at takeoff thust with these serrated rotor blades. The configuration with the serrated rotor produced the lowest maximum 200 foot (61.0 m) sideline PNL for any given thust when the large nozzle (116% of design area) was employed.

  3. Stability analysis of non-axisymmetric three-dimensional finite element rotor models with partial and full mass lumping

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Smitadhi Ganguly; A Nandi; S Neogy

    2014-06-01

    Unlike structural dynamics, the three-dimensional finite-element model of non-axisymmetric rotors on orthotropic bearings generates a large gyroscopic system with parametric stiffness. The present work explores the use of mass-lumping in stability analysis of such systems. Using a variant of Hill’s method, the problem reduces to a generalized Eigen value problem of order $nm \\times nm$, with as the order of the system in state vector representation and as the number of terms in the assumed solution. The matrices in both the sides of the Eigen value problem are expressed in terms of Kronecker products where the mass-matrix appears twice as a sub-matrix in both the sides of the equation. A particular one or both of them can be made diagonal. Both options produce sufficiently accurate results with considerable savings, even with a coarse mesh.

  4. Advanced topics on rotor blade full-scale structural fatigue testing and requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berring, Peter; Fedorov, Vladimir; Belloni, Federico

    further developed since then. Structures in composite materials are generally difficult and time consuming to test for fatigue resistance. Therefore, several methods for testing of blades have been developed and exist today. Those methods are presented in [1]. This report deals with more advanced topics...... for fatigue testing of wind turbine blades. One challenge is how to fatigue test blades under realistic conditions. In order to study this topic a finite element based multibody formulation using the floating frame of reference approach is used to study fatigue loading under different external conditions...

  5. On the Uses of Full-Scale Schlieren Flow Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settles, G. S.; Miller, J. D.; Dodson-Dreibelbis, L. J.

    2000-11-01

    A lens-and-grid-type schlieren system using a very large grid as a light source was described at earlier APS/DFD meetings. With a field-of-view of 2.3x2.9 m (7.5x9.5 feet), it is the largest indoor schlieren system in the world. Still and video examples of several full-scale airflows and heat-transfer problems visualized thus far will be shown. These include: heating and ventilation airflows, flows due to appliances and equipment, the thermal plumes of people, the aerodynamics of an explosive trace detection portal, gas leak detection, shock wave motion associated with aviation security problems, and heat transfer from live crops. Planned future projects include visualizing fume-hood and grocery display freezer airflows and studying the dispersion of insect repellent plumes at full scale.

  6. Confirmatory tests of full-scale condensers for SBWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masoni, P. [ENEA, Bologna (Italy); Botti, S. [SIET SpA, Piacenza (Italy); Fitzsimmons, G.W.

    1993-12-31

    A full-scale isolation condenser and a full-scale passive containment cooling condenser for the Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR) will be tested to confirm the thermal-hydraulic and structural design characteristics of these components. The condensers provide vital roles in removing heat from the reactor vessel and the containment during certain design basis events. This paper describes the condensers and the test facilities which are under construction and summarizes the test objectives, the planned instrumentation, and the conditions to be tested. The results of some pre-test performance predictions, calculated with the TRACG code are presented. The results of the testing program are expected to demonstrate that the condenser designs will provide the required heat removal capacity and will survive the design basis temperature/pressure cycles without structural damage.

  7. Full Scale Test of a SSP 34m boxgirder 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Find Mølholt; Branner, Kim; Nielsen, Per Hørlyk

    This report presents the setup and result from three static full-scale tests of the reinforced glass fiber/epoxy box girder used in a 34m wind turbine blade. One test was without reinforcement one with cap reinforcement and the final test was with rib reinforcement. The cap reinforcement test...... of the following tests: 1) Flapwise bending with no reinforcement 2) Flapwise bending with wire reinforcements 3) Flapwise bending with rib reinforcements...

  8. Full scale tests of all-steel buckling restrained braces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Wu, Bin; Li, Hui; Ou, Jinping; Yang, Weibiao

    2009-03-01

    Buckling-restrained braces (BRBs) are widely used seismic response-controlling members with excellent energy dissipation capacity without buckling at design deformation. However, the property of all-steel BRBs with cruciform cross section encased in a square steel tube remains insufficiently studied. In this paper, the properties of this kind of BRBs, which were used in two office buildings in Beijing, were examined by full-scale test. First, initial design was done according to the client's requirement. Then, two full-scale specimens were tested under uniaxial quasi-static cyclic loading. The test results indicate that there should be no welding in yielding portion of the core. Finally, the full-scale subassemblage test was done with an improved BRB and gusset plates installed in a frame. The result shows that the brace exhibited high energy dissipation capacity and stable hysteretic characteristic. According to the results from above tests, some important issues are summarized to provide advices for practical applications.

  9. Strength of Glued-in Bolts after Full Scale Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Clorius, Christian Odin; Damkilde, Lars;

    1999-01-01

    In 1993 after 9 years of use one of the blades of a windmill with wooden blades was struck by lightning. After demounting the damaged blade was handed over to the Technical University of Denmark for the investigation of potential fatigue damage. The paper presents an experimental determination...... of the residual strength of the glued-in bolts that served as the blade to rotor hub connection in the windmill. The load history of the bolts, the test method, the observed fracture modes and the force displacement curves are presented along with the recorded residual strength of the bolts. The bolts...

  10. Scaling Study of Wave Rotor Turbo-normalization of a Small Internal Combustion Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    numerically integrates the mass, momentum, and energy equations for a calorically perfect gas. The code follows a single passage of the wave rotor, as...channel of the Comprex® change over one cycle. The colors indicate the relative magnitude of each parameter. 72 Figure 45: CFD simulation of

  11. Microbubble Swarms in a Full-Scale Water Model Tundish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sheng; Cao, Xiangkun; Zou, Zongshu; Isac, Mihaiela; Guthrie, Roderick I. L.

    2016-10-01

    Water modeling, using microbubble swarms, was performed in a full-scale, four-strand, delta-shaped tundish, located at the McGill Metals Processing Centre (MMPC). The objective of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of microbubbles in removing inclusions smaller than 50 μm, applying the principles and conditions previously researched using a smaller scale arrangement. Air was injected into a full-scale model of a ladle shroud (the connecting tube through which liquid steel flows into the tundish below). The model ladle shroud was fitted with twelve, laser-drilled orifices, so as to create microbubbles. The bubbles generated using different gas injection protocols were recorded using a high-speed camera, and the bubble images were postprocessed using the commercial software, ImageJ. With this newly designed ladle shroud, bubble sizes could be reduced dramatically, to as small as a 675 µm average diameter. A three-dimensional, CFD model simulation was developed, using parameters obtained from the corresponding water model experiments, in order to predict the behavior of these microbubbles within the tundish and their potential influence on flow patterns and inclusion float-out capability.

  12. Polyethylene encapsulation full-scale technology demonstration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalb, P.D.; Lageraaen, P.R.

    1994-10-01

    A full-scale integrated technology demonstration of a polyethylene encapsulation process, sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD), was conducted at the Environmental & Waste Technology Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL.) in September 1994. As part of the Polymer Solidification National Effort, polyethylene encapsulation has been developed and tested at BNL as an alternative solidification technology for improved, cost-effective treatment of low-level radioactive (LLW), hazardous and mixed wastes. A fully equipped production-scale system, capable of processing 900 kg/hr (2000 lb/hr), has been installed at BNL. The demonstration covered all facets of the integrated processing system including pre-treatment of aqueous wastes, precise feed metering, extrusion processing, on-line quality control monitoring, and process control.

  13. Full-Scale Dynamic Testing of Dolosse to Destruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.

    1981-01-01

    It is well known that the relative dynamic strength of unreinforced slender concrete units decreases as the size increases. Big units can resist relatively smaller movements than small units. When model tests of cover layer stability are performed the determination of the damage criterion...... that should be adopted must therefore be based on knowledge of the dynamic strength of the corresponding prototype units. With the purpose of establishing a relationship between the size and the dynamic strength of unreinforced units, some full-scale tests to destruction of 1.5 and 5.4 t units were performed...

  14. Model Wind Turbines Tested at Full-Scale Similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M. A.; Kiefer, J.; Westergaard, C.; Hultmark, M.

    2016-09-01

    The enormous length scales associated with modern wind turbines complicate any efforts to predict their mechanical loads and performance. Both experiments and numerical simulations are constrained by the large Reynolds numbers governing the full- scale aerodynamics. The limited fundamental understanding of Reynolds number effects in combination with the lack of empirical data affects our ability to predict, model, and design improved turbines and wind farms. A new experimental approach is presented, which utilizes a highly pressurized wind tunnel (up to 220 bar). It allows exact matching of the Reynolds numbers (no matter how it is defined), tip speed ratios, and Mach numbers on a geometrically similar, small-scale model. The design of a measurement and instrumentation stack to control the turbine and measure the loads in the pressurized environment is discussed. Results are then presented in the form of power coefficients as a function of Reynolds number and Tip Speed Ratio. Due to gearbox power loss, a preliminary study has also been completed to find the gearbox efficiency and the resulting correction has been applied to the data set.

  15. Model of Full-Scale Tunnel (FST) under construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    1929-01-01

    Model of Full-Scale Tunnel (FST) under construction. On June 26, 1929, Elton W. Miller wrote to George W. Lewis proposing the construction of a model of the full-scale tunnel. 'The excellent energy ratio obtained in the new wind tunnel of the California Institute of Technology suggests that before proceeding with our full scale tunnel design, we ought to investigate the effect on energy ratio of such factors as: 1. small included angle for the exit cone; 2. carefully designed return passages of circular section as far as possible, without sudden changes in cross sections; 3. tightness of walls. It is believed that much useful information can be obtained by building a model of about 1/16 scale, that is, having a closed throat of 2 ft. by 4 ft. The outside dimensions would be about 12 ft. by 25 ft. in plan and the height 4 ft. Two propellers will be required about 28 in. in diameter, each to be driven by direct current motor at a maximum speed of 4500 R.P.M. Provision can be made for altering the length of certain portions, particularly the exit cone, and possibly for the application of boundary layer control in order to effect satisfactory air flow. This model can be constructed in a comparatively short time, using 2 by 4 framing with matched sheathing inside, and where circular sections are desired they can be obtained by nailing sheet metal to wooden ribs, which can be cut on the band saw. It is estimated that three months will be required for the construction and testing of such a model and that the cost will be approximately three thousand dollars, one thousand dollars of which will be for the motors. No suitable location appears to exist in any of our present buildings, and it may be necessary to build it outside and cover it with a roof.' George Lewis responded immediately (June 27) granting the authority to proceed. He urged Langley to expedite construction and to employ extra carpenters if necessary. Funds for the model came from the FST project. In a 1979

  16. Cylindrical acoustical holography applied to full-scale jet noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Alan T; Gee, Kent L; Neilsen, Tracianne B; Krueger, David W; James, Michael M

    2014-09-01

    Near-field acoustical holography methods are used to predict sound radiation from an engine installed on a high-performance military fighter aircraft. Cylindrical holography techniques are an efficient approach to measure the large and complex sound fields produced by full-scale jets. It is shown that a ground-based, one-dimensional array of microphones can be used in conjunction with a cylindrical wave function field representation to provide a holographic reconstruction of the radiated sound field at low frequencies. In the current work, partial field decomposition methods and numerical extrapolation of data beyond the boundaries of the hologram aperture are required prior to holographic projection. Predicted jet noise source distributions and directionality are shown for four frequencies between 63 and 250 Hz. It is shown that the source distribution narrows and moves upstream, and that radiation directionality shifts toward the forward direction, with increasing frequency. A double-lobe feature of full-scale jet radiation is also demonstrated.

  17. Full-scale validation of a model of algal productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béchet, Quentin; Shilton, Andy; Guieysse, Benoit

    2014-12-02

    While modeling algal productivity outdoors is crucial to assess the economic and environmental performance of full-scale cultivation, most of the models hitherto developed for this purpose have not been validated under fully relevant conditions, especially with regard to temperature variations. The objective of this study was to independently validate a model of algal biomass productivity accounting for both light and temperature and constructed using parameters experimentally derived using short-term indoor experiments. To do this, the accuracy of a model developed for Chlorella vulgaris was assessed against data collected from photobioreactors operated outdoor (New Zealand) over different seasons, years, and operating conditions (temperature-control/no temperature-control, batch, and fed-batch regimes). The model accurately predicted experimental productivities under all conditions tested, yielding an overall accuracy of ±8.4% over 148 days of cultivation. For the purpose of assessing the feasibility of full-scale algal cultivation, the use of the productivity model was therefore shown to markedly reduce uncertainty in cost of biofuel production while also eliminating uncertainties in water demand, a critical element of environmental impact assessments. Simulations at five climatic locations demonstrated that temperature-control in outdoor photobioreactors would require tremendous amounts of energy without considerable increase of algal biomass. Prior assessments neglecting the impact of temperature variations on algal productivity in photobioreactors may therefore be erroneous.

  18. Sustainable, Full-Scope Nuclear Fission Energy at Planetary Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Petroski

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A nuclear fission-based energy system is described that is capable of supplying the energy needs of all of human civilization for a full range of human energy use scenarios, including both very high rates of energy use and strikingly-large amounts of total energy-utilized. To achieve such “planetary scale sustainability”, this nuclear energy system integrates three nascent technologies: uranium extraction from seawater, manifestly safe breeder reactors, and deep borehole disposal of nuclear waste. In addition to these technological components, it also possesses the sociopolitical quality of manifest safety, which involves engineering to a very high degree of safety in a straightforward manner, while concurrently making the safety characteristics of the resulting nuclear systems continually manifest to society as a whole. Near-term aspects of this nuclear system are outlined, and representative parameters given for a system of global scale capable of supplying energy to a planetary population of 10 billion people at a per capita level enjoyed by contemporary Americans, i.e., of a type which might be seen a half-century hence. In addition to being sustainable from a resource standpoint, the described nuclear system is also sustainable with respect to environmental and human health impacts, including those resulting from severe accidents.

  19. Full-scale and bench-scale testing of a coal-fueled gas turbine system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, P.B.; LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

    1992-01-01

    Components for a coal-fueled industrial gas turbine were developed and tested at both benchscale and full-scale. The components included a two stage slagging combustor, a particulate rejection impact separator (PRIS), and a secondary particulate filter. The Integrated Bench Scale Test Facility (IBSTF) was used for the filter tests ana some of the PRIS testing. Full-scale combustor testing has been carried-out both with and without the PRIS. Bench-scale testing has included evaluating the feasibility of on-site CWM preparation, developing a water-cooled impactor and an extended run with new secondary candle filters.

  20. Full-scale and bench-scale testing of a coal-fueled gas turbine system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, P.B.; LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

    1992-12-31

    Components for a coal-fueled industrial gas turbine were developed and tested at both benchscale and full-scale. The components included a two stage slagging combustor, a particulate rejection impact separator (PRIS), and a secondary particulate filter. The Integrated Bench Scale Test Facility (IBSTF) was used for the filter tests ana some of the PRIS testing. Full-scale combustor testing has been carried-out both with and without the PRIS. Bench-scale testing has included evaluating the feasibility of on-site CWM preparation, developing a water-cooled impactor and an extended run with new secondary candle filters.

  1. Primary control of a Mach scale swashplateless rotor using brushless DC motor actuated trailing edge flaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Anand

    The focus of this research was to demonstrate a four blade rotor trim in forward flight using integrated trailing edge flaps instead of using a swashplate controls. A compact brushless DC motor was evaluated as an on-blade actuator, with the possibility of achieving large trailing edge flap amplitudes. A control strategy to actuate the trailing edge flap at desired frequency and amplitude was developed and large trailing edge flap amplitudes from the motor (instead of rotational motion) were obtained. Once the actuator was tested on the bench-top, a lightweight mechanism was designed to incorporate the motor in the blade and actuate the trailing edge flaps. A six feet diameter, four bladed composite rotor with motor-flap system integrated into the NACA 0012 airfoil section was fabricated. Systematic testing was carried out for a range of load conditions, first in the vacuum chamber followed by hover tests. Large trailing edge flap deflections were observed during the hover testing, and a peak to peak trailing edge flap amplitude of 18 degree was achieved at 2000 rotor RPM with hover tip Mach number of 0.628. A closed loop controller was designed to demonstrate trailing edge flap mean position and the peak to peak amplitude control. Further, a soft pitch link was designed and fabricated, to replace the stiff pitch link and thereby reduce the torsional stiffness of the blade to 2/rev. This soft pitch link allowed for blade root pitch motion in response to the trailing edge flap inputs. Blade pitch response due to both steady as well as sinusoidal flap deflections were demonstrated. Finally, tests were performed in Glenn L. Martin wind tunnel using a model rotor rig to assess the performance of motor-flap system in forward flight. A swashplateless trim using brushless DC motor actuated trailing edge flaps was achieved for a rotor operating at 1200 RPM and an advance ratio of 0.28. Also, preliminary exploration was carried out to test the scalability of the motor

  2. Effects of aerodynamic fairing on full scale blade fatigue test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zujin; Wu, Jianzhong; Sun, Yuanrong; Jian, Liu

    2017-06-01

    The reliability of large blades should be verified by means of full scale fatigue test. In order to solve the problem of lack of exciting force during fatigue test in the flap wise direction, the program that aerodynamic fairing is installed in the tip of blade to reduce the air resistance is proposed. The numerical model of blade vibration and damping ratio calculation is established. The relationship between damping ratio, exciting force and amplitude is constructed by finite element method respectively. The difference of the exciting bending moment of blade and the damping ratio before and after the installation of aerodynamic fairing is compared respectively. The results show that damping ratio decreased by 27.9%. When the vibration of the blade reaches the target bending moment, the exciting force of the equipment decreases by 45.4%. It is an effective way to reduce the exciting force.

  3. Full-scale Data Assessment in OWC Pico Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito-Melo, A.; Neumann, F. [Wave Energy Centre Lisbon (Portugal); Sarmento, A.J.N.A. [Wave Energy Centre, Lisbon (Portugal)]|[Instituto Superior Tecnico, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2007-07-01

    After being idle for a period of several years after its first commissioning in 1999, the European OWC pilot plant on the island of Pico in the Azores has been reactivated by 2005 and initial tests have been performed since then. The refurbishment, co-ordinated by the Wave Energy Centre in Portugal, started in 2004, and was supported by National funding under a new Portuguese funding scheme for scientific pilot projects (PRIME/DEMTEC). The activities included the complete replacement of the degraded electrical equipment and refurbishments of the existing mechanical components. This paper describes the Pico plant monitoring during the full-scale demonstration from September 2005 to October 2006 and discusses the data and results obtained so far.

  4. N2O emissions from full-scale nitrifying biofilters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollon, Julien; Filali, Ahlem; Fayolle, Yannick; Guerin, Sabrina; Rocher, Vincent; Gillot, Sylvie

    2016-10-01

    A full-scale nitrifying biofilter was continuously monitored during two measurement periods (September 2014; February 2015) during which both gaseous and liquid N2O fluxes were monitored on-line. The results showed diurnal and seasonal variations of N2O emissions. A statistical model was run to determine the main operational parameters governing N2O emissions. Modification of the distribution between the gas phase and the liquid phase was observed related to the effects of temperature and aeration flow on the volumetric mass transfer coefficient (kLa). With similar nitrification performance values, the N2O emission factor was twice as high during the winter campaign. The increase in N2O emissions in winter was correlated to higher effluent nitrite concentrations and suspected increased biofilm thickness.

  5. Full-Scale Spectrum of Boundary-Layer Winds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsén, Xiaoli Guo; Larsen, Søren Ejling; Lundtang Petersen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Extensive mean meteorological data and high frequency sonic anemometer data from two sites in Denmark, one coastal onshore and one offshore, have been used to study the full-scale spectrum of boundary-layer winds, over frequencies f from about 1 yr−1 to10 Hz. 10-min cup anemometer data are used...... to estimate the spectrum from about 1 yr−1 to 0.05 min−1; in addition, using 20-Hz sonic anemometer data, an ensemble of 1-day spectra covering the range 1 day−1 to 10 Hz has been calculated. The overlapping region in these two measured spectra is in good agreement. Classical topics regarding the various...... of the three velocity components over a wide range from 1 day−1 to 10 Hz, which is useful in determining the necessary sample duration when measuring turbulence statistics in the boundary layer....

  6. Design and Control of Full Scale Wave Energy Simulator System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik C.; Hansen, Anders Hedegaard; Hansen, Rico Hjerm

    2012-01-01

    For wave energy to become feasible it is a requirement that the efficiency and reliability of the power take-off (PTO) systems are significantly improved. The cost of installing and testing PTO-systems at sea are however very high, and the focus of the current paper is therefore on the design...... of a full scale wave simulator for testing PTO-systems for point absorbers. The main challenge is here to design a system, which mimics the behavior of a wave when interacting with a given PTO-system. The paper includes a description of the developed system, located at Aalborg University......, and the considerations behind the design. Based on the description a model of the system is presented, which, along with a description of the wave theory applied, makes the foundation for the control strategy. The objective of the control strategy is to emulate not only the wave behavior, but also the dynamic wave...

  7. Flow Induced segregation in full scale castings with SCC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars Nyholm; Stang, Henrik; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2007-01-01

    Though promising, pioneering work has been carried out with rheological characterization and numerical modelling of form filling with SCC, the approach is far from standard in the concrete industry and clearly the approach does not yet hold all the answers to relevant questions. In particular flow...... induced segregation is a major risk during casting and it is not yet clear how this phenomenon should be modelled. In this paper testing and numerical simulations of full-scale wall castings are compared. Two different SCCs and three different filling methods were applied resulting in different flow...... patterns during form filling. Results show that the flow patterns have a major influence on the risk of flow induced segregation and the surface finish of the hardened concrete. A hypothesis for the mechanism of flow induced segregation is put forth....

  8. Fire spread simulation of a full scale cable tunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huhtanen, R. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1999-11-01

    A fire simulation of a full scale tunnel was performed by using the commercial code EFFLUENT as the simulation platform. Estimation was made for fire spread on the stacked cable trays, possibility of fire spread to the cable trays on the opposite wall of the tunnel, detection time of smoke detectors in the smouldering phase and response of sprinkler heads in the flaming phase. According to the simulation, the rise of temperature in the smouldering phase is minimal, only of the order 1 deg C. The estimates of optical density of smoke show that normal smoke detectors should give an alarm within 2-4 minutes from the beginning of the smouldering phase, depending on the distance to the detector (in this case it was assumed that the thermal source connected to the smoke source was 50 W). The flow conditions at smoke detectors may be challenging, because the velocity magnitude is rather low at this phase. At 4 minutes the maximum velocity at the detectors is 0.12 m/s. During the flaming phase (beginning from 11 minutes) fire spreads on the stacked cable trays in an expected way, although the ignition criterion seems to perform poorly when ignition of new objects is considered. The Upper cable trays are forced to ignite by boundary condition definitions according to the experience found from ti full scale experiment and an earlier simulation. After 30 minutes the hot layer in the room becomes so hot that it speeds up the fire spread and the rate of heat release of burning objects. Further, the hot layer ignites the cable trays on the opposite wall of the tunnel after 45 minutes. It is estimated that the sprinkler heads would be activated at 20-22 minutes near the fire source and at 24-28 minutes little further from the fire source when fast sprinkler heads are used. The slow heads are activated between 26-32 minutes. (orig.)

  9. Development of Full-Scale Ultrathin Shell Reflector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durmuş Türkmen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is aimed that a new ultrathin shell composite reflector is developed considering different design options to optimize the stiffness/mass ratio, cost, and manufacturing. The reflector is an offset parabolic reflector with a diameter of 6 m, a focal length of 4.8 m, and an offset of 0.3 m and has the ability of folding and self-deploying. For Ku-band missions a full-scale offset parabolic reflector antenna is designed by considering different concepts of stiffening: (i reflective surface and skirt, (ii reflective surface and radial ribs, and (iii reflective surface, skirt, and radial ribs. In a preliminary study, the options are modeled using ABAQUS finite element program and compared with respect to their mass, fundamental frequency, and thermal surface errors. It is found that the option of reflective surface and skirt is more advantageous. The option is further analyzed to optimize the stiffness/mass ratio considering the design parameters of material thickness, width of the skirt, and ply angles. Using the TOPSIS method is determined the best reflector concept among thirty different designs. Accordingly, new design can be said to have some advantages in terms of mass, natural frequency, number of parts, production, and assembly than both SSBR and AstroMesh reflectors.

  10. A study of rotor and platform design trade-offs for large-scale floating vertical axis wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, D. Todd; Paquette, Joshua; Barone, Matthew; Goupee, Andrew J.; Fowler, Matthew J.; Bull, Diana; Owens, Brian

    2016-09-01

    Vertical axis wind turbines are receiving significant attention for offshore siting. In general, offshore wind offers proximity to large populations centers, a vast & more consistent wind resource, and a scale-up opportunity, to name a few beneficial characteristics. On the other hand, offshore wind suffers from high levelized cost of energy (LCOE) and in particular high balance of system (BoS) costs owing to accessibility challenges and limited project experience. To address these challenges associated with offshore wind, Sandia National Laboratories is researching large-scale (MW class) offshore floating vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs). The motivation for this work is that floating VAWTs are a potential transformative technology solution to reduce offshore wind LCOE in deep-water locations. This paper explores performance and cost trade-offs within the design space for floating VAWTs between the configurations for the rotor and platform.

  11. The Acoustic Results of a United Technologies Scale Model Helicopter Rotor Tested at DNW

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    Annual Forum of the Amer- Germany (Refs. 3,4). It was this ’ benchmark ’ test ican Helicopter Society, Washington, DC May 1990 which led to the...The au- 2. Schmitz, F.H., Boxwell , DA., Lewy, S., and Da- thors would like to offer sincere thanks to their friends han, C., "A Note on the Generel...W.R., Schultz, K.J., Schmitz, F.H., ing for their contributions made in acquiring the data and Boxwell ,D.A.,"Model Rotor High Speed Im- presented in

  12. Tracing disinfection byproducts in full-scale desalination plants

    KAUST Repository

    Le Roux, Julien

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the formation and the behavior of halogenated byproducts (regulated THMs and HAAs, as well as nitrogenous, brominated and iodinated DBPs including the emerging iodo-THMs) along the treatment train of full-scale desalination plants. One thermal multi-stage flash distillation (MSF) plant and two reverse osmosis (RO) plants located on the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia. DBPs formed during the prechlorination step were efficiently removed along the treatment processes (MSF or RO). Desalination plants fed with good seawater quality and using intermittent chlorine injection did not show high DBP formation and discharge. One RO plant with a lower raw water quality and using continuous chlorination at the intake formed more DBPs. In this plant, some non-regulated DBPs (e.g., dibromoacetonitrile and iodo-THMs) reached the product water in low concentrations (< 1.5 μg/L). Regulated THMs and HAAs were far below their maximum contamination levels set by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Substantial amounts of DBPs are disposed to the sea; low concentrations of DBPs were indeed detected in the water on shore of the desalination plants.

  13. Characterization of AGIPD1.0: The full scale chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezza, D.; Allahgholi, A.; Arino-Estrada, G.; Bianco, L.; Delfs, A.; Dinapoli, R.; Goettlicher, P.; Graafsma, H.; Greiffenberg, D.; Hirsemann, H.; Jack, S.; Klanner, R.; Klyuev, A.; Krueger, H.; Marras, A.; Mozzanica, A.; Poehlsen, J.; Schmitt, B.; Schwandt, J.; Sheviakov, I.; Shi, X.; Trunk, U.; Xia, Q.; Zhang, J.; Zimmer, M.

    2016-12-01

    The AGIPD (adaptive gain integrating pixel detector) detector is a high frame rate (4.5 MHz) and high dynamic range (up to 104 ·12.4 keV photons) detector with single photon resolution (down to 4 keV taking 5σ as limit and lowest noise settings) developed for the European XFEL (XFEL.EU). This work is focused on the characterization of AGIPD1.0, which is the first full scale version of the chip. The chip is 64×64 pixels and each pixel has a size of 200×200 μm2. Each pixel can store up to 352 images at a rate of 4.5 MHz (corresponding to 220 ns). A detailed characterization of the AGIPD1.0 chip has been performed in order to assess the main performance of the ASIC in terms of gain, noise, speed and dynamic range. From the measurements presented in this paper a good uniformity of the gain, a noise around 320 e- (rms) in standard mode and around 240 e- (rms) in high gain mode has been measured. Furthermore a detailed discussion about the non-linear behavior after the gain switching is presented with both experimental results and simulations.

  14. Full-Scale Spectrum of Boundary-Layer Winds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsén, Xiaoli Guo; Larsen, Søren Ejling; Lundtang Petersen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Extensive mean meteorological data and high frequency sonic anemometer data from two sites in Denmark, one coastal onshore and one offshore, have been used to study the full-scale spectrum of boundary-layer winds, over frequencies f from about 1 yr−1 to10 Hz. 10-min cup anemometer data are used...... to estimate the spectrum from about 1 yr−1 to 0.05 min−1; in addition, using 20-Hz sonic anemometer data, an ensemble of 1-day spectra covering the range 1 day−1 to 10 Hz has been calculated. The overlapping region in these two measured spectra is in good agreement. Classical topics regarding the various......,followed by a −2/3 slope, which can be described by f S( f ) = a1 f −2/3 + a2 f −2, ending in the frequency range for which the debate on the spectral gap is ongoing. It is shown here that the spectral gap exists and can be modelled. The linear composition of the horizontal wind variation from the mesoscale...

  15. Full-scale alkaline hydrolysis of organic explosives in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britto, R.; Nolin, J. [Tetra Tech Inc., Oakville, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed the remediation of explosives at defence sites in North America. Organic explosives and residues are prevalent at ordinance, ammunition, and range sites, as well as at federal explosives manufacturing and storage facilities. The predominant explosives residues include trinitrotoluene (TNT), dinitrotoluenes (DNTs), and royal demolition explosive (RDX). Chemical oxidation treatments for the residues can require several applications and are costly. Biological treatments are feasible, but can be slow and difficult to apply. An alkaline hydrolysis process was used to destroy contaminants at an army ammunition site. Soil pan studies were conducted to characterize the nucleophilic substitution processes under varying quantities of chemical amendments. Effectiveness sampling included pH and moisture content; nitrates and nitrites; and explosives SW8330B. The study showed that high levels of explosives can be rapidly treated using the alkaline hydrolytic agent, which produced nitrites as the largest identifiable end product. Citric acid was then used to treat elevated nitrate and nitrite concentrations in soil samples resulting from the chemical destruction of TNT and DNT. An analysis of the treated samples showed a substantial decrease in nitroaromatic compounds. Details of full-scale ex situ treatments conducted to further assess the remediation processes were included. tabs., figs.

  16. Lightweight alumina refractory aggregate: Phase 3, Full-scale demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swansiger, T.G.; Pearson, A.

    1996-07-16

    Technical problems (higher than target fired density, and poor intermediate strength after burnout but before sintering) were addressed and solved; solution involved use of large loading of CP-5 alumina (controlled pore, rehydratable), increased loading of one of the binders, and a steam aging step. Resistance of the lightweight aggregate in a brick formulation to steel slag penetration was assessed in a preliminary test and found to be almost as good as that of T-64. Pelletized process economic feasibility study was updated, based on production levels of 10,000 and 20,000 mt/year, the most up- to-date raw material costs, and the assumption of a retrofit into the Arkansas plant tabular production facility. For the 10,000 mt/y production level, the required selling price of 35% more than the T- 64 selling price exceeds the {le}25% objective. The market survey will determine whether to proceed with the full scale demonstration that will produce at least 54.4 mt (120,000 lb) of the aggregate for incorporation into products, followed by end-user testing and evaluation.

  17. Full-scale fire experiments on vertical horizontal cable trays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangs, J.; Keski-Rahkonen, O. [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland). Building Physics, Building Services and Fire Technology

    1997-10-01

    Two full-scale fire experiments on PVC cables used in nuclear power plants were carried out, one with cables in vertical position and one with cables in horizontal position. The vertical cable bundle, 3 m high, 300 mm wide and 30 mm thick, was attached to a steel cable ladder. The vertical bundle experiment was carried out in nearly free space with three walls near the cable ladder guiding air flow in order to stabilise flames. The horizontal cable experiment was carried out in a small room with five cable bundles attached to steel cable ladders. Three of the 2 m long cable bundles were located in an array, equally spaced above each other near one long side of the room and two correspondingly near the opposite long side. The vertical cable bundle was ignited with a small propane gas burner beneath the lower edge of the bundle. The horizontal cable bundles were ignited with a small propane burner beneath the lowest bundle in an array of three bundles. Rate of heat release by means of oxygen consumption calorimetry, mass change, CO{sub 2}, CO and smoke production rate and gas, wall and cable surface temperatures were measured as a function of time, as well as time to sprinkler operation and failure of test voltage in cables. Additionally, the minimum rate of heat release needed to ignite the bundle was determined. This paper concentrates on describing and recording the experimental set-up and the data obtained. (orig.)

  18. Evaluation of full-scale biofilter media performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenas-Gonzalez, B.; Ergas, S.J.; Switzenbaum, M.S.; Phillibert, N.

    1999-09-30

    The objective of this study was to characterize the key physical, chemical and biological properties of compost media from a full-scale biofiltration system used to control VOC emissions. Results of media characterization were used to assess the need for operational changes and media replacement. Biofilter media properties evaluated included: moisture content, pH, total organic carbon (TOC) and nitrogen content in water extracts and solid matrix, oxygen uptake rates, and microbial plate counts including total heterotrophs, oligotrophs, actinomycetes and fungi. Samples were taken from various locations and depths in the biofilter after three and five years of system operation. Media moisture content was highly variable, with samples from deeper in the bed dryer than surface samples. Low moisture contents were associated with low pH values and low oxygen uptake rates. Total organic carbon contents in water extracts were higher than typical biosolids compost in samples near the inlet to the biofilter, possibly due to extracellular polysaccharides. After five years of use, total nitrogen and organic carbon contents in the solid matrix did not significantly differ from initial levels or those in typical biosolids compost.

  19. Large scale motions of multiple limit-cycle high Reynolds number annular and toroidal rotor/stator cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridel-Bertomeu, Thibault; Gicquel, L. Y. M.; Staffelbach, G.

    2017-06-01

    Rotating cavity flows are essential components of industrial applications but their dynamics are still not fully understood when it comes to the relation between the fluid organization and monitored pressure fluctuations. From computer hard-drives to turbo-pumps of space launchers, designed devices often produce flow oscillations that can either destroy the component prematurely or produce too much noise. In such a context, large scale dynamics of high Reynolds number rotor/stator cavities need better understanding especially at the flow limit-cycle or associated statistically stationary state. In particular, the influence of curvature as well as cavity aspect ratio on the large scale organization and flow stability at a fixed rotating disc Reynolds number is fundamental. To probe such flows, wall-resolved large eddy simulation is applied to two different rotor/stator cylindrical cavities and one annular cavity. Validation of the predictions proves the method to be suited and to capture the disc boundary layer patterns reported in the literature. It is then shown that in complement to these disc boundary layer analyses, at the limit-cycle the rotating flows exhibit characteristic patterns at mid-height in the homogeneous core pointing the importance of large scale features. Indeed, dynamic modal decomposition reveals that the entire flow dynamics are driven by only a handful of atomic modes whose combination links the oscillatory patterns observed in the boundary layers as well as in the core of the cavity. These fluctuations form macro-structures, born in the unstable stator boundary layer and extending through the homogeneous inviscid core to the rotating disc boundary layer, causing its instability under some conditions. More importantly, the macro-structures significantly differ depending on the configuration pointing the need for deeper understanding of the influence of geometrical parameters as well as operating conditions.

  20. Full-Scale Spectrum of Boundary-Layer Winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsén, Xiaoli G.; Larsen, Søren E.; Petersen, Erik L.

    2016-05-01

    Extensive mean meteorological data and high frequency sonic anemometer data from two sites in Denmark, one coastal onshore and one offshore, have been used to study the full-scale spectrum of boundary-layer winds, over frequencies f from about 1 yr^{-1} to 10 Hz. 10-min cup anemometer data are used to estimate the spectrum from about 1 yr^{-1} to 0.05 min^{-1}; in addition, using 20-Hz sonic anemometer data, an ensemble of 1-day spectra covering the range 1 day^{-1} to 10 Hz has been calculated. The overlapping region in these two measured spectra is in good agreement. Classical topics regarding the various spectral ranges, including the spectral gap, are revisited. Following the seasonal peak at 1 yr^{-1}, the frequency spectrum fS( f) increases with f^{+1} and gradually reaches a peak at about 0.2 day^{-1}. From this peak to about 1 hr^{-1}, the spectrum fS( f) decreases with frequency with a -2 slope, followed by a -2/3 slope, which can be described by fS(f)=a_1f^{-2/3}+a_2f^{-2}, ending in the frequency range for which the debate on the spectral gap is ongoing. It is shown here that the spectral gap exists and can be modelled. The linear composition of the horizontal wind variation from the mesoscale and microscale gives the observed spectrum in the gap range, leading to a suggestion that mesoscale and microscale processes are uncorrelated. Depending on the relative strength of the two processes, the gap may be deep or shallow, visible or invisible. Generally, the depth of the gap decreases with height. In the low frequency region of the gap, the mesoscale spectrum shows a two-dimensional isotropic nature; in the high frequency region, the classical three-dimensional boundary-layer turbulence is evident. We also provide the cospectrum of the horizontal and vertical components, and the power spectra of the three velocity components over a wide range from 1 day^{-1} to 10 Hz, which is useful in determining the necessary sample duration when measuring turbulence

  1. Aerodynamic noise characterization of a full-scale wind turbine through high-frequency surface pressure measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertagnolio, Franck; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Bak, Christian;

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate and characterize the high-frequency surface pressure fluctuations on a full-scale wind turbine blade and in particular the influence of the atmospheric turbulence. As these fluctuations are highly correlated to the sources of both turbulent inflow noise...... wind turbine with a 80 m diameter rotor as well as measurements of an airfoil section tested in a wind tunnel. The turbine was extensively equipped in order to monitor the local inflow onto the rotating blades. Further a section of the 38 m long blade was instrumented with 50 microphones flush......-mounted relative to the blade surface. The measurements of surface pressure spectra are compared with the results of two engineering models for trailing edge noise and for turbulent inflow noise. The measured pressure fluctuations are related to the local inflow angle and are also compared to measurements...

  2. Cyanobacteria, Toxins and Indicators: Full-Scale Monitoring & Bench-Scale Treatment Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summary of: 1) Lake Erie 2014 bloom season full-scale treatment plant monitoring data for cyanobacteria and cyanobacteria toxins; 2) Follow-up work to examine the impact of pre-oxidation on suspensions of intact toxin-producing cyanobacterial cells.

  3. Cyanobacteria, Toxins and Indicators: Full-Scale Monitoring & Bench-Scale Treatment Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summary of: 1) Lake Erie 2014 bloom season full-scale treatment plant monitoring data for cyanobacteria and cyanobacteria toxins; 2) Follow-up work to examine the impact of pre-oxidation on suspensions of intact toxin-producing cyanobacterial cells.

  4. Effects of increasing tip velocity on wind turbine rotor design.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resor, Brian Ray [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Maniaci, David Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Berg, Jonathan Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Richards, Phillip William [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-05-01

    A reduction in cost of energy from wind is anticipated when maximum allowable tip velocity is allowed to increase. Rotor torque decreases as tip velocity increases and rotor size and power rating are held constant. Reduction in rotor torque yields a lighter weight gearbox, a decrease in the turbine cost, and an increase in the capacity for the turbine to deliver cost competitive electricity. The high speed rotor incurs costs attributable to rotor aero-acoustics and system loads. The increased loads of high speed rotors drive the sizing and cost of other components in the system. Rotor, drivetrain, and tower designs at 80 m/s maximum tip velocity and 100 m/s maximum tip velocity are created to quantify these effects. Component costs, annualized energy production, and cost of energy are computed for each design to quantify the change in overall cost of energy resulting from the increase in turbine tip velocity. High fidelity physics based models rather than cost and scaling models are used to perform the work. Results provide a quantitative assessment of anticipated costs and benefits for high speed rotors. Finally, important lessons regarding full system optimization of wind turbines are documented.

  5. Reducing rotor weight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheney, M.C. [PS Enterprises, Inc., Glastonbury, CT (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The cost of energy for renewables has gained greater significance in recent years due to the drop in price in some competing energy sources, particularly natural gas. In pursuit of lower manufacturing costs for wind turbine systems, work was conducted to explore an innovative rotor designed to reduce weight and cost over conventional rotor systems. Trade-off studies were conducted to measure the influence of number of blades, stiffness, and manufacturing method on COE. The study showed that increasing number of blades at constant solidity significantly reduced rotor weight and that manufacturing the blades using pultrusion technology produced the lowest cost per pound. Under contracts with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the California Energy Commission, a 400 kW (33m diameter) turbine was designed employing this technology. The project included tests of an 80 kW (15.5m diameter) dynamically scaled rotor which demonstrated the viability of the design.

  6. NUMERICAL AND EXSPERIMENTAL ASPECTS OF THERMALLY INDUCED VIBRATION IN REAL ROTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenko B Jevtić

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Temperature fields in electric energy generators may lead to mechanical dissbalance of an already balanced rotor. The author collected information in a number of steam power plants and confirmed the existence of the problem. This paper is presents the specific case of thermal deformation of the rotor, caused by an asymmetrical temperature field in scale of rotor. On the grounds of the relevant physical aspects, we propose a mathematical model identifying fields in a turbo generator rotor and suggest the optimum control by which the unwanted effects are eliminated.

  7. Airframe Noise Prediction of a Full Aircraft in Model and Full Scale Using a Lattice Boltzmann Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fares, Ehab; Duda, Benjamin; Khorrami, Mehdi R.

    2016-01-01

    Unsteady flow computations are presented for a Gulfstream aircraft model in landing configuration, i.e., flap deflected 39deg and main landing gear deployed. The simulations employ the lattice Boltzmann solver PowerFLOW(Trademark) to simultaneously capture the flow physics and acoustics in the near field. Sound propagation to the far field is obtained using a Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings acoustic analogy approach. Two geometry representations of the same aircraft are analyzed: an 18% scale, high-fidelity, semi-span model at wind tunnel Reynolds number and a full-scale, full-span model at half-flight Reynolds number. Previously published and newly generated model-scale results are presented; all full-scale data are disclosed here for the first time. Reynolds number and geometrical fidelity effects are carefully examined to discern aerodynamic and aeroacoustic trends with a special focus on the scaling of surface pressure fluctuations and farfield noise. An additional study of the effects of geometrical detail on farfield noise is also documented. The present investigation reveals that, overall, the model-scale and full-scale aeroacoustic results compare rather well. Nevertheless, the study also highlights that finer geometrical details that are typically not captured at model scales can have a non-negligible contribution to the farfield noise signature.

  8. An Empirical Study of Overlapping Rotor Interference for a Small Unmanned Aircraft Propulsion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantas Brazinskas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The majority of research into full-sized helicopter overlapping propulsion systems involves co-axial setups (fully overlapped. Partially overlapping rotor setups (tandem, multirotor have received less attention, and empirical data produced over the years is limited. The increase in demand for compact small unmanned aircraft has exposed the need for empirical investigations of overlapping propulsion systems at a small scale (Reynolds Number < 250,000. Rotor-to-rotor interference at the static state in various overlapping propulsion system configurations was empirically measured using off the shelf T-Motor 16 inch × 5.4 inch rotors. A purpose-built test rig was manufactured allowing various overlapping rotor configurations to be tested. First, single rotor data was gathered, then performance measurements were taken at different thrust and tip speeds on a range of overlap configurations. The studies were conducted in a system torque balance mode. Overlapping rotor performance was compared to an isolated dual rotor propulsion system revealing interference factors which were compared to the momentum theory. Tests revealed that in the co-axial torque-balanced propulsion system the upper rotor outperforms the lower rotor at axial separation ratios between 0.05 and 0.85. Additionally, in the same region, thrust sharing between the two rotors changed by 21%; the upper rotor produced more thrust than the lower rotor at all times. Peak performance was recorded as a 22% efficiency loss when the axial separation ratio was greater than 0.25. The performance of a co-axial torque-balanced system reached a 27% efficiency loss when the axial separation ratio was equal to 0.05. The co-axial system swirl recovery effect was recorded to have a 4% efficiency gain in the axial separation ratio region between 0.05 and 0.85. The smallest efficiency loss (3% was recorded when the rotor separation ratio was between 0.95 and 1 (axial separation ratio was kept at 0

  9. Extracting full-field dynamic strain on a wind turbine rotor subjected to arbitrary excitations using 3D point tracking and a modal expansion technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baqersad, Javad; Niezrecki, Christopher; Avitabile, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Health monitoring of rotating structures such as wind turbines and helicopter rotors is generally performed using conventional sensors that provide a limited set of data at discrete locations near or on the hub. These sensors usually provide no data on the blades or inside them where failures might occur. Within this paper, an approach was used to extract the full-field dynamic strain on a wind turbine assembly subject to arbitrary loading conditions. A three-bladed wind turbine having 2.3-m long blades was placed in a semi-built-in boundary condition using a hub, a machining chuck, and a steel block. For three different test cases, the turbine was excited using (1) pluck testing, (2) random impacts on blades with three impact hammers, and (3) random excitation by a mechanical shaker. The response of the structure to the excitations was measured using three-dimensional point tracking. A pair of high-speed cameras was used to measure displacement of optical targets on the structure when the blades were vibrating. The measured displacements at discrete locations were expanded and applied to the finite element model of the structure to extract the full-field dynamic strain. The results of the paper show an excellent correlation between the strain predicted using the proposed approach and the strain measured with strain-gages for each of the three loading conditions. The approach used in this paper to predict the strain showed higher accuracy than the digital image correlation technique. The new expansion approach is able to extract dynamic strain all over the entire structure, even inside the structure beyond the line of sight of the measurement system. Because the method is based on a non-contacting measurement approach, it can be readily applied to a variety of structures having different boundary and operating conditions, including rotating blades.

  10. End-effects-regime in full scale and lab scale rocket nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo, Raymundo; Tinney, Charles; Baars, Woutijn; Ruf, Joseph

    2014-11-01

    Modern rockets utilize a thrust-optimized parabolic-contour design for their nozzles for its high performance and reliability. However, the evolving internal flow structures within these high area ratio rocket nozzles during start up generate a powerful amount of vibro-acoustic loads that act on the launch vehicle. Modern rockets must be designed to accommodate for these heavy loads or else risk a catastrophic failure. This study quantifies a particular moment referred to as the ``end-effects regime,'' or the largest source of vibro-acoustic loading during start-up [Nave & Coffey, AIAA Paper 1973-1284]. Measurements from full scale ignitions are compared with aerodynamically scaled representations in a fully anechoic chamber. Laboratory scale data is then matched with both static and dynamic wall pressure measurements to capture the associating shock structures within the nozzle. The event generated during the ``end-effects regime'' was successfully reproduced in the both the lab-scale models, and was characterized in terms of its mean, variance and skewness, as well as the spectral properties of the signal obtained by way of time-frequency analyses.

  11. Full-scale physical model of landslide triggering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora, M.; Camporese, M.; Salandin, P.

    2013-12-01

    Landslide triggering induced by high-intensity rainfall infiltration in hillslopes is a complex phenomenon that involves hydrological processes operating at different spatio-temporal scales. Empirical methods give rough information about landslide-prone areas, without investigating the theoretical framework needed to achieve an in-depth understanding of the involved physical processes. In this study, we tackle this issue through physical experiments developed in an artificial hillslope realized in the Department of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering of the University of Padua. The structure consists of a reinforced concrete box containing a soil prism with the following maximum dimensions: 3.5 m high, 6 m long, and 2 m wide. In order to analyze and examine the triggered failure state, the experiments are carried out with intensive monitoring of pore water pressure and moisture content response. Subsurface monitoring instruments are installed at several locations and depths to measure downward infiltration and/or a rising groundwater table. We measure the unsaturated soil water pressure as well as positive pore pressures preceding failure in each experiments with six tensiometers. The volumetric water content is determined through six Time Domain Reflectometry probes. Two pressure transducers are located in observation wells to determine the position of the water table in time. Two stream gauges are positioned at the toeslope, for measuring both runoff and subsurface outflow. All data are collected and recorded by an acquisition data system from Campbell Scientific. The artificial hillslope is characterized by well-known and controlled conditions, which are designed to reproduce an ideal set-up susceptible to heavy rainfall landslide. The hydrologic forcing is generated by a rainfall simulator realized with nozzles from Sprying System and. specifically designed to produce a spatially uniform rainfall of intensity ranging from 50 to 150 mm/h. The aim

  12. Monitoring of biogas plants - experiences in laboratory and full scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Habermann

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To control and regulate the biogas process there are online process parameters and offline process parameters, which basically don’t differ between pilot biogas plants and industrial biogas plants. Generally, temperature, pH-value, volume flow rate and sometimes redox potential are measured online. An online-measurement of the dissolved volatile fatty acids and an online-detection of dissolved hydrogen both directly in the liquid phase as well as near-infrared spectroscopy are under development. FOS/TAC-analysis is the most common offline-analysis of the biogas process and normally it is carried out by the plant operator directly at the biogas plant. For example dry matter, organic dry matter, nitrogen and fatty acids are other analyses, which are carried out but by a laboratory. Microbiological analyses of biogas plants are very expensive and time-consuming and are therefore in Germany very rare. Microbiological analyses are mainly for research purposes. For example the Fluorescence in situ Hybridiation (FISH is used for characterization of the populations. Electric-optical measurement should be established as a new method to investigate the vitality of the methane producing microorganisms. In a cooperation project, which is promoted by the German ministry for technology, between IASP and Chair of Bioprocess Engineering at TU Berlin, this method is proper investigated using a device from the firm EloSystems. The microorganisms are brought in an electrical field of different frequencies. In this field the microorganisms direct themselves differently according to their physiological state. At the end of this project an early detection of process disturbance will be possible with the help of this method. In this presentation the result of the first tests are presented.

  13. Modeling basin- and plume-scale processes of CO2 storage for full-scale deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Q.; Birkholzer, J.T.; Mehnert, E.; Lin, Y.-F.; Zhang, K.

    2009-08-15

    Integrated modeling of basin- and plume-scale processes induced by full-scale deployment of CO{sub 2} storage was applied to the Mt. Simon Aquifer in the Illinois Basin. A three-dimensional mesh was generated with local refinement around 20 injection sites, with approximately 30 km spacing. A total annual injection rate of 100 Mt CO{sub 2} over 50 years was used. The CO{sub 2}-brine flow at the plume scale and the single-phase flow at the basin scale were simulated. Simulation results show the overall shape of a CO{sub 2} plume consisting of a typical gravity-override subplume in the bottom injection zone of high injectivity and a pyramid-shaped subplume in the overlying multilayered Mt. Simon, indicating the important role of a secondary seal with relatively low-permeability and high-entry capillary pressure. The secondary-seal effect is manifested by retarded upward CO{sub 2} migration as a result of multiple secondary seals, coupled with lateral preferential CO{sub 2} viscous fingering through high-permeability layers. The plume width varies from 9.0 to 13.5 km at 200 years, indicating the slow CO{sub 2} migration and no plume interference between storage sites. On the basin scale, pressure perturbations propagate quickly away from injection centers, interfere after less than 1 year, and eventually reach basin margins. The simulated pressure buildup of 35 bar in the injection area is not expected to affect caprock geomechanical integrity. Moderate pressure buildup is observed in Mt. Simon in northern Illinois. However, its impact on groundwater resources is less than the hydraulic drawdown induced by long-term extensive pumping from overlying freshwater aquifers.

  14. Biological treatment of habitation waste streams using full scale MABRs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, William; Barta, Daniel J.; Morse, Audra; Christenson, Dylan; Sevanthi, Ritesh

    Recycling waste water is a critical step to support sustainable long term habitation in space. Water is one of the largest contributors to life support requirements. In closed loop life support systems, membrane aerated biological reactors (MABRs) can reduce the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and ammonia (NH3) concentration as well as decrease the pH, leading to a more stable solution with less potential to support biological growth or promote carryover of unionized ammonia as well as producing a higher quality brine. Over the last three years we have operated 3 full size MABRs ( 120L) treating a habitation type waste stream composed of urine, hygiene, and laundry water. The reactors varied in the specific surface area (260, 200, and 150 m2/m3) available for biofilm growth and gas transfer. The liquid side system was continually monitored for pH, TDS, and DO, and the influent and effluent monitored daily for DOC, TN, NOx, and NH4. The gas side system was continuously monitored for O2, CO2, and N2O in the effluent gas as well as pressure and flow rates. These systems have all demonstrated greater than 90% DOC reductions and ammonium conversion rates of 50-70% over a range of loading rates with effluent pH from 5-7.5. We have evaluated. In addition, to evaluating the impact of loading rates (10-70 l/d) we have also evaluated the impact of forced hibernation, the use of pure O2 on performance, the impact of pressurize operation to prevent de-gassing of N2 and to promote higher O2 transfer and a discontinuous feeding cycle to allow integration with desalination. Our analysis includes quantification of consumables (power and O2), waste products such as CO2 and N2O as well as solids production. Our results support the use of biological reactors to treat habitation waste streams as an alternative to the use of pretreatment and desalination alone.

