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Sample records for full acceptance detector

  1. A full acceptance detector at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avati, V.; Eggert, K.; Taylor, C.

    1999-01-01

    The FELIX collaboration has proposed the construction of a full acceptance detector for the LHC, to be located at Intersection Region 4, and to be commissioned concurrently with the LHC. The primary mission of FELIX is QCD: to provide comprehensive and definitive observations of a very broad range of strong-interaction processes. This paper reviews the detector concept and performance characteristics, the physics menu, and plans for integration of FELIX into the collider lattice and physical environment. The current status of the FELIX Letter of Intent is discussed

  2. A full-acceptance detector at the LHC (FELIX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ageev, A.; Akhobadze, K.; Alvero, L.; Amelino-Camelia, G.; Avati, V.; Baier, R.; Bartels, J.; Baur, G.; Beneke, M.; Berera, A.; Bjorken, J.D.; Bondila, M.; Britvich, I.; Capella, A.; Close, F.; Collins, J.; Costa, C.; Cudell, J.-R.; Derevschikov, A.; Dick, L.; Djordjadze, V.; Dokshitzer, Yu; Donnachie, A.; Eggert, K.; Engel, R.; Frankfurt, L.; Geiger, K.; Giovannini, A.; Goloskokov, S.; Goulianos, K.; Gridasov, V.; Gustafson, H.R.; Halzen, F.; Hencken, K.; Inyakin, A.; Islam, M.M.; Jones, L.; Kaidalov, A.B.; Karapetian, G.; Karapetian, V.; Karpushov, I.D.; Kashtanov, E.; Kharlov, Y.; Khoze, V.; Klein, S.; Klimenko, E.Yu; Kozlov, O.; Kowalski, K.; Kubarovsky, A.V.; Landshoff, P.V.; Leflat, A.K.; Lippmaa, E.; Manankov, V.M.; Marchesini, G.; Medvedkov, A.; Mokhnatuk, V.A.; Mueller, A.H.; Murzin, V.S.; Myznikov, K.; Nikitin, V.; Nomokonov, P.; Novikov, S.I.; Orava, R.; Ostonen, R.; Ouvarov, V.; Papageorgiou, E.; Polyakov, V.; Raidal, M.; Rainwater, D.; Ranft, J.; Riege, H.; Roufanov, I.; Rubin, N.; Sadovsky, S.; Salam, G.P.; Sauli, F.; Schiff, D.; Selyugin, O.; Shabalina, E.K.; Shabratova, G.; Shuvalou, S.; Smirnov, V.; Strikman, M.; Subbi, J.; Sytnik, V.; Taylor, C.; Tikhonova, L.A.; Toukhtarov, A.; Treleani, D.; Ugoccioni, R.; Vasilchenko, V.; Vasiliev, A.; Vasiliev, L.; White, A.; Whitmore, J.; Wlodarczyk, Z.; Yakovlev, V.; Yushchenko, O.; Zeppenfeld, D.; Zhalov, M.; Zinchenko, S.; Zotov, N.P.

    2002-01-01

    The FELIX collaboration had proposed the construction of a full-acceptance detector for the LHC. The primary mission of FELIX was the study of QCD: to provide comprehensive and definitive observations of a very broad range of strong-interaction processes. This document contains an extensive discussion of this physics menu. In a further paper the FELIX detector will be reviewed

  3. A full-acceptance detector at the LHC (FELIX)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ageev, A.; Akhobadze, K.; Alvero, L.; Amelino-Camelia, G.; Avati, V.; Baier, R.; Bartels, J.; Baur, G.; Beneke, M.; Berera, A.; Bjorken, J.D.; Bondila, M.; Britvich, I.; Capella, A.; Close, F.; Collins, J.; Costa, C.; Cudell, J.-R.; Derevschikov, A.; Dick, L.; Djordjadze, V.; Dokshitzer, Yu; Donnachie, A.; Eggert, K.; Engel, R.; Frankfurt, L.; Geiger, K.; Giovannini, A.; Goloskokov, S.; Goulianos, K.; Gridasov, V.; Gustafson, H.R.; Halzen, F.; Hencken, K.; Inyakin, A.; Islam, M.M.; Jones, L.; Kaidalov, A.B.; Karapetian, G.; Karapetian, V.; Karpushov, I.D.; Kashtanov, E.; Kharlov, Y.; Khoze, V.; Klein, S.; Klimenko, E.Yu; Kozlov, O.; Kowalski, K.; Kubarovsky, A.V.; Landshoff, P.V.; Leflat, A.K.; Lippmaa, E.; Manankov, V.M.; Marchesini, G.; Medvedkov, A.; Mokhnatuk, V.A.; Mueller, A.H.; Murzin, V.S.; Myznikov, K.; Nikitin, V.; Nomokonov, P.; Novikov, S.I.; Orava, R.; Ostonen, R.; Ouvarov, V.; Papageorgiou, E.; Polyakov, V.; Raidal, M.; Rainwater, D.; Ranft, J.; Riege, H.; Roufanov, I.; Rubin, N.; Sadovsky, S.; Salam, G.P.; Sauli, F.; Schiff, D.; Selyugin, O.; Shabalina, E.K.; Shabratova, G.; Shuvalou, S.; Smirnov, V.; Strikman, M.; Subbi, J.; Sytnik, V.; Taylor, C.; Tikhonova, L.A.; Toukhtarov, A.; Treleani, D.; Ugoccioni, R.; Vasilchenko, V.; Vasiliev, A.; Vasiliev, L.; White, A.; Whitmore, J.; Wlodarczyk, Z.; Yakovlev, V.; Yushchenko, O.; Zeppenfeld, D.; Zhalov, M.; Zinchenko, S.; Zotov, N.P.

    2002-01-02

    The FELIX collaboration had proposed the construction of a full-acceptance detector for the LHC. The primary mission of FELIX was the study of QCD: to provide comprehensive and definitive observations of a very broad range of strong-interaction processes. This document contains an extensive discussion of this physics menu. In a further paper the FELIX detector will be reviewed.

  4. A full-acceptance detector at the LHC (FELIX)

    CERN Document Server

    Ageev, A N; Alvero, L; Amelino-Camelia, G; Avati, V; Baier, R; Bartels, Julius; Baur, G; Beneke, Martin; Berera, A; Bjorken, James D; Bondila, M; Britvich, G I; Capella, A; Close, Francis Edwin; Collins, J; Costa, C; Cudell, J R; Derevshchikov, A A; Dick, Louis; Dzhordzhadze, V; Dokshitzer, Y; Dormachie, A; Eggert, Karsten; Engel, R; Frankfurt, L L; Kinder-Geiger, Klaus; Giovannini, Alberto; Goloskokov, S V; Goulianos, K; Gridasov, V I; Gustafson, H R; Halzen, Francis; Hencken, K; Inyakin, A V; Islam, M M; Jones, L; Kaidalov, A B; Karapetian, G V; Karapetian, V V; Karpushov, I D; Kashtanov, E; Kharlov, Yu V; Khoze, V; Klein, S; Klimenko, E Y; Kozlov, O; Kowalski, K L; Kubarovsky, A V; Landshoff, Peter V; Leflat, A; Lippmaa, E; Manankov, V M; Marchesini, G; Medvedkov, A M; Mokhnatuk, V A; Müller, A H; Murzin, V S; Myznikov, K P; Nikitin, V A; Nomokonov, V P; Novikov, S I; Orava, Risto; Ostonen, R; Uvarov, V; Papageorgiou, E; Polyakov, V; Raidal, Martti; Rainwater, D L; Ranft, J; Riege, H; Rufanov, I A; Rubin, N; Sadovsky, S A; Salam, Gavin P; Sauli, Fabio; Schiff, D; Selyugin, O V; Shabalina, E K; Shabratova, G; Shuvalov, R S; Smirnov, V; Strikman, M I; Subbi, J; Sytnik, V V; Taylor, C; Tikhonova, L A; Toukhtarov, A; Treleani, D; Ugoccioni, R; Vasilchenko, V G; Vasilev, A; Vasiliev, L; White, A; Whitmore, J; Wlodarczyk, Z; Yakovlev, V; Yushchenko, O P; Zeppenfeld, Dieter; Zhalov, M B; Zinchenko, S I; Zotov, N P

    2002-01-01

    The FELIX collaboration had proposed the construction of a full- acceptance detector for the LHC. The primary mission of FELIX was the study of QCD: to provide comprehensive and definitive observations of a very broad range of strong-interaction processes. This document contains an extensive discussion of this physics menu. In a further paper the FELIX detector will be reviewed. (172 refs).

  5. A full-acceptance detector for the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1991-11-01

    In this paper, I will describe very briefly the cartoon of a full-acceptance detector as presented in the expression of interest, along with some of the basic features and technical difficulties. I will describe some theoretical-physics spinoffs emergent from the preparation of the EoI, which bear on general issues relevant to hadron spectroscopy. I review very briefly the capability of the detector for spectroscopy per se. The final section is devoted to concluding remarks

  6. FELIX. A full acceptance detector at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avati, V.; Eggert, K.; Taylor, C.

    1999-01-01

    The FELIX collaboration has proposed the construction of a full acceptance detector for the LHC, to be located at Intersection Region 4, and to be commissioned concurrently with the LHC. The primary mission of FELIX is QCD: to provide comprehensive and definitive observations of a very broad range of strong-interaction processes. This paper reviews the detector concept and performance characteristics, the physics menu, and plans for integration of FELIX into the collider lattice and physical environment. The current status of the FELIX letter of intent is discussed. (orig.)

  7. FELIX a full-acceptance detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Avati, V.; Taylor, C.

    1999-01-01

    The FELIX collaboration has proposed the construction of a full acceptance detector for the LHC, to be located at Intersection Region 4, and to be commissioned concurrently with the LHC. The primary mission of FELIX is QCD: to provide comprehensive and definitive observations of a very broad range of strong-interaction processes. This paper reviews the detector concept and performance characteristics, the physics menu, and plans for integration of FELIX into the collider lattice and physical environment. The current status of the FELIX Letter of Intent is discussed.

  8. FELIX: A Full Acceptance Detector at the LHC. Letter of Intent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjorken, James

    2003-08-20

    The FELIX Collaboration proposes the construction of a full acceptance detector for the LHC, to be located at Intersection Region 4, and to be commissioned concurrently with the LHC. The primary mission of FELIX is the study of QCD: to provide comprehensive and definitive observations of a very broad range of strong-interaction processes. This document contains a description of the detector concept including details of the individual detector elements and their performance characteristics, an extensive discussion of the physics menu, and the plans for integration of FELIX into the collider lattice and physical environment.

  9. FAD: A full-acceptance detector for physics at the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1992-09-01

    For high energy pp collisions, the concepts ''4π'' and ''full acceptance'' are distinct. At the SSC, the appropriate variables for describing phase space are the lego variables: pseudorapidity η and azimuthal angle φ. While most of 4π is covered by pseudorapidities less than 3 or 4 in magnitude, at the SSC there is very interesting physics out to η's of 9 to 12. For over a year I have been attempting to encourage an initiative at the SSC to provide a detector which could cover the missing acceptance of the two big detectors, which in particular have no appreciable charged particle tracking with good momentum resolution beyond rapidities of 2.5 or so. The nonnegotiable criteria for an FAD are for me the following: 1. All charged particles are seen and their momenta measured well, provided pt is not too large. 2. All photons are seen and their momenta are measured well. 3. The physics of rapidity-gaps is not compromised. This means angular coverage from 90 degrees down to tens of microradians. The above criteria cannot be met on day one of SSC commissioning with the amount of funds available. But I believe a staged approach is feasible, with a lot of interesting physics available along the way. The basic philosophy underlying the FAD idea is that it should first and most be a survey instrument, sensitive to almost everything, but optimized for almost nothing. Its strength is in the perception of complex patterns individual events, used as a signature of new and/or interesting physics. Examples of such patterns will be given later

  10. FAD: A full-acceptance detector for physics at the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    The FAD represents a rather new detector concept which requires bottoms-up thinking in almost all its aspects. The next year should be filled with thinking more about fundamentals of detector design and various novel physics topics, and less about money and politics

  11. A full-acceptance detector for SSC physics at low and intermediate mass scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    The author of this paper is interested in seeing the proposed detector and physics measurements done at the SSC. It should be clear that the author views this subject as important enough to warrant the effort going into producing this tome. It should also be clear that nothing will happen unless members of the experimental community come forward and do real work to see whether the ideas contained herein are sound and that the physics is indeed worth a dedicated effort at the SSC. Therefore this paper is directed more toward the experimental community than the SSC Laboratory. However, since initial encouragement (or discouragement) by the laboratory is evidently very important, this paper also contains specific requests addressed to the SSC Laboratory

  12. Photonuclear experiments using large acceptance detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mecking, B.A.

    1984-08-01

    Experimental programs in photonuclear physics are discussed. In experiments concentrate on the combined use of low intensity (real and virtual) photon beams and large acceptance detectors for the detection of multiple particle final states. Count rate estimates and the consequences for the operation of a high intensity accelerator are given. (orig.)

  13. Full LCD detector simulation with GISMO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassell, Ronald

    2001-01-01

    We present a status update of a full simulation package using GISMO. This package is a functioning tool producing simulation data for the two standard LCD detector designs, in a framework allowing easy changes to the detector designs. The simulation engine, GISMO, is separated from the application code, GISMOAPPS, to allow for a future upgrade to GEANT4 within the same framework

  14. The NA49 large acceptance hadron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanasiev, S.; Alber, T.; Appelshaeuser, H.; Baechler, J.; Barna, D.; Barnby, L.S.; Bartke, J.; Barton, R.A.; Betev, L.; Bialkowska, H.; Bieser, F.; Billmeier, A.; Blyth, C.O.; Bock, R.; Bormann, C.; Bracinik, J.; Brady, F.P.; Brockmann, R.; Brun, R.; Buncic, P.; Caines, H.L.; Cebra, D.; Cooper, G.E.; Cramer, J.G.; Csato, P.; Cyprian, M.; Dunn, J.; Eckardt, V.; Eckhardt, F.; Empl, T.; Eschke, J.; Ferguson, M.I.; Fessler, H.; Fischer, H.G.; Flierl, D.; Fodor, Z.; Frankenfeld, U.; Foka, P.; Freund, P.; Friese, V.; Ftacnik, J.; Fuchs, M.; Gabler, F.; Gal, J.; Ganz, R.; Gazdzicki, M.; Gladysz, E.; Grebieszkow, J.; Guenther, J.; Harris, J.W.; Hegyi, S.; Henkel, T.; Hill, L.A.; Hlinka, V.; Huang, I.; Huemmler, H.; Igo, G.; Irmscher, D.; Ivanov, M.; Janik, R.; Jacobs, P.; Jones, P.G.; Kadija, K.; Kolesnikov, V.I.; Kowalski, M.; Lasiuk, B.; Levai, P.; Liebicher, K.; Lynen, U.; Malakhov, A.I.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Marks, C.; Mayes, B.; Melkumov, G.L.; Mock, A.; Molnar, J.; Nelson, J.M.; Oldenburg, M.; Odyniec, G.; Palla, G.; Panagiotou, A.D.; Pestov, Y.; Petridis, A.; Pikna, M.; Pimpl, W.; Pinsky, L.; Piper, A.; Porter, R.J.; Poskanzer, A.M.; Poziombka, S.; Prindle, D.J.; Puehlhofer, F.; Rauch, W.; Reid, J.G.; Renfordt, R.; Retyk, W.; Ritter, H.G.; Roehrich, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rudolph, H.; Rybicki, A.; Sammer, T.; Sandoval, A.; Sann, H.; Schaefer, E.; Schmidt, R.; Schmischke, D.; Schmitz, N.; Schoenfelder, S.; Semenov, A.Yu.; Seyboth, J.; Seyboth, P.; Seyerlein, J.; Sikler, F.; Sitar, B.; Skrzypczak, E.; Squier, G.T.A.; Stelzer, H.; Stock, R.; Strmen, P.; Stroebele, H.; Struck, C.; Susa, T.; Szarka, I.; Szentpetery, I.; Szymanski, P.; Sziklai, J.; Toy, M.; Trainor, T.A.; Trentalange, S.; Ullrich, T.; Vassiliou, M.; Veres, G.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vranic, D.; Wang, F.Q.; Weerasundara, D.D.; Wenig, S.; Whitten, C.; Wieman, H.; Wienold, T.; Wood, L.; Yates, T.A.; Zimanyi, J.; Zhu, X.-Z.; Zybert, R.

    1999-01-01

    The NA49 detector is a wide acceptance spectrometer for the study of hadron production in p+p, p+A, and A+A collisions at the CERN SPS. The main components are 4 large-volume TPCs for tracking and particle identification via dE/dx. TOF scintillator arrays complement particle identification. Calorimeters for transverse energy determination and triggering, a detector for centrality selection in p+A collisions, and beam definition detectors complete the set-up. A description of all detector components is given with emphasis on new technical realizations. Performance and operational experience are discussed in particular with respect to the high track density environment of central Pb+Pb collisions

  15. The NA49 large acceptance hadron detector

    CERN Document Server

    Afanasiev, S V; Appelshäuser, H; Bächler, J; Barna, D; Barnby, L S; Bartke, Jerzy; Barton, R A; Betev, L; Bialkowska, H; Bieser, F; Billmeier, A; Blyth, C O; Böck, R K; Bormann, C; Bracinik, J; Brady, F P; Brockmann, R; Brun, R; Buncic, P; Caines, H L; Cebra, D; Cooper, G E; Cramer, J G; Csató, P; Cyprian, M; Dunn, J; Eckardt, V; Eckhardt, F; Empl, T; Eschke, J; Ferguson, M I; Fessler, H; Fischer, H G; Flierl, D; Fodor, Z; Frankenfeld, Ulrich; Foka, P Y; Freund, P; Friese, V; Ftácnik, J; Fuchs, M; Gabler, F; Gál, J; Ganz, R E; Gazdzicki, M; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Grebieszkow, J; Günther, J; Harris, J W; Hegyi, S; Henkel, T; Hill, L A; Hlinka, V; Huang, I; Hümmler, H; Igo, G; Irmscher, D; Ivanov, M; Janik, R; Jacobs, P; Jones, P G; Kadija, K; Kolesnikov, V I; Kowalski, M; Lasiuk, B; Lévai, Peter; Liebicher, K; Lynen, U; Malakhov, A I; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Marks, C; Mayes, B W; Melkumov, G L; Mock, A; Molnár, J; Nelson, J M; Oldenburg, M; Odyniec, Grazyna Janina; Pálla, G; Panagiotou, A D; Pestov, Yu N; Petridis, A; Pikna, M; Pimpl, W; Pinsky, L; Piper, A; Porter, R J; Poskanzer, A M; Poziombka, S; Prindle, D J; Pühlhofer, F; Rauch, W; Reid, J G; Renfordt, R E; Retyk, W; Ritter, H G; Röhrich, D; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rudolph, H; Rybicki, A; Sammer, T; Sandoval, A; Sann, H; Schäfer, E; Schmidt, R; Schmischke, D; Schmitz, N; Schönfelder, S; Semenov, A Yu; Seyboth, J; Seyboth, P; Seyerlein, J; Siklér, F; Sitár, B; Skrzypczak, E; Squier, G T A; Stelzer, H; Stock, Reinhard; Strmen, P; Ströbele, H; Struck, C; Susa, T; Szarka, I; Szentpétery, I; Szymanski, P; Sziklai, J; Toy, M; Trainor, T A; Trentalange, S; Ullrich, T S; Vassiliou, Maria; Veres, G I; Vesztergombi, G; Vranic, D; Wang, F; Weerasundara, D D; Wenig, S; Whitten, C; Wieman, H H; Wienold, T; Wood, L; Yates, T A; Zimányi, J; Zhu, X Z; Zybert, R

    1999-01-01

    The NA49 detector is a wide acceptance spectrometer for the study of hadron production in p+p, p+A, and A+A collisions at the CERN SPS. The main components are 4 large volume TPCs for tracking and particle identification via $dE/dx$. TOF scintillator arrays complement particle identification. Calorimeters for transverse energy determination and triggering, a detector for centrality selection in p+A collisions, and beam definition detectors complete the set-up. A description of all detector components is given with emphasis on new technical realizations. Performance and operational experience are discussed in particular with respect to the high track density environment of central Pb+Pb collisions.

  16. The Saskatchewan-Alberta large acceptance detector for photonuclear physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, E. B.; Cameron, J.; Choi, W. C.; Fielding, H. W.; Green, P. W.; Greeniaus, L. G.; Hackett, E. D.; Holm, L.; Kolb, N. R.; Korkmaz, E.; Langill, P. P.; McDonald, W. J.; Mack, D.; Olsen, W. C.; Peterson, B. A.; Rodning, N. L.; Soukup, J.; Zhu, J.; Hutcheon, D.; Caplan, H. S.; Pywell, R. E.; Skopik, D. M.; Vogt, J. M.; van Heerden, I. J.

    1992-09-01

    The Saskatchewan-Alberta Large Acceptance Detector (SALAD) is a 4 π detector designed and built for studies of photonuclear reactions with a tagged photon beam. The design and performance of the detector are described. Its characteristics have been studied by examining p-p elastic scattering with a proton beam at TRIUMF.

  17. A full acceptance experiment at the CERN large hadron collider (LHC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggert, K.; Morsch, A.; Taylor, C.

    1996-01-01

    The physics of full acceptance detector at the LHC is reviewed. A possible experimental layout situated in IP4 is presented. The interface between the experiment and the machine lattice is described with particular attention given to the measurement of elastic and diffractive protons. (author)

  18. The Small Acceptance Vertex Detector of NA61/SHINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deveaux M.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Charmonium production in heavy ion collisions is considered as an important diagnostic probe for studying the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter for potential phase transitions. The interpretation of existing data from the CERN SPS is hampered by a lack of knowledge on the properties of open charm particle production in the fireball. Moreover, open charm production in heavy ion collisions by itself is poorly understood. To overcome this obstacle, the NA61/SHINE was equipped with a Small Acceptance Vertex Detector (SAVD, which is predicted to make the experiment sensitive to open charm mesons produced in A-A collisions at the SPS top energy. This paper will introduce the concept and the hardware of the SAVD. Moreover, first running experience as obtained in a commissioning run with a 150 AGeV/c Pb+Pb collision system will be reported.

  19. Maximum Acceptance Detector for the Fermilab Collider (MAX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorken, James

    2003-01-01

    The authors propose a detector for the Collider which will cover the largest possible ranges of angles with electromagnetic calorimetry and charged tracking, and with hadronic calorimetry for the forward direction. The goal for the complete detector would be acceptance down to approx 1 mrad, in contrast to CDF and D0, which have coverage only to approx. 40 mrad. Because of the limitations of physical space and running time in all but B0 and D0, such a detector will have to be very compact and compatible with a variety of difficult boundary conditions. For this reason, they propose to run a test program at F0 during the second of the present Collider running period, utilizing existing calorimeters and tracking systems. A less desirable option which can be installed at E0 is also described. With luck there may be the possibility of physics from the test program as well. The final version of the detector would be installed at E0 after the main Injector upgrade. the detector is designed to study processes with relatively large cross sections. The running time requirements are thus minimal and data taking would require running a small fraction of the time with the electrostatic separators turned off

  20. First fabrication of full 3D-detectors at SINTEF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Thor-Erik; Kok, Angela; Hansen, Trond A; Lietaer, Nicolas; Mielnik, Michal; Storaas, Preben; Via, Cinzia Da'; Hasi, Jasmine; Kenney, Chris; Parker, Sherwood

    2009-01-01

    3D-detectors, with electrodes penetrating through the entire substrates have drawn great interests for high energy physics and medical imaging applications. Since its introduction by C. Kenney et al in 1995, many laboratories have begun research on different 3D-detector structures to simplify and industrialise the fabrication process. SINTEF MiNaLab joined the 3D collaboration in 2006 and started the first 3D fabrication run in 2007. This is the first step in an effort to fabricate affordable 3D-detectors in small to medium size production volumes. The first run was fully completed in February 2008 and preliminary results are promising. Good p-n junction characteristics have been shown on selected devices at the chip level with a leakage current of less than 0.5 nA per pixel. Thus SINTEF is the second laboratory in the world after the Stanford Nanofabrication Facility that has succeeded in demonstrating full 3D-detectors with active edge. A full 3D-stacked detector system were formed by bump-bonding the detectors to the ATLAS readout electronics, and successful particle hit maps using an Am-241 source were recorded. Most modules, however, showed largely increased leakage currents after assembly, which is due to the active edge and p-spray acting as part of the total chip pn-junction and not as a depletion stop. This paper describes the first fabrication and the encountered processing issues. The preliminary measurements on both the individual detector chips and the integrated 3D-stacked modules are discussed. A new lot has now been started on p-type wafers, which offers a more robust configuration with the active edge acting as depletion stop instead of part of the pn-junction.

  1. First full dynamic range calibration of the JUNGFRAU photon detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redford, S.; Andrä, M.; Barten, R.; Bergamaschi, A.; Brückner, M.; Dinapoli, R.; Fröjdh, E.; Greiffenberg, D.; Lopez-Cuenca, C.; Mezza, D.; Mozzanica, A.; Ramilli, M.; Ruat, M.; Ruder, C.; Schmitt, B.; Shi, X.; Thattil, D.; Tinti, G.; Vetter, S.; Zhang, J.

    2018-01-01

    The JUNGFRAU detector is a charge integrating hybrid silicon pixel detector developed at the Paul Scherrer Institut for photon science applications, in particular for the upcoming free electron laser SwissFEL. With a high dynamic range, analogue readout, low noise and three automatically switching gains, JUNGFRAU promises excellent performance not only at XFELs but also at synchrotrons in areas such as protein crystallography, ptychography, pump-probe and time resolved measurements. To achieve its full potential, the detector must be calibrated on a pixel-by-pixel basis. This contribution presents the current status of the JUNGFRAU calibration project, in which a variety of input charge sources are used to parametrise the energy response of the detector across four orders of magnitude of dynamic range. Building on preliminary studies, the first full calibration procedure of a JUNGFRAU 0.5 Mpixel module is described. The calibration is validated using alternative sources of charge deposition, including laboratory experiments and measurements at ESRF and LCLS. The findings from these measurements are presented. Calibrated modules have already been used in proof-of-principle style protein crystallography experiments at the SLS. A first look at selected results is shown. Aspects such as the conversion of charge to number of photons, treatment of multi-size pixels and the origin of non-linear response are also discussed.

  2. Acceptance test report for the 241-SY-101 Flexible Receiver Gamma Detector System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowell, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    This Acceptance Test Report is for the 241-SY-101 Flexible Receiver Gamma Detector System. This test verified that the data logger and data converter for the gamma detector system functions as intended

  3. Project W-151 flexible receiver radiation detector system acceptance test plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troyer, G.L.

    1994-01-01

    The attached document is the Acceptance Test Plan for the portion of Project W-151 dealing with acceptance of gamma-ray detectors and associated electronics manufactured at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The document provides a written basis for testing the detector system, which will take place in the 305 building (300 Area)

  4. Full offline reconstruction in real-time with the LHCb detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00341115

    2016-01-01

    This document describes the novel, unique in High Energy Physics, real-time alignment and calibration of the full LHCb detector. The LHCb experiment has been designed as a dedicated heavy flavour physics experiment focused on the reconstruction of c and b hadrons. The LHCb detector is a single-arm forward spectrometer, which measures proton-proton interactions at the LHC. The operational bunch crossing rate is several orders of magnitude above the current abilities of data recording and storage. Therefore, a trigger system has been implemented to reduce this rate to an acceptable value. The LHCb trigger system has been redesigned during the 2013-2015 long shutdown, achieving oine-quality alignment and calibration online. It also allows analyses to be performed entirely at the trigger level. In addition, having the best performing reconstruction in the trigger gives the possibility to fully use the particle identification selection criteria and greatly increases the eciency, in particular for the selection of ...

  5. Higgs Boson in Multi-b-Jets Final States Reconstruction with Full Simulation of Atlas Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapinski, M.; Cavalli, D.

    2001-01-01

    Channels with multi-b-jet final states are very important in the discovery strategies for the Higgs boson search in ATLAS experiment at LHC. Excellent jets reconstruction efficiencies and mass resolution capability of the di-jet system are crucial aspects of the detector performance for the signal observability in these channels. Full simulation and reconstruction of the four representative channels with b-jets in final states is discussed: WH, t(anti)tH with H → b(anti)b and A → Zh, H → hh with h → b(anti)b. These channels are used as benchmark ones to study the different complexity of events, level of combinatorial background from signal itself and universality of the algorithms used for jets reconstruction and energy calibration at the wide range of energy/mass scales. Equivalently important aspect of this study is to verify applicability of the fast detector simulation, based on parametrisation of main features of the detector, for studying signal and background rates for the above channels. For that reason the detailed comparisons of the expected efficiencies and acceptances in full (based on GEANT 3) and fast simulations are shown at the different stages of the selection procedures. In general good agreement is found between results obtained in both approaches. (author)

  6. The implementation of full ATLAS detector simulation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimoldi, A.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Stavrianakou, M.; Amako, K.; Kanzaki, J.; Morita, Y.; Murakami, K.; Sasaki, T.; Saeki, T.; Ueda, I.; Tanaka, S.; Yoshida, H.

    2001-01-01

    The ATLAS detector is one of the most sophisticated and huge detectors ever designed up to now. A detailed, flexible and complete simulation program is needed in order to study the characteristics and possible problems of such a challenging apparatus and to answer to all raising questions in terms of physics, design optimization, etc. To cope with these needs the authors are implementing an application based on the simulation framework FADS/Goofy (Framework for ATLAS Detector Simulation /Geant4-based Object-Oriented Folly) in the Geant4 environment. The user's specific code implementation is presented in details for the different applications implemented until now, from the various components of the ATLAS spectrometer to some particular testbeam facilities. Particular emphasis is put in describing the simulation of the Muon Spectrometer and its subsystems as a test case for the implementation of the whole detector simulation program: the intrinsic complexity in the geometry description of the Muon System is one of the more demanding problems that are faced. The magnetic field handling, the physics impact in the event processing in presence of backgrounds from different sources and the implementation of different possible generators (including Pythia) are also discussed

  7. DAPHNE: A large-acceptance tracking detector for the study of photoreactions at intermediate energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audit, G.; Bloch, A.; Hose, N. d' ; Isbert, V.; Martin, J.; Powers, R.; Sundermann, D.; Tamas, G.; Wallace, P.A.; Bechade, J.; Carton, P.H.; Conat, S.; Foucaud, D.; Goldsticker, M. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. de Physique Nucleaire); Altieri, S.; Pedroni, P. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pavia (Italy)); Braghieri, A.; Fossati, F.; Pinelli, T. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pavia (Italy) Pavia Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica)

    1991-03-15

    A large-acceptance (94% of 4{pi} sr) hadron detector capable of handling multiparticle final states is described. The track reconstruction capability, energy resolution, particle identification capability and neutral-particle detection efficiency of the detector are discussed and the results of tests shown. Tests have been performed both with cosmic rays and in a realistic experimental situation using a 500 MeV photon beam impinging on hydrogen and deuteron targets. (orig.).

  8. Parametric fitting of data obtained from detectors with finite resolution and limited acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagunashvili, N.D.

    2011-01-01

    A goodness-of-fit test for fitting of a parametric model to data obtained from a detector with finite resolution and limited acceptance is proposed. The parameters of the model are found by minimization of a statistic that is used for comparing experimental data and simulated reconstructed data. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate and validate the fitting procedure.

  9. Feeding in full-time public schools: Do students adhere and accept?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nágila Araújo de CARVALHO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective Identifying adherence to, and acceptance of school feeding, and analyzing the factors associated with non-adherence/non-acceptance in full-time public schools in Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil. Methods Cross-sectional study with students of both sexes aged 6-14 years. Issues regarding the consumption of meals, food distribution, food eaten outside the school and socioeconomic data, including nutritional assessment of students, were investigated. Adherence to meals was defined as the consumption of school meals four to five times/week, and acceptance was defined as meal approval, using the facial hedonic scale. Results A total of 359 students participated in this study and it was observed that adherence was high for lunch (95% and afternoon snacks (78%, and low for morning snacks (44%. Acceptance did not reach the required minimum percentage of 85% for any of the meals. Factors associated with non-adherence were the presence of >4 people in a household, having meals in a refectory, the meal location being considered uncomfortable and a negative evaluation of utensils used in eating meals. Factors associated with non-acceptance were age >10 years, female sex, the negative evaluation of utensils used in eating meals and inadequate food temperature. Conclusion Lunch and afternoon snacks showed the highest adherence, but the stipulated acceptance was not reached. Non-adherence and non-acceptance were mainly associated with aspects related to school feeding. This study allowed the evaluation of feeding in full-time public schools, in order to influence its improvement.

  10. Study of the acceptance for the process p p ---> Z ---> e e at the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Horentrup, Gerrit

    2009-01-01

    One of the main goals of the ATLAS detector is the precise measurement of the process pp → Z. In this thesis the geometric and kinematic acceptance and its systematic uncertainty is studied for the decay channel Z → e +e −. Different Monte Carlo generators, with leading as well as next-toleading order matrix elements, are used for the determination of the uncertainty on the acceptance by varying or disabling various effects. The considered effects are Final and Initial State Radiation, the Underlying Event, Parton Density Functions as well as the transverse momentum of the partons inside the proton. Additionally, the acceptance and its uncertainty are determined based on events which are passed through the detector simulation and event reconstruction.

  11. SU-F-T-180: Evaluation of a Scintillating Screen Detector for Proton Beam QA and Acceptance Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghebremedhin, A; Taber, M; Koss, P; Camargo, G; Patyal, B [Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, CA (United States); Ebstein, S [Lexitek, Inc, Wellesley, MA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To test the performance of a commercial scintillating screen detector for acceptance testing and Quality Assurance of a proton pencil beam scanning system. Method: The detector (Lexitek DRD 400) has 40cm × 40cm field, uses a thin scintillator imaged onto a 16-bit scientific CCD with ∼0.5mm resolution. A grid target and LED illuminators are provided for spatial calibration and relative gain correction. The detector mounts to the nozzle with micron precision. Tools are provided for image processing and analysis of single or multiple Gaussian spots. Results: The bias and gain of the detector were studied to measure repeatability and accuracy. Gain measurements were taken with the LED illuminators to measure repeatability and variation of the lens-CCD pair as a function with f-stop. Overall system gain was measured with a passive scattering (broad) beam whose shape is calibrated with EDR film placed in front of the scintillator. To create a large uniform field, overlapping small fields were recorded with the detector translated laterally and stitched together to cover the full field. Due to the long exposures required to obtain multiple spills of the synchrotron and very high detector sensitivity, borated polyethylene shielding was added to reduce direct radiation events hitting the CCD. Measurements with a micro ion chamber were compared to the detector’s spot profile. Software was developed to process arrays of Gaussian spots and to correct for radiation events. Conclusion: The detector background has a fixed bias, a small component linear in time, and is easily corrected. The gain correction method was validated with 2% accuracy. The detector spot profile matches the micro ion chamber data over 4 orders of magnitude. The multiple spot analyses can be easily used with plan data for measuring pencil beam uniformity and for regular QA comparison.

  12. SU-F-T-180: Evaluation of a Scintillating Screen Detector for Proton Beam QA and Acceptance Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghebremedhin, A; Taber, M; Koss, P; Camargo, G; Patyal, B; Ebstein, S

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To test the performance of a commercial scintillating screen detector for acceptance testing and Quality Assurance of a proton pencil beam scanning system. Method: The detector (Lexitek DRD 400) has 40cm × 40cm field, uses a thin scintillator imaged onto a 16-bit scientific CCD with ∼0.5mm resolution. A grid target and LED illuminators are provided for spatial calibration and relative gain correction. The detector mounts to the nozzle with micron precision. Tools are provided for image processing and analysis of single or multiple Gaussian spots. Results: The bias and gain of the detector were studied to measure repeatability and accuracy. Gain measurements were taken with the LED illuminators to measure repeatability and variation of the lens-CCD pair as a function with f-stop. Overall system gain was measured with a passive scattering (broad) beam whose shape is calibrated with EDR film placed in front of the scintillator. To create a large uniform field, overlapping small fields were recorded with the detector translated laterally and stitched together to cover the full field. Due to the long exposures required to obtain multiple spills of the synchrotron and very high detector sensitivity, borated polyethylene shielding was added to reduce direct radiation events hitting the CCD. Measurements with a micro ion chamber were compared to the detector’s spot profile. Software was developed to process arrays of Gaussian spots and to correct for radiation events. Conclusion: The detector background has a fixed bias, a small component linear in time, and is easily corrected. The gain correction method was validated with 2% accuracy. The detector spot profile matches the micro ion chamber data over 4 orders of magnitude. The multiple spot analyses can be easily used with plan data for measuring pencil beam uniformity and for regular QA comparison.

  13. Tracking in full Monte Carlo detector simulations of 500 GeV e+e- collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronan, M.T.

    2000-01-01

    In full Monte Carlo simulation models of future Linear Collider detectors, charged tracks are reconstructed from 3D space points in central tracking detectors. The track reconstruction software is being developed for detailed physics studies that take realistic detector resolution and background modeling into account. At this stage of the analysis, reference tracking efficiency and resolutions for ideal detector conditions are presented. High performance detectors are being designed to carry out precision studies of e + e - annihilation events in the energy range of 500 GeV to 1.5 TeV. Physics processes under study include Higgs mass and branching ratio measurements, measurement of possible manifestations of Supersymmetry (SUSY), precision Electro-Weak (EW) studies and searches for new phenomena beyond their current expectations. The relatively-low background machine environment at future Linear Colliders will allow precise measurements if proper consideration is given to the effects of the backgrounds on these studies. In current North American design studies, full Monte Carlo detector simulation and analysis is being used to allow detector optimization taking into account realistic models of machine backgrounds. In this paper the design of tracking software that is being developed for full detector reconstruction is discussed. In this study, charged tracks are found from simulated space point hits allowing for the straight-forward addition of background hits and for the accounting of missing information. The status of the software development effort is quantified by some reference performance measures, which will be modified by future work to include background effects

  14. Acceptance analysis for a large area monopole experiment using nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegan, Monica; Popa, V.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the acceptance of a horizontal plane of 1000 m 2 nuclear track detector for an anisotropic flux of GUT magnetic monopoles (MM) with m MM ∼ 10 16 GeV and g = g D , 2g D , 3g D , considering the monopole energy loss in Earth. It is estimated that a large area experiment for the search of GUT monopoles that uses such detectors and would operate a reasonable number of years could reach a sensitivity of the order of few 10 -17 cm -2 s -1 sr -1 . (authors)

  15. The acceptance of surface detector arrays for high energy cosmological muon neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo Van Thuan; Hoang Van Khanh

    2011-01-01

    In order to search for ultra-high energy cosmological earth-skimming muon neutrinos by the surface detector array (SD) similar to one of the Pierre Auger Observatory (PAO), we propose to use the transition electromagnetic radiation at the medium interface induced by earth-skimming muons for triggering a few of aligned neighboring Cherenkov SD stations. Simulations of the acceptance of a modeling SD array have been done to estimate the detection probability of earth-skimming muon neutrinos.

  16. The Belle II DEPFET pixel vertex detector. Development of a full-scale module prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemarenko, Mikhail

    2013-11-01

    The Belle II experiment, which will start after 2015 at the SuperKEKB accelerator in Japan, will focus on the precision measurement of the CP-violation mechanism and on the search for physics beyond the Standard Model. A new detection system with an excellent spatial resolution and capable of coping with considerably increased background is required. To address this challenge, a pixel detector based on DEPFET technology has been proposed. A new all silicon integrated circuit, called Data Handling Processor (DHP), is implemented in 65 nm CMOS technology. It is designed to steer the detector and preprocess the generated data. The scope of this thesis covers DHP tests and optimization as well the development of its test environment, which is the first Full-Scale Module Prototype of the DEPFET Pixel Vertex detector.

  17. Performance of the full size nGEM detector for the SPIDER experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muraro, A., E-mail: muraro@ifp.cnr.it [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma “P. Caldirola” – CNR, Milan (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica “G. Occhialini”, University of Milano-Bicocca (Italy); Croci, G. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma “P. Caldirola” – CNR, Milan (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica “G. Occhialini”, University of Milano-Bicocca (Italy); Sez. INFN Milano-Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Albani, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica “G. Occhialini”, University of Milano-Bicocca (Italy); Claps, G. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati – INFN, Frascati (Italy); Cavenago, M. [Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro – INFN, Legnaro (Italy); Cazzaniga, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica “G. Occhialini”, University of Milano-Bicocca (Italy); Dalla Palma, M. [Consorzio RFX, Padova (Italy); Grosso, G. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma “P. Caldirola” – CNR, Milan (Italy); Murtas, F. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati – INFN, Frascati (Italy); Pasqualotto, R. [Consorzio RFX, Padova (Italy); Perelli Cippo, E. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma “P. Caldirola” – CNR, Milan (Italy); Rebai, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica “G. Occhialini”, University of Milano-Bicocca (Italy); Tardocchi, M.; Tollin, M. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma “P. Caldirola” – CNR, Milan (Italy); Gorini, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica “G. Occhialini”, University of Milano-Bicocca (Italy); Sez. INFN Milano-Bicocca, Milano (Italy)

    2016-03-21

    The ITER neutral beam test facility under construction in Padova will host two experimental devices: SPIDER, a 100 kV negative H/D RF beam source, and MITICA, a full scale, 1 MeV deuterium beam injector. SPIDER will start operations in 2016 while MITICA is expected to start during 2019. Both devices feature a beam dump used to stop the produced deuteron beam. Detection of fusion neutrons produced between beam-deuterons and dump-implanted deuterons will be used as a means to resolve the horizontal beam intensity profile. The neutron detection system will be placed right behind the beam dump, as close to the neutron emitting surface as possible thus providing the map of the neutron emission on the beam dump surface. The system uses nGEM neutron detectors. These are Gas Electron Multiplier detectors equipped with a cathode that also serves as neutron–proton converter foil. The cathode is designed to ensure that most of the detected neutrons at a point of the nGEM surface are emitted from the corresponding beamlet footprint (with dimensions of about 40×22 mm{sup 2}) on the dump front surface. The size of the nGEM detector for SPIDER is 352 mm×200 mm. Several smaller size prototypes have been successfully made in the last years and the experience gained on these detectors has led to the production of the full size detector for SPIDER during 2014. This nGEM has a read-out board made of 256 pads (arranged in a 16×16 matrix) each with a dimension of 22 mm×13 mm. This paper describes the production of this detector and its tests (in terms of beam profile reconstruction capability, uniformity over the active area, gamma rejection capability and time stability) performed on the ROTAX beam-line at the ISIS spallation source (Didcot-UK).

  18. Performance of the full size nGEM detector for the SPIDER experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muraro, A.; Croci, G.; Albani, G.; Claps, G.; Cavenago, M.; Cazzaniga, C.; Dalla Palma, M.; Grosso, G.; Murtas, F.; Pasqualotto, R.; Perelli Cippo, E.; Rebai, M.; Tardocchi, M.; Tollin, M.; Gorini, G.

    2016-01-01

    The ITER neutral beam test facility under construction in Padova will host two experimental devices: SPIDER, a 100 kV negative H/D RF beam source, and MITICA, a full scale, 1 MeV deuterium beam injector. SPIDER will start operations in 2016 while MITICA is expected to start during 2019. Both devices feature a beam dump used to stop the produced deuteron beam. Detection of fusion neutrons produced between beam-deuterons and dump-implanted deuterons will be used as a means to resolve the horizontal beam intensity profile. The neutron detection system will be placed right behind the beam dump, as close to the neutron emitting surface as possible thus providing the map of the neutron emission on the beam dump surface. The system uses nGEM neutron detectors. These are Gas Electron Multiplier detectors equipped with a cathode that also serves as neutron–proton converter foil. The cathode is designed to ensure that most of the detected neutrons at a point of the nGEM surface are emitted from the corresponding beamlet footprint (with dimensions of about 40×22 mm"2) on the dump front surface. The size of the nGEM detector for SPIDER is 352 mm×200 mm. Several smaller size prototypes have been successfully made in the last years and the experience gained on these detectors has led to the production of the full size detector for SPIDER during 2014. This nGEM has a read-out board made of 256 pads (arranged in a 16×16 matrix) each with a dimension of 22 mm×13 mm. This paper describes the production of this detector and its tests (in terms of beam profile reconstruction capability, uniformity over the active area, gamma rejection capability and time stability) performed on the ROTAX beam-line at the ISIS spallation source (Didcot-UK).

  19. Wireless fetal heart rate monitoring in inpatient full-term pregnant women: testing functionality and acceptability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeline A Boatin

    Full Text Available We tested functionality and acceptability of a wireless fetal monitoring prototype technology in pregnant women in an inpatient labor unit in the United States. Women with full-term singleton pregnancies and no evidence of active labor were asked to wear the prototype technology for 30 minutes. We assessed functionality by evaluating the ability to successfully monitor the fetal heartbeat for 30 minutes, transmit this data to Cloud storage and view the data on a web portal. Three obstetricians also rated fetal cardiotocographs on ease of readability. We assessed acceptability by administering closed and open-ended questions on perceived utility and likeability to pregnant women and clinicians interacting with the prototype technology. Thirty-two women were enrolled, 28 of whom (87.5% successfully completed 30 minutes of fetal monitoring including transmission of cardiotocographs to the web portal. Four sessions though completed, were not successfully uploaded to the Cloud storage. Six non-study clinicians interacted with the prototype technology. The primary technical problem observed was a delay in data transmission between the prototype and the web portal, which ranged from 2 to 209 minutes. Delays were ascribed to Wi-Fi connectivity problems. Recorded cardiotocographs received a mean score of 4.2/5 (± 1.0 on ease of readability with an interclass correlation of 0.81(95%CI 0.45, 0.96. Both pregnant women and clinicians found the prototype technology likable (81.3% and 66.7% respectively, useful (96.9% and 66.7% respectively, and would either use it again or recommend its use to another pregnant woman (77.4% and 66.7% respectively. In this pilot study we found that this wireless fetal monitoring prototype technology has potential for use in a United States inpatient setting but would benefit from some technology changes. We found it to be acceptable to both pregnant women and clinicians. Further research is needed to assess feasibility of

  20. Wireless fetal heart rate monitoring in inpatient full-term pregnant women: testing functionality and acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boatin, Adeline A; Wylie, Blair; Goldfarb, Ilona; Azevedo, Robin; Pittel, Elena; Ng, Courtney; Haberer, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    We tested functionality and acceptability of a wireless fetal monitoring prototype technology in pregnant women in an inpatient labor unit in the United States. Women with full-term singleton pregnancies and no evidence of active labor were asked to wear the prototype technology for 30 minutes. We assessed functionality by evaluating the ability to successfully monitor the fetal heartbeat for 30 minutes, transmit this data to Cloud storage and view the data on a web portal. Three obstetricians also rated fetal cardiotocographs on ease of readability. We assessed acceptability by administering closed and open-ended questions on perceived utility and likeability to pregnant women and clinicians interacting with the prototype technology. Thirty-two women were enrolled, 28 of whom (87.5%) successfully completed 30 minutes of fetal monitoring including transmission of cardiotocographs to the web portal. Four sessions though completed, were not successfully uploaded to the Cloud storage. Six non-study clinicians interacted with the prototype technology. The primary technical problem observed was a delay in data transmission between the prototype and the web portal, which ranged from 2 to 209 minutes. Delays were ascribed to Wi-Fi connectivity problems. Recorded cardiotocographs received a mean score of 4.2/5 (± 1.0) on ease of readability with an interclass correlation of 0.81(95%CI 0.45, 0.96). Both pregnant women and clinicians found the prototype technology likable (81.3% and 66.7% respectively), useful (96.9% and 66.7% respectively), and would either use it again or recommend its use to another pregnant woman (77.4% and 66.7% respectively). In this pilot study we found that this wireless fetal monitoring prototype technology has potential for use in a United States inpatient setting but would benefit from some technology changes. We found it to be acceptable to both pregnant women and clinicians. Further research is needed to assess feasibility of using this

  1. Gamma-ray Full Spectrum Analysis for Environmental Radioactivity by HPGe Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meeyoung Jeong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Odyssey, one of the NASA’s Mars exploration program and SELENE (Kaguya, a Japanese lunar orbiting spacecraft have a payload of Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS for analyzing radioactive chemical elements of the atmosphere and the surface. In these days, gamma-ray spectroscopy with a High-Purity Germanium (HPGe detector has been widely used for the activity measurements of natural radionuclides contained in the soil of the Earth. The energy spectra obtained by the HPGe detectors have been generally analyzed by means of the Window Analysis (WA method. In this method, activity concentrations are determined by using the net counts of energy window around individual peaks. Meanwhile, an alternative method, the so-called Full Spectrum Analysis (FSA method uses count numbers not only from full-absorption peaks but from the contributions of Compton scattering due to gamma-rays. Consequently, while it takes a substantial time to obtain a statistically significant result in the WA method, the FSA method requires a much shorter time to reach the same level of the statistical significance. This study shows the validation results of FSA method. We have compared the concentration of radioactivity of 40K, 232Th and 238U in the soil measured by the WA method and the FSA method, respectively. The gamma-ray spectrum of reference materials (RGU and RGTh, KCl and soil samples were measured by the 120% HPGe detector with cosmic muon veto detector. According to the comparison result of activity concentrations between the FSA and the WA, we could conclude that FSA method is validated against the WA method. This study implies that the FSA method can be used in a harsh measurement environment, such as the gamma-ray measurement in the Moon, in which the level of statistical significance is usually required in a much shorter data acquisition time than the WA method.

  2. A large acceptance, high-resolution detector for rare K sup + -decay experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Appel, R; Bassalleck, B; Battiste, E; Bergman, D R; Boesiger, K; Brown, D N; Castillo, V; Cheung, N; Dhawan, S; Do, H; Egger, J; Eilerts, S W; Felder, C; Fischer, H; Gach, H M; Giles, R; Gninenko, S N; Herold, W D; Hotmer, J E; Issakov, V V; Karavichev, O V; Kaspar, H; Kraus, D E; Lazarus, D M; Lebedev, V A; Leipuner, L; Lichard, P; Lowe, J; Lozano, J; Lu, T; Ma, H; Magurno, B; Majid, W; Menzel, W; Miller, C S; Nickelson, M; Ober, I; Pile, P H; Pislak, S; Poblaguev, A A; Pomianowski, P A; Postoev, V E; Proskurjakov, A L; Rehak, P; Robmann, P; Schmid, B; Sher, A; Sher, A; Shunko, E; Steiner, S; Stever, T L; Stotzer, R W; Suhov, V V; Thompson, J A; Truöl, P; Valine, C M; Weyer, H; Wolfe, D M; Zeller, M E

    2002-01-01

    The detector of the E865-collaboration at the Brookhaven-AGS described here combines a magnetic spectrometer for the charged decay products of 6 GeV/c K sup + with excellent electromagnetic calorimetry and efficient particle identification for electrons and muons. Its high-resolution, large acceptance and high rate capability made it well suited for the study of extremely rare or forbidden decays with multi-leptonic final states such as K sup +-> pi sup +mu sup + e sup - , K sup +-> pi sup + l sup + l sup - , K sup +->l sup +nu sub l e sup - e sup + and K sup +-> pi sup +pi sup - e sup +nu sub e down to branching ratios below 10 sup - sup 1 sup 1 in an intense K sup + beam (approx 10 sup 8 per AGS spill).

  3. A large acceptance, high-resolution detector for rare K+-decay experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, R.; Atoyan, G.S.; Bassalleck, B.; Battiste, E.; Bergman, D.R.; Boesiger, K.; Brown, D.N.; Castillo, V.; Cheung, N.; Dhawan, S.; Do, H.; Egger, J.; Eilerts, S.W.; Felder, C.; Fischer, H.; Gach, H.M.; Giles, R.; Gninenko, S.N.; Herold, W.D.; Hotmer, J.E.; Issakov, V.V.; Karavichev, O.V.; Kaspar, H.; Kraus, D.E.; Lazarus, D.M.; Lebedev, V.A.; Leipuner, L.; Lichard, P.; Lowe, J.; Lozano, J.; Lu, T.; Ma, H.; Magurno, B.; Majid, W.; Menzel, W.; Miller, C.S.; Nickelson, M.; Ober, I.; Pile, P.H.; Pislak, S.; Poblaguev, A.A.; Pomianowski, P.; Postoev, V.E.; Proskurjakov, A.L.; Rehak, P.; Robmann, P.; Schmid, B.; Sher, A.; Sher, Aleksey; Shunko, E.; Steiner, S.; Stever, T.L.; Stotzer, R.W.; Suhov, V.V.; Thompson, J.A.; Truoel, P.; Valine, C.; Weyer, H.; Wolfe, D.M.; Zeller, M.E.

    2002-01-01

    The detector of the E865-collaboration at the Brookhaven-AGS described here combines a magnetic spectrometer for the charged decay products of 6 GeV/c K + with excellent electromagnetic calorimetry and efficient particle identification for electrons and muons. Its high-resolution, large acceptance and high rate capability made it well suited for the study of extremely rare or forbidden decays with multi-leptonic final states such as K + →π + μ + e - , K + →π + l + l - , K + →l + ν l e - e + and K + →π + π - e + ν e down to branching ratios below 10 -11 in an intense K + beam (∼10 8 per AGS spill)

  4. A large acceptance, high-resolution detector for rare K{sup +}-decay experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appel, R.; Atoyan, G.S.; Bassalleck, B.; Battiste, E.; Bergman, D.R.; Boesiger, K.; Brown, D.N.; Castillo, V.; Cheung, N.; Dhawan, S.; Do, H.; Egger, J.; Eilerts, S.W.; Felder, C.; Fischer, H.; Gach, H.M.; Giles, R.; Gninenko, S.N.; Herold, W.D.; Hotmer, J.E.; Issakov, V.V.; Karavichev, O.V.; Kaspar, H.; Kraus, D.E.; Lazarus, D.M. E-mail: lazarus@bnl.gov; Lebedev, V.A.; Leipuner, L.; Lichard, P.; Lowe, J.; Lozano, J.; Lu, T.; Ma, H.; Magurno, B.; Majid, W.; Menzel, W.; Miller, C.S.; Nickelson, M.; Ober, I.; Pile, P.H.; Pislak, S.; Poblaguev, A.A.; Pomianowski, P.; Postoev, V.E.; Proskurjakov, A.L.; Rehak, P.; Robmann, P.; Schmid, B.; Sher, A.; Sher, Aleksey; Shunko, E.; Steiner, S.; Stever, T.L.; Stotzer, R.W.; Suhov, V.V.; Thompson, J.A.; Truoel, P. E-mail: truoel@phyzik.unizh.ch; Valine, C.; Weyer, H.; Wolfe, D.M.; Zeller, M.E

    2002-03-01

    The detector of the E865-collaboration at the Brookhaven-AGS described here combines a magnetic spectrometer for the charged decay products of 6 GeV/c K{sup +} with excellent electromagnetic calorimetry and efficient particle identification for electrons and muons. Its high-resolution, large acceptance and high rate capability made it well suited for the study of extremely rare or forbidden decays with multi-leptonic final states such as K{sup +}{yields}{pi}{sup +}{mu}{sup +}e{sup -}, K{sup +}{yields}{pi}{sup +}l{sup +}l{sup -}, K{sup +}{yields}l{sup +}{nu}{sub l}e{sup -}e{sup +} and K{sup +}{yields}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}e{sup +}{nu}{sub e} down to branching ratios below 10{sup -11} in an intense K{sup +} beam ({approx}10{sup 8} per AGS spill)

  5. Densities mixture unfolding for data obtained from detectors with finite resolution and limited acceptance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagunashvili, N.D., E-mail: nikolai@unak.is

    2015-04-01

    A procedure based on a Mixture Density Model for correcting experimental data for distortions due to finite resolution and limited detector acceptance is presented. Addressing the case that the solution is known to be non-negative, in the approach presented here, the true distribution is estimated by a weighted sum of probability density functions with positive weights and with the width of the densities acting as a regularization parameter responsible for the smoothness of the result. To obtain better smoothing in less populated regions, the width parameter is chosen inversely proportional to the square root of the estimated density. Furthermore, the non-negative garrote method is used to find the most economic representation of the solution. Cross-validation is employed to determine the optimal values of the resolution and garrote parameters. The proposed approach is directly applicable to multidimensional problems. Numerical examples in one and two dimensions are presented to illustrate the procedure.

  6. Gamma-ray Full Spectrum Analysis for Environmental Radioactivity by HPGe Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Meeyoung; Lee, Kyeong Beom; Kim, Kyeong Ja; Lee, Min-Kie; Han, Ju-Bong

    2014-12-01

    Odyssey, one of the NASA¡¯s Mars exploration program and SELENE (Kaguya), a Japanese lunar orbiting spacecraft have a payload of Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) for analyzing radioactive chemical elements of the atmosphere and the surface. In these days, gamma-ray spectroscopy with a High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector has been widely used for the activity measurements of natural radionuclides contained in the soil of the Earth. The energy spectra obtained by the HPGe detectors have been generally analyzed by means of the Window Analysis (WA) method. In this method, activity concentrations are determined by using the net counts of energy window around individual peaks. Meanwhile, an alternative method, the so-called Full Spectrum Analysis (FSA) method uses count numbers not only from full-absorption peaks but from the contributions of Compton scattering due to gamma-rays. Consequently, while it takes a substantial time to obtain a statistically significant result in the WA method, the FSA method requires a much shorter time to reach the same level of the statistical significance. This study shows the validation results of FSA method. We have compared the concentration of radioactivity of 40K, 232Th and 238U in the soil measured by the WA method and the FSA method, respectively. The gamma-ray spectrum of reference materials (RGU and RGTh, KCl) and soil samples were measured by the 120% HPGe detector with cosmic muon veto detector. According to the comparison result of activity concentrations between the FSA and the WA, we could conclude that FSA method is validated against the WA method. This study implies that the FSA method can be used in a harsh measurement environment, such as the gamma-ray measurement in the Moon, in which the level of statistical significance is usually required in a much shorter data acquisition time than the WA method.

  7. Detector evaluation of a prototype amorphous selenium-based full field digital mammography system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesneck, Jonathan L.; Saunders, Robert S.; Samei, Ehsan; Xia, Jessie Q.; Lo, Joseph Y.

    2005-04-01

    This study evaluated the physical performance of a selenium-based direct full-field digital mammography prototype detector (Siemens Mammomat NovationDR), including the pixel value vs. exposure linearity, the modulation transfer function (MTF), the normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS), and the detective quantum efficiency (DQE). The current detector is the same model which received an approvable letter from FDA for release to the US market. The results of the current prototype are compared to those of an earlier prototype. Two IEC standard beam qualities (RQA-M2: Mo/Mo, 28 kVp, 2 mm Al; RQA-M4: Mo/Mo, 35 kVp, 2 mm Al) and two additional beam qualities (MW2: W/Rh, 28 kVp, 2 mm Al; MW4: W/Rh, 35 kVp, 2 mm Al) were investigated. To calculate the modulation transfer function (MTF), a 0.1 mm Pt-Ir edge was imaged at each beam quality. Detector pixel values responded linearly against exposure values (R2 0.999). As before, above 6 cycles/mm Mo/Mo MTF was slightly higher along the chest-nipple axis compared to the left-right axis. MTF was comparable to the previously reported prototype, with slightly reduced resolution. The DQE peaks ranged from 0.71 for 3.31 μC/kg (12.83 mR) to 0.4 for 0.48 μC/kg (1.86 mR) at 1.75 cycles/mm for Mo/Mo at 28 kVp. The DQE range for W/Rh at 28 kVP was 0.81 at 2.03 μC/kg (7.87 mR) to 0.50 at 0.50 μC/kg (1.94 mR) at 1 cycle/mm. NNPS tended to increase with greater exposures, while all exposures had a significant low-frequency component. Bloom and detector edge artifacts observed previously were no longer present in this prototype. The new detector shows marked noise improvement, with slightly reduced resolution. There remain artifacts due to imperfect gain calibration, but at a reduced magnitude compared to a prototype detector.

  8. Full-Scale Cask Testing and Public Acceptance of Spent Nuclear Fuel Shipments - 12254

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilger, Fred [Black Mountain Research, Henderson, NV 81012 (United States); Halstead, Robert J. [State of Nevada Agency for Nuclear Projects Carson City, NV 80906 (United States); Ballard, James D. [Department of Sociology, California State University, Northridge Northridge, CA 91330 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Full-scale physical testing of spent fuel shipping casks has been proposed by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) 2006 report on spent nuclear fuel transportation, and by the Presidential Blue Ribbon Commission (BRC) on America's Nuclear Future 2011 draft report. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 2005 proposed full-scale testing of a rail cask, and considered 'regulatory limits' testing of both rail and truck casks (SRM SECY-05-0051). The recent U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) cancellation of the Yucca Mountain project, NRC evaluation of extended spent fuel storage (possibly beyond 60-120 years) before transportation, nuclear industry adoption of very large dual-purpose canisters for spent fuel storage and transport, and the deliberations of the BRC, will fundamentally change assumptions about the future spent fuel transportation system, and reopen the debate over shipping cask performance in severe accidents and acts of sabotage. This paper examines possible approaches to full-scale testing for enhancing public confidence in risk analyses, perception of risk, and acceptance of spent fuel shipments. The paper reviews the literature on public perception of spent nuclear fuel and nuclear waste transportation risks. We review and summarize opinion surveys sponsored by the State of Nevada over the past two decades, which show consistent patterns of concern among Nevada residents about health and safety impacts, and socioeconomic impacts such as reduced property values along likely transportation routes. We also review and summarize the large body of public opinion survey research on transportation concerns at regional and national levels. The paper reviews three past cask testing programs, the way in which these cask testing program results were portrayed in films and videos, and examines public and official responses to these three programs: the 1970's impact and fire testing of spent fuel truck casks at Sandia National

  9. Fast Monte Carlo-simulator with full collimator and detector response modelling for SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohlberg, A.O.; Kajaste, M.T.

    2012-01-01

    Monte Carlo (MC)-simulations have proved to be a valuable tool in studying single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)-reconstruction algorithms. Despite their popularity, the use of Monte Carlo-simulations is still often limited by their large computation demand. This is especially true in situations where full collimator and detector modelling with septal penetration, scatter and X-ray fluorescence needs to be included. This paper presents a rapid and simple MC-simulator, which can effectively reduce the computation times. The simulator was built on the convolution-based forced detection principle, which can markedly lower the number of simulated photons. Full collimator and detector response look-up tables are pre-simulated and then later used in the actual MC-simulations to model the system response. The developed simulator was validated by comparing it against 123 I point source measurements made with a clinical gamma camera system and against 99m Tc software phantom simulations made with the SIMIND MC-package. The results showed good agreement between the new simulator, measurements and the SIMIND-package. The new simulator provided near noise-free projection data in approximately 1.5 min per projection with 99m Tc, which was less than one-tenth of SIMIND's time. The developed MC-simulator can markedly decrease the simulation time without sacrificing image quality. (author)

  10. Standardisation of {sup 18}F by a coincidence method using full solid angle detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedjadi, Youcef, E-mail: youcef.nedjadi@chuv.c [Institut de Radiophysique Appliquee, Grand Pre 1, 1007 Lausanne (Switzerland); Bailat, Claude; Caffari, Yvan; Bochud, Francois [Institut de Radiophysique Appliquee, Grand Pre 1, 1007 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2010-07-15

    A solution of {sup 18}F was standardised with a 4{pi}{beta}-4{pi}{gamma} coincidence counting system in which the beta detector is a one-inch diameter cylindrical UPS89 plastic scintillator, positioned at the bottom of a well-type 5''x5'' NaI(Tl) gamma-ray detector. Almost full detection efficiency-which was varied downwards electronically-was achieved in the beta-channel. Aliquots of this {sup 18}F solution were also measured using 4{pi}{gamma} NaI(Tl) integral counting and Monte Carlo calculated efficiencies as well as the CIEMAT-NIST method. Secondary measurements of the same solution were also performed with an IG11 ionisation chamber whose equivalent activity is traceable to the Systeme International de Reference through the contribution IRA-METAS made to it in 2001; IRA's degree of equivalence was found to be close to the key comparison reference value (KCRV). The {sup 18}F activity predicted by this coincidence system agrees closely with the ionisation chamber measurement and is compatible within one standard deviation of the other primary measurements. This work demonstrates that our new coincidence system can standardise short-lived radionuclides used in nuclear medicine.