  15. Full-Duplex Communications in Large-Scale Cellular Networks

    KAUST Repository

    AlAmmouri, Ahmad

    2016-04-01

    In-band full-duplex (FD) communications have been optimistically promoted to improve the spectrum utilization and efficiency. However, the penetration of FD communications to the cellular networks domain is challenging due to the imposed uplink/downlink interference. This thesis presents a tractable framework, based on stochastic geometry, to study FD communications in multi-tier cellular networks. Particularly, we assess the FD communications effect on the network performance and quantify the associated gains. The study proves the vulnerability of the uplink to the downlink interference and shows that the improved FD rate gains harvested in the downlink (up to 97%) comes at the expense of a significant degradation in the uplink rate (up to 94%). Therefore, we propose a novel fine-grained duplexing scheme, denoted as α-duplex scheme, which allows a partial overlap between the uplink and the downlink frequency bands. We derive the required conditions to harvest rate gains from the α-duplex scheme and show its superiority to both the FD and half-duplex (HD) schemes. In particular, we show that the α-duplex scheme provides a simultaneous improvement of 28% for the downlink rate and 56% for the uplink rate. We also show that the amount of the overlap can be optimized based on the network design objective. Moreover, backward compatibility is an essential ingredient for the success of new technologies. In the context of in-band FD communication, FD base stations (BSs) should support HD users\\' equipment (UEs) without sacrificing the foreseen FD gains. The results show that FD-UEs are not necessarily required to harvest rate gains from FD-BSs. In particular, the results show that adding FD-UEs to FD-BSs offers a maximum of 5% rate gain over FD-BSs and HD-UEs case, which is a marginal gain compared to the burden required to implement FD transceivers at the UEs\\' side. To this end, we shed light on practical scenarios where HD-UEs operation with FD-BSs outperforms the

  16. Nitrosamines in pilot-scale and full-scale wastewater treatment plants with ozonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrity, Daniel; Pisarenko, Aleksey N; Marti, Erica; Trenholm, Rebecca A; Gerringer, Fred; Reungoat, Julien; Dickenson, Eric

    2015-04-01

    Ozone-based treatment trains offer a sustainable option for potable reuse applications, but nitrosamine formation during ozonation poses a challenge for municipalities seeking to avoid reverse osmosis and high-dose ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Six nitrosamines were monitored in full-scale and pilot-scale wastewater treatment trains. The primary focus was on eight treatment trains employing ozonation of secondary or tertiary wastewater effluents, but two treatment trains with chlorination or UV disinfection of tertiary wastewater effluent and another with full advanced treatment (i.e., reverse osmosis and advanced oxidation) were also included for comparison. N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and N-nitrosomorpholine (NMOR) were the most prevalent nitrosamines in untreated (up to 89 ng/L and 67 ng/L, respectively) and treated wastewater. N-nitrosomethylethylamine (NMEA) and N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) were detected at one facility each, while N-nitrosodipropylamine (NDPrA) and N-nitrosodibutylamine (NDBA) were less than their method reporting limits (MRLs) in all samples. Ozone-induced NDMA formation ranging from UV photolysis were effective for NDMA mitigation. NMOR was also removed with activated sludge but did not form during ozonation.

  17. Graphical Methods for Data Presentation: Full Scale Breaks, Dot Charts, and Multi-based Logging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, William S.

    Experimentation with graphical methods for data presentation is important for improving graphical communication in science. Several graphical methods are discussed including full scale breaks, dot charts, and multibased logging. Full scale breaks are suggested as replacements for partial scale breaks since partial scale breaks can fail to provide…

  18. Molecular Rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-31

    Molecular Dipolar Rotors on Insulating Surfaces," Salamanca , Spain. Trends in Nanotechnology Conference. September 5-9, 2003 [86] Laura I. Clarke, Mary Beth...Horansky at the Trends in Nanotechnology Conference, Salamanca , Spain (September 5-9, 2003). [145] Michl, J. “Unusual Molecules: Artificial Surface...temperature and frequency for difluorophenylene rotor crystal. Figure JP6. Monte Carlo results for the local potential asymmetry at

  19. The use of model-test data for predicting full-scale ACV resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forstell, B. G.; Harry, C. W.

    The paper summarizes the analysis of test data obtained with a 1/12-scale model of the Amphibious Assault Landing Craft (AALC) JEFF(B). The analysis was conducted with the objective of improving the accuracy of drag predictions for a JEFF(B)-type air-cushion vehicle (ACV). Model test results, scaled to full-scale, are compared with full-scale drag obtained in various sea states during JEFF(B) trials. From the results of this comparison, it is found that the Froude-scale model rough-water drag data is consistently greater than full-scale derived drag, and is a function of both wave height and craft forward speed. Results are presented indicating that Froude scaling model data obtained in calm water also causes an over-prediction of calm-water drag at full-scale. An empirical correction that was developed for use on a JEFF(B)-type craft is discussed.

  20. Performance and Loads Data from a Wind Tunnel Test of a Full-Scale, Coaxial, Hingeless Rotor Helicopter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    m N"-40 Uf ’tJ mI -4U~r LA P nN-.-V ( n14P - M-i N I CO 0 I.Ul -0 La 0~’ - . 0 0~~~f 0 Zn Mo. . 4.* ~ . . . p-’ -4- ’o N () tLc .QQ t n %0 4- af r...O - NI Io I-0a0L U%-1 4 r 5 It V 0NI %I z I I P- INk c - ( CNf~ 󈨋 LUC Nv’’ Z C Z .0 c eeec 9 Ii 5 e e S ’> >4~ O 4 ~ t - 2210N u O~ Pr -4

  1. An estimation method of full scale performance for pulling type podded propellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoung-Gil Park

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new estimation method of full scale propulsive performance for the pulling type podded propeller. In order to estimate the drag of pod housing, a drag velocity ratio, which includes the effects of podded propeller loading and Reynolds number, is presented and evaluated through the comparison of model test and numerical analysis. By separating the thrust of propeller blade and the drag of pod housing, extrapolation method of pod housing drag to full scale is deduced, and correction method of propeller blade thrust and torque to full scale is presented. This study utilized the drag coefficient ratio of the pod housing as a measure for expanding it to full scale, but in order to increase the accuracy of performance evaluation, additional study is necessary on the method for the full scale expansion via separating the drag of pod body, strut and fin which consist the pod housing.

  2. Theoretical analysis of the kinetic performance of laboratory- and full-scale composting systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Marco; Silveira, Ana; Antunes, Fernando

    2012-07-01

    Composting research at laboratory-scale is critical for the development of optimized full-scale plants. Discrepancies between processes at laboratory-scale and full-scale systems have been investigated in terms of heat balances, but a kinetic analysis of this issue is still missing. In this study, the composting rate at laboratory-scale was, on average, between 1.9 and 5.7 times faster than in full-scale systems for a set of published studies using municipal solid waste, food waste or similar materials. Laboratory-scale performance and full-scale systems were limited to 71 and 46%, respectively, of their maximum potential due to poor management of environmental process conditions far from their optimum. The main limiting environmental factor was found to be moisture content, followed by temperature. Besides environmental factors, waste composition and particle size were identified as factors accounting for kinetic differences between laboratory- and full-scale systems. Overall, this study identifies those factors that affect the kinetics of the composting process most and revealed a significant margin for reducing process time in full-scale composting.

  3. Evaluation of the airway of the SimMan full-scale patient simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesselfeldt, R; Kristensen, M S; Rasmussen, L S

    2005-01-01

    SimMan is a full-scale patient simulator, capable of simulating normal and pathological airways. The performance of SimMan has never been critically evaluated.......SimMan is a full-scale patient simulator, capable of simulating normal and pathological airways. The performance of SimMan has never been critically evaluated....

  4. Simulation in full-scale mock-ups: an ergonomics evaluation method?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simone Nyholm; Broberg, Ole

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents and exploratory study of four simulation sessions in full-scale mock-ups of future hospital facilities.......This paper presents and exploratory study of four simulation sessions in full-scale mock-ups of future hospital facilities....

  5. SCR in biofuel combustion - stage 3. Regeneration at full-scale; SCR vid biobraensleeldning - etapp 3. Regenerering i full skala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Christer; Kling, Aasa; Odenbrand, Ingemar; Khodayari, Raziyeh

    2002-04-01

    This is the third and last part of a project that started in 1996. The overall goal of the project was to increase the possibilities to use SCR at bio fuel combustion under reasonable technical and economical conditions. This part of the project has focused on full-scale applications of the reactivation methods that were developed during phase 1 and 2. There are quite large differences in deactivation rate between different types of catalysts. A high active Biocomb catalyst deactivates more slowly then a catalyst that contains less vanadium and is less active. A high active catalyst also catalysts the oxidation from SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. Practical consequences of this for low sulphur fuels should be investigated. Two new reactivation methods, sulphation and sulphation in combination with water wash, give an activity increase of 80 and 90% relative activity respectively for the evaluated catalyst (Biocomb Type B). The water washed and sulphated samples deactivate with approximately the same deactivation rate as not regenerated samples regardless of flue gas exposure temperatures. The samples that were regenerated with sulphation deactivates less fast than not regenerated samples when they are exposed to flue gas temperatures lower then 340 deg C. At higher temperatures they deactivates relatively fast. The plate-type catalyst has been regenerated with water wash in combination with sulphation as well as water and sulphuric acid wash up to a relative activity of 80%. The deactivation has been faster for the water washed and sulphated samples compared to the water and sulphuric acid washed samples (which deactivates with the same rate as fresh samples). At full-scale sulphation tests at the Brista Kraft plant, the catalytic activity was raised with 23% by sulphation with 260 ppm SO{sub 2} during 25 hours (dosage of 3 tons of elementary sulphur with the fuel). The sulphation led to a reduction on the NO{sub x}, emissions by half. The catalyst, which works in a flue

  6. Electromagnetic Design of a Switched Reluctance Motor With Segmental Rotors and Full-pitch Windings%整距绕组分块转子开关磁阻电机的电磁设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小元; 邓智泉; 许培林; 范娜

    2011-01-01

    Switched reluctance motors with full-pitch windings and segmental rotors are particularly suitable for the drive systems in aerospace environments because of low wind (oil) resistance and iron losses at high speed. According to the working principles and electromagnetic performances of switched reluctance motors with fuU-pitch windings and segmental rotors, and combining with the relationship between average torque and electromagnetic power, the computational formula of main body for switched reluctance motors with full-pitch windings and segmental rotors could be obtained when the currents in phase windings were equivalent to square waveforms. The rule of' selecting pole arcs of stator and rotor teeth for switched reluctance motors with full-pitch windings and segmental rotors was analyzed based on the electromagnetic performances of the motor, especially in aligned position and unaligned position. The principles of calculating the number of tunas of windings and other key dimensions of themotor were also established. A prototype is designed with the method presented; the finite element analysis and the experiments were accomplished. The results verify this design method for the switched reluctance motors with full-pitch windings and segmental rotors.%整距绕组分块转子开关磁阻电机具有高速运行时低风(油)阻和低铁心损耗等优点,特别适合用于航天航空驱动系统。根据整距绕组分块转子开关磁阻电机的基本工作原理,结合输出功率与平均转矩的关系,将绕组电流等效为方波,推导出了整距绕组分块转子开关磁阻电机的主体尺寸计算公式;基于电机定转子未对齐位置和对齐位置的电磁特性,以及整距绕组分块转子开关磁阻电机的电磁特点,确定了定、转子极弧系数选取的规则;同时分析了绕组匝数等主要尺寸的选取的规则;最后,基于上述方法优化设计了一台实验样机,并通过有限

  7. Design of the Active Elevon Rotor for Low Vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Mark V.; Rutkowski, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Helicopter fuselages vibrate more than desired, and traditional solutions have limited effectiveness and can impose an appreciable weight penalty. Alternative methods of combating high vibration, including Higher Harmonic Control (HHC) via harmonic swashplate motion and Individual Blade Control (IBC) via active pitch links, have been studied for several decades. HHC via an on-blade control surface was tested in 1977 on a full scale rotor using a secondary active swashplate and a mechanical control system. Recent smart material advances have prompted new research into the use of on-blade control concepts. Recent analytical studies have indicated that the use of on-blade control surfaces produces vibration reduction comparable to swashplate-based HHC but for less power. Furthermore, smart materials (such as piezoceramics) have been shown to provide sufficient control authority for preliminary rotor experiments. These experiments were initially performed at small scale for reduced tip speeds. More recent experiments have been conducted at or near full tip speeds, and a full-scale active rotor is under development by Boeing with Eurocopter et al. pursuing a similarly advanced full-scale implementation. The US Army Aeroflightdynamics Directorate has undertaken a new research program called the Active Elevon Rotor (AER) Focus Demo. This program includes the design, fabrication, and wind. tunnel testing of a four-bladed, 12.96 ft diameter rotor with one or two on-blade elevons per blade. The rotor, which will be Mach scaled, will use 2-5/rev elevon motion for closed-loop control and :will be tested in late 2001. The primary goal of the AER Focus Demo is the reduction of vibratory hub loads by 80% and the reduction of vibratory blade structural loads. A secondary goal is the reduction of rotor power. The third priority is the measurement and possible reduction of Blade Vortex Interaction (BVI) noise. The present study is focused on elevon effectiveness, that is, the elevon

  8. Transient and stability analysis of large scale rotor-bearing system with strong nonlinear elements by the mode summation-transfer matrix method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Zhiping

    This paper extends Riccati transfer matrix method to the transient and stability analysis of large scale rotor-bearing systems with strong nonlinear elements, and proposes a mode summation-transfer matrix method, in which the field transfer matrix of a distributed mass uniform shaft segment is obtained with the aid of the idea of mode summation and Newmark beta formulation, and the Riccati transfer matrix method is adopted to stablize the boundary value problem of the nonlinear systems. In this investigation, the real nonlinearity of the strong nonlinear elements is considered, not linearized, and the advantages of the Riccati transfer matrix are retained. So, this method is especially applicable to analyze the transient response and stability of large-scale rotor-bear systems with strong nonlinear elements. One example, a single-spool rotating system with strong nonlinear elements, is given. The obtained results show that this method is superior to that of Gu and Chen (1990) in accuracy, stability, and economy.

  9. IMPER: Characterization of the Wind Field over a Large Wind Turbine Rotor:Final report

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe; Wagner, Rozenn

    2012-01-01

    A modern wind turbine rotor with a contemporary rotor size would easily with the tips penetrate the air between 116 m and 30 m and herby experience effects of different wind. With current rules on power performance measurements such as IEC 61400-121 the reference wind speed is measured at hub height, an oversimplification of the wind energy power over the rotor disk area is carried out. The project comprised a number of innovative and coordinated measurements on a full scale turbine with remo...

  10. IMPER: Characterization of the Wind Field over a Large Wind Turbine Rotor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe; Wagner, Rozenn

    A modern wind turbine rotor with a contemporary rotor size would easily with the tips penetrate the air between 116 m and 30 m and herby experience effects of different wind. With current rules on power performance measurements such as IEC 61400-121 the reference wind speed is measured at hub...... height, an oversimplification of the wind energy power over the rotor disk area is carried out. The project comprised a number of innovative and coordinated measurements on a full scale turbine with remote sensing technology and simulations on a 500 kW wind turbine for the effects of wind field...

  11. Impact of compost process conditions on organic micro pollutant degradation during full scale composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadef, Yumna; Poulsen, Tjalfe Gorm; Bester, Kai

    2015-06-01

    Knowledge about the effects of oxygen concentration, nutrient availability and moisture content on removal of organic micro-pollutants during aerobic composting is at present very limited. Impact of oxygen concentration, readily available nitrogen content (NH4(+), NO3(-)), and moisture content on biological transformation of 15 key organic micro-pollutants during composting, was therefore investigated using bench-scale degradation experiments based on non-sterile compost samples, collected at full-scale composting facilities. In addition, the adequacy of bench-scale composting experiments for representing full-scale composting conditions, was investigated using micro-pollutant concentration measurements from both bench- and full-scale composting experiments. Results showed that lack of oxygen generally prevented transformation of organic micro-pollutants. Increasing readily available nitrogen content from about 50 mg N per 100 g compost to about 140 mg N per 100 g compost actually reduced micro-pollutant transformation, while changes in compost moisture content from 50% to 20% by weight, only had minor influence on micro-pollutant transformation. First-order micro-pollutant degradation rates for 13 organic micro-pollutants were calculated using data from both full- and bench-scale experiments. First-order degradation coefficients for both types of experiments were similar and ranged from 0.02 to 0.03 d(-1) on average, indicating that if a proper sampling strategy is employed, bench-scale experiments can be used to represent full-scale composting conditions.

  12. Performance of Four Full-Scale Artificially Aerated Horizontal Flow Constructed Wetlands for Domestic Wastewater Treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Butterworth, Eleanor; Richards, Andrew; Jones, Mark; Mansi, Gabriella; Ranieri, Ezio; Dotro, Gabriela; Jefferson, Bruce

    2016-01-01

      A comparison of the performance of four full-scale aerated horizontal flow constructed wetlands was conducted to determine the efficacy of the technology on sites receiving high and variable ammonia...

  13. Composting trial with BioFoam® products in a full scale commercial composting facility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, van der M.

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of the trial was to be able to judge whether BioFoam® material degrades at sufficient rate to be composted together with regular source separated municipal solid biowaste in a full scale industrial composting facility.

  14. Experimental verification of a one-parameter scaling law for the quantum and "classical" resonances of the atom-optics kicked rotor

    CERN Document Server

    Wimberger, S M; Parkins, S; Leonhardt, R; Wimberger, Sandro; Sadgrove, Mark; Parkins, Scott; Leonhardt, Rainer

    2005-01-01

    We present experimental measurements of the mean energy in the vicinity of the first and second quantum resonances of the atom optics kicked rotor for a number of different experimental parameters. Our data is rescaled and compared with the one parameter epsilon--classical scaling function developed to describe the quantum resonance peaks. Additionally, experimental data is presented for the ``classical'' resonance which occurs in the limit as the kicking period goes to zero. This resonance is found to be analogous to the quantum resonances, and a similar one-parameter classical scaling function is derived, and found to match our experimental results. The width of the quantum and classical resonance peaks is compared, and their Sub-Fourier nature examined.

  15. The dimensions of sand ripples in full-scale oscillatory flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Donoghue, T.; Doucette, J.C.; Werf, van der J.J.; Ribberink, J.S.

    2006-01-01

    New large-scale experiments have been carried out in two oscillatory flow tunnels to study ripple regime sand suspension and net sand transport processes in full-scale oscillatory flows. The paper focuses on ripple dimensions and the new data are combined with existing data to make a large dataset o

  16. Relationship between microbial activity and microbial community structure in six full-scale anaerobic digesters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regueiro, L.; Veiga, P.; Figueroa, M.; Alonso-Gutierrez, J.; Stams, A.J.M.; Lema, J.M.; Carballa, M.

    2012-01-01

    High activity levels and balanced anaerobic microbial communities are necessary to attain proper anaerobic digestion performance. Therefore, this work was focused on the kinetic performance and the microbial community structure of six full-scale anaerobic digesters and one lab-scale co-digester. Hyd

  17. Predictive Ability of the General Ability Index (GAI) versus the Full Scale IQ among Gifted Referrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Ellen W.; Kingsley, Jessica M.; Thompson, Dawna F.

    2010-01-01

    The General Ability Index (GAI) is a composite ability score for the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) that minimizes the impact of tasks involving working memory and processing speed. The goal of the current study was to compare the degree to which the Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) and the GAI predict academic achievement…

  18. Fluid mechanics of dynamic stall. II - Prediction of full scale characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, L. E.; Reding, J. P.

    1988-01-01

    Analytical extrapolations are made from experimental subscale dynamics to predict full scale characteristics of dynamic stall. The method proceeds by establishing analytic relationships between dynamic and static aerodynamic characteristics induced by viscous flow effects. The method is then validated by predicting dynamic test results on the basis of corresponding static test data obtained at the same subscale flow conditions, and the effect of Reynolds number on the static aerodynamic characteristics are determined from subscale to full scale flow conditions.

  19. Fluid mechanics of dynamic stall. II - Prediction of full scale characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, L. E.; Reding, J. P.

    1988-01-01

    Analytical extrapolations are made from experimental subscale dynamics to predict full scale characteristics of dynamic stall. The method proceeds by establishing analytic relationships between dynamic and static aerodynamic characteristics induced by viscous flow effects. The method is then validated by predicting dynamic test results on the basis of corresponding static test data obtained at the same subscale flow conditions, and the effect of Reynolds number on the static aerodynamic characteristics are determined from subscale to full scale flow conditions.

  20. Active Flap Control of the SMART Rotor for Vibration Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Steven R.; Anand, R. Vaidyanathan; Straub, Friedrich K.; Lau, Benton H.

    2009-01-01

    Active control methodologies were applied to a full-scale active flap rotor obtained during a joint Boeing/ DARPA/NASA/Army test in the Air Force National Full-Scale Aerodynamic Complex 40- by 80-foot anechoic wind tunnel. The active flap rotor is a full-scale MD 900 helicopter main rotor with each of its five blades modified to include an on-blade piezoelectric actuator-driven flap with a span of 18% of radius, 25% of chord, and located at 83% radius. Vibration control demonstrated the potential of active flaps for effective control of vibratory loads, especially normal force loads. Active control of normal force vibratory loads using active flaps and a continuous-time higher harmonic control algorithm was very effective, reducing harmonic (1-5P) normal force vibratory loads by 95% in both cruise and approach conditions. Control of vibratory roll and pitch moments was also demonstrated, although moment control was less effective than normal force control. Finally, active control was used to precisely control blade flap position for correlation with pretest predictions of rotor aeroacoustics. Flap displacements were commanded to follow specific harmonic profiles of 2 deg or more in amplitude, and the flap deflection errors obtained were less than 0.2 deg r.m.s.

  1. Development and Operation of an Automatic Rotor Trim Control System for the UH-60 Individual Blade Control Wind Tunnel Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore, Colin R.; Tischler, Mark B.

    2010-01-01

    An automatic rotor trim control system was developed and successfully used during a wind tunnel test of a full-scale UH-60 rotor system with Individual Blade Control (IBC) actuators. The trim control system allowed rotor trim to be set more quickly, precisely and repeatably than in previous wind tunnel tests. This control system also allowed the rotor trim state to be maintained during transients and drift in wind tunnel flow, and through changes in IBC actuation. The ability to maintain a consistent rotor trim state was key to quickly and accurately evaluating the effect of IBC on rotor performance, vibration, noise and loads. This paper presents details of the design and implementation of the trim control system including the rotor system hardware, trim control requirements, and trim control hardware and software implementation. Results are presented showing the effect of IBC on rotor trim and dynamic response, a validation of the rotor dynamic simulation used to calculate the initial control gains and tuning of the control system, and the overall performance of the trim control system during the wind tunnel test.

  2. Affection of the rotor-flux error on the induction motor full-order observer stability%转子磁链误差对感应电机观测器稳定性影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许思猛; 陈冲

    2012-01-01

    The rotor flux error affection on the stability of the induction motor full-order speed adaptive rotor flux observer was studied using the voltage model. The positive-real property of the forward path transfer function of the observer equivalent error system was analyzed. Stability domain border equations in ω1 -ωs plane were derived. A modified rotor flux error model excluding a pure integrator was suggested. Affection of the modified model on open-loop zeros plots of the linearized equivalent speed control system was investigated, and the stability region distribution in all motor operation modes was studied. Research results indicate the stability region is enlarged by amplifying the rotor flux error. The observer with the modified model is stable in the low-speed region with regenerative loads but unstable in low-speed motoring mode. Simulation results illustrate the adaptive observer with combined speed adaptive laws is stable in all motor operation modes.%利用转子磁链电压模型研究转子磁链误差对感应电动机全阶转速自适应转子磁链观测器稳定性影响.通过研究观测器等效误差系统前向通道传递函数正实性,得到观测器在ω1-ωs平面中稳定区域边界方程.提出不舍纯积分器的新型转子磁链误差模型,通过分析该模型对线性化等效转速控制系统开环零点分布影响,研究不同工况下观测器稳定区域分布.研究结果表明增大转子磁链误差能够扩大稳定区域,所提出的模型解决了低速再生发电工况时观测器稳定问题,但在低速电动工况时观测器不稳定.仿真结果表明组合应用不同转速自适应律观测器在所有工况下均能稳定.

  3. Comparison between full- and small-scale sensory assessments of air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Sabikova, J.; Lagercrantz, Love Per

    2002-01-01

    Thirty-nine untrained subjects made small- and full-scale evaluations of the acceptability of the quality of air at 22 deg.C and 40% RH, polluted by either carpet, felt floor covering, painted gypsum board, linoleum or chipboard. Small-scale evaluations were made on the air extracted from 200-L...... the perceived air quality in spaces, sensory emission rates estimated in small scale may require a correction, probably depending on the nature of the chemicals emitted by a building material....... glass chambers ventilated at an airflow of 0.9 L/s. Full-scale assessments were made immediately upon entering offices ventilated at an outdoor air supply rate of 1.9 h-1. The ratio of ventilation rate to surface area of a building material was identical in the chambers and in the offices. Full...

  4. Implications of the Baltimore Rail Tunnel Fire for Full-Scale Testing of Shipping Casks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halstead, R. J.; Dilger, F.

    2003-02-25

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) does not currently require full-scale physical testing of shipping casks as part of its certification process. Stakeholders have long urged NRC to require full-scale testing as part of certification. NRC is currently preparing a full-scale casktesting proposal as part of the Package Performance Study (PPS) that grew out of the NRC reexamination of the Modal Study. The State of Nevada and Clark County remain committed to the position that demonstration testing would not be an acceptable substitute for a combination of full-scale testing, scale-model tests, and computer simulation of each new cask design prior to certification. Based on previous analyses of cask testing issues, and on preliminary findings regarding the July 2001 Baltimore rail tunnel fire, the authors recommend that NRC prioritize extra-regulatory thermal testing of a large rail cask and the GA-4 truck cask under the PPS. The specific fire conditions and other aspects of the full-scale extra-regulatory tests recommended for the PPS are yet to be determined. NRC, in consultation with stakeholders, must consider past real-world accidents and computer simulations to establish temperature failure thresholds for cask containment and fuel cladding. The cost of extra-regulatory thermal testing is yet to be determined. The minimum cost for regulatory thermal testing of a legal-weight truck cask would likely be $3.3-3.8 million.

  5. Comparison between full- and small-scale sensory assessments of air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Sabikova, J.; Lagercrantz, Love Per

    2002-01-01

    Thirty-nine untrained subjects made small- and full-scale evaluations of the acceptability of the quality of air at 22 deg.C and 40% RH, polluted by either carpet, felt floor covering, painted gypsum board, linoleum or chipboard. Small-scale evaluations were made on the air extracted from 200-L g...... the perceived air quality in spaces, sensory emission rates estimated in small scale may require a correction, probably depending on the nature of the chemicals emitted by a building material.......Thirty-nine untrained subjects made small- and full-scale evaluations of the acceptability of the quality of air at 22 deg.C and 40% RH, polluted by either carpet, felt floor covering, painted gypsum board, linoleum or chipboard. Small-scale evaluations were made on the air extracted from 200-L...... glass chambers ventilated at an airflow of 0.9 L/s. Full-scale assessments were made immediately upon entering offices ventilated at an outdoor air supply rate of 1.9 h-1. The ratio of ventilation rate to surface area of a building material was identical in the chambers and in the offices. Full...

  6. Biogas production from cheese whey wastewater: laboratory- and full-scale studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatelatou, K; Giantsiou, N; Diamantis, V; Alexandridis, C; Alexandridis, A; Aivasidis, A

    2014-01-01

    A two-phase system for biogas production from cheese whey wastewater (CWW) was designed, set up and operated at laboratory and full scale for a whole cheese production season (8-9 months). The high efficiency and stability of the laboratory-scale system was demonstrated under various organic loading rates (OLRs) reaching 13 g chemical oxygen demand (COD) L(-1)d(-1) and producing up to 9 L L(-1)d(-1) of biogas (approximately 55% in methane). The COD removal was above 95% and the pH was maintained above 6.3 without any chemical addition. The full-scale system was operated at lower OLRs than its normal capacity, following the good response and high stability in disturbances of the laboratory-scale unit.

  7. Investigation of the gypsum quality at three full-scale wet flue gas desulphurisation plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Brian Brun; Kiil, Søren; Johnsson, Jan Erik

    2011-01-01

    In the present study the gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) quality at three full-scale wet flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) plants and a pilot plant were examined and compared. Gypsum quality can be expressed in terms of moisture content (particle size and morphology dependent) and the concentration of residual...... or accumulation of fly ash and impurities from the sorbent. The crystal morphology obtained in the pilot plant was columnar with distinct crystal faces as opposed to the rounded shapes found at the full-scale plants. All the investigated full-scale plants consistently produced high quality gypsum (High purity......, low moisture content and low impurity content). An episode concerning a sudden deterioration in the gypsum dewatering properties was furthermore investigated, and a change in crystal morphology, as well as an increased impurity content (aluminium, iron and fluoride), was detected....

  8. Full-Scale Accelerated Pavement Testing of Warm-Mix Asphalt (WMA) for Airfield Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    ER D C/ G SL T R -1 4 -3 Full-Scale Accelerated Pavement Testing of Warm-Mix Asphalt (WMA) for Airfield Pavements G eo te ch n ic al...2014 Full-Scale Accelerated Pavement Testing of Warm-Mix Asphalt (WMA) for Airfield Pavements Mariely Mejías-Santiago, Jesse D. Doyle, and John F... asphalt (WMA) mixtures designed for airfield pavements. Three WMA mixtures were evaluated and compared to a control hot-mix asphalt (HMA) mixture. Data

  9. Hybrid airfoil design methods for full-scale ice accretion simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Farooq

    The objective of this thesis is to develop a design method together with a design philosophy that allows the design of "subscale" or "hybrid" airfoils that simulate fullscale ice accretions. These subscale or hybrid airfoils have full-scale leading edges and redesigned aft-sections. A preliminary study to help develop a design philosophy for the design of hybrid airfoils showed that hybrid airfoils could be designed to simulate full-scale airfoil droplet-impingement characteristics and, therefore, ice accretion. The study showed that the primary objective in such a design should be to determine the aft section profile that provides the circulation necessary for simulating full-scale airfoil droplet-impingement characteristics. The outcome of the study, therefore, reveals circulation control as the main design variable. To best utilize this fact, this thesis describes two innovative airfoil design methods for the design of hybrid airfoils. Of the two design methods, one uses a conventional flap system while the other only suggests the use of boundary-layer control through slot-suction on the airfoil upper surface as a possible alternative for circulation control. The formulation of each of the two design methods is described in detail, and the results from each method are validated using wind-tunnel test data. The thesis demonstrates the capabilities of each method with the help of specific design examples highlighting their application potential. In particular, the flap-system based hybrid airfoil design method is used to demonstrate the design of a half-scale hybrid model of a full-scale airfoil that simulates full-scale ice accretion at both the design and off-design conditions. The full-scale airfoil used is representative of a scaled modern business-jet main wing section. The study suggests some useful advantages of using hybrid airfoils as opposed to full-scale airfoils for a better understanding of the ice accretion process and the related issues. Results

  10. Genome-based microbial ecology of anammox granules in a full-scale wastewater treatment system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speth, D.; Zandt, M.H. In 't; Guerrero-Cruz, S.; Dutilh, B.E.; Jetten, M.S.M

    2016-01-01

    Partial-nitritation anammox (PNA) is a novel wastewater treatment procedure for energy-efficient ammonium removal. Here we use genome-resolved metagenomics to build a genome-based ecological model of the microbial community in a full-scale PNA reactor. Sludge from the bioreactor examined here is use

  11. Genome-based microbial ecology of anammox granules in a full-scale wastewater treatment system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speth, D.; Zandt, M.H. In 't; Guerrero-Cruz, S.; Dutilh, B.E.; Jetten, M.S.M

    2016-01-01

    Partial-nitritation anammox (PNA) is a novel wastewater treatment procedure for energy-efficient ammonium removal. Here we use genome-resolved metagenomics to build a genome-based ecological model of the microbial community in a full-scale PNA reactor. Sludge from the bioreactor examined here is

  12. A metagenome of a full-scale microbial community carrying out Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Mads; Hansen, Lea Benedicte Skov; Saunders, Aaron Marc

    2012-01-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is widely used for removal of phosphorus from wastewater. In this study, a metagenome (18.2 Gb) was generated using Illumina sequencing from a full-scale EBPR plant to study the community structure and genetic potential. Quantitative fluorescence...

  13. Full-Scale Continuous Mini-Reactor Setup for Heterogeneous Grignard Alkylation of a Pharmaceutical Intermediate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Jønch; Holm, Thomas; Rahbek, Jesper P.

    2013-01-01

    A reactor setup consisting of two reactors in series has been implemented for a full-scale, heterogeneous Grignard alkylation. Solutions pass from a small filter reactor into a static mixer reactor with multiple side entries, thus combining continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and plug flow rea...

  14. Interpersonal Transport of Droplet Nuclei among Three Manikins in a Full-Scale Test Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Li; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on occupants’ exposure of droplet nuclei exhaled by one susceptible in a full-scale test room. Three breathing thermal manikins are standing in the middle of room and both the process in the microenvironment and in the macroenvironment are considered. A diffusive ceiling has been...

  15. Interpersonal Transport of Expiratory Aerosols among Three Manikins in a Full-Scale Test Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Li; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on occupants’ exposure of aerosols exhaled by one susceptible in a full-scale test room. Three breathing thermal manikins are standing in the middle of room and both the process in the microenvironment and in the macroenvironment are considered. A diffusive ceiling has been...

  16. Full-Scale Accelerated Testing of Multi-axial Geogrid Stabilized Flexible Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The inclusion of geosynthetics in pavement structures has been utilized as a means of reducing costs and/or extending pavement service life. These... labor and equipment requirements. As new geosynthetic products are developed, full-scale performance data are needed to provide quantifiable benefits to

  17. Mechanical Pretreatment to Increase the Bioenergy Yield for Full-scale Biogas Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsapekos, Panagiotis; Kougias, Panagiotis; Angelidaki, Irini

    % compared to the untreated one. The digestion of meadow grass as an alternative co-substrate had positive impact on the energy yield of full-scale biogas reactors operating with cattle manure, pig manure or mixture of both. A preliminary analysis showed that the addition of meadow grass in a manure based...

  18. Evaluating 5 and 8 pH-point titrations for measuring VFA in full-scale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Received 24 February 2012; accepted in revised form 19 November 2012. ... applied to determine VFA in full-scale primary sludge hydrolysate and was shown to be equally efficient to the methods .... To test and measure the recovery of different VFA concentra- ..... bonate and SCFA weak acid bases in anaerobic systems.

  19. Characterisation of recycled mixed plastic solid wastes: Coupon and full-scale investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajracharya, Rohan Muni; Manalo, Allan C; Karunasena, Warna; Lau, Kin-Tak

    2016-02-01

    In Australia, the plastic solid waste (PSW) comprises 16% by weight of municipal solid waste but only about one-fourth are recycled. One of the best options to increase the recycling rate of mixed PSW is to convert them into products suitable for construction. However, a comprehensive understanding on the mechanical behaviour of mixed PSW under different loading conditions is important for their widespread use as a construction material. This study focuses on investigating the mechanical behaviour of recycled mixed PSW containing HDPE, LDPE and PP using coupon and full-scale specimens. From coupon test, the strength values were found to be 14.8, 19.8, 20, 5.6MPa in tension, compression, flexure and shear respectively, while the modulus of elasticity are 0.91, 1.03, 0.72GPa in tension, compression and flexure respectively. The coefficient of variance of the measured properties for coupon and fullscale specimens was less than 10% indicating that consistent material properties can be obtained for mixed PSW. More importantly, the strength properties of mixed PSW are comparable to softwood structural timber. The flexural behaviour of full-scale specimens was also predicted using fibre model analysis and finite element modelling. Comparison showed that using coupon specimen's properties, the flexural behaviour of the full-scale specimens can be predicted reliably which can eliminate the costly and time consuming arrangements for full-scale experimental tests.

  20. Bacterial community structure of a full-scale biofilter treating pig house exhaust air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Anja; Pedersen, Kristina Hadulla; Nielsen, Per Halkjær;

    2011-01-01

    Biological air filters represent a promising tool for treating emissions of ammonia and odor from pig facilities. Quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and 16S rRNA gene sequencing were used to investigate the bacterial community structure and diversity in a full-scale biofilter...

  1. Optimization-based methodology for wastewater treatment plant synthesis – a full scale retrofitting case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozkurt, Hande; Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2015-01-01

    technologies. The superstructure optimization problem is formulated as a Mixed Integer (non)Linear Programming problem and solved for different scenarios - represented by different objective functions and constraint definitions. A full-scale domestic wastewater treatment plant (265,000 PE) is used as a case...

  2. Fate of pharmaceuticals in full-scale source separated sanitation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butkovskyi, A.; Hernandez Leal, L.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.; Zeeman, G.

    2015-01-01

    Removal of 14 pharmaceuticals and 3 of their transformation products was studied in a full-scale source separated sanitation system with separate collection and treatment of black water and grey water. Black water is treated in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor followed by

  3. Fate of geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol in full-scale water treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamyadi, Arash; Henderson, Rita; Stuetz, Richard; Hofmann, Ron; Ho, Lionel; Newcombe, Gayle

    2015-10-15

    The increasing frequency and intensity of taste and odour (T&O) producing cyanobacteria in water sources is a growing global issue. Geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) are the main cyanobacterial T&O compounds and can cause complaints from consumers at levels as low as 10 ng/L. However, literature concerning the performance of full-scale treatment processes for geosmin and MIB removal is rare. Hence, the objectives of this study were to: 1) estimate the accumulation and breakthrough of geosmin and MIB inside full-scale water treatment plants; 2) verify the potential impact of sludge recycling practice on performance of plants; and, 3) assess the effectiveness of aged GAC for the removal of these compounds. Sampling after full-scale treatment processes and GAC pilot assays were conducted to achieve these goals. Geosmin and MIB monitoring in full-scale plants provided the opportunity to rank the performance of studied treatment processes with filtration and granular activated carbon providing the best barriers for removal of total and extracellular compounds, correspondingly. Geosmin was removed to a greater extent than MIB using GAC. Geosmin and MIB residuals in water post GAC contactors after two years of operation was 20% and 40% of initial concentrations, correspondingly. Biological activity on the GAC surface enhanced the removal of T&O compounds. These observations demonstrated that a multi-barrier treatment approach is required to ensure cyanobacteria and their T&O compounds are effectively removed from drinking water.

  4. Controlling Urban Lighting by Human Motion Patterns results from a full Scale Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Esben Skouboe; Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Jensen, Ole B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a full-scale experiment investigating the use of human motion intensities as input for interactive illumination of a town square in the city of Aalborg in Denmark. As illuminators sixteen 3.5 meter high RGB LED lamps were used. The activity on the square was monitored by three...

  5. URANIUM REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER USING A SMALL FULL-SCALE SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report presents background and history of water quality, the basis for design and nine months of actual operating data for a small, full-scale strong-base ion exchange system that is used to remove uranium from a water supply serving a school in Jefferson County, CO. Informa...

  6. China's Onshore Oil Industry is in Full Scale Opening to the Outside World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Xueming; Wei Fang

    1995-01-01

    @@ In 1994, China's onshore petroleum industry continuously emphasized on making use of domestic and foreign resources and funds as well as opening to the outside world in full scale, so that a great progress has been achieved in the cooperation with foreign companies, contracting overseas projects, introducing advanced technology, importing equipment from abroad etc. CNPC has developed constant ties with the world oil circles.

  7. Anaerobic digestion foaming in full-scale biogas plants: A survey on causes and solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Boe, Kanokwan; O-Thong, Sompong;

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion foaming is a common operation problem in biogas plants with negative impacts on the biogas plants economy and environment. A survey of 16 Danish full-scale biogas plants on foaming problems revealed that most of them had experienced foaming in their processes up to three times...

  8. Comparison of Test and Finite Element Analysis for Two Full-Scale Helicopter Crash Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annett, Martin S.; Horta,Lucas G.

    2011-01-01

    Finite element analyses have been performed for two full-scale crash tests of an MD-500 helicopter. The first crash test was conducted to evaluate the performance of a composite deployable energy absorber under combined flight loads. In the second crash test, the energy absorber was removed to establish the baseline loads. The use of an energy absorbing device reduced the impact acceleration levels by a factor of three. Accelerations and kinematic data collected from the crash tests were compared to analytical results. Details of the full-scale crash tests and development of the system-integrated finite element model are briefly described along with direct comparisons of acceleration magnitudes and durations for the first full-scale crash test. Because load levels were significantly different between tests, models developed for the purposes of predicting the overall system response with external energy absorbers were not adequate under more severe conditions seen in the second crash test. Relative error comparisons were inadequate to guide model calibration. A newly developed model calibration approach that includes uncertainty estimation, parameter sensitivity, impact shape orthogonality, and numerical optimization was used for the second full-scale crash test. The calibrated parameter set reduced 2-norm prediction error by 51% but did not improve impact shape orthogonality.

  9. LiDAR measurements of full scale wind turbine wake characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Mann, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    Full scale wind speed measurements, recorded inside the wake of an operating 2MW/80m wind turbine,has been performed during the spring 2009, as part of the EU-TOPFARM project. Longitudinal wind speeds in wake cross sections are measured with a LiDAR system mounted in the rear of the nacelle. The ...

  10. REVIEW OF BENCH-, PILOT-, AND FULL-SCALE ORIMULSION (R) COMBUSTION TESTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of a review of bench-, pilot-, and full-scale Orimulsion combustion tests. A fossil fuel marketed by its producer, Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A. (PdVSA), since the late 1980s as an alternative to coal and heavy fuel oil, Orimulsion is a bitumen-in-water em...

  11. Ancillary Frequency Control of Direct Drive Full-Scale Converter Based Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Su, Chi; Fang, Jiakun;

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation model of a wind power plant based on a MW-level variable speed wind turbine with a full-scale back-to-back power converter developed in the simulation tool of DIgSILENT Power Factory. Three different kinds of ancillary frequency control strategies, namely inertia ...

  12. CALIBRATION OF FULL-SCALE OZONATION SYSTEMS WITH CONSERVATIVE AND REACTIVE TRACERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A full-scale ozonation reactor was characterized with respect to the overall oxidation budget by coupling laboratory kinetics with reactor hydraulics. The ozone decomposition kinetics and the ratio of the OH radical to the ozone concentration were determined in laboratory batch ...

  13. LiDAR measurements of full scale wind turbine wake characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Mann, Jakob;

    2009-01-01

    Full scale wind speed measurements, recorded inside the wake of an operating 2MW/80m wind turbine,has been performed during the spring 2009, as part of the EU-TOPFARM project. Longitudinal wind speeds in wake cross sections are measured with a LiDAR system mounted in the rear of the nacelle...

  14. Impact of water quality change on corrosion scales in full and partially replaced lead service lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    BackgroundChanges in water qualities have been associated with an increase in lead release from full and partial lead service lines (LSLs), such as the cases of Washington D.C. or more recently of Flint (Mi). Water qualities affect the mineralogy of the scales. Furthermore, follo...

  15. Rotor Embedded with Shape Memory Alloy Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Gupta

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present analysis, the fundamental natural frequency of a Jeffcott and a two-mass rotor with fibre reinforced composite shaft embedded with shape memory alloy (SMA wires is evaluated by Rayleigh's procedure. The flexibility of rotor supports is taken into account. The effect of three factors, either singly or in combination with each other, on rotor critical speed is studied. The three factors are: (i increase in Young's modulus of SMA (NITINOL wires when activated, (ii tension in wires because of phase recovery stresses, and (iii variation of support stiffness by three times because of activation of SMA in rotor supports. It is shown by numerical examples that substantial variation in rotor critical speeds can be achieved by a combination of these factors which can be effectively used to avoid resonance during rotor coast up/down.

  16. THE DESIGN OF AXIAL PUMP ROTORS USING THE NUMERICAL METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali BEAZIT

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The researches in rotor theory, the increasing use of computers and the connection between design and manufacturing of rotors, have determined the revaluation and completion of classical rotor geometry. This paper presents practical applications of mathematical description of rotor geometry. A program has been created to describe the rotor geometry for arbitrary shape of the blade. The results can be imported by GAMBIT - a processor for geometry with modeling and mesh generations, to create a mesh needed in hydrodynamics analysis of rotor CFD. The results obtained are applicable in numerical methods and are functionally convenient for CAD/CAM systems.

  17. Design of Low-Torque-Ripple Synchronous Reluctance Motor with External Rotor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavrinovicha L.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents new designs for synchronous reluctance motors that have external rotor (segment-shaped rotor, rotor with additional non-magnetic space to the quadrature axis of the rotor, and rotor with several flux barriers. Impact of the external rotor configuration on the electromagnetic torque and torque ripple is analysed. Electromagnetic torque ripple factor is calculated for each studied motor using the results of magnetic field numerical calculations.

  18. Modelling and Simulation of Variable Speed Thruster Drives with Full-Scale Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan F. Hansen

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper considerations about modelling and simulation of variable speed thruster drives are made with comparison to full scale measurements from Varg FPSO. For special purpose vessels with electric propulsion operating in DP (Dynamic Positioning mode the thruster drives are essential for the vessel operation. Different model strategies of thruster drives are discussed. An advanced thruster drive model with a dynamic motor model and field vector control principle is shown. Simulations are performed with both the advanced model and a simplified model. These are compared with full-scale measurements from Varg FPSO. The simulation results correspond well with the measurements, for both the simplified model and the advanced model.

  19. Septic tank combined with anaerobic filter and conventional UASB: results from full scale plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. A. da Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion is an important alternative for domestic wastewater treatment, especially in warm climate regions. Two full-scale anaerobic schemes were investigated: septic tank combined with anaerobic filter (S T A NF and conventional UASB reactors. Treated effluents from these systems were subjected to disinfection by chlorination. The operational performance of 56 full-scale plants (36 S T A NF and 20 UASB provided a realistic view. Findings showed that the plants operated with low OLR (< 2.0 kg COD/m³.day. Despite this, the removal of organic material was below values suggested by the literature (around 60% for COD. A removal of 4.0 Log10 units of total coliform and E. coli can be reached with residual chlorine (R CL of at least 2.0 Cl-Cl2/l. Although UASB plants have performed better, improvement of maintenance is needed in both treatment configurations.

  20. Investigations of Air-cooled Turbine Rotors for Turbojet Engines II : Mechanical Design, Stress Analysis, and Burst Test of Modified J33 Split-disk Rotor / Richard H. Kemp and Merland L. Moseson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Richard H; Moseson, Merland L

    1952-01-01

    A full-scale J33 air-cooled split turbine rotor was designed and spin-pit tested to destruction. Stress analysis and spin-pit results indicated that the rotor in a J33 turbojet engine, however, showed that the rear disk of the rotor operated at temperatures substantially higher than the forward disk. An extension of the stress analysis to include the temperature difference between the two disks indicated that engine modifications are required to permit operation of the two disks at more nearly the same temperature level.

  1. HRP facility for fabrication of ITER vertical target divertor full scale plasma facing units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visca, Eliseo, E-mail: eliseo.visca@enea.it [Unità Tecnica Fusione, ENEA C. R. Frascati, via E. Fermi 45, IT-00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Roccella, S. [Unità Tecnica Fusione, ENEA C. R. Frascati, via E. Fermi 45, IT-00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Candura, D.; Palermo, M. [Ansaldo Nucleare S.p.A., Corso Perrone 25, IT-16152 Genova (Italy); Rossi, P.; Pizzuto, A. [Unità Tecnica Fusione, ENEA C. R. Frascati, via E. Fermi 45, IT-00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Sanguinetti, G.P. [Ansaldo Nucleare S.p.A., Corso Perrone 25, IT-16152 Genova (Italy); Mancini, A.; Verdini, L.; Cacciotti, E.; Cerri, V.; Mugnaini, G.; Reale, A.; Giacomi, G. [Unità Tecnica Fusione, ENEA C. R. Frascati, via E. Fermi 45, IT-00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • R&D activities for the manufacturing of ITER divertor high heat flux plasma-facing components (HHFC). • ENEA and Ansaldo have jointly manufactured several actively cooled monoblock mock-ups and prototypical components. • ENEA and ANSALDO NUCLEARE jointly participate to the European program for the qualification of the manufacturing technology for the ITER divertor IVT. • Successful manufacturing by HRP (Hot Radial Pressing) of first full-scale full-W armored IVT qualification prototype. - Abstract: ENEA and Ansaldo Nucleare S.p.A. (ANN) have being deeply involved in the European development activities for the manufacturing of the ITER Divertor Inner Vertical Target (IVT) plasma-facing components. During normal operation the heat flux deposited on the bottom segment of divertor is 5–10 MW/m{sup 2} but the capability to remove up to 20 MW/m{sup 2} during transient events of 10 s must also be demonstrated. In order to fulfill ITER requirements, ENEA has set up and widely tested a manufacturing process, named Hot Radial Pressing (HRP). The last challenge is now to fabricate full-scale prototypes of the IVT, aimed to be qualified for the next step, i.e. the series production. On the basis of the experience of manufacturing hundreds of small mock-ups, ENEA designed and installed a new suitable HRP facility. The objective of getting a final shaped plasma facing unit (PFU) that satisfies these requirements is an ambitious target because tolerances set by ITER/F4E are very tight. The setting-up of the equipment started with the fabrication of full scale and representative ‘dummies’ in which stainless steel instead of CFC or W was used for monoblocks. The results confirmed that dimensions were compliant with the required tolerances. The paper reports a brief description of the innovative HRP equipment and the dimensional check results after HRP of the first full-scale full-W PFU.

  2. Computation of Loads on the McDonnell Douglas Advanced Bearingless Rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Khanh; Lauzon, Dan; Anand, Vaidyanathan

    1994-01-01

    Computed results from UMARC and DART analyses are compared with the blade bending moments and vibratory hub loads data obtained from a full-scale wind tunnel test of the McDonnell Douglas five-bladed advanced bearingless rotor. The 5 per-rev vibratory hub loads data are corrected using results from a dynamic calibration of the rotor balance. The comparison between UMARC computed blade bending moments at different flight conditions are poor to fair, while DART results are fair to good. Using the free wake module, UMARC adequately computes the 5P vibratory hub loads for this rotor, capturing both magnitude and variations with forward speed. DART employs a uniform inflow wake model and does not adequately compute the 5P vibratory hub loads for this rotor.

  3. The HyperV Full-Scale Contoured-Gap Coaxial Plasma Railgun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockington, Samuel; Case, Andrew; Messer, Sarah; Bomgardner, Richard; Elton, Raymond; Wu, Linchun; Witherspoon, F. Douglas

    2009-11-01

    HyperV has been developing pulsed plasma injected coaxial railguns with a contoured gap profile designed to mitigate the blowby instability. Previous work using half-scale guns has been successful in launching 150 μg plasmas at 90 km/s [1]. In order to meet the original goal of 200 μg at 200 km/s the full-scale coaxial plasma gun has been constructed, and initial testing is beginning. This new plasma gun consists of two machined aluminum electrodes and a UHMW polyethylene breech insulator. The gun is breech fed by 64 ablative polyethylene capillary discharge units identical to the half-scale gun units. Maximum accelerator energy storage has also been increased 50%. Refractory coatings may be necessary to allow full current (˜800 kA) operation. The outer electrode includes 24 small diagnostic ports for optical and magnetic probe access to the plasma inside the gun to allow direct measurement of the plasma armature dynamics. Initial test data from the full-scale coax gun will be presented along with plans for future testing. Work supported by the U.S. DOE Office of Fusion Energy Sciences.[4pt] [1] F. D. Witherspoon, A. Case, S. Messer, R. Bomgardner, M. Phillips, S. Brockington, R. Elton, ``Contoured Gap Coaxial Plasma Gun with Injected Plasma Armature'' Rev. Sci. Instr. submitted (2009)

  4. Full-Scale Accident Testing in Support of Used Nuclear Fuel Transportation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durbin, Samuel G.; Lindgren, Eric R.; Rechard, Rob P.; Sorenson, Ken B.

    2014-09-01

    The safe transport of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste is an important aspect of the waste management system of the United States. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) currently certifies spent nuclear fuel rail cask designs based primarily on numerical modeling of hypothetical accident conditions augmented with some small scale testing. However, NRC initiated a Package Performance Study (PPS) in 2001 to examine the response of full-scale rail casks in extreme transportation accidents. The objectives of PPS were to demonstrate the safety of transportation casks and to provide high-fidelity data for validating the modeling. Although work on the PPS eventually stopped, the Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future recommended in 2012 that the test plans be re-examined. This recommendation was in recognition of substantial public feedback calling for a full-scale severe accident test of a rail cask to verify evaluations by NRC, which find that risk from the transport of spent fuel in certified casks is extremely low. This report, which serves as the re-assessment, provides a summary of the history of the PPS planning, identifies the objectives and technical issues that drove the scope of the PPS, and presents a possible path for moving forward in planning to conduct a full-scale cask test. Because full-scale testing is expensive, the value of such testing on public perceptions and public acceptance is important. Consequently, the path forward starts with a public perception component followed by two additional components: accident simulation and first responder training. The proposed path forward presents a series of study options with several points where the package performance study could be redirected if warranted.

  5. Drag coefficients of lattice masts from full-scale wind-tunnel tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgakis, Christos; Støttrup-Andersen, Ulrik; Johnsen, Marie;

    2009-01-01

    :5 scale section model tests performed at the National Physics Laboratory and the National Maritime Institute in the UK in the 1970´s. ESDU provides velocity-dependent drag coefficients equivalent to those obtained from the same series of tests. In all cases, the mast legs and diagonals are comprised......In this paper, the drag coefficients obtained from a series of full-scale section model wind-tunnel tests of several lattice mast configurations are presented and compared to those provided in Eurocode 3 and ESDU. The drag coefficients provided in Eurocode are conservative interpretations of 1...