  11. Full energy peak efficiency of composite detectors for high energy gamma-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kshetri, Ritesh

    2015-01-01

    Experiments involving radioactive beams demand high detection efficiencies. One of the ways to obtain high detection efficiency without deteriorating the energy resolution or timing characteristics is the use of composite detectors which are composed of standard HPGe crystals arranged in a compact way. Two simplest composite detectors are the clover and cluster detectors. The TRIUMF-ISAC Gamma-Ray Escape-Suppressed Spectrometer (TIGRESS) comprises of 16 large volume, 32-fold segmented HPGe clover detectors, where each detector is shielded by a 20-fold segmented escape suppression shield (ESS)

  12. A Large-Acceptance Detector System for Electron Scattering from Polarized Internal targets.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passchier, E.; Bouwhuis, M.; Choi, S.; Zhou, Z.L.; Alarcon, R.; Anghinolfi, M.; Botto, T.; van den Brand, J.F.J.; Bulten, H.J.; Dimitroyannis, D.; Doets, M.; Ent, R.; Ferro Luzzi, M.M.E.; Higinbotham, D.W.; de Jager, C.W.; Lang, J.; de Lange, D.J.; Nikolenko, D.; Nooren, G.J.; Papadakis, N.; Passchier, I.; Popov, S.G.; Rachek, I.; Ripani, M.; Steijger, J.J.M.; Taiuti, M.; Vodinas, N.; de Vries, H.

    1997-01-01

    The design and the performance of a non-magnetic detector setup for internal target physics at the NIKHEF electron-scattering facility is described. The detector setup, used in the first internal-target experiment at the AmPS ring, measures the spin dependence in the elastic and break-up reaction

  13. Top quark mass measurement in the lepton+jets channel using full simulation of the CMS detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasselmann, S.

    2007-01-01

    In summer 2008 the world largest proton-proton storage ring, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), at CERN close to Geneva (Switzerland) will go into service. With a collision energy of 14 TeV the production cross section for top/antitop quarks (t anti t) is about 830 pb (NLO). The top quarks almost exclusively decay into a W boson and a b quark via the weak interaction. In about 44.4% of all events one of the top quarks decays into a lepton and neutrino while the other one decays into two light quarks (semileptonic decay chain). This channel therefore provides a good selection purity (lepton b tagging) and the possibility for the complete reconstruction of the hadronically decaying top quark into three jets. After a short introduction of top quark physics at the LHC and the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector, this thesis deals with the analyses of top quark reconstruction and mass measurement in two different scenarios. In the first analysis a first physics scenario is taken as a basis where no jet flavour information (e.g. b tagging) and only a reduced detector acceptance region for electron identification is assumed. It is shown that semileptonic top quark pair decays can nevertheless be identified with a signal over background ratio of about S/B=2.4. For this study signal and main background processes using full simulation of the CMS detector have been produced for an integrated luminosity of 0.1 fb -1 . Especially event shape variables are adequate to compensate the missing b jet tagging. The semileptonic channel is the most promising one to rediscover the top quark at the LHC due to the lepton in the final state. In this scenario the needed integrated luminosity has been calculated to be about 2 pb -1 assuming Poisson distributions for the number of signal and background events. A second analysis focusses on the top quark mass measurement in a scenario where the CMS detector is fully equipped and has almost reached its design performance. Therefore data for an

  14. Top quark mass measurement in the lepton+jets channel using full simulation of the CMS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasselmann, S

    2007-11-22

    In summer 2008 the world largest proton-proton storage ring, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), at CERN close to Geneva (Switzerland) will go into service. With a collision energy of 14 TeV the production cross section for top/antitop quarks (t anti t) is about 830 pb (NLO). The top quarks almost exclusively decay into a W boson and a b quark via the weak interaction. In about 44.4% of all events one of the top quarks decays into a lepton and neutrino while the other one decays into two light quarks (semileptonic decay chain). This channel therefore provides a good selection purity (lepton b tagging) and the possibility for the complete reconstruction of the hadronically decaying top quark into three jets. After a short introduction of top quark physics at the LHC and the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector, this thesis deals with the analyses of top quark reconstruction and mass measurement in two different scenarios. In the first analysis a first physics scenario is taken as a basis where no jet flavour information (e.g. b tagging) and only a reduced detector acceptance region for electron identification is assumed. It is shown that semileptonic top quark pair decays can nevertheless be identified with a signal over background ratio of about S/B=2.4. For this study signal and main background processes using full simulation of the CMS detector have been produced for an integrated luminosity of 0.1 fb{sup -1}. Especially event shape variables are adequate to compensate the missing b jet tagging. The semileptonic channel is the most promising one to rediscover the top quark at the LHC due to the lepton in the final state. In this scenario the needed integrated luminosity has been calculated to be about 2 pb{sup -1} assuming Poisson distributions for the number of signal and background events. A second analysis focusses on the top quark mass measurement in a scenario where the CMS detector is fully equipped and has almost reached its design performance. Therefore data

  15. Full energy peak efficiency of NaI(Tl) gamma detectors and its analytical and semi-empirical representations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudarshan, M.; Joseph, J.; Singh, R.

    1992-01-01

    The validity of various analytical functions and semi-empirical formulae proposed for representing the full energy peak efficiency (FEPE) curves of Ge(Li) and HPGe detectors has been tested for the FEPE of 7.6 cm x 7.6 cm and 5 cm x 5 cm Nal(Tl) detectors in the gamma energy range from 59.5 to 1408.03 keV. The functions proposed by East, and McNelles and Campbell provide by far the best representations of the present data. The semi-empirical formula of Mowatt describes the present data very well. The present investigation shows that some of the analytical functions and semi-empirical formulae, which represent the FEPE of the Ge(Li) and HPGe detectors very well, can be quite fruitfully used for Nal(Tl) detectors. (Author)

  16. Neutrino oscillations with the full IceCube DeepCore detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanez Garza, Juan Pablo [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Collaboration: IceCube-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    The IceCube detector and its low energy extension, DeepCore, have recorded over 300,000 atmospheric neutrino events since completion almost two years ago. With an energy threshold of about 10 GeV and the possibility of observing different baselines between source and detector location, these events can be used to probe neutrino oscillations with unprecedented statistics. However, the measurement uncertainties, due to unknown properties of the detector and the medium where it stands, limit the sensitivity of such a study. The particular analysis under discussion is a special attempt to diminish the impact of systematic uncertainties while keeping a large high quality neutrino sample. The tools developed for it, as well as the current status of the analysis are presented.

  17. In Shop Acceptance Test Report for the SY Farm Annulus Leak Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SMITH, S.G.

    1999-01-01

    The following test report was written for the SY tank farm annulus leak detectors. The test plan used was HNF-4546, Revision 1. The purpose of the test plan was to test the ENRAF series 854 ATG with SPU II card prior to installation. The test plan set various parameters and verifies the gauge and alarms functionality

  18. Enlarged acceptance angle of a finite size detector in photoacoustic imaging using acoustic lenses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, W.; Piras, D.; Heijblom, Michelle; van Hespen, Johannes C.G.; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; Manohar, Srirang; van Veldhoven, Spiridon; Prins, Christian; van Leeuwen, Ton

    2011-01-01

    A large surface area transducer is preferable to be used to detect extremely weak photoacoustic signals in mammography due to its high sensitivity. The lateral resolution is limited by the small acceptance angle of such a transducer. We introduce an excellent material for an acoustic lens used to

  19. Vacuum technology; acceptance specifications for mass spectrometer-type leak-detector, terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-03-01

    The terms are for the better understanding in specialist talks, dealings and acceptance regulations, as well as publications and company catalogues. For international information, the specialist terms in the anglo-saxon and french language sphere are given. They are not part of the standard. (orig./LH) [de

  20. AX-PET A novel PET detector concept with full 3D reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Braem, A; Séguinot, J; Dissertori, G; Djambazov, L; Lustermann, W; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Pauss, F; Schinzel, D; Solevi, P; Lacasta, C; Oliver, J F; Rafecas, M; De Leo, R; Nappi, E; Vilardi, I; Chesi, E; Cochran, E; Honscheid, K; Kagan, H; Rudge, A; Smith, S; Weilhammer, P; Johnson, I; Renker, D; Clinthorne, N; Huh, S; Bolle, E; Stapnes, S; Meddi, F

    2009-01-01

    We describe the concept and first experimental tests of a novel 3D axial Positron Emission Tomography (PET) geometry. It allows for a new way of measuring the interaction point in the detector with very high precision. It is based on a matrix of long Lutetium-Yttrium OxyorthoSilicate (LYSO) crystals oriented in the axial direction, each coupled to one Geiger Mode Avalanche Photodiode (G-APD) array. To derive the axial coordinate, Wave Length Shifter (WLS) strips are mounted orthogonally and interleaved between the crystals. The light from the WLS strips is read by custom-made G-APDs. The weighted mean of the signals in the WLS strips has proven to give very precise axial resolution. The achievable resolution along the three axes is mainly driven by the dimensions of the LYSO crystals and WLS strips. This concept is inherently free of parallax errors. Furthermore, it will allow identification of Compton interactions in the detector and for reconstruction of a fraction of them, which is expected to enhance imag...

  1. LHCb full-detector real-time alignment and calibration: latest developments and perspective

    CERN Multimedia

    Dziurda, Agnieszka

    2018-01-01

    A key ingredient of the data taking strategy used by the LHCb experiment at CERN in Run 2 is the novel real-time detector alignment and calibration. Data collected at the start of the fill are processed within minutes and used to update the alignment, while the calibration constants are evaluated hourly. This is one of the key elements which allow the reconstruction quality of the software trigger in Run-II to be as good as the offline quality of Run 1. The most recent developments of the real-time alignment and calibration paradigm enable the fully automated updates of the RICH detectors' mirror alignment and a novel calibration of the calorimeter systems. Both evolutions improve the particle identification performance stability resulting in higher purity selections. The latter leads also to an improvement in the energy measurement of neutral particles, resulting in a 15% better mass resolution of radiative b-hadron decays. A large variety of improvements has been explored for the last year of Run 2 data tak...

  2. Assembly and Electrical Tests of the First Full-size Forward Module for the ATLAS ITk Strip Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Argos, Carlos; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment will replace the existing Inner Detector by an all-silicon detector named the Inner Tracker (ITk) for the High Luminosity LHC upgrades. In the outer region of the Inner Tracker is the strip detector, which consists of a four layer barrel and six discs to each side of the barrel, with silicon-strip modules as basic units. Each module is composed of a sensor and one or more flex circuits that hold the read-out electronics. In the experiment, the modules are mounted on support structures with integrated power and cooling. The modules are designed with geometries that accommodate the central and forward regions, with rectangular sensors in the barrels and wedge shaped sensors in the end-caps. The strips lengths and pitch sizes vary according to the occupancy of the region. In this contribution, we present the construction and results of the electrical tests of the first full-size module of the innermost forward region, named \\textit{Ring 0} in the ATLAS ITk strip detector nomenclature. This m...

  3. Assembly and Electrical Tests of the First Full-size Forward Module for the ATLAS ITk Strip Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Argos, Carlos; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment will replace the existing Inner Detector by an all-silicon detector named the Inner Tracker (ITk) for the High Luminosity LHC upgrades. In the outer region of the Inner Tracker is the strip detector, which consists of a four layer barrel and six discs to each side of the barrel, with silicon-strip modules as basic units. Each module is composed of a sensor and one or more flex circuits that hold the read-out electronics. In the experiment, the modules are mounted on support structures with integrated power and cooling. The modules are designed with geometries that accommodate the central and forward regions, with rectangular sensors in the barrels and wedge shaped sensors in the end-caps. The strips lengths and pitch sizes vary according to the occupancy of the region. In this contribution, we present the construction and the results of the electrical tests of the first full-size module of the innermost forward region, named Ring 0 in the ATLAS ITk strip detector nomenclature. This module...

  4. Determination of the full energy peak efficiency of NaI(Tl) detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesana, A.; Terrani, M.

    1978-01-01

    A simple procedure for the accurate evaluation of the full energy peak efficiency of NaI(Tl) crystals is described. Particular attention is given to the peak to total ratio determination for which a new method is proposed. (author)

  5. Normalized noise power spectrum of full field digital mammography detector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norriza Mohd Isa; Wan Muhamad Saridan Wan Hassan

    2009-01-01

    Full text: A method to measure noise power spectrum of a full field digital mammography system is presented. The effect of X-ray radiation dose, size and configuration of region of interest on normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS) was investigated. Flat field images were acquired using RQA-M2 beam quality technique (Mo/Mo anode-filter, 28 kV, 2 mm Al) with different clinical radiation doses. The images were cropped at about 4 cm from the edge of the breast wall and then divided into different size of non-overlapping or overlapping segments. NNPS was determined through de trending, 2-D fast Fourier transformation and normalization. Our measurement shows that high radiation dose gave lower NNPS at a specific beam quality. (author)

  6. Determination of the dead layer and full-energy peak efficiency of an HPGe detector using the MCNP code and experimental results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Moeinifar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available One important factor in using an High Purity Germanium (HPGe detector is its efficiency that highly depends on the geometry and absorption factors, so that when the configuration of source-detector geometry is changed, the detector efficiency must be re-measured. The best way of determining the efficiency of a detector is measuring the efficiency of standard sources. But considering the fact that standard sources are hardly available and it is time consuming to find them, determinig the efficiency by simulation which gives enough efficiency in less time, is important. In this study, the dead layer thickness and the full-energy peak efficiency of an HPGe detector was obtained by Monte Carlo simulation, using MCNPX code. For this, we first measured gamma–ray spectra for different sources placed at various distances from the detector and stored the measured spectra obtained. Then the obtained spectra were simulated under similar conditions in vitro.At first, the whole volume of germanium was regarded as active, and the obtaind spectra from calculation were compared with the corresponding experimental spectra. Comparison of the calculated spectra with the measured spectra showed considerable differences. By making small variations in the dead layer thickness of the detector (about a few hundredths of a millimeter in the simulation program, we tried to remove these differences and in this way a dead layer of 0.57 mm was obtained for the detector. By incorporating this value for the dead layer in the simulating program, the full-energy peak efficiency of the detector was then obtained both by experiment and by simulation, for various sources at various distances from the detector, and both methods showed good agreements. Then, using MCNP code and considering the exact measurement system, one can conclude that the efficiency of an HPGe detector for various source-detector geometries can be calculated with rather good accuracy by simulation method

  7. Topics in the Measurement of Top Quark Events with ATLAS Pixel Detector Optoelectronics, Track Impact Parameter Calibration, Acceptance Correction Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Sandvoss, Stephan Alexander

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents methods, which can be applied especially to the measurement of top quark events with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of CERN. Contributions to three fields were made: installation of the detector and its commissioning, data calibration and first physical analysis.

  8. Design of front end electronics and a full scale 4k pixel readout ASIC for the DSSC X-ray detector at the European XFEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdinger, Florian

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this thesis was to design a large scale readout ASIC for the 1-Mega pixel DEPFET Sensor with Signal Compression (DSSC) detector system which is being developed by an international collaboration for the European XFEL (EuXFEL). Requirements for the DSSC detector include single photon detection down to 0.5 keV combined with a large dynamic range of up to 10000 photons at frame rates of up to 4.5 MHz. The detector core concepts include full parallel readout, signal compression on the sensor or ASIC level, filtering, immediate digitization and local storage within the pixel. The DSSC is a hybrid pixel detector, each sensor pixel mates to a dedicated ASIC pixel, which includes the entire specified signal processing chain along with auxiliary circuits. One ASIC comprises 4096 pixels and a full periphery including biasing and digital control. This thesis presents the design of the ASIC, its components and integration are described in detail. Emphasis is put on the design of the analog front-end. The first full format ASIC (F1) has been fabricated within the scope of this thesis along with numerous test chips. Furthermore, the EuXFEL and the DSSC detector system are presented to create the context for the ASIC, which is the core topic of this thesis.

  9. Design of front end electronics and a full scale 4k pixel readout ASIC for the DSSC X-ray detector at the European XFEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdinger, Florian

    2016-11-22

    The goal of this thesis was to design a large scale readout ASIC for the 1-Mega pixel DEPFET Sensor with Signal Compression (DSSC) detector system which is being developed by an international collaboration for the European XFEL (EuXFEL). Requirements for the DSSC detector include single photon detection down to 0.5 keV combined with a large dynamic range of up to 10000 photons at frame rates of up to 4.5 MHz. The detector core concepts include full parallel readout, signal compression on the sensor or ASIC level, filtering, immediate digitization and local storage within the pixel. The DSSC is a hybrid pixel detector, each sensor pixel mates to a dedicated ASIC pixel, which includes the entire specified signal processing chain along with auxiliary circuits. One ASIC comprises 4096 pixels and a full periphery including biasing and digital control. This thesis presents the design of the ASIC, its components and integration are described in detail. Emphasis is put on the design of the analog front-end. The first full format ASIC (F1) has been fabricated within the scope of this thesis along with numerous test chips. Furthermore, the EuXFEL and the DSSC detector system are presented to create the context for the ASIC, which is the core topic of this thesis.

  10. Detection in coincidence of gravitational wave bursts with a network of interferometric detectors: Geometric acceptance and timing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnaud, Nicolas; Barsuglia, Matteo; Bizouard, Marie-Anne; Canitrot, Philippe; Cavalier, Fabien; Davier, Michel; Hello, Patrice; Pradier, Thierry

    2002-01-01

    Detecting gravitational wave bursts (characterized by short durations and poorly modeled waveforms) requires coincidences between several interferometric detectors in order to reject nonstationary noise events. As the wave amplitude seen in a detector depends on its location with respect to the source direction and as the signal to noise ratio of these bursts is expected to be low, coincidences between antennas may not be very likely. This paper investigates this question from a statistical point of view by using a simple model of a network of detectors; it also estimates the timing precision of a detection in an interferometer, which is an important issue for the reconstruction of the source location based on time delays

  11. Performance of the NOνA Data Acquisition and Trigger Systems for the full 14 kT Far Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, A.; Ding, P.F.; Rebel, B.; Shanahan, P.; Davies, G.S.; Niner, E.; Dukes, E.C.; Frank, M.J.; Group, R.C.; Henderson, W.; Mina, R.; Oksuzian, Y.; Duyan, H.; Habig, A.; Moren, A.; Tomsen, K.; Mualem, L.; Sheshukov, A.; Tamsett, M.; Vinton, L.

    2015-01-01

    The NOvA experiment uses a continuous, free-running, dead-timeless data acquisition system to collect data from the 14 kT far detector. The DAQ system readouts the more than 344,000 detector channels and assembles the information into an raw unfiltered high bandwidth data stream. The NOvA trigger systems operate in parallel to the readout and asynchronously to the primary DAQ readout/event building chain. The data driven triggering systems for NOvA are unique in that they examine long contiguous time windows of the high resolution readout data and enable the detector to be sensitive to a wide range of physics interactions from those with fast, nanosecond scale signals up to processes with long delayed coincidences between hits which occur at the tens of milliseconds time scale. The trigger system is able to achieve a true 100% live time for the detector, making it sensitive to both beam spill related and off-spill physics. (paper)

  12. Study of inter-strip gap effects and efficiency for full energy detection of double sided silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisichella, M.; Forneris, J.; Grassi, L.

    2015-01-01

    We performed a characterization of Double Sided Silicon Strip Detectors (DSSSD) with the aim to carry out a systematic study of the inter-strip effects on the energy measurement of charged particles. The dependence of the DSSSD response on ion, energy and applied bias has been investigated. (author)

  13. Proposal for a Full-Scale Prototype Single-Phase Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber and Detector Beam Test at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Kutter, T

    2015-01-01

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) will use a large liquid argon (LAr) detector to measure the CP violating phase, determine the neutrino mass hier- archy and perform precision tests of the three-flavor paradigm in long-baseline neutrino oscillations. The detector will consist of four modules each with a fiducial mass of 10 kt of LAr and due to its unprecedented size will allow sensitive searches for proton decay and the detection and measurement of electron neutrinos from core collapse supernovae [1]. The first 10 kt module will use single-phase LAr detection technique and be itself modular in design. The successful manufacturing, installation and operation of several full-scale detector components in a suitable configuration represents a critical engineering milestone prior to the construction and operation of the first full 10 kt DUNE detector module at the SURF underground site. A charged particle beam test of a prototype detector will provide critical calibration measurements as well as inva...

  14. ENRAF Series 854 Advanced Technology Gauge (ATG) with SPU II card for Leak Detector Use Acceptance Test Procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SMITH, S.G.

    1999-01-01

    The following Acceptance Test Procedure was written to test the ENRAF series 854 ATG with SPU II card prior to installation in the Tank Farms. The procedure sets various parameters and verifies the gauge and alarms functionality

  15. ENRAF Series 854 Advanced Technology Gauge (ATG) with SPU ll Card for Leak Detector Use Acceptance Test Procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SMITH, S.G.

    1999-01-01

    The following Acceptance Test Procedure was written to test the Enraf Series 854 ATG with SPU-II card prior to installation in the Tank Farms. The procedure sets various parameters and verifies the gauge and the alarms functionality

  16. Full characterization of laser-accelerated ion beams using Faraday cup, silicon carbide, and single-crystal diamond detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margarone, D.; Krása, J.; Giuffrida, L.; Picciotto, A.; Torrisi, L.; Nowak, T.; Musumeci, P.; Velyhan, A.; Prokůpek, J.; Láska, L.; Mocek, T.; Ullschmied, J.; Rus, B.

    2011-05-01

    Multi-MeV beams of light ions have been produced using the 300 picosecond, kJ-class iodine laser, operating at the Prague Asterix Laser System facility in Prague. Real-time ion diagnostics have been performed by the use of various time-of-flight (TOF) detectors: ion collectors (ICs) with and without absorber thin films, new prototypes of single-crystal diamond and silicon carbide detectors, and an electrostatic ion mass spectrometer (IEA). In order to suppress the long photopeak induced by soft X-rays and to avoid the overlap with the signal from ultrafast particles, the ICs have been shielded with Al foil filters. The application of large-bandgap semiconductor detectors (>3 eV) ensured cutting of the plasma-emitted visible and soft-UV radiation and enhancing the sensitivity to the very fast proton/ion beams. Employing the IEA spectrometer, various ion species and charge states in the expanding laser-plasma have been determined. Processing of the experimental data based on the TOF technique, including estimation of the plasma fast proton maximum and peak energy, ion beam currents and total charge, total number of fast protons, as well as deconvolution processes, ion stopping power, and ion/photon transmission calculations for the different metallic filters used, are reported.

  17. Imaging performance of a full-ring prototype PET-MRI system based on four-layer DOI-PET detectors integrated with a RF coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikido, Fumihiko; Tashima, Hideaki [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Suga, Mikio [Chiba University, Chiba (Japan); Inadama, Naoko; Eiji, Yoshida; Obata, Takayuki; Yamaya, Taiga [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    2015-05-18

    We are developing a PET system integrated with a birdcage RF-coil for PET-MRI in order to realize both high sensitivity and high spatial resolution of the PET image by using the 4-layered depth-of-interaction (DOI) PET detector. We constructed a full-ring prototype system and evaluated performances, especially imaging performance, of the prototype system in simultaneous measurement. The prototype system consists of eight four-layer DOI-PET detectors and a prototype birdcage RF-coil developed for the proposed system. The PET detectors consist of six monolithic multi-pixel photon counter array (S11064-050P), a readout circuit, fourlayer DOI scintillator arrays and a shielding box made of 35 μm thick copper foil. The crystal array consists of 2.0 mm x 2.0 mm x 5.0 mm LYSO crystals arranged in 38 x 6 x 4 layer. The RF-coil has eight coil elements and the eight PET detectors are positioned at each element gap. The diameter of the RF-coil elements is 261 mm. We conducted performance tests of the prototype system with a 3.0 T MRI (MAGNETOM Verio). Only the PET detectors, the RF-coil and the cables were in an MRI room during measurements. A data acquisition system and power supplies for the MPPCs and preamplifiers were outside the MRI room and connected to all the detectors through a penetration panel. As a result, the spatial resolutions of a Na-22 point source in the PET image were lower than 1.6 mm in whole the FOV due to the DOI capability. In addition, the influence of the simultaneous measurements on the PET performance is negligible. On the other hand, the SNR of the phantom image in the magnitude images was degraded from 259.7 to 209.4 due to noise contamination from the power supplies.

  18. Imaging performance of a full-ring prototype PET-MRI system based on four-layer DOI-PET detectors integrated with a RF coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikido, Fumihiko; Tashima, Hideaki; Suga, Mikio; Inadama, Naoko; Eiji, Yoshida; Obata, Takayuki; Yamaya, Taiga

    2015-01-01

    We are developing a PET system integrated with a birdcage RF-coil for PET-MRI in order to realize both high sensitivity and high spatial resolution of the PET image by using the 4-layered depth-of-interaction (DOI) PET detector. We constructed a full-ring prototype system and evaluated performances, especially imaging performance, of the prototype system in simultaneous measurement. The prototype system consists of eight four-layer DOI-PET detectors and a prototype birdcage RF-coil developed for the proposed system. The PET detectors consist of six monolithic multi-pixel photon counter array (S11064-050P), a readout circuit, fourlayer DOI scintillator arrays and a shielding box made of 35 μm thick copper foil. The crystal array consists of 2.0 mm x 2.0 mm x 5.0 mm LYSO crystals arranged in 38 x 6 x 4 layer. The RF-coil has eight coil elements and the eight PET detectors are positioned at each element gap. The diameter of the RF-coil elements is 261 mm. We conducted performance tests of the prototype system with a 3.0 T MRI (MAGNETOM Verio). Only the PET detectors, the RF-coil and the cables were in an MRI room during measurements. A data acquisition system and power supplies for the MPPCs and preamplifiers were outside the MRI room and connected to all the detectors through a penetration panel. As a result, the spatial resolutions of a Na-22 point source in the PET image were lower than 1.6 mm in whole the FOV due to the DOI capability. In addition, the influence of the simultaneous measurements on the PET performance is negligible. On the other hand, the SNR of the phantom image in the magnitude images was degraded from 259.7 to 209.4 due to noise contamination from the power supplies.

  19. [Comparison of dignity determination of mammographic microcalcification with two systems for digital full-field mammography with different detector resolution: a retrospective clinical study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz-Wendtland, R; Hermann, K-P; Adamietz, B; Meier-Meitinger, M; Wenkel, E; Lell, M; Anders, K; Uder, M

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this retrospective clinical study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of the novel 50 µm FFDM (full-field digital mammography) system (DR) with an established 70 µm system (DR) in the differential diagnosis between benign and malignant clusters of microcalcification (n=50) (BI-RADS™ classification 4/5) and to assess the possible incremental value of the 50 µm pixel-pitch on specificity. From March 2009 to September 2009, 50 patients underwent full-field digital mammography (FFDM) (detector resolution 70 µm) (Novation, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). As there were suspicious signs of microcalcification classified with BI-RADS™ 4/5 after diagnosis and preoperative wire localization, control images were made with the new FFDM system (detector: resolution 50 µm) (Amulet, Fujifilm, Tokyo, Japan) with the same exposure parameters. The diagnosis was determined after the operation by five radiologists with different experience in digital mammography from randomly distributed mediolateral views (monitor reading) whose results were correlated with the final histology of all lesions. Histopathology revealed 19 benign and 31 malignant lesions in 50 patients after open biopsy. The results of the five readers showed a higher sensitivity of the new FFDM system (80.0%) in the ability to recognize malignant microcalcification in comparison to the established system (74.8%). The specificity (75.8 versus 71.6%) was slightly higher for the new system but these results were not statistically significant (pdetector: resolution 50 µm) was also slightly superior to the well-known system (detector: resolution 70 µm) (80.1% versus 76.4%). Our study has shown that the new full-field digital mammography system using the novel detector compared with the already established FFDM system with respect to the assessment of microcalcification is at least equivalent.

  20. The STAR Vertex Position Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llope, W.J., E-mail: llope@rice.edu [Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Zhou, J.; Nussbaum, T. [Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Hoffmann, G.W. [University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Asselta, K. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Brandenburg, J.D.; Butterworth, J. [Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Camarda, T.; Christie, W. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Crawford, H.J. [University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Dong, X. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Engelage, J. [University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Eppley, G.; Geurts, F. [Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Hammond, J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Judd, E. [University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); McDonald, D.L. [Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Perkins, C. [University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Ruan, L.; Scheblein, J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); and others

    2014-09-21

    The 2×3 channel pseudo Vertex Position Detector (pVPD) in the STAR experiment at RHIC has been upgraded to a 2×19 channel detector in the same acceptance, called the Vertex Position Detector (VPD). This detector is fully integrated into the STAR trigger system and provides the primary input to the minimum-bias trigger in Au+Au collisions. The information from the detector is used both in the STAR Level-0 trigger and offline to measure the location of the primary collision vertex along the beam pipe and the event “start time” needed by other fast-timing detectors in STAR. The offline timing resolution of single detector channels in full-energy Au+Au collisions is ∼100 ps, resulting in a start time resolution of a few tens of picoseconds and a resolution on the primary vertex location of ∼1 cm.

  1. HPS simulation and acceptance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mundim, Luiz Martins [UERJ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pol, Maria Elena [CBPF, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: The High Precision Spectrometer (HPS) is a proposal of sub-detector to be installed in the region of 200-240m from each side of CMS along the LHC beam-line to measure scattered protons from exclusive centrally produced processes, pp → p + X + p. In order to study the protons that reach the detectors, the beam-line of the LHC accelerator has to be taken into account, as the particles are deflected by dipoles and suffer the influence of quadrupoles and other beam devices. The LHC team provides a detailed description of these elements, currents, energies, magnetic fields, and all the information needed to study the propagation of the protons. The program HECTOR, developed at the University of Louvain, uses the information from LHC to calculate at any point along the beam-line the kinematic quantities that characterize the scattered protons. A simple minded program was initially developed for the preliminary studies of acceptances varying the position and size of the foreseen detectors. Also, it took into account vertex and position smearing, to simulate a realistic resolution of the tracking detectors. These studies were performed using a particle gun generator which shoot protons from the IP within reasonable ranges of possible t and ξ (the square of the four-momentum transfer and the fractional energy loss of the outgoing proton in a diffractive collision), and propagated them to the position of the tracking detectors. These kinematic quantities were reconstructed back at the IP using the transport equations from HECTOR. This simplified simulation was afterwards interfaced with the full software of CMS, CMSSW, in such a way that when a diffractive event was fully simulated and reconstructed in the central detector, the outgoing protons were treated by the HPS software and then the complete (CMS+HPS) event was output. The ExHuME generator was used to produce Monte Carlo simulations to study the mass acceptance of the HPS detector, and central and

  2. Large Acceptance Hadron Detector for an Investigation of Pb- and p-induced Reactions at the CERN~SPS

    CERN Multimedia

    Slodkowski, M A; Stock, R; Boimska, B; Grebieszkow, K; Wojtaszek-szwarc, A; Seyboth, P; Mackowiak-pawlowska, M K; Varga, D; Melkumov, G

    2002-01-01

    %NA49 %title\\\\ \\\\Experiment NA49 measures charged particle and neutral strange particle production over a large part of phase space in Pb and p beam reactions. The main aim is the search for evidence transition predicted by QCD for matter of sufficient energy density. The transient existence of a deconfined phase in the early stage of the collision is expected to modify the particle spectra and composition, the correlations and the space-time evolution of the final state as compared to a scenario of confined hadronic matter. In addition to high precision inclusive measurements of these quantities, the large particle multiplicity in Pb+Pb collisions and the wide acceptance of NA49 allow for the first time to measure the event by event fluctuations of observables like mean transverse momentum or temperature, the K/$\\pi$ ratio, and the multiplicity. In order to study the effects of normal nuclear matter p+p and p+nucleus collisions are measured for comparison. The latter data will provide information on these re...