  6. Potential of alternative sorbents for desulphurization: from laboratory tests to the full-scale combustion unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zbyszek Szeliga; Dagmar Juchelkova; Bohumir Cech; Pavel Kolat; Franz Winter; Adam J. Campen; Tomasz S. Wiltowski [Technical University of Ostrava (VSB), Ostrava (Czech Republic). Department of Energy Engineering

    2008-09-15

    At present, natural limestone is used for the desulphurization of waste gases from the combustion of fossil fuels. However, it is important to save all primary resources, such as limestone, for the future. The researchers focused on finding alternative sorbents for the purpose of desulphurization in a dry additive method, which would become the alternative for natural limestone. This paper is primarily focused on desulphurization tests of selected substances. Tests were initially conducted on the laboratory scale, followed by pilot and full-scale combustion units. 15 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Characterization of Membrane Foulants in Full-scale and Lab-scale Membrane Bioreactors for Wastewater Treatment and Reuse

    KAUST Repository

    Matar, Gerald

    2015-12-01

    Membrane bioreactors (MBRs) offer promising solution for wastewater treatment and reuse to address the problem of water scarcity. Nevertheless, this technology is still facing challenges associated with membrane biofouling. This phenomenon has been mainly investigated in lab-scale MBRs with little or no insight on biofouling in full-scale MBR plants. Furthermore, the temporal dynamics of biofouling microbial communities and their extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) are less studied. Herein, a multidisciplinary approach was adopted to address the above knowledge gaps in lab- and full-scale MBRs. In the full-scale MBR study, 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing with multivariate statistical analysis revealed that the early and mature biofilm communities from five full-scale MBRs differed significantly from the source community (i.e. activated sludge), and random immigration of species from the source community was unlikely to shape the community structure of biofilms. Also, a core biofouling community was shared between the five MBR plants sampled despite differences in their operating conditions. In the lab-scale MBR studies, temporal dynamics of microbial communities and their EPS products were monitored on different hydrophobic and hydrophilic membranes during 30 days. At the early stages of filtration (1 d), the same early colonizers belonging to the class Betaproteobacteria were identified on all the membranes. However, their relative abundance decreased on day 20 and 30, and sequence reads belonging to the phylum Firmicutes and Chlorobi became dominant on all the membranes on day 20 and 30. In addition, the intrinsic membrane characteristic did not select any specific EPS fractions at the initial stages of filtration and the same EPS foulants developed with time on the hydrophobic and hydrophilic membranes. Our results indicated that the membrane surface characteristics did not select for specific biofouling communities or EPS foulants, and the same early

  8. Aerobic Sludge Granulation in a Full-Scale Sequencing Batch Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerobic granulation of activated sludge was successfully achieved in a full-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR with 50,000 m3 d−1 for treating a town’s wastewater. After operation for 337 days, in this full-scale SBR, aerobic granules with an average SVI30 of 47.1 mL g−1, diameter of 0.5 mm, and settling velocity of 42 m h−1 were obtained. Compared to an anaerobic/oxic plug flow (A/O reactor and an oxidation ditch (OD being operated in this wastewater treatment plant, the sludge from full-scale SBR has more compact structure and excellent settling ability. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE analysis indicated that Flavobacterium sp., uncultured beta proteobacterium, uncultured Aquabacterium sp., and uncultured Leptothrix sp. were just dominant in SBR, whereas uncultured bacteroidetes were only found in A/O and OD. Three kinds of sludge had a high content of protein in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS. X-ray fluorescence (XRF analysis revealed that metal ions and some inorganics from raw wastewater precipitated in sludge acted as core to enhance granulation. Raw wastewater characteristics had a positive effect on the granule formation, but the SBR mode operating with periodic feast-famine, shorter settling time, and no return sludge pump played a crucial role in aerobic sludge granulation.

  9. Full scale numerical analysis of high performance concrete columns designed to withstand severe blast impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgaard, Benjamin; Georgakis, Christos; Stang, Henrik;

    2007-01-01

    Polymer reinforced Compact Reinforced Composite, PCRC, is a Fiber reinforced Densified Small Particle system, FDSP, combined with a high strength longitudinal flexural rebar arrangement laced together with polymer lacing to avoid shock initiated disintegration of the structural element under blast...... load. Scaled experimental and numerical results of PCRC columns (200x200x1600mm) subjected to close-in detonation are presented in this paper. Based on these results and the use of geometrical scaling lows, a full scale column (800x800x6400mm) is designed and verified numerically to withstand 486.5 kg...... of PETN (85/15) High Explosives at stand off 1600 mm. Additionally, a LS-DYNA material model suitable for predicting the response of Polymer reinforced Compact Reinforced Concrete improved for close-in detonation and a description of the LS-DYNA multi-material Eulerian method for modeling the blast event...

  10. Metabolic modelling of full-scale enhanced biological phosphorus removal sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanham, Ana B; Oehmen, Adrian; Saunders, Aaron M; Carvalho, Gilda; Nielsen, Per H; Reis, Maria A M

    2014-12-01

    This study investigates, for the first time, the application of metabolic models incorporating polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) and glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) towards describing the biochemical transformations of full-scale enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) activated sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). For this purpose, it was required to modify previous metabolic models applied to lab-scale systems by incorporating the anaerobic utilisation of the TCA cycle and the aerobic maintenance processes based on sequential utilisation of polyhydroxyalkanoates, followed by glycogen and polyphosphate. The abundance of the PAO and GAO populations quantified by fluorescence in situ hybridisation served as the initial conditions of each biomass fraction, whereby the models were able to describe accurately the experimental data. The kinetic rates were found to change among the four different WWTPs studied or even in the same plant during different seasons, either suggesting the presence of additional PAO or GAO organisms, or varying microbial activities for the same organisms. Nevertheless, these variations in kinetic rates were largely found to be proportional to the difference in acetate uptake rate, suggesting a viable means of calibrating the metabolic model. The application of the metabolic model to full-scale sludge also revealed that different Accumulibacter clades likely possess different acetate uptake mechanisms, as a correlation was observed between the energetic requirement for acetate transport across the cell membrane with the diversity of Accumulibacter present. Using the model as a predictive tool, it was shown that lower acetate concentrations in the feed as well as longer aerobic retention times favour the dominance of the TCA metabolism over glycolysis, which could explain why the anaerobic TCA pathway seems to be more relevant in full-scale WWTPs than in lab-scale systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All

  11. Performance of the LHC Final Design, Full-Scale Superconducting Dipole Prototypes

    CERN Document Server

    Bottura, L; Siemko, A; Vlogaert, J; Wyss, C

    2001-01-01

    Within the LHC magnet program, a series of six, final design, full-scale superconducting dipole prototypes are presently being built in industry and tested at CERN. The main features of these magnets are: two-in-one structure, 56 mm aperture, six-block two layer coils wound from 15.1 mm wide graded NbTi cables, and all-polyimide insulation. This paper reviews the main test results of magnets tested to day at 4.2 K and 1.8 K. The results of the quench training, conductor performance, magnet protection, sensitivity to ramp rate and field quality are presented and discussed in terms of the design parameters and the aims of the full scale dipole prototype program.

  12. Standard full-scale chamber test conditions for examination of mineral wool products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juhl, H.D. [Glasuld, Vamdrup (Denmark); Husemoen, T. [Rockwool International A/S, Hedehusene (Denmark); Lindqvist, H. [Gullfiber AB, Billisholm (Sweden); Nordh, I. [Partek Insulation AB, Skoevde (Sweden); Trappmann, J. [Gruenzweig und Hartmann AG, Ladenburg (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    Eurima, the European Insulation Manufacturers` Association, has carried through a project on standardisation of a full-scale chamber method for regulation purposes by simulation of building site fibre emission from mineral wool products during installation. For some years five Eurima member companies have worked with individual full-scale chamber measurements, using different chamber sizes and installation procedures. Due to different test conditions, the previous test results obtained are not comparable and thus form an unreliable basis for determination of a standard method. The chamber size and several other parameters seem to influence the fibre concentration. During the project in question all relevant parameters, which are considered to have a measurable impact on the fibre concentration, have been examined, and suitable standard test conditions have been defined according to the test results. (orig.)

  13. Evaluation of Response Prediction Procedures using Full Scale Measurements for a Container Ship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Nielsen, Ulrik Dam

    2013-01-01

    on superposition of sinus-oidal components. The conditional processes do not need offline training and will be applied to measured time series in order to evaluate the accuracy of response predictions within the next 1-30 seconds. The number of measured points and the time distances between them are varied......This paper deals with the analysis of recent full-scale strain measurements in the hull of a large container carrier covering several months of operation. The focus is on the real-time prediction accuracy of responses 5-15 seconds ahead of the measurements. Such results are less applicable...... to determine the best solutions. A procedure based on 11 measured points spaced 1 sec, covering the last 10 sec of the instantaneous measured signal seems generally able to give fair predictions up to 5-10 sec ahead of the current time. The full-scale data is provided through the EU FP7 project Tools for Ultra...

  14. Prediction model of gas explosion overpressure in full-scale coal mine blind roadway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun-Feng Liang; Xin-Quan Zhou; Jiu-Ling Zhang; Shao Shao [China University of Mining and Technology (Beijing), Beijing (China). State Key Laboratory of Coal Resources and Safe Mining

    2009-01-15

    On the basis of the TNT equivalency method and by analysing data from gas explosion experiments, a new prediction method was put forward to estimate the attenuation of explosion overpressure in a full-scale coal mine blind roadway and its validity was testified in three cases. The results show that there is good agreement between the calculated and experimental data. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Evolution of the Total Sulphur Content in Full-Scale Wastewater Sludge Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Dewil, Raf; Baeyens, Jan; Roels, Joris; Van De Steene, Boudewijn

    2009-01-01

    The present research studies the evolution of sulphur concentrations during wastewater treatment for various full-scale treatment plants and reveals that a significant amount of S is released as highly soluble sulphates with the sludge water during sludge thickening when sludge is still in aerobic conditions. During digestion, sulphur concentrations in the sludge (expressed as mg S/kg of dry solids) generally increased due to destruction of organic material, and relatively low release of H2S....

  16. Terry Turbopump Expanded Operating Band Full-Scale Component and Basic Science Detailed Test Plan - Final.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborn, Douglas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Solom, Matthew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This document details the milestone approach to define the true operating limitations (margins) of the Terry turbopump systems used in the nuclear industry for Milestone 3 (full-scale component experiments) and Milestone 4 (Terry turbopump basic science experiments) efforts. The overall multinational-sponsored program creates the technical basis to: (1) reduce and defer additional utility costs, (2) simplify plant operations, and (3) provide a better understanding of the true margin which could reduce overall risk of operations.

  17. Autonomous smart sensor network for full-scale structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Jennifer A.; Mechitov, Kirill A.; Spencer, B. F., Jr.; Agha, Gul A.

    2010-04-01

    The demands of aging infrastructure require effective methods for structural monitoring and maintenance. Wireless smart sensor networks offer the ability to enhance structural health monitoring (SHM) practices through the utilization of onboard computation to achieve distributed data management. Such an approach is scalable to the large number of sensor nodes required for high-fidelity modal analysis and damage detection. While smart sensor technology is not new, the number of full-scale SHM applications has been limited. This slow progress is due, in part, to the complex network management issues that arise when moving from a laboratory setting to a full-scale monitoring implementation. This paper presents flexible network management software that enables continuous and autonomous operation of wireless smart sensor networks for full-scale SHM applications. The software components combine sleep/wake cycling for enhanced power management with threshold detection for triggering network wide tasks, such as synchronized sensing or decentralized modal analysis, during periods of critical structural response.

  18. Aerobic sludge granulation in a full-scale sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Ding, Li-Bin; Cai, Ang; Huang, Guo-Xian; Horn, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic granulation of activated sludge was successfully achieved in a full-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with 50,000 m(3) d(-1) for treating a town's wastewater. After operation for 337 days, in this full-scale SBR, aerobic granules with an average SVI30 of 47.1 mL g(-1), diameter of 0.5 mm, and settling velocity of 42 m h(-1) were obtained. Compared to an anaerobic/oxic plug flow (A/O) reactor and an oxidation ditch (OD) being operated in this wastewater treatment plant, the sludge from full-scale SBR has more compact structure and excellent settling ability. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis indicated that Flavobacterium sp., uncultured beta proteobacterium, uncultured Aquabacterium sp., and uncultured Leptothrix sp. were just dominant in SBR, whereas uncultured bacteroidetes were only found in A/O and OD. Three kinds of sludge had a high content of protein in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis revealed that metal ions and some inorganics from raw wastewater precipitated in sludge acted as core to enhance granulation. Raw wastewater characteristics had a positive effect on the granule formation, but the SBR mode operating with periodic feast-famine, shorter settling time, and no return sludge pump played a crucial role in aerobic sludge granulation.

  19. Full scale demonstration plant for anaerobic digestion of sorted municipal solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szikriszt, G.; Koehlin, S.-E.; Kaellersjoe, L. (BIOMET AB, Sundbyberg (SE)); Frostell, B. (Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Stockholm (SE))

    1992-01-01

    A possible future alternative for the treatment of organic material inmunicipal solid waste is anaerobic digestion at a TS concentration of around 10%. The results from a successful pilot plant experiment were reported. An existing 900 m{sup 3} full scale anaerobic digester for municipal sludge was reconstructed for digestion of a mixture of sorted municipal solid waste and municipal sludge. The reconstruction of the anaerobic digester system involved the installation of a novel milling stage for size reduction of incoming waste, removal of unsuitable materials, such as glass, metals etc and preparation of a feedstock with a TS concentration of 10%. The anaerobic digester has been equipped with a mechanical mixing system. The system also comprises an internal water recirculation system, allowing a minimal production of waste water for further treatment. The retrofitted digester was started in September 1991 and the milling station and the separation system in April 1992. During the demonstration operation, the interest is focused on the following key areas: May the succesful results in a 20 m{sup 3} pilot plant be realised also on a full scale Is it possible to solve potential accumulation problems Is the reliability and durability of the milling equipment chosen In the paper, the full scale plant is presented as well as initial results of operation. (au).

  20. Finite Element Simulation of Three Full-Scale Crash Tests for Cessna 172 Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Brian H.; Warren, Jerry E., Jr.

    2017-01-01

    The NASA Emergency Locator Transmitter Survivability and Reliability (ELT-SAR) project was initiated in 2013 to assess the crash performance standards for the next generation of emergency locator transmitter (ELT) systems. Three Cessna 172 aircraft were acquired to perform crash testing at NASA Langley Research Center's Landing and Impact Research Facility. Full-scale crash tests were conducted in the summer of 2015 and each test article was subjected to severe, but survivable, impact conditions including a flare-to-stall during emergency landing, and two controlled-flight-into-terrain scenarios. Full-scale finite element analyses were performed using a commercial explicit solver, ABAQUS. The first test simulated impacting a concrete surface represented analytically by a rigid plane. Tests 2 and 3 simulated impacting a dirt surface represented analytically by an Eulerian grid of brick elements using a Mohr-Coulomb material model. The objective of this paper is to summarize the test and analysis results for the three full-scale crash tests. Simulation models of the airframe which correlate well with the tests are needed for future studies of alternate ELT mounting configurations.

  1. Full-Scale Crash Test of a MD-500 Helicopter with Deployable Energy Absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellas, Sotiris; Jackson, Karen E.; Littell, Justin D.

    2010-01-01

    A new externally deployable energy absorbing system was demonstrated during a full-scale crash test of an MD-500 helicopter. The deployable system is a honeycomb structure and utilizes composite materials in its construction. A set of two Deployable Energy Absorbers (DEAs) were fitted on the MD-500 helicopter for the full-scale crash demonstration. Four anthropomorphic dummy occupants were also used to assess human survivability. A demonstration test was performed at NASA Langley's Landing and Impact Research Facility (LandIR). The test involved impacting the helicopter on a concrete surface with combined forward and vertical velocity components of 40-ft/s and 26-ft/s, respectively. The objectives of the test were to evaluate the performance of the DEA concept under realistic crash conditions and to generate test data for validation of dynamic finite element simulations. Descriptions of this test as well as other component and full-scale tests leading to the helicopter test are discussed. Acceleration data from the anthropomorphic dummies showed that dynamic loads were successfully attenuated to within non-injurious levels. Moreover, the airframe itself survived the relatively severe impact and was retested to provide baseline data for comparison for cases with and without DEAs.

  2. Simulating the Response of a Composite Honeycomb Energy Absorber. Part 2; Full-Scale Impact Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasanella, Edwin L.; Annett, Martin S.; Jackson, Karen E.; Polanco, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    NASA has sponsored research to evaluate an externally deployable composite honeycomb designed to attenuate loads in the event of a helicopter crash. The concept, designated the Deployable Energy Absorber (DEA), is an expandable Kevlar(Registered TradeMark) honeycomb. The DEA has a flexible hinge that allows the honeycomb to be stowed collapsed until needed during an emergency. Evaluation of the DEA began with material characterization of the Kevlar(Registered TradeMark)-129 fabric/epoxy, and ended with a full-scale crash test of a retrofitted MD-500 helicopter. During each evaluation phase, finite element models of the test articles were developed and simulations were performed using the dynamic finite element code, LS-DYNA(Registered TradeMark). The paper will focus on simulations of two full-scale impact tests involving the DEA, a mass-simulator and a full-scale crash of an instrumented MD-500 helicopter. Isotropic (MAT24) and composite (MAT58) material models, which were assigned to DEA shell elements, were compared. Based on simulations results, the MAT58 model showed better agreement with test.

  3. Enhancing post anaerobic digestion of full-scale anaerobically digested sludge using free nitrous acid treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tingting; Wang, Qilin; Ye, Liu; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2016-05-01

    In some wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), the ever increasing production of sludge with the expanding population overloaded the anaerobic digestion which compromises the sludge reduction efficiency. Post anaerobic digestion of anaerobically digested sludge (ADS) has been applied to enhance sludge reduction, however, to a very limited extent. This study verified the effectiveness of free nitrous acid (FNA i.e. HNO2) pre-treatment on enhancing full-scale ADS degradation in post anaerobic digestion. The ADS collected from a full-scale WWTP was subject to FNA treatment at concentrations of 0.77, 1.54, 2.31, 3.08, and 3.85 mg N/L for 24 h followed by biochemical methane potential tests. The FNA treatment at all concentrations resulted in an increase (from 1.5-3.1 % compared to the control) in sludge reduction with the highest improvement achieved at 0.77 mg HNO2-N/L. The FNA treatment at this concentration also resulted in the highest increase in methane production (40 %) compared to the control. The economic analysis indicates that FNA treatment is economically attractive for enhancing post anaerobic digestion of full-scale ADS.

  4. DEMONSTRATION OF A FULL-SCALE RETROFIT OF THE ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom Hrdlicka; William Swanson

    2005-12-01

    The Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector (AHPC), developed in cooperation between W.L. Gore & Associates and the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), is an innovative approach to removing particulates from power plant flue gas. The AHPC combines the elements of a traditional baghouse and electrostatic precipitator (ESP) into one device to achieve increased particulate collection efficiency. As part of the Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII), this project was demonstrated under joint sponsorship from the U.S. Department of Energy and Otter Tail Power Company. The EERC is the patent holder for the technology, and W.L. Gore & Associates was the exclusive licensee for this project. The project objective was to demonstrate the improved particulate collection efficiency obtained by a full-scale retrofit of the AHPC to an existing electrostatic precipitator. The full-scale retrofit was installed on an electric power plant burning Powder River Basin (PRB) coal, Otter Tail Power Company's Big Stone Plant, in Big Stone City, South Dakota. The $13.4 million project was installed in October 2002. Project related testing concluded in December 2005. The following Final Technical Report has been prepared for the project entitled ''Demonstration of a Full-Scale Retrofit of the Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector Technology'' as described in DOE Award No. DE-FC26-02NT41420. The report presents the operation and performance results of the system.

  5. Evaluation of Multi-Scale Full Waveform Inversion with Marine Vertical Cable Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aifei Bian; Zhihui Zou; Hua-Wei Zhou; Jin Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Seismic illumination plays an important role in subsurface imaging. A better image can be expected either through optimizing acquisition geometry or introducing more advanced seismic mi-gration and/or tomographic inversion methods involving illumination compensation. Vertical cable survey is a potential replacement of traditional marine seismic survey for its flexibility and data quality. Conventional vertical cable data processing requires separation of primaries and multiples before mi-gration. We proposed to use multi-scale full waveform inversion (FWI) to improve illumination cover-age of vertical cable survey. A deep water velocity model is built to test the capability of multi-scale FWI in detecting low velocity anomalies below seabed. Synthetic results show that multi-scale FWI is an effective model building tool in deep-water exploration. Geometry optimization through target ori-ented illumination analysis and multi-scale FWI may help to mitigate the risks of vertical cable survey. The combination of multi-scale FWI, low-frequency data and multi-vertical-cable acquisition system may provide both high resolution and high fidelity subsurface models.

  6. Elastic modulus and viscoelastic properties of full thickness skin characterised at micro scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Michael L; Chen, Xianfeng; Huang, Han; Kendall, Mark A F

    2013-03-01

    The recent emergence of micro-devices for vaccine delivery into upper layers of the skin holds potential for increased immune responses using physical means to target abundant immune cell populations. A challenge in doing this has been a limited understanding of the skin elastic properties at the micro scale (i.e. on the order of a cell diameter; ~10 μm). Here, we quantify skin's elastic properties at a micro-scale by fabricating customised probes of scales from sub- to super-cellular (0.5 μm-20 μm radius). We then probe full thickness skin; first with force-relaxation experiments and subsequently by elastic indentations. We find that skin's viscoelastic response is scale-independent: consistently a ~40% decrease in normalised force over the first second, followed by further 10% reduction over 10 s. Using Prony series and Hertzian contact analyses, we determined the strain-rate independent elastic moduli of the skin. A high scale dependency was found: the smallest probe encountered the highest elastic modulus (~30 MPa), whereas the 20 μm radius probe was lowest (below 1 MPa). We propose that this may be a result of the load distribution in skin facilitated by the hard corneocytes in the outermost skin layers, and softer living cell layers below. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. HARP model rotor test at the DNW. [Hughes Advanced Rotor Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Seth; Jordan, David; Smith, Charles; Ekins, James; Silverthorn, Lou

    1989-01-01

    Data from a test of a dynamically scaled model of the Hughes Advanced Rotor Program (HARP) bearingless model main rotor and 369K tail rotor are reported. The history of the HARP program and its goals are reviewed, and the main and tail rotor models are described. The test facilities and instrumentation are described, and wind tunnel test data are presented on hover, forward flight performance, and blade-vortex interaction. Performance data, acoustic data, and dynamic data from near field/far field and shear layer studies are presented.

  8. Experimental study of main rotor tip geometry and tail rotor interactions in hover. Volume 2: Run log and tabulated data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balch, D. T.; Lombardi, J.

    1985-01-01

    A model scale hover test was conducted in the Sikorsky Aircraft Model Rotor hover Facility to identify and quantify the impact of the tail rotor on the demonstrated advantages of advanced geometry tip configurations. The existence of mutual interference between hovering main rotor and a tail rotor was acknowledged in the test. The test was conducted using the Basic Model Test Rig and two scaled main rotor systems, one representing a 1/5.727 scale UH-60A BLACK HAWK and the others a 1/4.71 scale S-76. Eight alternate rotor tip configurations were tested, 3 on the BLACK HAWK rotor and 6 on the S-76 rotor. Four of these tips were then selected for testing in close proximity to an operating tail rotor (operating in both tractor and pusher modes) to determine if the performance advantages that could be obtained from the use of advanced geometry tips in a main rotor only environment would still exist in the more complex flow field involving a tail rotor. This volume contains the test run log and tabulated data.

  9. Introducing sequential managed aquifer recharge technology (SMART) - From laboratory to full-scale application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnery, Julia; Wing, Alexandre D; Kautz, Jessica; Drewes, Jörg E

    2016-07-01

    Previous lab-scale studies demonstrated that stimulating the indigenous soil microbial community of groundwater recharge systems by manipulating the availability of biodegradable organic carbon (BDOC) and establishing sequential redox conditions in the subsurface resulted in enhanced removal of compounds with redox-dependent removal behavior such as trace organic chemicals. The aim of this study is to advance this concept from laboratory to full-scale application by introducing sequential managed aquifer recharge technology (SMART). To validate the concept of SMART, a full-scale managed aquifer recharge (MAR) facility in Colorado was studied for three years that featured the proposed sequential configuration: A short riverbank filtration passage followed by subsequent re-aeration and artificial recharge and recovery. Our findings demonstrate that sequential subsurface treatment zones characterized by carbon-rich (>3 mg/L BDOC) to carbon-depleted (≤1 mg/L BDOC) and predominant oxic redox conditions can be established at full-scale MAR facilities adopting the SMART concept. The sequential configuration resulted in substantially improved trace organic chemical removal (i.e. higher biodegradation rate coefficients) for moderately biodegradable compounds compared to conventional MAR systems with extended travel times in an anoxic aquifer. Furthermore, sorption batch experiments with clay materials dispersed in the subsurface implied that sorptive processes might also play a role in the attenuation and retardation of chlorinated flame retardants during MAR. Hence, understanding key factors controlling trace organic chemical removal performance during SMART allows for systems to be engineered for optimal efficiency, resulting in improved removal of constituents at shorter subsurface travel times and a potentially reduced physical footprint of MAR installations.

  10. Investigation of wake interaction using full-scale lidar measurements and large eddy simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machefaux, Ewan; Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Troldborg, Niels;

    2016-01-01

    dynamics flow solver, using large eddy simulation and fully turbulent inflow. The rotors are modelled using the actuator disc technique. A mutual validation of the computational fluid dynamics model with the measurements is conducted for a selected dataset, where wake interaction occurs. This validation...... is based on a comparison between wake deficit, wake generated turbulence, turbine power production and thrust force. An excellent agreement between measurement and simulation is seen in both the fixed and the meandering frame of reference. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  11. Damping Estimation of a Prototype Bucket Foundation for Offshore Wind Turbines Identified by Full Scale Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Mads; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2013-01-01

    -wind direction. Therefore, in order to assess the fatigue damage accumulation during the lifetime of the offshore wind turbine structure, a correct estimation of the cross-wind modal damping is necessary. This paper describes the cross-wind modal damping of the lowest eigenmode of a fully operational Vestas V90......-3.0 MW offshore wind turbine installed on a prototype bucket foundation. The foundation and the turbine tower are equipped with a monitoring system with 15 Kinemetrics force balance accelerometers and a Digitexx acquisition system. Using free vibration decays from “rotor-stop” tests and operational modal...

  12. Destruction and formation of dioxin-like PCBs in dedicated full scale waste incinerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Caneghem, Jo; Block, Chantal; Vandecasteele, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Destruction and formation of dioxin-like PCBs in full scale waste incinerators is studied by analysing input waste streams and boiler and fly ash of a grate furnace incinerator (GFI) incinerating MSW, of a Fluidised Bed Combustor (FBC) incinerating a mix of 50% sludge, 25% refuse derived fuel (RDF) and 25% automotive shredder residue (ASR) and of a rotary kiln incinerator (RKI) incinerating hazardous waste. The dioxin-like PCB fingerprints of the waste inputs show that PCB oils Aroclor 1242 and Aroclor 1254 late are the major dioxin-like PCB contamination source of sludge, RDF and ASR. The dioxin-like PCB fingerprints of the waste inputs are clearly different from the fingerprints of the outputs, i.e. boiler and fly ash, indicating that in full scale waste incinerators dioxin-like PCBs in the input waste are destroyed and other dioxin-like PCBs are newly formed in the post combustion zone. The dioxin-like PCB fingerprint of boiler and fly ash of all three incinerators corresponds well to the fly ash fingerprint obtained in lab scale de novo synthesis experiments, indicating that dioxin-like PCBs are mainly formed through this mechanism. The high PCB concentration in the input waste mix of the RKI does not promote the formation of dioxin-like PCBs through precursor condensation.

  13. LS-DYNA Analysis of a Full-Scale Helicopter Crash Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annett, Martin S.

    2010-01-01

    A full-scale crash test of an MD-500 helicopter was conducted in December 2009 at NASA Langley's Landing and Impact Research facility (LandIR). The MD-500 helicopter was fitted with a composite honeycomb Deployable Energy Absorber (DEA) and tested under vertical and horizontal impact velocities of 26 ft/sec and 40 ft/sec, respectively. The objectives of the test were to evaluate the performance of the DEA concept under realistic crash conditions and to generate test data for validation of a system integrated LS-DYNA finite element model. In preparation for the full-scale crash test, a series of sub-scale and MD-500 mass simulator tests was conducted to evaluate the impact performances of various components, including a new crush tube and the DEA blocks. Parameters defined within the system integrated finite element model were determined from these tests. The objective of this paper is to summarize the finite element models developed and analyses performed, beginning with pre-test and continuing through post test validation.

  14. Optimizing the configuration of a clearwell by integrating pilot and full-scale tracer testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wenjun; DU Zhipeng; JIN Junwei

    2007-01-01

    In this paper,the main factors impacting the plug flow pattern of a clearwell were investigated by integrating pilot-scale,full-scale clearwell tracer testing and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation.It was found that pilot tracer testing,full-scale tracer testing and CFD simulation all demonstrated that the correlation between the ratio of t10/T and L/W can be approximately expressed by:t10/T= 0.189 41n(L/W)-0.049 4.This study confirmed that the installation of baffles within clearwells is an efficient way to optimize their configuration.In addition,the inlet velocity has a minimal contribution to the ratio of t10/T.However,the ratio of turning channel width to charmel width (d/W)significantly contributes to the ratio of t10/T.The optimal ratio of d/W is 0.8-1.2 for maintaining better plug flow pattern.The number of turning channels is one of the main factors that impact the ratio of t10/T.When increasing the number of turning channels,a lower ratio of t10/T is obtained.

  15. Comparison of pilot-scale furnace experiments and predictions to full-scale boiler performance of compliance coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monroe, L.S. [Southern Research Inst., Birmingham, AL (United States); Clarkson, R.J. [Southern Co. Services, Inc., Birmingham, AL (United States); Stallings, J.W. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1996-01-01

    A series of compliance coals have been fired in the Southern Company Services and Southern Research Institute pilot-scale Combustion Research Facility, with the goal of predicting NO{sub x} emissions, unburned carbon levels, and other operating parameters. The research was financed by a tailored collaboration between Alabama Power and the Electric Power Research Institute. The coals included a South American coal, a Powder River Basin coal, and several local Alabama bituminous coals. They were fired in conventional and low NO{sub x} firing modes, where some of the coals were fired in a tangential-fired simulation, others as wall-fired, and some in both types of firing. Two of Alabama Power`s boilers were used as the plants simulated in the pilot-scale experiments, along with a Gulf Power boiler. The results of the NO{sub x} emissions and unburned carbon from the pilot furnace testing are presented and compared to the limited full-scale boiler data available on these coals.

  16. Full scale amendment of a contaminated wood impregnation site with iron water treatment residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sanne Skov; Kjeldsen, Peter; Jakobsen, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    the design of delivery and mixing strategy for soil stabilization at field scale and present a cost-effective method of soil mixing by common contractor machinery. Soil contaminated by As, Cr, and Cu at an abandoned wood impregnation site was amended with 0.22% (dw) Fe-WTR. To evaluate the full scale...... amendment a 100 m2 test site and a control site (without amendment) were monitored for 14 months. Also soil analysis of Fe to evaluate the degree of soil and Fe-WTR mixing was done. Stabilization with Fe-WTR had a significant effect on leachable contaminants, reducing pore water As by 93%, Cu by 91% and Cr...

  17. Bench and Full Scale Study of Removal Effect and Mutagenicity on Mesocyclops Leukarti with Chlorine Dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO Jin-long; YANG Wei; LIU Yan-an; LIN Tao

    2006-01-01

    Mesocyclops Leukarti of zooplankton propagates excessively in eutrophic water body and it can not be effectively inactivated by the conventional process in drinking waterworks for its special surface structure. In this paper, a study of removal efficiency on Mesocyclops Leukarti with chlorine dioxide in a drinking waterworks was performed.Bench scale results showed that chlorine dioxide is more effective against Mesocyclops Leukarti. And Mesocyclops Leukarti could be effectively removed from water by 1.0 mg/L chlorine dioxide preoxidation cooperated with the conventional process during the full scale study. The chlorite, by-preduct of prechlorine dioxide, was constant at 0.45 mg/L after filtration, which was lower than the critical value of the USEPA. GC-MS examination and Ames test showed that the quantity of organics and the mutagenicity in the water treated by chlorine dioxide is obviously less than that of prechlorination.

  18. Far-Field Acoustic Power Level and Performance Analyses of F31/A31 Open Rotor Model at Simulated Scaled Takeoff, Nominal Takeoff, and Approach Conditions: Technical Report I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sree, Dave

    2015-01-01

    Far-field acoustic power level and performance analyses of open rotor model F31/A31 have been performed to determine its noise characteristics at simulated scaled takeoff, nominal takeoff, and approach flight conditions. The nonproprietary parts of the data obtained from experiments in 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel (9?15 LSWT) tests were provided by NASA Glenn Research Center to perform the analyses. The tone and broadband noise components have been separated from raw test data by using a new data analysis tool. Results in terms of sound pressure levels, acoustic power levels, and their variations with rotor speed, angle of attack, thrust, and input shaft power have been presented and discussed. The effect of an upstream pylon on the noise levels of the model has been addressed. Empirical equations relating model's acoustic power level, thrust, and input shaft power have been developed. The far-field acoustic efficiency of the model is also determined for various simulated flight conditions. It is intended that the results presented in this work will serve as a database for comparison and improvement of other open rotor blade designs and also for validating open rotor noise prediction codes.

  19. Seasonal Variation of Nutrient Removal in a Full-Scale Artificial Aerated Hybrid Constructed Wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhai

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To improve nutrient removal, a full-scale hybrid constructed wetland (CW consisting of pre-treatment units, vertical-baffled flow wetlands (VBFWs, and horizontal subsurface flow wetlands (HSFWs was installed in August 2014 to treat sewage wastewater. Artificial aeration (AA was applied continuously in the VBFW stage to improve the aerobic condition in the hybrid CW. Water samples were collected and analyzed twice a month between the period of August 2015 and July 2016. The results suggest that this new hybrid CW can achieve a satisfactory reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD, ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N, total nitrogen (TN, and total phosphorus (TP with average removal rates of 85% ± 10% (35% ± 19 g/m2 per day, 76% ± 18% (7% ± 2 g/m2 per day, 65% ± 13% (8% ± 2 g/m2 per day, and 65% ± 21% (1 g/m2 per day, respectively. AA significantly improved the aerobic condition throughout the experimental period, and the positive influence of AA on nitrogen removal was found to be higher during summer that during winter. A significant positive correlation between water temperature and nutrient removal (p < 0.01 was observed in the system. Overall, this study demonstrates the application of AA in a full-scale hybrid CW with satisfactory nutrient removal rates. The hybrid CW system with artificial aeration can serve as a reference for future applications areas where land availability is limited.

  20. Optimization of Preprocessing and Densification of Sorghum Stover at Full-scale Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal A. Yancey; Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Craig C. Conner; Christopher T. Wright

    2011-08-01

    Transportation costs can be a prohibitive step in bringing biomass to a preprocessing location or biofuel refinery. One alternative to transporting biomass in baled or loose format to a preprocessing location, is to utilize a mobile preprocessing system that can be relocated to various locations where biomass is stored, preprocess and densify the biomass, then ship it to the refinery as needed. The Idaho National Laboratory has a full scale 'Process Demonstration Unit' PDU which includes a stage 1 grinder, hammer mill, drier, pellet mill, and cooler with the associated conveyance system components. Testing at bench and pilot scale has been conducted to determine effects of moisture on preprocessing, crop varieties on preprocessing efficiency and product quality. The INLs PDU provides an opportunity to test the conclusions made at the bench and pilot scale on full industrial scale systems. Each component of the PDU is operated from a central operating station where data is collected to determine power consumption rates for each step in the process. The power for each electrical motor in the system is monitored from the control station to monitor for problems and determine optimal conditions for the system performance. The data can then be viewed to observe how changes in biomass input parameters (moisture and crop type for example), mechanical changes (screen size, biomass drying, pellet size, grinding speed, etc.,), or other variations effect the power consumption of the system. Sorgum in four foot round bales was tested in the system using a series of 6 different screen sizes including: 3/16 in., 1 in., 2 in., 3 in., 4 in., and 6 in. The effect on power consumption, product quality, and production rate were measured to determine optimal conditions.

  1. Full-Scale Structural and NDI Validation Tests of Bonded Composite Doublers for Commercial Aircraft Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roach, D.; Walkington, P.

    1999-02-01

    Composite doublers, or repair patches, provide an innovative repair technique which can enhance the way aircraft are maintained. Instead of riveting multiple steel or aluminum plates to facilitate an aircraft repair, it is possible to bond a single Boron-Epoxy composite doubler to the damaged structure. Most of the concerns surrounding composite doubler technology pertain to long-term survivability, especially in the presence of non-optimum installations, and the validation of appropriate inspection procedures. This report focuses on a series of full-scale structural and nondestructive inspection (NDI) tests that were conducted to investigate the performance of Boron-Epoxy composite doublers. Full-scale tests were conducted on fuselage panels cut from retired aircraft. These full-scale tests studied stress reductions, crack mitigation, and load transfer capabilities of composite doublers using simulated flight conditions of cabin pressure and axial stress. Also, structures which modeled key aspects of aircraft structure repairs were subjected to extreme tension, shear and bending loads to examine the composite laminate's resistance to disbond and delamination flaws. Several of the structures were loaded to failure in order to determine doubler design margins. Nondestructive inspections were conducted throughout the test series in order to validate appropriate techniques on actual aircraft structure. The test results showed that a properly designed and installed composite doubler is able to enhance fatigue life, transfer load away from damaged structure, and avoid the introduction of new stress risers (i.e. eliminate global reduction in the fatigue life of the structure). Comparisons with test data obtained prior to the doubler installation revealed that stresses in the parent material can be reduced 30%--60% through the use of the composite doubler. Tests to failure demonstrated that the bondline is able to transfer plastic strains into the doubler and that

  2. Full Scale Thermo-hydraulic Simulation of a Helium-Helium Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Injun; Hong, Sungyull; Bai, Cheolho; Shim, Jaesool [Yeungnam Univ., Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chansoo; Hong, Sungdeok; Kim, Minhwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In this paper, the thermo-hydraulic full scale simulation is performed to study the temperature distributions, thermal stress, pressure drop and outlet temperature in a Helium-Helium printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) in a VHTR simulate helium loop. The entire PCHE is composed of 40 stacks of rectangular shaped micro-channels for helium gas [type A] (inlet temperature, 400 .deg. C) and 40 stacks of semi-ellipse shaped micro-channels for helium [type B] (inlet temperature, 300 .deg. C). The experimental result is compared to that of computer simulation, COMSOL multi-physics software. The Helium-Helium PCHE is considered a prototype of the newly developed PCHE by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). The full scale thermo-hydraulic simulation was successfully performed to obtain temperature distribution, pressure drop and thermal stress in 40 sets of flow channel stacks in a helium-helium printed circuit heat exchanger in a VHTR simulate helium loop. We obtained a quite similar temperature distribution with the 3D measured infrared temperature distribution. To our knowledge, this is the first full scale numerical study on the PCHE, which considers all microchannels, that the convection effect on the outside surfaces of the PCHE is applied. The very high-temperature reactor (VHTR) or high-temperature gas-cooled reactor(HTGR) is a fourth-generation nuclear power reactor that uses the ceramic coated fuel, TRISO, in which the fission gas does not leak even at temperatures higher than 1600 .deg. C. The VHTR necessarily requires an intermediate loop composed of a hot gas duct (HGD), an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) and a process heat exchanger (PHE). The IHX is one of the important components of VHTR system because the IHX transfers the 950 .deg. C of high temperature massive heat to a hydrogen production plant or power conversion unit at high system pressure.

  3. The effect of primary sedimentation on full-scale WWTP nutrient removal performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, S; van Loosdrecht, M C M; Flameling, A G; Colprim, J; Meijer, S C F

    2010-06-01

    Traditionally, the performance of full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is measured based on influent and/or effluent and waste sludge flows and concentrations. Full-scale WWTP data typically have a high variance which often contains (large) measurement errors. A good process engineering evaluation of the WWTP performance is therefore difficult. This also makes it usually difficult to evaluate effect of process changes in a plant or compare plants to each other. In this paper we used a case study of a full-scale nutrient removing WWTP. The plant normally uses presettled wastewater, as a means to increase the nutrient removal the plant was operated for a period by-passing raw wastewater (27% of the influent flow). The effect of raw wastewater addition has been evaluated by different approaches: (i) influent characteristics, (ii) design retrofit, (iii) effluent quality, (iv) removal efficiencies, (v) activated sludge characteristics, (vi) microbial activity tests and FISH analysis and, (vii) performance assessment based on mass balance evaluation. This paper demonstrates that mass balance evaluation approach helps the WWTP engineers to distinguish and quantify between different strategies, where others could not. In the studied case, by-passing raw wastewater (27% of the influent flow) directly to the biological reactor did not improve the effluent quality and the nutrient removal efficiency of the WWTP. The increase of the influent C/N and C/P ratios was associated to particulate compounds with low COD/VSS ratio and a high non-biodegradable COD fraction. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Hi-Q Rotor - Low Wind Speed Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd E. Mills; Judy Tatum

    2010-01-11

    The project objective was to optimize the performance of the Hi-Q Rotor. Early research funded by the California Energy Commission indicated the design might be advantageous over state-of-the-art turbines for collecting wind energy in low wind conditions. The Hi-Q Rotor is a new kind of rotor targeted for harvesting wind in Class 2, 3, and 4 sites, and has application in areas that are closer to cities, or 'load centers.' An advantage of the Hi-Q Rotor is that the rotor has non-conventional blade tips, producing less turbulence, and is quieter than standard wind turbine blades which is critical to the low-wind populated urban sites. Unlike state-of-the-art propeller type blades, the Hi-Q Rotor has six blades connected by end caps. In this phase of the research funded by DOE's Inventions and Innovation Program, the goal was to improve the current design by building a series of theoretical and numeric models, and composite prototypes to determine a best of class device. Development of the rotor was performed by aeronautical engineering and design firm, DARcorporation. From this investigation, an optimized design was determined and an 8-foot diameter, full-scale rotor was built and mounted using a Bergey LX-1 generator and furling system which were adapted to support the rotor. The Hi-Q Rotor was then tested side-by-side against the state-of-the-art Bergey XL-1 at the Alternative Energy Institute's Wind Test Center at West Texas State University for six weeks, and real time measurements of power generated were collected and compared. Early wind tunnel testing showed that the cut-in-speed of the Hi-Q rotor is much lower than a conventional tested HAWT enabling the Hi-Q Wind Turbine to begin collecting energy before a conventional HAWT has started spinning. Also, torque at low wind speeds for the Hi-Q Wind Turbine is higher than the tested conventional HAWT and enabled the wind turbine to generate power at lower wind speeds. Based on the data

  5. Analysis, scale modeling, and full-scale test of a railcar and spent-nuclear-fuel shipping cask in a high-velocity impact against a rigid barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huerta, M.

    1981-06-01

    This report describes the mathematical analysis, the physical scale modeling, and a full-scale crash test of a railcar spent-nuclear-fuel shipping system. The mathematical analysis utilized a lumped-parameter model to predict the structural response of the railcar and the shipping cask. The physical scale modeling analysis consisted of two crash tests that used 1/8-scale models to assess railcar and shipping cask damage. The full-scale crash test, conducted with retired railcar equipment, was carefully monitored with onboard instrumentation and high-speed photography. Results of the mathematical and scale modeling analyses are compared with the full-scale test. 29 figures.

  6. Open Rotor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Zante, Dale E.; Rizzi, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    The ERA project executed a comprehensive test program for Open Rotor aerodynamic and acoustic performance. System studies used the data to estimate the fuel burn savings and acoustic margin for an aircraft system with open rotor propulsion. The acoustic measurements were used to produce an auralization that compares the legacy blades to the current generation of open rotor designs.

  7. Ship manoeuvrability: full scale trials of colombian navy riverine support patrol vessel

    OpenAIRE

    Carreño Moreno, Jorge; Sierra Vanegas, Etty; Jimenez Gonzalez, Victor

    2011-01-01

    Methodology and results of full scale maneuvering trials for Riverine Support Patrol Vessel “RSPV”, built by COTECMAR for the Colombian Navy are presented. !is ship is equipped with a “Pump – Jet” propulsion system and the hull corresponds to a wide-hull with a high Beam – Draft ratio (B/T=9.5). Tests were based on the results of simulation of turning diameters obtained from TRIBON M3© design software, applying techniques of Design of Experiments “DOE”, to rationalize the number of runs...

  8. Crash response data system for the controlled impact demonstration (CID) of a full scale transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calloway, Raymond S.; Knight, Vernie H., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    NASA Langley's Crash Response Data System (CRDS) which is designed to acquire aircraft structural and anthropomorphic dummy responses during the full-scale transport CID test is described. Included in the discussion are the system design approach, details on key instrumentation subsystems and operations, overall instrumentation crash performance, and data recovery results. Two autonomous high-environment digital flight instrumentation systems, DAS 1 and DAS 2, were employed to obtain research data from various strain gage, accelerometer, and tensiometric sensors installed in the B-720 test aircraft. The CRDS successfully acquired 343 out of 352 measurements of dynamic crash data.

  9. Electrochromic windows for commercial buildings: Monitored results from a full-scale testbed

    OpenAIRE

    Eleanor S. Lee; DiBartolomeo, Dennis L.; Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    2000-01-01

    Electrochromic glazings promise to be the next major advance in energy-efficient window technology, helping to transform windows and skylights from an energy liability to an energy source for the nation's building stock. Monitored results from a full-scale demonstration of large-area electrochromic windows are given. The test consisted of two side-by-side, 3.7x4.6-m, office-like rooms. In each room, five 62x173-cm lower electrochromic windows and five 62x43-cm upper electrochromic windo...

  10. Full scale treatment of phenolic coke coking waste water under unsteady conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suschka, Jan [Institute for Ecology of Industrial Areas, Katowice (Poland); Morel, Jacek; Mierzwinski, Stanislaw; Januszek, Ryszard [Coke Plant Przyjazn, Dabrowa Gornicza (Poland)

    1993-12-31

    Phenolic waste water from the largest coke coking plant in Poland is treated at a full technical scale. From the very beginning it became evident that very high qualitative variations in short and long periods were to be expected. For this purpose, the biological treatment plant based on activated sludge is protected through preliminary physical-chemical treatment and the results are secured by a final chemical stage of treatment. Nevertheless, improvements in the performance of the treatment plant have been found necessary to introduce. In this work, the experience gained over the last five years is described and developed improvements were presented. 3 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Full Scale Experiences with Didactic Changes in Distance Education in Master of Industrial Information Technology (MII)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helbo, Jan; Knudsen, Morten Haack; Borch, Ole M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper report the main results of didactic changes in the first year of an experiment in ICT-based distance learning. The results are based on a full scale experiment in the education, Master of Industrial Information Technology (MII). The experiment transforming the well functioning on......-campus engineering program based on project organized collaborative learning to the technology supported distance education program failed. Despite of many miner didactic changes we did not obtain the same self regulating learning effect in the group work among the off-campus students as is the case for oncampus....... Questionnaires, discussions and measurements of the internet activities show results which are contradictory compared to expectations....

  12. Dynamic Stability of Deep and Slender Wide-Flange Steel Columns – Full Scale Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Elkady, Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed; Lignos, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    In North America, a common design practice for steel frame buildings with perimeter steel special moment frames (SMFs) is to employ deep and slender wide-flange steel columns (i.e., range of column depth, d > 16 inches). Till recently, very little was known regarding the hysteretic behavior of such members because of lack of available experimental data. This paper discusses selective findings from a full-scale testing program that was conducted at École Polytechnique Montréal with the use o...

  13. Development of a full-scale training simulator for an 800-MW power unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravlev, S. K.; Andreev, A. M.

    2013-07-01

    Stages of work involving preparation of requirements specification, development, and subsequent implementation of a project for constructing a full-scale training simulator of an 800-MW power unit are considered. The training simulator is constructed using the Kosmotronika-Venets computerized automation system developed by PIK Progress (Moscow). The entire personnel training system, the arrangement of drills, and the concept of structuring the entire personnel education system at the Surgut GRES-2 district power station, a branch of E.ON Rossiya, had to be touched in drawing up the requirements specification for elaborating the training simulator. The article describes how these problems were solved.

  14. Controlling Urban Lighting by Human Motion Patterns results from a full Scale Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Esben Skouboe; Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Jensen, Ole B.;

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a full-scale experiment investigating the use of human motion intensities as input for interactive illumination of a town square in the city of Aalborg in Denmark. As illuminators sixteen 3.5 meter high RGB LED lamps were used. The activity on the square was monitored by three...... and the immersed persons. The experiment also demonstrated that interactive can give significant power savings. In the current experiment there was a difference of 92% between the most and less energy consuming light scenario...

  15. Method of Harmonic Balance in Full-Scale-Model Tests of Electrical Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbatenko, N. I.; Lankin, A. M.; Lankin, M. V.

    2017-01-01

    Methods for determining the weber-ampere characteristics of electrical devices, one of which is based on solution of direct problem of harmonic balance and the other on solution of inverse problem of harmonic balance by the method of full-scale-model tests, are suggested. The mathematical model of the device is constructed using the describing function and simplex optimization methods. The presented results of experimental applications of the method show its efficiency. The advantage of the method is the possibility of application for nondestructive inspection of electrical devices in the processes of their production and operation.

  16. Prediction of Full-Scale Propulsion Power using Artificial Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Benjamin Pjedsted; Larsen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Full scale measurements of the propulsion power, ship speed, wind speed and direction, sea and air temperature from four different loading conditions, together with hind cast data of wind and sea properties; and noon report data has been used to train an Artificial Neural Network for prediction...... of propulsion power. The model was optimized using a double cross validation procedure. The network was able to predict the propulsion power with accuracy between 0.8-1.7% using onboard measurement system data and 7% from manually acquired noon reports....

  17. Optimization-based methodology for wastewater treatment plant synthesis – a full scale retrofitting case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozkurt, Hande; Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2015-01-01

    technologies. The superstructure optimization problem is formulated as a Mixed Integer (non)Linear Programming problem and solved for different scenarios - represented by different objective functions and constraint definitions. A full-scale domestic wastewater treatment plant (265,000 PE) is used as a case...... framework to manage the multi-criteria WWTP design/retrofit problem for domestic wastewater treatment. The design space (i.e. alternative treatment technologies) is represented in a superstructure, which is coupled with a database containing data for both performance and economics of the novel alternative...

  18. Environmental Remediation Full-Scale Implementation: Back to Simple Microbial Massive Culture Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Syakti

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Using bioaugmentation and biostimulation approach for contaminated soil bioremediation were investigated and implemented on field scale. We combine those approaches by culturing massively the petrophilic indigenous microorganisms from chronically contaminated soil enriched by mixed manure. Through these methods, bioremediation performance revealed promising results in removing the petroleum hydrocarbons comparatively using metabolite by product such as biosurfactant, specific enzymes and other extra-cellular product which are considered as a difficult task and will impact on cost increase.

  19. Full-scale experimental research on fire fume refluence of sloped long and large curved tunnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A full-scale experimental research is conducted on the fire fume refluence of a sloped long and large curved tunnel in the underground plant of a hydraulic and hydropower engineering project under three different fire powers.As a result,the eddy effect and pattern of the fire fume flow in the tunnel in case of fire is discovered and the refluence of the fume layers in case of fire is observed.Through analysis of the temperature measurement resulted in the course of the experiment,the main characteristics and performance of the fire fume refluence are discussed under the three different fire powers.

  20. Prediction of Full-Scale Propulsion Power using Artificial Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Benjamin Pjedsted; Larsen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Full scale measurements of the propulsion power, ship speed, wind speed and direction, sea and air temperature from four different loading conditions, together with hind cast data of wind and sea properties; and noon report data has been used to train an Artificial Neural Network for prediction...... of propulsion power. The model was optimized using a double cross validation procedure. The network was able to predict the propulsion power with accuracy between 0.8-1.7% using onboard measurement system data and 7% from manually acquired noon reports....

  1. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant full-scale feed preparation testing with water and process simulant slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaskill, J.R.; Larson, D.E.; Abrigo, G.P. [and others

    1996-03-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant was intended to convert selected, pretreated defense high-level waste and transuranic waste from the Hanford Site into a borosilicate glass. A full-scale testing program was conducted with nonradioactive waste simulants to develop information for process and equipment design of the feed-preparation system. The equipment systems tested included the Slurry Receipt and Adjustment Tank, Slurry Mix Evaporator, and Melter-Feed Tank. The areas of data generation included heat transfer (boiling, heating, and cooling), slurry mixing, slurry pumping and transport, slurry sampling, and process chemistry. 13 refs., 129 figs., 68 tabs.

  2. Effect of operating conditions and reactor configuration on efficiency of full-scale biogas plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Boe, Kanokwan; Ellegaard, L.

    2005-01-01

    A study on 18 full-scale centralized biogas plants was carried out in order to find significant operational factors influencing productivity and stability of the plants. It was found that the most plants were operating relatively stable with volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration below 1.5 g....../l. VFA concentration increase was observed in occasions with dramatic overloading or other disturbances such as operational temperature changes. Ammonia was found to be a significant factor for stability. A correlation between increased residual biogas production and high ammonia was found. When ammonia...

  3. Towards omnidirectional, large scale, full polarization, and broadband practical invisibility cloaks: challenges and progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yihao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Invisibility cloaks have experienced a tremendous development in the past few years, but the current technologies to convert the cloaks into practical applications are still facing numerous bottlenecks. In this paper, we provide the review of the challenges and recent progress in the invisibility cloaks from a practical perspective. In particular, the following key challenges such as non-extreme parameters, homogeneity, omnidirectivity, full polarization, large scale and broad band are addressed. We analyze the physical mechanisms behind the challenges and consequently evaluate the merits and defects of the recent solutions. We anticipate some compromises on the ideal cloaks are required in order to achieve practical invisibility cloaks in the future.

  4. Full Tensor Gradient of Simulated Gravity Data for Prospect Scale Delineation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendra Grandis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Gravity gradiometry measurement allows imaging of anomalous sources in more detail than conventional gravity data. The availability of this new technique is limited to airborne gravity surveys using very specific instrumentation. In principle, the gravity gradients can be calculated from the vertical component of the gravity commonly measured in a ground-based gravity survey. We present a calculation of the full tensor gradient (FTG of the gravity employing the Fourier transformation. The calculation was applied to synthetic data associated with a simple block model and also with a more realistic model. The latter corresponds to a 3D model in which a thin coal layer is embedded in a sedimentary environment. Our results show the utility of the FTG of the gravity for prospect scale delineation.

  5. Troubleshooting a Full-scale Wastewater Treatment Plant for Biological Nutrient Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleyiblo Oloche James

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The International Association of Water Quality (IAWQ Activated Sludge Model No.2 (ASM2 was applied to troubleshoot an existing underperforming full-scale wastewater treatment plant (WWTP built for biological nutrient removal. The WWTP is operated in a 3-stage pho-redox process configuration (A2O. This study was undertaken with the aim of finding optimal operating conditions that will meet TP and TN concentration requirements in the effluent of the WWTP under study without the use of either chemical or external carbon sources and also to verify the applicability, capability and predictability of ASM2 as implemented in STOAT software. ASM2 was successfully used to troubleshoot bottle neck areas and to define the operational schedule for optimal performance of the wastewater treatment plant. Consequently, the costs of chemical and external carbon sources were eliminated and the effect of residual chemicals on the environment reduced.

  6. Study on the Contra-Rotating Propeller system design and full-scale performance prediction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keh-Sik Min

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A ship's screw-propeller produces thrust by rotation and, at the same time, generates rotational flow behind the propeller. This rotational flow has no contribution to the generation of thrust, but instead produces energy loss. By recovering part of the lost energy in the rotational flow, therefore, it is possible to improve the propulsion efficiency. The contra-rotating propeller (CRP system is the representing example of such devices. Unfortunately, however, neither a design method nor a full-scale performance prediction procedure for the CRP system has been well established yet. The authors have long performed studies on the CRP system, and some of the results from the authors’ studies shall be presented and discussed.

  7. Functionality Enhancement of Industrialized Optical Fiber Sensors and System Developed for Full-Scale Pavement Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaping Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Pavements always play a predominant role in transportation. Health monitoring of pavements is becoming more and more significant, as frequently suffering from cracks, rutting, and slippage renders them prematurely out of service. Effective and reliable sensing elements are thus in high demand to make prognosis on the mechanical properties and occurrence of damage to pavements. Therefore, in this paper, various types of functionality enhancement of industrialized optical fiber sensors for pavement monitoring are developed, with the corresponding operational principles clarified in theory and the performance double checked by basic experiments. Furthermore, a self-healing optical fiber sensing network system is adopted to accomplish full-scale monitoring of pavements. The application of optical fiber sensors assembly and self-healing network system in pavement has been carried out to validate the feasibility. It has been proved that the research in this article provides a valuable method and meaningful guidance for the integrity monitoring of civil structures, especially pavements.

  8. Full scale strain monitoring of a suspension bridge using high performance distributed fiber optic sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinlong; Dong, Yongkang; Zhang, Zhaohui; Li, Shunlong; He, Shaoyang; Li, Hui

    2016-12-01

    This paper investigated field monitoring of a 1108 m suspension bridge during an assessment load test, using integrated distributed fibre-optic sensors (DFOSs). In addition to the conventional Brillouin time domain analysis system, a high spatial resolution Brillouin system using the differential pulse-width pair (DPP) technique was adopted. Temperature compensation was achieved using a Raman distributed temperature sensing system. This is the first full scale field application of DFOSs using the Brillouin time domain analysis technique in a thousand-meter-scale suspension bridge. Measured strain distributions along the whole length of the bridge were presented. The interaction between the main cables and the steel-box-girder was highlighted. The Brillouin fibre-optic monitoring systems exhibited great facility for the purposes of long distance distributed strain monitoring, with up to 0.05 m spatial resolution, and 0.01 m/point sampling interval. The performance of the Brillouin system using DPP technique was discussed. The measured data was also employed for assessing bridge design and for the assessment of structural condition. The results show that the symmetrical design assumptions were consistent with the actual bridge, and that the strain values along the whole bridge were within the safety range. This trial field study serves as an example, demonstrating the feasibility of highly dense strain and temperature measurement for large scale civil infrastructures using integrated DFOSs.

  9. MASW on the standard seismic prospective scale using full spread recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białas, Sebastian; Majdański, Mariusz; Trzeciak, Maciej; Gałczyński, Edward; Maksym, Andrzej

    2015-04-01

    The Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) is one of seismic survey methods that use the dispersion curve of surface waves in order to describe the stiffness of the surface. Is is used mainly for geotechnical engineering scale with total length of spread between 5 - 450 m and spread offset between 1 - 100 m, the hummer is the seismic source on this surveys. The standard procedure of MASW survey is: data acquisition, dispersion analysis and inversion of extracting dispersion curve to obtain the closest theoretical curve. The final result includes share-wave velocity (Vs) values at different depth along the surveyed lines. The main goal of this work is to expand this engineering method to the bigger scale with the length of standard prospecting spread of 20 km using 4.5 Hz version of vertical component geophones. The standard vibroseis and explosive method are used as the seismic source. The acquisition were conducted on the full spread all the time during each single shoot. The seismic data acquisition used for this analysis were carried out on the Braniewo 2014 project in north of Poland. The results achieved during standard MASW procedure says that this method can be used on much bigger scale as well. The different methodology of this analysis requires only much stronger seismic source.

  10. Smouldering Remediation (STAR) Technology: Field Pilot Tests and First Full Scale Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhard, J.; Kinsman, L.; Torero, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    STAR (Self-sustaining Treatment for Active Remediation) is an innovative remediation technology based on the principles of smoldering combustion where the contaminants are the fuel. The self-sustaining aspect means that a single, local ignition event can result in many days of contaminant destruction in situ. Presented research to date has focused on bench scale experiments, numerical modelling and process understanding. Presented here is the maturation of the in situ technology, including three field pilot tests and a full-scale implementation to treat coal tar-impacted soils. The first pilot determined a Radius of Influence (ROI) for a single ignition of approximately eight feet with an average propagation rate of the reaction of approximately one foot per day. TPH concentrations in soils were reduced from 10,000 milligrams per kilogram to a few hundred milligrams per kilogram. The second pilot was conducted in an area of significant void spaces created through the anthropogenic deposition of clay bricks and tiles. The void spaces led to pre-mature termination of the combustion reaction, limiting ROI and the effectiveness of the technology in this setting. The third case study involved the pilot testing, design, and full-scale implementation of STAR at a 37-acre former chemical manufacturing facility. Three phases of pilot testing were conducted within two hydrogeologic units at the site (i.e., surficial fill and deep alluvial sand units). Pilot testing within the fill demonstrated self-sustained coal tar destruction rates in excess of 800 kg/day supported through air injection at a single well. Deep sand unit testing (twenty-five feet below the water table) resulted in the treatment of a targeted six-foot layer of impacted fine sands to a radial distance of approximately twelve feet. These results (and additional parameters) were used to develop a full-scale STAR design consisting of approximately 1500 surficial fill ignition points and 500 deep sand ignition

  11. Full-scale monitoring system for structural prestress loss based on distributed brillouin sensing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunguang, Lan; Liguang, Zhou; Zhiyu, Huo

    2017-08-01

    Prestress loss is critical to impact the safety of prestressed structures. Unfortunately, up to date, there are no qualified techniques to handle this issue due to the fact that it is too hard for sensors to survive the harsh construction environments and the time-dependent service life of the large-span prestressed structures. This paper proposes a novel technique to monitor prestress loss in prestressed beams using Brillouin optical fiber sensors. A novel smart steel strand based on the sensing technique of full-scale Brillouin optical fiber sensors was introduced. Two kinds of prestressed structure were used to verify the concept of monitoring prestress loss using smart steel strands. The prestress loss data have been taken by Brillouin optical fiber sensors. And the monitoring results agree well with those from the conventional sensors. The monitoring data can reveal both the full-scale distribution and the time history of prestress loss during the construction stage and also in-service phrase.

  12. Full-scale crash test and FEM simulation of a crashworthy helicopter seat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Da-yong; ZHANG Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Crashworthy seat structure with considerable energy absorption capacity is a key component for aircraft to improve its crashworthiness and occupant survivability in emergencies. According to Federal Aviation Administration(FAA) regulations, seat performance must be certified by dynamic crash test which is quite expensive and time-consuming. For this reason, numerical simulation is a more efficient and economical approach to provide the possibility to assess seat performances and predict occupant responses. A numerical simulation of the crashworthy seat structure was presented and the results were also compared with the full-scale crash test data. In the numerical simulation, a full-scale three-dimensional finite element model of the seat/occupant structure was developed using a nonlinear and explicit dynamic finite element code LS-DYNA3D. Emphasis of the numerical simulation was on predicting the dynamic response of seat/occupant system,including the occupant motion which may lead to injuries,the occupant acceleration-time histories, and the energy absorbing behavior of the energy absorbers. The agreement between the simulation and the physical test suggestes that the developed numerical simulation can be a feasible substitute for the dynamic crash test.

  13. Full scale trials for qualification of the manufacture of the ITER TF coils in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsui, Kunihiro, E-mail: matsui.kunihiro@jaea.go.jp; Hemmi, Tsutomu; Kajitani, Hideki; Yamane, Minoru; Mizutani, Takumi; Nakano, Toshihide; Takano, Katsutoshi; Ando, Shinji; Koizumi, Norikiyo

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • High accuracy conductor winding of 0.1% was achieved in TF coil fabrication. • Conductor elongation due to heat treatment satisfied with the expected value of 0.06% ± 0.02%. • Commissioning of a transfer tooling without adding strain to conductor was completed. • Commissioning of a conductor insulation and CP welding was successfully completed. - Abstract: JAEA performed full-scale trials to qualify and optimize manufacturing procedure of TF coil fabrication prior to series production. In the full-scale trials, conductor winding, heat treatment, conductor transfer, conductor insulation and cover plate (CP) welding trials were performed to resolve some technical issues and to demonstrate the fabrication procedure. The followings are major achievement. (1) High accuracy conductor winding of 0.01%, (2) the evaluation of 0.06% conductor elongation due to heat treatment, (3) conductor transfer in a radial plate (RP) groove with addition strain under 0.1%, (4) conductor insulation without breakage of the insulation tape and (5) flatness of 2 mm of the double pancake (DP) by CP welding. Then JAEA started the 1st TF coil fabrication from March 2014, and has already completed ten conductor windings and heat treatment of nine windings.

  14. Mitigation of tank 241-SY-101 by pump mixing: Results of full-scale testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, C.W.; Hudson, J.D.; Friley, J.R.; Panisko, F.E.; Antoniak, Z.I.; Irwin, J.J.; Fadeff, J.G.; Efferding, L.F.; Michener, T.E.; Kirch, N.W. [and others

    1994-06-01

    The Full-Scale Mixer Pump Test Program was performed in Hanford Tank 241-SY-101 from February 4 to April 13, 1994, to confirm the long-term operational strategy for flammable gas mitigation and to demonstrate that mixing can control the gas release and waste level. Since its installation on July 3, 1993, the current pump, operating only a few hours per week, has proved capable of mixing the waste sufficiently to release gas continuously instead of in large episodic events. The results of Full-Scale Testing demonstrated that the pump can control gas release and waste level for long-term mitigation, and the four test sequences formed the basis for the long-term operating schedule. The last test sequence, jet penetration tests, showed that the current pump jet creates flow near the tank wall and that it can excavate portions of the bottom sludge layer if run at maximum power. Pump mixing has altered the {open_quote}normal{close_quote} configuration of the waste; most of the original nonconvective sludge has been mixed with the supernatant liquid into a mobile convective slurry that has since been maintained by gentle pump operation and does not readily return to sludge.

  15. Microbial Community Composition and Ultrastructure of Granules from a Full-Scale Anammox Reactor

    KAUST Repository

    Gonzalez-Gil, Graciela

    2014-12-11

    Granules in anammox reactors contain besides anammox bacteria other microbial communities whose identity and relationship with the anammox bacteria are not well understood. High calcium concentrations are often supplied to anammox reactors to obtain sufficient bacterial aggregation and biomass retention. The aim of this study was to provide the first characterization of bacterial and archaeal communities in anammox granules from a full-scale anammox reactor and to explore on the possible role of calcium in such aggregates. High magnification imaging using backscattered electrons revealed that anammox bacteria may be embedded in calcium phosphate precipitates. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments showed, besides anammox bacteria (Brocadiacea, 32 %), substantial numbers of heterotrophic bacteria Ignavibacteriacea (18 %) and Anaerolinea (7 %) along with heterotrophic denitrifiers Rhodocyclacea (9 %), Comamonadacea (3 %), and Shewanellacea (3 %) in the granules. It is hypothesized that these bacteria may form a network in which heterotrophic denitrifiers cooperate to achieve a well-functioning denitrification system as they can utilize the nitrate intrinsically produced by the anammox reaction. This network may provide a niche for the proliferation of archaea. Hydrogenotrophic methananogens, which scavenge the key fermentation product H2, were the most abundant archaea detected. Cells resembling the polygon-shaped denitrifying methanotroph Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera were observed by electron microscopy. It is hypothesized that the anammox process in a full-scale reactor triggers various reactions overall leading to efficient denitrification and a sink of carbon as biomass in anammox granules.

  16. Simulating the Impact Response of Three Full-Scale Crash Tests of Cessna 172 Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Karen E.; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Littell, Justin D.; Annett, Martin S.; Stimson, Chad M.

    2017-01-01

    During the summer of 2015, a series of three full-scale crash tests were performed at the Landing and Impact Research Facility located at NASA Langley Research Center of Cessna 172 aircraft. The first test (Test 1) represented a flare-to-stall emergency or hard landing onto a rigid surface. The second test (Test 2) represented a controlled-flight- into-terrain (CFIT) with a nose down pitch attitude of the aircraft, which impacted onto soft soil. The third test (Test 3) also represented a CFIT with a nose up pitch attitude of the aircraft, which resulted in a tail strike condition. Test 3 was also conducted onto soft soil. These crash tests were performed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of Emergency Locator Transmitters and to generate impact test data for model calibration. Finite element models were generated and impact analyses were conducted to simulate the three impact conditions using the commercial nonlinear, transient dynamic finite element code, LS-DYNA®. The objective of this paper is to summarize test-analysis results for the three full-scale crash tests.

  17. Metabolic versatility in full-scale wastewater treatment plants performing enhanced biological phosphorus removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanham, Ana B; Oehmen, Adrian; Saunders, Aaron M; Carvalho, Gilda; Nielsen, Per H; Reis, Maria A M

    2013-12-01

    This study analysed the enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) microbial community and metabolic performance of five full-scale EBPR systems by using fluorescence in situ hybridisation combined with off-line batch tests fed with acetate under anaerobic-aerobic conditions. The phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs) in all systems were stable and showed little variability between each plant, while glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) were present in two of the plants. The metabolic activity of each sludge showed the frequent involvement of the anaerobic tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) in PAO metabolism for the anaerobic generation of reducing equivalents, in addition to the more frequently reported glycolysis pathway. Metabolic variability in the use of the two pathways was also observed, between different systems and in the same system over time. The metabolic dynamics was linked to the availability of glycogen, where a higher utilisation of the glycolysis pathway was observed in the two systems employing side-stream hydrolysis, and the TCA cycle was more active in the A(2)O systems. Full-scale plants that showed higher glycolysis activity also exhibited superior P removal performance, suggesting that promotion of the glycolysis pathway over the TCA cycle could be beneficial towards the optimisation of EBPR systems.

  18. Integrative microbial community analysis reveals full-scale enhanced biological phosphorus removal under tropical conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Yingyu; Kirkegaard, Rasmus Hansen; Cokro, Angel Anisa; Liu, Xianghui; Arumugam, Krithika; Xie, Chao; Stokholm-Bjerregaard, Mikkel; Drautz-Moses, Daniela I.; Nielsen, Per Halkjær; Wuertz, Stefan; Williams, Rohan B. H.

    2016-05-01

    Management of phosphorus discharge from human waste is essential for the control of eutrophication in surface waters. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is a sustainable, efficient way of removing phosphorus from waste water without employing chemical precipitation, but is assumed unachievable in tropical temperatures due to conditions that favour glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) over polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs). Here, we show these assumptions are unfounded by studying comparative community dynamics in a full-scale plant following systematic perturbation of operational conditions, which modified community abundance, function and physicochemical state. A statistically significant increase in the relative abundance of the PAO Accumulibacter was associated with improved EBPR activity. GAO relative abundance also increased, challenging the assumption of competition. An Accumulibacter bin-genome was identified from a whole community metagenomic survey, and comparative analysis against extant Accumulibacter genomes suggests a close relationship to Type II. Analysis of the associated metatranscriptome data revealed that genes encoding proteins involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle and glycolysis pathways were highly expressed, consistent with metabolic modelling results. Our findings show that tropical EBPR is indeed possible, highlight the translational potential of studying competition dynamics in full-scale waste water communities and carry implications for plant design in tropical regions.

  19. Optimization of a full-scale Unitank wastewater treatment plant for biological phosphorus removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhen; Xing, Can; Wu, Zhichao; Tong, Fei; Wang, Junru

    2014-01-01

    The Unitank process combines the advantages of traditional continuous-flow activated sludge processes and sequencing batch reactors, and has been extensively employed in many wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in China. Biological phosphorus removal (BPR) of a full-scale Unitank WWTP was optimized by increasing anaerobic time from 80 to 120 min in an operation cycle of 360 min and reducing solid retention time (SRT) from 21.3 to 13.1 d. The BPR efficiency of the full-scale Unitank system increased from 63.8% (SRT of 21.3 d) to 83.2% for a SRT of 13.1 d. When the anaerobic time increased from 80 to 120 min, the net anaerobic phosphorus release amount increased from 0.25 to 1.06 mg L(-1), and sludge phosphorus content rose from 13.8 to 15.0 mgP x (gSS)(-1). During half an operation cycle, the average specific phosphorus release rate increased from 0.097mgP x (gVSS x h)(-1) in 0-40 min to 0.825 mgP x (gVSS x h)(-1) in 40-60 min. Reducing SRT and increasing anaerobic time account for 84.6% and 15.4% in the total increment of phosphorus removal of 1.15 mgL(-1).

  20. In-service Structural Health Monitoring of a Full-scale Composite Horizontal Tail

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Zhanjun; GAO Dongyue; WANG Yishou; Gorgin RAHIM

    2015-01-01

    In-service structural health monitoring (SHM) technologies are critical for the utilization of composite aircraft structures. We developed a Lamb wave-based in-service SHM technology using built-in piezoelectric actuator/sensor networks to monitor delamination extension in a full-scale composite horizontal tail. The in-service SHM technology combine of damage rapid monitoring (DRM) stage and damage imaging diagnosis (DID) stage allows for real-time monitoring and long term tracking of the structural integrity of composite aircraft structures. DRM stage using spearman rank correlation coefifcient was introduced to generate a damage index which can be used to monitor the trend of damage extension. The DID stage based on canonical correlation analysis aimed at intuitively highlighting structural damage regions in two-dimensional images. The DRM and DID stages were trialed by an in-service SHM experiment of CFRP T-joint. Finally, the detection capability of the in-service SHM technology was verified in the SHM experiment of a full-scale composite horizontal tail. Experimental results show that the rapid monitoring method effectively monitors the damage occurrence and extension tendency in real time;damage imaging diagnosis results are consistent with those from the failure model of the composite horizontal tail structure.

  1. Considerations on the design and financial feasibility of full-scale membrane bioreactors for municipal applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brepols, Ch; Schäfer, H; Engelhardt, N

    2010-01-01

    Based on the practical experience in design and operation of three full-scale membrane bioreactors (MBR) for municipal wastewater treatment that were commissioned since 1999, an overview on the different design concepts that were applied to the three MBR plants is given. The investment costs and the energy consumption of the MBRs and conventional activated sludge (CAS) plants (with and without tertiary treatment) in the Erft river region are compared. It is found that the specific investment costs of the MBR plants are lower than those of comparable CAS with tertiary treatment. A comparison of the specific energy demand of MBRs and conventional WWTPs is given. The structure of the MBRs actual operational costs is analysed. It can be seen that energy consumption is only responsible for one quarter to one third of all operational expenses. Based on a rough design and empirical cost data, a cost comparison of a full-scale MBR and a CAS is carried out. In this example the CAS employs a sand filtration and a disinfection in order to achieve comparable effluent quality. The influence of membrane lifetime on life cycle cost is assessed.

  2. Full Scale 3D Preoperative Planning System of the Ankle Joint Replacement Surgery with Multimedia System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuh-Ping Sun

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study is intended to develop a computer-aided pre-surgical planning and simulating system in a multimedia environment for ankle joint replacement surgery. This system uses full-scale 3D reverse engineering techniques in design and development of the pre-surgical planning modules for ankle joint replacement surgery. This planning system not only develops the real-scale 3D image of the artificial ankle joint but also provides a detailed interior measurement of the ankle joint from various cutting planes. In this study, we apply the multimedia user interface to integrate different software functions into a surgical planning system with integrated functions. The functions include 3D model image acquisition, cutting, horizontal shifting and rotation of related bones (tibia and talus of the ankle joint in the predetermined time. For related bones of the ankle joint, it can also be used to design artificial ankle joints for adults in Taiwan. Those planning procedures can be recorded in this system for further research and investigation. Furthermore, since this system is a multimedia user interface, surgeons can use this system to plan and find a better and more efficient surgical approach before surgery. A database is available for this system to update and expand, which can provide different users with clinical cases as per their experience and learning.

  3. Full-scale computation for all the thermoelectric property parameters of half-Heusler compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, A J; Li, L; He, R; Gong, J J; Yan, Z B; Wang, K F; Liu, J-M; Ren, Z F

    2016-01-01

    The thermoelectric performance of materials relies substantially on the band structures that determine the electronic and phononic transports, while the transport behaviors compete and counter-act for the power factor PF and figure-of-merit ZT. These issues make a full-scale computation of the whole set of thermoelectric parameters particularly attractive, while a calculation scheme of the electronic and phononic contributions to thermal conductivity remains yet challenging. In this work, we present a full-scale computation scheme based on the first-principles calculations by choosing a set of doped half-Heusler compounds as examples for illustration. The electronic structure is computed using the WIEN2k code and the carrier relaxation times for electrons and holes are calculated using the Bardeen and Shockley's deformation potential (DP) theory. The finite-temperature electronic transport is evaluated within the framework of Boltzmann transport theory. In sequence, the density functional perturbation combined with the quasi-harmonic approximation and the Klemens' equation is implemented for calculating the lattice thermal conductivity of carrier-doped thermoelectric materials such as Ti-doped NbFeSb compounds without losing a generality. The calculated results show good agreement with experimental data. The present methodology represents an effective and powerful approach to calculate the whole set of thermoelectric properties for thermoelectric materials.

  4. Aeroacoustic calculations of a full scale Nordtank 500kW wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debertshäuser, Harald; Shen, Wen Zhong; Zhu, Wei Jun

    2016-01-01

    The Actuator Line/ Navier-stokes technique is used to compute the incompressible flow around a full scale Nordtank 500kW wind turbine under different complex flow conditions such as atmospheric turbulence and wind shear. The flow field is used as an input to aeroacoustic calculations based on; a ...... resolution, and due to the simplification in the actuator line method using body forces to represent the blade. Noise levels are compared to field measurements of a Nordtank 500kW wind turbine at different wind speeds and in flow profiles.......The Actuator Line/ Navier-stokes technique is used to compute the incompressible flow around a full scale Nordtank 500kW wind turbine under different complex flow conditions such as atmospheric turbulence and wind shear. The flow field is used as an input to aeroacoustic calculations based on......; a semi empirical noise model; and a Navier-Stokes based computational aeroacoustic code (CAA). The Navier-Stokes based approach is solving acoustic perturbation equations and is capable of taking propagation and ground effects into account, but is limited to low frequency noise due to feasible mesh...

  5. Toward a full-scale computational model of the rat dentate gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Calvin J; Bezaire, Marianne; Soltesz, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in parallel computing, including the creation of the parallel version of the NEURON simulation environment, have allowed for a previously unattainable level of complexity and detail in neural network models. Previously, we published a functional NEURON model of the rat dentate gyrus with over 50,000 biophysically realistic, multicompartmental neurons, but network simulations could only utilize a single processor. By converting the model to take advantage of parallel NEURON, we are now able to utilize greater computational resources and are able to simulate the full-scale dentate gyrus, containing over a million neurons. This has eliminated the previous necessity for scaling adjustments and allowed for a more direct comparison to experimental techniques and results. The translation to parallel computing has provided a superlinear speedup of computation time and dramatically increased the overall computer memory available to the model. The incorporation of additional computational resources has allowed for more detail and elements to be included in the model, bringing the model closer to a more complete and accurate representation of the biological dentate gyrus. As an example of a major step toward an increasingly accurate representation of the biological dentate gyrus, we discuss the incorporation of realistic granule cell dendrites into the model. Our previous model contained simplified, two-dimensional dendritic morphologies that were identical for neurons of the same class. Using the software tools L-Neuron and L-Measure, we are able to introduce cell-to-cell variability by generating detailed, three-dimensional granule cell morphologies that are based on biological reconstructions. Through these and other improvements, we aim to construct a more complete full-scale model of the rat dentate gyrus, to provide a better tool to delineate the functional role of cell types within the dentate gyrus and their pathological changes observed in epilepsy.

  6. Process of Levee Breach by Overflow at the Full Scale Chiyoda Experimental Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, T.; Yokoyama, H.

    2011-12-01

    The increased occurrence of storm disasters caused by typhoons and local downpours in recent years has given rise to concerns over the possibility of large-scale floods resulting from river overflow. Levee breaches cause particularly severe damage, and in Japan, more than 80% of such accidents in the past have been attributed to overflow. Previous studies on overflow-induced levee breaches have not revealed the mechanisms of these issues on a full-scale 3D basis (i.e., side-overflow taking river flow on the riverside land into consideration). It is important to clarify these mechanisms in terms of disaster prevention and for the purpose of bringing progress in future studies on overflow-induced failure. Levees (levee crown width is 3m in 2010 and 6m in 2011, levee height is 3m, levee length is 80m) were built in the Chiyoda Experimental Channel (full-scale experimental channel; width is 30m, length is 1,300m, maximum discharge is 170t/s) in Hokkaido Japan, and a three-dimensional experiment on levee breach by overflow. The findings of the experiment are as follows: After the beginning of overflow, levee breach widening did not begin until after most of the levee section had collapsed. And in case of 6m of the levee crown width, that time in becomes long. It was also considered that, even if overflow occurred, extremely serious damage (e.g., sudden increase in levee breach width and overflow discharge) was unlikely unless the majority of the levee section collapsed.

  7. N-nitrosamine rejection by reverse osmosis membranes: a full-scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, Takahiro; Khan, Stuart J; McDonald, James A; Roux, Annalie; Poussade, Yvan; Drewes, Jörg E; Nghiem, Long D

    2013-10-15

    This study aims to provide longitudinal and spatial insights to the rejection of N-nitrosamines by reverse osmosis (RO) membranes during sampling campaigns at three full-scale water recycling plants. Samples were collected at all individual filtration stages as well as at a cool and a warm weather period to elucidate the impact of recovery and feed temperature on the rejection of N-nitrosamines. N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) was detected in all RO feed samples varying between 7 and 32 ng/L. Concentrations of most other N-nitrosamines in the feed solutions were determined to be lower than their detection limits (3-5 ng/L) but higher concentrations were detected in the feed after each filtration stage. As a notable exception, in one plant, N-nitrosomorpholine (NMOR) was observed at high concentrations in RO feed (177-475 ng/L) and permeate (34-76 ng/L). Overall rejection of NDMA among the three RO systems varied widely from 4 to 47%. Data presented here suggest that the feed temperature can influence rejection of NDMA. A considerable variation in NDMA rejection across the three RO stages (14-78%) was also observed. Overall NMOR rejections were consistently high ranging from 81 to 84%. On the other hand, overall rejection of N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) varied from negligible to 53%, which was considerably lower than values reported in previous laboratory-scale studies. A comparison between results reported here and the literature indicates that there can be some discrepancy in N-nitrosamine rejection data between laboratory- and full-scale studies probably due to differences in water recoveries and operating conditions (e.g. temperature, membrane fouling, and hydraulic conditions). Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Fine water spray system: Extinguishing tests in medium and full-scale turbine hood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wighus, R.; Aune, P.; Drangsholt, G.; Stensaas, J. P.

    1994-12-01

    The report is based on the results from two test series, called Phase 1 and Phase 2 of the project 'Halon Replacement by Fine Water Spray Technology - Turbine Hood application'. Detailed results are presented in technical reports from Phase 1 and Phase 2. The tests were carried out in two different scales, one 30 cu m test enclosure formerly used to characterize different water spray nozzles, and a full scale 70 cu m model of a turbine hood. The scope of work in Phase 1 was to identify the extinguishing characteristics of various nozzles developed by BP Sunbury Research Center, UK, and to verify the efficiency of a total fire suppression system developed by Ginge-Kerr Offshore. The fire suppression system uses a twin-fluid nozzles using air and water at pressures about 5 bar. The nozzles produce a water spray with small droplets and high velocity. The scope of work of Phase 2 was to verify the efficiency of the Fine Water Spray nozzles fighting a variety of fire scenarios which may occur in a real turbine hood. A full scale test enclosure containing a mock-up of a turbine heated internally to simulate hot metal surfaces, with insulation mats and piping as in a real turbine hood was constructed in the large test hall of SINTEF NBL. The turbine hood model was built by elements of a Multipurpose Fire Test Rig. Realistic fires with Diesel pool- and spray fires, fires in insulation mats soaked with Diesel oil under different ventilation conditions were ignited in the turbine hood model. Number of Fine Water Spray nozzles, nozzle position and spraying sequences were varied. A base for design of a Fine Water Spray system for a turbine hood is developed, and several unique features of the performance of a Fine Water Spray fire suppression system have been documented.

  9. Review of feedstock pretreatment strategies for improved anaerobic digestion: From lab-scale research to full-scale application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrere, Hélène; Antonopoulou, Georgia; Affes, Rim; Passos, Fabiana; Battimelli, Audrey; Lyberatos, Gerasimos; Ferrer, Ivet

    2016-01-01

    When properly designed, pretreatments may enhance the methane potential and/or anaerobic digestion rate, improving digester performance. This paper aims at providing some guidelines on the most appropriate pretreatments for the main feedstocks of biogas plants. Waste activated sludge was firstly investigated and implemented at full-scale, its thermal pretreatment with steam explosion being most recommended as it increases the methane potential and digestion rate, ensures sludge sanitation and the heat needed is produced on-site. Regarding fatty residues, saponification is preferred for enhancing their solubilisation and bioavailability. In the case of animal by-products, this pretreatment can be optimised to ensure sterilisation, solubilisation and to reduce inhibition linked to long chain fatty acids. With regards to lignocellulosic biomass, the first goal should be delignification, followed by hemicellulose and cellulose hydrolysis, alkali or biological (fungi) pretreatments being most promising. As far as microalgae are concerned, thermal pretreatment seems the most promising technique so far.

  10. Classification of intellectual disability using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children: Full Scale IQ or General Abilities Index?

    Science.gov (United States)

    KORIAKIN, TAYLOR A; MCCURDY, MARK D; PAPAZOGLOU, AIMILIA; PRITCHARD, ALISON E; ZABEL, T ANDREW; MAHONE, E MARK; JACOBSON, LISA A

    2013-01-01

    Aim We examined the implications of using the Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ) versus the General Abilities Index (GAI) for determination of intellectual disability using the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children, fourth edition (WISC-IV). Method Children referred for neuropsychological assessment (543 males, 290 females; mean age 10y 5mo, SD 2y 9mo, range 6–16y) were administered the WISC-IV and the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System, Second Edition (ABAS-II). Results GAI and FSIQ were highly correlated; however, fewer children were identified as having intellectual disability using GAI (n=159) than when using FSIQ (n=196). Although the 44 children classified as having intellectual disability based upon FSIQ (but not GAI) had significantly higher adaptive functioning scores than those meeting intellectual disability criteria based upon both FSIQ and GAI, mean adaptive scores still fell within the impaired range. FSIQ and GAI were comparable in predicting impairments in adaptive functioning. Interpretation Using GAI rather than FSIQ in intellectual disability diagnostic decision making resulted in fewer individuals being diagnosed with intellectual disability; however, the mean GAI of the disqualified individuals was at the upper end of criteria for intellectual impairment (standard score 75), and these individuals remained adaptively impaired. As GAI and FSIQ were similarly predictive of overall adaptive functioning, the use of GAI for intellectual disability diagnostic decision making may be of limited value. PMID:23859669

  11. Classification of intellectual disability using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children: Full Scale IQ or General Abilities Index?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koriakin, Taylor A; McCurdy, Mark D; Papazoglou, Aimilia; Pritchard, Alison E; Zabel, T Andrew; Mahone, E Mark; Jacobson, Lisa A

    2013-09-01

    We examined the implications of using the Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) versus the General Abilities Index (GAI) for determination of intellectual disability using the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children, fourth edition (WISC-IV). Children referred for neuropsychological assessment (543 males, 290 females; mean age 10y 5mo, SD 2y 9mo, range 6-16y) were administered the WISC-IV and the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System, second edition (ABAS-II). GAI and FSIQ were highly correlated; however, fewer children were identified as having intellectual disability using GAI (n=159) than when using FSIQ (n=196). Although the 44 children classified as having intellectual disability based upon FSIQ (but not GAI) had significantly higher adaptive functioning scores than those meeting intellectual disability criteria based upon both FSIQ and GAI, mean adaptive scores still fell within the impaired range. FSIQ and GAI were comparable in predicting impairments in adaptive functioning. Using GAI rather than FSIQ in intellectual disability diagnostic decision-making resulted in fewer individuals being diagnosed with intellectual disability; however, the mean GAI of the disqualified individuals was at the upper end of criteria for intellectual impairment (standard score 75), and these individuals remained adaptively impaired. As GAI and FSIQ were similarly predictive of overall adaptive functioning, the use of GAI for intellectual disability diagnostic decision-making may be of limited value. © 2013 Mac Keith Press.

  12. A multi-frequency fatigue testing method for wind turbine rotor blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eder, Martin Alexander; Belloni, Federico; Tesauro, Angelo

    2017-01-01

    Rotor blades are among the most delicate components of modern wind turbines. Reliability is a crucial aspect, since blades shall ideally remain free of failure under ultra-high cycle loading conditions throughout their designated lifetime of 20–25 years. Full-scale blade tests are the most accura...

  13. Simulation of Low frequency Noise from a Downwind Wind Turbine Rotor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Helge Aa.; Johansen, Jeppe; Sørensen, Niels

    2007-01-01

    One of the major drawbacks of a wind turbine with a downwind rotor is the generation of considerable low frequency noise (so-called thumping noise) which can cause annoyance of people at a considerable distance. This was experienced on a number of full-scale turbines in e.g. US and Sweden in the ...

  14. Instrumentation, control and automation for biogas plants - a full-scale example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiese, J. [EnerCess GmbH, Bad Oeynhausen (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Biogas plants win more and more importance, because of numerous ecological advantages. That means, the biogas production cycle is an integrated system of resources utilization, organic waste treatment, nutrient recycling and redistribution, and renewable energy production, which creates numerous energetic, environmental and agricultural benefits. In these plants biogas can be produced by using numerous different input substrates: Farm products: cattle and pork liquid manure, wheat, poultry excrements, maize etc.; Organic waste (primarily from food industries): canteen kitchens, food markets, viniculture, brewery, distillery etc.; Sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants. The processes in biogas plants are similar to processes, which are well known for many decades in anaerobic wastewater/sludge treatment. But up to now, the level of instrumentation, control and automation (ICA) of full-scale biogas systems is still low. I.e. most plants are black box systems which can be analyzed and/or optimized only difficultly. Consequently, the practice shows that many biogas plants are operated suboptimal. Furthermore, for economic reasons more and more plants are operated in a critical (load) range. I.e. there is a high danger of a plant breakdown, which can cause high financial deficits. This situation is mainly caused by the fact, that most of biogas plants are still rather small plants. E.g., the average electricity production capacity of approx. 2,000 biogas plants in Germany is only approx. 125 kWel. But, as a result of technical progress and permanently rising prices for non-renewable energy, biogas plants become more and more economic reasonable. Furthermore, because of the economies of scale law more and more larger plants are built (250 - 2,000 kWel). In case of larger plants, the costs for ICA are only a small part of the total investment costs (5 - 10 %). On larger plants the operators are also usually full-time workers, which can fully concentrate upon the

  15. Effect of Trailing Edge Damage on Full-Scale Wind Turbine Blade Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haselbach, Philipp Ulrich; Branner, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Modern wind turbine rotor blades are normally assembled from large parts bonded together by adhesive joints. The structural parts of wind turbine blades are usually made of composite materials, where sandwich core materials as well as fibre composites are used. For most of the modern wind turbine...... where the load bearing structure is connected to the shells and at the joints of the upper and lower shells, usually at the leading and trailing edges. Maintenance inspections of wind turbines show that cracks in the vicinity of the trailing edge are typically occurring forms of damage. The cause...... blades the aerodynamically formed outer shell structure is manufactured as an upper and a lower part in separate moulds in order to simplify the production process. The aerodynamic shell structures are then bonded to internal load bearing structures during the production process. Adhesive joints exist...

  16. Performance Analysis of a Savonius Wind Turbine in the Solar Integrated Rotor House

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDUL LATIFMANGANHAR

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Rooftop, building integrated and building augmented micro wind systems have the potential for small scale power generation in the built environment. Nevertheless, the expansion of micro wind technology is very slow and its market is strongly affected by the low efficiency of conventional wind generators. WAG-RH (Wind Accelerating and Guiding Rotor House which is a new technique introduced to enhance the efficiency of vertical axis rotor. The present study utilizes other green energy element by integrating the WAG-RH with a solar heating system. In this effort roof of the WAG-RH has been utilized to heat air through micro solar chimney for creating buoyancy effect in the air flow channel at rotor zone in the WAG-RH. The integration is capable of improving the performance of rotor setup in the WAG-RH as well as providing hot air with sufficient air mass flow rate for space heating. The WAG-RH had brought about 138% increase in the performance coefficient(Cp of conventional three bladed Savonius rotor, whereas solar integrated WAG-RH has contributed 162% increase in the Cp of the same rotor.

  17. Full-Scale Testing of a Mercury Oxidation Catalyst Upstream of a Wet FGD System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Blythe; Jennifer Paradis

    2010-06-30

    This document presents and discusses results from Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-06NT42778, 'Full-scale Testing of a Mercury Oxidation Catalyst Upstream of a Wet FGD System,' which was conducted over the time-period July 24, 2006 through June 30, 2010. The objective of the project was to demonstrate at full scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in pulverized-coal-fired flue gas. Oxidized mercury is removed downstream in wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) absorbers and collected with the byproducts from the FGD system. The project was co-funded by EPRI, the Lower Colorado River Authority (LCRA), who also provided the host site, Great River Energy, Johnson Matthey, Southern Company, Salt River Project (SRP), the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), NRG Energy, Ontario Power and Westar. URS Group was the prime contractor and also provided cofunding. The scope of this project included installing and testing a gold-based catalyst upstream of one full-scale wet FGD absorber module (about 200-MW scale) at LCRA's Fayette Power Project (FPP) Unit 3, which fires Powder River Basin coal. Installation of the catalyst involved modifying the ductwork upstream of one of three wet FGD absorbers on Unit 3, Absorber C. The FGD system uses limestone reagent, operates with forced sulfite oxidation, and normally runs with two FGD modules in service and one spare. The full-scale catalyst test was planned for 24 months to provide catalyst life data. Over the test period, data were collected on catalyst pressure drop, elemental mercury oxidation across the catalyst module, and mercury capture by the downstream wet FGD absorber. The demonstration period began on May 6, 2008 with plans for the catalyst to remain in service until May 5, 2010. However, because of continual increases in pressure drop across the catalyst and concerns that further increases would adversely affect Unit 3 operations, LCRA decided to end the

  18. Experimental study of main rotor tip geometry and tail rotor interactions in hover. Volume 1. Text and figures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balch, D. T.; Lombardi, J.

    1985-01-01

    A model scale hover test was conducted in the Sikorsky Aircraft Model rotor hover Facility to identify and quantify the impact of the tail rotor on the demonstrated advantages of advanced geometry tip configurations. The test was conducted using the Basic Model Test Rig and two scaled main rotor systems, one representing a 1/5.727 scale UH-60A BLACK HAWK and the others a 1/4.71 scale S-76. Eight alternate rotor tip configurations were tested, 3 on the BLACK HAWK rotor and 6 on the S-76 rotor. Four of these tips were then selected for testing in close proximity to an operating tail rotor (operating in both tractor and pusher modes) to determine if the performance advantages that could be obtained from the use of advanced geometry tips in a main rotor only environment would still exist in the more complex flow field involving a tail rotor. The test showed that overall the tail rotor effects on the advanced tip configurations tested are not substantially different from the effects on conventional tips.

  19. Molecular Rotors as Switches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang L. Wang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of a functional molecular unit acting as a state variable provides an attractive alternative for the next generations of nanoscale electronics. It may help overcome the limits of conventional MOSFETd due to their potential scalability, low-cost, low variability, and highly integratable characteristics as well as the capability to exploit bottom-up self-assembly processes. This bottom-up construction and the operation of nanoscale machines/devices, in which the molecular motion can be controlled to perform functions, have been studied for their functionalities. Being triggered by external stimuli such as light, electricity or chemical reagents, these devices have shown various functions including those of diodes, rectifiers, memories, resonant tunnel junctions and single settable molecular switches that can be electronically configured for logic gates. Molecule-specific electronic switching has also been reported for several of these device structures, including nanopores containing oligo(phenylene ethynylene monolayers, and planar junctions incorporating rotaxane and catenane monolayers for the construction and operation of complex molecular machines. A specific electrically driven surface mounted molecular rotor is described in detail in this review. The rotor is comprised of a monolayer of redox-active ligated copper compounds sandwiched between a gold electrode and a highly-doped P+ Si. This electrically driven sandwich-type monolayer molecular rotor device showed an on/off ratio of approximately 104, a read window of about 2.5 V, and a retention time of greater than 104 s. The rotation speed of this type of molecular rotor has been reported to be in the picosecond timescale, which provides a potential of high switching speed applications. Current-voltage spectroscopy (I-V revealed a temperature-dependent negative differential resistance (NDR associated with the device. The analysis of the device

  20. Time Frequency Features of Rotor Systems with Slowly Varying Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Yu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With the analytic method and numerical method respectively, the asymptotic solutions and finite element model of rotor system with single slowly varying mass is obtained to investigate the time frequency features of such rotor system; furthermore, with given model of slowly varying mass, the rotor system with dual slowly varying mass is studied. For the first order approximate solution is used, there exists difference between the results with analytic method and numerical method. On the base of common characteristics of rotor system with dual slowly varying mass, the general rules and formula describing the frequency distribution of rotor system with multiple slowly varying mass are proposed.

  1. Combustion Aerosols from Full-Scale Suspension-Firing of Wood Pellets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damø, Anne Juul; Wu, Hao; Frandsen, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of the present work were to investigate the aerosol formation mechanisms during full-scale suspension firing of wood, and, to evaluate the effect of coal fly ash addition on the formation of aerosols under different ash load conditions. Tests with suspension firing of 100 % wood...... pellets, with and without injection of coal fly ash as additive, were carried out at the 800 MWth multifuel boiler at Avedøre Power Plant. An extractive sampling system consisting of a gas ejector-diluter connected to a 10-stage Berner type low pressure cascade impactor (aerodynamic diameter range of 0...... for the experiments with coal fly ash addition. This indicates that the coal fly ash is effective in capturing volatile alkalis released from the wood during combustion, thus suppressing the homogeneous nucleation of alkali-salts. SEM/EDS and TEM/EDS analysis revealed that the large condensation peak from pure wood...

  2. Instrumentation and data acquisition for full-scale aircraft crash testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lisa E.; Fasanella, Edwin L.

    1993-01-01

    The Landing and Impact Dynamics Branch of the NASA Langley Research Center has been conducting full-scale aircraft crash tests since the 1970s. Using a pendulum method, aircraft are suspended by cables from a 240-ft high gantry and swung into the impact surface at various attitudes and velocities. Instrumentation for these tests include on-board high-speed cameras, strain gages, load cells, displacement transducers, and accelerometers. Transducers in the aircraft are hard-wired through a long umbilical cable to the data acquisition room. Up to 96 channels of data can be collected at a typical rate of 4000 samples per second. Data acquisition using an FM multiplexed analog system and a high-speed personal computer based digital system is described.

  3. Modelling and Testing of Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter Towards Full Scale Deployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parmeggiani, Stefano

    -commercial stage in which it has proven difficult to secure the necessary funding for the deployment of a full-scale demonstrator unit. The work presented aims at easing this process, by increasing public and scientific knowledge of the device, as well as by showing the latest progress in its development. Research....... This is mainly due to the development of an updated overtopping model specifically suited to Wave Dragon, which allows greater quality to predictions of the primary energy absorption of the device compared to previous versions. At the same time an equitable approach has been described and used in the performance......, the research has also provided a deeper insight into the physics of the overtopping process by individually assessing the influence of related device configuration and wave features, which goes beyond the present application and may be used for other overtopping WECs as well. Comprehensive analysis...

  4. Genome-based microbial ecology of anammox granules in a full-scale wastewater treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speth, Daan R; In 't Zandt, Michiel H; Guerrero-Cruz, Simon; Dutilh, Bas E; Jetten, Mike S M

    2016-03-31

    Partial-nitritation anammox (PNA) is a novel wastewater treatment procedure for energy-efficient ammonium removal. Here we use genome-resolved metagenomics to build a genome-based ecological model of the microbial community in a full-scale PNA reactor. Sludge from the bioreactor examined here is used to seed reactors in wastewater treatment plants around the world; however, the role of most of its microbial community in ammonium removal remains unknown. Our analysis yielded 23 near-complete draft genomes that together represent the majority of the microbial community. We assign these genomes to distinct anaerobic and aerobic microbial communities. In the aerobic community, nitrifying organisms and heterotrophs predominate. In the anaerobic community, widespread potential for partial denitrification suggests a nitrite loop increases treatment efficiency. Of our genomes, 19 have no previously cultivated or sequenced close relatives and six belong to bacterial phyla without any cultivated members, including the most complete Omnitrophica (formerly OP3) genome to date.

  5. Full scale investigation on aerogel windows exposed to real climatic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Nielsen, Lars Thomsen

    The aim of the project “Full scale experiments with aerogel windows exposed to natural conditions” is to test the durability of aerogel windows exposed to real climatic conditions and to investigate the influence of aerogel windows compared to common low-energy windows with respect to heat balanc...... of the ambient air, and condensation on the outside surface will occur. This problem has been analysed theoretically by calculation of the number of hours per year where condensation will occur....... and indoor thermal comfort.The influence of temperature and wind load on the durability of sealed glazing units including aerogel windows has been investigated theoretically. The analyses show that evacuated aerogel glazings are significantly more robust to temperature changes and wind load than common...

  6. Properties important to mixing and simulant recommendations for WTP full-scale vessel testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Martino, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-12-01

    Full Scale Vessel Testing (FSVT) is being planned by Bechtel National, Inc., to demonstrate the ability of the standard high solids vessel design (SHSVD) to meet mixing requirements over the range of fluid properties planned for processing in the Pretreatment Facility (PTF) of the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Testing will use simulated waste rather than actual Hanford waste. Therefore, the use of suitable simulants is critical to achieving the goals of the test program. WTP personnel requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to assist with development of simulants for use in FSVT. Among the tasks assigned to SRNL was to develop a list of waste properties that are important to pulse-jet mixer (PJM) performance in WTP vessels with elevated concentrations of solids.

  7. Lightweight Grid Shell Pavilion - Design, Manufacture and Erection of Full Scale Grid Shell Prototypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaněk, Aleš

    2016-12-01

    The main goal of author's research is to design and construct grid shell structures, which are subsequently realized as experimental structures in full scale. These structures should make the place suitable for various events and also a friendly, pleasant, relaxing and free time space. By thinking about how such structure should look like and what materials and structure types are suitable, there were many kinds of lightweight structures considered. The most logical solution is to create a grid shell structure combining with a single layer membrane that would fulfill all aspects of elegant remarkable lightweight structure using some original details and workflow advancements. These grid shell projects should demonstrate another possibility to build and think about unconventional structures and provoke a deeper interest in these unique structures. The goal of this project was to create a feasible design of a grid shell structure and to build up the structures while being capable to understand the core of such an interesting phenomenon.

  8. Quantifying measurement uncertainty in full-scale compost piles using organic micro-pollutant concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadef, Yumna; Poulsen, Tjalfe G; Bester, Kai

    2014-05-01

    Reductions in measurement uncertainty for organic micro-pollutant concentrations in full scale compost piles using comprehensive sampling and allowing equilibration time before sampling were quantified. Results showed that both application of a comprehensive sampling procedure (involving sample crushing) and allowing one week of equilibration time before sampling reduces measurement uncertainty by about 50%. Results further showed that for measurements carried out on samples collected using a comprehensive procedure, measurement uncertainty was associated exclusively with the analytic methods applied. Application of statistical analyses confirmed that these results were significant at the 95% confidence level. Overall implications of these results are (1) that it is possible to eliminate uncertainty associated with material inhomogeneity and (2) that in order to reduce uncertainty, sampling procedure is very important early in the composting process but less so later in the process.

  9. A full-scale study of mixing and foaming in egg-shaped anaerobic digesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Bhargavi; Miot, Alexandre; Jones, Bonnie; Klibert, Corey; Pagilla, Krishna R

    2015-09-01

    Seasonal foaming in full-scale egg-shaped digesters (ESD) at the Oceanside Water Pollution Control Plant was investigated over a two-year period. The causes and contributors of anaerobic digestion (AD) foaming, namely, Gordonia amarae filaments and mixing effects were evaluated in these ESDs. The seasonal presence of high levels of G. amarae as a primary cause and excessive induced mixing as an important contributor of AD foaming has been established. The induced mixing frequency in the ESDs was gradually reduced and eventually shut off in a series of controlled experimental phases. Total solids and temperature profiles indicated that reducing mixing frequency did not significantly impact digester performance or disrupt the homogeneity of digester contents, although it did reduce the occurrence of foam in the digesters. Excessive induced mixing, a contributor to foaming, increased foam events at G. amarae thresholds above 10(6)intersections/mg VSS in the mixed liquor.

  10. Anaerobic digestion foaming in full-scale biogas plants: a survey on causes and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kougias, P G; Boe, K; O-Thong, S; Kristensen, L A; Angelidaki, I

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion foaming is a common operation problem in biogas plants with negative impacts on the biogas plants economy and environment. A survey of 16 Danish full-scale biogas plants on foaming problems revealed that most of them had experienced foaming in their processes up to three times per year. Foaming incidents often lasted from one day to three weeks, causing 20-50% biogas production loss. One foaming case at Lemvig biogas plant has been investigated and the results indicated that the combination of feedstock composition and mixing pattern of the reactor was the main cause of foaming in this case. Moreover, no difference in bacterial communities between the foaming and non-foaming reactors was observed, showing that filamentous bacteria were not the main reason for foaming in this case.

  11. Aging biofilm from a full-scale moving bed biofilm reactor: characterization and enzymatic treatment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui; Ren, Hongqiang; Ding, Lili; Geng, Jinju; Xu, Ke; Zhang, Yan

    2014-02-01

    Effective removal of aging biofilm deserves to receive more attention. This study aimed to characterized aging biofilm from a full-scale moving bed biofilm reactor treating pharmaceutical wastewater and evaluate the hydrolysis effects of biofilm by different enzymatic treatments. Results from FTIR and biochemical composition analyses showed that it was a predominately organic-based biofilm with the ratio of total protein (PN) to polysaccharide (PS) of 20.17. A reticular structure of extracellular polymeric matrix (EPM) with filamentous bacteria as the skeleton was observed on the basal layer through SEM-EDS test. Among the four commercial proteases and amylases from Genencor®, proteases were shown to have better performances than amylases either on the removal of MLSS and PN/MLSS or on DOC (i.e., dissolved organic carbon)/MLSS raising of biofilm pellets. Difference of dynamic fluorescence characteristics of dissolved organic matters after treated by the two proteases indicated distinguishing mechanisms of the treating process.

  12. Design of full scale wave simulator for testing Power Take Off systems for wave energy converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, H. C.; Hansen, R. H.; Hansen, Anders Hedegaard

    2016-01-01

    For wave energy to become a major future contributor of renewable energy it is a requirement that the efficiency and reliability of the Power Take-Off (PTO) systems is significantly improved. However, the cost of installing and testing PTO-systems at sea is very high. The focus of the current paper...... is therefore on the design and commissioning of a full scale wave simulator for testing PTO-systems for point absorbers. The challenge is to be able to design a system, which mimics the behavior of a wave when interacting with a given PTO-system – especially when considering discrete type PTO......-systems. The paper presents the designed system, including the major design considerations. A model of the complete system is presented and controllers for the system are developed. These enable the system to emulate the wave behavior and the wave–float interaction. Finally both simulation and experimental results...

  13. Characterizing the Influence of Abstraction in Full-Scale Wind Turbine Nacelle Testing: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schkoda, Ryan; Bibo, Amin; Guo, Yi; Lambert, Scott; Wallen, Robb

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing interest in full-scale wind turbine nacelle testing to complement individual component testing. As a result, several wind turbine nacelle test benches have been built to perform such testing with the intent of loading the integrated components as they are in the field. However, when mounted on a test bench the nacelle is not on the top of a tower and does not have blades attached to it--this is a form of abstraction. This paper aims to quantify the influence of such an abstraction on the dynamic response of the nacelle through a series of simulation case studies. The responses of several nacelle components are studied including the main bearing, main shaft, gearbox supports, generator, and yaw bearing interface. Results are presented to highlight the differences in the dynamic response of the nacelle caused by the abstraction. Additionally, the authors provide recommendations for mitigating the effects of the abstraction.

  14. Development of an in-line process viscometer for the full-scale biogas process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mönch-Tegeder, Matthias; Lemmer, Andreas; Hinrichs, Jörg; Oechsner, Hans

    2015-02-01

    An in-line viscometer was developed to determine the rheological properties of biogas slurries at a full-scale biogas plant. This type of viscometer allows the investigation of flow characteristics without additional pretreatment and has many advantageous aspects in contrast to the rotational viscometer. Various effects were studied: alterations in the feedstock structure, increasing total solid (TS) of the slurry and the disintegration of the feedstock on the rheological properties. The results indicate that the Power-Law model is sufficient for the description of the flow curve of biogas slurries. Furthermore, the use of more fibrous materials increases in viscosity. The increase in TS of 10.1-15.1% resulted in a sharp increase of the viscosity. The mechanical disintegration of the feedstock positively influenced the rheological properties, but the effects were more apparent at higher TS.

  15. Overview of the Full-scale Radiological Dispersal Device Field Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Anna Rae; Erhardt, Lorne; Lebel, Luke; Duke, M John M; Jones, Trevor; White, Dan; Quayle, Debora

    2016-05-01

    In 2012, Defence Research and Development Canada, in partnership with a number of other Canadian and International organizations, led a series of three field trials designed to simulate a Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD). These trials, known as the Full-Scale RDD (FSRDD) Field Trials, involved the explosive dispersal of a short-lived radioactive tracer ((140)La, t1/2 = 40.293 h). The FSRDD Field Trials required a significant effort in their planning, preparation, and execution to ensure that they were carried out in a safe, efficient manner and that the scientific goals of the trials were met. The discussion presented here details the planning and execution of the trials, outlines the relevant radiation safety aspects, provides a summary of the source term and atmospheric conditions for the three dispersal events, and provides an overview of the measurements that were made to track the plumes and deposition patterns.

  16. Aeroelastic Deformation: Adaptation of Wind Tunnel Measurement Concepts to Full-Scale Vehicle Flight Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burner, Alpheus W.; Lokos, William A.; Barrows, Danny A.