  3. Submission of the First Full Scale Prototype Chip for Upgraded ATLAS Pixel Detector at LHC, FE-I4A

    CERN Document Server

    Barbero, M; The ATLAS collaboration; Beccherle, R; Darbo, G; Dube, S; Elledge, D; Fleury, J; Fougeron, D; Garcia-Sciveres, M; Gensolen, F; Gnani, D; Gromov, V; Jensen, F; Hemperek, T; Karagounis, M; Kluit, R; Kruth, A; Mekkaoui, A; Menouni, M; Schipper, JD; Wermes, N; Zivkovic, V

    2010-01-01

    A new ATLAS pixel chip FE-I4 is being developed for use in upgraded LHC luminosity environments, including the near-term Insertable B-Layer (IBL) upgrade. FE-I4 is designed in a 130nm CMOS technology, presenting advantages in terms of radiation tolerance and digital logic density compared to the 250nm CMOS technology used for the current ATLAS pixel IC, FE-I3. The FE-I4 architecture is based on an array of 80x336 pixels, each 50x250um^2, consisting of analog and digital sections. In the summer 2010, a first full scale prototype FE-I4A was submitted for an engineering run. This IC features the full scale pixel array as well as the complex periphery of the future full-size FE-I4. The FE-I4A contains also various extra test features which should prove very useful for the chip characterization, but deviate from the needs for standard operation of the final FE-I4 for IBL. In this paper, focus will be brought to the various features implemented in the FE-I4A submission, while also underlining the main differences b...

  4. Construction of a full-length prototype of the BESIII drift chamber and on-detector test for the BESIII drift chamber electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Zhonghua; Wu Linghui; Liu Jianbei; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Yan Zhikang; Hunan Univ., Changsha; Chen Yuanbo; Chen Chang; Xu Meihang; Wang Lan; Ma Xiaoyan; Jin Yan; Liu Rongguang; Tang Xiao; Zhang Guifang; Zhu Qiming; Sheng Huayi; Zhu Kejun

    2007-01-01

    A full-length prototype of the BESIII drift chamber was built. The experience gained on gas sealing, high voltage supply and front-end electronics installation should be greatly beneficial to the successful construction of the BESIII drift chamber. An on-detector test of the BESIII drift chamber electronics was carried out with the constructed prototype chamber. The noise performance, drift time and charge measurements, and electronics gains were examined specifically. The final test results indicate that the electronics have a good performance and can satisfy their design requirements. (authors)

  5. Determination of soil, sand and ore primordial radionuclide concentrations by full-spectrum analyses of high-purity germanium detector spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, R.T.; Lindsay, R.; Maphoto, K.P.; Mlwilo, N.A.; Mohanty, A.K.; Roux, D.G.; Meijer, R.J. de; Hlatshwayo, I.N.

    2008-01-01

    The full-spectrum analysis (FSA) method was used to determine primordial activity concentrations (ACs) in soil, sand and ore samples, in conjunction with a HPGe detector. FSA involves the least-squares fitting of sample spectra by linear combinations of 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K standard spectra. The differences between the FSA results and those from traditional windows analyses (using regions-of-interest around selected photopeaks) are less than 10% for all samples except zircon ore, where FSA yielded an unphysical 40 K AC

  6. MO-A-BRD-01: An Investigation of the Dynamic Response of a Novel Acousto-Optic Liquid Crystal Detector for Full-Field Transmission Ultrasound Breast Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenfield, J.R.; La Riviere, P.J.; Sandhu, J.S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To characterize the dynamic response of a novel acousto-optic (AO) liquid crystal detector for high-resolution transmission ultrasound breast imaging. Transient and steady-state lesion contrast were investigated to identify optimal transducer settings for our prototype imaging system consistent with the FDA limits of 1 W/cm 2 and 50 J/cm 2 on the incident acoustic intensity and the transmitted acoustic energy flux density. Methods: We have developed a full-field transmission ultrasound breast imaging system that uses monochromatic plane-wave illumination to acquire projection images of the compressed breast. The acoustic intensity transmitted through the breast is converted into a visual image by a proprietary liquid crystal detector operating on the basis of the AO effect. The dynamic response of the AO detector in the absence of an imaged breast was recorded by a CCD camera as a function of the acoustic field intensity and the detector exposure time. Additionally, a stereotactic needle biopsy breast phantom was used to investigate the change in opaque lesion contrast with increasing exposure time for a range of incident acoustic field intensities. Results: Using transducer voltages between 0.3 V and 0.8 V and exposure times of 3 minutes, a unique one-to-one mapping of incident acoustic intensity to steady-state optical brightness in the AO detector was observed. A transfer curve mapping acoustic intensity to steady-state optical brightness shows a high-contrast region analogous to the linear portion of the Hurter-Driffield curves of radiography. Using transducer voltages between 1 V and 1.75 V and exposure times of 90 s, the lesion contrast study demonstrated increasing lesion contrast with increasing breast exposure time and acoustic field intensity. Lesion-to-background contrast on the order of 0.80 was observed. Conclusion: Maximal lesion contrast in our prototype system can be obtained using the highest acoustic field intensity and the longest breast

  7. Comparison of dignity determination of mammographic microcalcification with two systems for digital full-field mammography with different detector resolution. A retrospective clinical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz-Wendtland, R.; Adamietz, B.; Meier-Meitinger, M.; Wenkel, E.; Lell, M.; Anders, K.; Uder, M.; Hermann, K.P.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective clinical study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of the novel 50 μm FFDM (full-field digital mammography) system (DR) with an established 70 μm system (DR) in the differential diagnosis between benign and malignant clusters of microcalcification (n=50) (BI-RADS trademark classification 4/5) and to assess the possible incremental value of the 50 μm pixel-pitch on specificity. From March 2009 to September 2009, 50 patients underwent full-field digital mammography (FFDM) (detector resolution 70 μm) (Novation, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). As there were suspicious signs of microcalcification classified with BI-RADS trademark 4/5 after diagnosis and preoperative wire localization, control images were made with the new FFDM system (detector: resolution 50 μm) (Amulet, Fujifilm, Tokyo, Japan) with the same exposure parameters. The diagnosis was determined after the operation by five radiologists with different experience in digital mammography from randomly distributed mediolateral views (monitor reading) whose results were correlated with the final histology of all lesions. Histopathology revealed 19 benign and 31 malignant lesions in 50 patients after open biopsy. The results of the five readers showed a higher sensitivity of the new FFDM system (80.0%) in the ability to recognize malignant microcalcification in comparison to the established system (74.8%). The specificity (75.8 versus 71.6%) was slightly higher for the new system but hese results were not statistically significant (p [de

  8. Single-shot full strain tensor determination with microbeam X-ray Laue diffraction and a two-dimensional energy-dispersive detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, A; Kirchlechner, C; Keckes, J; Conka Nurdan, T; Send, S; Micha, J S; Ulrich, O; Hartmann, R; Strüder, L; Pietsch, U

    2017-06-01

    The full strain and stress tensor determination in a triaxially stressed single crystal using X-ray diffraction requires a series of lattice spacing measurements at different crystal orientations. This can be achieved using a tunable X-ray source. This article reports on a novel experimental procedure for single-shot full strain tensor determination using polychromatic synchrotron radiation with an energy range from 5 to 23 keV. Microbeam X-ray Laue diffraction patterns were collected from a copper micro-bending beam along the central axis (centroid of the cross section). Taking advantage of a two-dimensional energy-dispersive X-ray detector (pnCCD), the position and energy of the collected Laue spots were measured for multiple positions on the sample, allowing the measurement of variations in the local microstructure. At the same time, both the deviatoric and hydrostatic components of the elastic strain and stress tensors were calculated.

  9. Study of $ \\bar{p} $ and $ \\bar{n} $ annihilations at LEAR with OBELIX, a large acceptance and high resolution detector based on the Open Axial Field Spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % PS201 Study of $\\bar{p}$ and $\\bar{n}$ annihilations at LEAR with OBELIX, a large acceptance and high resolution detector based on the Open Axial Field Spectrometer \\\\ \\\\OBELIX is designed to study exclusive final states of antiproton and antineutron annihilations at low energies with protons and nuclei. \\\\ \\\\The physics motivations of the experiment are:\\\\ \\\\\\begin{itemize} \\item (gg, ggg), hybrids ($ q \\bar{q} g $), multiquarks ($ q q \\bar{q} \\bar{q} $) and light mesons ($ q \\bar{q} $) produced in $ N \\bar{N} $ annihilations and study of their spectroscopy and decays. Also broad structures will be searched for by comparing identical decay modes in exclusive final states of the same type occuring from initial states with different angular momentum or isospin. \\item Study of the dynamics of $ N \\bar{N} $ interactions and of the dependence of the final and intermediate resonant states of annihilation upon the quantum numbers of the initial $ N \\bar{N} $ state (angular momentum: S and P-wave in $\\bar{p}p $ at...

  10. SU-F-T-09: In Phantom Full-Implant Validation of Plastic Scintillation Detectors for in Vivo Dosimetry During Low Dose Rate Brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Therriault-Proulx, F; Bruno, T; Beddar, S [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Beaulieu, L [CHU de Quebec, Quebec, QC, CA (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To validate in a water phantom the use of plastic scintillation detectors to measure dose to the urethra and the rectal wall during a clinically realistic low dose rate (LDR) brachytherapy implant. Methods: A template was designed to replicate a clinically realistic LDR brachytherapy prostate implant inside a water phantom. Twenty-two catheters were inserted, including one mimicking the urethra and another the rectal wall. The needles inserted in the remaining 20 catheters were composed of thin-walled nylon tubes in which I-125 radioactive seeds (Air Kerma Strengths of (0.328±0.020)U) were abutted together with plastic spacers to replicate a typical loading. A plastic scintillation detector (PSD) with a 5-mm long × 1-mm diameter sensitive element was first placed inside the urethra and 1-second measurements were performed for 60s after each needle implant. Measurements were also performed at multiple positions along the urethra once all the needles were inserted. The procedure was then repeated with the PSD placed at the rectal wall. Results: Individual dose-rates ranging from 0.07µGy/s to 1.5µGy/s were measured after each needle implant. The average absolute relative differences were (6.2±3.6)% and (6.9±6.5)% to the values calculated with the TG-43 formalism, for the urethra and rectal wall respectively. These results are within expectations from the error uncertainty budget once accounting for uncertainties in seeds’ strength and positioning. Interestingly, the PSD allowed for unplanned error detection as the study was performed. Finally, the measured dose after the full implant at different positions along the mimicked organs at risk were in agreement with TG-43 values for all of the positions tested. Conclusion: Plastic scintillation detectors could be used as in vivo detectors for LDR brachytherapy as they would provide accurate dose information after each needle implant as well as along the organs at risk at the end of the implant.

  11. [Analysis of H2S/PH3/NH3/AsH3/Cl2 by Full-Spectral Flame Photometric Detector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhi-jun; Wang, Pu-hong; Li, Zhi-jun; Du, Bin; Guo, Lei; Yu, Jian-hua

    2015-07-01

    Flame photometric analysis technology has been proven to be a rapid and sensitive method for sulfur and phosphorus detection. It has been widely used in environmental inspections, pesticide detection, industrial and agricultural production. By improving the design of the traditional flame photometric detector, using grating and CCD sensor array as a photoelectric conversion device, the types of compounds that can be detected were expanded. Instead of a single point of characteristic spectral lines, full spectral information has been used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of H2S, PH3, NH3, AsH3 and Cl2. Combined with chemometric method, flame photometric analysis technology is expected to become an alternative fast, real-time on-site detection technology to simultaneously detect multiple toxic and harmful gases.

  12. arXiv Performance of a full scale prototype detector at the BR2 reactor for the SoLid experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, Y.; Arnold, L.; Ban, G.; Beaumont, W.; Bongrand, M.; Boursette, D.; Castle, B.C.; Clark, K.; Coupé, B.; Cussans, D.; De Roeck, A.; D'Hondt, J.; Durand, D.; Fallot, M.; Ghys, L.; Giot, L.; Guillon, B.; Ihantola, S.; Janssen, X.; Kalcheva, S.; Kalousis, L.N.; Koonen, E.; Labare, M.; Lehaut, G.; Manzanillas, L.; Mermans, J.; Michiels, I.; Moortgat, C.; Newbold, D.; Park, J.; Pestel, V.; Petridis, K.; Piñera, I.; Pommery, G.; Popescu, L.; Pronost, G.; Rademacker, J.; Ryckbosch, D.; Ryder, N.; Saunders, D.; Schune, M.-H.; Simard, L.; Vacheret, A.; Van Dyck, S.; Van Mulders, P.; van Remortel, N.; Vercaemer, S.; Verstraeten, M.; Weber, A.; Yermia, F.

    2018-05-03

    The SoLid collaboration has developed a new detector technology to detect electron anti-neutrinos at close proximity to the Belgian BR2 reactor at surface level. A 288 kg prototype detector was deployed in 2015 and collected data during the operational period of the reactor and during reactor shut-down. Dedicated calibration campaigns were also performed with gamma and neutron sources. This paper describes the construction of the prototype detector with a high control on its proton content and the stability of its operation over a period of several months after deployment at the BR2 reactor site. All detector cells provide sufficient light yields to achieve a target energy resolution of better than 20%/√E(MeV). The capability of the detector to track muons is exploited to equalize the light response of a large number of channels to a precision of 3% and to demonstrate the stability of the energy scale over time. Particle identification based on pulse-shape discrimination is demonstrated with calibration so...

  13. Detection system with a large angular acceptance and an energy high dynamics, for heavy ion physics at intermediate energies: M.E.ω. detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monnet, F.

    1985-01-01

    Built for intermediate energy heavy ions nuclear physics, the M.E.ω. detector uses various and complementary detection methods: ionization chamber, parallel plate avalanche counter, plastic scintillators. With these techniques, velocity, energy, mass and charge of nuclei were measured over wide range. From the detailed theoretical study of each method, limitations and perturbation causes are deduced. The solutions used for optimizing the detector, and the main results are exposed. The internal sectorisation of the detector, which permits a modulation in counting rate and electronical adjustments, has been revealed to be very suitable for heavy ions intermediate energy physics. Results of the first experiment realised with M.E.ω. (Ar + Ag at 35 MeV/u) are commented [fr

  14. Benchmarking the Geant4 full system simulation of an associated alpha-particle detector for use in a D-T neutron generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Hayward, Jason P; Cates, Joshua W; Hausladen, Paul A; Laubach, Mitchell A; Sparger, Johnathan E; Donnald, Samuel B

    2012-08-01

    The position-sensitive alpha-particle detector used to provide the starting time and initial direction of D-T neutrons in a fast-neutron imaging system was simulated with a Geant4-based Monte Carlo program. The whole detector system, which consists of a YAP:Ce scintillator, a fiber-optic faceplate, a light guide, and a position-sensitive photo-multiplier tube (PSPMT), was modeled, starting with incident D-T alphas. The scintillation photons, whose starting time follows the distribution of a scintillation decay curve, were produced and emitted uniformly into a solid angle of 4π along the track segments of the alpha and its secondaries. Through tracking all photons and taking into account the quantum efficiency of the photocathode, the number of photoelectrons and their time and position distributions were obtained. Using a four-corner data reconstruction formula, the flood images of the alpha detector with and without optical grease between the YAP scintillator and the fiber-optic faceplate were obtained, which show agreement with the experimental results. The reconstructed position uncertainties of incident alpha particles for both cases are 1.198 mm and 0.998 mm respectively across the sensitive area of the detector. Simulation results also show that comparing with other faceplates composed of 500 μm, 300 μm, and 100 μm fibers, the 10-μm-fiber faceplate is the best choice to build the detector for better position performance. In addition, the study of the background originating inside the D-T generator suggests that for 500-μm-thick YAP:Ce coated with 1-μm-thick aluminum, and very good signal-to-noise ratio can be expected through application of a simple threshold. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Construction of the STAR Event Plane Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Joseph

    2017-09-01

    The Event Plane Detector (EPD) is an upgrade to the STAR experiment at RHIC, providing high granularity and acceptance in the forward (2.2 run for commissioning. In this talk I will discuss the construction of the EPD, the installation of the quarter wheel, and plans for full installation in 2018.

  16. Using Poisson-regularized inversion of Bremsstrahlung emission to extract full electron energy distribution functions from x-ray pulse-height detector data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, C.; Jandovitz, P.; Cohen, S. A.

    2018-02-01

    We measured Electron Energy Distribution Functions (EEDFs) from below 200 eV to over 8 keV and spanning five orders-of-magnitude in intensity, produced in a low-power, RF-heated, tandem mirror discharge in the PFRC-II apparatus. The EEDF was obtained from the x-ray energy distribution function (XEDF) using a novel Poisson-regularized spectrum inversion algorithm applied to pulse-height spectra that included both Bremsstrahlung and line emissions. The XEDF was measured using a specially calibrated Amptek Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) pulse-height system with 125 eV FWHM at 5.9 keV. The algorithm is found to out-perform current leading x-ray inversion algorithms when the error due to counting statistics is high.

  17. Full text

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IndexCopernicus Portal System

    Abstract; The detection of single base mismatches in DNA is important for diagnostics, treatment of ... nucleic acid detectors, and show how such exciplexes can register the presence of .... Titration experiments were carried out using a stock.

  18. Radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This sixth chapter presents the operational principles of the radiation detectors; detection using photographic emulsions; thermoluminescent detectors; gas detectors; scintillation detectors; liquid scintillation detectors; detectors using semiconductor materials; calibration of detectors; Bragg-Gray theory; measurement chain and uncertainties associated to measurements

  19. The GDH-Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Helbing, K; Fausten, M; Menze, D; Michel, T; Nagel, A; Ryckbosch, D; Speckner, T; Vyver, R V D; Zeitler, G

    2002-01-01

    For the GDH-Experiment at ELSA, the helicity dependent total photoabsorption cross-section is to be determined. These measurements will be performed with the newly developed GDH-Detector which is presented here. The concept of the GDH-Detector is to detect at least one reaction product from all possible hadronic processes with almost complete acceptance concerning solid angle and efficiency. This is realized by an arrangement of scintillators and lead. The overall acceptance for hadronic processes is better than 99%. The electromagnetic background is suppressed by about five orders of magnitude by means of a threshold Cherenkov detector. In dedicated tests, it has been demonstrated that all individual components of the GDH-Detector fulfill the design goals. Measurements of unpolarized total photoabsorption cross-sections were performed to ensure that the complete GDH-Detector is operational.

  20. Acceptability, acceptance and decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerschott, H.

    2002-01-01

    There is a fundamental difference between the acceptability of a civilizatory or societal risk and the acceptability of the decision-making process that leads to a civilizatory or societal risk. The analysis of individual risk decisions - regarding who, executes when which indisputably hazardous, unhealthy or dangerous behaviour under which circumstances - is not helpful in finding solutions for the political decisions at hand in Germany concerning nuclear energy in particular or energy in general. The debt for implementation of any technology, in the sense of making the technology a success in terms of broad acceptance and general utilisation, lies with the particular industry involved. Regardless of the technology, innovation research identifies the implementation phase as most critical to the success of any innovation. In this sense, nuclear technology is at best still an innovation, because the implementation has not yet been completed. Fear and opposition to innovation are ubiquitous. Even the economy - which is often described as 'rational' - is full of this resistance. Innovation has an impact on the pivotal point between stability, the presupposition for the successful execution of decisions already taken and instability, which includes insecurity, but is also necessary for the success of further development. By definition, innovations are beyond our sphere of experience; not at the level of reliability and trust yet to come. Yet they are evaluated via the simplifying heuristics for making decisions proven not only to be necessary and useful, but also accurate in the familiar. The 'settlement of the debt of implementation', the accompanying communication, the decision-making procedures concerning the regulation of averse effects of the technology, but also the tailoring of the new technology or service itself must be directed to appropriate target groups. But the group often aimed at in the nuclear debate, the group, which largely determines political

  1. The design of intelligentized nuclear radiation monitoring detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Yan; Fang Zongliang; Wen Qilin; Li Lirong; Hu Jiewei; Peng Jing

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduced an intelligentized nuclear radiation monitoring detector. The detector contains GM tubes, high voltage power supply and MCU circuit. The detector connect terminal via reformative serial port to provide power, accept the data and sent the command. (authors)

  2. Ionization detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, D.S.

    1987-01-01

    An ionization detector having an array of detectors has, for example, grounding pads positioned in the spaces between some detectors (data detectors) and other detectors (reference detectors). The grounding pads are kept at zero electric potential, i.e. grounded. The grounding serves to drain away electrons and thereby prevent an unwanted accumulation of charge in the spaces, and cause the electric field lines to be more perpendicular to the detectors in regions near the grounding pads. Alternatively, no empty space is provided there being additional, grounded, detectors provided between the data and reference detectors. (author)

  3. The LHCb RICH system; detector description and operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papanestis, A., E-mail: antonis.papanestis@stfc.ac.uk

    2014-12-01

    Two RICH detectors provide positive charged hadron identification in the LHCb experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. RICH 1 covers the full acceptance of the spectrometer and contains two radiators: aerogel and C{sub 4}F{sub 10}. RICH 2 covers half the acceptance and uses CF{sub 4} as a Cherenkov radiator. Photon detection is performed by the Hybrid Photon Detectors (HPDs), with silicon pixel sensors and bump-bonded readout encapsulated in a vacuum tube for efficient, low-noise single photon detection. The LHCb RICH detectors form a complex system of three radiators, 120 mirrors and 484 photon detectors operating in the very challenging environment of the LHC. The high performance of the system in pion and kaon identification in the momentum range of 2–100 GeV/c is reached only after careful calibration of many parameters. Operational efficiency above 99% was achieved by a high level of automatization in the operation of the detectors, from switching-on to error recovery. The challenges of calibrating and operating such a system will be presented. - Highlights: • This paper describes the operation and calibration of the LHCb RICH detectors. • The scintillation of CF{sub 4} was successfully suppressed with CO{sub 2}. • The refractive index of the gas radiators was calibrated with data to an accuracy better than 0.1%. • The Hybrid Photons Detectors were calibrated for operation in a magnetic field without loss of resolution.

  4. Silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klanner, R.

    1984-08-01

    The status and recent progress of silicon detectors for high energy physics is reviewed. Emphasis is put on detectors with high spatial resolution and the use of silicon detectors in calorimeters. (orig.)

  5. Operation, optimisation, and performance of the DELPHI RICH detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Albrecht, E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Battaglia, Marco; Bloch, D; Boudinov, E; Brunet, J M; Carrié, P; Cavalli, P; Christophel, E; Davenport, M; Dracos, M; Eklund, L; Erzen, B; Fischer, P A; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Gracco, Valerio; Hallgren, A; Joram, C; Juillot, P; Kjaer, N J; Kluit, P M; Lenzen, G; Liko, D; Mahon, J R; Maltezos, S; Markou, A; Neufeld, N; Nielsen, B S; Petrolini, A; Podobnik, T; Polok, G; Sajot, G; Sannino, M; Schyns, E; Strub, R; Tegenfeldt, F; Thadome, J; Tristram, G; Ullaland, O; Vulpen, I V

    1999-01-01

    The Ring Imaging Cherenkov detectors of DELPHI represent a large-scale particle identification system which covers almost the full angular acceptance of DELPHI. The combination of liquid and gas radiators (C sub 4 F sub 1 sub 0 , C sub 5 F sub 1 sub 2 , and C sub 6 F sub 1 sub 4) provides particle identification over the whole secondary particle momentum spectrum at LEP I and LEP II. Continuing optimisation on the hardware as well as on the online and offline software level have resulted in a stable operation of the complete detector system for more than five years at full physics performance.

  6. Conditions governing the acceptance of radioactive wastes by the Hauptabteilung Dekontaminationsbetriebe (HDB). Full text of legal provisions, issue no.6 of July 1, 1991, as amended until January 1, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The conditions apply to the acceptance of radwaste by the Main Decontamination Dept. (HDB) of Karlsruhe Research Center, including radioactive remnants, contaminated plant components, and primary waste from the following waste generators: Institutes of the Karlsruhe Research Center, facilities located within the Center but run by other organisations, other outside facilities not linked with the Center, as e.g. waste generators in Baden-Wuerttemberg obliged to deliver their radwaste to the Radwaste Collecting Site of the Land of Baden-Wuerttemberg. Amendments are marked at the right-hand margin of the text

  7. ALICE Photon Multiplicity Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Nayak, T

    2013-01-01

    Photon Multiplicity Detector (PMD) measures the multiplicity and spatial distribution of photons in the forward region of ALICE on a event-by-event basis. PMD is a pre-shower detector having fine granularity and full azimuthal coverage in the pseudo-rapidity region 2.3 < η < 3.9.

  8. Transmutation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viererbl, L., E-mail: vie@ujv.c [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic); Lahodova, Z. [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic); Klupak, V. [Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic); Sus, F. [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic); Kucera, J. [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Physics Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Kus, P.; Marek, M. [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic)

    2011-03-11

    We have designed a new type of detectors, called transmutation detectors, which can be used primarily for neutron fluence measurement. The transmutation detector method differs from the commonly used activation detector method in evaluation of detector response after irradiation. Instead of radionuclide activity measurement using radiometric methods, the concentration of stable non-gaseous nuclides generated by transmutation in the detector is measured using analytical methods like mass spectrometry. Prospective elements and nuclear reactions for transmutation detectors are listed and initial experimental results are given. The transmutation detector method could be used primarily for long-term measurement of neutron fluence in fission nuclear reactors, but in principle it could be used for any type of radiation that can cause transmutation of nuclides in detectors. This method could also be used for measurement in accelerators or fusion reactors.

  9. Transmutation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viererbl, L.; Lahodova, Z.; Klupak, V.; Sus, F.; Kucera, J.; Kus, P.; Marek, M.

    2011-01-01

    We have designed a new type of detectors, called transmutation detectors, which can be used primarily for neutron fluence measurement. The transmutation detector method differs from the commonly used activation detector method in evaluation of detector response after irradiation. Instead of radionuclide activity measurement using radiometric methods, the concentration of stable non-gaseous nuclides generated by transmutation in the detector is measured using analytical methods like mass spectrometry. Prospective elements and nuclear reactions for transmutation detectors are listed and initial experimental results are given. The transmutation detector method could be used primarily for long-term measurement of neutron fluence in fission nuclear reactors, but in principle it could be used for any type of radiation that can cause transmutation of nuclides in detectors. This method could also be used for measurement in accelerators or fusion reactors.

  10. A cosmic ray muon going through CMS with the magnet at full field. The line shows the path of the muon reconstructed from information recorded in the various detectors.

    CERN Multimedia

    Ianna, Osborne

    2007-01-01

    The event display of the event 3981 from the MTCC run 2605. The data has been taken with a magnetic field of 3.8 T. A detailed model of the magnetic field corresponding to 4T is shown as a color gradient from 4T in the center (red) to 0 T outside of the detector (blue). The cosmic muon has been detected by all four detectors participating in the run: the drift tubes, the HCAL, the tracker and the ECAL subdetectors and it has been reconstructed online. The event display shows the reconstructed 4D segments in the drift tubes (magenta), the reconstructed hits in HCAL (blue), the locally reconstructed track in the tracker (green), the uncalibrated rec hits in ECAL (light green). A muon track was reconstructed in the drift tubes and extrapolated back into the detector taking the magnetic field into account (green).

  11. Display of a high-pT H → ZZ* → eeμμ decay (mH = 130 GeV), after full simulation and reconstruction in the ATLAS detector

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Experiment

    2014-01-01

    The four leptons and the recoiling jet with ET = 135 GeV are clearly visible. Hits in the Inner Detector are shown in green for the four reconstructed leptons, both for the precision tracker (pixel and silicon micro-strip detectors) at the inner radii and for the transition radiation tracker at the outer radii. The other tracks reconstructed with pT > 0.5 GeV in the Inner Detector are shown in blue. The two electrons are depicted as reconstructed tracks in yellow and their energy deposits in each layer of the electromagnetic LAr calorimeter are shown in red. The two muons are shown as combined reconstructed tracks in orange, with the hit strips in the resistive-plate chambers and the hit drift tubes in the monitored drift-tube chambers visible as white lines in the barrel muon stations. The energy deposits from the muons in the barrel tile calorimeter can also be seen in purple.

  12. Full Employment in Industrialized Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Andrew

    1997-01-01

    Argues that full employment must be acceptable on both social and economic grounds. Examines profound changes in industrialized economies since the 1970s and the diversity of employment contracts. Suggests that difficult policy decisions surround full employment. (SK)

  13. Displacement compressors - acceptance tests

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    1996-01-01

    ISO 1217:2009 specifies methods for acceptance tests regarding volume rate of flow and power requirements of displacement compressors. It also specifies methods for testing liquid-ring type compressors and the operating and testing conditions which apply when a full performance test is specified.

  14. Compressive full waveform lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weiyi; Ke, Jun

    2017-05-01

    To avoid high bandwidth detector, fast speed A/D converter, and large size memory disk, a compressive full waveform LIDAR system, which uses a temporally modulated laser instead of a pulsed laser, is studied in this paper. Full waveform data from NEON (National Ecological Observatory Network) are used. Random binary patterns are used to modulate the source. To achieve 0.15 m ranging resolution, a 100 MSPS A/D converter is assumed to make measurements. SPIRAL algorithm with canonical basis is employed when Poisson noise is considered in the low illuminated condition.

  15. Detector Unit

    CERN Multimedia

    1960-01-01

    Original detector unit of the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) BOL project. This detector unit shows that silicon detectors for nuclear physics particle detection were already developed and in use in the 1960's in Amsterdam. Also the idea of putting 'strips' onto the silicon for high spatial resolution of a particle's impact on the detector were implemented in the BOL project which used 64 of these detector units. The IKO BOL project with its silicon particle detectors was designed, built and operated from 1965 to roughly 1977. Detector Unit of the BOL project: These detectors, notably the ‘checkerboard detector’, were developed during the years 1964-1968 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, by the Natuurkundig Laboratorium of the N.V. Philips Gloeilampen Fabrieken. This was done in close collaboration with the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) where the read-out electronics for their use in the BOL Project was developed and produced.

  16. Detector trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpak, G.

    1986-01-01

    The author describes briefly the development of detectors for high energy physics experiments. Especially considered are semiconductor microstrip detectors, drift tubes, holographic bubble chambers, scintillating fiber optics, and calorimeters. (HSI).

  17. Infrared detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Rogalski, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    This second edition is fully revised and reorganized, with new chapters concerning third generation and quantum dot detectors, THz detectors, cantilever and antenna coupled detectors, and information on radiometry and IR optics materials. Part IV concerning focal plane arrays is significantly expanded. This book, resembling an encyclopedia of IR detectors, is well illustrated and contains many original references … a really comprehensive book.-F. Sizov, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, National Academy of Sciences, Kiev, Ukraine

  18. Semiconductor ionizino. radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Spectrometric semiconductor detectors of ionizing radiation with the electron-hole junction, based on silicon and germanium are presented. The following parameters are given for the individual types of germanium detectors: energy range of detected radiation, energy resolution given as full width at half maximum (FWHM) and full width at one tenth of maximum (FWTM) for 57 Co and 60 Co, detection sensitivity, optimal voltage, and electric capacitance at optimal voltage. For silicon detectors the value of FWHM for 239 Pu is given, the sensitive area and the depth of the sensitive area. (E.S.)

  19. Detectors for CBA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baggett, N.; Gordon, H.A.; Palmer, R.B.; Tannenbaum, M.J.