    2005-01-01

    The adaptation of a proven wind tunnel test technique, known as Videogrammetry, to flight testing of full-scale vehicles is presented. A description is presented of the technique used at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center for the measurement of the change in wing twist and deflection of an F/A-18 research aircraft as a function of both time and aerodynamic load. Requirements for in-flight measurements are compared and contrasted with those for wind tunnel testing. The methodology for the flight-testing technique and differences compared to wind tunnel testing are given. Measurement and operational comparisons to an older in-flight system known as the Flight Deflection Measurement System (FDMS) are presented.

  17. Characterizing the Influence of Abstraction in Full-Scale Wind Turbine Nacelle Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schkoda, Ryan; Bibo, Amin; Guo, Yi; Lambert, Scott; Wallen, Robb

    2016-08-21

    In recent years, there has been a growing interest in full-scale wind turbine nacelle testing to complement individual component testing. As a result, several wind turbine nacelle test benches have been built to perform such testing with the intent of loading the integrated components as they are in the field. However, when mounted on a test bench the nacelle is not on the top of a tower and does not have blades attached to it - this is a form of abstraction. This paper aims to quantify the influence of such an abstraction on the dynamic response of the nacelle through a series of simulation case studies. The responses of several nacelle components are studied including the main bearing, main shaft, gearbox supports, generator, and yaw bearing interface. Results are presented to highlight the differences in the dynamic response of the nacelle caused by the abstraction. Additionally, the authors provide recommendations for mitigating the effects of the abstraction.

  18. Interpersonal Transport of Expiratory Aerosols among Three Manikins in a Full-Scale Test Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Li; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2014-01-01

    the average exposure is low. Two symmetrically located target manikins have different exposures of droplet nuclei exhaled by one susceptible manikin. CFD simulations were also conducted to predict the aerosols deposited on the targets’ body surfaces. 3 droplet nuclei were predicted to land on the left target......This study focuses on occupants’ exposure of aerosols exhaled by one susceptible in a full-scale test room. Three breathing thermal manikins are standing in the middle of room and both the process in the microenvironment and in the macroenvironment are considered. A diffusive ceiling has been...... installed to induce fresh air without generating sensible drafts in an occupied zone with fully mixing flow. The exposures of two target manikins to aerosols exhaled by one susceptible manikin were measured. Tracer gas N2O was used to simulate droplet nuclei. Comparisons on different mutual distances were...

  19. Monitoring methanogenic population dynamics in a full-scale anaerobic digester to facilitate operational management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Julie; Williams, Haydn; Dinsdale, Richard; Guwy, Alan; Esteves, Sandra

    2013-07-01

    Microbial populations in a full-scale anaerobic digester fed on food waste were monitored over an 18-month period using qPCR. The digester exhibited a highly dynamic environment in which methanogenic populations changed constantly in response to availability of substrates and inhibitors. The methanogenic population in the digester was dominated by Methanosaetaceae, suggesting that aceticlastic methanogenesis was the main route for the production of methane. Sudden losses (69%) in Methanosaetaceae were followed by a build-up of VFAs which were subsequently consumed when populations recovered. A build up of ammonium inhibited Methanosaetaceae and resulted in shifts from acetate to hydrogen utilization. Addition of trace elements and alkalinity when propionate levels were high stimulated microbial growth. Routine monitoring of microbial populations and VFAs provided valuable insights into the complex processes occurring within the digester and could be used to predict digester stability and facilitate digester optimization.

  20. Full Scale Test of a SSP 34m box girder 1. Data report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Find Mølholt; Branner, Kim; Nielsen, Per Hørlyk;

    This report presents the setup and result of a full-scale test of a reinforced glass fibre/epoxy box girder used in 34m wind turbine blade. The tests were performed at the Blaest test facility in August 2006. The test is an important part of a research project established in cooperation between...... the box girder was loaded until failure. A comprehensive description of the test setup is given. This report deals only with tests and results. There are no conclusions on the data in this report, but references are given to publications, where the data are used and compared with FEM etc. Various kinds...... of measuring equipment have been used during these tests: acoustic emission, 330 strain gauges, 24 mechanical displacement devices and two optical deformation measuring systems. The mechanical displacement devices measured both global (absolute) and local (relative) deflection and the optical systems measured...

  1. Full-scale validation of an air scour control system for energy savings in membrane bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monclús, Hèctor; Dalmau, Montserrat; Gabarrón, Sara; Ferrero, Giuliana; Rodríguez-Roda, Ignasi; Comas, Joaquim

    2015-08-01

    Membrane aeration represents between 35 and 50% of the operational cost of membrane bioreactors (MBR). New automatic control systems and/or module configurations have been developed for aeration optimization. In this paper, we briefly describe an innovative MBR air scour control system based on permeability evolution and present the results of a full-scale validation that lasted over a 1-year period. An average reduction in the air scour flow rate of 13% was achieved, limiting the maximum reduction to 20%. This averaged reduction corresponded to a decrease in energy consumption for membrane aeration of 14% (0.025 kWh m(-3)) with maximum saving rates of 22% (0.04 kWh m(-3)). Permeability and fouling rate evolution were not affected by the air scour control system, as very similar behavior was observed for these variables for both filtration lines throughout the entire experimental evaluation period of 1 year.

  2. Molecular analysis of methanogens involved in methanogenic degradation of tetramethylammonium hydroxide in full-scale bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whang, Liang-Ming; Hu, Tai-Ho; Liu, Pao-Wen Grace; Hung, Yu-Ching; Fukushima, Toshikazu; Wu, Yi-Ju; Chang, Shao-Hsiung

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated methanogenic communities involved in degradation of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) in three full-scale bioreactors treating TMAH-containing wastewater. Based on the results of terminal-restriction fragment-length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and quantitative PCR analyses targeting the methyl-coenzyme M reductase alpha subunit (mcrA) genes retrieved from three bioreactors, Methanomethylovorans and Methanosarcina were the dominant methanogens involved in the methanogenic degradation of TMAH in the bioreactors. Furthermore, batch experiments were conducted to evaluate mcrA messenger RNA (mRNA) expression during methanogenic TMAH degradation, and the results indicated that a higher level of TMAH favored mcrA mRNA expression by Methansarcina, while Methanomethylovorans could only express considerable amount of mcrA mRNA at a lower level of TMAH. These results suggest that Methansarcina is responsible for methanogenic TMAH degradation at higher TMAH concentrations, while Methanomethylovorans may be important at a lower TMAH condition.

  3. Parallel Computing of the Underwater Explosion Cavitation Effects on Full-scale Ship Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi Zong; Yanjie Zhao; Fan Ye; Haitao Li; Gang Chen

    2012-01-01

    Abstract:As well as shock wave and bubble pulse loading,cavitation also has very significant influences on the dynamic response of surface ships and other near-surface marine structures to underwater explosive loadings.In this paper,the acoustic-structure coupling method embedded in ABAQUS is adopted to do numerical analysis of underwater explosion considering cavitation.Both the shape of bulk cavitation region and local cavitation region are obtained,and they are in good agreement with analytical results.The duration of reloading is several times longer than that of a shock wave.In the end,both the single computation and parallel computation of the cavitation effect on the dynamic responses of a full-scale ship are presented,which proved that reloading caused by cavitation is non-ignorable.All these results are helpful in understanding underwater explosion cavitation effects.

  4. Full scale validation of helminth ova (Ascaris suum) inactivation by different sludge treatment processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulsrud, B.; Gjerde, B.; Lundar, A.

    2003-07-01

    The Norwegian sewage sludge regulation requires disinfection (hygienisation) of all sludges for land application, and one of the criteria is that disinfected sludge should not contain viable helminth ova. All disinfection processes have to be designed and operated in order to comply with this criteria, and four processes employed in Norway (thermophilic aerobic pre-treatment, pre-pasteurisation, thermal vacuum drying in membrane filter presses and lime treatment) have been tested in full scale by inserting semipermeable bags of Ascaris suum eggs into the processes for certain limes. For lime treatment supplementary laboratory tests have been conducted. The paper presents the results of the experiments, and it could be concluded that all processes, except lime treatment, could be operated at less stringent time-temperature regimes than commonly experienced at Norwegian plants today. (author)

  5. Calibration and validation of a phenomenological influent pollutant disturbance scenario generator using full-scale data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores Alsina, Xavier; Saagi, Ramesh; Lindblom, Erik Ulfson

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the full-scale feasibility of the phenomenological dynamic influent pollutant disturbance scenario generator (DIPDSG) that was originally used to create the influent data of the International Water Association (IWA) Benchmark Simulation Model No. 2 (BSM...... rate; 2) pollutants (carbon, nitrogen); 3) temperature; and, 4) transport. Simulation results show that the model successfully describes daily/weekly and seasonal variations and the effect of rainfall and snow melting on the influent flow rate, pollutant concentrations and temperature profiles...... rainfall patterns (climate change) or influent biodegradability (process uncertainty) on the generated time series; 2) a demonstration of how to reduce the cost/workload of measuring campaigns by filling the gaps due to missing data in the influent profiles; and, 3) a critical discussion of the presented...

  6. Structural Response and Failure of a Full-Scale Stitched Graphite-Epoxy Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegley, Dawn C.; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Bush, Harold G.

    2001-01-01

    Analytical and experimental results of the test for an all-composite full-scale wing box are presented. The wing box is representative of a section of a 220-passenger commercial transport aircraft wing box and was designed and constructed by The Boeing Company as part of the NASA Advanced Subsonics Technology (AST) program. The semi-span wing was fabricated from a graphite-epoxy material system with cover panels and spars held together using Kevlar stitches through the thickness. No mechanical fasteners were used to hold the stiffeners to the skin of the cover panels. Tests were conducted with and without low-speed impact damage, discrete source damage and repairs. Up-bending down-bending and brake roll loading conditions were applied. The structure with nonvisible impact damage carried 97% of Design Ultimate Load prior to failure through a lower cover panel access hole. Finite element and experimental results agree for the global response of the structure.

  7. Putting in operation a full-scale ultracold-neutron source model with superfluid helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebrov, A. P.; Lyamkin, V. A.; Prudnikov, D. V.; Keshishev, K. O.; Boldarev, S. T.; Vasil'ev, A. V.

    2017-02-01

    A project of the source of ultracold neutrons for the WWR-M reactor based on superfluid helium for ultracold-neutron production has been developed. The full-scale source model, including all required cryogenic and vacuum equipment, the cryostat, and the ultracold-neutron source model has been created. The superfluid helium temperature T = 1.08 K without a heat load and T = 1.371 K with a heat load on the simulator of P = 60 W has been achieved in experiments at a technological complex of the ultracold-neutron source. The result proves the feasibility of implementing the ultracold-neutron source at the WWR-M reactor and the possibility of applying superfluid helium in nuclear engineering.

  8. TESTING OF A FULL-SCALE ROTARY MICROFILTER FOR THE ENHANCED PROCESS FOR RADIONUCLIDES REMOVAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, D; David Stefanko, D; Michael Poirier, M; Samuel Fink, S

    2009-01-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) researchers are investigating and developing a rotary microfilter for solid-liquid separation applications in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. One application involves use in the Enhanced Processes for Radionuclide Removal (EPRR) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). To assess this application, the authors performed rotary filter testing with a full-scale, 25-disk unit manufactured by SpinTek Filtration with 0.5 micron filter media manufactured by Pall Corporation. The filter includes proprietary enhancements by SRNL. The most recent enhancement is replacement of the filter's main shaft seal with a John Crane Type 28LD gas-cooled seal. The feed material was SRS Tank 8F simulated sludge blended with monosodium titanate (MST). Testing examined total insoluble solids concentrations of 0.06 wt % (126 hours of testing) and 5 wt % (82 hours of testing). The following are conclusions from this testing.

  9. Full-Scale Approximations of Spatio-Temporal Covariance Models for Large Datasets

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Bohai

    2014-01-01

    Various continuously-indexed spatio-temporal process models have been constructed to characterize spatio-temporal dependence structures, but the computational complexity for model fitting and predictions grows in a cubic order with the size of dataset and application of such models is not feasible for large datasets. This article extends the full-scale approximation (FSA) approach by Sang and Huang (2012) to the spatio-temporal context to reduce computational complexity. A reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo (RJMCMC) algorithm is proposed to select knots automatically from a discrete set of spatio-temporal points. Our approach is applicable to nonseparable and nonstationary spatio-temporal covariance models. We illustrate the effectiveness of our method through simulation experiments and application to an ozone measurement dataset.

  10. Density and Cavitating Flow Results from a Full-Scale Optical Multiphase Cryogenic Flowmeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korman, Valentin

    2007-01-01

    Liquid propulsion systems are hampered by poor flow measurements. The measurement of flow directly impacts safe motor operations, performance parameters as well as providing feedback from ground testing and developmental work. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, in an effort to improve propulsion sensor technology, has developed an all optical flow meter that directly measures the density of the fluid. The full-scale sensor was tested in a transient, multiphase liquid nitrogen fluid environment. Comparison with traditional density models shows excellent agreement with fluid density with an error of approximately 0.8%. Further evaluation shows the sensor is able to detect cavitation or bubbles in the flow stream and separate out their resulting effects in fluid density.

  11. Identifying the abundant and active microorganisms common to full scale anaerobic digesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Rasmus Hansen; McIlroy, Simon Jon; Kristensen, Jannie Munk

    2017-01-01

    two full scale digesters over a six year period using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Sampling of the sludge fed into these systems revealed that several of the most abundant populations were likely inactive and immigrating with the influent. This observation indicates that a failure to consider...... in anaerobic digestion, this study paves the way for targeted characterisation of the process important organisms towards an in depth understanding of the microbial ecology of these biotechnologically important systems.......Anaerobic digestion is widely applied to treat organic waste at wastewater treatment plants. Characterisation of the underlying microbiology represents a source of information to develop strategies for improved operation. To this end, we investigated the microbial community composition of thirty...

  12. Full-scale validation of wireless hybrid sensor on an in-service highway bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Shinae; Dahal, Sushil; Li, Jingcheng

    2013-04-01

    With the rapid development of electrical circuits, Micro electromechanical system (MEMS) and network technology, wireless smart sensor networks (WSSN) have shown significant potential for replacing existing wired SHM systems due to their cost effectiveness and versatility. A few structural systems have been monitored using WSSN measuring acceleration, temperature, wind speed, humidity; however, a multi-scale sensing device which has the capability to measure the displacement has not been yet developed. In the previous paper, a new high-accuracy displacement sensing system was developed combining a high resolution analog displacement sensor and MEMS-based wireless microprocessor platform. Also, the wireless sensor was calibrated in the laboratory to get the high precision displacement data from analog sensor, and its performance was validated to measure simulated thermal expansion of a laboratory bridge structure. This paper expands the validation of the developed system on full-scale experiments to measure both static and dynamic displacement of expansion joints, temperature, and vibration of an in-service highway bridge. A brief visual investigation of bridges, comparison between theoretical and measured thermal expansion are also provided. The developed system showed the capability to measure the displacement with accuracy of 0.00027 in.

  13. Levee Breach Experiment by Overflow at the Full Scale Experimental Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, T.; Yokoyama, H.

    2010-12-01

    The increased occurrence of storm disasters caused by typhoons and local downpours in recent years has given rise to concerns over the possibility of large-scale floods resulting from river overflow. Levee breaches cause particularly severe damage, and in Japan, more than 80% of such accidents in the past have been attributed to overflow. Studies on levee breach by overflow have been conducted from various viewpoints using diverse methods. However, the mechanism of three-dimensional levee breach by overflow has not been clarified in past studies. Elucidation of this mechanism is very important for disaster prevention as well as for the future progress of studies on levee breach by overflow. Levees (levee crown width; 3m, levee height; 3m, levee length; 80m) were built in the Chiyoda Experimental Channel (full-scale experimental channel; width is 30m, length is 1,300m, maximum discharge is 170t/s) in Hokkaido Japan in 2010, and a three-dimensional experiment on levee breach by overflow. The findings of the experiment are as follows: After the beginning of overflow, levee breach widening did not begin until after most of the levee section had collapsed. It was also considered that, even if overflow occurred, extremely serious damage (e.g., sudden increase in levee breach width and overflow discharge) was unlikely unless the majority of the levee section collapsed.

  14. Behavior of full-scale concrete segmented pipelines under permanent ground displacements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junhee; O'Connor, Sean; Nadukuru, Srinivasa; Lynch, Jerome P.; Michalowski, Radoslaw; Green, Russell A.; Pour-Ghaz, Mohammed; Weiss, W. Jason; Bradshaw, Aaron

    2010-03-01

    Concrete pipelines are one of the most popular underground lifelines used for the transportation of water resources. Unfortunately, this critical infrastructure system remains vulnerable to ground displacements during seismic and landslide events. Ground displacements may induce significant bending, shear, and axial forces to concrete pipelines and eventually lead to joint failures. In order to understand and model the typical failure mechanisms of concrete segmented pipelines, large-scale experimentation is necessary to explore structural and soil-structure behavior during ground faulting. This paper reports on the experimentation of a reinforced concrete segmented concrete pipeline using the unique capabilities of the NEES Lifeline Experimental and Testing Facilities at Cornell University. Five segments of a full-scale commercial concrete pressure pipe (244 cm long and 37.5 cm diameter) are constructed as a segmented pipeline under a compacted granular soil in the facility test basin (13.4 m long and 3.6 m wide). Ground displacements are simulated through translation of half of the test basin. A dense array of sensors including LVDT's, strain gages, and load cells are installed along the length of the pipeline to measure the pipeline response while the ground is incrementally displaced. Accurate measures of pipeline displacements and strains are captured up to the compressive and flexural failure of the pipeline joints.

  15. Full Outline of Unresponsiveness score and the Glasgow Coma Scale in prediction of pediatric coma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Atahar; Sankhyan, Naveen; Jayashree, Murlidharan; Singhi, Sunit; Singhi, Pratibha

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study was done to compare the admission Full Outline of Unresponsiveness (FOUR) score and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) as predictors of outcome in children with impaired consciousness. METHODS: In this observational study, children (5–12 years) with impaired consciousness of Pediatric Overall Performance Category Scale at 3 months. RESULTS: Of the 63 children, 20 died during hospital stay. AUC for in-hospital mortality for GCS was 0.83 (CI 0.7 to 0.9) and FOUR score was 0.8 (CI 0.7 to 0.9) [difference between areas –0.0250 (95%CI 0.0192 to 0.0692), Z statistic 1.109, P=0.2674]. AUC for mortality at 3 months for GCS was 0.78 (CI 0.67 to 0.90) and FOUR score was 0.74 (CI 0.62 to 0.87) (P=0.1102) and AUC for poor functional outcome for GCS was 0.82 (CI 0.72 to 0.93) and FOUR score was 0.79 (CI 0.68 to 0.9) (P=0.2377), which were also comparable. Inter-rater reliability for GCS was 0.96 and for FOUR score 0.98. CONCLUSION: FOUR score was as good as GCS in prediction of in-hospital and 3-month mortality and functional outcome at 3 months. FOUR score had a good inter-rater reliability. PMID:28123622

  16. Achieving Full Dynamic Similarity with Small-Scale Wind Turbine Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark; Kiefer, Janik; Westergaard, Carsten; Hultmark, Marcus

    2016-11-01

    Power and thrust data as a function of Reynolds number and Tip Speed Ratio are presented at conditions matching those of a full scale turbine. Such data has traditionally been very difficult to acquire due to the large length-scales of wind turbines, and the limited size of conventional wind tunnels. Ongoing work at Princeton University employs a novel, high-pressure wind tunnel (up to 220 atmospheres of static pressure) which uses air as the working fluid. This facility allows adjustment of the Reynolds number (via the fluid density) independent of the Tip Speed Ratio, up to a Reynolds number (based on chord and velocity at the tip) of over 3 million. Achieving dynamic similarity using this approach implies very high power and thrust loading, which results in mechanical loads greater than 200 times those experienced by a similarly sized model in a conventional wind tunnel. In order to accurately report the power coefficients, a series of tests were carried out on a specially designed model turbine drive-train using an external testing bench to replicate tunnel loading. An accurate map of the drive-train performance at various operating conditions was determined. Finally, subsequent corrections to the power coefficient are discussed in detail. Supported by: National Science Foundation Grant CBET-1435254 (program director Gregory Rorrer).

  17. Performance evaluation of a full-scale innovative swine waste-to-energy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiele; Adair, Charles W; Deshusses, Marc A

    2016-09-01

    Intensive monitoring was carried out to evaluate the performance of a full-scale innovative swine waste-to-energy system at a commercial swine farm with 8640 heads of swine. Detailed mass balances over each unit of the system showed that the system, which includes a 7600m(3) anaerobic digester, a 65-kW microturbine, and a 4200m(3) aeration basin, was able to remove up to 92% of the chemical oxygen demand (COD), 99% of the biological oxygen demand (BOD), 77% of the total nitrogen (TN), and 82% of the total phosphorous (TP) discharged into the system as fresh pig waste. The overall biogas yield based on the COD input was 64% of the maximum theoretical, a value that indicates that even greater environmental benefits could be obtained with process optimization. Overall, the characterization of the materials fluxes in the system provides a greater understanding of the fate of organics and nutrients in large scale animal waste management systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. On the ASR and ASR thermal residues characterization of full scale treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, G; Viotti, P; Luciano, A; Fino, D

    2014-02-01

    In order to obtain 85% recycling, several procedures on Automotive Shredder Residue (ASR) could be implemented, such as advanced metal and polymer recovery, mechanical recycling, pyrolysis, the direct use of ASR in the cement industry, and/or the direct use of ASR as a secondary raw material. However, many of these recovery options appear to be limited, due to the possible low acceptability of ASR based products on the market. The recovery of bottom ash and slag after an ASR thermal treatment is an option that is not usually considered in most countries (e.g. Italy) due to the excessive amount of contaminants, especially metals. The purpose of this paper is to provide information on the characteristics of ASR and its full-scale incineration residues. Experiments have been carried out, in two different experimental campaigns, in a full-scale tyre incineration plant specifically modified to treat ASR waste. Detailed analysis of ASR samples and combustion residues were carried out and compared with literature data. On the basis of the analytical results, the slag and bottom ash from the combustion process have been classified as non-hazardous wastes, according to the EU waste acceptance criteria (WAC), and therefore after further tests could be used in future in the construction industry. It has also been concluded that ASR bottom ash (EWC - European Waste Catalogue - code 19 01 12) could be landfilled in SNRHW (stabilized non-reactive hazardous waste) cells or used as raw material for road construction, with or without further treatment for the removal of heavy metals. In the case of fly ash from boiler or Air Pollution Control (APC) residues, it has been found that the Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations exceeded regulatory leaching test limits therefore their removal, or a stabilization process, would be essential prior to landfilling the use of these residues as construction material.

  19. CLOSURE OF HLW TANKS PHASE 2 FULL SCALE COOLING COILS GROUT FILL DEMONSTATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, E; Alex Cozzi, A

    2008-06-19

    This report documents the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) support for the Tank Closure and Technology Development (TCTD) group's strategy for closing high level radioactive waste (HLW) tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Specifically, this task addresses the ability to successfully fill intact cooling coils, presently within the HLW tanks, with grout that satisfies the fresh and cured grout requirements [1] under simulated field conditions. The overall task was divided into two phases. The first phase was the development of a grout formulation that satisfies the processing requirements for filling the HLW tank cooling coils [5]. The second phase of the task, which is documented in this report, was the filling of full scale cooling coils under simulated field conditions using the grout formulation developed in the first phase. SRS Type I tank cooling coil assembly design drawings and pressure drop calculations were provided by the Liquid Waste (LW) customer to be used as the basis for configuring the test assemblies. The current concept for closing tanks equipped with internal cooling coils is to pump grout into the coils to inhibit pathways for infiltrating water. Access to the cooling coil assemblies is through the existing supply/return manifold headers located on top of the Type I tanks. The objectives for the second phase of the testing, as stated in the Task Technical and Quality Assurance plan (TTQAP) [2], were to: (1) Perform a demonstration test to assess cooling coil grout performance in simulated field conditions, and (2) Measure relevant properties of samples prepared under simulated field conditions. SRNL led the actual work of designing, fabricating and filling two full-scale cooling coil assemblies which were performed at Clemson Engineering Technologies Laboratory (CETL) using the South Carolina University Research and Education Foundation (SCUREF) program. A statement of work (SOW) was issued to CETL [6] to perform this work.

  20. A metagenome of a full-scale microbial community carrying out enhanced biological phosphorus removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertsen, Mads; Hansen, Lea Benedicte Skov; Saunders, Aaron Marc; Nielsen, Per Halkjær; Nielsen, Kåre Lehmann

    2012-01-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is widely used for removal of phosphorus from wastewater. In this study, a metagenome (18.2 Gb) was generated using Illumina sequencing from a full-scale EBPR plant to study the community structure and genetic potential. Quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (qFISH) was applied as an independent method to evaluate the community structure. The results were in qualitative agreement, but a DNA extraction bias against gram positive bacteria using standard extraction protocols was identified, which would not have been identified without the use of qFISH. The genetic potential for community function showed enrichment of genes involved in phosphate metabolism and biofilm formation, reflecting the selective pressure of the EBPR process. Most contigs in the assembled metagenome had low similarity to genes from currently sequenced genomes, underlining the need for more reference genomes of key EBPR species. Only the genome of ‘Candidatus Accumulibacter', a genus of phosphorus-removing organisms, was closely enough related to the species present in the metagenome to allow for detailed investigations. Accumulibacter accounted for only 4.8% of all bacteria by qFISH, but the depth of sequencing enabled detailed insight into their microdiversity in the full-scale plant. Only 15% of the reads matching Accumulibacter had a high similarity (>95%) to the sequenced Accumulibacter clade IIA strain UW-1 genome, indicating the presence of some microdiversity. The differences in gene complement between the Accumulibacter clades were limited to genes for extracellular polymeric substances and phage-related genes, suggesting a selective pressure from phages on the Accumulibacter diversity. PMID:22170425

  1. Calibration of Airframe and Occupant Models for Two Full-Scale Rotorcraft Crash Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annett, Martin S.; Horta, Lucas G.; Polanco, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Two full-scale crash tests of an MD-500 helicopter were conducted in 2009 and 2010 at NASA Langley's Landing and Impact Research Facility in support of NASA s Subsonic Rotary Wing Crashworthiness Project. The first crash test was conducted to evaluate the performance of an externally mounted composite deployable energy absorber under combined impact conditions. In the second crash test, the energy absorber was removed to establish baseline loads that are regarded as severe but survivable. Accelerations and kinematic data collected from the crash tests were compared to a system integrated finite element model of the test article. Results from 19 accelerometers placed throughout the airframe were compared to finite element model responses. The model developed for the purposes of predicting acceleration responses from the first crash test was inadequate when evaluating more severe conditions seen in the second crash test. A newly developed model calibration approach that includes uncertainty estimation, parameter sensitivity, impact shape orthogonality, and numerical optimization was used to calibrate model results for the second full-scale crash test. This combination of heuristic and quantitative methods was used to identify modeling deficiencies, evaluate parameter importance, and propose required model changes. It is shown that the multi-dimensional calibration techniques presented here are particularly effective in identifying model adequacy. Acceleration results for the calibrated model were compared to test results and the original model results. There was a noticeable improvement in the pilot and co-pilot region, a slight improvement in the occupant model response, and an over-stiffening effect in the passenger region. This approach should be adopted early on, in combination with the building-block approaches that are customarily used, for model development and test planning guidance. Complete crash simulations with validated finite element models can be used

  2. A metagenome of a full-scale microbial community carrying out enhanced biological phosphorus removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertsen, Mads; Hansen, Lea Benedicte Skov; Saunders, Aaron Marc; Nielsen, Per Halkjær; Nielsen, Kåre Lehmann

    2012-06-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is widely used for removal of phosphorus from wastewater. In this study, a metagenome (18.2 Gb) was generated using Illumina sequencing from a full-scale EBPR plant to study the community structure and genetic potential. Quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (qFISH) was applied as an independent method to evaluate the community structure. The results were in qualitative agreement, but a DNA extraction bias against gram positive bacteria using standard extraction protocols was identified, which would not have been identified without the use of qFISH. The genetic potential for community function showed enrichment of genes involved in phosphate metabolism and biofilm formation, reflecting the selective pressure of the EBPR process. Most contigs in the assembled metagenome had low similarity to genes from currently sequenced genomes, underlining the need for more reference genomes of key EBPR species. Only the genome of 'Candidatus Accumulibacter', a genus of phosphorus-removing organisms, was closely enough related to the species present in the metagenome to allow for detailed investigations. Accumulibacter accounted for only 4.8% of all bacteria by qFISH, but the depth of sequencing enabled detailed insight into their microdiversity in the full-scale plant. Only 15% of the reads matching Accumulibacter had a high similarity (>95%) to the sequenced Accumulibacter clade IIA strain UW-1 genome, indicating the presence of some microdiversity. The differences in gene complement between the Accumulibacter clades were limited to genes for extracellular polymeric substances and phage-related genes, suggesting a selective pressure from phages on the Accumulibacter diversity.

  3. Computational Study of Flow Interactions in Coaxial Rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seokkwan; Lee, Henry C.; Pulliam, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    account for multiple real-world constraints up front in design nor possible to know what performance is possible with a given design. Since unmanned vehicles are sized and optimized for the particular mission, a modern low-fidelity conceptual design and sizing tool that has been used for the design of large helicopters can be used for design of small coaxial rotorcraft. However, unlike most helicopters with single main rotor, the interactions between the upper and lower rotors emerge as an important factor to consider in design because an increase in performance of a multi-rotor system is not proportional to the number of rotors. Interference losses and differences in thrusts between the upper and lower rotors were investigated by theoretical methods as well as a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method using the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. In this work, hybrid turbulence models are used to investigate the physics of interactions between coaxial rotors and a fuselage that are not well understood. Present study covers not only small-scale drones but also large-scale coaxial rotors for heavy-lifting missions. Considering the recently proposed FAA drone rules that require the flight only in visual line-of-sight, a large multirotor might be used as an airborne carrier for launch and recovery of unmanned aircraft systems with a human operator onboard. For applications to civil operations, their aerodynamic performance and noise levels need to be assessed. Noise is one of the largest limiting factors to rotorcraft operations in urban area. Since the high-frequency noise of multi-rotors may increase the annoyance, noise may turn out to be a key issue that must be addressed for market acceptability. One of the objectives of the present work is to study the effects of inter-rotor spacing and collectives on the performance, efficiency, and acoustics of coaxial rotor systems.

  4. Confirmatory factor analyses of the full and short versions of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, R; Thorpe, K

    2000-10-01

    Over the years, researchers have developed various short versions of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (D. P. Crowne & D. Marlowe, 1960). The authors used confirmatory factor analyses (J. L. Arbuckle, 1997) as well as item and scale analyses to evaluate the adequacy of the full version and various short versions. Overall, the results from 232 Canadian undergraduates showed (a) that all the short versions in the present study are a significant improvement in fit over the 33-item full scale and (b) that W. M. Reynolds's (1982) Forms A and B are the best fitting short versions. No gender differences were found for the full scale or any of the short versions. The results show that the full scale could be improved psychometrically and that the psychometrically sound short versions should be available because they require less administration time than the full scale.

  5. Full scale monitoring of the twin chimneys of the rovinari power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayati I.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper deals with the structural identification and monitoring of two twin chimneys in very close arrangement. Due to twin arrangement, important interference effects are expected to modify the chimney response to wind action, causing vortex shedding and state-dependent excitation associated to the oscillatory motion of the leeward chimney, in and out of the windward chimney wake. The complexity of the physics of this problem is increased by the dependency of the aerodynamics of circular cylinders on Reynolds number; however, there is a weakness of literature about cylinders behaviour at critical and super-critical range of Reynolds number, due to experimental limitations. Also the International Committee on Industrial Chimneys (CICIND does not provide, at present, any specific technical guideline about twin chimneys whose interaxis distance is less or equal two times the diameter, as in this case. For this reason a Tuned Mass Damper (TMD has been installed in order to increase the damping of the chimney, as merely suggested. This work aims at assessing the effectiveness of the installed TMD and characterizing the tower dynamic behaviour itself due to the wind excitation, as well as providing full scale measurements for twin cylinders configuration at high Reynolds numbers.

  6. Static and fatigue experimental tests on a full scale fuselage panel and FEM analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Sepe

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A fatigue test on a full scale panel with complex loading condition and geometry configuration has been carried out using a triaxial test machine. The demonstrator is made up of two skins which are linked by a transversal butt-joint, parallel to the stringer direction. A fatigue load was applied in the direction normal to the longitudinal joint, while a constant load was applied in the longitudinal joint direction. The test panel was instrumented with strain gages and previously quasi-static tests were conducted to ensure a proper load transferring to the panel. In order to support the tests, geometric nonlinear shell finite element analyses were conducted to predict strain and stress distributions. The demonstrator broke up after about 177000 cycles. Subsequently, a finite element analysis (FEA was carried out in order to correlate failure events; due to the biaxial nature of the fatigue loads, Sines criterion was used. The analysis was performed taking into account the different materials by which the panel is composed. The numerical results show a good correlation with experimental data, successfully predicting failure locations on the panel.

  7. Seasonal variations of microbial community in a full scale oil field produced water treatment plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Xie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the microbial community in a full scale anaerobic baffled reactor and sequencing batch reactor system for oil-produced water treatment in summer and winter. The community structures of fungi and bacteria were analyzed through polymerase chain reaction–denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and Illumina high-throughput sequencing, respectively. Chemical oxygen demand effluent concentration achieved lower than 50 mg/L level after the system in both summer and winter, however, chemical oxygen demand removal rates after anaerobic baffled reactor treatment system were significant higher in summer than that in winter, which conformed to the microbial community diversity. Saccharomycotina, Fusarium, and Aspergillus were detected in both anaerobic baffled reactor and sequencing batch reactor during summer and winter. The fungal communities in anaerobic baffled reactor and sequencing batch reactor were shaped by seasons and treatment units, while there was no correlation between abundance of fungi and chemical oxygen demand removal rates. Compared to summer, the total amount of the dominant hydrocarbon degrading bacteria decreased by 10.2% in anaerobic baffled reactor, resulting in only around 23% of chemical oxygen demand was removed in winter. Although microbial community significantly varied in the three parallel sulfide reducing bacteria, the performance of these bioreactors had no significant difference between summer and winter.

  8. High-Bandwidth Dynamic Full-Field Profilometry for Nano-Scale Characterization of MEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, L-C [Graduate Institute of Automation Technology, National Taipei University of Technology, 1 Sec. 3 Chung-Hsiao East Rd., Taipei, 106, Taiwan (China); Huang, Y-T [Graduate Institute of Automation Technology, National Taipei University of Technology, 1 Sec. 3 Chung-Hsiao East Rd., Taipei, 106, Taiwan (China); Chang, P-B [Graduate Institute of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, 1 Sec. 3 Chung-Hsiao East Rd., Taipei, 106, Taiwan (China)

    2006-10-15

    The article describes an innovative optical interferometric methodology to delivery dynamic surface profilometry with a measurement bandwidth up to 10MHz or higher and a vertical resolution up to 1 nm. Previous work using stroboscopic microscopic interferometry for dynamic characterization of micro (opto)electromechanical systems (M(O)EMS) has been limited in measurement bandwidth mainly within a couple of MHz. For high resonant mode analysis, the stroboscopic light pulse is insufficiently short to capture the moving fringes from dynamic motion of the detected structure. In view of this need, a microscopic prototype based on white-light stroboscopic interferometry with an innovative light superposition strategy was developed to achieve dynamic full-field profilometry with a high measurement bandwidth up to 10MHz or higher. The system primarily consists of an optical microscope, on which a Mirau interferometric objective embedded with a piezoelectric vertical translator, a high-power LED light module with dual operation modes and light synchronizing electronics unit are integrated. A micro cantilever beam used in AFM was measured to verify the system capability in accurate characterisation of dynamic behaviours of the device. The full-field seventh-mode vibration at a vibratory frequency of 3.7MHz can be fully characterized and nano-scale vertical measurement resolution as well as tens micrometers of vertical measurement range can be performed.

  9. Performance of Four Full-Scale Artificially Aerated Horizontal Flow Constructed Wetlands for Domestic Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor Butterworth

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of the performance of four full-scale aerated horizontal flow constructed wetlands was conducted to determine the efficacy of the technology on sites receiving high and variable ammonia loading rates not yet reported in the literature. Performance was assessed in terms of ammonia and solids removal, hydraulic conductivity and mixing patterns. The capability of systems to produce ammonium effluent concentrations <3 mgNH4+-N/L was observed across all sites in systems receiving variable loadings between 0.1 and 13.0 gNH4+-N/m2/d. Potential resilience issues were observed in relation to response to spike loadings posited to be due to an insufficient nitrifying population within the beds. Hydraulic conductivity and flow mixing patterns observed suggested deterioration of the reactor effective volume over time. Overall, the study demonstrates the efficacy of the technology where ammonium removal is required on small sites receiving high and variable flow rates, with adequate removal of organics and solids, but no significant benefit to the long term hydraulics of the system.

  10. Experimental Study on Full-Scale Beams Made by Reinforced Alkali Activated Concrete Undergoing Flexure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Monfardini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Alkali Activated Concrete (AAC is an alternative kind of concrete that uses fly ash as a total replacement of Portland cement. Fly ash combined with alkaline solution and cured at high temperature reacts to form a binder. Four point bending tests on two full scale beams made with AAC are described in this paper. Companion small material specimens were also casted with the aim of properly characterizing this new tailored material. The beam’s length was 5000 mm and the cross section was 200 mm × 300 mm. The AAC consisted of fly ash, water, sand 0–4 mm and coarse aggregate 6–10 mm; and the alkaline solution consisted of sodium hydroxide mixed with sodium silicate. No cement was utilized. The maximum aggregate size was 10 mm; fly ash was type F, containing a maximum calcium content of 2%. After a rest period of two days, the beam was cured at 60 °C for 24 h. Data collected and critically discussed included beam deflection, crack patterns, compressive and flexural strength and elastic modulus. Results show how AAC behavior is comparable with Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC based materials. Nonlinear numerical analyses are finally reported, promoting a better understanding of the structural response.

  11. Full scale monitoring of wind and traffic induced response of a suspension bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheynet Etienne

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a full-scale analysis of wind and traffic-induced vibrations of a long-span suspension bridge in complex terrain. Several wind and acceleration sensors have been installed along the main span on Lysefjord Bridge in Norway. In the present study, three days of continuous records are analysed. Traffic-induced vibrations are dominant at low and moderated wind speed, with non-negligible effects on the overall bridge response for heavy vehicles only. Traffic and wind-induced vibrations are compared in terms of root mean square of the acceleration response, and three simples approaches are proposed to isolate records dominated by wind-induced vibration. The first one relies on the separation of nocturnal and diurnal samples. The second one is based on the evaluation of the time-varying root mean square of the acceleration response. The last one evaluates the relative importance of the high frequency domain of the acceleration bridge response. It appears that traffic-induced vibrations may have to be taken into account for the buffeting analysis of long-span bridge under moderated wind.

  12. Development and Operation of an Automatic Rotor Trim Control System for use During the UH-60 Individual Blade Control Wind Tunnel Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore, Colin R.

    2010-01-01

    A full-scale wind tunnel test to evaluate the effects of Individual Blade Control (IBC) on the performance, vibration, noise and loads of a UH-60A rotor was recently completed in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel [1]. A key component of this wind tunnel test was an automatic rotor trim control system that allowed the rotor trim state to be set more precisely, quickly and repeatably than was possible with the rotor operator setting the trim condition manually. The trim control system was also able to maintain the desired trim condition through changes in IBC actuation both in open- and closed-loop IBC modes, and through long-period transients in wind tunnel flow. This ability of the trim control system to automatically set and maintain a steady rotor trim enabled the effects of different IBC inputs to be compared at common trim conditions and to perform these tests quickly without requiring the rotor operator to re-trim the rotor. The trim control system described in this paper was developed specifically for use during the IBC wind tunnel test

  13. [Full-scale simulation in German medical schools and anesthesia residency programs : Status quo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baschnegger, H; Meyer, O; Zech, A; Urban, B; Rall, M; Breuer, G; Prückner, S

    2017-01-01

    Simulation has been increasingly used in medicine. In 2003 German university departments of anesthesiology were provided with a full-scale patient simulator, designated for use with medical students. Meanwhile simulation courses are also offered to physicians and nurses. Currently, the national model curriculum for residency programs in anesthesiology is being revised, possibly to include mandatory simulation training. To assess the status quo of full-scale simulation training for medical school, residency and continuing medical education in German anesthesiology. All 38 German university chairs for anesthesiology as well as five arbitrarily chosen non-university facilities were invited to complete an online questionnaire regarding their centers' infrastructure and courses held between 2010 and 2012. The overall return rate was 86 %. In university simulation centers seven non-student staff members, mainly physicians, were involved, adding up to a full-time equivalent of 1.2. All hours of work were paid by 61 % of the centers. The median center size was 100 m(2) (range 20-500 m(2)), equipped with three patient simulators (1-32). Simulators of high or very high fidelity are available at 80 % of the centers. Scripted scenarios were used by 91 %, video debriefing by 69 %. Of the participating university centers, 97 % offered courses for medical students, 81 % for the department's employees, 43 % for other departments of their hospital, and 61 % for external participants. In 2012 the median center reached 46 % of eligible students (0-100), 39 % of the department's physicians (8-96) and 16 % of its nurses (0-56) once. For physicians and nurses from these departments that equals one simulation-based training every 2.6 and 6 years, respectively. 31 % made simulation training mandatory for their residents, 29 % for their nurses and 24 % for their attending physicians. The overall rates of staff ever exposed to simulation were 45 % of

  14. Hydrodynamic parameters estimation from self-potential data in a controlled full scale site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidichimo, Francesco; De Biase, Michele; Rizzo, Enzo; Masi, Salvatore; Straface, Salvatore

    2015-03-01

    A multi-physical approach developed for the hydrodynamic characterization of porous media using hydrogeophysical information is presented. Several pumping tests were performed in the Hydrogeosite Laboratory, a controlled full-scale site designed and constructed at the CNR-IMAA (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche - Istituto di Metodologia per l'Analisi Ambientale), in Marsico Nuovo (Basilicata Region, Southern Italy), in order to obtain an intermediate stage between laboratory experiments and field survey. The facility consists of a pool, used to study water infiltration processes, to simulate the space and time dynamics of subsurface contamination phenomena, to improve and to find new relationship between geophysical and hydrogeological parameters, to test and to calibrate new geophysical techniques and instruments. Therefore, the Hydrogeosite Laboratory has the advantage of carrying out controlled experiments, like in a flow cell or sandbox, but at field comparable scale. The data collected during the experiments have been used to estimate the saturated hydraulic conductivity ks [ms-1] using a coupled inversion model working in transient conditions, made up of the modified Richards equation describing the water flow in a variably saturated porous medium and the Poisson equation providing the self-potential ϕ [V], which naturally occurs at points of the soil surface owing to the presence of an electric field produced by the motion of underground electrolytic fluids through porous systems. The result obtained by this multi-physical numerical approach, which removes all the approximations adopted in previous works, makes a useful instrument for real heterogeneous aquifer characterization and for predictive analysis of its behavior.

  15. Linear and Non-linear Numerical Sea-keeping Evaluation of a Fast Monohull Ferry Compared to Full Scale Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhaohui; Folsø, Rasmus; Bondini, Francesca

    1999-01-01

    , full-scale measurements have been performed on board a 128 m monohull fast ferry. This paper deals with the results from these full-scale measurements. The primary results considered are pitch motion, midship vertical bending moment and vertical acceleration at the bow. Previous comparisons between...

  16. Roughness Mapping on Various Vertical Scales Based on Full-Waveform Airborne Laser Scanning Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Wagner

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Roughness is an important input parameter for modeling of natural hazards such as floods, rock falls and avalanches, where it is basically assumed that flow velocities decrease with increasing roughness. Seeing roughness as a multi-scale level concept (i.e., ranging from fine-scale soil characteristics to description of understory and lower tree layer various roughness raster products were derived from the original full-waveform airborne laser scanning (FWF-ALS point cloud using two different types of roughness parameters, the surface roughness (SR and the terrain roughness (TR. For the calculation of the SR, ALS terrain points within a defined height range to the terrain surface are considered. For the parameterization of the SR, two approaches are investigated. In the first approach, a geometric description by calculating the standard deviation of plane fitting residuals of terrain points is used. In the second one, the potential of the derived echo widths are analyzed for the parameterization of SR. The echo width is an indicator for roughness and the slope of the target. To achieve a comparable spatial resolution of both SR layers, the calculation of the standard deviation of detrended terrain points requires a higher terrain point density than the SR parameterization using the echo widths. The TR describes objects (i.e., point clusters close but explicitly above the terrain surface, with 20 cm defined as threshold height value for delineation of the surface layer (i.e., forest floor layer. Two different empirically defined vegetation layers below the canopy layer were analyzed (TR I: 0.2 m to 1.0 m; TR II: 0.2 m to 3.0 m. A 1 m output grid cell size was chosen for all roughness parameters in order to provide consistency for further integration of high-resolution optical imagery. The derived roughness parameters were then jointly classified, together with a normalized Digital Surface Model (nDSM showing the height of objects (i

  17. Mecoprop (MCPP) removal in full-scale rapid sand filters at a groundwater-based waterworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedegaard, Mathilde J., E-mail: mjhe@env.dtu.dk; Arvin, Erik; Corfitzen, Charlotte B.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2014-11-15

    Contamination by the herbicide mecoprop (MCPP) was detected in groundwater abstraction wells at Kerteminde Waterworks in concentrations up to 0.08 μg/L. MCPP was removed to below detection limit in a simple treatment line where anaerobic groundwater was aerated and subsequently filtered by primary and secondary rapid sand filters. Water quality parameters were measured throughout the waterworks, and they behaved as designed for. MCPP was removed in secondary rapid sand filters — removal was the greatest in the sand filters in the filter line with the highest contact time (63 min). In these secondary sand filters, MCPP concentration decreased from 0.037 μg/L to below the detection limit of 0.01 μg/L. MCPP was removed continuously at different filter depths (0.80 m). Additionally, biodegradation, mineralisation and adsorption were investigated in the laboratory in order to elucidate removal mechanisms in the full-scale system. Therefore, microcosms were set up with filter sand, water and {sup 14}C-labelled MCPP at an initial concentration of 0.2 μg/L. After 24 h, 79–86% of the initial concentration of MCPP was removed. Sorption removed 11–15%, while the remaining part was removed by microbial processes, leading to a complete mineralisation of 13–18%. Microbial removal in the filter sand was similar at different depths of the rapid sand filter, while the amount of MCPP which adsorbed to the filter sand after 48 h decreased with depth from 21% of the initial MCPP in the top layer to 7% in the bottom layer. It was concluded that MCPP was removed in secondary rapid sand filters at Kerteminde Waterworks, to which both adsorption and microbial degradation contributed. - Highlights: • A full-scale groundwater based waterworks was able to remove MCPP. • In the secondary rapid sand filters, MCPP decreased from 0.037 μg/L to < 0.010 μg/L. • The filter sand removed MCPP both by sorption and by microbial degradation. • Microbial removal was unchanged while

  18. A concept for major incident triage: full-scaled simulation feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehn Marius

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efficient management of major incidents involves triage, treatment and transport. In the absence of a standardised interdisciplinary major incident management approach, the Norwegian Air Ambulance Foundation developed Interdisciplinary Emergency Service Cooperation Course (TAS. The TAS-program was established in 1998 and by 2009, approximately 15 500 emergency service professionals have participated in one of more than 500 no-cost courses. The TAS-triage concept is based on the established triage Sieve and Paediatric Triage Tape models but modified with slap-wrap reflective triage tags and paediatric triage stretchers. We evaluated the feasibility and accuracy of the TAS-triage concept in full-scale simulated major incidents. Methods The learners participated in two standardised bus crash simulations: without and with competence of TAS-triage and access to TAS-triage equipment. The instructors calculated triage accuracy and measured time consumption while the learners participated in a self-reported before-after study. Each question was scored on a 7-point Likert scale with points labelled "Did not work" (1 through "Worked excellent" (7. Results Among the 93 (85% participating emergency service professionals, 48% confirmed the existence of a major incident triage system in their service, whereas 27% had access to triage tags. The simulations without TAS-triage resulted in a mean over- and undertriage of 12%. When TAS-Triage was used, no mistriage was found. The average time from "scene secured to all patients triaged" was 22 minutes (range 15-32 without TAS-triage vs. 10 minutes (range 5-21 with TAS-triage. The participants replied to "How did interdisciplinary cooperation of triage work?" with mean 4,9 (95% CI 4,7-5,2 before the course vs. mean 5,8 (95% CI 5,6-6,0 after the course, p Conclusions Our modified triage Sieve tool is feasible, time-efficient and accurate in allocating priority during simulated bus accidents and

  19. Electric Energy Consumption of the Full Scale Research Biogas Plant “Unterer Lindenhof”: Results of Longterm and Full Detail Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Jungbluth

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This work thoroughly evaluates the electric power consumption of a full scale, 3 × 923 m3 complete stirred tank reactor (CSTR research biogas plant with a production capacity of 186 kW of electric power. The plant was fed with a mixture of livestock manure and renewable energy crops and was operated under mesophilic conditions. This paper will provide an insight into precise electric energy consumption measurements of a full scale biogas plant over a period of two years. The results showed that a percentage of 8.5% (in 2010 and 8.7% (in 2011 of the produced electric energy was consumed by the combined heat and power unit (CHP, which was required to operate the biogas plant. The consumer unit agitators with 4.3% (in 2010 and 4.0% (in 2011 and CHP unit with 2.5% (in 2010 and 2011 accounted for the highest electrical power demand, in relation to the electric energy produced by the CHP unit. Calculations show that 51% (in 2010 and 46% (in 2011 of the total electric energy demand was due to the agitators. The results finally showed the need for permanent measurements to identify and quantify the electric energy saving potentials of full scale biogas plants.

  20. Improved Structure and Fabrication of Large, High-Power KHPS Rotors - Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corren, Dean [Verdant Power, Inc.; Colby, Jonathan [Verdant Power, Inc.; Adonizio, Mary Ann [Verdant Power, Inc.

    2013-01-29

    Verdant Power, Inc, working in partnership with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and the University of Minnesota St. Anthony Falls Laboratory (SAFL), among other partners, used evolving Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) models and techniques to improve the structure and fabrication of large, high-power composite Kinetic Hydropower System (KHPS) rotor blades. The objectives of the project were to: design; analyze; develop for manufacture and fabricate; and thoroughly test, in the lab and at full scale in the water, the improved KHPS rotor blade.

  1. Full Scale Field Trial of the Low Temperature Mercury Capture Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locke, James [CONSOL Energy Inc., South Park, PA (United States); Winschel, Richard [CONSOL Energy Inc., South Park, PA (United States)

    2012-05-21

    CONSOL Energy Inc., with partial funding from the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory, designed a full-scale installation for a field trial of the Low-Temperature Mercury Control (LTMC) process, which has the ability to reduce mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants by over 90 percent, by cooling flue gas temperatures to approximately 230°F and absorbing the mercury on the native carbon in the fly ash, as was recently demonstrated by CONSOL R&D on a slip-stream pilot plant at the Allegheny Energy Mitchell Station with partial support by DOE. LTMC has the potential to remove over 90 percent of the flue gas mercury at a cost at least an order of magnitude lower (on a $/lb mercury removed basis) than activated carbon injection. The technology is suitable for retrofitting to existing and new plants, and, although it is best suited to bituminous coal-fired plants, it may have some applicability to the full range of coal types. Installation plans were altered and moved from the original project host site, PPL Martins Creek plant, to a second host site at Allegheny Energy's R. Paul Smith plant, before installation actually occurred at the Jamestown (New York) Board of Public Utilities (BPU) Samuel A. Carlson (Carlson) Municipal Generating Station Unit 12, where the LTMC system was operated on a limited basis. At Carlson, over 60% mercury removal was demonstrated by cooling the flue gas to 220-230°F at the ESP inlet via humidification. The host unit ESP operation was unaffected by the humidification and performed satisfactorily at low temperature conditions.

  2. Combustion performance of flame-ignited high-speed train seats via full-scale tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Determining the combustion characteristics of combustibles in high-speed trains is the foundation of evaluating the fire hazard on high-speed trains scientifically, and establishing effective active and passive fire precautions. In this study, the double seats in the compartments of CRH1 high-speed trains were used as the main research object. Under different test conditions, including the power of ignition sources and ventilation rates, full-scale furniture calorimeter tests were conducted to study important fire combustion characteristics such as the ignition characteristics of seats, heat release rate, mass loss rate, total heat release, temperature variation, and smoke release rate. The relationships among these parameters were analyzed and summarized into combustion behavior and characteristics, thus providing fundamental data and reference for the development of fire precautions and safety design of high-speed trains. The results in this test are as follows: (i The double seats of high-speed trains are relatively easy to ignite and susceptible to the fire ground environment. (ii The combustion temperature in the test apparatus exceeded 600 °C in only 2 min for the larger ignition source. (iii The heat release rate exceeded 800 kW. (iv The total heat release resulted mainly from flame combustion. (v The final mass loss rate was ∼30%. (vi The lowest light transmittance was <25%. (vii The change process of temperature with time has the same trend as the change process of heat release rate. (viii Suppressing flame combustion and controlling the smoke generated from the seat materials themselves played key roles in retarding the combustion of high-speed train seats.

  3. Organics Characteristics of Sludge from a Full-Scale Anaerobic Digester Treating Domestic Mixed Sewage Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seswoya Roslinda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sewage sludge, normally in form of mixed sewage sludge is treated using anaerobic digester worldwide. In Malaysia, sewage sludge was categorized as domestic sewage sludge since sewage treatment plant treats only domestic sewage. The complex organic compounds in form of carbohydrates and proteins are transformed to methane during anaerobic digestion. The characteristics of complex organic compounds in domestic mixed sewage sludge are needed to assess the energy recovery form digesting domestic mixed sewage sludge. Besides that, it is common to use anaerobic biomass from existing anaerobic digester for the new setup of the anaerobic reactor. Therefore, this study was outlined to study the characteristics of domestic mixed sewage sludge and anaerobic biomass, particularly on the complex organic compounds. The complex organic compounds measured were carbohydrates and proteins. The higher complex organic solubilisation as a result of thermal pre-treatment was proven to improve the methane production. Therefore, in this study, the impact of low thermal pre-treatment in improving the organics solubilisation was assessed too. Low thermal pre-treatment at 70°C and 90°C at various treatment time were applied to the domestic mixed sewage sludge. The results indicated that the domestic sewage sludge and anaerobic biomass from a full-scale anaerobic digester contained complex organic compounds; existed mostly in form of particulate as shown by the low value of soluble to total ratio. Besides that, the low thermal treatment at 70°C and 90°C increased the organics solubilisation. Protein solubilisation was observed exceeded 8% after being treated for 20 min at both thermal treatments. However, the impact of low thermal treatment was better at 90°C, in which higher solubilisation was observed at longer treatment time.

  4. Dynamic bacterial communities on reverse-osmosis membranes in a full-scale desalination plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manes, C-L de O; West, N; Rapenne, S; Lebaron, P

    2011-01-01

    To better understand biofouling of seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) membranes, bacterial diversity was characterized in the intake water, in subsequently pretreated water and on SWRO membranes from a full-scale desalination plant (FSDP) during a 9 month period. 16S rRNA gene fingerprinting and sequencing revealed that bacterial communities in the water samples and on the SWRO membranes were very different. For the different sampling dates, the bacterial diversity of the active and the total bacterial fractions of the water samples remained relatively stable over the sampling period whereas the bacterial community structure on the four SWRO membrane samples was significantly different. The richness and evenness of the SWRO membrane bacterial communities increased with usage time with an increase in the Shannon diversity index of 2.2 to 3.7. In the oldest SWRO membrane (330 days), no single operational taxonomic unit (OTU) dominated and the majority of the OTUs fell into the Alphaproteobacteria or the Planctomycetes. In striking contrast, a Betaproteobacteria OTU affiliated to the genus Ideonella was dominant and exclusively found in the membrane used for the shortest time (10 days). This suggests that bacteria belonging to this genus could be one of the primary colonizers of the SWRO membrane. Knowledge of the dominant bacterial species on SWRO membranes and their dynamics should help guide culture studies for physiological characterization of biofilm forming species.

  5. A full-scale biological treatment system application in the treated wastewater of pharmaceutical industrial park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ge; Ren, Hongqiang; Ding, Lili; Wang, Feifei; Zhang, Xingsong

    2010-08-01

    A full-scale combined biological system is used for the treatment of treated wastewater discharged from a pharmaceutical industrial park. This treated water is rich in NH(4)(+)-N (average in 86.4 mg/L), low in COD/NH(4)(+)-N (average in 3.4) and low in BOD(5)/COD ratio (average in 0.24) with pH varying from 7.16 to 7.78. The final effluent of the combined treatment process was stably below 100mg/L COD and 20mg/L NH(4)(+)-N, separately, with organic loading rate of 4954 kg COD/d and 92.5 kg NH(4)(+)-N/d. It is found that the BOD(5)/COD ratio could be raised from 0.24 to 0.35, and the production of total VFAs account for 9.57% of the total COD via the treatment of hydrolysis/acidification. MBBR and oxidation ditch represent 35.4% and 60.7% of NH(4)(+)-N removal, 30.2% and 61.5% of COD removal, separately, of the total treatment process. PCR-DGGE is used for microbial community analysis of MBBR and oxidation ditch.

  6. Identifying N2O formation and emissions from a full-scale partial nitritation reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mampaey, Kris E; De Kreuk, Merle K; van Dongen, Udo G J M; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Volcke, Eveline I P

    2016-01-01

    In this study, N2O formation and emissions from a full-scale partial nitritation (SHARON) reactor were identified through a three-weeks monitoring campaign during which the off-gas was analysed for N2O, O2, CO2 and NO. The overall N2O emission was 3.7% of the incoming ammonium load. By fitting the N2O emission to a theoretical gas stripping profile, the N2O emissions could be assigned to aerobically formed N2O and N2O formed under anoxic conditions. This was further substantiated by liquid N2O measurements. Under standard operation, 70% of the N2O emission was attributed to anoxic N2O formation. Dedicated experiments revealed that low dissolved oxygen concentrations (<1.0 gO2·m(-3)) and longer anoxic periods resulted in an increased N2O emission. Minimising or avoiding anoxic conditions has the highest effect in lowering the N2O emissions. As an additional result, the use of the off-gas N2O concentration measurements to monitor the gas-liquid mass transfer rate coefficient (kLa) during dynamic reactor operation was demonstrated.

  7. Patient Litter System Response in a Full-Scale CH-46 Crash Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisenbach, Charles A; Rooks, Tyler; Bowman, Troy; Fralish, Vince; McEntire, B Joseph

    2017-03-01

    U.S. Military aeromedical patient litter systems are currently required to meet minimal static strength performance requirements at the component level. Operationally, these components must function as a system and are subjected to the dynamics of turbulent flight and potentially crash events. The first of two full-scale CH-46 crash tests was conducted at NASA's Langley Research Center and included an experiment to assess patient and litter system response during a severe but survivable crash event. A three-tiered strap and pole litter system was mounted into the airframe and occupied by three anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs). During the crash event, the litter system failed to maintain structural integrity and collapsed. Component structural failures were recorded from the litter support system and the litters. The upper ATD was displaced laterally into the cabin, while the middle ATD was displaced longitudinally into the cabin. Acceleration, force, and bending moment data from the instrumented middle ATD were analyzed using available injury criteria. Results indicated that a patient might sustain a neck injury. The current test illustrates that a litter system, with components designed and tested to static requirements only, experiences multiple component structural failures during a dynamic crash event and does not maintain restraint control of its patients. It is unknown if a modern litter system, with components tested to the same static criteria, would perform differently. A systems level dynamic performance requirement needs to be developed so that patients can be provided with protection levels equivalent to that provided to seated aircraft occupants.

  8. Full Scale Bioreactor Landfill for Carbon Sequestration and Greenhouse Emission Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Kathy Sananikone; Don Augenstein

    2005-03-30

    The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works constructed a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective was to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entailed the construction of a 12-acre module that contained a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells were highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Liquid addition commenced in the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and the 6-acre anaerobic cell. Construction of the 2.5-acre aerobic cell and biofilter has been completed. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

  9. Influence of water quality on nitrifier regrowth in two full-scale drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Daniel B; Van Dyke, Michele I; Anderson, William B; Huck, Peter M

    2015-12-01

    The potential for regrowth of nitrifying microorganisms was monitored in 2 full-scale chloraminated drinking water distribution systems in Ontario, Canada, over a 9-month period. Quantitative PCR was used to measure amoA genes from ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), and these values were compared with water quality parameters that can influence nitrifier survival and growth, including total chlorine, ammonia, temperature, pH, and organic carbon. Although there were no severe nitrification episodes, AOB and AOA were frequently detected at low concentrations in samples collected from both distribution systems. A culture-based presence-absence test confirmed the presence of viable nitrifiers. AOB were usually present in similar or greater numbers than AOA in both systems. As well, AOB showed higher regrowth potential compared with AOA in both systems. Statistically significant correlations were measured between several water quality parameters of relevance to nitrification. Total chlorine was negatively correlated with both nitrifiers and heterotrophic plate count (HPC) bacteria, and ammonia levels were positively correlated with nitrifiers. Of particular importance was the strong correlation between HPC and AOB, which reinforced the usefulness of HPC as an operational parameter to measure general microbiological conditions in distribution systems.

  10. Full-scale simulation and reduced-order modeling of a thermoacoustic engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalo, Carlo; Lin, Jeff; Lele, Sanjiva; Hesselink, Lambertus

    2013-11-01

    We have carried out the first three-dimensional numerical simulation of a thermoacoustic Stirling heat-engine. The goal is to lay the groundwork for full-scale Navier-Stokes simulations to advance the state-of-the-art low-order modeling and design of such devices. The model adopted is a long resonator with a heat-exchanger/regenerator (HX/REG) unit on one end - the only component not directly resolved. A temperature difference across the HX/REG unit of 200 K is sufficient to initiate the thermoacoustic instability. The latter is a Lagrangian process that only intensifies acoustic waves traveling in the direction of the imposed temperature gradient. An acoustic network of traveling waves is thus obtained and compared against low-order prediction tools such as DeltaEC. Non-linear effects such as system-wide streaming flow patterns are rapidly established. These are responsible for the mean advection of hot fluid away from the HX/REG (i.e. thermal leakage). This unwanted effect is contained by the introduction of a second ambient heat-exchanger allowing for the establishment of a dynamical thermal equilibrium in the system. A limit cycle is obtained at +178 dB.

  11. Investigation of Bearing Axial Cracking: Benchtop and Full-Scale Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Jonathan A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gould, Benjamin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Greco, Aaron [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-08-16

    The most common failure mode in wind turbine gearboxes is axial cracking in intermediate and high-speed-stage bearings, also commonly called white-etching cracks (WECs). Although these types of cracks have been reported for over a decade, the conditions leading to WECs, the process by which this failure culminates, and the reasons for their apparent prevalence in wind turbine gearboxes are all highly debated. This paper summarizes the state of a multipronged research effort to examine the causes of WECs in wind turbine gearbox bearings. Recent efforts have recreated WECs on a benchtop test rig in highly loaded sliding conditions, wherein it was found that the formation of a dark etching microstructure precedes the formation of a crack, and a crack precedes the formation of white-etching microstructure. A cumulative frictional sliding energy criterion has been postulated to predict the presence of WECs. Bearing loads have also been measured and predicted in steady state and transient drivetrain operations in dynamometer testing. In addition, both loads and sliding at full scale will be measured in planned uptower drivetrain testing. If the cumulative frictional sliding energy is the dominant mechanism that causes WECs, understanding the amount of frictional sliding energy that wind turbine bearings are subjected to in typical operations is the next step in the investigation. If highly loaded sliding conditions are found uptower, similar to the examined benchtop levels, appropriate mitigation solutions can be examined, ranging from new bearing coatings and improved lubricants to changes in gearbox designs and turbine operations.

  12. Full-scale field measurements of wave kinematics and vortex shedding induced vibrations in slender structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomsen, J.R.; Pedersen, B. [LIC Engineering (Denmark); Nielsen, K.G.; Bryndum, M.B. [Dansk Hydraulisk Inst., (Denmark)

    1999-07-01

    Vortex induced vibrations of pipes generated by high and steep waves in the crest zone have been investigated by full-scale field testing, An instrumented cylinder has been suspended from a platform bridge in the North Sea. Adjacent to it a newly developed acoustic system capable of measuring the three dimensional wave kinematics was placed. The kinematics were measured all the way up to the instantaneous water surface elevation, i.e. it included the wave crest. The paper presents time series of measured water surface elevations and orbital velocities at the instantaneous water surface together with the response of the instrumented pipe in a storm. The sea state was measured to H{sub s} {approx_equal} 6.4 m and T{sub z} = 8.4 sec. It was clearly seen that vortex shedding locking-on takes place in some of the rather high modes at the passage of large waves. Intermittent cross flow vortex induced vibrations of between 0.3 diameters up to 0.8 diameters were found in the 8th and the 4th mode respectively. The Reynolds numbers and KC numbers were up to 5 . 10{sup 5} and KC {approx} 250 respectively. (au)

  13. Performance Investigation of a Full-Scale Hybrid Composite Bull Gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBerge, Kelsen; Handschuh, Robert; Roberts, Gary; Thorp, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid composite gears have been investigated as a weight saving technology for rotorcraft transmissions. These gears differ from conventional steel gears in that the structural material between the shaft interface and the gear rim is replaced with a lightweight carbon fiber composite. The work discussed here is an extension of previous coupon level hybrid gear tests to a full-scale bull gear. The NASA Glenn Research Center High-Speed Helical Gear Rig was modified for this program allowing several hybrid gear web configurations to be tested while utilizing the same gear rim. Testing was performed on both a baseline (steel) web configuration and a hybrid (steel-composite)configuration. Vibration, orbit and temperature data were recorded and compared between configurations. Vibration levels did not differ greatly between the hybrid and steel configurations, nor did temperature differential between inlet and outlet. While orbit shape displayed differences between the hybrid and baseline configurations, the general overall amplitude was comparable. The hybrid configuration discussed here successfully ran at 3300 hp(2,460 kW), however, progressive growth of the orbit while running at this test condition discontinued the test. Researchers continue to search for the cause of this orbit shift.

  14. FULL-SCALE TREATMENT WETLANDS FOR METAL REMOVAL FROM INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, E; John Gladden, J

    2007-03-22

    The A-01 NPDES outfall at the Savannah River Site receives process wastewater discharges and stormwater runoff from the Savannah River National Laboratory. Routine monitoring indicated that copper concentrations were regularly higher than discharge permit limit, and water routinely failed toxicity tests. These conditions necessitated treatment of nearly one million gallons of water per day plus storm runoff. Washington Savannah River Company personnel explored options to bring process and runoff waters into compliance with the permit conditions, including source reduction, engineering solutions, and biological solutions. A conceptual design for a constructed wetland treatment system (WTS) was developed and the full-scale system was constructed and began operation in 2000. The overall objective of our research is to better understand the mechanisms of operation of the A-01 WTS in order to provide better input to design of future systems. The system is a vegetated surface flow wetland with a hydraulic retention time of approximately 48 hours. Copper, mercury, and lead removal efficiencies are very high, all in excess of 80% removal from water passing through the wetland system. Zinc removal is 60%, and nickel is generally unaffected. Dissolved organic carbon in the water column is increased by the system and reduces toxicity of the effluent. Concentrations of metals in the A-01 WTS sediments generally decrease with depth and along the flow path through the wetland. Sequential extraction results indicate that most metals are tightly bound to wetland sediments.

  15. FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

    2002-01-01

    The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches while providing superior environmental protection. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition, maximum landfill gas generation and capture, and minimum long-term environmental consequences. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

  16. FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

    2003-12-01

    The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Liquid addition has commenced in the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and the 6-acre anaerobic cell. Construction of the 2.5-acre aerobic cell and biofilter has been completed. The remaining task to be completed is to test the biofilter prior to operation, which is currently anticipated to begin in January 2004. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

  17. FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

    2002-02-01

    The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches while providing superior environmental protection. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition, maximum landfill gas generation and capture, and minimum long-term environmental consequences. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

  18. FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

    2003-05-01

    The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Construction is complete on the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and liquid addition has commenced. Construction of the 2.5-acre aerobic cell is nearly complete with only the biofilter remaining and construction of the west-side 6-acre anaerobic cell is nearly complete with only the liquid addition system remaining. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

  19. FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

    2002-04-01

    The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches while providing superior environmental protection. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition, maximum landfill gas generation and capture, and minimum long-term environmental consequences. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Construction is complete on the 3.5 acre anaerobic cell and liquid addition has commenced. Construction of the 2.5 acre aerobic cell is nearly complete with only the blower station and biofilter remaining. Waste placement and instrumentation installation is ongoing in the west-side 6-acre anaerobic cell. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

  20. FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

    2003-08-01

    The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Liquid addition has commenced in the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and the 6-acre anaerobic cell. Construction of the 2.5-acre aerobic cell is nearly complete with only the biofilter remaining and is scheduled to be complete by the end of August 2003. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

  1. FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

    2002-08-01

    The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Construction is complete on the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and liquid addition has commenced. Construction of the 2.5 acre aerobic cell is nearly complete with only the blower station and biofilter remaining. Waste placement and instrumentation installation is ongoing in the west-side 6-acre anaerobic cell. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

  2. Overview of the Transport Rotorcraft Airframe Crash Testbed (TRACT) Full Scale Crash Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annett, Martin; Littell, Justin

    2015-01-01

    The Transport Rotorcraft Airframe Crash Testbed (TRACT) full-scale tests were performed at NASA Langley Research Center's Landing and Impact Research Facility in 2013 and 2014. Two CH-46E airframes were impacted at 33-ft/s forward and 25-ft/s vertical combined velocities onto soft soil, which represents a severe, but potentially survivable impact scenario. TRACT 1 provided a baseline set of responses, while TRACT 2 included retrofits with composite subfloors and other crash system improvements based on TRACT 1. For TRACT 2, a total of 18 unique experiments were conducted to evaluate Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATD) responses, seat and restraint performance, cargo restraint effectiveness, patient litter behavior, and activation of emergency locator transmitters and crash sensors. Combinations of Hybrid II, Hybrid III, and ES-2 ATDs were placed in forward and side facing seats and occupant results were compared against injury criteria. The structural response of the airframe was assessed based on accelerometers located throughout the airframe and using three-dimensional photogrammetric techniques. Analysis of the photogrammetric data indicated regions of maximum deflection and permanent deformation. The response of TRACT 2 was noticeably different in the horizontal direction due to changes in the cabin configuration and soil surface, with higher acceleration and damage occurring in the cabin. Loads from ATDs in energy absorbing seats and restraints were within injury limits. Severe injury was likely for ATDs in forward facing passenger seats.

  3. Advanced data management for optimising the operation of a full-scale WWTP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán, Sergio; Maiza, Mikel; de la Sota, Alejandro; Villanueva, José María; Ayesa, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    The lack of appropriate data management tools is presently a limiting factor for a broader implementation and a more efficient use of sensors and analysers, monitoring systems and process controllers in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). This paper presents a technical solution for advanced data management of a full-scale WWTP. The solution is based on an efficient and intelligent use of the plant data by a standard centralisation of the heterogeneous data acquired from different sources, effective data processing to extract adequate information, and a straightforward connection to other emerging tools focused on the operational optimisation of the plant such as advanced monitoring and control or dynamic simulators. A pilot study of the advanced data manager tool was designed and implemented in the Galindo-Bilbao WWTP. The results of the pilot study showed its potential for agile and intelligent plant data management by generating new enriched information combining data from different plant sources, facilitating the connection of operational support systems, and developing automatic plots and trends of simulated results and actual data for plant performance and diagnosis.

  4. Full-scale post denitrifying biofilters: sinks of dissolved N2O?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollon, Julien; Filali, Ahlem; Fayolle, Yannick; Guerin, Sabrina; Rocher, Vincent; Gillot, Sylvie

    2016-09-01

    In this study, nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from a full-scale denitrifying biofilter plant were continuously monitored over two periods (summer campaign in September 2014 and winter campaign in February 2015). Results of the summer campaign showed that the major part (>99%) of N2O flux was found in the liquid phase and was discharged with the effluent. N2O emissions were highly variable and represented in average 1.28±1.99% and 0.22±0.31% of the nitrate uptake rate during summer and winter campaigns, respectively. Denitrification was able to consume a large amount of dissolved N2O coming from the upstream nitrification stage. In the absence of methanol injection failure and with an influent BOD/NO3-N ratio higher than 3, average reduction of N2O was estimated to be of 93%. The control of exogenous carbon dosage is essential to minimize N2O production from denitrifying biofilters, in correlation to NO2-N concentrations in the filter.

  5. FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

    2003-12-01

    The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Liquid addition has commenced in the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and the 6-acre anaerobic cell. Construction of the 2.5-acre aerobic cell and biofilter has been completed. The remaining task to be completed is to test the biofilter prior to operation, which is currently anticipated to begin in January 2004. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

  6. Control of Microthrix parvicella and sludge bulking by ozone in a full-scale WWTP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levén, Lotta; Wijnbladh, Erik; Tuvesson, Malin; Kragelund, Caroline; Hallin, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Bulking and rising sludge are common problems in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and are primarily caused by increased growth of filamentous bacteria such as Microthrix parvicella. It has a negative impact on sludge settling properties in activated sludge (AS) process, in addition to being responsible for foam formation. Different methods can be used to control sludge bulking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dosage of on-site generated ozone in the recycled AS flow in a full-scale WWTP having problems caused by M. parvicella. The evaluation of the experiment was assessed by process data, microscopic analysis and microbial screening on the experimental and control line before, during and after the period of ozone dosage. The ozone treatment resulted in decreased abundance of M. parvicella and improved the settling properties, without impairing the overall process performance. Both chemical oxygen demand (COD)- and N-removal were unaffected and the dominant populations involved in nitrification, as analysed by fluorescent in situ hybridization, remained during the experimental period. When the ozone treatment was terminated, the problems with sludge bulking reappeared, indicating the importance of continuous evaluation of the process.

  7. Performance Investigation of a Full-Scale Hybrid Composite Bull Gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laberge, Kelsen E.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Roberts, Gary; Thorp, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid composite gears have been investigated as a weight saving technology for rotorcraft transmissions. These gears differ from conventional steel gears in that the structural material between the shaft interface and the gear rim is replaced with a lightweight carbon fiber composite. The work discussed here is an extension of previous coupon level hybrid gear tests to a full-scale bull gear. The NASA Glenn Research Center High-Speed Helical Gear Rig was modified for this program, allowing several hybrid gear web configurations to be tested while utilizing the same gear rim. Testing was performed on both a baseline (steel) web configuration and a hybrid (steel-composite) configuration. Vibration, orbit and temperature data were recorded and compared between configurations. Vibration levels did not differ greatly between the hybrid and steel configurations, nor did temperature differential between inlet and outlet. While orbit shape displayed differences between the hybrid and baseline configurations, the general overall amplitude was comparable. The hybrid configuration discussed here successfully ran at 3300 hp (2,460 kW), however, progressive growth of the orbit while running at this test condition discontinued the test. Further studies are planned to determine the cause of this behavior.

  8. Full Scale Component Test Facility KOPRA - Qualification Test of EPR Control Rod Drive Mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sykora, Alexander; Herr, Wolfgang [AREVA NP GmbH, P.O. Box 3220, 91050 Erlangen (Germany); Champomier, Francois [AREVA NP SAS, Tour AREVA - Cedex 16, 92084 Paris-La Defense (France)

    2008-07-01

    The test facility KOPRA is designed for full scale-tests on nuclear components under operational conditions. One part of it is the component test loop for developing and qualifying nuclear core components respecting temperature, pressure and mass flow of pressurized water reactor conditions. The KOPRA test facility and its measuring equipment is presented through qualification tests for the control rod drive mechanism and the control rod drive line of the new European Pressurized Water Reactor (EPR). The control rod drive mechanism qualification test program is split into three different test phases. At first, performance tests are conducted to verify the adequate performance of the new equipment, e.g. measurement of rod cluster control assembly drop time under different thermal hydraulic conditions, impact velocity of drive rod on CRDM latch tips and drive rod acceleration during stepping operation by means of strain gauges or through direct measurement. After these functional tests follow the stability tests to ensure that proper functioning is reliably achieved over an appreciable amount of time and the endurance tests to quantify the amount of time and/or the number of steps during which no appreciable wear, that could possibly alter the correct behaviour, is to be expected. (authors)

  9. Heavy metals mobility in full-scale bioreactor landfill: initial stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xian; He, Pin-Jing; Shao, Li-Ming; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2008-01-01

    Selected heavy metals (HMs) including Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn initially released from a full-scale bioreactor landfill were monitored over the first 20 months of operation. At the initial landfill stage, the leachate exhibited high HMs release, high organic matter content (27000-43000gl(-1) of TOC) and low pH (5-6). By the fifth month of landfilling, the methanogenic stage had been established, and HMs release was reduced below the Chinese National Standards. Total released HMs accounted for less than 1% of landfill deposited during the investigated period. Most landfill HMs were inorganic. Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra data and model calculations using Visual MINTEQ indicated that humic substances strongly affected the mobility of organic fractions of HMs in the methanogenic landfill. The initial rates of HMs release could be enhanced by recycling the leachate back to bioreactor landfill, but the total quantity released may be reduced by early establishment of methanogenic stage in bioreactor landfill.

  10. Mathematical modeling and full-scale shaking table tests for multi-curve buckling restrained braces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C. S. Tsai; Yungchang Lin; Wenshin Chen; H. C. Su

    2009-01-01

    Buckling restrained braces (BRBs) have been widely applied in seismic mitigation since they were introduced in the 1970s. However, traditional BRBs have several disadvantages caused by using a steel tube to envelope the mortar to prevent the core plate from buckling, such as: complex interfaces between the materials used, uncertain precision, and time consumption during the manufacturing processes. In this study, a new device called the multi-curve buckling restrained brace (MC-BRB) is proposed to overcome these disadvantages. The new device consists of a core plate with multiple neck portions assembled to form multiple energy dissipation segments, and the enlarged segment, lateral support elements and constraining elements to prevent the BRB from buckling. The enlarged segment located in the middle of the core plate can be welded to the lateral support and constraining elements to increase buckling resistance and to prevent them from sliding during earthquakes. Component tests and a series of shaking table tests on a full-scale steel structure equipped with MC-BRBs were carried out to investigate the behavior and capability of this new BRB design for seismic mitigation. The experimental results illustrate that the MC-BRB possesses a stable mechanical behavior under cyclic loadings and provides good protection to structures during earthquakes. Also, a mathematical model has been developed to simulate the mechanical characteristics of BRBs.

  11. Reuse of microalgae grown in full-scale wastewater treatment ponds: Thermochemical pretreatment and biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Fabiana; Felix, Leonardo; Rocha, Hemyle; Pereira, Jackson de Oliveira; de Aquino, Sérgio

    2016-06-01

    This study assessed thermochemical pretreatment of microalgae harvested from a full-scale wastewater treatment pond prior to its anaerobic digestion using acid and alkaline chemical doses combined with thermal pretreatment at 80°C. Results indicated that alkaline and thermal pretreatment contributed mostly to glycoprotein and pectin solubilisation; whilst acid pretreatment solubilised mostly hemicellulose, with lower effectiveness for proteins. Regarding the anaerobic biodegradability, biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests showed that final methane yield was enhanced after almost all pretreatment conditions when compared to non-pretreated microalgae, with the highest increase for thermochemical pretreatment at the lowest dose (0.5%), i.e. 82% and 86% increase for alkaline and acid, respectively. At higher doses, salt toxicity was revealed by K(+) concentrations over 5000mg/L. All BMP data from pretreated biomass was successfully described by the modified Gompertz model and optimal condition (thermochemical 0.5% HCl) showed an increase in final methane yield and the process kinetics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Luxury uptake of phosphorus by microalgae in full-scale waste stabilisation ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, N; Shilton, A; Pratt, S; Chisti, Y

    2011-01-01

    Biological phosphorus removal was studied in two full-scale waste stabilisation ponds (WSP). Luxury uptake by microalgae was confirmed to occur and in one pond the biomass contained almost four times the phosphorus required by microalgae for normal metabolism. However, the phosphorus content within the biomass was variable. This finding means that assumptions made in prior publications on modelling of phosphorus removal in WSP are questionable. While fluctuations in microalgal growth causes variation in many water quality parameters, this further variation in luxury uptake explains the high degree of variability in phosphorus removal commonly reported in the literature. To achieve effective biological phosphorus removal high levels of both luxury uptake and microalgal concentration are needed. The findings of this work show that while high levels of these parameters did occur at times in the WSP monitored, they did not occur simultaneously. This is explained because accumulated phosphorus is subsequently consumed during rapid growth of biomass resulting in a high biomass concentration with a low phosphorus content. Previous laboratory research has allowed a number of key considerations to be proposed to optimise both luxury uptake and biomass concentration. Now that is has been shown that high levels of biomass concentration and luxury uptake can occur in the field it may be possible to redesign WSP to optimise these parameters.

  13. A full-scale prototype multisensor system for fire detection and situational awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Christian P.; Johnson, Kevin J.; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L.; Owrutsky, Jeffrey C.; Wales, Stephen C.; Steinhurst, Daniel A.; Gottuk, Daniel T.

    2007-04-01

    A data fusion-based, multisensory detection system, called "Volume Sensor", was developed under the Advanced Damage Countermeasures (ADC) portion of the US Navy's Future Naval Capabilities program (FNC) to meet reduced manning goals. A diverse group of sensing modalities was chosen to provide an automated damage control monitoring capability that could be constructed at a relatively low cost and also easily integrated into existing ship infrastructure. Volume Sensor employs an efficient, scalable, and adaptable design framework that can serve as a template for heterogeneous sensor network integration for situational awareness. In the development of Volume Sensor, a number of challenges were addressed and met with solutions that are applicable to heterogeneous sensor networks of any type. These solutions include: 1) a uniform, but general format for encapsulating sensor data, 2) a communications protocol for the transfer of sensor data and command and control of networked sensor systems, 3) the development of event specific data fusion algorithms, and 4) the design and implementation of modular and scalable system architecture. In full-scale testing on a shipboard environment, two prototype Volume Sensor systems demonstrated the capability to provide highly accurate and timely situational awareness regarding damage control events while simultaneously imparting a negligible footprint on the ship's 100 Mbps Ethernet network and maintaining smooth and reliable operation in a real-time fashion.

  14. Fate of natural organic matter at a full-scale Drinking Water Treatment Plant in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, A; Papadakis, N; Voutsa, D

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the fate of natural organic matter (NOM) and subsequent changes during the various treatment processes at a full-scale Drinking Water Treatment Plant (DWTP). Monthly sampling campaigns were conducted for 1 year at six sites along DWTP of Thessaloniki, Northern Greece including raw water from the Aliakmonas River that supplies DWTP and samples from various treatment processes (pre-ozonation, coagulation, sand filtration, ozonation, and granular activated carbon (GAC) filtration). The concentration of NOM and its characteristics as well as the removal efficiency of various treatment processes on the basis of dissolved organic carbon, UV absorbance, specific ultra-violet absorbance, fluorescence intensity, hydrophobicity, biodegradable dissolved organic carbon, and formation potential of chlorination by-products trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) were studied. The concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in reservoir of the Aliakmonas River ranged from 1.46 to 1.84 mg/L, exhibiting variations regarding UV, fluorescence, and hydrophobic character through the year. Along DWTP, a significant reduction of aromatic, fluorophoric, and hydrophobic character of NOM was observed resulting in significant elimination of THM (63%) and HAAs (75%) precursors.

  15. Fault detection and isolation for a full-scale railway vehicle suspension with multiple Kalman filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesussek, Mathias; Ellermann, Katrin

    2014-12-01

    Reliability and dependability in complex mechanical systems can be improved by fault detection and isolation (FDI) methods. These techniques are key elements for maintenance on demand, which could decrease service cost and time significantly. This paper addresses FDI for a railway vehicle: the mechanical model is described as a multibody system, which is excited randomly due to track irregularities. Various parameters, like masses, spring- and damper-characteristics, influence the dynamics of the vehicle. Often, the exact values of the parameters are unknown and might even change over time. Some of these changes are considered critical with respect to the operation of the system and they require immediate maintenance. The aim of this work is to detect faults in the suspension system of the vehicle. A Kalman filter is used in order to estimate the states. To detect and isolate faults the detection error is minimised with multiple Kalman filters. A full-scale train model with nonlinear wheel/rail contact serves as an example for the described techniques. Numerical results for different test cases are presented. The analysis shows that for the given system it is possible not only to detect a failure of the suspension system from the system's dynamic response, but also to distinguish clearly between different possible causes for the changes in the dynamical behaviour.

  16. Full-scale study of removal effect on Cyclops of zooplankton with chlorine dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Tao; CUI Fu-yi; LIU Dong-mei; AN Dong

    2004-01-01

    Cyclops of zooplankton propagated excessively in eutrophic water body and could not be effectively inactivated by the conventional disinfections process like chlorination due to its stronger resistance to oxidation. In this paper, a full-scale study of chlorine dioxide preoxidation cooperating with routine clarification process for Cyclops removal was conducted in a waterworks. The experimental results were compared with that of the existing prechlorination process in several aspects: including the Cyclops removal efficiencies of water samples taken from the outlets of sedimentation tank and sand filter and the security of drinking water etc. The results showed that chlorine dioxide might be more effective to inactivate Cyclops than chlorine and Cyclops could be thoroughly removed from water by pre-dosing chlorine dioxide process. The GC-MS examination and Ames test further showed that the sort and amount of organic substance in the treated water by chlorine dioxide preoxidation were evidently less than that of prechlorination and the mutagenicity of drinking water treated by pre-dosing chlorine dioxide was substantially reduced compared with prechlorination.

  17. Development of a full-scale laboratory testing facility for soil-pipeline interaction research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, C.; Wijewickreme, D. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    This paper describes the capabilities of a new full-scale testing facility at the University of British Columbia to investigate soil-pipe interactions of common utility pipeline installations. The range of applications was also presented. The capacity to displace pipeline segments up to one meter in order to study the highly flexible behaviour of polyethylene pipelines was incorporated into the modular construction of the soil box. This system can study the response of a wide range of typical buried pipe configurations subjected to axial and transverse soil loadings corresponding to multiple applications. This test facility was used to study the performance of buried polyethylene (PE) gas distribution pipelines subjected to slow, axial permanent ground displacements. Axial load test results showed that mobilized axial soil resistance on the piping depends on the interface friction angle and the potential reduction of stress levels due to arching of the soil outside the interface shear zone. For polyethylene pipes, the axial soil resistance is affected by the associated reduction of the diameter of the pipeline due to tensile straining. Much more deformation occurred in polyethylene pipelines from direct strain measurements, compared to what might be expected in steel pipelines for a given level of loading. 15 refs., 6 figs.

  18. Quick-start of full-scale anaerobic digestion (AD) using aeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagerkvist, Anders, E-mail: al@ltu.se; Pelkonen, Markku; Wikström, Tommy

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • A fast, and original, start up procedure for anaerobic digestors has been applied at full scale. • The development of a methanogenic culture has been documented using fluorescent in situ hybridization. • The technique can be widely applied. - Abstract: A conventional 1300 m{sup 3} continuously stirred anaerobic tank reactor at the city of Boden, north Sweden, which was receiving a feed of both sewage sludge and food waste, was put out of operation due to the build-up of a float phase. The reactor was emptied and cleaned. At start-up there was no methanogenic sludge available, so an unconventional start-up procedure was applied: The reactor was rapidly (8 days with 1200 kg of total solids (TS) added daily) filled with thickened, and slightly acidic sewage sludge, showing only slight methane generation, which was subsequently heated to 55 °C. Then compressed air was blown into the digester and within a month a fully functional methanogenic culture was established. The transfer from acidogenic to methanogenic conditions happened in about one week. As a start-up technique this is fast and cost efficient, it only requires the access of a compressor, electricity and a source of air. In total, about 16 tonnes of oxygen were used. It is proposed that this method may also be used as an operational amendment technique, should a reactor tend to acidify.

  19. Non-Axisymmetric Inflatable Pressure Structure (NAIPS) Full-Scale Pressure Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Thomas C.; Doggett, William R.; Warren, Jerry E.; Watson, Judith J.; Shariff, Khadijah; Makino, Alberto; Yount, Bryan C.

    2017-01-01

    Inflatable space structures have the potential to significantly reduce the required launch volume for large pressure vessels required for exploration applications including habitats, airlocks and tankage. In addition, mass savings can be achieved via the use of high specific strength softgoods materials, and the reduced design penalty from launching the structure in a densely packaged state. Large inclusions however, such as hatches, induce a high mass penalty at the interfaces with the softgoods and in the added rigid structure while reducing the packaging efficiency. A novel, Non-Axisymmetric Inflatable Pressure Structure (NAIPS) was designed and recently tested at NASA Langley Research Center to demonstrate an elongated inflatable architecture that could provide areas of low stress along a principal axis in the surface. These low stress zones will allow the integration of a flexible linear seal that substantially reduces the added mass and volume of a heritage rigid hatch structure. This paper describes the test of the first full-scale engineering demonstration unit (EDU) of the NAIPS geometry and a comparison of the results to finite element analysis.

  20. Human factors evaluation of the HL-20 full-scale model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willshire, Kelli F.; Simonsen, Lisa C.; Willshire, William L., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The human factors testing of the HL-20 personnel launch system full-scale model was conducted in both the vertical and horizontal positions at NASA Langley Research Center. Three main areas of testing were considered: an anthropometric fit evaluation, the ingress and egress of a 10-person crew, and pilot viewing. The subjects, ranging from the 5th to 95th percentile size, had sufficient clearance in the model, with the exception of the last two rows of seats and the cockpit area. Adjustable seat heights and/or placement of the seats farther forward would provide more headroom. In the horizontal position, the model's seat placement and aisle width allowed a quick and orderly 10-person egress for the no-keel (a structural support running the length on the aisle), 6-in.-high keel, and 12-in.-high keel conditions. Egress times were less than 20 s. For the vertical position, the model's long cylindrical shape with the ladder in the ceiling allowed a quick and orderly egress with average times less than 30 s. Ingress and egress procedures were demonstrated using Shuttle partial-pressure suits. The reduced mobility experienced while wearing the suits did increase egress times, although they still remained acceptable. The window arrangement for pilot viewing was found to be reasonably acceptable, although slight modifications, such as an increased downward view, is desirable.

  1. Full-Scale Turbofan Engine Noise-Source Separation Using a Four-Signal Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.; Arechiga, Rene O.

    2016-01-01

    Contributions from the combustor to the overall propulsion noise of civilian transport aircraft are starting to become important due to turbofan design trends and expected advances in mitigation of other noise sources. During on-ground, static-engine acoustic tests, combustor noise is generally sub-dominant to other engine noise sources because of the absence of in-flight effects. Consequently, noise-source separation techniques are needed to extract combustor-noise information from the total noise signature in order to further progress. A novel four-signal source-separation method is applied to data from a static, full-scale engine test and compared to previous methods. The new method is, in a sense, a combination of two- and three-signal techniques and represents an attempt to alleviate some of the weaknesses of each of those approaches. This work is supported by the NASA Advanced Air Vehicles Program, Advanced Air Transport Technology Project, Aircraft Noise Reduction Subproject and the NASA Glenn Faculty Fellowship Program.

  2. Numerical Simulations of Subscale Wind Turbine Rotor Inboard Airfoils at Low Reynolds Number

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaylock, Myra L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Thermal/ Fluid Sciences & Engineering Dept.; Maniaci, David Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Wind Energy Technologies Dept.; Resor, Brian R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Wind Energy Technologies Dept.

    2015-04-01

    New blade designs are planned to support future research campaigns at the SWiFT facility in Lubbock, Texas. The sub-scale blades will reproduce specific aerodynamic characteristics of utility-scale rotors. Reynolds numbers for megawatt-, utility-scale rotors are generally above 2-8 million. The thickness of inboard airfoils for these large rotors are typically as high as 35-40%. The thickness and the proximity to three-dimensional flow of these airfoils present design and analysis challenges, even at the full scale. However, more than a decade of experience with the airfoils in numerical simulation, in the wind tunnel, and in the field has generated confidence in their performance. Reynolds number regimes for the sub-scale rotor are significantly lower for the inboard blade, ranging from 0.7 to 1 million. Performance of the thick airfoils in this regime is uncertain because of the lack of wind tunnel data and the inherent challenge associated with numerical simulations. This report documents efforts to determine the most capable analysis tools to support these simulations in an effort to improve understanding of the aerodynamic properties of thick airfoils in this Reynolds number regime. Numerical results from various codes of four airfoils are verified against previously published wind tunnel results where data at those Reynolds numbers are available. Results are then computed for other Reynolds numbers of interest.

  3. Experimental characterization of turbulent inflow noise on a full-scale wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Steven; Oerlemans, Stefan; Palo, Scott

    2016-12-01

    An extensive experimental campaign was conducted on a 108-m diameter 2.3-MW wind turbine in order to assess the effect of inflow turbulence conditions on wind turbine acoustics. Over 50 h of continuous acoustic data was acquired at power-generating wind speeds. Twelve precision microphones were used, arranged in a one rotor radius ring about the turbine tower in order to assess the directivity of the noise emission. Turbine operational and atmospheric conditions were gathered simultaneously with acoustics measurements. The testing and analysis constitute perhaps the most thorough experimental characterization of turbulent inflow noise from a wind turbine to date. Turbulence intensities typically varied between 10 percent and 35 percent, and wind speeds covered most of the operational range of the wind turbine, from cut-on to well above its rated power. A method was developed for using blade-mounted accelerometers for determining the turbulence conditions in the immediate vicinity of the blades, which are the primary turbulence noise generating bodies. The method uses the blades' vibrational energy within a specified frequency range to estimate the overall turbulence conditions by assuming a von Kármán turbulence spectrum. Using this method, a clear positive correlation is shown between turbulence intensity and noise levels. The turbulence noise is dominant at low frequencies and is primarily observed in the upwind and downwind directions. Low frequency noise increases by as much as 6 dB for the range of turbulence conditions measured. Comparisons are made between the measured turbine noise directivity and theory using a simple acoustic model of the turbine as three point-sources. Strong agreement is found between the theoretical leading edge noise directivity model and the measured low frequency noise directivity.

  4. Electric Drive Control with Rotor Resistance and Rotor Speed Observers Based on Fuzzy Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ben Regaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many scientific researchers have proposed the control of the induction motor without speed sensor. These methods have the disadvantage that the variation of the rotor resistance causes an error of estimating the motor speed. Thus, simultaneous estimation of the rotor resistance and the motor speed is required. In this paper, a scheme for estimating simultaneously the rotor resistance and the rotor speed of an induction motor using fuzzy logic has been developed. We present a method which is based on two adaptive observers using fuzzy logic without affecting each other and a simple algorithm in order to facilitate the determination of the optimal values of the controller gains. The control algorithm is proved by the simulation tests. The results analysis shows the characteristic robustness of the two observers of the proposed method even in the case of variation of the rotor resistance.

  5. Full-scale testing of pipework systems and flexible risers subject to noise and vibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Every, M.J.; Goyder, G.D.; Jee, T.; Swindell, R.

    2005-07-01

    The occurrence of potentially damaging noise and vibration levels in pipework has required the development of a full-scale testing facility. This facility can expose pipework to high static pressures and flow and can generate the large dynamic pressures that constitute noise. A consortium was formed that assembled the various specialist knowledge needed for the test facility. The outcome of the test work enables production flow through a flexible riser system throughout a range of flow rates and most significantly to be substantially increased. The benefits are an increased profitability of the asset, greater confidence in fatigue life prediction and an improved understanding for use in design. Flexible risers are increasingly being used offshore and most recently for the export of dry gas. This has given rise to the phenomenon of the 'singing riser', which generates sufficiently large noise levels to cause fatigue damage to the riser system. This phenomenon is currently limiting production rates offshore. As gas flows within the riser it passes over internal corrugation, which gives rise to vortex shedding from corrugated edges. The frequency of the vortex shedding is described by the Strouhal relationship so that it depends upon the flow velocity and the riser geometry. It appears from measurements on several offshore risers that this is fairly constant for a range of export pressures and flow rates. The shedding of the vortices is not necessarily correlated along the length of the riser. However, if there is small-bore pipework attached to the riser system which has a similar acoustic frequency to the Strouhal frequency then 'lock-on' can occur which may cause full correlation of vortex shedding. The lock-on mechanism is not totally understood but when the small-bore pipework's acoustic frequency is excited it provides a positive feed back to enhance the vortex shedding within the riser. The consequence is that the shedding within the

  6. FULL-SCALE TESTING OF ENHANCED MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR WET FGD SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.K. McDonald; G.T. Amrhein; G.A. Kudlac; D. Madden Yurchison

    2003-05-07

    Wet flue gas desulfurization (wet FGD) systems are currently installed on about 25% of the coal-fired utility generating capacity in the U.S., representing about 15% of the number of coal-fired units. Depending on the effect of operating parameters such as mercury content of the coal, form of mercury (elemental or oxidized) in the flue gas, scrubber spray tower configuration, liquid-to-gas ratio, and slurry chemistry, FGD systems can provide cost-effective, near-term mercury emissions control options with a proven history of commercial operation. For boilers already equipped with FGD systems, the incremental cost of any vapor phase mercury removal achieved is minimal. To be widely accepted and implemented, technical approaches that improve mercury removal performance for wet FGD systems should also have low incremental costs and have little or no impact on operation and SO{sub 2} removal performance. The ultimate goal of the Full-scale Testing of Enhanced Mercury Control for Wet FGD Systems Program was to commercialize methods for the control of mercury in coal-fired electric utility systems equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization (wet FGD). The program was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development, and Babcock & Wilcox. Host sites and associated support were provided by Michigan South Central Power Agency (MSCPA) and Cinergy. Field-testing was completed at two commercial coal-fired utilities with wet FGD systems: (1) MSCPA's 55 MW{sub e} Endicott Station and (2) Cinergy's 1300 MW{sub e} Zimmer Station. Testing was conducted at these two locations because of the large differences in size and wet scrubber chemistry. Endicott employs a limestone, forced oxidation (LSFO) wet FGD system, whereas Zimmer uses Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime (magnesium enhanced lime) and ex situ oxidation. Both locations burn Ohio bituminous coal.

  7. Characterization of bacterial community dynamics in a full-scale drinking water treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cuiping; Ling, Fangqiong; Zhang, Minglu; Liu, Wen-Tso; Li, Yuxian; Liu, Wenjun

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the spatial and temporal dynamics of microbial communities in drinking water systems is vital to securing the microbial safety of drinking water. The objective of this study was to comprehensively characterize the dynamics of microbial biomass and bacterial communities at each step of a full-scale drinking water treatment plant in Beijing, China. Both bulk water and biofilm samples on granular activated carbon (GAC) were collected over 9months. The proportion of cultivable cells decreased during the treatment processes, and this proportion was higher in warm season than cool season, suggesting that treatment processes and water temperature probably had considerable impact on the R2A cultivability of total bacteria. 16s rRNA gene based 454 pyrosequencing analysis of the bacterial community revealed that Proteobacteria predominated in all samples. The GAC biofilm harbored a distinct population with a much higher relative abundance of Acidobacteria than water samples. Principle coordinate analysis and one-way analysis of similarity indicated that the dynamics of the microbial communities in bulk water and biofilm samples were better explained by the treatment processes rather than by sampling time, and distinctive changes of the microbial communities in water occurred after GAC filtration. Furthermore, 20 distinct OTUs contributing most to the dissimilarity among samples of different sampling locations and 6 persistent OTUs present in the entire treatment process flow were identified. Overall, our findings demonstrate the significant effects that treatment processes have on the microbial biomass and community fluctuation and provide implications for further targeted investigation on particular bacteria populations. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Energy and chemical efficient nitrogen removal at a full-scale MBR water reuse facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Wen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available With stringent wastewater discharge limits on nitrogen and phosphorus, membrane bioreactor (MBR technology is gaining popularity for advanced wastewater treatment due to higher effluent quality and smaller footprint. However, higher energy intensity required for MBR plants and increased operational costs for nutrient removal limit wide application of the MBR technology. Conventional nitrogen removal requires intensive energy inputs and chemical addition. There are drivers to search for new technology and process control strategies to treat wastewater with lower energy and chemical demand while still producing high quality effluent. The NPXpress is a patented technology developed by American Water engineers. This technology is an ultra-low dissolved oxygen (DO operation for wastewater treatment and is able to remove nitrogen with less oxygen requirements and reduced supplemental carbon addition in MBR plants. Jefferson Peaks Water Reuse Facility in New Jersey employs MBR technology to treat municipal wastewater and was selected for the implementation of the NPXpress technology. The technology has been proved to consistently produce a high quality reuse effluent while reducing energy consumption and supplemental carbon addition by 59% and 100%, respectively. Lab-scale kinetic studies suggested that NPXpress promoted microorganisms with higher oxygen affinity. Process modelling was used to simulate treatment performance under NPXpress conditions and develop ammonia-based aeration control strategy. The application of the ammonia-based aeration control at the plant further reduced energy consumption by additional 9% and improved treatment performance with 35% reduction in effluent total nitrogen. The overall energy savings for Jefferson Peaks was $210,000 in four years since the implementation of NPXpress. This study provided an insight in design and operation of MBR plants with NPXpress technology and ultra-low DO operations.

  9. VOC and air toxics control using biofiltration: 2 full-scale system case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fucich, W.J.; Togna, A.P.; Loudon, R.E. [Envirogen, Inc., Lawrenceville, NJ (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-31

    Industry continuous to search for innovative air treatment technologies to cost effectively meet the stringent requirements of the CAAA. High volume process exhaust streams contaminated with dilute concentrations of VOCs and HAPs are an especially challenging problem. Biological treatment is an option that must be evaluated with the traditional control technologies (chemical scrubbing, condensation, adsorption, thermal oxidation, etc.) because of the low operating costs and the system is environmentally friendly. In the United States, biofiltration is considered an emerging technology, however, full-scale biofiltration systems are now successfully operating in two rigorous services. At Nylonge Corporation, a biofilter is safely and efficiently degrading CS{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S vapor emissions. The ABTco system is successfully treating the target compounds, methanol and formaldehyde, in a press exhaust containing inert particulate and semi-volatiles. These systems are both based on a unique, patented modular design. The modular concept allows the system to be easily installed resulting in construction cost minimization and maintaining critical project schedules. The modular system offers flexibility because the biofilter is easily expanded to accommodate future plant growth. The modular design benefits the end user because individual modules or biofilter sections can be isolated for service and inspection while the biofilter system stays on-line. An up-flow configuration and the patented irrigation system allow biofilters to be used on the most difficult services. In the case of Nylonge, the biofilter is handling the sulfuric acid generated during the degradation of CS{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S vapors. At ABTco, stable operation is achieved in a stream containing particulates and semi-volatiles.

  10. Full-Scale Hollow Fiber Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator Prototype Development and Testing for Advanced Spacesuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bue, Grant; Trevino, Luis; Tsioulos, Gus; Mitchell, Keith; Dillon, Paul; Weaver, Gregg

    2009-01-01

    The spacesuit water membrane evaporator (SWME) is being developed to perform the thermal control function for advanced spacesuits to take advantage of recent advances in micropore membrane technology in providing a robust heat-rejection device that is potentially less sensitive to contamination than is the sublimator. Principles of a sheet membrane SWME design were demonstrated using a prototypic test article that was tested in a vacuum chamber at JSC in July 1999. The Membrana Celgard X50-215 microporous hollow fiber (HoFi) membrane was selected after recent contamination tests as the superior candidate among commercial alternatives for HoFi SWME prototype development. Although a number of design variants were considered, one that grouped the fiber layers into stacks, which were separated by small spaces and packaged into a cylindrical shape, was deemed best for further development. An analysis of test data showed that eight layer stacks of the HoFi sheets that had good exposure on each side of the stack would evaporate water with high efficiency. A design that has 15,000 tubes, with 18 cm of exposed tubes between headers has been built and tested that meets the size, weight, and performance requirements of the SWME. This full-scale prototype consists of 30 stacks, each of which are formed into a chevron shape and separated by spacers and organized into three sectors of ten nested stacks. Testing has been performed to show contamination resistance to the constituents expected to be found in potable water produced by the distillation processes. Other tests showed the sensitivity to surfactants.

  11. Manufacturing and testing of full scale prototype for ITER blanket shield block

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sa-Woong, E-mail: swkim12@nfri.re.kr [ITER Korea, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Duck-Hoi; Jung, Hun-Chea [ITER Korea, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sung-Ki [WONIL Co., Ltd., Haman (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Sung-Chan [POSCO Specialty Steel Co., Ltd., Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Zhang, Fu; Kim, Byoung-Yoon [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Ahn, Hee-Jae; Lee, Hyeon-Gon; Jung, Ki-Jung [ITER Korea, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • 316L(N)-IG forged steel was successfully fabricated and qualified. • Related R&D activities were implemented to resolve the fabrication issues. • SB #8 FSP was successfully manufactured with conventional fabrication techniques. • All of the validation tests were carried out and met the acceptance criteria. - Abstract: Based on the preliminary design of the ITER blanket shield block (SB) #8, the full scale prototype (FSP) has been manufactured and tested in accordance with pre-qualification program, and related R&D was performed to resolve the technical issues of fabrication. The objective of the SB pre-qualification program is to demonstrate the acceptable manufacturing quality by successfully passing the formal test program. 316L(N)-IG stainless steel forging blocks with 1.80L × 1.12W × 0.43t (m) were developed by using an electric arc furnace, and as a result, the material properties were satisfied with technical specification. In the course of applying conventional fabrication techniques such as cutting, milling, drilling and welding of the forged stainless steel block for the manufacturing of the SB #8 FSP, several technical problems have been addressed. And also, the hydraulic connector of cross-forged material re-melted by electro slag or vacuum arc requires the application of advanced joining techniques such as automatic bore TIG and friction welding. Many technical issues – drilling, welding, slitting, non-destructive test and so on – have been raised during manufacturing. Associated R&D including the computational simulation and coupon testing has been done in collaboration with relevant industries in order to resolve these engineering issues. This paper provides technical key issues and their possible resolutions addressed during the manufacture and formal test of the SB #8 FSP, and related R&D.