    1983-05-01

    We discuss some current approaches to a large solid angle detector. An alternative approach for utilizing the high rate of events at CBA is to design special purpose detectors for specific physics goals which can be pursued within a limited solid angle. In many cases this will be the only way to proceed, and then high luminosity has a different significance. The total rate in the restricted acceptance is less likely to be a problem, while the need for high luminosity to obtain sufficient data is obvious. Eight such experiments from studies carried out in the community are surveyed. Such experiments could be run on their own or in combination with others at the same intersection, or even with a large solid angle detector, if a window can be provided in the larger facility. The small solid angle detector would provide the trigger and special information, while the facility would provide back-up information on the rest of the event. We consider some possibilities of refurbishing existing detectors for use at CBA. This discussion is motivated by the fact that there is a growing number of powerful detectors at colliding beam machines around the world. Their builders have invested considerable amounts of time, money and ingenuity in them, and may wish to extend the useful lives of their creations, as new opportunities arise

  20. Public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucaille, A.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: A great deal of determination and professionalism are required when communicating to the public on nuclear energy. Challenging the advantages and adopting an educational tone are, of course, essential. But we have to do much more if we truly want to set people thinking and give nuclear energy its rightful position among the possible energy solutions. This is particularly important in Europe where dissension between countries is on the increase, whereas the US and China, shortly to be joined by India, have clearly decided to invest in nuclear energy. (author)

  1. A focal plane detector for both light and heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ophel, T.R.; Johnston, A.

    1978-05-01

    The characteristics of a multi-element, ionization-type focal plane detector with an effective length of 53 cm have been evaluated for various ions ranging between protons and 32 S. The position resolution obtained is typically 1 mm. Excellent energy (0.49% for 16 O) and angular resolution (0.2 degrees with respect to beam direction for 7 Li) have been obtained enabling clean separation of ion species at essentially full angular acceptance of a split-pole spectrograph

  2. Tacit acceptance of the succession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana NICOLAE

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines some essential and contradictory aspects regarding the issue of tacit acceptance of succession in terms of distinction between documents valuing tacit acceptance of succession and other acts that would not justify such a solution. The documents expressly indicated by the legislator as having tacit acceptance value as well as those which do not have such value are presented and their most important legal effects are examined and discussed.

  3. Calibration of germanium detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjurman, B.; Erlandsson, B.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes problems concerning the calibration of germanium detectors for the measurement of gamma-radiation from environmental samples. It also contains a brief description of some ways of reducing the uncertainties concerning the activity determination. These uncertainties have many sources, such as counting statistics, full energy peak efficiency determination, density correction and radionuclide specific-coincidence effects, when environmental samples are investigated at close source-to-detector distances

  4. CDF [Collider Detector at Fermilab] detector simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, J.

    1987-12-01

    The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) uses several different simulation programs, each tuned for specific applications. The programs rely heavily on the extensive test beam data that CDF has accumulated. Sophisticated shower parameterizations are used, yielding enormous gains in speed over full cascade programs. 3 refs., 5 figs

  5. Detectors for Tomorrow's Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Harvey

    2009-01-01

    Cryogenically cooled superconducting detectors have become essential tools for a wide range of measurement applications, ranging from quantum limited heterodyne detection in the millimeter range to direct searches for dark matter with superconducting phonon detectors operating at 20 mK. Superconducting detectors have several fundamental and practical advantages which have resulted in their rapid adoption by experimenters. Their excellent performance arises in part from reductions in noise resulting from their low operating temperatures, but unique superconducting properties provide a wide range of mechanisms for detection. For example, the steep dependence of resistance with temperature on the superconductor/normal transition provides a sensitive thermometer for calorimetric and bolometric applications. Parametric changes in the properties of superconducting resonators provides a mechanism for high sensitivity detection of submillimeter photons. From a practical point of view, the use of superconducting detectors has grown rapidly because many of these devices couple well to SQUID amplifiers, which are easily integrated with the detectors. These SQUID-based amplifiers and multiplexers have matured with the detectors; they are convenient to use, and have excellent noise performance. The first generation of fully integrated large scale superconducting detection systems are now being deployed. I will discuss the prospects for a new generation of instruments designed to take full advantage of the revolution in detector technology.

  6. Cryogenic detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zehnder, A.

    1987-01-01

    Presently the development of new large scale detector systems, used in very high energy physics experiments, is very active. In the low energy range, the introduction of charge coupled devices allows improved spacial and energy resolution. In the keV region, high resolution can only be achieved via the well established diffraction spectrometers with the well-known disadvantage of a small throughput. There exist no efficient detectors for non-ionizing radiation such as coherent nuclear scattering of weakly interacting particles. The development of high resolution solid state detectors in the keV-region with the possibility of nuclear recoil detection is therefore highly desired. Such detectors applied in astro and particle physics would thus allow one to obtain new information not achievable otherwise. Three types of cryogenic detectors exist: Calorimeters/Bolometers. This type is sensitive to the produced excess phonons and measures the deposited energy by detecting the heat pulses. Excess charge carriers should be used to produce phonons. Tunneling junctions. This type is sensitive to excess charge produced by the Cooper pair breakup. Excess phonons should be used to break up Cooper pairs. Superheated superconducting granules (SSG). An SSG detector consists of granules, the metastability of which is disturbed by radiation. The Meissner effect then causes a change in the field distribution of the applied external field, which can be detected. The present paper discusses the basic principle of calorimetric and tunneling junction detectors and some of their applications. 26 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  7. Detectors - Electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bregeault, J.; Gabriel, J.L.; Hierle, G.; Lebotlan, P.; Leconte, A.; Lelandais, J.; Mosrin, P.; Munsch, P.; Saur, H.; Tillier, J.

    1998-01-01

    The reports presents the main results obtained in the fields of radiation detectors and associated electronics. In the domain of X-ray gas detectors for the keV range efforts were undertaken to rise the detector efficiency. Multiple gap parallel plate chambers of different types as well as different types of X → e - converters were tested to improve the efficiency (values of 2.4% at 60 KeV were reached). In the field of scintillators a study of new crystals has been carried out (among which Lutetium orthosilicate). CdTe diode strips for obtaining X-ray imaging were studied. The complete study of a linear array of 8 CdTe pixels has been performed and certified. The results are encouraging and point to this method as a satisfying solution. Also, a large dimension programmable chamber was used to study the influence of temperature on the inorganic scintillators in an interval from -40 deg. C to +150 deg. C. Temperature effects on other detectors and electronic circuits were also investigated. In the report mentioned is also the work carried out for the realization of the DEMON neutron multidetector. For neutron halo experiments different large area Si detectors associated with solid and gas position detectors were realized. In the frame of a contract with COGEMA a systematic study of Li doped glasses was undertaken aiming at replacing with a neutron probe the 3 He counters presently utilized in pollution monitoring. An industrial prototype has been realised. Other studies were related to integrated analog chains, materials for Cherenkov detectors, scintillation probes for experiments on fundamental processes, gas position sensitive detectors, etc. In the field of associated electronics there are mentioned the works related to the multidetector INDRA, data acquisition, software gamma spectrometry, automatic gas pressure regulation in detectors, etc

  8. Hydrogen detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagaya, Hiromichi; Yoshida, Kazuo; Sanada, Kazuo; Chigira, Sadao.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention concerns a hydrogen detector for detecting water-sodium reaction. The hydrogen detector comprises a sensor portion having coiled optical fibers and detects hydrogen on the basis of the increase of light transmission loss upon hydrogen absorption. In the hydrogen detector, optical fibers are wound around and welded to the outer circumference of a quartz rod, as well as the thickness of the clad layer of the optical fiber is reduced by etching. With such procedures, size of the hydrogen detecting sensor portion can be decreased easily. Further, since it can be used at high temperature, diffusion rate is improved to shorten the detection time. (N.H.)

  9. 40 CFR 1065.270 - Chemiluminescent detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Chemiluminescent detector. (a) Application. You may use a chemiluminescent detector (CLD) to measure NOX concentration in raw or diluted exhaust for batch or continuous sampling. We generally accept a CLD for NOX...) Component requirements. We recommend that you use a CLD that meets the specifications in Table 1 of § 1065...

  10. DUMAND detector

    CERN Multimedia

    This object is one of the 256 other detectors of the DUMAND (Deep Underwater Muon And Neutrino Detection) experiment. The goal of the experiment was the construction of the first deep ocean high energy neutrino detector, to be placed at 4800 m depth in the Pacific Ocean off Keahole Point on the Big Island of Hawaii. A few years ago, a European conference with Cosmic experiments was organized at CERN as they were projects like DUMAND in Hawaii. Along with the conference, a temporary exhibition was organised as well. It was a collaboration of institutions from Germany, Japan, Switzerland and the U.S.A. CERN had borrowed equipment and objects from different institutes around the world, including this detector of the DUMAND experiment. Most of the equipment were sent back to the institutes, however this detector sphere was offered to a CERN member of the personnel.

  11. Detector applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pehl, R.H.

    1977-10-01

    Semiconductor detectors are now applied to a very wide range of problems. The combination of relatively low cost, excellent energy resolution, and simultaneous broad energy-spectrum analysis is uniquely suited to many applications in both basic and applied physics. Alternative techniques, such as magnetic spectrometers for charged-particle spectroscopy, while offering better energy resolution, are bulky, expensive, and usually far more difficult to use. Furthermore, they do not directly provide the broad energy-spectrum measurements easily accomplished using semiconductor detectors. Scintillation detectors, which are approximately equivalent to semiconductor detectors in convenience and cost, exhibit 10 to 100 times worse energy resolution. However, their high efficiency and large potential size recommend their use in some measurements

  12. Smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, J.; Howes, J.H.; Smout, D.W.S.

    1979-01-01

    A smoke detector is described which provides a smoke sensing detector and an indicating device and in which a radioactive substance is used in conjunction with two ionisation chambers. The system includes an outer electrode, a collector electrode and an inner electrode which is made of or supports the radioactive substance which, in this case, is 241 Am. The invention takes advantage of the fact that smoke particles can be allowed to enter freely the inner ionisation chamber. (U.K.)

  13. Radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillies, W.

    1980-01-01

    The radiation detector for measuring e.g. a neutron flux consists of a central emitter, an insulating shell arranged around it, and a tube-shaped collector enclosing both. The emitter itself is composed of a great number of stranded, spiral wires of small diameter giving a defined flexibility to the detector. For emitter material Pt, Rh, V, Co, Ce, Os or Ta may be used. (DG) [de

  14. Split detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cederstrand, C.N.; Chism, H.R.

    1982-01-01

    A gas analyzer is disclosed which provides a dual channel capability for the simultaneous determination of the presence and concentration of two gases in a stream of sample gas and which has a single infrared source, a single sample cell, two infrared bandpass filters, and two infrared detectors. A separator between the filters and detectors prevents interchange of radiation between the filters. The separator is positioned by fitting it in a slot

  15. Marketing for Acceptance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina L. Johnston, Ph.D.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Becoming a researcher comes with the credentializing pressure to publish articles in peer-reviewed journals (Glaser, 1992; Glaser, 2007; Glaser, 2008. The work intensive process is exacerbated when the author’s research method is grounded theory. This study investigated the concerns of early and experienced grounded theorists to discover how they worked towards publishing research projects that applied grounded theory as a methodology. The result was a grounded theory of marketing for acceptance that provides the reader with insight into ways that classic grounded theorists have published their works. This is followed by a discussion of ideas for normalizing classic grounded theory research methods in our substantive fields.

  16. Acceptance test report, plutonium finishing plant life safety upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodge, S.G.

    1994-01-01

    This acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that modifications to the Fir Protection systems function as required by project criteria. The ATP will test the Fire Alarm Control Panels, Flow Alarm Pressure Switch, Heat Detectors, Smoke Detectors, Flow Switches, Manual Pull Stations, and Gong/Door By Pass Switches

  17. In-core monitoring detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitelman, M.G.

    2001-01-01

    The main task of in-core monitoring consists in securing observability of the reactor installation in all possible operation modes (normal, transient, accident and post-accident). Operation safety at acceptable cost can be achieved by optimized measurement errors. The range of sensors applied as in-core detectors for operative measurements in the industry is very limited in number. Among them might be cited self powered neutron detectors (SPND) and thermocouples. Sensors are incorporated in the in-core detectors assemblies (SVRD). The presentation makes an effort to touch upon the problems of assuring and increasing quality of in-core on-line measurements. So we do not consider systems using movable detectors, as the latter do not assure on-line measurements. (Authors)

  18. Shaped detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    A radiation detector or detector array which has a non-constant spatial response, is disclosed individually and in combination with a tomographic scanner. The detector has a first dimension which is oriented parallel to the plane of the scan circle in the scanner. Along the first dimension, the detector is most responsive to radiation received along a centered segment of the dimension and less responsive to radiation received along edge segments. This non-constant spatial response can be achieved in a detector comprised of a scintillation crystal and a photoelectric transducer. The scintillation crystal in one embodiment is composed of three crystals arranged in layers, with the center crystal having the greatest light conversion efficiency. In another embodiment, the crystal is covered with a reflective substance around the center segment and a less reflective substance around the remainder. In another embodiment, an optical coupling which transmits light from adjacent the center segment with the greatest intensity couples the scintillation crystal and the photoelectric transducer. In yet another embodiment, the photoelectric transducer comprises three photodiodes, one receiving light produced adjacent the central segment and the other two receiving light produced adjacent the edge segments. The outputs of the three photodiodes are combined with a differential amplifier

  19. Detector Mount Design for IGRINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Sok Oh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrometer (IGRINS is a near-infrared wide-band high-resolution spectrograph jointly developed by the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute and the University of Texas at Austin. IGRINS employs three HAWAII-2RG Focal Plane Array (H2RG FPA detectors. We present the design and fabrication of the detector mount for the H2RG detector. The detector mount consists of a detector housing, an ASIC housing, a Field Flattener Lens (FFL mount, and a support base frame. The detector and the ASIC housing should be kept at 65 K and the support base frame at 130 K. Therefore they are thermally isolated by the support made of GFRP material. The detector mount is designed so that it has features of fine adjusting the position of the detector surface in the optical axis and of fine adjusting yaw and pitch angles in order to utilize as an optical system alignment compensator. We optimized the structural stability and thermal characteristics of the mount design using computer-aided 3D modeling and finite element analysis. Based on the structural and thermal analysis, the designed detector mount meets an optical stability tolerance and system thermal requirements. Actual detector mount fabricated based on the design has been installed into the IGRINS cryostat and successfully passed a vacuum test and a cold test.

  20. A scintillating fibre detector for the Crystal Barrel experiment at ELSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suft, G.; Anton, G.; Bogendoerfer, R.; Ehmanns, A.; Foesel, A.; Hoessl, J.; Kalinowsky, H.; Kueppersbusch, C.; Walther, D.

    2005-01-01

    A scintillating fibre detector with high spatial granularity was built for the Crystal Barrel experiment at ELSA (CB-ELSA) in Bonn. It consists of 513 scintillating fibres with 2mm in diameter, arranged in three layers with cylindrical geometry inside the Crystal Barrel detector surrounding the target cell. Two layers are wound in opposite directions, the third is parallel to the incident beam direction, resulting in an unambiguous hit reconstruction and a position resolution better than 1.6mm for charged particles. The read-out is done with 16-channel multi-anode photomultipliers. The detector was designed to cover the full angular acceptance of the Crystal Barrel detector with an angular range of 12 deg. ≤θ = 168 deg. and 0 deg. ≤φ≤360 deg. in the lab frame

  1. A Ring Imaging Cerenkov detector for the CERN OMEGA spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apsimon, R.J.; Cowell, J.; Flower, P.S.

    1984-12-01

    A large acceptance Ring Imaging Cerenkov detector has been constructed for use at the CERN Omega Spectrometer. The design of the detector is discussed, with attention paid to its principal components, and preliminary results are given which show that the detector is capable of identifying pions and protons at 100 GeV/c. (author)

  2. FUZZY ACCEPTANCE SAMPLING AND CHARACTERISTIC CURVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Turano?lu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Acceptance sampling is primarily used for the inspection of incoming or outgoing lots. Acceptance sampling refers to the application of specific sampling plans to a designated lot or sequence of lots. The parameters of acceptance sampling plans are sample sizes and acceptance numbers. In some cases, it may not be possible to define acceptance sampling parameters as crisp values. These parameters can be expressed by linguistic variables. The fuzzy set theory can be successfully used to cope with the vagueness in these linguistic expressions for acceptance sampling. In this paper, the main distributions of acceptance sampling plans are handled with fuzzy parameters and their acceptance probability functions are derived. Then the characteristic curves of acceptance sampling are examined under fuzziness. Illustrative examples are given.

  3. BES detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, J.Z.; Bian, Q.; Chen, G.M.; Chen, L.J.; Chen, S.N.; Chen, Y.Q.; Chen, Z.Q.; Chi, Y.K.; Cui, H.C.; Cui, X.Z.; Deng, S.S.; Deng, Y.W.; Ding, H.L.; Dong, B.Z.; Dong, X.S.; Du, X.; Du, Z.Z.; Feng, C.; Feng, Z.; Fu, Z.S.; Gao, C.S.; Gao, M.L.; Gao, S.Q.; Gao, W.X.; Gao, Y.N.; Gu, S.D.; Gu, W.X.; Guan, Y.Z.; Guo, H.F.; Guo, Y.N.; Guo, Y.Y.; Han, S.W.; Han, Y.; Hao, W.; He, J.; He, K.R.; He, M.J.; Hou, X.J.; Hu, G.Y.; Hu, J.S.; Hu, J.W.; Huang, D.Q.; Huang, Y.Z.; Jia, Q.P.; Jiang, C.H.; Ju, Q.; Lai, Y.F.; Lang, P.F.; Li, D.S.; Li, F.; Li, H.; Li Jia; Li, J.T.; Li Jin; Li, L.L.; Li, P.Q.; Li, Q.M.; Li, R.B.; Li, S.Q.; Li, W.; Li, W.G.; Li, Z.X.; Liang, G.N.; Lin, F.C.; Lin, S.Z.; Lin, W.; Liu, Q.; Liu, R.G.; Liu, W.; Liu, X.; Liu, Z.A.; Liu, Z.Y.; Lu, C.G.; Lu, W.D.; Lu, Z.Y.; Lu, J.G.; Ma, D.H.; Ma, E.C.; Ma, J.M.; Mao, H.S.; Mao, Z.P.; Meng, X.C.; Ni, H.L.; Nie, J.; Nie, Z.D.; Niu, W.P.; Pan, L.J.; Qi, N.D.; Qian, J.J.; Qu, Y.H.; Que, Y.K.; Rong, G.; Ruan, T.Z.; Shao, Y.Y.; Shen, B.W.; Shen, D.L.; Shen, J.; Sheng, H.Y.; Sheng, J.P.; Shi, H.Z.; Song, X.F.; Sun, H.S.; Tang, F.K.; Tang, S.Q.; Tian, W.H.; Wang, F.; Wang, G.Y.; Wang, J.G.; Wang, J.Y.; Wang, L.S.; Wang, L.Z.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P.L.; Wang, S.M.; Wang, S.Q.; Wang, T.J.; Wang, X.W.; Wang, Y.Y.; Wang, Z.H.; Wang, Z.J.; Wei, C.L.; Wei, Z.Z.; Wu, J.W.; Wu, S.H.; Wu, S.Q.; Wu, W.M.; Wu, X.D.; Wu, Z.D.; Xi, D.M.; Xia, X.M.; Xiao, J.; Xie, P.P.; Xie, X.X.; Xu, J.G.; Xu, R.S.; Xu, Z.Q.; Xuan, B.C.; Xue, S.T.; Yan, J.; Yan, S.P.; Yan, W.G.; Yang, C.Z.; Yang, C.M.; Yang, C.Y.; Yang, X.F.; Yang, X.R.; Ye, M.H.; Yu, C.H.; Yu, C.S.; Yu, Z.Q.; Zhang, B.Y.; Zhang, C.D.; Zhang, C.C.; Zhang, C.Y.; Zhang, D.H.; Zhang, G.; Zhang, H.Y.; Zhang, H.L.; Zhang, J.W.; Zhang, L.S.; Zhang, S.Q.; Zhang, Y.P.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y.M.; Zhao, D.X.; Zhao, J.W.; Zhao, M.; Zhao, P.D.; Zhao, P.P.; Zhao, W.R.; Zhao, Z.G.; Zhao, Z.Q.; Zheng, J.P.; Zheng, L.S.; Zheng, M.; Zheng, W.S.; Zheng, Z.P.; Zhong, G.P.; Zhou, G.P.; Zhou, H.S.; Zhou, J.; Zhou Li; Zhou Lin; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Y.S.; Zhou, Y.H.; Zhu, G.S.; Zhu, Q.M.; Zhu, S.G.; Zhu, Y.C.; Zhu, Y.S.; Zhuang, B.A.

    1994-01-01

    The Beijing Spectrometer (BES) is a general purpose solenoidal detector at the Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPC). It is designed to study exclusive final states in e + e - annihilations at the center of mass energy from 3.0 to 5.6 GeV. This requires large solid angle coverage combined with good charged particle momentum resolution, good particle identification and high photon detection efficiency at low energies. In this paper we describe the construction and the performance of BES detector. (orig.)

  4. ATLAS Forward Proton Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Grieco, Chiara; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) detector system is the measurement of protons scattered diffractively or electromagnetically at very small angles. The full two-arm setup was installed during the 2016/2017 EYETS. This allows measurements of processes with two forward protons: central diffraction, exclusive production, and two-photon processes. In 2017, AFP participated in the ATLAS high-luminosity data taking on the day-by-day basis. In addition, several special runs with reduced luminosity were taken. The poster will present the AFP detectors and the lessons learned from the last year operation and some performance from 2016 and 2017.

  5. Vertex detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lueth, V.

    1992-07-01

    The purpose of a vertex detector is to measure position and angles of charged particle tracks to sufficient precision so as to be able to separate tracks originating from decay vertices from those produced at the interaction vertex. Such measurements are interesting because they permit the detection of weakly decaying particles with lifetimes down to 10 -13 s, among them the τ lepton and charm and beauty hadrons. These two lectures are intended to introduce the reader to the different techniques for the detection of secondary vertices that have been developed over the past decades. The first lecture includes a brief introduction to the methods used to detect secondary vertices and to estimate particle lifetimes. It describes the traditional technologies, based on photographic recording in emulsions and on film of bubble chambers, and introduces fast electronic registration of signals derived from scintillating fibers, drift chambers and gaseous micro-strip chambers. The second lecture is devoted to solid state detectors. It begins with a brief introduction into semiconductor devices, and then describes the application of large arrays of strip and pixel diodes for charged particle tracking. These lectures can only serve as an introduction the topic of vertex detectors. Time and space do not allow for an in-depth coverage of many of the interesting aspects of vertex detector design and operation

  6. Smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, E.

    1976-01-01

    A smoke detector is described consisting of a ventilated ionisation chamber having a number of electrodes and containing a radioactive source in the form of a foil supported on the surface of the electrodes. This electrode consists of a plastic material treated with graphite to render it electrically conductive. (U.K.)

  7. Semiconductor Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortina, E.

    2007-01-01

    Particle detectors based on semiconductor materials are among the few devices used for particle detection that are available to the public at large. In fact we are surrounded by them in our daily lives: they are used in photoelectric cells for opening doors, in digital photographic and video camera, and in bar code readers at supermarket cash registers. (Author)

  8. Capillary detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konijn, J.; Winter, K.; Vilain, P.; Wilquet, G.; Fabre, J.P.; Kozarenko, E.; Kreslo, I.; Goldberg, J.; Hoepfner, K.; Bay, A.; Currat, C.; Koppenburg, P.; Frekers, D.; Wolff, T.; Buontempo, S.; Ereditato, A.; Frenkel, A.; Liberti, B.; Martellotti, G.; Penso, G.; Ekimov, A.; Golovkin, S.; Govorun, V.; Medvedkov, A.; Vasil'chenko, V.

    1998-01-01

    The option for a microvertex detector using glass capillary arrays filled with liquid scintillator is presented. The status of capillary layers development and possible read-out techniques for high rate environment are reported. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  9. ILC Reference Design Report Volume 4 - Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Behnke, Ties; Jaros, John; Miyamoto, Akiya; Aarons, Gerald; Abe, Toshinori; Abernathy, Jason; Ablikim, Medina; Abramowicz, Halina; Adey, David; Adloff, Catherine; Adolphsen, Chris; Afanaciev, Konstantin; Agapov, Ilya; Ahn, Jung-Keun; Aihara, Hiroaki; Akemoto, Mitsuo; del Carmen Alabau, Maria; Albert, Justin; Albrecht, Hartwig; Albrecht, Michael; Alesini, David; Alexander, Gideon; Alexander, Jim; Allison, Wade; Amann, John; Amirikas, Ramila; An, Qi; Anami, Shozo; Ananthanarayan, B.; Anderson, Terry; Andricek, Ladislav; Anduze, Marc; Anerella, Michael; Anfimov, Nikolai; Angal-Kalinin, Deepa; Antipov, Sergei; Antoine, Claire; Aoki, Mayumi; Aoza, Atsushi; Aplin, Steve; Appleby, Rob; Arai, Yasuo; Araki, Sakae; Arkan, Tug; Arnold, Ned; Arnold, Ray; Arnowitt, Richard; Artru, Xavier; Arya, Kunal; Aryshev, Alexander; Asakawa, Eri; Asiri, Fred; Asner, David; Atac, Muzaffer; Atoian, Grigor; Attié, David; Augustin, Jean-Eudes; Augustine, David B.; Ayres, Bradley; Aziz, Tariq; Baars, Derek; Badaud, Frederique; Baddams, Nigel; Bagger, Jonathan; Bai, Sha; Bailey, David; Bailey, Ian R.; Baker, David; Balalykin, Nikolai I.; Balbuena, Juan Pablo; Baldy, Jean-Luc; Ball, Markus; Ball, Maurice; Ballestrero, Alessandro; Ballin, Jamie; Baltay, Charles; Bambade, Philip; Ban, Syuichi; Band, Henry; Bane, Karl; Banerjee, Bakul; Barbanotti, Serena; Barbareschi, Daniele; Barbaro-Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Desmond P.; Barbi, Mauricio; Bardin, Dmitri Y.; Barish, Barry; Barklow, Timothy L.; Barlow, Roger; Barnes, Virgil E.; Barone, Maura; Bartels, Christoph; Bartsch, Valeria; Basu, Rahul; Battaglia, Marco; Batygin, Yuri; Baudot, Jerome; Baur, Ulrich; Elwyn Baynham, D.; Beard, Carl; Bebek, Chris; Bechtle, Philip; Becker, Ulrich J.; Bedeschi, Franco; Bedjidian, Marc; Behera, Prafulla; Bellantoni, Leo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Paul; Bentson, Lynn D.; Benyamna, Mustapha; Bergauer, Thomas; Berger, Edmond; Bergholz, Matthias; Beri, Suman; Berndt, Martin; Bernreuther, Werner; Bertolini, Alessandro; Besancon, Marc; Besson, Auguste; Beteille, Andre; Bettoni, Simona; Beyer, Michael; Bhandari, R.K.; Bharadwaj, Vinod; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Bhattacharyya, Gautam; Bhattacherjee, Biplob; Bhuyan, Ruchika; Bi, Xiao-Jun; Biagini, Marica; Bialowons, Wilhelm; Biebel, Otmar; Bieler, Thomas; Bierwagen, John; Birch, Alison; Bisset, Mike; Biswal, S.S.; Blackmore, Victoria; Blair, Grahame; Blanchard, Guillaume; Blazey, Gerald; Blue, Andrew; Blümlein, Johannes; Boffo, Christian; Bohn, Courtlandt; Boiko, V.I.; Boisvert, Veronique; Bondarchuk, Eduard N.; Boni, Roberto; Bonvicini, Giovanni; Boogert, Stewart; Boonekamp, Maarten; Boorman, Gary; Borras, Kerstin; Bortoletto, Daniela; Bosco, Alessio; Bosio, Carlo; Bosland, Pierre; Bosotti, Angelo; Boudry, Vincent; Boumediene, Djamel-Eddine; Bouquet, Bernard; Bourov, Serguei; Bowden, Gordon; Bower, Gary; Boyarski, Adam; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bozzi, Concezio; Brachmann, Axel; Bradshaw, Tom W.; Brandt, Andrew; Brasser, Hans Peter; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James E.; Breidenbach, Martin; Bricker, Steve; Brient, Jean-Claude; Brock, Ian; Brodsky, Stanley; Brooksby, Craig; Broome, Timothy A.; Brown, David; Brown, David; Brownell, James H.; Bruchon, Mélanie; Brueck, Heiner; Brummitt, Amanda J.; Brun, Nicole; Buchholz, Peter; Budagov, Yulian A.; Bulgheroni, Antonio; Bulyak, Eugene; Bungau, Adriana; Bürger, Jochen; Burke, Dan; Burkhart, Craig; Burrows, Philip; Burt, Graeme; Burton, David; Büsser, Karsten; Butler, John; Butterworth, Jonathan; Buzulutskov, Alexei; Cabruja, Enric; Caccia, Massimo; Cai, Yunhai; Calcaterra, Alessandro; Caliier, Stephane; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cao, Jun-Jie; Cao, J.S.; Capatina, Ofelia; Cappellini, Chiara; Carcagno, Ruben; Carena, Marcela; Carloganu, Cristina; Carosi, Roberto; Stephen Carr, F.; Carrion, Francisco; Carter, Harry F.; Carter, John; Carwardine, John; Cassel, Richard; Cassell, Ronald; Cavallari, Giorgio; Cavallo, Emanuela; Cembranos, Jose A.R.; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chandez, Frederic; Charles, Matthew; Chase, Brian; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chauveau, Jacques; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chehab, Robert; Chel, Stéphane; Chelkov, Georgy; Chen, Chiping; Chen, He Sheng; Chen, Huai Bi; Chen, Jia Er; Chen, Sen Yu; Chen, Shaomin; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xun; Chen, Yuan Bo; Cheng, Jian; Chevallier, M.; Chi, Yun Long; Chickering, William; Cho, Gi-Chol; Cho, Moo-Hyun; Choi, Jin-Hyuk; Choi, Jong Bum; Choi, Seong Youl; Choi, Young-Il; Choudhary, Brajesh; Choudhury, Debajyoti; Rai Choudhury, S.; Christian, David; Christian, Glenn; Christophe, Grojean; Chung, Jin-Hyuk; Church, Mike; Ciborowski, Jacek; Cihangir, Selcuk; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Clarke, Christine; Clarke, Don G.; Clarke, James A.; Clements, Elizabeth; Coca, Cornelia; Coe, Paul; Cogan, John; Colas, Paul; Collard, Caroline; Colledani, Claude; Combaret, Christophe; Comerma, Albert; Compton, Chris; Constance, Ben; Conway, John; Cook, Ed; Cooke, Peter; Cooper, William; Corcoran, Sean; Cornat, Rémi; Corner, Laura; Cortina Gil, Eduardo; Clay Corvin, W.; Cotta Ramusino, Angelo; Cowan, Ray; Crawford, Curtis; Cremaldi, Lucien M; Crittenden, James A.; Cussans, David; Cvach, Jaroslav; da Silva, Wilfrid; Dabiri Khah, Hamid; Dabrowski, Anne; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dadoun, Olivier; Dai, Jian Ping; Dainton, John; Daly, Colin; Danilov, Mikhail; Daniluk, Witold; Daram, Sarojini; Datta, Anindya; Dauncey, Paul; David, Jacques; Davier, Michel; Davies, Ken P.; Dawson, Sally; De Boer, Wim; De Curtis, Stefania; De Groot, Nicolo; de la Taille, Christophe; de Lira, Antonio; De Roeck, Albert; de Sangro, Riccardo; De Santis,Stefano; Deacon, Laurence; Deandrea, Aldo; Dehmelt, Klaus; Delagnes, Eric; Delahaye, Jean-Pierre; Delebecque, Pierre; Delerue, Nicholas; Delferriere, Olivier; Demarteau, Marcel; Deng, Zhi; Denisov, Yu.N.; Densham, Christopher J.; Desch, Klaus; Deshpande, Nilendra; Devanz, Guillaume; Devetak, Erik; Dexter, Amos; Di benedetto, Vito; Diéguez, Angel; Diener, Ralf; Dinh, Nguyen Dinh; Dixit, Madhu; Dixit, Sudhir; Djouadi, Abdelhak; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dollan, Ralph; Dong, Dong; Dong, Hai Yi; Dorfan, Jonathan; Dorokhov, Andrei; Doucas, George; Downing, Robert; Doyle, Eric; Doziere, Guy; Drago, Alessandro; Dragt, Alex; Drake, Gary; Drásal, Zbynek; Dreiner, Herbert; Drell, Persis; Driouichi, Chafik; Drozhdin, Alexandr; Drugakov, Vladimir; Du, Shuxian; Dugan, Gerald; Duginov, Viktor; Dulinski, Wojciech; Dulucq, Frederic; Dutta, Sukanta; Dwivedi, Jishnu; Dychkant, Alexandre; Dzahini, Daniel; Eckerlin, Guenter; Edwards, Helen; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Ehrlichman, Michael; Ehrlichmann, Heiko; Eigen, Gerald; Elagin, Andrey; Elementi, Luciano; Eliasson, Peder; Ellis, John; Ellwood, George; Elsen, Eckhard; Emery, Louis; Enami, Kazuhiro; Endo, Kuninori; Enomoto, Atsushi; Eozénou, Fabien; Erbacher, Robin; Erickson, Roger; Oleg Eyser, K.; Fadeyev, Vitaliy; Fang, Shou Xian; Fant, Karen; Fasso, Alberto; Faucci Giannelli, Michele; Fehlberg, John; Feld, Lutz; Feng, Jonathan L.; Ferguson, John; Fernandez-Garcia, Marcos; Luis Fernandez-Hernando, J.; Fiala, Pavel; Fieguth, Ted; Finch, Alexander; Finocchiaro, Giuseppe; Fischer, Peter; Fisher, Peter; Eugene Fisk, H.; Fitton, Mike D.; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischer, Manfred; Fleury, Julien; Flood, Kevin; Foley, Mike; Ford, Richard; Fortin, Dominique; Foster, Brian; Fourches, Nicolas; Francis, Kurt; Frey, Ariane; Frey, Raymond; Friedsam, Horst; Frisch, Josef; Frishman, Anatoli; Fuerst, Joel; Fujii, Keisuke; Fujimoto, Junpei; Fukuda, Masafumi; Fukuda, Shigeki; Funahashi, Yoshisato; Funk, Warren; Furletova, Julia; Furukawa, Kazuro; Furuta, Fumio; Fusayasu, Takahiro; Fuster, Juan; Gadow, Karsten; Gaede, Frank; Gaglione, Renaud; Gai, Wei; Gajewski, Jan; Galik, Richard; Galkin, Alexei; Galkin, Valery; Gallin-Martel, Laurent; Gannaway, Fred; Gao, Jian She; Gao, Jie; Gao, Yuanning; Garbincius, Peter; Garcia-Tabares, Luis; Garren, Lynn; Garrido, Luís; Garutti, Erika; Garvey, Terry; Garwin, Edward; Gascón, David; Gastal, Martin; Gatto, Corrado; Gatto, Raoul; Gay, Pascal; Ge, Lixin; Ge, Ming Qi; Ge, Rui; Geiser, Achim; Gellrich, Andreas; Genat, Jean-Francois; Geng, Zhe Qiao; Gentile, Simonetta; Gerbick, Scot; Gerig, Rod; Ghosh, Dilip Kumar; Ghosh, Kirtiman; Gibbons, Lawrence; Giganon, Arnaud; Gillespie, Allan; Gillman, Tony; Ginzburg, Ilya; Giomataris, Ioannis; Giunta, Michele; Gladkikh, Peter; Gluza, Janusz; Godbole, Rohini; Godfrey, Stephen; Goldhaber, Gerson; Goldstein, Joel; Gollin, George D.; Gonzalez-Sanchez, Francisco Javier; Goodrick, Maurice; Gornushkin, Yuri; Gostkin, Mikhail; Gottschalk, Erik; Goudket, Philippe; Gough Eschrich, Ivo; Gournaris, Filimon; Graciani, Ricardo; Graf, Norman; Grah, Christian; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grandjean, Damien; Grannis, Paul; Grassellino, Anna; Graugés, Eugeni; Gray, Stephen; Green, Michael; Greenhalgh, Justin; Greenshaw, Timothy; Grefe, Christian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Gerald; Grimes, Mark; Grimm, Terry; Gris, Philippe; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Groll, Marius; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Grondin, Denis; Groom, Donald; Gross, Eilam; Grunewald, Martin; Grupen, Claus; Grzelak, Grzegorz; Gu, Jun; Gu, Yun-Ting; Guchait, Monoranjan; Guiducci, Susanna; Guler, Ali Murat; Guler, Hayg; Gulmez, Erhan; Gunion, John; Guo, Zhi Yu; Gurtu, Atul; Ha, Huy Bang; Haas, Tobias; Haase, Andy; Haba, Naoyuki; Haber, Howard; Haensel, Stephan; Hagge, Lars; Hagura, Hiroyuki; Hajdu, Csaba; Haller, Gunther; Haller, Johannes; Hallermann, Lea; Halyo, Valerie; Hamaguchi, Koichi; Hammond, Larry; Han, Liang; Han, Tao; Hand, Louis; Handu, Virender K.; Hano, Hitoshi; Hansen, Christian; Hansen, Jørn Dines; Hansen, Jorgen Beck; Hara, Kazufumi; Harder, Kristian; Hartin, Anthony; Hartung, Walter; Hast, Carsten; Hauptman, John; Hauschild, Michael; Hauviller, Claude; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Chris; Hawkings, Richard; Hayano, Hitoshi; Hazumi, Masashi; He, An; He, Hong Jian; Hearty, Christopher; Heath, Helen; Hebbeker, Thomas; Hedberg, Vincent; Hedin, David; Heifets, Samuel; Heinemeyer, Sven; Heini, Sebastien; Helebrant, Christian; Helms, Richard; Heltsley, Brian; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Henschel, Hans; Hensel, Carsten; Hermel, Richard; Herms, Atilà; Herten, Gregor; Hesselbach, Stefan; Heuer, Rolf-Dieter; Heusch, Clemens A.; Hewett, Joanne; Higashi, Norio; Higashi, Takatoshi; Higashi, Yasuo; Higo, Toshiyasu; Hildreth, Michael D.; Hiller, Karlheinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen James; Himel, Thomas; Himmi, Abdelkader; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hioki, Zenro; Hirano, Koichiro; Hirose, Tachishige; Hisamatsu, Hiromi; Hisano, Junji; Hlaing, Chit Thu; Hock, Kai Meng; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hohlfeld, Mark; Honda, Yousuke; Hong, Juho; Hong, Tae Min; Honma, Hiroyuki; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horvath, Dezso; Hosoyama, Kenji; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Mi; Hou, Wei-Shu; Howell, David; Hronek, Maxine; Hsiung, Yee B.; Hu, Bo; Hu, Tao; Huang, Jung-Yun; Huang, Tong Ming; Huang, Wen Hui; Huedem, Emil; Huggard, Peter; Hugonie, Cyril; Hu-Guo, Christine; Huitu, Katri; Hwang, Youngseok; Idzik, Marek; Ignatenko, Alexandr; Ignatov, Fedor; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ilicheva, Tatiana; Imbault, Didier; Imhof, Andreas; Incagli, Marco; Ingbir, Ronen; Inoue, Hitoshi; Inoue, Youichi; Introzzi, Gianluca; Ioakeimidi, Katerina; Ishihara, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Akimasa; Ishikawa, Tadashi; Issakov, Vladimir; Ito, Kazutoshi; Ivanov, V.V.; Ivanov, Valentin; Ivanyushenkov, Yury; Iwasaki, Masako; Iwashita, Yoshihisa; Jackson, David; Jackson, Frank; Jacobsen, Bob; Jaganathan, Ramaswamy; Jamison, Steven; Janssen, Matthias Enno; Jaramillo-Echeverria, Richard; Jauffret, Clement; Jawale, Suresh B.; Jeans, Daniel; Jedziniak, Ron; Jeffery, Ben; Jehanno, Didier; Jenner, Leo J.; Jensen, Chris; Jensen, David R.; Jiang, Hairong; Jiang, Xiao Ming; Jimbo, Masato; Jin, Shan; Keith Jobe, R.; Johnson, Anthony; Johnson, Erik; Johnson, Matt; Johnston, Michael; Joireman, Paul; Jokic, Stevan; Jones, James; Jones, Roger M.; Jongewaard, Erik; Jönsson, Leif; Joshi, Gopal; Joshi, Satish C.; Jung, Jin-Young; Junk, Thomas; Juste, Aurelio; Kado, Marumi; Kadyk, John; Käfer, Daniela; Kako, Eiji; Kalavase, Puneeth; Kalinin, Alexander; Kalinowski, Jan; Kamitani, Takuya; Kamiya, Yoshio; Kamiya, Yukihide; Kamoshita, Jun-ichi; Kananov, Sergey; Kanaya, Kazuyuki; Kanazawa, Ken-ichi; Kanemura, Shinya; Kang, Heung-Sik; Kang, Wen; Kanjial, D.; Kapusta, Frédéric; Karataev, Pavel; Karchin, Paul E.; Karlen, Dean; Karyotakis, Yannis; Kashikhin, Vladimir; Kashiwagi, Shigeru; Kasley, Paul; Katagiri, Hiroaki; Kato, Takashi; Kato, Yukihiro; Katzy, Judith; Kaukher, Alexander; Kaur, Manjit; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamura, Hiroyuki; Kazakov, Sergei; Kekelidze, V.D.; Keller, Lewis; Kelley, Michael; Kelly, Marc; Kelly, Michael; Kennedy, Kurt; Kephart, Robert; Keung, Justin; Khainovski, Oleg; Khan, Sameen Ahmed; Khare, Prashant; Khovansky, Nikolai; Kiesling, Christian; Kikuchi, Mitsuo; Kilian, Wolfgang; Killenberg, Martin; Kim, Donghee; Kim, Eun San; Kim, Eun-Joo; Kim, Guinyun; Kim, Hongjoo; Kim, Hyoungsuk; Kim, Hyun-Chui; Kim, Jonghoon; Kim, Kwang-Je; Kim, Kyung Sook; Kim, Peter; Kim, Seunghwan; Kim, Shin-Hong; Kim, Sun Kee; Kim, Tae Jeong; Kim, Youngim; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimmitt, Maurice; Kirby, Robert; Kircher, François; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kittel, Olaf; Klanner, Robert; Klebaner, Arkadiy L.; Kleinwort, Claus; Klimkovich, Tatsiana; Klinkby, Esben; Kluth, Stefan; Knecht, Marc; Kneisel, Peter; Ko, In Soo; Ko, Kwok; Kobayashi, Makoto; Kobayashi, Nobuko; Kobel, Michael; Koch, Manuel; Kodys, Peter; Koetz, Uli; Kohrs, Robert; Kojima, Yuuji; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolodziej, Karol; Kolomensky, Yury G.; Komamiya, Sachio; Kong, Xiang Cheng; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korbel, Volker; Koscielniak, Shane; Kostromin, Sergey; Kowalewski, Robert; Kraml, Sabine; Krammer, Manfred; Krasnykh, Anatoly; Krautscheid, Thorsten; Krawczyk, Maria; James Krebs, H.; Krempetz, Kurt; Kribs, Graham; Krishnagopal, Srinivas; Kriske, Richard; Kronfeld, Andreas; Kroseberg, Jürgen; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Kruecker, Dirk; Krüger, Hans; Krumpa, Nicholas A.; Krumshtein, Zinovii; Kuang, Yu Ping; Kubo, Kiyoshi; Kuchler, Vic; Kudoh, Noboru; Kulis, Szymon; Kumada, Masayuki; Kumar, Abhay; Kume, Tatsuya; Kundu, Anirban; Kurevlev, German; Kurihara, Yoshimasa; Kuriki, Masao; Kuroda, Shigeru; Kuroiwa, Hirotoshi; Kurokawa, Shin-ichi; Kusano, Tomonori; Kush, Pradeep K.; Kutschke, Robert; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Kvasnicka, Peter; Kwon, Youngjoon; Labarga, Luis; Lacasta, Carlos; Lackey, Sharon; Lackowski, Thomas W.; Lafaye, Remi; Lafferty, George; Lagorio, Eric; Laktineh, Imad; Lal, Shankar; Laloum, Maurice; Lam, Briant; Lancaster, Mark; Lander, Richard; Lange, Wolfgang; Langenfeld, Ulrich; Langeveld, Willem; Larbalestier, David; Larsen, Ray; Lastovicka, Tomas; Lastovicka-Medin, Gordana; Latina, Andrea; Latour, Emmanuel; Laurent, Lisa; Le, Ba Nam; Le, Duc Ninh; Le Diberder, Francois; Dû, Patrick Le; Lebbolo, Hervé; Lebrun, Paul; Lecoq, Jacques; Lee, Sung-Won; Lehner, Frank; Leibfritz, Jerry; Lenkszus, Frank; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Levy, Aharon; Lewandowski, Jim; Leyh, Greg; Li, Cheng; Li, Chong Sheng; Li, Chun Hua; Li, Da Zhang; Li, Gang; Li, Jin; Li, Shao Peng; Li, Wei Ming; Li, Weiguo; Li, Xiao Ping; Li, Xue-Qian; Li, Yuanjing; Li, Yulan; Li, Zenghai; Li, Zhong Quan; Liang, Jian Tao; Liao, Yi; Lilje, Lutz; Guilherme Lima, J.; Lintern, Andrew J.; Lipton, Ronald; List, Benno; List, Jenny; Liu, Chun; Liu, Jian Fei; Liu, Ke Xin; Liu, Li Qiang; Liu, Shao Zhen; Liu, Sheng Guang; Liu, Shubin; Liu, Wanming; Liu, Wei Bin; Liu, Ya Ping; Liu, Yu Dong; Lockyer, Nigel; Logan, Heather E.; Logatchev, Pavel V.; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lohse, Thomas; Lola, Smaragda; Lopez-Virto, Amparo; Loveridge, Peter; Lozano, Manuel; Lu, Cai-Dian; Lu, Changguo; Lu, Gong-Lu; Lu, Wen Hui; Lubatti, Henry; Lucotte, Arnaud; Lundberg, Björn; Lundin, Tracy; Luo, Mingxing; Luong, Michel; Luth, Vera; Lutz, Benjamin; Lutz, Pierre; Lux, Thorsten; Luzniak, Pawel; Lyapin, Alexey; Lykken, Joseph; Lynch, Clare; Ma, Li; Ma, Lili; Ma, Qiang; Ma, Wen-Gan; Macfarlane, David; Maciel, Arthur; MacLeod, Allan; MacNair, David; Mader, Wolfgang; Magill, Stephen; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Maiheu, Bino; Maity, Manas; Majchrzak, Millicent; Majumder, Gobinda; Makarov, Roman; Makowski, Dariusz; Malaescu, Bogdan; Mallik, C.; Mallik, Usha; Malton, Stephen; Malyshev, Oleg B.; Malysheva, Larisa I.; Mammosser, John; Mamta; Mamuzic, Judita; Manen, Samuel; Manghisoni, Massimo; Manly, Steven; Marcellini, Fabio; Marcisovsky, Michal; Markiewicz, Thomas W.; Marks, Steve; Marone, Andrew; Marti, Felix; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Victoria; Martin-Chassard, Gisèle; Martinez, Manel; Martinez-Rivero, Celso; Martsch, Dennis; Martyn, Hans-Ulrich; Maruyama, Takashi; Masuzawa, Mika; Mathez, Hervé; Matsuda, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Shuji; Matsumoto, Toshihiro; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Mättig, Peter; Mattison, Thomas; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mawatari, Kentarou; Mazzacane, Anna; McBride, Patricia; McCormick, Douglas; McCormick, Jeremy; McDonald, Kirk T.; McGee, Mike; McIntosh, Peter; McKee, Bobby; McPherson, Robert A.; Meidlinger, Mandi; Meier, Karlheinz; Mele, Barbara; Meller, Bob; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Mendez, Hector; Mercer, Adam; Merkin, Mikhail; Meshkov, I.N.; Messner, Robert; Metcalfe, Jessica; Meyer, Chris; Meyer, Hendrik; Meyer, Joachim; Meyer, Niels; Meyners, Norbert; Michelato, Paolo; Michizono, Shinichiro; Mihalcea, Daniel; Mihara, Satoshi; Mihara, Takanori; Mikami, Yoshinari; Mikhailichenko, Alexander A.; Milardi, Catia; Miller, David J.; Miller, Owen; Miller, Roger J.; Milstene, Caroline; Mimashi, Toshihiro; Minashvili, Irakli; Miquel, Ramon; Mishra, Shekhar; Mitaroff, Winfried; Mitchell, Chad; Miura, Takako; Miyata, Hitoshi; Mjörnmark, Ulf; Mnich, Joachim; Moenig, Klaus; Moffeit, Kenneth; Mokhov, Nikolai; Molloy, Stephen; Monaco, Laura; Monasterio, Paul R.; Montanari, Alessandro; Moon, Sung Ik; Moortgat-Pick, Gudrid A.; Mora de Freitas, Paulo; Morel, Federic; Moretti, Stefano; Morgunov, Vasily; Mori, Toshinori; Morin, Laurent; Morisseau, François; Morita, Yoshiyuki; Morita, Youhei; Morita, Yuichi; Morozov, Nikolai; Morozumi, Yuichi; Morse, William; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Moultaka, Gilbert; Mtingwa, Sekazi; Mudrinic, Mihajlo; Mueller, Alex; Mueller, Wolfgang; Muennich, Astrid; Muhlleitner, Milada Margarete; Mukherjee, Bhaskar; Mukhopadhyaya, Biswarup; Müller, Thomas; Munro, Morrison; Murayama, Hitoshi; Muto, Toshiya; Myneni, Ganapati Rao; Nabhiraj, P.Y.; Nagaitsev, Sergei; Nagamine, Tadashi; Nagano, Ai; Naito, Takashi; Nakai, Hirotaka; Nakajima, Hiromitsu; Nakamura, Isamu; Nakamura, Tomoya; Nakanishi, Tsutomu; Nakao, Katsumi; Nakao, Noriaki; Nakayoshi, Kazuo; Nam, Sang; Namito, Yoshihito; Namkung, Won; Nantista, Chris; Napoly, Olivier; Narain, Meenakshi; Naroska, Beate; Nauenberg, Uriel; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nelson, Charles; Nelson, Janice; Nelson, Timothy; Nemecek, Stanislav; Neubauer, Michael; Neuffer, David; Newman, Myriam Q.; Nezhevenko, Oleg; Ng, Cho-Kuen; Nguyen, Anh Ky; Nguyen, Minh; Van Nguyen Thi,Hong; Niebuhr, Carsten; Niehoff, Jim; Niezurawski, Piotr; Nishitani, Tomohiro; Nitoh, Osamu; Noguchi, Shuichi; Nomerotski, Andrei; Noonan, John; Norbeck, Edward; Nosochkov, Yuri; Notz, Dieter; Nowak, Grazyna; Nowak, Hannelies; Noy, Matthew; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nyffeler, Andreas; Nygren, David; Oddone, Piermaria; O'Dell, Joseph; Oh, Jong-Seok; Oh, Sun Kun; Ohkuma, Kazumasa; Ohlerich, Martin; Ohmi, Kazuhito; Ohnishi, Yukiyoshi; Ohsawa, Satoshi; Ohuchi, Norihito; Oide, Katsunobu; Okada, Nobuchika; Okada, Yasuhiro; Okamura, Takahiro; Okugi, Toshiyuki; Okumi, Shoji; Okumura, Ken-ichi; Olchevski, Alexander; Oliver, William; Olivier, Bob; Olsen, James; Olsen, Jeff; Olsen, Stephen; Olshevsky, A.G.; Olsson, Jan; Omori, Tsunehiko; Onel, Yasar; Onengut, Gulsen; Ono, Hiroaki; Onoprienko, Dmitry; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Will; Orimoto, Toyoko J.; Oriunno, Marco; Orlandea, Marius Ciprian; Oroku, Masahiro; Orr, Lynne H.; Orr, Robert S.; Oshea, Val; Oskarsson, Anders; Osland, Per; Ossetski, Dmitri; Österman, Lennart; Ostiguy, Francois; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ottewell, Brian; Ouyang, Qun; Padamsee, Hasan; Padilla, Cristobal; Pagani, Carlo; Palmer, Mark A.; Pam, Wei Min; Pande, Manjiri; Pande, Rajni; Pandit, V.S.; Pandita, P.N.; Pandurovic, Mila; Pankov, Alexander; Panzeri, Nicola; Papandreou, Zisis; Paparella, Rocco; Para, Adam; Park, Hwanbae; Parker, Brett; Parkes, Chris; Parma, Vittorio; Parsa, Zohreh; Parsons, Justin; Partridge, Richard; Pasquinelli, Ralph; Pásztor, Gabriella; Paterson, Ewan; Patrick, Jim; Patteri, Piero; Ritchie Patterson, J.; Pauletta, Giovanni; Paver, Nello; Pavlicek, Vince; Pawlik, Bogdan; Payet, Jacques; Pchalek, Norbert; Pedersen, John; Pei, Guo Xi; Pei, Shi Lun; Pelka, Jerzy; Pellegrini, Giulio; Pellett, David; Peng, G.X.; Penn, Gregory; Penzo, Aldo; Perry, Colin; Peskin, Michael; Peters, Franz; Petersen, Troels Christian; Peterson, Daniel; Peterson, Thomas; Petterson, Maureen; Pfeffer, Howard; Pfund, Phil; Phelps, Alan; Van Phi, Quang; Phillips, Jonathan; Phinney, Nan; Piccolo, Marcello; Piemontese, Livio; Pierini, Paolo; Thomas Piggott, W.; Pike, Gary; Pillet, Nicolas; Jayawardena, Talini Pinto; Piot, Phillippe; Pitts, Kevin; Pivi, Mauro; Plate, Dave; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Poblaguev, Andrei; Poehler, Michael; Poelker, Matthew; Poffenberger, Paul; Pogorelsky, Igor; Poirier, Freddy; Poling, Ronald; Poole, Mike; Popescu, Sorina; Popielarski, John; Pöschl, Roman; Postranecky, Martin; Potukochi, Prakash N.; Prast, Julie; Prat, Serge; Preger, Miro; Prepost, Richard; Price, Michael; Proch, Dieter; Puntambekar, Avinash; Qin, Qing; Qu, Hua Min; Quadt, Arnulf; Quesnel, Jean-Pierre; Radeka, Veljko; Rahmat, Rahmat; Rai, Santosh Kumar; Raimondi, Pantaleo; Ramberg, Erik; Ranjan, Kirti; Rao, Sista V.L.S.; Raspereza, Alexei; Ratti, Alessandro; Ratti, Lodovico; Raubenheimer, Tor; Raux, Ludovic; Ravindran, V.; Raychaudhuri, Sreerup; Re, Valerio; Rease, Bill; Reece, Charles E.; Regler, Meinhard; Rehlich, Kay; Reichel, Ina; Reichold, Armin; Reid, John; Reid, Ron; Reidy, James; Reinhard, Marcel; Renz, Uwe; Repond, Jose; Resta-Lopez, Javier; Reuen, Lars; Ribnik, Jacob; Rice, Tyler; Richard, François; Riemann, Sabine; Riemann, Tord; Riles, Keith; Riley, Daniel; Rimbault, Cécile; Rindani, Saurabh; Rinolfi, Louis; Risigo, Fabio; Riu, Imma; Rizhikov, Dmitri; Rizzo, Thomas; Rochford, James H.; Rodriguez, Ponciano; Roeben, Martin; Rolandi, Gigi; Roodman, Aaron; Rosenberg, Eli; Roser, Robert; Ross, Marc; Rossel, François; Rossmanith, Robert; Roth, Stefan; Rougé, André; Rowe, Allan; Roy, Amit; Roy, Sendhunil B.; Roy, Sourov; Royer, Laurent; Royole-Degieux, Perrine; Royon, Christophe; Ruan, Manqi; Rubin, David; Ruehl, Ingo; Jimeno, Alberto Ruiz; Ruland, Robert; Rusnak, Brian; Ryu, Sun-Young; Sabbi, Gian Luca; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadygov, Ziraddin Y; Saeki, Takayuki; Sagan, David; Sahni, Vinod C.; Saini, Arun; Saito, Kenji; Saito, Kiwamu; Sajot, Gerard; Sakanaka, Shogo; Sakaue, Kazuyuki; Salata, Zen; Salih, Sabah; Salvatore, Fabrizio; Samson, Joergen; Sanami, Toshiya; Levi Sanchez, Allister; Sands, William; Santic, John; Sanuki, Tomoyuki; Sapronov, Andrey; Sarkar, Utpal; Sasao, Noboru; Satoh, Kotaro; Sauli, Fabio; Saunders, Claude; Saveliev, Valeri; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Sawyer, Lee; Saxton, Laura; Schäfer, Oliver; Schälicke, Andreas; Schade, Peter; Schaetzel, Sebastien; Scheitrum, Glenn; Schibler, Emilie; Schindler, Rafe; Schlösser, Markus; Schlueter, Ross D.; Schmid, Peter; Schmidt, Ringo Sebastian; Schneekloth, Uwe; Schreiber, Heinz Juergen; Schreiber, Siegfried; Schroeder, Henning; Peter Schüler, K.; Schulte, Daniel; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schumacher, Markus; Schumann, Steffen; Schumm, Bruce A.; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwierz, Rainer; Scott, Duncan J.; Scuri, Fabrizio; Sefkow, Felix; Sefri, Rachid; Seguin-Moreau, Nathalie; Seidel, Sally; Seidman, David; Sekmen, Sezen; Seletskiy, Sergei; Senaha, Eibun; Senanayake, Rohan; Sendai, Hiroshi; Sertore, Daniele; Seryi, Andrei; Settles, Ronald; Sever, Ramazan; Shales, Nicholas; Shao, Ming; Shelkov, G.A.; Shepard, Ken; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Sheppard, John C.; Shi, Cai Tu; Shidara, Tetsuo; Shim, Yeo-Jeong; Shimizu, Hirotaka; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Shimizu, Yuuki; Shimogawa, Tetsushi; Shin, Seunghwan; Shioden, Masaomi; Shipsey, Ian; Shirkov, Grigori; Shishido, Toshio; Shivpuri, Ram K.; Shrivastava, Purushottam; Shulga, Sergey; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Shuvalov, Sergey; Si, Zongguo; Siddiqui, Azher Majid; Siegrist, James; Simon, Claire; Simrock, Stefan; Sinev, Nikolai; Singh, Bhartendu K.; Singh, Jasbir; Singh, Pitamber; Singh, R.K.; Singh, S.K.; Singini, Monito; Sinha, Anil K.; Sinha, Nita; Sinha, Rahul; Sinram, Klaus; Sissakian, A.N.; Skachkov, N.B.; Skrinsky, Alexander; Slater, Mark; Slominski, Wojciech; Smiljanic, Ivan; Smith, A J Stewart; Smith, Alex; Smith, Brian J.; Smith, Jeff; Smith, Jonathan; Smith, Steve; Smith, Susan; Smith, Tonee; Neville Snodgrass, W.; Sobloher, Blanka; Sohn, Young-Uk; Solidum, Ruelson; Solyak, Nikolai; Son, Dongchul; Sonmez, Nasuf; Sopczak, Andre; Soskov, V.; Spencer, Cherrill M.; Spentzouris, Panagiotis; Speziali, Valeria; Spira, Michael; Sprehn, Daryl; Sridhar, K.; Srivastava, Asutosh; St. Lorant, Steve; Stahl, Achim; Stanek, Richard P.; Stanitzki, Marcel; Stanley, Jacob; Stefanov, Konstantin; Stein, Werner; Steiner, Herbert; Stenlund, Evert; Stern, Amir; Sternberg, Matt; Stockinger, Dominik; Stockton, Mark; Stoeck, Holger; Strachan, John; Strakhovenko, V.; Strauss, Michael; Striganov, Sergei I.; Strologas, John; Strom, David; Strube, Jan; Stupakov, Gennady; Su, Dong; Sudo, Yuji; Suehara, Taikan; Suehiro, Toru; Suetsugu, Yusuke; Sugahara, Ryuhei; Sugimoto, Yasuhiro; Sugiyama, Akira; Suh, Jun Suhk; Sukovic, Goran; Sun, Hong; Sun, Stephen; Sun, Werner; Sun, Yi; Sun, Yipeng; Suszycki, Leszek; Sutcliffe, Peter; Suthar, Rameshwar L.; Suwada, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Atsuto; Suzuki, Chihiro; Suzuki, Shiro; Suzuki, Takashi; Swent, Richard; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swinson, Christina; Syresin, Evgeny; Szleper, Michal; Tadday, Alexander; Takahashi, Rika; Takahashi, Tohru; Takano, Mikio; Takasaki, Fumihiko; Takeda, Seishi; Takenaka, Tateru; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Tanaka, Masami; Tang, Chuan Xiang; Taniguchi, Takashi; Tantawi, Sami; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tartaglia, Michael A.; Tassielli, Giovanni Francesco; Tauchi, Toshiaki; Tavian, Laurent; Tawara, Hiroko; Taylor, Geoffrey; Telnov, Alexandre V.; Telnov, Valery; Tenenbaum, Peter; Teodorescu, Eliza; Terashima, Akio; Terracciano, Giuseppina; Terunuma, Nobuhiro; Teubner, Thomas; Teuscher, Richard; Theilacker, Jay; Thomson, Mark; Tice, Jeff; Tigner, Maury; Timmermans, Jan; Titov, Maxim; Toge, Nobukazu; Tokareva, N.A.; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomasek, Lukas; Tomovic, Savo; Tompkins, John; Tonutti, Manfred; Topkar, Anita; Toprek, Dragan; Toral, Fernando; Torrence, Eric; Traversi, Gianluca; Trimpl, Marcel; Mani Tripathi, S.; Trischuk, William; Trodden, Mark; Trubnikov, G.V.; Tschirhart, Robert; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsuchiya, Kiyosumi; Tsukamoto, Toshifumi; Tsunemi, Akira; Tucker, Robin; Turchetta, Renato; Tyndel, Mike; Uekusa, Nobuhiro; Ueno, Kenji; Umemori, Kensei; Ummenhofer, Martin; Underwood, David; Uozumi, Satoru; Urakawa, Junji; Urban, Jeremy; Uriot, Didier; Urner, David; Ushakov, Andrei; Usher, Tracy; Uzunyan, Sergey; Vachon, Brigitte; Valerio, Linda; Valin, Isabelle; Valishev, Alex; Vamra, Raghava; Van der Graaf, Harry; Van Kooten, Rick; Van Zandbergen, Gary; Vanel, Jean-Charles; Variola, Alessandro; Varner, Gary; Velasco, Mayda; Velte, Ulrich; Velthuis, Jaap; Vempati, Sundir K.; Venturini, Marco; Vescovi, Christophe; Videau, Henri; Vila, Ivan; Vincent, Pascal; Virey, Jean-Marc; Visentin, Bernard; Viti, Michele; Vo, Thanh Cuong; Vogel, Adrian; Vogt, Harald; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorozhtsov, S.B.; Vos, Marcel; Votava, Margaret; Vrba, Vaclav; Wackeroth, Doreen; Wagner, Albrecht; Wagner, Carlos E.M.; Wagner, Stephen; Wake, Masayoshi; Walczak, Roman; Walker, Nicholas J.; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wallon, Samuel; Walsh, Roberval; Walston, Sean; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Walz, Dieter; Wang, Chao En; Wang, Chun Hong; Wang, Dou; Wang, Faya; Wang, Guang Wei; Wang, Haitao; Wang, Jiang; Wang, Jiu Qing; Wang, Juwen; Wang, Lanfa; Wang, Lei; Wang, Min-Zu; Wang, Qing; Wang, Shu Hong; Wang, Xiaolian; Wang, Xue-Lei; Wang, Yi Fang; Wang, Zheng; Wanzenberg, Rainer; Ward, Bennie; Ward, David; Warmbein, Barbara; Warner, David W.; Warren, Matthew; Washio, Masakazu; Watanabe, Isamu; Watanabe, Ken; Watanabe, Takashi; Watanabe, Yuichi; Watson, Nigel; Wattimena, Nanda; Wayne, Mitchell; Weber, Marc; Weerts, Harry; Weiglein, Georg; Weiland, Thomas; Weinzierl, Stefan; Weise, Hans; Weisend, John; Wendt, Manfred; Wendt, Oliver; Wenzel, Hans; Wenzel, William A.; Wermes, Norbert; Werthenbach, Ulrich; Wesseln, Steve; Wester, William; White, Andy; White, Glen R.; Wichmann, Katarzyna; Wienemann, Peter; Wierba, Wojciech; Wilksen, Tim; Willis, William; Wilson, Graham W.; Wilson, John A.; Wilson, Robert; Wing, Matthew; Winter, Marc; Wirth, Brian D.; Wolbers, Stephen A.; Wolff, Dan; Wolski, Andrzej; Woodley, Mark D.; Woods, Michael; Woodward, Michael L.; Woolliscroft, Timothy; Worm, Steven; Wormser, Guy; Wright, Dennis; Wright, Douglas; Wu, Andy; Wu, Tao; Wu, Yue Liang; Xella, Stefania; Xia, Guoxing; Xia, Lei; Xiao, Aimin; Xiao, Liling; Xie, Jia Lin; Xing, Zhi-Zhong; Xiong, Lian You; Xu, Gang; Xu, Qing Jing; Yajnik, Urjit A.; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Yamada, Ryuji; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Naoto; Yamamoto, Richard; Yamamoto, Yasuchika; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamaoka, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Satoru; Yamazaki, Hideki; Yan, Wenbiao; Yang, Hai-Jun; Yang, Jin Min; Yang, Jongmann; Yang, Zhenwei; Yano, Yoshiharu; Yazgan, Efe; Yeh, G.P.; Yilmaz, Hakan; Yock, Philip; Yoda, Hakutaro; Yoh, John; Yokoya, Kaoru; Yokoyama, Hirokazu; York, Richard C.; Yoshida, Mitsuhiro; Yoshida, Takuo; Yoshioka, Tamaki; Young, Andrew; Yu, Cheng Hui; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Xian Ming; Yuan, Changzheng; Yue, Chong-Xing; Yue, Jun Hui; Zacek, Josef; Zagorodnov, Igor; Zalesak, Jaroslav; Zalikhanov, Boris; Zarnecki, Aleksander Filip; Zawiejski, Leszek; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeller, Michael; Zerwas, Dirk; Zerwas, Peter; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Zhai, Ji Yuan; Zhang, Bao Cheng; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Chuang; Zhang, He; Zhang, Jiawen; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Jing Ru; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Yuan; Zhang, Zhige; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhang, Ziping; Zhao, Haiwen; Zhao, Ji Jiu; Zhao, Jing Xia; Zhao, Ming Hua; Zhao, Sheng Chu; Zhao, Tianchi; Zhao, Tong Xian; Zhao, Zhen Tang; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhou, De Min; Zhou, Feng; Zhou, Shun; Zhu, Shou Hua; Zhu, Xiong Wei; Zhukov, Valery; Zimmermann, Frank; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zisman, Michael S.; Zomer, Fabian; Zong, Zhang Guo; Zorba, Osman; Zutshi, Vishnu

    2007-01-01

    This report, Volume IV of the International Linear Collider Reference Design Report, describes the detectors which will record and measure the charged and neutral particles produced in the ILC's high energy e+e- collisions. The physics of the ILC, and the environment of the machine-detector interface, pose new challenges for detector design. Several conceptual designs for the detector promise the needed performance, and ongoing detector R&D is addressing the outstanding technological issues. Two such detectors, operating in push-pull mode, perfectly instrument the ILC interaction region, and access the full potential of ILC physics.