  12. Full-scale anaerobic co-digestion of organic waste and municipal sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zupancic, Gregor D.; Ros, Milenko [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, PO Box 660, SI-1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Uranjek-Zevart, Natasa [Municipality of Velenje, Koroska 37/b, 3320 Velenje (Slovenia)

    2008-02-15

    A full-scale experiment on the anaerobic co-digestion of organic waste from domestic refuse (swill) and municipal sludge is described. In a wastewater treatment plant of 50,000 population equivalents, two conventional mesophilic digesters with a combined volume of 2000 m{sup 3} and 20 days hydraulic retention time were used. The digesters' usual influent is waste sludge from wastewater treatment plants (a mixture of primary sludge and waste activated sludge) with an average organic loading rate of 0.8 kg m{sup -3} d{sup -1} of volatile suspended solids. In the experiment, organic waste was added to the digester influent to increase the organic loading rate by 25% to 1.0 kg m{sup 3} d{sup -1} of volatile suspended solids. Biogas quantity increased by 80% and specific biogas production increased from 0.39 m{sup 3} kg{sup -1} volatile suspended solids inserted prior to the experiment to over 0.60 m{sup 3} kg{sup -1} volatile suspended solids' inserted, peaking at 0.89 m{sup 3} kg{sup -1} volatile suspended solids inserted. The excess biogas was used in a boiler and a 50 kW combined heat and power engine. Electrical energy production increased by 130% and heat production increased by 55%. Volatile suspended solids degradation efficiency increased from 71% to 81% with no increase of volatile suspended solids in the digester effluent. Virtually all of the organic waste was degraded. (author)

  13. Full-scale regional exercises: closing the gaps in disaster preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klima, David A; Seiler, Sarah H; Peterson, Jeff B; Christmas, A Britton; Green, John M; Fleming, Greg; Thomason, Michael H; Sing, Ronald F

    2012-09-01

    Man-made (9/11) and natural (Hurricane Katrina) disasters have enlightened the medical community regarding the importance of disaster preparedness. In response to Joint Commission requirements, medical centers should have established protocols in place to respond to such events. We examined a full-scale regional exercise (FSRE) to identify gaps in logistics and operations during a simulated mass casualty incident. A multiagency, multijurisdictional, multidisciplinary exercise (FSRE) included 16 area hospitals and one American College of Surgeons-verified Level I trauma center (TC). The scenario simulated a train derailment and chemical spill 20 miles from the TC using 281 moulaged volunteers. Third-party contracted evaluators assessed each hospital in five areas: communications, command structure, decontamination, staffing, and patient tracking. Further analysis examined logistic and operational deficiencies. None of the 16 hospitals were compliant in all five areas. Mean hospital compliance was 1.9 (± 0.9 SD) areas. One hospital, unable to participate because of an air conditioner outage, was deemed 0% compliant. The most common deficiency was communications (15 of 16 hospitals [94%]; State Medical Asset Resource Tracking Tool system deficiencies, lack of working knowledge of Voice Interoperability Plan for Emergency Responders radio system) followed by deficient decontamination in 12 (75%). Other deficiencies included inadequate staffing based on predetermined protocols in 10 hospitals (63%), suboptimal command structure in 9 (56%), and patient tracking deficiencies in 5 (31%). An additional 11 operational and 5 logistic failures were identified. The TC showed an appropriate command structure but was deficient in four of five categories, with understaffing and a decontamination leak into the emergency department, which required diversion of 70 patients. Communication remains a significant gap in the mass casualty scenario 10 years after 9/11. Our findings

  14. Assessment of energy-saving strategies and operational costs in full-scale membrane bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabarrón, S; Ferrero, G; Dalmau, M; Comas, J; Rodriguez-Roda, I

    2014-02-15

    The energy-saving strategies and operational costs of stand-alone, hybrid, and dual stream full-scale membrane bioreactors (MBRs) with capacities ranging from 1100 to 35,000 m(3) day(-1) have been assessed for seven municipal facilities located in Northeast Spain. Although hydraulic load was found to be the main determinant factor for the energy consumption rates, several optimisation strategies have shown to be effective in terms of energy reduction as well as fouling phenomenon minimization or preservation. Specifically, modifications of the biological process (installation of control systems for biological aeration) and of the filtration process (reduction of the flux or mixed liquor suspended solids concentration and installation of control systems for membrane air scouring) were applied in two stand-alone MBRs. After implementing these strategies, the yearly specific energy demand (SED) in flat-sheet (FS) and hollow-fibre (HF) stand-alone MBRs was reduced from 1.12 to 0.71 and from 1.54 to 1.12 kW h(-1) m(-3), respectively, regardless of their similar yearly averaged hydraulic loads. The strategies applied in the hybrid MBR, namely, buffering the influent flow and optimisation of both biological aeration and membrane air-scouring, reduced the SED values by 14%. These results illustrate that it is possible to apply energy-saving strategies to significantly reduce MBR operational costs, highlighting the need to optimise MBR facilities to reconsider them as an energy-competitive option.

  15. Emergency Locator Transmitter System Performance During Three Full-Scale General Aviation Crash Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littell, Justin D.; Stimson, Chad M.

    2016-01-01

    Full-scale crash tests were conducted on three Cessna 172 aircraft at NASA Langley Research Center's Landing and Impact Research facility during the summer of 2015. The purpose of the three tests was to evaluate the performance of commercially available Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT) systems and support development of enhanced installation guidance. ELTs are used to provide location information to Search and Rescue (SAR) organizations in the event of an aviation distress situation, such as a crash. The crash tests simulated three differing severe but survivable crash conditions, in which it is expected that the onboard occupants have a reasonable chance of surviving the accident and would require assistance from SAR personnel. The first simulated an emergency landing onto a rigid surface, while the second and third simulated controlled flight into terrain. Multiple ELT systems were installed on each airplane according to federal regulations. The majority of the ELT systems performed nominally. In the systems which did not activate, post-test disassembly and inspection offered guidance for non-activation cause in some cases, while in others, no specific cause could be found. In a subset of installations purposely disregarding best practice guidelines, failure of the ELT-to-antenna cabling connections were found. Recommendations for enhanced installation guidance of ELT systems will be made to the Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics (RTCA) Special Committee 229 for consideration for adoption in a future release of ELT minimum operational performance specifications. These recommendations will be based on the data gathered during this test series as well as a larger series of crash simulations using computer models that will be calibrated based on these data

  16. Treating high-mercury-containing lamps using full-scale thermal desorption technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, T C; You, S J; Yu, B S; Chen, C M; Chiu, Y C

    2009-03-15

    The mercury content in high-mercury-containing lamps are always between 400 mg/kg and 200,000 mg/kg. This concentration is much higher than the 260 mg/kg lower boundary recommended for the thermal desorption process suggested by the US Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. According to a Taiwan EPA survey, about 4,833,000 cold cathode fluorescent lamps (CCFLs), 486,000 ultraviolet lamps and 25,000 super high pressure mercury lamps (SHPs) have been disposed of in the industrial waste treatment system, producing 80, 92 and 9 kg-mercury/year through domestic treatment, offshore treatment and air emissions, respectively. To deal with this problem we set up a full-scale thermal desorption process to treat and recover the mercury from SHPs, fluorescent tube tailpipes, fluorescent tubes containing mercury-fluorescent powder, and CCFLs containing mercury-fluorescent powder and monitor the use of different pre-heating temperatures and desorption times. The experimental results reveal that the average thermal desorption efficiency of SHPs and fluorescent tube tailpipe were both 99.95%, while the average thermal desorption efficiencies of fluorescent tubes containing mercury-fluorescent powder were between 97% and 99%. In addition, a thermal desorption efficiency of only 69.37-93.39% was obtained after treating the CCFLs containing mercury-fluorescent powder. These differences in thermal desorption efficiency might be due to the complexity of the mercury compounds contained in the lamps. In general, the thermal desorption efficiency of lamps containing mercury-complex compounds increased with higher temperatures.

  17. Prototype repository: A full scale experiment at Äspö HRL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesson, Lars-Erik; Börgesson, Lennart; Goudarzi, Reza; Sandén, Torbjörn; Gunnarsson, David; Svemar, Christer

    At Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory a full scale test of the Swedish concept for disposal of nuclear waste (KBS-3V) is in progress. The Prototype Repository project consists of two sections. The installation of the first section was made during summer and autumn 2001 and the second section during spring and summer 2003. Section 1 consists of four full-scale deposition holes, copper canisters equipped with electrical heaters, bentonite buffer consisting of blocks and pellets and a deposition tunnel backfilled with a mixture of bentonite and crushed rock, ending with a concrete plug. Section 2 consists of two full-scale deposition holes with a backfilled tunnel section and ends also with a concrete plug. Altogether 84 large bentonite blocks, with a total weight of about 130 tons, were installed and more than 2000 tons of backfill material were mixed and compacted in situ. Earlier developed techniques for both manufacturing and installing the buffer and the backfill were used in the project. Measurements and data from the installation allow calculations of the expected density in the buffer and in different parts of the backfill. The bentonite buffer in deposition holes 1, 3, 5 and 6, the backfill and the surrounding rock are instrumented with gauges for measuring temperature, water pressure, total pressure, relative humidity, resistivity, canister displacement and rock stresses. The instruments are connected to data acquisition systems by cables protected by tubes. These tubes are led through the rock in watertight lead-throughs to a nearby tunnel where the data acquisition systems are situated. More than 1100 transducers have been installed in the rock, buffer and the backfill. The technique for protecting the transducers from high water and swelling pressure was developed in this and preceding projects and furthermore different designs of transducers are used for the same type of measurement in order to compare their behaviour. The deposition holes have different water

  18. Principles of 5D modeling, full integration of 3D space, time and scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oosterom, P.; Stoter, J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes an approach for data modelling in five dimensions. Apart from three dimensions for geometrical representation and a fourth dimension for time, we identify scale as fifth dimensional characteristic. Considering scale as an extra dimension of geographic information, fully integrate

  19. The dominant acetate degradation pathway/methanogenic composition in full-scale anaerobic digesters operating under different ammonia levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotidis, Ioannis; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Angelidaki, Irini

    2014-01-01

    Ammonia is a major environmental factor influencing biomethanation in full-scale anaerobic digesters. In this study, the effect of different ammonia levels on methanogenic pathways and methanogenic community composition of full-scale biogas plants was investigated. Eight full-scale digesters...... operating under different ammonia levels were sampled, and the residual biogas production was followed in fed-batch reactors. Acetate, labelled in the methyl group, was used to determine the methanogenic pathway by following the 14CH4 and 14CO2 production. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation was used...

  20. Testing of Full Scale Flight Qualified Kevlar Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Nathanael; Saulsberry, Regor; Yoder, Tommy; Forsyth, Brad; Thesken, John; Phoenix, Leigh

    2007-01-01

    Many decades ago NASA identified a need for low-mass pressure vessels for carrying various fluids aboard rockets, spacecraft, and satellites. A pressure vessel design known as the composite overwrapped pressure vessel (COPV) was identified to provide a weight savings over traditional single-material pressure vessels typically made of metal and this technology has been in use for space flight applications since the 1970's. A typical vessel design consisted of a thin liner material, typically a metal, overwrapped with a continuous fiber yarn impregnated with epoxy. Most designs were such that the overwrapped fiber would carry a majority of load at normal operating pressures. The weight advantage for a COPV versus a traditional singlematerial pressure vessel contributed to widespread use of COPVs by NASA, the military, and industry. This technology is currently used for personal breathing supply storage, fuel storage for auto and mass transport vehicles and for various space flight and aircraft applications. The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was recently asked to review the operation of Kevlar 2 and carbon COPVs to ensure they are safely operated on NASA space flight vehicles. A request was made to evaluate the life remaining on the Kevlar COPVs used on the Space Shuttle for helium and nitrogen storage. This paper provides a review of Kevlar COPV testing relevant to the NESC assessment. Also discussed are some key findings, observations, and recommendations that may be applicable to the COPV user community. Questions raised during the investigations have revealed the need for testing to better understand the stress rupture life and age life of COPVs. The focus of this paper is to describe burst testing of Kevlar COPVs that has been completed as a part of an the effort to evaluate the effects of ageing and shelf life on full scale COPVs. The test articles evaluated in this discussion had a diameter of 22 inches for S/N 014 and 40 inches for S/N 011. The

  1. IMPER: Characterization of the wind field over a large wind turbine rotor - final report; Improved performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt Paulsen, U.; Wagner, R.

    2012-01-15

    A modern wind turbine rotor with a contemporary rotor size would easily with the tips penetrate the air between 116 m and 30 m and herby experience effects of different wind. With current rules on power performance measurements such as IEC 61400-121 the reference wind speed is measured at hub height, an oversimplification of the wind energy power over the rotor disk area is carried out. The project comprised a number of innovative and coordinated measurements on a full scale turbine with remote sensing technology and simulations on a 500 kW wind turbine for the effects of wind field characterization. The objective with the present report is to give a short overview of the different experiments carried out and results obtained within the final phase of this project. (Author)

  2. Seismic response of a full-scale wind turbine tower using experimental and numerical modal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, Kamel Sayed Ahmad; Saudi, Ghada N.; Eltaly, Boshra Aboul-Anen; El-khier, Mostafa Mahmoud Abo

    2016-09-01

    Wind turbine technology has developed tremendously over the past years. In Egypt, the Zafarana wind farm is currently generating at a capacity of 517 MW, making it one of the largest onshore wind farms in the world. It is located in an active seismic zone along the west side of the Gulf of Suez. Accordingly, seismic risk assessment is demanded for studying the structural integrity of wind towers under expected seismic hazard events. In the context of ongoing joint Egypt-US research project "Seismic Risk Assessment of Wind Turbine Towers in Zafarana wind Farm Egypt" (Project ID: 4588), this paper describes the dynamic performance investigation of an existing Nordex N43 wind turbine tower. Both experimental and numerical work are illustrated explaining the methodology adopted to investigate the dynamic behavior of the tower under seismic load. Field dynamic testing of the full-scale tower was performed using ambient vibration techniques (AVT). Both frequency domain and time domain methods were utilized to identify the actual dynamic properties of the tower as built in the site. Mainly, the natural frequencies, their corresponding mode shapes and damping ratios of the tower were successfully identified using AVT. A vibration-based finite element model (FEM) was constructed using ANSYS V.12 software. The numerical and experimental results of modal analysis were both compared for matching purpose. Using different simulation considerations, the initial FEM was updated to finally match the experimental results with good agreement. Using the final updated FEM, the response of the tower under the AQABA earthquake excitation was investigated. Time history analysis was conducted to define the seismic response of the tower in terms of the structural stresses and displacements. This work is considered as one of the pioneer structural studies of the wind turbine towers in Egypt. Identification of the actual dynamic properties of the existing tower was successfully performed

  3. Influence of SO{sub 3} on mercury removal with activated carbon: Full-scale results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjostrom, Sharon; Dillon, Martin; Donnelly, Brian; Bustard, Jean [ADA-ES, Inc., 8100 SouthPark Way, Unit B, Littleton, CO 80120-4525 (United States); Filippelli, Greg; Glesmann, Rob [ADA-ES, Inc., Emission Strategies, 10480 Little Patuxent Parkway, Suite 400, Baltimore, MD 21044 (United States); Orscheln, Tom [Ameren, 3700 South Lindbergh Blvd., St. Louis, MO 63127 (United States); Wahlert, Steve [Sargent and Lundy (Retired), 55 E. Monroe Street, Chicago, IL 60603 (United States); Chang, Ramsay [EPRI, P.O. Box 10412, Palo Alto, CA 94304-1395 (United States); O' Palko, Andrew [U.S. DOE/NETL, P.O. Box 880, Morgantown, WV 26507-0880 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    Activated carbon injection is considered one of the most cost-effective options for mercury control at PRB-fired power plants. However, roughly 30% of sites firing PRB coal use SO{sub 3} for flue gas conditioning. The presence of SO{sub 3} in flue gas can decrease mercury capture by activated carbon, sometimes dramatically. Overcoming activated carbon performance limitations caused by SO{sub 3} conditioning for units with this configuration is essential to enable these plants to cost-effectively meet pending mercury emission regulations. Ameren's Labadie Unit 2 fires PRB coal and uses SO{sub 3} to enhance particulate capture in the electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Full-scale sorbent injection tests at Labadie were conducted from 2005-2007. Six sorbents were tested at SO{sub 3} injection concentrations ranging from 0 to 10.7 ppm. Sorbent performance was evaluated at two injection locations (the air preheater (APH) inlet and outlet). Native mercury capture on fly ash was typically less than 15%. When the mercury sorbents were injected downstream of the air preheater, the SO{sub 3} concentration resulted in a decrease in mercury capture from 85% (no SO{sub 3} injection) to 17% (SO{sub 3} injection set at 10.7 ppm). Mercury sorbents were more effective when injected upstream of the air preheater. With the SO{sub 3} system off, mercury removal increased from 75% when injecting 5.1 lb/MMacf of brominated carbon at the APH outlet, compared to 95% when injecting at the inlet. With the SO{sub 3} system on, test results indicated an increase from about 30% injecting at the outlet to 58% injecting at the inlet. Tests evaluating the ADA-ES patented onsite milling process showed that 85% mercury capture was achieved injecting 4 lb/MMacf of milled activated carbon compared to a requirement of 10 lb/MMacf to achieve the same removal using as-received carbon, representing a 60% reduction in activated carbon consumption. No changes in opacity, APH and ESP performance, or

  4. Near-infrared spectroscopy for process and substrate supervision of a full-scale biogas plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobi, Hans Fabian

    2012-07-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate the possible use of near-infrared spectroscopy in the supervision of the biogas production process or parts thereof. It was examined, whether the surveillance of (a) the process and (b) substrate was feasible. The following tasks were accomplished to this end: 1. Development, construction and assembly of suitable NIRS-metrology, development of proper control-software as well as of strategies for data acquisition and data handling, 2. calculation and validation of regression models on the basis of acquired spectra and reference data for (a) suitable parameters of the biogas process, (b) composition and biogas potential of the substrate, 3. calculation of continuous time series of all parameters in order to prove the possibility of continuous surveillance, 4. integrated processing of continuously calculated biogas potentials together with plant data for the prediction of the biogas production behavior of the biogas plant. A near-infrared spectrometer was installed and equipped with NIR-measuring heads of own design and construction on a full-scale agricultural biogas plant. For 500 days spectra were continuously logged at (a) a pipe flowed through by fermenter slurry and (b) the feeding station, where silage passed. Based on regularly withdrawn reference samples and the corresponding spectra regression models were calibrated for the several constituents. Continuously logged spectra were used to calculate time series with the aid of the regression models for each constituent. Models and time series were established for the following parameters: (a) process parameters: volatile fatty acids, acetic acid, propionic acid, dry matter, volatile solids; (b) substrate parameters: dry matter, volatile solids, crude fiber, crude fat, crude protein, nitrogen-free extracts, experimentally assessed biogas potential, theoretically assessed biogas potential. Despite the partially low quality of the models it was possible to follow the course of

  5. Long-Term Bacterial Dynamics in a Full-Scale Drinking Water Distribution System

    KAUST Repository

    Prest, E. I.

    2016-10-28

    Large seasonal variations in microbial drinking water quality can occur in distribution networks, but are often not taken into account when evaluating results from short-term water sampling campaigns. Temporal dynamics in bacterial community characteristics were investigated during a two-year drinking water monitoring campaign in a full-scale distribution system operating without detectable disinfectant residual. A total of 368 water samples were collected on a biweekly basis at the water treatment plant (WTP) effluent and at one fixed location in the drinking water distribution network (NET). The samples were analysed for heterotrophic plate counts (HPC), Aeromonas plate counts, adenosine-tri-phosphate (ATP) concentrations, and flow cytometric (FCM) total and intact cell counts (TCC, ICC), water temperature, pH, conductivity, total organic carbon (TOC) and assimilable organic carbon (AOC). Multivariate analysis of the large dataset was performed to explore correlative trends between microbial and environmental parameters. The WTP effluent displayed considerable seasonal variations in TCC (from 90 × 103 cells mL-1 in winter time up to 455 × 103 cells mL-1 in summer time) and in bacterial ATP concentrations (<1–3.6 ng L-1), which were congruent with water temperature variations. These fluctuations were not detected with HPC and Aeromonas counts. The water in the network was predominantly influenced by the characteristics of the WTP effluent. The increase in ICC between the WTP effluent and the network sampling location was small (34 × 103 cells mL-1 on average) compared to seasonal fluctuations in ICC in the WTP effluent. Interestingly, the extent of bacterial growth in the NET was inversely correlated to AOC concentrations in the WTP effluent (Pearson’s correlation factor r = -0.35), and positively correlated with water temperature (r = 0.49). Collecting a large dataset at high frequency over a two year period enabled the characterization of previously

  6. Seismic response of a full-scale wind turbine tower using experimental and numerical modal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, Kamel Sayed Ahmad; Saudi, Ghada N.; Eltaly, Boshra Aboul-Anen; El-khier, Mostafa Mahmoud Abo

    2016-12-01

    Wind turbine technology has developed tremendously over the past years. In Egypt, the Zafarana wind farm is currently generating at a capacity of 517 MW, making it one of the largest onshore wind farms in the world. It is located in an active seismic zone along the west side of the Gulf of Suez. Accordingly, seismic risk assessment is demanded for studying the structural integrity of wind towers under expected seismic hazard events. In the context of ongoing joint Egypt-US research project "Seismic Risk Assessment of Wind Turbine Towers in Zafarana wind Farm Egypt" (Project ID: 4588), this paper describes the dynamic performance investigation of an existing Nordex N43 wind turbine tower. Both experimental and numerical work are illustrated explaining the methodology adopted to investigate the dynamic behavior of the tower under seismic load. Field dynamic testing of the full-scale tower was performed using ambient vibration techniques (AVT). Both frequency domain and time domain methods were utilized to identify the actual dynamic properties of the tower as built in the site. Mainly, the natural frequencies, their corresponding mode shapes and damping ratios of the tower were successfully identified using AVT. A vibration-based finite element model (FEM) was constructed using ANSYS V.12 software. The numerical and experimental results of modal analysis were both compared for matching purpose. Using different simulation considerations, the initial FEM was updated to finally match the experimental results with good agreement. Using the final updated FEM, the response of the tower under the AQABA earthquake excitation was investigated. Time history analysis was conducted to define the seismic response of the tower in terms of the structural stresses and displacements. This work is considered as one of the pioneer structural studies of the wind turbine towers in Egypt. Identification of the actual dynamic properties of the existing tower was successfully performed

  7. Full-scale flight tests of aircraft morphing structures using SMA actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabe, James H.; Calkins, Frederick T.; Ruggeri, Robert T.

    2007-04-01

    In August of 2005 The Boeing Company conducted a full-scale flight test utilizing Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) actuators to morph an engine's fan exhaust to correlate exhaust geometry with jet noise reduction. The test was conducted on a 777-300ER with GE-115B engines. The presence of chevrons, serrated aerodynamic surfaces mounted at the trailing edge of the thrust reverser, have been shown to greatly reduce jet noise by encouraging advantageous mixing of the free, and fan streams. The morphing, or Variable Geometry Chevrons (VGC), utilized compact, light weight, and robust SMA actuators to morph the chevron shape to optimize the noise reduction or meet acoustic test objectives. The VGC system was designed for two modes of operation. The entirely autonomous operation utilized changes in the ambient temperature from take-off to cruise to activate the chevron shape change. It required no internal heaters, wiring, control system, or sensing. By design this provided one tip immersion at the warmer take-off temperatures to reduce community noise and another during the cooler cruise state for more efficient engine operation, i.e. reduced specific fuel consumption. For the flight tests a powered mode was added where internal heaters were used to individually control the VGC temperatures. This enabled us to vary the immersions and test a variety of chevron configurations. The flight test demonstrated the value of SMA actuators to solve a real world aerospace problem, validated that the technology could be safely integrated into the airplane's structure and flight system, and represented a large step forward in the realization of SMA actuators for production applications. In this paper the authors describe the development of the actuator system, the steps required to integrate the morphing structure into the thrust reverser, and the analysis and testing that was required to gain approval for flight. Issues related to material strength, thermal environment, vibration

  8. Effects of full-scale beach renovation on fecal indicator levels in shoreline sand and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Rafael J; Hernandez, Yasiel; Jimenez, Nasly H; Piggot, Alan M; Klaus, James S; Feng, Zhixuan; Reniers, Ad; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M

    2014-01-01

    Recolonization of enterococci, at a non-point source beach known to contain high background levels of bacteria, was studied after a full-scale beach renovation project. The renovation involved importation of new exogenous sand, in addition to infrastructure improvements. The study's objectives were to document changes in sand and water quality and to evaluate the relative contribution of different renovation activities towards these changes. These objectives were addressed: by measuring enterococci levels in the sand and fecal indicator bacteria levels (enterococci and fecal coliform) in the water, by documenting sediment characteristics (mineralogy and biofilm levels), and by estimating changes in observable enterococci loads. Analysis of enterococci levels on surface sand and within sediment depth cores were significantly higher prior to beach renovation (6.3-72 CFU/g for each sampling day) when compared to levels during and after beach renovation (0.8-12 CFU/g) (P < 0.01). During the renovation process, sand enterococci levels were frequently below detection limits (<0.1 CFU/g). For water, exceedances in the regulatory thresholds that would trigger a beach advisory decreased by 40% for enterococci and by 90% for fecal coliform. Factors that did not change significantly between pre- and post- renovation included the enterococci loads from animals (approx. 3 × 10(11) CFU per month). Factors that were observed to change between pre- and post- renovation activities included: the composition of the beach sand (64% versus 98% quartz, and a significant decrease in biofilm levels) and loads from direct stormwater inputs (reduction of 3 × 10(11) CFU per month). Overall, this study supports that beach renovation activities contributed to improved sand and water quality resulting in a 50% decrease of observable enterococci loads due to upgrades to the stormwater infrastructure. Of interest was that the change in the sand mineralogy also coincided with changes in biofilm

  9. Long-Term Bacterial Dynamics in a Full-Scale Drinking Water Distribution System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prest, E I; Weissbrodt, D G; Hammes, F; van Loosdrecht, M C M; Vrouwenvelder, J S

    2016-01-01

    Large seasonal variations in microbial drinking water quality can occur in distribution networks, but are often not taken into account when evaluating results from short-term water sampling campaigns. Temporal dynamics in bacterial community characteristics were investigated during a two-year drinking water monitoring campaign in a full-scale distribution system operating without detectable disinfectant residual. A total of 368 water samples were collected on a biweekly basis at the water treatment plant (WTP) effluent and at one fixed location in the drinking water distribution network (NET). The samples were analysed for heterotrophic plate counts (HPC), Aeromonas plate counts, adenosine-tri-phosphate (ATP) concentrations, and flow cytometric (FCM) total and intact cell counts (TCC, ICC), water temperature, pH, conductivity, total organic carbon (TOC) and assimilable organic carbon (AOC). Multivariate analysis of the large dataset was performed to explore correlative trends between microbial and environmental parameters. The WTP effluent displayed considerable seasonal variations in TCC (from 90 × 103 cells mL-1 in winter time up to 455 × 103 cells mL-1 in summer time) and in bacterial ATP concentrations (water temperature variations. These fluctuations were not detected with HPC and Aeromonas counts. The water in the network was predominantly influenced by the characteristics of the WTP effluent. The increase in ICC between the WTP effluent and the network sampling location was small (34 × 103 cells mL-1 on average) compared to seasonal fluctuations in ICC in the WTP effluent. Interestingly, the extent of bacterial growth in the NET was inversely correlated to AOC concentrations in the WTP effluent (Pearson's correlation factor r = -0.35), and positively correlated with water temperature (r = 0.49). Collecting a large dataset at high frequency over a two year period enabled the characterization of previously undocumented seasonal dynamics in the distribution

  10. Evaluation of the First Transport Rotorcraft Airframe Crash Testbed (TRACT 1) Full-Scale Crash Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annett, Martin S.; Littell, Justin D.; Jackson, Karen E.; Bark, Lindley W.; DeWeese, Rick L.; McEntire, B. Joseph

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, the NASA Rotary Wing Crashworthiness Program initiated the Transport Rotorcraft Airframe Crash Testbed (TRACT) research program by obtaining two CH-46E helicopters from the Navy CH-46E Program Office (PMA-226) at the Navy Flight Readiness Center in Cherry Point, North Carolina. Full-scale crash tests were planned to assess dynamic responses of transport-category rotorcraft under combined horizontal and vertical impact loading. The first crash test (TRACT 1) was performed at NASA Langley Research Center's Landing and Impact Research Facility (LandIR), which enables the study of critical interactions between the airframe, seat, and occupant during a controlled crash environment. The CH-46E fuselage is categorized as a medium-lift rotorcraft with fuselage dimensions comparable to a regional jet or business jet. The first TRACT test (TRACT 1) was conducted in August 2013. The primary objectives for TRACT 1 were to: (1) assess improvements to occupant loads and displacement with the use of crashworthy features such as pre-tensioning active restraints and energy absorbing seats, (2) develop novel techniques for photogrammetric data acquisition to measure occupant and airframe kinematics, and (3) provide baseline data for future comparison with a retrofitted airframe configuration. Crash test conditions for TRACT 1 were 33-ft/s forward and 25-ft/s vertical combined velocity onto soft soil, which represent a severe, but potentially survivable impact scenario. The extraordinary value of the TRACT 1 test was reflected by the breadth of meaningful experiments. A total of 8 unique experiments were conducted to evaluate ATD responses, seat and restraint performance, cargo restraint effectiveness, patient litter behavior, and photogrammetric techniques. A combination of Hybrid II, Hybrid III, and ES-2 Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs) were placed in forward and side facing seats and occupant results were compared against injury criteria. Loads from ATDs in energy

  11. Pervious concrete fill in Pearl-Chain Bridges: Using small-scale results in full-scale implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Mia Schou Møller; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Truelsen, R.

    2016-01-01

    Pearl-Chain Bridge technology is a new prefabricated arch solution for highway bridges. This study investigates the feasibility of pervious concrete as a filling material in Pearl-Chain Bridges. The study is divided into two steps: (1) small-scale tests where the variation in vertical void distri...

  12. Wind Tunnel Interference Effects on Tilt Rotor Testing Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koning, Witold J. F.

    2016-01-01

    Experimental techniques to measure rotorcraft aerodynamic performance are widely used. However, most of them are either unable to capture interference effects from bodies, or require an extremely large computational budget. The objective of the present research is to develop an XV-15 Tiltrotor Research Aircraft rotor model for investigation of wind tunnel wall interference using a novel Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solver for rotorcraft, RotCFD. In RotCFD, a mid-fidelity Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) solver is used with an incompressible flow model and a realizable k-e turbulence model. The rotor is, however, not modeled using a computationally expensive, unsteady viscous body-fitted grid, but is instead modeled using a blade-element model (BEM) with a momentum source approach. Various flight modes of the XV-15 isolated rotor, including hover, tilt, and airplane mode, have been simulated and correlated to existing experimental and theoretical data. The rotor model is subsequently used for wind tunnel wall interference simulations in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) at Ames Research Center in California. The results from the validation of the isolated rotor performance showed good correlation with experimental and theoretical data. The results were on par with known theoretical analyses. In RotCFD the setup, grid generation, and running of cases is faster than many CFD codes, which makes it a useful engineering tool. Performance predictions need not be as accurate as high-fidelity CFD codes, as long as wall effects can be properly simulated. For both test sections of the NFAC wall, interference was examined by simulating the XV-15 rotor in the test section of the wind tunnel and with an identical grid but extended boundaries in free field. Both cases were also examined with an isolated rotor or with the rotor mounted on the modeled geometry of the Tiltrotor Test Rig (TTR). A "quasi linear trim" was used to trim the thrust

  13. Performance evaluation of a full-scale ABS resin manufacturing wastewater treatment plant: a case study in Tabriz Petrochemical Complex

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Shakerkhatibi; Mohammad Mosaferi; Khaled Zorufchi Benis; Zahra Akbari

    2016-01-01

    Background: The measurement data regarding the influent and effluent of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) provides a general overview, demonstrating an overall performance of WWTP. Nevertheless, these data do not provide the suitable operational information for the optimization of individual units involved in a WWTP. A full-scale evolution of WWTP was carried out in this study via a reconciled data. Methods: A full-scale evolution of acrylonitrile, butadiene and styrene (ABS) r...

  14. PIV in a model wind turbine rotor wake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Knud Erik; Naumov, Igor; Karbadin, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements of the flow in the wake of scale model of a horizontal axis wind turbine is presented Near the rotor, measurements are made in vertical planes intersecting the rotor axis These planes capture flow effect from the tip and root vortices...

  15. Full Scale Advanced Systems Testbed (FAST): Capabilities and Recent Flight Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    At the NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center research is being conducted into flight control technologies that will enable the next generation of air and space vehicles. The Full Scale Advanced Systems Testbed (FAST) aircraft provides a laboratory for flight exploration of these technologies. In recent years novel but simple adaptive architectures for aircraft and rockets have been researched along with control technologies for improving aircraft fuel efficiency and control structural interaction. This presentation outlines the FAST capabilities and provides a snapshot of the research accomplishments to date. Flight experimentation allows a researcher to substantiate or invalidate their assumptions and intuition about a new technology or innovative approach Data early in a development cycle is invaluable for determining which technology barriers are real and which ones are imagined Data for a technology at a low TRL can be used to steer and focus the exploration and fuel rapid advances based on real world lessons learned It is important to identify technologies that are mature enough to benefit from flight research data and not be tempted to wait until we have solved all the potential issues prior to getting some data Sometimes a stagnated technology just needs a little real world data to get it going One trick to getting data for low TRL technologies is finding an environment where it is okay to take risks, where occasional failure is an expected outcome Learning how things fail is often as valuable as showing that they work FAST has been architected to facilitate this type of testing for control system technologies, specifically novel algorithms and sensors Rapid prototyping with a quick turnaround in a fly-fix-fly paradigm Sometimes it's easier and cheaper to just go fly it than to analyze the problem to death The goal is to find and test control technologies that would benefit from flight data and find solutions to the real barriers to innovation. The FAST

  16. Final Report for Full-Scale Load Monitoring of Rubble Mound Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Frigaard, Peter; Helm-Petersen, Jacob

    As associated partner, Aalborg University (AU) has participated in different aspects of "the Zeebrugge project" . At an early stage AU has developed and tested an algorithm aiming at deducing incident waves at the prototype breakwater by reflection analysis. Secondly AU, has been engaged with the...... with the development of a numerical model able to predict the hydraulic response of the Zeebrugge breakwater. Finally, AU has carried out an extensive number of small-scale model tests (1:65) with the Zeebrugge breakwater with the aim of investigating scale-effects....

  17. On Cup Anemometer Rotor Aerodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Pindado

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of anemometer rotor shape parameters, such as the cups’ front area or their center rotation radius on the anemometer’s performance was analyzed. This analysis was based on calibrations performed on two different anemometers (one based on magnet system output signal, and the other one based on an opto-electronic system output signal, tested with 21 different rotors. The results were compared to the ones resulting from classical analytical models. The results clearly showed a linear dependency of both calibration constants, the slope and the offset, on the cups’ center rotation radius, the influence of the front area of the cups also being observed. The analytical model of Kondo et al. was proved to be accurate if it is based on precise data related to the aerodynamic behavior of a rotor’s cup.

  18. 大型屏蔽电机泵转子系统的建模及临界转速计算%Modelling and Critical Speed Calculation of Large-scale Canned Motor Pump Rotor System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师名林; 王德忠; 张继革

    2012-01-01

    The lumped parameter model of large -scale canned motor pump rotor system is established,and the critical speeds and modal shapes are calculated based on Riccati transfer matrix method. The calculated results show the critical rotary speeds can effectively avoid the operation speed,thus the critical rotary speed design of large-scale canned motor pump rotor system k sufficient in design capacity. In addition,the locations of upper and lower flywheels are the sensitive part of radical vibration of rotor system and should be monitored to avoid collision with pressure casing in operation.%建立了大型屏蔽电机泵转子系统的集总参数模型,并采用Riccati传递矩阵法对转子系统的临界转速及振型进行了计算.计算结果表明:(1)采用Riccati传递矩阵法编制的转子系统临界转速求解程序计算稳定,计算精度足够高;(2)大型屏蔽电机泵转子系统的临界转速为设计超速的1.2倍,能够有效避开工作转速,设计裕量足够;(3)在正常工作下,转子系统上、下飞轮处为振动敏感部位,应重点监测,以免和承压壳体发生碰磨.

  19. Open Rotor Aeroacoustic Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Envia, Edmane

    2012-01-01

    Owing to their inherent fuel efficiency, there is renewed interest in developing open rotor propulsion systems that are both efficient and quiet. The major contributor to the overall noise of an open rotor system is the propulsor noise, which is produced as a result of the interaction of the airstream with the counter-rotating blades. As such, robust aeroacoustic prediction methods are an essential ingredient in any approach to designing low-noise open rotor systems. To that end, an effort has been underway at NASA to assess current open rotor noise prediction tools and develop new capabilities. Under this effort, high-fidelity aerodynamic simulations of a benchmark open rotor blade set were carried out and used to make noise predictions via existing NASA open rotor noise prediction codes. The results have been compared with the aerodynamic and acoustic data that were acquired for this benchmark open rotor blade set. The emphasis of this paper is on providing a summary of recent results from a NASA Glenn effort to validate an in-house open noise prediction code called LINPROP which is based on a high-blade-count asymptotic approximation to the Ffowcs-Williams Hawkings Equation. The results suggest that while predicting the absolute levels may be difficult, the noise trends are reasonably well predicted by this approach.

  20. Assessment of the degradation efficiency of full-scale biogas plants: A comparative study of degradation indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Nges, Ivo Achu; Lu, Wenjing; Wang, Haoyu

    2017-07-29

    Increasing popularity and applications of the anaerobic digestion (AD) process has necessitated the development and identification of tools for obtaining reliable indicators of organic matter degradation rate and hence evaluate the process efficiency especially in full-scale, commercial biogas plants. In this study, four biogas plants (A1, A2, B and C) based on different feedstock, process configuration, scale and operational performance were selected and investigated. Results showed that the biochemical methane potential (BMP) based degradation rate could be use in incisively gauging process efficiency in lieu of the traditional degradation rate indicators. The BMP degradation rates ranged from 70 to 90% wherein plants A2 and C showed the highest throughput. This study, therefore, corroborates the feasibility of using the BMP degradation rate as a practical tool for evaluating process performance in full-scale biogas processes and spots light on the microbial diversity in full-scale biogas processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Object-level change detection based on full-scale image segmentation and its application to Wenchuan Earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Aiming at object fragmentation and poor detection results caused by discontinuous segmentation scale in object-level change detection,a new object-level change detection method based on the full-scale object tree is presented in this paper.The core idea of this new algorithm is to establish the full-scale object tree based on convexity model theory and integrate full-scale image segmentation techniques and change detection into the whole process.Some Wenchuan Earthquake images are taken as an example to discuss the new method for earthquake damage detection and evaluation in urban area,landslide detection,and extraction of barrier lake boundary.The application shows that the new method is robust and it provides an advanced tool for the quantitative detection and evaluation of earthquake damage.

  2. Fatigue in high speed aluminium craft: Evaluating a design methodology for estimating the fatigue life using large scale tests and full scale trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drummen, I.; Schiere, M.; Tuitman, J.T.

    2013-01-01

    Within the VOMAS project, a methodology has been developed to estimate the fatigue life of high-speed aluminium crafts. This paper presents the large scale test and full scale trials which were done to acquire data for evaluating the developed methodology and presents results of this evaluation. Dur

  3. Validation of Simulation Model for Full Scale Wave Simulator and Discrete Fuild Power PTO System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Hedegaard; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Hansen, Rico Hjerm

    2014-01-01

    In controller development for large scale machinery a good simulation model may serve as a time and money saving factor as well as a safety precaution. Having good models enables the developer to design and test control strategies in a safe and possibly less time consuming environment...

  4. Identification of the electroelastic coupling from full multi-physical fields measured at the micrometre scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amiot, Fabien; Hild, F.; Kanoufi, F.

    2007-01-01

    Metal coated microcantilevers are used as transducers of their electrochemical environment. Using the metallic layer of these cantilevers as a working electrode allows one to modify the electrochemical state of the cantilever surface. Since the mechanical behaviour of micrometre scale objects is ...

  5. A full scale approximation of covariance functions for large spatial data sets

    KAUST Repository

    Sang, Huiyan

    2011-10-10

    Gaussian process models have been widely used in spatial statistics but face tremendous computational challenges for very large data sets. The model fitting and spatial prediction of such models typically require O(n 3) operations for a data set of size n. Various approximations of the covariance functions have been introduced to reduce the computational cost. However, most existing approximations cannot simultaneously capture both the large- and the small-scale spatial dependence. A new approximation scheme is developed to provide a high quality approximation to the covariance function at both the large and the small spatial scales. The new approximation is the summation of two parts: a reduced rank covariance and a compactly supported covariance obtained by tapering the covariance of the residual of the reduced rank approximation. Whereas the former part mainly captures the large-scale spatial variation, the latter part captures the small-scale, local variation that is unexplained by the former part. By combining the reduced rank representation and sparse matrix techniques, our approach allows for efficient computation for maximum likelihood estimation, spatial prediction and Bayesian inference. We illustrate the new approach with simulated and real data sets. © 2011 Royal Statistical Society.

  6. Exploring the Full-Information Bifactor Model in Vertical Scaling with Construct Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Lissitz, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    To address the lack of attention to construct shift in item response theory (IRT) vertical scaling, a multigroup, bifactor model was proposed to model the common dimension for all grades and the grade-specific dimensions. Bifactor model estimation accuracy was evaluated through a simulation study with manipulated factors of percentage of common…

  7. Comparison of WAIS-III Short Forms for Measuring Index and Full-Scale Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Todd A.; Axelrod, Bradley N.; Wilkins, Leanne K.

    2010-01-01

    This investigation assessed the ability of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III) short forms to estimate both index and IQ scores in a large, mixed clinical sample (N = 809). More specifically, a commonly used modification of Ward's seven-subtest short form (SF7-A), a recently proposed index-based SF7-C and eight-subtest…

  8. Quantification of (bio)geochemical heterogeneous activity in full-scale landfills (abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Turnhout, A.G.; Heimovaara, T.J.; Kleerebezem, R.

    2012-01-01

    The main focus of this paper is the assessment of landfill leachate/gas emissions and longterm prediction of these emissions. Due to variation in environmental conditions, like rainfall events, leachate concentrations are very dynamic on a short-time scale. The measured concentrations in the leachat

  9. Development and pilot testing of full-scale membrane distillation modules for deployment of waste heat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, A.E.; Assink, J.W.; Hanemaaijer, J.H.; Medevoort, J. van; Sonsbeek, E. van

    2013-01-01

    Membrane distillation is an attractive technology for extracting fresh water from seawater. Newly developed modules have been used in pilot tests and bench scale tests to demonstrate the potential of producing excellent product water quality in a single step, little need for water pretreatment and a

  10. Loss of the Statical Stabity of Electrical Machine Rotor Under Influence of Stator Magnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shekyan H.G.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available It is assumed, that magnetic forces, acting on to the rotor by the stator field, are varied proportional with displacements. The criteria of rotor statical stability, depending on rigid characteristics and boundary conditions are obtained.

  11. Full scale plant with membrane based concentration of blackcurrant juice on the basis of laboratory and pilot scale tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjerbæk Søtoft, Lene; Christensen, K. V.; Andresen, R.

    2012-01-01

    distillation and water removal by reverse osmosis, nanofiltration and direct contact membrane distillation. It has been combined with optimization of membrane performance and juice quality in mind. The annual production scale is 17,283 ton of 66 degrees Brix out of single strength juice. The operation cost...... is 0.40 (sic)/kg BCJC, which is lower than the price of a traditional operation by about 43%. Therefore, the economical potential of the process is very promising and could supersede conventional evaporators. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  12. SRM Internal Flow Tests and Computational Fluid Dynamic Analysis. Volume 2; CFD RSRM Full-Scale Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This document presents the full-scale analyses of the CFD RSRM. The RSRM model was developed with a 20 second burn time. The following are presented as part of the full-scale analyses: (1) RSRM embedded inclusion analysis; (2) RSRM igniter nozzle design analysis; (3) Nozzle Joint 4 erosion anomaly; (4) RSRM full motor port slag accumulation analysis; (5) RSRM motor analysis of two-phase flow in the aft segment/submerged nozzle region; (6) Completion of 3-D Analysis of the hot air nozzle manifold; (7) Bates Motor distributed combustion test case; and (8) Three Dimensional Polysulfide Bump Analysis.

  13. Dynamic Gust Load Analysis for Rotors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuting Dai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic load of helicopter rotors due to gust directly affects the structural stress and flight performance for helicopters. Based on a large deflection beam theory, an aeroelastic model for isolated helicopter rotors in the time domain is constructed. The dynamic response and structural load for a rotor under the impulse gust and slope-shape gust are calculated, respectively. First, a nonlinear Euler beam model with 36 degrees-of-freedoms per element is applied to depict the structural dynamics for an isolated rotor. The generalized dynamic wake model and Leishman-Beddoes dynamic stall model are applied to calculate the nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic forces on rotors. Then, we transformed the differential aeroelastic governing equation to an algebraic one. Hence, the widely used Newton-Raphson iteration algorithm is employed to simulate the dynamic gust load. An isolated helicopter rotor with four blades is studied to validate the structural model and the aeroelastic model. The modal frequencies based on the Euler beam model agree well with published ones by CAMRAD. The flap deflection due to impulse gust with the speed of 2m/s increases twice to the one without gust. In this numerical example, results indicate that the bending moment at the blade root is alleviated due to elastic effect.

  14. Full-scale demonstration of dry-sodium injection at R. D. Nixon Unit 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooper, R.

    The report describes both bench- and pilot-scale tests done by the Colorado Springs Department of Utilities (CSDU) at R.D. Nixon Unit 2 to demonstrate a dry-sodium injection technique for flue gas desulfurization (FGD). The purpose of this demonstration was to verify that the process can meet U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 'best available control technology' (BACT) criteria of 70% SO/sub 2/ removal on a 30-day rolling-average basis.

  15. Calibration of full-scale accelerated pavement testing data using long-term pavement performance data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    VdM Steyn, WJ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Accelerated Pavement Testing (APT) has always been conducted with the objective of improving the understanding of real pavements under real traffic and environmental conditions. While APT provides an accelerated view of some of the major structural...

  16. NUMERICAL AND EXSPERIMENTAL ASPECTS OF THERMALLY INDUCED VIBRATION IN REAL ROTORS

    OpenAIRE

    Milenko B Jevtić; Ljiljana Z Radovanović; Zivoslav Z Adamović

    2011-01-01

    Temperature fields in electric energy generators may lead to mechanical dissbalance of an already balanced rotor. The author collected information in a number of steam power plants and confirmed the existence of the problem. This paper is presents the specific case of thermal deformation of the rotor, caused by an asymmetrical temperature field in scale of rotor. On the grounds of the relevant physical aspects, we propose a mathematical model identifying fields in a turbo generator rotor and ...

  17. Design and performance of a full-scale spray calciner for nonradioactive high-level-waste-vitrification studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, F.A.

    1981-06-01

    In the spray calcination process, liquid waste is spray-dried in a heated-wall spray dryer (termed a spray calciner), and then it may be combined in solid form with a glass-forming frit. This mixture is then melted in a continuous ceramic melter or in an in-can melter. Several sizes of spray calciners have been tested at PNL- laboratory scale, pilot scale and full scale. Summarized here is the experience gained during the operation of PNL's full-scale spray calciner, which has solidified approx. 38,000 L of simulated acid wastes and approx. 352,000 L of simulated neutralized wastes in 1830 h of processing time. Operating principles, operating experience, design aspects, and system descriptions of a full-scale spray calciner are discussed. Individual test run summaries are given in Appendix A. Appendices B and C are studies made by Bechtel Inc., under contract by PNL. These studies concern, respectively, feed systems for the spray calciner process and a spray calciner vibration analysis. Appendix D is a detailed structural analysis made at PNL of the spray calciner. These appendices are included in the report to provide a complete description of the spray calciner and to include all major studies made concerning PNL's full-scale spray calciner.

  18. Rotor dynamic considerations for large wind power generator systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormiston, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    Successful large, reliable, low maintenance wind turbines must be designed with full consideration for minimizing dynamic response to aerodynamic, inertial, and gravitational forces. Much of existing helicopter rotor technology is applicable to this problem. Compared with helicopter rotors, large wind turbines are likely to be relatively less flexible with higher dimensionless natural frequencies. For very large wind turbines, low power output per unit weight and stresses due to gravitational forces are limiting factors. The need to reduce rotor complexity to a minimum favors the use of cantilevered (hingeless) rotor configurations where stresses are relieved by elastic deformations.

  19. Open Rotor Noise Shielding by Blended-Wing-Body Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yueping; Czech, Michael J.; Thomas, Russell H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of open rotor noise shielding by Blended Wing Body (BWB) aircraft by using model scale test data acquired in the Boeing Low Speed Aeroacoustic Facility (LSAF) with a legacy F7/A7 rotor model and a simplified BWB platform. The objective of the analysis is the understanding of the shielding features of the BWB and the method of application of the shielding data for noise studies of BWB aircraft with open rotor propulsion. By studying the directivity patterns of individual tones, it is shown that though the tonal energy distribution and the spectral content of the wind tunnel test model, and thus its total noise, may differ from those of more advanced rotor designs, the individual tones follow directivity patterns that characterize far field radiations of modern open rotors, ensuring the validity of the use of this shielding data. Thus, open rotor tonal noise shielding should be categorized into front rotor tones, aft rotor tones and interaction tones, not only because of the different directivities of the three groups of tones, but also due to the differences in their source locations and coherence features, which make the respective shielding characteristics of the three groups of tones distinctly different from each other. To reveal the parametric trends of the BWB shielding effects, results are presented with variations in frequency, far field emission angle, rotor operational condition, engine installation geometry, and local airframe features. These results prepare the way for the development of parametric models for the shielding effects in prediction tools.

  20. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Task 3 Full-scale Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Blythe

    2007-05-01

    This Topical Report summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42309, 'Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive'. The objective of the project is to demonstrate the use of a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) additive, Degussa Corporation's TMT-15, to prevent the reemission of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas exiting wet FGD systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project intends to demonstrate whether the additive can be used to precipitate most of the mercury (Hg) removed in the wet FGD system as a fine TMT salt that can be separated from the FGD liquor and bulk solid byproducts for separate disposal. The project is conducting pilot- and full-scale tests of the TMT-15 additive in wet FGD absorbers. The tests are intended to determine required additive dosages to prevent Hg{sup 0} reemissions and to separate mercury from the normal FGD byproducts for three coal types: Texas lignite/Power River Basin (PRB) coal blend, high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal, and low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc., EPRI, TXU Generation Company LP, Southern Company, and Degussa Corporation. TXU Generation has provided the Texas lignite/PRB cofired test site for pilot FGD tests, Monticello Steam Electric Station Unit 3. Southern Company is providing the low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal host site for wet scrubbing tests, as well as the pilot- and full-scale jet bubbling reactor (JBR) FGD systems to be tested. IPL, an AES company, provided the high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal full-scale FGD test site and cost sharing. Degussa Corporation is providing the TMT-15 additive and technical support to the test program as cost sharing. The project is being conducted in six tasks. Of the six project tasks, Task 1 involves project planning and Task 6 involves management and reporting. The other four tasks involve field testing on FGD systems, either at pilot or full scale. The four tasks include: Task 2 - Pilot

  1. Scale effect of anaerobic digestion tests in fed-batch and semi-continuous mode for the technical and economic feasibility of a full scale digester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffino, Barbara; Fiore, Silvia; Roati, Chiara; Campo, Giuseppe; Novarino, Daniel; Zanetti, Mariachiara

    2015-04-01

    Methane production capacity in mesophilic conditions of waste from two food industry plants was assessed in a semi-pilot (6L, fed-batch) and pilot (300 L, semi-continuous) scale. This was carried out in order to evaluate the convenience of producing heat and electricity in a full scale anaerobic digester. The pilot test was performed in order to obtain more reliable results for the design of the digester. Methane yield, returned from the pilot scale test, was approximately 80% of that from the smaller scale test. This outcome was in line with those from other studies performed in different scales and modes and indicates the success of the pilot scale test. The net electricity produced from the digester accounted for 30-50% of the food industry plants' consumption. The available thermal energy could cover from 10% to 100% of the plant requirements, depending on the energy demand of the processes performed.

  2. Large-scale full-field metrology using projected fringes: some challenges and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntley, Jonathan M.; Ogundana, Tokunbo; Burguete, Richard L.; Coggrave, C. Russell

    2007-06-01

    The application of optical techniques to the measurement of shape and deformation of structures in the aerospace industry poses unique challenges resulting from the large length scales involved, which are typically in the 1-10 m range. For example, the relative immobility of large samples requires a network of sensors to be linked into a common global coordinate system; traceable calibration requires the development of new types of calibration artefact; and traditional interferometric techniques for displacement field mapping are frequently too sensitive to observe the physical effect of interest. We describe a system designed to address some of these problems based on the projected fringe technique combined with temporal phase unwrapping. Multiple cameras and projectors are linked into a common coordinate system using calibration concepts borrowed from the photogrammetry field. Traceable calibration is achieved through the use of reference spheres separated by a bar of known length. Traditional two-dimensional image processing techniques for recognizing circles (Hough transforms) have been extended to the automatic detection of spheres within the measured 3-D point clouds. Bundle adjustment software has been developed to refine the camera and projector calibration parameters as well as the rigid body translation and rotation coordinates defining the poses of the calibration artefact. An overview of all these aspects of the developed techniques is given in the paper. Typical results from a compression test on a large scale aluminium structure, performed on-site at Airbus UK using the developed system, are also presented.

  3. Geomaterial characterizations of full scale pavement test sections for mechanistic analysis and design

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kwon, J

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Resilient modulus is a key input property of pavement foundation geomaterials, i.e., subgrade soil and base/subbase unbound aggregate, for the mechanistic-empirical design of flexible pavements. Recent research at the University of Illinois has...

  4. Comparison of in-furnace dry sorbent injection full-scale tests with laboratory-scale sulfation correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collado, F.J. [University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2003-10-01

    In an effort to limit SO{sub 2} emissions to the current EU air pollutant regulations, flue gas desulfurization tests were performed with in-furnace dry sorbent, Ca(OH){sub 2}, injection technology in the Spanish coal power station 'Litoral.' The measured SO{sub 2} removals 19.5% using a CaS ratio of 3 for a coal containing 0.53% of sulfur, and 26.4% with Ca/S=1.75 for a coal with 0.73% of sulfur were lower than predicted through a 1-D model. Hence, it was thought that a 3-D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of the injection of sorbent particles would assist in understanding this complex process. After the turbulent velocity and temperature fields in the furnace were modeled, representative sorbent particles were injected, obtaining the temperature and SO{sub 2} concentrations encountered by the particles as a function of time. These data were the input to the global sulfur capture model used to simultaneously analyze calcination, sintering and sulfation. The simulation compared well with the data measured in the power station, thus verifying laboratory-scale correlations. The main conclusion is that the first temperatures encountered by the particles (in addition to the mean diameter, the sulfur content and the Ca/S ratio) control the sulfur retention. Furthermore, it is extremely difficult to accurately predict these temperatures without a CFD simulation. Low retentions were due to low sulfur concentration, the high mean diameter of the particles, and the position of the injection nozzles.

  5. A study on the effect of flat plate friction resistance on speed performance prediction of full scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Dong-Woo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Flat plate friction lines hare been used in the process to estimate speed performance of full-scale ships in model tests. The results of the previous studies showed considerable differences in determining form factors depending on changes in plate friction lines and Reynolds numbers. These differences had a great influence on estimation of speed performance of full-scale ships. This study- was conducted in two parts. In the first part, the scale effect of the form factor depending on change in the Reynolds number was studied based on CFD, in connection with three kinds of friction resistance curves: the ITTC-1957, the curve proposed by Grigson (1993; 1996, and the curve developed by Katsui et al (2005. In the second part, change in the form factor by three kinds of

  6. Linear and Non-linear Numerical Sea-keeping Evaluation of a Fast Monohull Ferry Compared to Full Scale Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhaohui; Folsø, Rasmus; Bondini, Francesca;

    1999-01-01

    presents the results from the performed full scale measurements, and compares these to results from calculations performed with 3 different software systems: I-SHIP, SGN80 and SHIPSTAR.SGN80 is a linear strip theory software system in frequency domain, I-SHIP is a more advanced system, which allows...... the user to compare several linear and nonlinear strip theories, and SHIPSTAR is an advanced non-linear time-domain strip theory sea-keeping code.The calculations agree well with the measurements at Fn=0.32, whereas the agreement is less satisfying at Fn=0.55. Various reasons for this disagreement......, full-scale measurements have been performed on board a 128 m monohull fast ferry. This paper deals with the results from these full-scale measurements. The primary results considered are pitch motion, midship vertical bending moment and vertical acceleration at the bow. Previous comparisons between...