  10. Silicon vertex detector for superheavy elements identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bednarek A.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Silicon vertex detector for superheavy elements (SHE identification has been proposed. It will be constructed using very thin silicon detectors about 5 μm thickness. Results of test of 7.3 μm four inch silicon strip detector (SSD with fission fragments and α particles emitted by 252Cf source are presented

  11. MUON DETECTORS: DT

    CERN Document Server

    M. Dallavalle.

    The DT system is ready for the LHC start up. The status of detector hardware, control and safety, of the software for calibration and monitoring and of people has been reviewed at several meetings, starting with the CMS Action Matrix Review and with the Muon Barrel Workshop (October 5 to 7). The disconnected HV channels are at a level of about 0.1%. The loss in detector acceptance because of failures in the Read-Out and Trigger electronics is about 0.5%. The electronics failure rate has been lower this year: next year will tell us whether the rate has stabilised and hopefully will confirm that the number of spares is adequate for ten years operation. Although the detector safety control is very accurate and robust, incidents have happened. In particular the DT system suffered from a significant water leak, originated in the top part of YE+1, that generated HV trips in eighteen chambers going transversely down from the top sector in YB+2 to the bottom sector in YB-2. All chambers recovered and all t...

  12. The Belle II DEPFET pixel detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, Hans-Günther, E-mail: moser@mpp.mpg.de

    2016-09-21

    The Belle II experiment at KEK (Tsukuba, Japan) will explore heavy flavour physics (B, charm and tau) at the starting of 2018 with unprecedented precision. Charged particles are tracked by a two-layer DEPFET pixel device (PXD), a four-layer silicon strip detector (SVD) and the central drift chamber (CDC). The PXD will consist of two layers at radii of 14 mm and 22 mm with 8 and 12 ladders, respectively. The pixel sizes will vary, between 50 μm×(55–60) μm in the first layer and between 50 μm×(70–85) μm in the second layer, to optimize the charge sharing efficiency. These innermost layers have to cope with high background occupancy, high radiation and must have minimal material to reduce multiple scattering. These challenges are met using the DEPFET technology. Each pixel is a FET integrated on a fully depleted silicon bulk. The signal charge collected in the ‘internal gate’ modulates the FET current resulting in a first stage amplification and therefore very low noise. This allows very thin sensors (75 μm) reducing the overall material budget of the detector (0.21% X{sub 0}). Four fold multiplexing of the column parallel readout allows read out a full frame of the pixel matrix in only 20 μs while keeping the power consumption low enough for air cooling. Only the active electronics outside the detector acceptance has to be cooled actively with a two phase CO{sub 2} system. Furthermore the DEPFET technology offers the unique feature of an electronic shutter which allows the detector to operate efficiently in the continuous injection mode of superKEKB.

  13. Integrated double-sided silicon microstrip detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perevertailo V. L.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The problems of design, technology and manufacturing double-sided silicon microstrip detectors using standard equipment production line in mass production of silicon integrated circuits are considered. The design of prototype high-energy particles detector for experiment ALICE (CERN is presented. The parameters of fabricated detectors are comparable with those of similar foreign detectors, but they are distinguished by lesser cost.

  14. Neutron detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Andrew C [Knoxville, TN; Jardret,; Vincent, D [Powell, TN

    2011-04-05

    A neutron detector has a volume of neutron moderating material and a plurality of individual neutron sensing elements dispersed at selected locations throughout the moderator, and particularly arranged so that some of the detecting elements are closer to the surface of the moderator assembly and others are more deeply embedded. The arrangement captures some thermalized neutrons that might otherwise be scattered away from a single, centrally located detector element. Different geometrical arrangements may be used while preserving its fundamental characteristics. Different types of neutron sensing elements may be used, which may operate on any of a number of physical principles to perform the function of sensing a neutron, either by a capture or a scattering reaction, and converting that reaction to a detectable signal. High detection efficiency, an ability to acquire spectral information, and directional sensitivity may be obtained.

  15. Ionization detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, E E

    1976-02-27

    This invention concerns a fire detection system making use of a beta source. The ionisation detector includes a first and second chamber respectively comprising a first and second electrode, preferably a plate, with a common electrode separating the first and second chamber. Communication is provided between these chambers through a set of orifices and each chamber also has a set of orifices for communication with the ambient atmosphere. One or both chambers can comprise a particle source, preferably beta. The detector also has an adjustable electrode housed in one of the chambers to regulate the voltage between the fixed electrode of this chamber and the common electrode located between the chambers. The electrodes of the structure are connected to a detection circuit that spots a change in the ionisation current when a fire alarm condition arises. The detection circuit of a new type includes a relaxation oscillator with a programmable unijunction transistor and a light emitting diode.

  16. MUST detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumenfeld, Y.; Auger, F.; Sauvestre, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    The IPN-Orsay, in collaboration with the SPhN-Saclay and the DPTA Bruyeres, has built an array of 8 telescopes based on Si-strip technology for the study of direct reactions induced by radioactive beams. The detectors are described, along with the compact high density VXI electronics and the stand-alone data acquisition system developed in the laboratory. One telescope was tested using an 40 Ar beam and the measured performances are discussed. (authors)

  17. Radiation detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohata, Shuichi; Takeuchi, Yoji

    1968-10-30

    Herein disclosed is an ionization chamber the airtightness of which can be readily tested. The ionization chamber is characterized in that a small amount of helium gas is filled in the chamber in combination with other ionization gases such as argon gas, xenon gas and the like. Helium leakage from the chamber is measured by a known helium gas sensor in a vacuum vessel. Hence the long term drift of the radiation detector sensitivity may be determined.

  18. The CEBAF large acceptance spectrometer (CLAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mecking, B.A.; Adams, G.; Ahmad, S.; Anciant, E.; Anghinolfi, M.; Asavapibhop, B.; Asryan, G.; Audit, G.; Auger, T.; Avakian, H.; Ball, J.P.; Barbosa, F.J.; Barrow, S.; Battaglieri, M.; Beard, K.; Berman, B.L.; Bianchi, N.; Boiarinov, S.; Bonneau, P.; Briscoe, W.J.; Brooks, W.K.; Burkert, V.D.; Carman, D.S.; Carstens, T.; Cetina, C.; Christo, S.B.; Cole, P.L.; Coleman, A.; Connelly, J.; Cords, D.; Corvisiero, P.; Crabb, D.; Crannell, H.; Cuevas, R.C.; Degtyarenko, P.V.; Dennis, L.; DeSanctis, E.; DeVita, R.; Distelbrink, J.; Dodge, G.E.; Dodge, W.; Doolittle, G.; Doughty, D.; Dugger, M.; Duncan, W.S.; Dytman, S.; Egiyan, H.; Egiyan, K.S.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Feuerbach, R.J.; Ficenec, J.; Frolov, V.; Funsten, H.; Gilfoyle, G.P.; Giovanetti, K.L.; Golovatch, E.; Gram, J.; Guidal, M.; Gyurjyan, V.; Heddle, D.; Hemler, P.; Hersman, F.W.; Hicks, K.; Hicks, R.S.; Holtrop, M.; Hyde-Wright, C.E.; Insley, D.; Ito, M.M.; Jacobs, G.; Jenkins, D.; Joo, K.; Joyce, D.; Kashy, D.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F.J.; Klusman, M.; Kossov, M.; Kramer, L.; Koubarovski, V.; Kuhn, S.E.; Lake, A.; Lawrence, D.; Longhi, A.; Lukashin, K.; Lachniet, J.; Magahiz, R.A.; Major, W.; Manak, J.J.; Marchand, C.; Martin, C.; Matthews, S.K.; McMullen, M.; McNabb, J.W.C.; Mestayer, M.D.; Minehart, R.; Mirazita, M.; Miskimen, R.; Muccifora, V.; Mueller, J.; Murphy, L.Y.; Mutchler, G.S.; Napolitano, J.; Niculescu, I.; Niczyporuk, B.B.; Nozar, M.; O' Brien, J.T.; Opper, A.K.; O' Meara, J.E.; Pasyuk, E.; Philips, S.A.; Polli, E.; Price, J.W.; Pozdniakov, S.; Qin, L.M.; Raue, B.A.; Riccardi, G.; Ricco, G.; Riggs, C.; Ripani, M.; Ritchie, B.G.; Robb, J.; Ronchetti, F.; Rossi, P.; Roudot, F.; Salgado, C.; Sapunenko, V.; Schumacher, R.A.; Serov, V.S.; Sharabian, Y.G.; Smith, E.E.S. E-mail: elton@jlab.org; Smith, L.C.; Smith, T.; Sober, D.I.; Stavinsky, A.; Stepanyan, S.; Stoler, P.; Taiuti, M.; Taylor, W.M.; Taylor, S.; Tedeschi, D.J.; Thoma, U.; Thompson, R.; Tilles, D.; Todor, L. [and others

    2003-05-11

    The CEBAF large acceptance spectrometer (CLAS) is used to study photo- and electro-induced nuclear and hadronic reactions by providing efficient detection of neutral and charged particles over a good fraction of the full solid angle. A collaboration of about 30 institutions has designed, assembled, and commissioned CLAS in Hall B at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The CLAS detector is based on a novel six-coil toroidal magnet which provides a largely azimuthal field distribution. Trajectory reconstruction using drift chambers results in a momentum resolution of 0.5% at forward angles. Cherenkov counters, time-of-flight scintillators, and electromagnetic calorimeters provide good particle identification. Fast triggering and high data-acquisition rates allow operation at a luminosity of 10{sup 34} nucleon cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. These capabilities are being used in a broad experimental program to study the structure and interactions of mesons, nucleons, and nuclei using polarized and unpolarized electron and photon beams and targets. This paper is a comprehensive and general description of the design, construction and performance of CLAS.

  19. Responsible technology acceptance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Madeleine Broman; Schuitema, Geertje; Thøgersen, John

    2014-01-01

    As a response to climate change and the desire to gain independence from imported fossil fuels, there is a pressure to increase the proportion of electricity from renewable sources which is one of the reasons why electricity grids are currently being turned into Smart Grids. In this paper, we focus...... on private consumers’ acceptance of having Smart Grid technology installed in their home. We analyse acceptance in a combined framework of the Technology Acceptance Model and the Norm Activation Model. We propose that individuals are only likely to accept Smart Grid technology if they assess usefulness...... in terms of a positive impact for society and the environment. Therefore, we expect that Smart Grid technology acceptance can be better explained when the well-known technology acceptance parameters included in the Technology Acceptance Model are supplemented by moral norms as suggested by the Norm...

  20. Semiconductor Thermal Neutron Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru Aoki

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The  CdTe  and  GaN  detector  with  a  Gd  converter  have  been developed  and  investigated  as  a  neutron  detector  for neutron  imaging.  The  fabricated  Gd/CdTe  detector  with  the  25  mm  thick  Gd  was  designed  on  the  basis  of  simulation results  of  thermal  neutron  detection  efficiency  and  spatial  resolution.  The  Gd/CdTe  detector  shows  the  detection  of neutron  capture  gamma  ray  emission  in  the  155Gd(n,  g156Gd,  157Gd(n,  g158Gd  and  113Cd(n,  g114Cd  reactions  and characteristic X-ray emissions due to conversion-electrons generated inside the Gd film. The observed efficient thermal neutron detection with the Gd/CdTe detector shows its promise in neutron radiography application. Moreover, a BGaN detector has also investigated to separate neutron signal from gamma-ray clearly. 

  1. Acceptance of Others, Feeling of Being Accepted and Striving for Being Accepted Among the Representatives of Different Kinds of Occupations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergana Stanoeva

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with an important issue related to the human attitudes and needs in interpersonal and professional aspects. The theoretical part deals with several psychological components of the self-esteem and esteem of the others – acceptance of the others, feeling of being accepted, need for approval. Some gender differences in manifestations of acceptance and feeling of being accepted at the workplace are discussed. This article presents some empirical data for the degree of acceptance of others, feeling of being accepted and the strive for being accepted among the representatives of helping, pedagogical, administrative and economic occupations, as well as non-qualified workers. The goals of the study were to reveal the interdependency between these constructs and to be found some significant differences between the representatives of the four groups of occupations. The methods of the first study were W. Fey’s scales “Acceptance of others”, and “How do I feel accepted by others”. The method of the second study was Crown and Marlowe Scale for Social Desirability. The results indicated some significant differences in acceptance of others and feeling of being accepted between the non-qualified workers and the representatives of helping, administrative and economic occupations. There were not any significant difference in strive for being accepted between the fouroccupational groups.

  2. The PHOBOS detector at RHIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Basilev, S.; Baum, R.; Betts, R. R.; Białas, A.; Bindel, R.; Bogucki, W.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Ceglia, M.; Chang, Y.-H.; Chen, A. E.; Coghen, T.; Connor, C.; Czyż, W.; Dabrowski, B.; Decowski, M. P.; Despet, M.; Fita, P.; Fitch, J.; Friedl, M.; Gałuszka, K.; Ganz, R.; Garcia, E.; George, N.; Godlewski, J.; Gomes, C.; Griesmayer, E.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halik, J.; Halliwell, C.; Haridas, P.; Hayes, A.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hollis, R.; Hołyński, R.; Hofman, D.; Holzman, B.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J.; Katzy, J.; Kita, W.; Kotuła, J.; Kraner, H.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Law, C.; Lemler, M.; Ligocki, J.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michałowski, J.; Mignerey, A.; Mülmenstädt, J.; Neal, M.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Patel, M.; Pernegger, H.; Plesko, M.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Ross, D.; Rosenberg, L.; Ryan, J.; Sanzgiri, A.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Scaduto, J.; Shea, J.; Sinacore, J.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Steinberg, P.; Straczek, A.; Stodulski, M.; Strek, M.; Stopa, Z.; Sukhanov, A.; Surowiecka, K.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.; Zalewski, K.; Żychowski, P.; Phobos Collaboration

    2003-03-01

    This manuscript contains a detailed description of the PHOBOS experiment as it is configured for the Year 2001 running period. It is capable of detecting charged particles over the full solid angle using a multiplicity detector and measuring identified charged particles near mid-rapidity in two spectrometer arms with opposite magnetic fields. Both of these components utilize silicon pad detectors for charged particle detection. The minimization of material between the collision vertex and the first layers of silicon detectors allows for the detection of charged particles with very low transverse momenta, which is a unique feature of the PHOBOS experiment. Additional detectors include a time-of-flight wall which extends the particle identification range for one spectrometer arm, as well as sets of scintillator paddle and Cherenkov detector arrays for event triggering and centrality selection.

  3. Smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fung, C.K.

    1981-01-01

    This describes a smoke detector comprising a self-luminous light source and a photosensitive device which is so arranged that the light source is changed by the presence of smoke in a detecting region. A gaseous tritium light source is used. This consists of a borosilicate glass bulb with an internal phosphor coating, filled with tritium gas. The tritium emits low energy beta particles which cause the phosphor to glow. This is a reliable light source which needs no external power source. The photosensitive device may be a phototransistor and may drive a warning device through a directly coupled transistor amplifier. (U.K.)

  4. Comparison of dignity determination of mammographic microcalcification with two systems for digital full-field mammography with different detector resolution. A retrospective clinical study; Vergleich der Dignitaetsbestimmung von mammographischem Mikrokalk mit zwei Systemen zur digitalen Vollfeldmammographie unterschiedlicher Detektoraufloesung. Eine retrospektive klinische Studie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz-Wendtland, R.; Adamietz, B.; Meier-Meitinger, M.; Wenkel, E.; Lell, M.; Anders, K.; Uder, M. [Universitaetsklinikum Erlangen, Abteilung Gynaekologische Radiologie, Radiologisches Institut, Erlangen (Germany); Hermann, K.P. [Universitaetsmedizin Goettingen, Abteilung Diagnostische Radiologie, Goettingen (Germany)

    2011-02-15

    The aim of this retrospective clinical study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of the novel 50 {mu}m FFDM (full-field digital mammography) system (DR) with an established 70 {mu}m system (DR) in the differential diagnosis between benign and malignant clusters of microcalcification (n=50) (BI-RADS trademark classification 4/5) and to assess the possible incremental value of the 50 {mu}m pixel-pitch on specificity. From March 2009 to September 2009, 50 patients underwent full-field digital mammography (FFDM) (detector resolution 70 {mu}m) (Novation, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). As there were suspicious signs of microcalcification classified with BI-RADS trademark 4/5 after diagnosis and preoperative wire localization, control images were made with the new FFDM system (detector: resolution 50 {mu}m) (Amulet, Fujifilm, Tokyo, Japan) with the same exposure parameters. The diagnosis was determined after the operation by five radiologists with different experience in digital mammography from randomly distributed mediolateral views (monitor reading) whose results were correlated with the final histology of all lesions. Histopathology revealed 19 benign and 31 malignant lesions in 50 patients after open biopsy. The results of the five readers showed a higher sensitivity of the new FFDM system (80.0%) in the ability to recognize malignant microcalcification in comparison to the established system (74.8%). The specificity (75.8 versus 71.6%) was slightly higher for the new system but hese results were not statistically significant (p<0.001). Considering the diagnostic accuracy, the new system (detector: resolution 50 {mu}m) was also slightly superior to the well-known system (detector: resolution 70 {mu}m) (80.1% versus 76.4%). Our study has shown that the new full-field digital mammography system using the novel detector compared with the already established FFDM system with respect to the assessment of microcalcification is at least equivalent. (orig.) [German] Das

  5. Blind and Deaf to Acceptance: The Role of Self-Esteem in Capitalizing on Social Acceptance

    OpenAIRE

    Luerssen, Anna Maud

    2013-01-01

    Across two studies, we evaluated whether people with low self-esteem are less likely to capitalize on, or take full advantage of, their romantic partners' accepting behaviors. We conceptualized capitalization as the tendency to perceive acceptance when it occurs, and to experience positive changes in affect and relationship satisfaction when acceptance is perceived. We found that participants with low self-esteem under-perceived their partners' acceptance, both in daily life and in the labora...

  6. Technology Acceptance Model: A Survey of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Surendran

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The technology acceptance model has been a theory that is most widely used to explain an individual’s acceptance of an information system. This study has reviewed numerous literatures available in this area. The different studies in this area were evaluated to understand the modifications that were done on this model. The paper then tries to provide an insight on future trends in the technology acceptance model.

  7. ISLA: An Isochronous Spectrometer with Large Acceptances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazin, D., E-mail: bazin@nscl.msu.edu; Mittig, W.

    2013-12-15

    A novel type of recoil mass spectrometer and separator is proposed for the future secondary radioactive beams of the ReA12 accelerator at NSCL/FRIB, inspired from the TOFI spectrometer developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory for online mass measurements. The Isochronous Spectrometer with Large Acceptances (ISLA) is able to achieve superior characteristics without the compromises that usually plague the design of large acceptance spectrometers. ISLA can provide mass-to-charge ratio (m/q) measurements to better than 1 part in 1000 by using an optically isochronous time-of-flight independent of the momentum vector of the recoiling ions, despite large acceptances of 20% in momentum and 64 msr in solid angle. The characteristics of this unique design are shown, including requirements for auxiliary detectors around the target and the various types of reactions to be used with the re-accelerated radioactive beams of the future ReA12 accelerator.

  8. A full quantum network scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Hai-Qiang; Wei Ke-Jin; Yang Jian-Hui; Li Rui-Xue; Zhu Wu

    2014-01-01

    We present a full quantum network scheme using a modified BB84 protocol. Unlike other quantum network schemes, it allows quantum keys to be distributed between two arbitrary users with the help of an intermediary detecting user. Moreover, it has good expansibility and prevents all potential attacks using loopholes in a detector, so it is more practical to apply. Because the fiber birefringence effects are automatically compensated, the scheme is distinctly stable in principle and in experiment. The simple components for every user make our scheme easier for many applications. The experimental results demonstrate the stability and feasibility of this scheme. (general)

  9. MUON DETECTORS: DT

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Fernandez Bedoya and M. Dallavalle

    2010-01-01

    The DT system operation since the 2010 LHC start up is remarkably smooth.
 All parts of the system have behaved very satisfactorily in the last two months of operation with LHC pp collisions. Disconnected HV channels remain at the level of 0.1%, and the loss in detector acceptance because of failures in the readout and Trigger electronics is about 0.4%. The DT DCS-LHC handshake mechanism, which was strengthened after the short 2009 LHC run, operates without major problems. A problem arose with the opto-receivers of the trigger links connecting the detector to USC; the receivers would unlock from transmission for specific frequencies of the LHC lock, in particular during the LHC ramp. For relocking the TX and RX a “re-synch” command had to be issued. The source of the problem has been isolated and cured in the Opto-RX boards and now the system is stable. The Theta trigger chain also has been commissioned and put in operation. Several interventions on the system have been made, pro...

  10. Silicon microstrip detectors with SVX chip readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckner, W.; Dropmann, F.; Godbersen, M.; Konorov, I.; Koenigsmann, K.; Masciocchi, S.; Newsom, C.; Paul, S.; Povh, B.; Russ, J.S.; Timm, S.; Vorwalter, K.; Werding, R.

    1995-01-01

    A new silicon strip detector has been designed for the fixed target experiment WA89 at CERN. The system of about 30 000 channels is equipped with SVX chips and read out via a double buffer into a FASTBUS memory. The detector provides a fast readout by offering zero-suppressed data extraction on the chip. The silicon counters are the largest detectors built on a monocrystal so far in order to achieve good transversal acceptance. Construction and performance during the 1993 data taking run are discussed. ((orig.))

  11. Radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, B.; Finkenzeller, J.; Kiiehn, G.; Lichtenberg, W.

    1984-01-01

    In an exemplary embodiment, a flat radiation beam is detected having a common electrode disposed parallel to the beam plane at one side and a common support with a series of individual conductors providing electrodes opposite successive portions of the common electrode and lying in a plane also parallel to the beam plane. The beam may be fan-shaped and the individual electrodes may be aligned with respective ray paths separated by uniform angular increments in the beam plane. The individual conductors and the connection thereof to the exterior of the detector housing may be formed on an insulator which can be folded into a T-shape for leading the supply conductors for alternate individual conductors toward terminals at opposite sides of the chamber

  12. Particle detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Hilke, Hans Jürgen; Joram, Christian; CERN. Geneva

    1991-01-01

    Lecture 5: Detector characteristics: ALEPH Experiment cut through the devices and events - Discuss the principles of the main techniques applied to particle detection ( including front-end electronics), the construction and performance of some of the devices presently in operartion and a few ideas on the future performance. Lecture 4-pt. b Following the Scintillators. Lecture 4-pt. a : Scintillators - Used for: -Timing (TOF, Trigger) - Energy Measurement (Calorimeters) - Tracking (Fibres) Basic scintillation processes- Inorganic Scintillators - Organic Scintil - Discuss the principles of the main techniques applied to particle detection ( including front-end electronics), the construction and performance of some of the devices presently in operation and a fiew ideas on future developpement session 3 - part. b Following Calorimeters lecture 3-pt. a Calorimeters - determine energy E by total absorption of charged or neutral particles - fraction of E is transformed into measurable quantities - try to acheive sig...

  13. Smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, J.

    1979-01-01

    An ionization smoke detector consisting of two electrodes defining an ionization chamber permitting entry of smoke, a radioactive source to ionize gas in the chamber and a potential difference applied across the first and second electrodes to cause an ion current to flow is described. The current is affected by entry of smoke. An auxiliary electrode is positioned in the ionization chamber between the first and second electrodes, and it is arranged to maintain or create a potential difference between the first electrode and the auxiliary electrode. The auxiliary electrode may be used for testing or for adjustment of sensitivity. A collector electrode divides the chamber into two regions with the auxiliary electrode in the outer sensing region. (U.K.)

  14. Ionization detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, E.E.

    1980-01-01

    A safe and reliable apparatus for detecting products of combustion and aerosols in the atmosphere was developed which uses a beta source. It is easy to adjust for optimum performance. The ionization detector comprises a double chamber; one of the chambers is the basic sensing chamber. The sensing chamber is ported to both the secondary chambers to account for slow ambient changes in the atmosphere outside of the chamber. The voltages from the ionization chamber are adjusted with electrodes in each chamber. The ionization chamber contains baffles to direct the air to be sensed as well as an electrostatic screen. A unique electronic circuit provides an inexpensive and reliable means for detecting the signal change which occurs in the ionization chamber. The decision level of the alarm circuit can be adjusted to allow for any desired sensitivity. (D.N.)

  15. Detector development and experiments at COSY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morsch, H.P.

    1988-05-01

    These proceedings contain the manuscripts of the lectures presented at the named workshop. These concern a review about the COSY project, ideal detectors for hadron physics at COSY, possible experiments at COSY, magnetic spectrometers, a modification of BIG KARL, consideration on COSY experiments in the early stage, a detector for exclusive 2-meson production experiments, the excitation of baryons and physics with complex projectiles, a status report about the Indiana cooler ring, special scintillators, multiwire chambers, position-sensitive semiconductor detectors, detectors for neutral particles, a small large-acceptance photon detector, a status report of the two-arm photon spectrometer TAPS, studies on the parity violation in the pp scattering, the measurement of excitation functions for the study of dibaryon states, and results from the neutron workshop held in February 1988 at the KFA Juelich. (HSI)

  16. Searches for discrete symmetries violation in ortho-positronium decay using the J-PET detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamińska Daria

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present prospects for using the Jagiellonian positron emission tomograph (J-PET detector to search for discrete symmetries violations in a purely leptonic system of the positronium atom. We discuss tests of CP and CPT symmetries by means of ortho-positronium decays into three photons. No zero expectation values for chosen correlations between ortho-positronium spin and momentum vectors of photons would imply the existence of physics phenomena beyond the standard model. Previous measurements resulted in violation amplitude parameters for CP and CPT symmetries consistent with zero, with an uncertainty of about 10−3. The J-PET detector allows to determine those values with better precision, thanks to the unique time and angular resolution combined with a high geometrical acceptance. Achieving the aforementioned is possible because of the application of polymer scintillators instead of crystals as detectors of annihilation quanta.

  17. Silicon radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, G.

    1995-01-01

    An introduction to and an overview of function principles and properties of semiconductor radiation detectors is attempted. The paper is addressed to people interested in detector development but not already experts in the field of semiconductor detectors. (orig.)

  18. Acceptance procedures: Microfilm printer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, H. E.

    1973-01-01

    Acceptance tests were made for a special order automatic additive color microfilm printer. Tests include film capacity, film transport, resolution, illumination uniformity, exposure range checks, and color cuing considerations.

  19. On risks and acceptability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, S.R.

    1981-01-01

    A very attractive notion is that it should be possible not only to determine how much risk is associated with any particular activity, but also to determine if that risk is acceptable. Stated boldly this seems an entirely unobjectionable and indeed a very acceptable notion. There is, however, underlying this idea, a mistaken view of risk which we might refer to as the ''phlogiston'' theory of risk. In this paper, presented at the SRP meeting on Ethical and Legal Aspects of Radiological Protection, the phlogiston theory of risk is described; secondly, it will be argued that it is too simple a theory to be realistic or useful; and thirdly, the management of risk will be placed in a wider decision framework. Acceptability, it will be argued is highly dependent on context, and it is not possible, therefore, to lay down generally applicable notions of acceptability. (author)

  20. Signal processing for radiation detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Nakhostin, Mohammad

    2018-01-01

    This book provides a clear understanding of the principles of signal processing of radiation detectors. It puts great emphasis on the characteristics of pulses from various types of detectors and offers a full overview on the basic concepts required to understand detector signal processing systems and pulse processing techniques. Signal Processing for Radiation Detectors covers all of the important aspects of signal processing, including energy spectroscopy, timing measurements, position-sensing, pulse-shape discrimination, and radiation intensity measurement. The book encompasses a wide range of applications so that readers from different disciplines can benefit from all of the information. In addition, this resource: * Describes both analog and digital techniques of signal processing * Presents a complete compilation of digital pulse processing algorithms * Extrapolates content from more than 700 references covering classic papers as well as those of today * Demonstrates concepts with more than 340 origin...