  7. Phased Array Noise Source Localization Measurements of an F404 Nozzle Plume at Both Full and Model Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podboy, Gary G.; Bridges, James E.; Henderson, Brenda S.

    2010-01-01

    A 48-microphone planar phased array system was used to acquire jet noise source localization data on both a full-scale F404-GE-F400 engine and on a 1/4th scale model of a F400 series nozzle. The full-scale engine test data show the location of the dominant noise sources in the jet plume as a function of frequency for the engine in both baseline (no chevron) and chevron configurations. Data are presented for the engine operating both with and without afterburners. Based on lessons learned during this test, a set of recommendations are provided regarding how the phased array measurement system could be modified in order to obtain more useful acoustic source localization data on high-performance military engines in the future. The data obtained on the 1/4th scale F400 series nozzle provide useful insights regarding the full-scale engine jet noise source mechanisms, and document some of the differences associated with testing at model-scale versus fullscale.

  8. Precession-driven dynamos in a full sphere and the role of large scale cyclonic vortices

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Yufeng; Noir, Jerome; Jackson, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Precession has been proposed as an alternative power source for planetary dynamos. Previous hydrodynamic simulations suggested that precession can generate very complex flows in planetary liquid cores [Y. Lin, P. Marti, and J. Noir, "Shear-driven parametric instability in a precessing sphere," Physics of Fluids 27, 046601 (2015)]. In the present study, we numerically investigate the magnetohydrodynamics of a precessing sphere. We demonstrate precession driven dynamos in different flow regimes, from laminar to turbulent flows. In particular, we highlight the magnetic field generation by large scale cyclonic vortices, which has not been explored previously. In this regime, dynamos can be sustained at relatively low Ekman numbers and magnetic Prandtl numbers, which paves the way for planetary applications.

  9. The Evryscope: the first full-sky gigapixel-scale telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Law, Nicholas M; Wulfken, Philip; Ratzloff, Jeffrey; Kavanaugh, Dustin

    2014-01-01

    Current time-domain wide-field sky surveys generally operate with few-degree-sized fields and take many individual images to cover large sky areas each night. We present the design and project status of the Evryscope ("wide-seer"), which takes a different approach: using an array of 7cm telescopes to form a single wide-field-of-view pointed at every part of the accessible sky simultaneously and continuously. The Evryscope is a gigapixel-scale imager with a 9060 sq. deg. field of view and has an etendue three times larger than the Pan-STARRS sky survey. The system will search for transiting exoplanets around bright stars, M-dwarfs and white dwarfs, as well as detecting microlensing events, nearby supernovae, and gamma-ray burst afterglows. We present the current project status, including an update on the Evryscope prototype telescopes we have been operating for the last three years in the Canadian High Arctic.

  10. The Evryscope: the first full-sky gigapixel-scale telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Nicholas M.; Fors, Octavi; Wulfken, Philip; Ratzloff, Jeffrey; Kavanaugh, Dustin

    2014-07-01

    Current time-domain wide-field sky surveys generally operate with few-degree-sized fields and take many individual images to cover large sky areas each night. We present the design and project status of the Evryscope ("wideseer"), which takes a different approach: using an array of 7cm telescopes to form a single wide-field-of-view pointed at every part of the accessible sky simultaneously and continuously. The Evryscope is a gigapixel-scale imager with a 9060 sq. deg. field of view and has an etendue three times larger than the Pan-STARRS sky survey. The system will search for transiting exoplanets around bright stars, M-dwarfs and white dwarfs, as well as detecting microlensing events, nearby supernovae, and gamma-ray burst afterglows. We present the current project status, including an update on the Evryscope prototype telescopes we have been operating for the last three years in the Canadian High Arctic.

  11. Full eigenvalues of the Markov matrix for scale-free polymer networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongzhi; Guo, Xiaoye; Lin, Yuan

    2014-08-01

    Much important information about the structural and dynamical properties of complex systems can be extracted from the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a Markov matrix associated with random walks performed on these systems, and spectral methods have become an indispensable tool in the complex system analysis. In this paper, we study the Markov matrix of a class of scale-free polymer networks. We present an exact analytical expression for all the eigenvalues and determine explicitly their multiplicities. We then use the obtained eigenvalues to derive an explicit formula for the random target access time for random walks on the studied networks. Furthermore, based on the link between the eigenvalues of the Markov matrix and the number of spanning trees, we confirm the validity of the obtained eigenvalues and their corresponding degeneracies.

  12. Studienlandschaft Schwingbachtal: an out-door full-scale learning tool newly equipped with augmented reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, A. H.; Schnepel, O.; Kraft, P.; Houska, T.; Plesca, I.; Orlowski, N.; Breuer, L.

    2015-11-01

    This paper addresses education and communication in hydrology and geosciences. Many approaches can be used, such as the well-known seminars, modelling exercises and practical field work but out-door learning in our discipline is a must, and this paper focuses on the recent development of a new out-door learning tool at the landscape scale. To facilitate improved teaching and hands-on experience, we designed the Studienlandschaft Schwingbachtal. Equipped with field instrumentation, education trails, and geocache, we now implemented an augmented reality App, adding virtual teaching objects on the real landscape. The App development is detailed, to serve as methodology for people wishing to implement such a tool. The resulting application, namely the Schwingbachtal App, is described as an example. We conclude that such an App is useful for communication and education purposes, making learning pleasant, and offering personalized options.

  13. Dynamics of bacterial communities before and after distribution in a full-scale drinking water network

    KAUST Repository

    El Chakhtoura, Joline

    2015-05-01

    Understanding the biological stability of drinking water distribution systems is imperative in the framework of process control and risk management. The objective of this research was to examine the dynamics of the bacterial community during drinking water distribution at high temporal resolution. Water samples (156 in total) were collected over short time-scales (minutes/hours/days) from the outlet of a treatment plant and a location in its corresponding distribution network. The drinking water is treated by biofiltration and disinfectant residuals are absent during distribution. The community was analyzed by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing and flow cytometry as well as conventional, culture-based methods. Despite a random dramatic event (detected with pyrosequencing and flow cytometry but not with plate counts), the bacterial community profile at the two locations did not vary significantly over time. A diverse core microbiome was shared between the two locations (58-65% of the taxa and 86-91% of the sequences) and found to be dependent on the treatment strategy. The bacterial community structure changed during distribution, with greater richness detected in the network and phyla such as Acidobacteria and Gemmatimonadetes becoming abundant. The rare taxa displayed the highest dynamicity, causing the major change during water distribution. This change did not have hygienic implications and is contingent on the sensitivity of the applied methods. The concept of biological stability therefore needs to be revised. Biostability is generally desired in drinking water guidelines but may be difficult to achieve in large-scale complex distribution systems that are inherently dynamic.

  14. Dynamics of bacterial communities before and after distribution in a full-scale drinking water network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Chakhtoura, Joline; Prest, Emmanuelle; Saikaly, Pascal; van Loosdrecht, Mark; Hammes, Frederik; Vrouwenvelder, Hans

    2015-05-01

    Understanding the biological stability of drinking water distribution systems is imperative in the framework of process control and risk management. The objective of this research was to examine the dynamics of the bacterial community during drinking water distribution at high temporal resolution. Water samples (156 in total) were collected over short time-scales (minutes/hours/days) from the outlet of a treatment plant and a location in its corresponding distribution network. The drinking water is treated by biofiltration and disinfectant residuals are absent during distribution. The community was analyzed by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing and flow cytometry as well as conventional, culture-based methods. Despite a random dramatic event (detected with pyrosequencing and flow cytometry but not with plate counts), the bacterial community profile at the two locations did not vary significantly over time. A diverse core microbiome was shared between the two locations (58-65% of the taxa and 86-91% of the sequences) and found to be dependent on the treatment strategy. The bacterial community structure changed during distribution, with greater richness detected in the network and phyla such as Acidobacteria and Gemmatimonadetes becoming abundant. The rare taxa displayed the highest dynamicity, causing the major change during water distribution. This change did not have hygienic implications and is contingent on the sensitivity of the applied methods. The concept of biological stability therefore needs to be revised. Biostability is generally desired in drinking water guidelines but may be difficult to achieve in large-scale complex distribution systems that are inherently dynamic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sensitivity of full-sky experiments to large scale cosmic ray anisotropies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Peter B.; Weiler, Thomas J.

    2015-12-01

    The two main advantages of space-based observation of extreme energy (≳ 5 ×1019 eV) cosmic rays (EECRs) over ground based observatories are the increased field of view and the full-sky coverage with nearly uniform systematics across the entire sky. The former guarantees increased statistics, whereas the latter enables a clean partitioning of the sky into spherical harmonics. The discovery of anisotropies would help to identify the long sought origin of EECRs. We begin an investigation of the reach of a full-sky space-based experiment such as EUSO to detect anisotropies in the extreme-energy cosmic-ray sky compared to ground based partial-sky experiments such as the Pierre Auger Observatory and Telescope Array. The technique is explained here, and simulations for a Universe with just two nonzero multipoles, monopole plus either dipole or quadrupole, are presented. These simulations quantify the advantages of space-based, all-sky coverage.

  16. Construction and Instrumentation of Full-Scale Geogrid Reinforced Pavement Test Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    Improvement of Flexible Pavements Using Geosynthetics for Base Course Reinforcements ii ERDC/CRREL TR-08-6 Abstract: A study is being conducted on full...years of geosynthetic -reinforced base research provided by Perkins and Ismeik (1997), Vischer (2003), and Perkins and Cortez (2005). In one study...Administration (FHWA), pooled-fund study, TPF-5(010), entitled Structural Improvement of Flexible Pavements Using Geosynthetics for Base Course

  17. Substituing supplementary subtests for core subtests on reliability of WISC-IV Indexes and Full Scale IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joseph J; Glass, Laura A

    2006-02-01

    The effects of replacing core subtests with supplementary subtests on composite score reliabilities were evaluated for the WISC-IV Indexes and Full Scale IQ. When Wechsler's guidelines are followed, i.e., only one substitution for each Index; no more than two substitutions from different Indexes when assessing the Full Scale IQ, summary score reliabilities remain high, and measurement error, as defined by confidence intervals around obtained scores, never increases by more than 1 index score point. In three instances, substitution of a supplementary subtest for a core subtest actually increased the reliabilities and decreased the amount of associated measurement error.

  18. Induction Motor Speed Estimator Using Rotor Slot Harmonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RATA, G.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a solution for the estimation of induction machine rotor speed utilizing harmonic saliencies created by rotor and stator slotting. This solution purposes to add a carrier-signal voltage at the fundamental excitation. We obtain a carrier-signal current that contains the spatial information. The PWM reference voltage is calculated with DSP - ADMC401, from Analog Device.

  19. Coupled Thermodynamic Behavior of New Screw Compressors Rotors Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arístides Rivera Torres

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The article displays an evaluation of the thermodynamic behavior of screw compressor rotors with new profiles, obtained with the help of the Scorpath 2000 software. This allows predicting precisely the operation of the compressor, as well as its thermodynamic evaluation, under equal conditions, with the work of other compressors fitted with rotor profiles of other kinds.

  20. Membrane biofilm communities in full-scale membrane bioreactors are not randomly assembled and consist of a core microbiome

    KAUST Repository

    Matar, Gerald K.

    2017-06-21

    Finding efficient biofouling control strategies requires a better understanding of the microbial ecology of membrane biofilm communities in membrane bioreactors (MBRs). Studies that characterized the membrane biofilm communities in lab-and pilot-scale MBRs are numerous, yet similar studies in full-scale MBRs are limited. Also, most of these studies have characterized the mature biofilm communities with very few studies addressing early biofilm communities. In this study, five full-scale MBRs located in Seattle (Washington, U.S.A.) were selected to address two questions concerning membrane biofilm communities (early and mature): (i) Is the assembly of biofilm communities (early and mature) the result of random immigration of species from the source community (i.e. activated sludge)? and (ii) Is there a core membrane biofilm community in full-scale MBRs? Membrane biofilm (early and mature) and activated sludge (AS) samples were collected from the five MBRs, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing was applied to investigate the bacterial communities of AS and membrane biofilms (early and mature). Alpha and beta diversity measures revealed clear differences in the bacterial community structure between the AS and biofilm (early and mature) samples in the five full-scale MBRs. These differences were mainly due to the presence of large number of unique but rare operational taxonomic units (∼13% of total reads in each MBR) in each sample. In contrast, a high percentage (∼87% of total reads in each MBR) of sequence reads was shared between AS and biofilm samples in each MBR, and these shared sequence reads mainly belong to the dominant taxa in these samples. Despite the large fraction of shared sequence reads between AS and biofilm samples, simulated biofilm communities from random sampling of the respective AS community revealed that biofilm communities differed significantly from the random assemblages (P < 0.001 for each MBR), indicating that the biofilm communities (early

  1. Surfactant effects on alpha factors in full-scale wastewater aeration systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, D; Larson, L E; Stenstrom, M K

    2006-01-01

    Aeration is an essential process in the majority of wastewater treatment processes, and accounts for the largest fraction of plant energy costs. Aeration systems can achieve wastewater oxygenation by shearing the surface (surface aerators) or releasing bubbles at the bottom of the tank (coarse- or fine-bubble aerators). Surfactants accumulate on gas-liquid interfaces and reduce mass transfer rates. This reduction in general is larger for fine-bubble aerators. This study was conducted to evaluate mass transfer effects on the characterization and specification of aeration systems in clean and process water conditions. Tests at different interfacial turbulence regimes were analysed, showing higher gas transfer depression for lower turbulence regimes. Higher turbulence regimes can offset contamination effects, at the expense of operating efficiency. This phenomenon is characteristic of surface aerators and coarse bubble diffusers and is here discussed. The results explain the variability of alpha factors measured at small scale, due to uncontrolled energy density. Results are also reported in dimensionless empirical correlations that describe mass transfer as a function of physiochemical and geometrical characteristics of the aeration process.

  2. SANASA Capivari II - the first full-scale municipal membrane bioreactor in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagotto, R; Rossetto, R; Gasperi, R L P; Andrade, J P; Trovati, J; Vallero, M V G; Okumura, A; Arntsen, B

    2014-01-01

    The macro region of Campinas (Brazil) is rapidly evolving with new housing developments and industries, creating the challenge of finding new ways to treat wastewater to a quality that can be reused in order to overcome water scarcity problems. To address this challenge, SANASA (a publicly owned water and wastewater concessionaire from Campinas) has recently constructed the 'EPAR (Water Reuse Production Plant) Capivari II' using the GE ZeeWeed 500D(®) ultrafiltration membrane system. This is the first large-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) system in Latin America with biological tertiary treatment capability (nitrogen and phosphorus removal), being able to treat an average flow of 182 L/s in its first phase of construction. The filtration system is composed of three membrane trains with more than 36,000 m(2) of total membrane filtration area. The membrane bioreactor (MBR) plant was commissioned in April 2012 and the permeate quality has exceeded expectations. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rates are around and above 97% on a consistent basis, with biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and NH3 (ammonia) concentrations at very low levels, and turbidity lower than 0.3 nephelometric turbidity unit (NTU). Treated effluent is sent to a water reuse accumulation tank (from where will be distributed as reuse water), and the excess is discharged into the Capivari River.

  3. Sensitivity of full-sky experiments to large scale cosmic ray anisotropies

    CERN Document Server

    Denton, Peter B

    2015-01-01

    The two main advantages of space-based observation of extreme energy ($\\gtrsim5\\times10^{19}$ eV) cosmic rays (EECRs) over ground based observatories are the increased field of view and the full-sky coverage with nearly uniform systematics across the entire sky. The former guarantees increased statistics, whereas the latter enables a clean partitioning of the sky into spherical harmonics. The discovery of anisotropies would help to identify the long sought origin of EECRs. We begin an investigation of the reach of a full-sky space-based experiment such as EUSO to detect anisotropies in the extreme-energy cosmic-ray sky compared to ground based partial-sky experiments such as the Pierre Auger Observatory and Telescope Array. The technique is explained here, and simulations for a Universe with just two nonzero multipoles, monopole plus either dipole or quadrupole, are presented. These simulations quantify the advantages of space-based, all-sky coverage.

  4. Coupled Thermal Field of the Rotor of Liquid Floated Gyroscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhengjun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Inertial navigation devices include star sensor, GPS, and gyroscope. Optical fiber and laser gyroscopes provide high accuracy, and their manufacturing costs are also high. Magnetic suspension rotor gyroscope improves the accuracy and reduces the production cost of the device because of the influence of thermodynamic coupling. Therefore, the precision of the gyroscope is reduced and drift rate is increased. In this study, the rotor of liquid floated gyroscope, particularly the dished rotor gyroscope, was placed under a thermal field, which improved the measurement accuracy of the gyroscope. A dynamic theory of the rotor of liquid floated gyroscope was proposed, and the thermal field of the rotor was simulated. The maximum stress was in x, 1.4; y, 8.43; min 97.23; and max 154.34. This stress occurred at the border of the dished rotor at a high-speed rotation. The secondary flow reached 5549 r/min, and the generated heat increased. Meanwhile, the high-speed rotation of the rotor was volatile, and the dished rotor movement was unstable. Thus, nanomaterials must be added to reduce the thermal coupling fluctuations in the dished rotor and improve the accuracy of the measurement error and drift rate.

  5. SRM Internal Flow Tests and Computational Fluid Dynamic Analysis. Volume 2; RSRM Full Scale Motor Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the RSRM Nozzle Slag Ejection Precursor Test is to investigate the effect that slag ejection from the RSRM nozzle has on the chamber pressure and trust of the SRB's. In past firings of the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) both static test and flight motors have shown small pressure perturbations occurring primarily between 65 and 80 seconds. A joint NASA/Thiokol team investigation concluded that the cause of the pressure perturbations was the periodic ingestion and ejection of molten aluminum oxide slag from the cavity around the submerged nozzle nose which tends to trap and collect individual aluminum oxide droplets from the approach flow. The conclusions of the team were supported by numerous data and observations from special tests including high speed photographic films, real time radiography, plume calorimeters, accelerometers, strain gauges, nozzle TVC system force gauges, and motor pressure and thrust data. A simplistic slag ballistics model was formulated to relate a given pressure perturbation to a required slag quantity. Also, a cold flow model using air and water was developed to provide data on the relationship between the slag flow rate and the chamber pressure increase. Both the motor and the cold flow model exhibited low frequency oscillations in conjunction with periods of slag ejection. Motor and model frequencies were related to scaling parameters. The data indicate that there is a periodicity to the slag entrainment and ejection phenomena which is possibly related to organized oscillations from instabilities in the dividing streamline shear layer which impinges on the underneath surface of the nozzle.

  6. Full-scale biofilter reduction efficiencies assessed using portable 24-hour sampling units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdeniz, Neslihan; Janni, Kevin A

    2012-02-01

    Portable 24-hr sampling units were used to collect air samples from eight biofilters on four animal feeding operations. The biofilters were located on a dairy, a swine nursery, and two swine finishing farms. Biofilter media characteristics (age, porosity, density, particle size, water absorption capacity, pressure drop) and ammonia (NH3), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), sulfur dioxide (SO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) reduction efficiencies of the biofilters were assessed. The deep bed biofilters at the dairy farm, which were in use for a few months, had the most porous media and lowest unit pressure drops. The average media porosity and density were 75% and 180 kg/m3, respectively. Reduction efficiencies of H2S and NH3 (biofilter 1: 64% NH3, 76% H2S; biofilter 2: 53% NH3, 85% H2S) were close to those reported for pilot-scale biofilters. No N2O production was measured at the dairy farm. The highest H2S, SO2, NH3, and CH4 reduction efficiencies were measured from a flat-bed biofilter at the swine nursery farm. However, the highest N2O generation (29.2%) was also measured from this biofilter. This flat-bed biofilter media was dense and had the lowest porosity. A garden sprinkler was used to add water to this biofilter, which may have filled media pores and caused N2O production under anaerobic conditions. Concentrations of H2S and NH3 were determined using the portable 24-hr sampling units and compared to ones measured with a semicontinuous gas sampling system at one farm. Flat-bed biofilters at the swine finishing farms also produced low amounts of N2O. The N2O production rate of the newer media (2 years old) with higher porosity was lower than that of older media (3 years old) (P = 0.042).

  7. Fatigue Design Evaluation of Railway Bogie with Full-Scale Fatigue Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Won Seo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The bogie frame of a railway is an important structural member for the support of vehicle loading. In general, more than 25 years’ durability is necessary. Much study has been carried out in experimental and theoretical domains on the prediction of the structural integrity of the bogie frame. The objective of this paper is to estimate the structural integrity of the bogie frame of an electric railcar. Strength analysis has been performed by finite element analysis. From this analysis, stress concentration areas were investigated. To evaluate the loading conditions, dynamic stress was measured by strain gauge. It has been found that the stress and strain due to the applied loads were multiaxial conditions according to the location of the strain gauge. Fatigue strength evaluations of the bogie frame were performed to investigate the effect of a multiaxial load through the employment of a critical plane approach.

  8. Methods for Quantifying the Uncertainties of LSIT Test Parameters, Test Results, and Full-Scale Mixing Performance Using Models Developed from Scaled Test Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cooley, Scott K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kuhn, William L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rector, David R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Heredia-Langner, Alejandro [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This report discusses the statistical methods for quantifying uncertainties in 1) test responses and other parameters in the Large Scale Integrated Testing (LSIT), and 2) estimates of coefficients and predictions of mixing performance from models that relate test responses to test parameters. Testing at a larger scale has been committed to by Bechtel National, Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to “address uncertainties and increase confidence in the projected, full-scale mixing performance and operations” in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP).

  9. Occurence of methanogenesis during start-up of a full-scale synthesis gas-fed reactor treating sulfate and metal-rich wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houten, van B.H.G.W.; Roest, C.; Tzeneva, V.A.; Dijkman, H.; Smidt, H.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    The start-up of a full-scale synthesis gas-fed gas-lift reactor treating metal and sulfate-rich wastewater was investigated. Sludge from a pilot-scale reactor was used to seed the full-scale reactor. The main difference in design between the pilot- and full-scale reactor was that metal precipitation

  10. Reduction of methane emission from landfills using bio-mitigation systems – from lab tests to full scale implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Scheutz, Charlotte

    , or open or closed bed biofilter systems. The objective of this paper is to describe the relationship between research on process understanding of the oxidation of landfill gas contained methane and the up-scale to full bio-mitigation systems implemented at landfills. The oxidation of methane is controlled...... due to self-heating processes. Bio-mitigation can be used as a stand-alone technology or combined with active or passive gas collection. When implementing bio-mitigation systems focus should be on additional fugitive methane emissions or the presence of uncontrolled point releases. A protocol...... for implementing a bio-mitigation system is presented, and the reported landfill-implemented bio-mitigation systems either established as full-scale or pilot-scale systems are reviewed. It is concluded that bio-mitigation systems have a large potential for providing cost-efficient mitigation options for reducing...

  11. Qualification test of the EPR control rod drive mechanism in the full scale component test facility KOPRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herr, Wolfgang; Sykora, Alexander; Kleideiter, Ansgar [AREVA NP GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); Champomier, Francois [AREVA NP SAS, Paris (France)

    2009-07-01

    The control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) and the mobile set consisting of rod cluster control assembly (RCC-A) of the evolutionary power reactor (EPR) had to pass a full scale qualification test in representative site conditions. The KOPRA core test section in Erlangen is precisely designed for full scale tests on nuclear core components in respect to coolant temperature and volume flow of PWR site conditions. In the test channel the complete geometry of the central core position of the reactor pressure vessel is simulated with 1:1 scale. The performance test program has led to an optimized test sequence through small adjustments in operating parameters of CRDM. The endurance test program has demonstrated that all tested components, i.e. the CRDN, the control rod driveline and the components of the drop channel are able to function properly and to meet the specification goals.

  12. Source emission and model evaluation of formaldehyde from composite and solid wood furniture in a full-scale chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper describes the measurement and model evaluation of formaldehyde source emissions from composite and solid wood furniture in a full-scale chamber under dynamic conditions using ASTM D 6670-01 (2007). Four brands of the same type furniture product were tested. The data we...

  13. Long-term performance and fouling analysis of full-scale direct nanofiltration (NF) installations treating anoxic groundwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beyer, F.; Rietman, B.M.; Zwijnenburg, A.; Brink, van den P.; Vrouwenvelder, J.S.; Jarzembowska, M.; Laurinonyte, J.; Stams, A.J.M.; Plugge, C.M.

    2014-01-01

    Long-term performance and fouling behavior of four full-scale nanofiltration (NF) plants, treating anoxic groundwater at 80% recovery for drinking water production, were characterized and compared with oxic NF and reverse osmosis systems. Plant operating times varied between 6 and 10 years and pretr

  14. Feasibility and Performance of Full-Scale In-situ Remediation of TCE by ERD in Clay Tills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, Mette Martina; Damgaard, Ida; Chambon, Julie Claire Claudia;

    The feasibility and performance of full-scale applications of ERD in clay tills were investigated in a research project including 2 sites in Denmark, which have been undergoing remediation since 2006. At both sites organic substrates and bioaugmentation cultures have been injected in TCE...

  15. Full-Scale Incineration System Demonstration at the Naval Construction Battalion Center, Gulfport, Mississippi. Volume 1. Project Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-01

    AD-A252 956 VL FULL-SCALE INCINE AT ION SYST72Z DEMIONSTRAT ION AT THE NAVAL C071, * *STRUCTION BATTALION CENTER, ~*~GULFPORT, MISSISSIPPI -VOL!1...however, EPA OSW would not make a delisting determinacion at that time. 3. Incinerator Performance The MWP-2000 incinerator system demonstrated that

  16. Genome based analysis of a novel Chloroflexi in full-scale anaerobic digesters treating waste activated sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIlroy, Simon Jon; Kirkegaard, Rasmus Hansen; Albertsen, Mads;

    Key to optimised design and operation of full-scale anaerobic digesters is an understanding of the organisms responsible. As one of the most abundant phyla in these systems, the Chloroflexi likely make a substantial contribute to system function. Here we apply state-of-the-art molecular methods t...

  17. Field Balancing and Harmonic Vibration Suppression in Rigid AMB-Rotor Systems with Rotor Imbalances and Sensor Runout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangbo Xu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Harmonic vibrations of high-speed rotors in momentum exchange devices are primary disturbances for attitude control of spacecraft. Active magnetic bearings (AMBs, offering the ability to control the AMB-rotor dynamic behaviors, are preferred in high-precision and micro-vibration applications, such as high-solution Earth observation satellites. However, undesirable harmonic displacements, currents, and vibrations also occur in the AMB-rotor system owing to the mixed rotor imbalances and sensor runout. To compensate the rotor imbalances and to suppress the harmonic vibrations, two control methods are presented. Firstly, a four degrees-of-freedom AMB-rotor model with the static imbalance, dynamic imbalance, and the sensor runout are described. Next, a synchronous current reduction approach with a variable-phase notch feedback is proposed, so that the rotor imbalances can be identified on-line through the analysis of the synchronous displacement relationships of the geometric, inertial, and rotational axes of the rotor. Then, the identified rotor imbalances, which can be represented at two prescribed balancing planes of the rotor, are compensated by discrete add-on weights whose masses are calculated in the vector form. Finally, a repetitive control algorithm is utilized to suppress the residual harmonic vibrations. The proposed field balancing and harmonic vibration suppression strategies are verified by simulations and experiments performed on a control moment gyro test rig with a rigid AMB-rotor system. Compared with existing methods, the proposed strategies do not require trial weights or an accurate model of the AMB-rotor system. Moreover, the harmonic displacements, currents, and vibrations can be well-attenuated simultaneously.

  18. Boring of full scale deposition holes using a novel dry blind boring method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Autio, J.; Kirkkomaeki, T. [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-10-01

    Three holes the size of deposition holes (depth 7.5 m and diameter 1.5 m) were bored in the Research Tunnel at Olkiluoto, Finland. A novel full-face boring technique was used based on rotary crushing of rock and removal of crushed rock by vacuum flushing through the drill string. The purpose of the work was to demonstrate the feasibility of the technique. During the boring test procedures were carried out in order to determine the effect of changes in operating parameters on the performance of the boring machine and the quality of the hole. The boring method was found to be technically feasible and efficient. Evaluation of the quality of the hole included studies of the geometry of the hole, measurements of the surface roughness using a laser profilometer and study of excavation disturbances in the zone adjacent to the surface of the holes using two novel methods, He-gas diffusion and the {sup 14}C-polymethylmethacrylate methods. 43 refs.

  19. Full-scale performance testing and evaluation of unitized curtain walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ilter

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Unitized curtain wall systems have been widely seen on high-rise buildings’ facades by bringing benefits with regard to ease of construction, lightness, etc. However, some design and application problems related to structural and infiltration performance of a facade system might arise during its life cycle, which is difficult for the building to compensate. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the structural and infiltration performance of the two identically detailed and produced unitized curtain wall system mock-ups. In order to understand long-term environmental effects on the curtain wall system, a fatigue process was applied on one system in addition to the standard test procedures, while the standard test procedure was applied on the other reference specimen. The tests on the two identical specimens were conducted in accordance with TS EN 13830 and AAMA 501.4 Standards. As a result of air infiltration and wind load resistance tests, air infiltration and frontal deflection values on the facade surface were obtained. Hence, experimental performance of the systems was compared and the effect of the fatigue procedure on the facade performance was evaluated.  

  20. Full Scale Sludge Treatment in Reed Beds in Moderate Climate—A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Mennerich

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The wastewater treatment plant of Wathlingen, Germany, has a design capacity of 20,500 p.e. Since 2000, the sewage sludge has been treated in four reed beds with an area of 3000 m2 each. During this time, three of the four polders were emptied once and put into operation again, which has allowed for an evaluation of complete operation cycles from startup to sludge removal. This paper comprises data on polder construction and operating results as well as an economic evaluation of construction, operation, and sludge disposal costs. Results show that sludge DS mass may be reduced by at least 23% and at most 52%. Water content was reduced, but the DS concentration of the product excavated was not higher than around 20% DS. Operation experiences proved that the system is very user-friendly and requiring limited maintenance and control work. To make the best use of this technique, it is recommended a separate area for additional storage and dewatering is provided after the sludge from the polders is removed. This allows for the possibility for the operators to determine the appropriate time and conditions for final disposal.

  1. Yolo County's Accelerated Anaerobic and Aerobic Composting (Full-Scale Controlled Landfill Bioreactor) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, R.; Kieffer, J.; Akau, H.; Augenstein, D.

    2002-12-01

    Sanitary landfilling is the dominant method of solid waste disposal in the United States, accounting for about 217 million tons of waste annually (U.S. EPA, 1997) and has more than doubled since 1960. In spite of increasing rates of reuse and recycling, population and economic growth will continue to render landfilling as an important and necessary component of solid waste management. Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works, Division of Integrated Waste Management is demonstrating a new landfill technology called Bioreactor Landfill to better manage solid waste. In a Bioreactor Landfill, controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray-water, etc.) are added and recirculated to increase the moisture content of the waste and improve waste decomposition. As demonstrated in a small-scale demonstration project at the Yolo County Central Landfill in 1995, this process significantly increases the biodegradation rate of waste and thus decreases the waste stabilization and composting time (5 to 10 years) relative to what would occur within a conventional landfill (30 to 50 years or more). When waste decomposes anaerobically (in absence of oxygen), it produces landfill gas (biogas). Biogas is primarily a mixture of methane, a potent greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC's) which can be recovered for electricity or other uses. Other benefits of a bioreactor landfill composting operation include increased landfill waste settlement which increases in landfill capacity and life, improved leachate chemistry, possible reduction of landfill post-closure management time, opportunity to explore decomposed waste for landfill mining, and abatement of greenhouse gases through highly efficient methane capture over a much shorter period of time than is typical of waste management through conventional landfilling. This project also investigates the aerobic decomposition of waste of 13,000 tons of waste (2.5 acre) for

  2. Comparing Two Operating Configurations in a Full-Scale Arsenic Removal Plant. Case Study: Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofía E. Garrido Hoyos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted in Naranjo County located in the municipality of Mixco, Guatemala. The water supply source comes from two wells with a maximum flow of 25.24 and 33.44 L·s−1. The main problem with this source is the high arsenic concentration—between 0.1341 and 0.1671 mg·L−1. The aim of this study was to conduct laboratory tests, basic engineering and supervision of the construction and evaluation of an operations plant using two configurations, A (low-rate sedimentation and ceramic filter and B (high-rate sedimentation and clinoptilolite filter, to remove arsenic present in water for human use and consumption. This plant supplies water to Naranjo County in Mixco, Guatemala (5000 inhabitants. First, a laboratory Jar Test was performed to evaluate arsenic removal efficiency. And second, a conventional clarification plant was then built (design flow: 25.24 L·s−1. The best results were achieved with configuration B, with the following reagents and dosage as defined by the laboratory tests: 10 mg L−1 ferric chloride as coagulant; 1.8 mg·L−1 CH-polyfocal as flocculant and 0.4 mg L−1 MIT03 as color removal; 1 mg L−1 sodium hypochlorite as oxidant and adjusting pH to ≈7.0 with sodium hydroxide. Once the plant began operating, the efficiency of the treatment process was evaluated. The maximum elimination efficiencies were obtained 100% for turbidity (0 UTN, 89.54% (3.66 UPt-Co for color and 96.80% (0.005 mg L−1 for arsenic, values that comply with Guatemalan standards. For this case, the relation between Fe(III dosage/mg and As(V removal was 1:46.

  3. Mark Online, a Full Scale GIS-based Danish Farm Management Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Bligaard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With its oceanic climate with moderate summers and mild winters in combination with a highly organized infrastructure, farming has traditionally been very intensive in Denmark. The cultivated land constitutes 26,000 km² out of a total of 43,000 km². Most of the arable land is used for intensive plant production with a high level of mechanization and management practices. For more than three decades The Knowledge Centre for Agriculture (KCA has developed and implemented ICT Farm Management Information Systems (FMIS for planning and documentation of all aspects of crop production. Today, updated field specific information on field size, soil type, crops, varieties, soil tillage, sowing, fertilization, pesticide usage etc. is now hosted in the GIS-based FMIS, Mark Online covering more than 80% of the arable land. A centralized Microsoft SQL data base forms the core base for all the information. Based on a MS .NET framework a number of multi-tier client-server applications have been developed. Most of the desk top applications consist of relative thick clients based on Win forms, whereas HTML5 apps and Android/IOS native apps are used for the mobile platform. Data exchange between the clients and server are based on a web service layer using data compression to improve performance. Farmers are one of the two primary target groups. Local agricultural advisors working on behalf of farmers not having their own software is the other primary target group. Nonetheless, both groups are mainly focusing on field record planning, decision making and documentation. Data is transferred between the Mark Online system and the authorities by XML-based web services or ordinary file upload to official websites. The Open Geospatial Consortium’s Web Feature Service (WFS provides another interface allowing requests for geospatial features, which is used between Mark Online and external GIS.

  4. Community analysis of a full-scale anaerobic bioreactor treating paper mill wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roest, Kees; Heilig, Hans G H J; Smidt, Hauke; de Vos, Willem M; Stams, Alfons J M; Akkermans, Antoon D L

    2005-03-01

    To get insight into the microbial community of an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket reactor treating paper mill wastewater, conventional microbiological methods were combined with 16S rRNA gene analyses. Particular attention was paid to microorganisms able to degrade propionate or butyrate in the presence or absence of sulphate. Serial enrichment dilutions allowed estimating the number of microorganisms per ml sludge that could use butyrate with or without sulphate (10(5)), propionate without sulphate (10(6)), or propionate and sulphate (10(8)). Quantitative RNA dot-blot hybridisation indicated that Archaea were two-times more abundant in the microbial community of anaerobic sludge than Bacteria. The microbial community composition was further characterised by 16S rRNA-gene-targeted Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting, and via cloning and sequencing of dominant amplicons from the bacterial and archaeal patterns. Most of the nearly full length (approximately 1.45 kb) bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences showed less than 97% similarity to sequences present in public databases, in contrast to the archaeal clones (approximately. 1.3 kb) that were highly similar to known sequences. While Methanosaeta was found as the most abundant genus, also Crenarchaeote-relatives were identified. The microbial community was relatively stable over a period of 3 years (samples taken in July 1999, May 2001, March 2002 and June 2002) as indicated by the high similarity index calculated from DGGE profiles (81.9+/-2.7% for Bacteria and 75.1+/-3.1% for Archaea). 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated the presence of unknown and yet uncultured microorganisms, but also showed that known sulphate-reducing bacteria and syntrophic fatty acid-oxidising microorganisms dominated the enrichments.

  5. Qualification of a full plant nodalization for the prediction of the core exit temperature through a scaling methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freixa, J., E-mail: jordi.freixa-terradas@upc.edu; Martínez-Quiroga, V., E-mail: victor.martinez.quiroga@upc.edu; Reventós, F., E-mail: francesc.reventos@upc.edu

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Core exit temperature is used in PWRs as an indication of core heat up. • Qualification of full scale nuclear reactors by means of a scaling methodology. • Scaling of RELAP5 calculations to full scale power plants. - Abstract: System codes and their necessary power plant nodalizations are an essential step in thermal hydraulic safety analysis. In order to assess the safety of a particular power plant, in addition to the validation and verification of the code, the nodalization of the system needs to be qualified. Since most existing experimental data come from scaled-down facilities, any qualification process must therefore address scale considerations. The Group of Thermal Hydraulic Studies at Technical University of Catalonia has developed a scaling-up methodology (SCUP) for the qualification of full-scale nodalizations through a systematic procedure based on the extrapolation of post-test simulations of Integral Test Facility experiments. In the present work, the SCUP methodology will be employed to qualify the nodalization of the AscóNPP, a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR), for the reproduction of an important safety phenomenon which is the effectiveness of the Core Exit Temperature (CET) as an Accident Management (AM) indicator. Given the difficulties in placing measurements in the core region, CET measurements are used as a criterion for the initiation of safety operational procedures during accidental conditions in PWR. However, the CET response has some limitation in detecting inadequate core cooling simply because the measurement is not taken in the position where the cladding exposure occurs. In order to apply the SCUP methodology, the OECD/NEA ROSA-2 Test 3, an SBLOCA in the hot leg, has been selected as a starting point. This experiment was conducted at the Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF), a facility operated by the Japanese Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) and was focused on the assessment of the effectiveness of AM actions triggered by

  6. Design, analysis and testing of small, affordable HAWT rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pricop, Mihai V.; Niculescu, Mihai L.; Cojocaru, Marius G.; Barsan, Dorin

    2012-09-01

    The paper presents affordable technologies dedicated to design, CAD modelling and manufacturing of the small-medium HAWT rotors. Three numerical tools are developed: blade/rotor design, blade modelling for industry CATIA(CATScript) and blade modelling for small scale developers. Numerical analysis of the rotors is accomplished for both performance and noise level estimation using XFLOW (LES) and an in-house code (URANS). Results are presented for a 5KW rotor at the design point only, since computations are expensive. Developement examples are included as two rotors are designed, manufactured and tested for 1.5 and 5KW. A third one, rated for 20KW is under developement. Basic testing results are also included.

  7. Summary report on close-coupled subsurface barrier technology: Initial field trials to full-scale demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiser, J.H. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Environmental and Waste Technology Center; Dwyer, B. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-09-01

    The primary objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate the installation and measure the performance of a close-coupled barrier for the containment of subsurface waste or contaminant migration. A close-coupled barrier is produced by first installing a conventional, low-cost, cement-grout containment barrier followed by a thin lining of a polymer grout. The resultant barrier is a cement-polymer composite that has economic benefits derived from the cement and performance benefits from the durable and resistant polymer layer. The technology has matured from a regulatory investigation of the issues concerning the use of polymers to laboratory compatibility and performance measurements of various polymer systems to a pilot-scale, single column injection at Sandia to full-scale demonstration. The feasibility of the close-coupled barrier concept was proven in a full-scale cold demonstration at Hanford, Washington and then moved to the final stage with a full-scale demonstration at an actual remediation site at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). At the Hanford demonstration the composite barrier was emplaced around and beneath a 20,000 liter tank. The secondary cement layer was constructed using conventional jet grouting techniques. Drilling was completed at a 45{degree} angle to the ground, forming a cone-shaped barrier. The primary barrier was placed by panel jet-grouting with a dual-wall drill stem using a two part polymer grout. The polymer chosen was a high molecular weight acrylic. At the BNL demonstration a V-trough barrier was installed using a conventional cement grout for the secondary layer and an acrylic-gel polymer for the primary layer. Construction techniques were identical to the Hanford installation. This report summarizes the technology development from pilot- to full-scale demonstrations and presents some of the performance and quality achievements attained.

  8. Aerodynamic design of the National Rotor Testbed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, Christopher Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-01

    A new wind turbine blade has been designed for the National Rotor Testbed (NRT) project and for future experiments at the Scaled Wind Farm Technology (SWiFT) facility with a specific focus on scaled wakes. This report shows the aerodynamic design of new blades that can produce a wake that has similitude to utility scale blades despite the difference in size and location in the atmospheric boundary layer. Dimensionless quantities circulation, induction, thrust coefficient, and tip-speed-ratio were kept equal between rotor scales in region 2 of operation. The new NRT design matched the aerodynamic quantities of the most common wind turbine in the United States, the GE 1.5sle turbine with 37c model blades. The NRT blade design is presented along with its performance subject to the winds at SWiFT. The design requirements determined by the SWiFT experimental test campaign are shown to be met.

  9. Full-scale co-composting of hair wastes from the leather manufacturing industry and sewage sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Barrena Gómez, Raquel; Pagans i Miró, Estel·la; Vázquez Lima, Felícitas; Artola Casacuberta, Adriana; Sánchez Ferrer, Antoni

    2007-01-01

    A full-scale cocomposting experiment using hair wastes from the leather manufacturing industry and sewage sludge as cosubstrates was carried out with the aim of producing compost that may be used as an organic amendment in agriculture. A 1:1 weight ratio of hair wastes and sewage sludge was used based on experiments at smaller-scale. The resulting mixture was then amended with pruning wastes acting as bulking agent in a 1:1 volumetric ratio (mixture:pruning wastes). The experiment was carried...

  10. Performance evaluation of a full-scale ABS resin manufacturing wastewater treatment plant: a case study in Tabriz Petrochemical Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shakerkhatibi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The measurement data regarding the influent and effluent of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP provides a general overview, demonstrating an overall performance of WWTP. Nevertheless, these data do not provide the suitable operational information for the optimization of individual units involved in a WWTP. A full-scale evolution of WWTP was carried out in this study via a reconciled data. Methods: A full-scale evolution of acrylonitrile, butadiene and styrene (ABS resin manufacturing WWTP was carried out. Data reconciliation technique was employed to fulfil the mass conservation law and also enhance the accuracy of the flow measurements. Daily average values from long-term measurements by the WWTP library along with the results of four sampling runs, were utilized for data reconciliation with further performance evaluation and characterization of WWTP. Results: The full-scale evaluation, based on balanced data showed that removal efficiency based on chemical oxygen demand (COD and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5 through the WWTP were 80% and 90%, respectively, from which only 28% of COD and 20% of BOD5 removal had occurred in biological reactor. In addition, the removal efficiency of styrene and acrylonitrile, throughout the plant, was approximately 90%. Estimation results employing Toxchem model showed that 43% of acrylonitrile and 85% of styrene were emitted into the atmosphere above water surfaces. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the volatilization of styrene and acrylonitrile is the main mechanism for their removal along with corresponded COD elimination from the WWTP.

  11. Rotor balancing apparatus and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, Frank (Inventor); Lyman, Joseph (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    Rotor balancing apparatus and a system comprising balance probes for measuring unbalance at the ends of a magnetically suspended rotor are disclosed. Each balance probe comprises a photocell which is located in relationship to the magnetically suspended rotor such that unbalance of the rotor changes the amount of light recorded by each photocell. The signal from each photocell is electrically amplified and displayed by a suitable device, such as an oscilloscope.

  12. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Task 5 Full-Scale Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Blythe; MariJon Owens

    2007-12-01

    This Topical Report summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42309, 'Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive'. The objective of the project is to demonstrate the use of two flue gas desulfurization (FGD) additives, Evonik Degussa Corporation's TMT-15 and Nalco Company's Nalco 8034, to prevent the re-emission of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas exiting wet FGD systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project intends to demonstrate whether the additive can be used to precipitate most of the mercury (Hg) removed in the wet FGD system as a fine salt that can be separated from the FGD liquor and bulk solid byproducts for separate disposal. The project is conducting pilot- and full-scale tests of the additives in wet FGD absorbers. The tests are intended to determine required additive dosages to prevent Hg{sup 0} re-emissions and to separate mercury from the normal FGD byproducts for three coal types: Texas lignite/Powder River Basin (PRB) coal blend, high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal, and low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc., EPRI, Luminant Power (was TXU Generation Company LP), Southern Company, IPL (an AES company), Evonik Degussa Corporation and the Nalco Company. Luminant Power has provided the Texas lignite/PRB co-fired test site for pilot FGD tests and cost sharing. Southern Company has provided the low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal host site for wet scrubbing tests, as well as the pilot- and full-scale jet bubbling reactor (JBR) FGD systems tested. IPL provided the high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal full-scale FGD test site and cost sharing. Evonik Degussa Corporation is providing the TMT-15 additive, and the Nalco Company is providing the Nalco 8034 additive. Both companies are also supplying technical support to the test program as in-kind cost sharing. The project is being conducted in six tasks. Of the six project tasks, Task 1 involves project planning and Task 6

  13. STABILITY OF ROTOR-BEARING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uğur YÜCEL

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available In various industrial applications there is a need for higher speed, yet reliably operating rotating machinery. A key factor in achieving this type of machinery continues to be the ability to accurately predict the dynamic response and stability of a rotor-bearing system. This paper introduces and explains the nature of rotordynamic phenomena from comparatively simple analytic models. Starting with the most simple rotor model that is supported in two rigid bearings at its ends, the more realistic and more involved cases are considered by incorporating the effects of flexible bearings. Knowledge of these phenomena is fundamental to an understanding of the behavior of complex models, which corresponds to the real rotors of turbomachines.

  14. Eigenfrequency sensitivity analysis of flexible rotors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šašek J.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with sensitivity analysis of eigenfrequencies from the viewpoint of design parameters. The sensitivity analysis is applied to a rotor which consists of a shaft and a disk. The design parameters of sensitivity analysis are the disk radius and the disk width. The shaft is modeled as a 1D continuum using shaft finite elements. The disks of rotating systems are commonly modeled as rigid bodies. The presented approach to the disk modeling is based on a 3D flexible continuum discretized using hexahedral finite elements. The both components of the rotor are connected together by special proposed couplings. The whole rotor is modeled in rotating coordinate system with considering rotation influences (gyroscopic and dynamics stiffness matrices.

  15. Accuracy and repeatability of direct ciliary sulcus diameter measurements by full-scale 50-megahertz ultrasound biomicroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI De-jiao; WANG Ning-li; CHEN Shu; LI Shu-ning; MU Da-peng; WANG Tao

    2009-01-01

    Background Phakic intraocular lens (pIOL) implantation has been a popular means for the treatment of high ametropia. Measurements of ciliary sulcus diameter is important for pIOL size determining. But till now, no perfect system can directly measure it. The present study was to evaluate the accuracy, repeatability and reproducibility of direct sulcus diameter measurements obtained by a full-scale 50-megahertz (MHz) ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM).Methods A fresh cadaver human eye with a scale marker inserted through the posterior chamber plane from 3 o'clock to 9 o'clock meridian and 30 randomly selected eyes from 30 normal subjects were scanned by full-scale 50-MHz UBM in horizontal meridional scan plane. The distance between the scales and the whole length of the marker inside the cadaver eye were measured by the same observer using the "built-in" measurement tools and the indicating error of instrument was calculated. Reproducibility of the measurement was evaluated in 30 eyes by 2 operators using Blander and Altman plot test. Repeatability was evaluated from 10 successive eyes randomly selected from the 30 eyes by one operator.Results On a scale of 1 mm, the greatest indicating error was 40 μm; the mean largest indicating error of 1 mm scale from the 10 images was (26±14) μm; on a scale of 11 mm, the greatest indicating error was 70 μo; the error rate was 0.64%. The mean length of the needle inside the eye of the 10 images was 11.05 mm, with the mean indicating error of 47 μm, the average error rate was 0.43%. For ciliary sulcus diameter measurements in vivo, the coefficient of variation was 0.38%; the coefficients of repeatability for intra-observer and inter-observer measurements were 1.99% and 2.55%, respectively. The limits of agreement for intra-observer and inter-observer measurement were-0.41 mm to 0.48 mm and -0.59 mm to 0.58 ram, respectively.Conclusion The full-scale 50-MHz UBM can be a high accuracy and good repeatability means for direct

  16. A multi-professional full-scale simulation course in the recognition and management of deteriorating hospital patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuhrmann, Lone; Østergaard, Doris; Lippert, Anne

    2009-01-01

    % of the nursing staff on four wards were trained in a 5-month period. The course was highly rated in terms of content and teaching methods. DISCUSSION: The systematic approach for developing the course resulted in a relevant, highly rated course, deeply rooted in the wards, implying the opportunity to facilitate...... and evaluation of a multi-professional, full-scale simulation-based course for hospital professionals. METHODS: A systematic approach to course development was used and the programme was introduced on four general wards in a university hospital. Experts from the wards were trained as educators and participated...... in the course development. A needs assessment consisting of an observational study, questionnaires and interviews resulted in the creation of learning objectives to provide the road map for content and teaching methods. A 1-day multi-professional ward-specific educational programme with full-scale simulations...

  17. Biological treatment of TMAH (tetra-methyl ammonium hydroxide) in a full-scale TFT-LCD wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tai-Ho; Whang, Liang-Ming; Liu, Pao-Wen Grace; Hung, Yu-Ching; Chen, Hung-Wei; Lin, Li-Bin; Chen, Chia-Fu; Chen, Sheng-Kun; Hsu, Shu Fu; Shen, Wason; Fu, Ryan; Hsu, Romel

    2012-06-01

    This study evaluated biological treatment of TMAH in a full-scale methanogenic up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) followed by an aerobic bioreactor. In general, the UASB was able to perform a satisfactory TMAH degradation efficiency, but the effluent COD of the aerobic bioreactor seemed to increase with an increased TMAH in the influent wastewater. The batch test results confirmed that the UASB sludge under methanogenic conditions would be favored over the aerobic ones for TMAH treatment due to its superb ability of handling high strength of TMAH-containing wastewaters. Based on batch experiments, inhibitory chemicals present in TFT-LCD wastewater like surfactants and sulfate should be avoided to secure a stable methanogenic TMAH degradation. Finally, molecular monitoring of Methanomethylovorans hollandica and Methanosarcina mazei in the full-scale plant, the dominant methanogens in the UASB responsible for TMAH degradation, may be beneficial for a stable TMAH treatment performance.

  18. Calculations of 3D full-scale VVER fuel assembly and core models using MCU and BIPR-7A codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleshin, Sergey S.; Bikeev, Artem S.; Bolshagin, Sergey N.; Kalugin, Mikhail A.; Kosourov, Evgeniy K.; Pavlovichev, Aleksandr M.; Pryanichnikov, Aleksandr V.; Sukhino-Khomenko, Evgenia A.; Shcherenko, Anna I.; Shcherenko, Anastasia I.; Shkarovskiy, Denis A. [Nuclear Research Centre ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-15

    Two types of calculations were made to compare BIPR-7A and MCU results for 3D full-scale models. First EPS (emergency protection system) efficiency and in-core power distributions were analyzed for an equilibrium fuel load of VVER-1000 assuming its operation within an 18-month cycle. Computations were performed without feedbacks and with fuel burnup distributed over the core. After 3D infinite lattices of full-scale VVER-1000 fuel assemblies (A's) with uranium fuel 4.4% enrichment and uranium-erbium fuel 4.4% enrichment and Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} 1 % wt were considered. Computations were performed with feedbacks and fuel burnup at the constant power level. For different time moments effective multiplication factor and power distribution were obtained. EPS efficiency and reactivity effects at chosen time moments were analyzed.

  19. Minimizing N2O fluxes from full-scale municipal solid waste landfill with properly selected cover soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Municipal solid waste landfills emit nitrous oxide (N2O) gas. Assuming that the soil cover is the primary N2O source from landfills,this study tested, during a four-year project, the hypothesis that the proper use of chosen soils with fine texture minimizes N2O emissions. A full-scale sanitary landfill, a full-scale bioreactor landfill and a cell planted with Nerium indicum or Festuca arundinacea Schreb, at the Hangzhou Tianziling landfill in Hangzhou City were the test sites. The N2O emission rates from all test sites were considerably lower than those reported in the published reports. Specifically, the N2O emission rate was dependent on soil water content and nitrate concentrations in the cover soil. The effects of leachate recirculation and irrigation were minimal. Properly chosen cover soils applied to the landfills reduced N2O flux.

  20. Study on the rotor design method for a small propeller-type wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Yasuyuki; Yamashita, Yusuke; Inagaki, Terumi

    2016-08-01

    Small propeller-type wind turbines have a low Reynolds number, limiting the number of usable airfoil materials. Thus, their design method is not sufficiently established, and their performance is often low. The ultimate goal of this research is to establish high-performance design guidelines and design methods for small propeller-type wind turbines. To that end, we designed two rotors: Rotor A, based on the rotor optimum design method from the blade element momentum theory, and Rotor B, in which the chord length of the tip is extended and the chord length distribution is linearized. We examined performance characteristics and flow fields of the two rotors through wind tunnel experiments and numerical analysis. Our results revealed that the maximum output tip speed ratio of Rotor B shifted lower than that of Rotor A, but the maximum output coefficient increased by approximately 38.7%. Rotors A and B experienced a large-scale separation on the hub side, which extended to the mean in Rotor A. This difference in separation had an impact on the significant decrease in Rotor A's output compared to the design value and the increase in Rotor B's output compared to Rotor A.