  1. Detector module for gas monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to radioactive source detector module for use in a gas monitor. It is adapted to contain the source and other detector components to allow sealed coupling of those components with other portions of the gas monitor. It is particularly concerned with the use of radioactive materials used as electron sources in gas monitors. The module is used to detect changes in electron flow caused by partial absorption of the electron capture gas flowing between two electrodes. The assembly includes a gas flow source, a gas receiver and an electronic assembly for receiving a signal from the detector. The radioactive source and electrodes are housed so that they are connected to the gas flow source so as to prevent accidental or undesired disconnection. It is designed so that the detector module may be removed or replaced into the gas monitor assemblies by untrained personnel so as to prevent exposure to the radioactive material. Full details are given. (U.K.)

  2. Calibration of detector efficiency of neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Hongsheng; He Xijun; Xu Rongkun; Peng Taiping

    2001-01-01

    BF 3 neutron detector has been set up. Detector efficiency is calibrated by associated particle technique. It is about 3.17 x 10 -4 (1 +- 18%). Neutron yield of neutron generator per pulse (10 7 /pulse) is measured by using the detector

  3. Acceptable noise level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Steen Østergaard; Nielsen, Lars Holme; Lantz, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    The acceptable noise level (ANL) is used to quantify the amount of background noise that subjects can accept while listening to speech, and is suggested for prediction of individual hearing-aid use. The aim of this study was to assess the repeatability of the ANL measured in normal-hearing subjects...... using running Danish and non-semantic speech materials as stimuli and modulated speech-spectrum and multi-talker babble noises as competing stimuli....

  4. Operations Acceptance Management

    OpenAIRE

    Suchá, Ivana

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the process of Operations Acceptance Management, whose main task is to control Operations Acceptance Tests (OAT). In the first part the author focuses on the theoretical ground for the problem in the context of ITSM best practices framework ITIL. Benefits, process pitfalls and possibilities for automation are discussed in this part. The second part contains a case study of DHL IT Services (Prague), where a solution optimizing the overall workflow was implemented using simp...

  5. Acceptable noise level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Steen Østergaard; Nielsen, Lars Holme; Lantz, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    The acceptable noise level (ANL) is used to quantify the amount of background noise that subjects can accept while listening to speech, and is suggested for prediction of individual hearing-aid use. The aim of this study was to assess the repeatability of the ANL measured in normal-hearing subjec...... using running Danish and non-semantic speech materials as stimuli and modulated speech-spectrum and multi-talker babble noises as competing stimuli....

  6. A small-angle large-acceptance detection system for hadrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Bacelar, J. C. S.; Brandenburg, S.; Huisman, H.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Mul, F. A.; Schadmand, S.; van der Schaaf, K.; Schippers, J. M.; Volkerts, M.

    2000-04-01

    The performance of a segmented large-acceptance detector, capable of measuring particles at small forward angles, is presented. The Small-Angle Large-Acceptance Detector (SALAD), was built to handle very high rates of particles impinging on the detector. Particles down to a few MeV can be detected with it. The position of charged particles is measured by two Multi-Wire Proportional Chambers while scintillator blocks are used to measure the energy of the detected particle. A stack of thin scintillators placed behind the energy detectors allows for a hardware rejection (veto) of high-energy particles going through the scintillator blocks.

  7. A small-angle large-acceptance detection system for hadrons

    CERN Document Server

    Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N; Brandenburg, S; Huisman, H; Messchendorp, J G; Mul, F A; Schadmand, S; Schaaf, K V D; Schippers, J M; Volkerts, M

    2000-01-01

    The performance of a segmented large-acceptance detector, capable of measuring particles at small forward angles, is presented. The Small-Angle Large-Acceptance Detector (SALAD), was built to handle very high rates of particles impinging on the detector. Particles down to a few MeV can be detected with it. The position of charged particles is measured by two Multi-Wire Proportional Chambers while scintillator blocks are used to measure the energy of the detected particle. A stack of thin scintillators placed behind the energy detectors allows for a hardware rejection (veto) of high-energy particles going through the scintillator blocks.

  8. A small-angle large-acceptance detection system for hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Bacelar, J.C.S.; Brandenburg, S.; Huisman, H.; Messchendorp, J.G.; Mul, F.A.; Schadmand, S.; Schaaf, K. van der; Schippers, J.M.; Volkerts, M.

    2000-01-01

    The performance of a segmented large-acceptance detector, capable of measuring particles at small forward angles, is presented. The Small-Angle Large-Acceptance Detector (SALAD), was built to handle very high rates of particles impinging on the detector. Particles down to a few MeV can be detected with it. The position of charged particles is measured by two Multi-Wire Proportional Chambers while scintillator blocks are used to measure the energy of the detected particle. A stack of thin scintillators placed behind the energy detectors allows for a hardware rejection (veto) of high-energy particles going through the scintillator blocks

  9. Position detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Toshifumi.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to detect the position of an moving object in a control rod position detector, stably in a digital manner at a high accuracy and free from the undesired effects of circumstantial conditions such as the reactor temperature. Constitution: Coils connected in parallel with each other are disposed along the passage of a moving object and variable resistors and relays are connected in series with each of the coils respectively. Light emitting diodes is connected in series with the contacts of the respective relays. The resistance value of the variable resistors are adjusted depending on the changes in the circumstantial conditions and temperature distribution upon carrying out the positional detection. When the object is inserted into a coils, the relevant relay is deenergized, by which the relay contacts are closed to light up the diode. In the same manner, as the object is successively inserted into the coils, the diodes are lighted-up successively thereby enabling highly accurate and stable positional detection in a digital manner, free from the undesired effects of the circumstantial conditions. (Horiuchi, T.)

  10. MUON DETECTOR

    CERN Multimedia

    F. Gasparini

    DT As announced in the previous Bulletin MU DT completed the installation of the vertical chambers of barrel wheels 0, +1 and +2. 242 DT and RPC stations are now installed in the negative barrel wheels. The missing 8 (4 in YB-1 and 4 in YB-2) chambers can be installed only after the lowering of the two wheels into the UX cavern, which is planned for the last quarter of the year. Cabling on the surface of the negative wheels was finished in May after some difficulties with RPC cables. The next step was to begin the final commissioning of the wheels with the final trigger and readout electronics. Priority was giv¬en to YB0 in order to check everything before the chambers were covered by cables and services of the inner detectors. Commissioning is not easy since it requires both activity on the central and positive wheels underground, as well as on the negative wheels still on the surface. The DT community is requested to commission the negative wheels on surface to cope with a possible lack of time a...

  11. INDIA: Photon multiplicity detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Full text: The team of Indian scientists from Calcutta's Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Bhubaneswar Institute of Physics, Panjab (Chandigarh), Rajasthan (Jaipur) and Jammu in collaboration with GSI Darmstadt have contributed a large and highly granular preshower photon multiplicity detector (PMD) for the WA98 experiment at the CERN SPS proton synchrotron. This experiment studies high energy collisions of lead ions and will measure both charged particle and photon multiplicity in a large overlap region. The motivation for measuring photon multiplicity in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions stems from theoretical predictions of changes in the relative production of photons and charged particles in the phase transition of hadronic matter to quarkgluon plasma and its subsequent hadronization. The photon multiplicity detector consists of a matrix of scintillator pads placed in light-tight boxes and mounted behind the lead converter plates. The light from the scintillator pads is transported to the readout system using wavelength shifting (WLS) fibres. Developing on the team's earlier experience with a smaller version for the WA93 experiment (September 1991, page 16), several modifications were incorporated to improve light collection and transport. Use of improved WLS fibres, short WLS pieces to minimize self-absorption, and thermal splicing with long clear fibres were some of the important changes incorporated. Tests showed signficantly improved light collection. The scintillator pads were fabricated at all the five collaborating centres in India and the complicated assembly in the detector box modules carried out at the Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Calcutta. More than 400 lead converter plates were machined in Calcutta to rigorous tolerances of 0.2 mm. The assembled detector box modules and lead plates were shipped to CERN in spring 1994 for tests and installation. The WA98 PMD consists of over 50,000 scintillator pads of sizes varying from 15 to

  12. INDIA: Photon multiplicity detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1995-01-15

    Full text: The team of Indian scientists from Calcutta's Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Bhubaneswar Institute of Physics, Panjab (Chandigarh), Rajasthan (Jaipur) and Jammu in collaboration with GSI Darmstadt have contributed a large and highly granular preshower photon multiplicity detector (PMD) for the WA98 experiment at the CERN SPS proton synchrotron. This experiment studies high energy collisions of lead ions and will measure both charged particle and photon multiplicity in a large overlap region. The motivation for measuring photon multiplicity in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions stems from theoretical predictions of changes in the relative production of photons and charged particles in the phase transition of hadronic matter to quarkgluon plasma and its subsequent hadronization. The photon multiplicity detector consists of a matrix of scintillator pads placed in light-tight boxes and mounted behind the lead converter plates. The light from the scintillator pads is transported to the readout system using wavelength shifting (WLS) fibres. Developing on the team's earlier experience with a smaller version for the WA93 experiment (September 1991, page 16), several modifications were incorporated to improve light collection and transport. Use of improved WLS fibres, short WLS pieces to minimize self-absorption, and thermal splicing with long clear fibres were some of the important changes incorporated. Tests showed signficantly improved light collection. The scintillator pads were fabricated at all the five collaborating centres in India and the complicated assembly in the detector box modules carried out at the Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Calcutta. More than 400 lead converter plates were machined in Calcutta to rigorous tolerances of 0.2 mm. The assembled detector box modules and lead plates were shipped to CERN in spring 1994 for tests and installation. The WA98 PMD consists of over 50,000 scintillator pads of sizes varying from 15 to 25 mm

  13. MUON DETECTORS: RPC

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Paolucci

    2011-01-01

    RPC detector calibration, HV scan Thanks to the high LHC luminosity and to the corresponding high number of muons created in the first part of the 2011 the RPC community had, for the first time, the possibility to calibrate every single detector element (roll).The RPC steering committee provided the guidelines for both data-taking and data analysis and a dedicated task force worked from March to April on this specific issue. The main goal of the RPC calibration was to study the detector efficiency as a function of high-voltage working points, fit the obtained “plateau curve” with a sigmoid function and determine the “best” high-voltage working point of every single roll. On 18th and 19th March, we had eight runs at different voltages. On 27th March, the full analysis was completed, showing that 60% of the rolls had already a very good fit with an average efficiency greater than 93% in the plateau region. To improve the fit we decided to take three more runs (15th April...

  14. MUON DETECTORS: RPC

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Paolucci

    2011-01-01

    During data-taking in 2010 the RPC system behaviour was very satisfactory for both the detector and trigger performances. Most of the data analyses are now completed and many results and plots have been approved in order to be published in the muon detector paper. A very detailed analysis of the detector efficiency has been performed using 60 million muon events taken with the dedicated RPC monitor stream. The results have shown that the 96.3% of the system was working properly with an average efficiency of 95.4% at 9.35 kV in the Barrel region and 94.9% at 9.55 kV in the Endcap. Cluster size goes from 1.6 to 2.2 showing a clear and well-known correlation with the strip pitch. Average noise in the Barrel is less than 0.4 Hz/cm2 and about 98% of full system has averaged noise less then 1 Hz/cm2. A linear dependence of the noise versus the luminosity has been preliminary observed and is now under study. Detailed chamber efficiency maps have shown a few percent of chambers with a non-uniform efficiency distribu...

  15. Mechanical design of the CDF SVX II silicon vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skarha, J.E.

    1994-08-01

    A next generation silicon vertex detector is planned at CDF for the 1998 Tevatron collider run with the Main Injector. The SVX II silicon vertex detector will allow high luminosity data-taking, enable online triggering of secondary vertex production, and greatly increase the acceptance for heavy flavor physics at CDF. The design specifications, geometric layout, and early mechanical prototyping work for this detector are discussed

  16. Detector simulation needs for detector designers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, G.G.

    1987-11-01

    Computer simulation of the components of SSC detectors and of the complete detectors will be very important for the designs of the detectors. The ratio of events from interesting physics to events from background processes is very low, so detailed understanding of detector response to the backgrounds is needed. Any large detector for the SSC will be very complex and expensive and every effort must be made to design detectors which will have excellent performance and will not have to undergo major rebuilding. Some areas in which computer simulation is particularly needed are pattern recognition in tracking detectors and development of shower simulation code which can be trusted as an aid in the design and optimization of calorimeters, including their electron identification performance. Existing codes require too much computer time to be practical and need to be compared with test beam data at energies of several hundred GeV. Computer simulation of the processing of the data, including electronics response to the signals from the detector components, processing of the data by microprocessors on the detector, the trigger, and data acquisition will be required. In this report we discuss the detector simulation needs for detector designers

  17. Passive detectors for neutron fluence measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, P.D.

    1985-01-01

    The use of neutron activation detectors (slow neutron detectors and threshold detectors) and fission track detectors for radiological protection purposes, principally in criticality dosimetry, dosimetry of pulsed accelerators and calibration of neutron fluxes is discussed. References are given to compilations of cross sections. For the determination of the activity induced, either beta ray or gamma ray counting may be used. For beta-ray counting, thin foils are usually necessary which result in low neutron sensitivity. When fission track detectors are used, it is necessary to know the efficiency of track registration. Alternatively, a detector-counter system may be calibrated by exposure to a known flux of monoenergetic neutrons. Usually, the sensitivity of activation detectors is low because small foils are used. For criticality dosimetry, calibration work and shielding studies on accelerators, low sensitivity is acceptable. However, there are some instances where, by the use of long integration times, or very large quantities of detector material with gamma ray detection, neutron fluences in operational areas have been measured. (author)

  18. Test Plan for Cask Identification Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauch, Eric Benton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-29

    This document serves to outline the testing of a Used Fuel Cask Identification Detector (CID) currently being designed under the DOE-NE MPACT Campaign. A bench-scale prototype detector will be constructed and tested using surrogate neutron sources. The testing will serve to inform the design of the full detector that is to be used as a way of fingerprinting used fuel storage casks based on the neutron signature produced by the used fuel inside the cask.

  19. The GRANDE detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, A.; Bond, R.; Coleman, L.; Rollefson, A.; Wold, D.; Bratton, C.B.; Gurr, H.; Kropp, W.; Nelson, M.; Price, L.R.; Reines, F.; Schultz, J.; Sobel, H.; Svoboda, R.; Yodh, G.; Burnett, T.; Chaloupka, V.; Wilkes, R.J.; Cherry, M.; Ellison, S.B.; Guzik, T.G.; Wefel, J.; Gaidos, J.; Loeffler, F.; Sembroski, G.; Wilson, C.; Goodman, J.; Haines, T.J.; Kielczewska, D.; Lane, C.; Steinberg, R.; Lieber, M.; Nagle, D.; Potter, M.; Tripp, R.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we present a detector facility which meets the requirements outlined above for a next-generation instrument. GRANDE (Gamma Ray and Neutrino DEtector) is an imaging, water Cerenkov detector, which combines in one facility an extensive air shower array and a high-energy neutrino detector. (orig.)

  20. Spiral silicon drift detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehak, P.; Gatti, E.; Longoni, A.; Sampietro, M.; Holl, P.; Lutz, G.; Kemmer, J.; Prechtel, U.; Ziemann, T.

    1988-01-01

    An advanced large area silicon photodiode (and x-ray detector), called Spiral Drift Detector, was designed, produced and tested. The Spiral Detector belongs to the family of silicon drift detectors and is an improvement of the well known Cylindrical Drift Detector. In both detectors, signal electrons created in silicon by fast charged particles or photons are drifting toward a practically point-like collection anode. The capacitance of the anode is therefore kept at the minimum (0.1pF). The concentric rings of the cylindrical detector are replaced by a continuous spiral in the new detector. The spiral geometry detector design leads to a decrease of the detector leakage current. In the spiral detector all electrons generated at the silicon-silicon oxide interface are collected on a guard sink rather than contributing to the detector leakage current. The decrease of the leakage current reduces the parallel noise of the detector. This decrease of the leakage current and the very small capacities of the detector anode with a capacitively matched preamplifier may improve the energy resolution of Spiral Drift Detectors operating at room temperature down to about 50 electrons rms. This resolution is in the range attainable at present only by cooled semiconductor detectors. 5 refs., 10 figs

  1. 1991 Acceptance priority ranking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    The Standard Contract for Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and/or High- Level Radioactive Waste (10 CFR Part 961) that the Department of Energy (DOE) has executed with the owners and generators of civilian spent nuclear fuel requires annual publication of the Acceptance Priority Ranking (APR). The 1991 APR details the order in which DOE will allocate Federal waste acceptance capacity. As required by the Standard Contract, the ranking is based on the age of permanently discharged spent nuclear fuel (SNF), with the owners of the oldest SNF, on an industry-wide basis, given the highest priority. the 1991 APR will be the basis for the annual allocation of waste acceptance capacity to the Purchasers in the 1991 Annual Capacity Report (ACR), to be issued later this year. This document is based on SNF discharges as of December 31, 1990, and reflects Purchaser comments and corrections, as appropriate, to the draft APR issued on May 15, 1991

  2. Solid state detector design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunarwan Prayitno; Ahmad Rifai

    2010-01-01

    Much has been charged particle detector radiation detector made by the industry, especially those engaged in the development of detection equipment and components. The development and further research will be made solid state detector with silicon material. To be able to detect charged particles (radiation), required the processing of silicon material into the detector material. The method used to make silicon detector material is a lithium evaporations. Having formed an intrinsic region contactor installation process, and with testing. (author)

  3. OPAL jet chamber full-scale prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, H M; Hauschild, M; Hartmann, H; Hegerath, A; Boerner, H; Burckhart, H J; Dittmar, M; Hammarstroem, R; Heuer, R D; Mazzone, L

    1986-12-01

    The concept of a jet chamber for the central detector of OPAL was tested with a full scale prototype. The design of this prototype, its mechanical and electrical structure and its support system for high voltage, gas, laser calibration, and readout are described. Operating experience was gathered since summer 1984. The chamber performance in terms of spatial resolution and particle identification capability is given.

  4. From motivation to acceptability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordfalk, Francisca; Olejaz, Maria; Jensen, Anja M. B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Over the past three decades, public attitudes to organ donation have been a subject of numerous studies focusing on donor motivation. Here, we present a fresh approach. We suggest focusing on public acceptability instead of motivation. The point is to understand public attitudes well...

  5. Approaches to acceptable risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whipple, C.

    1997-01-01

    Several alternative approaches to address the question open-quotes How safe is safe enough?close quotes are reviewed and an attempt is made to apply the reasoning behind these approaches to the issue of acceptability of radiation exposures received in space. The approaches to the issue of the acceptability of technological risk described here are primarily analytical, and are drawn from examples in the management of environmental health risks. These include risk-based approaches, in which specific quantitative risk targets determine the acceptability of an activity, and cost-benefit and decision analysis, which generally focus on the estimation and evaluation of risks, benefits and costs, in a framework that balances these factors against each other. These analytical methods tend by their quantitative nature to emphasize the magnitude of risks, costs and alternatives, and to downplay other factors, especially those that are not easily expressed in quantitative terms, that affect acceptance or rejection of risk. Such other factors include the issues of risk perceptions and how and by whom risk decisions are made

  6. The performance of ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider is an apparatus of unprecedented complexity, designed to probe physics in proton-proton collisions at centre-of-mass energies up to 14 TeV. It was installed in its underground cavern at the LHC during the period 2004 to 2008. Testing of individual subsystems began immediately with calibration systems and cosmic rays, and by 2008 full detector systems could be operated with the planned infrastructure, readout, and monitoring systems. Several commissioning runs of the full detector were organized in 2008 and 2009. During these runs the detector was operated continuously for several months with its readout triggered by cosmic ray muons. At the same time, regular calibrations of individual detector systems were made. In the course of these runs, signals from tens of millions of cosmic ray events were recorded. These commissioning runs continued until the first beam-beam collisions in late 2009. This volume is a collection of seven performance papers based on d...

  7. The LiC detector toy program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regler, Meinhard; Valentan, Manfred; Fruehwirth, Rudolf

    2007-01-01

    This note describes the 'LiC Detector Toy' ('LiC' for Linear Collider) software tool which has been developed for detector design studies, aiming at investigating the resolution of reconstructed track parameters for the purpose of comparing and optimizing various detector setups. It consists of a simplified simulation of the detector measurements, taking into account multiple scattering, followed by full single track reconstruction using the Kalman filter. The tool is written in MATLAB and may be installed on a laptop. It can easily be used as a black-box tool by non-experts, but also adapted to individual needs

  8. The DEPFET Mini-matrix Particle Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Scheirich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The DEPFET is new type of active pixel particle detector. A MOSFET is integrated in each pixel, providing the first amplification stage of the readout electronics. Excellent noise parameters are obtained with this layout. The DEPFET detector will be integrated as an inner detector in the BELLE II and ILC experiment. A flexible measuring system with a wide control cycle range and minimal noise was designed for testing small detector prototypes.Noise of 60 electrons of the equivalent input charge was achieved during the first measurements on the system.

  9. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. K.; Park, S. H.; Lee, W. G.; Ha, J. H.

    2005-01-01

    In 1945, Van Heerden measured α, β and γ radiations with the cooled AgCl crystal. It was the first radiation measurement using the compound semiconductor detector. Since then the compound semiconductor has been extensively studied as radiation detector. Generally the radiation detector can be divided into the gas detector, the scintillator and the semiconductor detector. The semiconductor detector has good points comparing to other radiation detectors. Since the density of the semiconductor detector is higher than that of the gas detector, the semiconductor detector can be made with the compact size to measure the high energy radiation. In the scintillator, the radiation is measured with the two-step process. That is, the radiation is converted into the photons, which are changed into electrons by a photo-detector, inside the scintillator. However in the semiconductor radiation detector, the radiation is measured only with the one-step process. The electron-hole pairs are generated from the radiation interaction inside the semiconductor detector, and these electrons and charged ions are directly collected to get the signal. The energy resolution of the semiconductor detector is generally better than that of the scintillator. At present, the commonly used semiconductors as the radiation detector are Si and Ge. However, these semiconductor detectors have weak points. That is, one needs thick material to measure the high energy radiation because of the relatively low atomic number of the composite material. In Ge case, the dark current of the detector is large at room temperature because of the small band-gap energy. Recently the compound semiconductor detectors have been extensively studied to overcome these problems. In this paper, we will briefly summarize the recent research topics about the compound semiconductor detector. We will introduce the research activities of our group, too

  10. Coakial gamma ray detector and method therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harchol, M.

    1977-01-01

    A coaxial gamma ray detector is fabricated using intrinsic Ge semiconductor material in a geometry whereby full depletion of electrical carriers is prevented within a small region proximate the point of electrical contact thereby allowing greater biasing potentials across the detector and, consequently, providing reduced electronic noise and increased energy resolution

  11. Development of planar detectors with active edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povoli, M.; Bagolini, A.; Boscardin, M.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Giacomini, G.; Vianello, E.; Zorzi, N.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the first batch of planar active edge sensors fabricated at Fondazione Bruno Kessler (Trento, Italy) on the way to the development of full 3D detectors with active edges. The main design and technological aspects are reported, along with selected results from the electrical characterization of detectors and test structures.

  12. Development of planar detectors with active edge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Povoli, M., E-mail: povoli@disi.unitn.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienza dell' Informazione, Universita di Trento, Via Sommarive, 14, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova (Gruppo Collegato di Trento) (Italy); Bagolini, A.; Boscardin, M. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Via Sommarive, 18, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); Dalla Betta, G.-F. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienza dell' Informazione, Universita di Trento, Via Sommarive, 14, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova (Gruppo Collegato di Trento) (Italy); Giacomini, G.; Vianello, E.; Zorzi, N. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Via Sommarive, 18, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2011-12-01

    We report on the first batch of planar active edge sensors fabricated at Fondazione Bruno Kessler (Trento, Italy) on the way to the development of full 3D detectors with active edges. The main design and technological aspects are reported, along with selected results from the electrical characterization of detectors and test structures.

  13. HEROICA: a test facility for the characterization of BEGe detectors for the Gerda experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falkenstein, Raphael [Eberhard Karls Universitaet Tuebingen (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    The Gerda experiment is designed to search for neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of {sup 76}Ge. It uses bare, enriched Germanium diodes that are operated in liquid argon. Currently, Phase I is running at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso in Italy. For Phase II, ∝20 kg of Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detectors enriched in {sup 76}Ge at 86% level will be additionally deployed. These detectors allow for advanced pulse shape discrimination techniques, to suppress the background, which will be necessary to reach the goal of Phase II with a background index of 10{sup -3} cts/(keV.kg.yr) in the Region of Interest. The HEROICA project aims for acceptance tests and the characterization of the BEGe detectors. In this talk, the infrastructure of the Belgian HADES underground test facility, as well as the full test protocol for the characterization campaign of the enrBEGe detectors, is described. This test protocol includes the determination of important detector parameters, such as energy resolution, depletion voltage, dead-layer thickness and uniformity, active volume, as well as pulse shape discrimination parameters.

  14. Full spectrum analysis in environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhardt, Sascha; Hartmann, Soeren; Pimpl, Richard

    2015-01-01

    In the environmental monitoring spectroscopic gamma detectors are frequently used. The motivation to use spectroscopic gamma detectors is the higher sensitivity and specific spectral information. For the analysis often the photo peaks of the gamma spectrum are used to identify the nuclide. These methods are very reliable, robust and well developed but using only the photo peak means also to use only a fraction of the available information. Doing a full spectrum analysis based on principle components obtained from NASVD for description of the radiation background and adjustment calculations are a possible analysis method which may provide advantages compared to a peak based analysis when used for a continuous environmental monitoring. An analysis example is shown and discussed with a measured time series of gamma spectra obtained from a spectroscopic gamma detector SARA IGS710 with a NaI(Tl) scintillator as it is used in the environmental monitoring.

  15. Full spectrum analysis in environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinahrdt, S.; Hartmann, S.; Pimpl, R.

    2014-01-01

    In the environmental monitoring spectroscopic gamma detectors are frequently used. The motivation to use spectroscopic gamma detectors is the higher sensitivity and specific spectral information. For the analysis often the photo peaks of the gamma spectrum are used to identify the nuclide. These methods are very reliable, robust and well developed but using only the photo peak means also to use only a fraction of the available information. Doing a full spectrum analysis based on principal components obtained from NASVD for description of the radiation background and adjustment calculations are a possible analysis method, which may provide advantages compared to a peak based analysis when used for a continuous environmental monitoring. An analysis example is shown and discussed with a measured time series of gamma spectra obtained from a spectroscopic gamma detector SARA IGS710 with a NaI(Tl) scintillator as it is used in the environmental monitoring. (authors)

  16. Department of Radiation Detectors: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piekoszewski, J.

    1998-01-01

    (full text) Work carried out in 1997 in the Department of Radiation Detectors concentrated on three subjects: (i) Semiconductor Detectors (ii) X-ray Tube Generators (iii) Material Modification using Ion and Plasma Beams. Semiconductor detectors: Semiconductor detectors of ionizing radiation are among the basic tools utilized in such fields of research and industry as nuclear physics, high energy physics, medical (oncology) radiotherapy, radiological protection, environmental monitoring, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence non-destructive analysis of chemical composition, nuclear power industry. The Department all objectives are: - search for new types of detectors, - adapting modern technologies (especially of industrial microelectronics) to detector manufacturing, - producing unique detectors tailored for physics experiments, - manufacturing standard detectors for radiation measuring instruments, - scientific development of the staff. These 1997 objectives were accomplished particularly by: - research on unique detectors for nuclear physics (e.g. transmission type Si(Li) detectors with extremely thin entrance and exit window), - development of technology of high-resistivity (HRSi) silicon detectors and thermoelectric cooling systems (KBN grant), - study of the applicability of industrial planar technology in producing detectors, - manufacturing detectors developed in previous years, re-generating and servicing customer detectors of various origin. In accomplishing of the above, the Department cooperated with interested groups of physicists from our Institute (P-I and P-II Departments), Warsaw University, Warsaw Heavy Ion Laboratory and with some technology Institutes based in Warsaw (ITME, ITE). Some detectors and services have been delivered to customers on a commercial basis. X-Rat tube generators: The Department conducts research on design and technology of producing X-ray generators based on X-ray tubes of special construction. In 1997, work on a special

  17. Waste acceptance and logistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, James H.

    1992-01-01

    There are three major components which are normally highlighted when the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program is discussed - the repository, the monitored retrievable storage facility, and the transportation system. These are clearly the major physical system elements and they receive the greatest external attention. However, there will not be a successful, operative waste management system without fully operational waste acceptance plans and logistics arrangements. This paper will discuss the importance of developing, on a parallel basis to the normally considered waste management system elements, the waste acceptance and logistics arrangements to enable the timely transfer of spent nuclear fuel from more than one hundred and twenty waste generators to the Federal government. The paper will also describe the specific activities the Program has underway to make the necessary arrangements. (author)

  18. Environment and public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauvenet; Bresson; Braillard; Ertaud; Ladonchamps, de; Toureau

    1976-01-01

    The problems involved in the siting of nuclear power stations at a local level are of a political economic, social or ecological order. The acceptance of a nuclear station mostly depends on its interest for the local population. In order to avoid negative reactions, the men who are responsible must make the harmonious integration of the station within the existing economic and social context their first priority [fr

  19. Nuclear power and acceptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speelman, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    In 1989 a workshop was held organized by the IAEA and the Argonne National Laboratory. The purpose was to investigate under which circumstances a large-scale extension of nuclear power can be accepted. Besides the important technical information, the care for the environment determined the atmosphere during the workshop. The opinion dominated that nuclear power can contribute in tackling the environment problems, but that the social and political climate this almost makes impossible. (author). 7 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab

  20. Silicon Detector Letter of Intent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aihara, H.; Burrows, P.; Oreglia, M.

    2010-05-26

    This document presents the current status of SiD's effort to develop an optimized design for an experiment at the International Linear Collider. It presents detailed discussions of each of SiD's various subsystems, an overview of the full GEANT4 description of SiD, the status of newly developed tracking and calorimeter reconstruction algorithms, studies of subsystem performance based on these tools, results of physics benchmarking analyses, an estimate of the cost of the detector, and an assessment of the detector R&D needed to provide the technical basis for an optimised SiD.

  1. MUON DETECTOR

    CERN Multimedia

    F. Gasparini

    DT Commissioning of the two negative wheels was done on the surface to gain time; YB-1 was completed in June and that of YB-2 on October 3. A new test is ongoing following their lowering into the experiment cavern (UX). In the UX cavern, YB0 and YB+1 testing was completed by the end of August, and the two last sectors of YB+2 will be finished by the end of November. The two negative wheels were lowered at the beginning of October and the installation of the chambers in the vertical sectors was done immediately. Three important events took place at the end of October: the last of the 250 DT +RPC packs was installed in Sector 7 of YB-2; full power was switched on for the first time in a full wheel (on YB0, albeit with temporary power distribution) and 50,000 events of cosmic muons, including many spectacular showers crossing the fully active YB0 (50 chambers), were recorded in about 15 minutes. Other crucial tests were achieved, in difficult conditions, to prove the performance of the DT DAQ. The DAQ ha...

  2. Acceptance Test Plan for ANSYS Software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CREA, B.A.

    2000-01-01

    This plan governs the acceptance testing of the ANSYS software (Full Mechanical Release 5.5) for use on Project Word Management Contract (PHMC) computer systems (either UNIX or Microsoft Windows/NT). There are two phases to the acceptance testing covered by this test plan: program execution in accordance with the guidance provided in installation manuals; and ensuring results of the execution are consistent with the expected physical behavior of the system being modeled

  3. Drift Chambers detectors; Detectores de deriva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, I; Martinez laso, L

    1989-07-01

    We present here a review of High Energy Physics detectors based on drift chambers. The ionization, drift diffusion, multiplication and detection principles are described. Most common drift media are analysed, and a classification of the detectors according to its geometry is done. Finally the standard read-out methods are displayed and the limits of the spatial resolution are discussed. (Author) 115 refs.

  4. Age and Acceptance of Euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Russell A.

    1980-01-01

    Study explores relationship between age (and sex and race) and acceptance of euthanasia. Women and non-Whites were less accepting because of religiosity. Among older people less acceptance was attributable to their lesser education and greater religiosity. Results suggest that quality of life in old age affects acceptability of euthanasia. (Author)

  5. The ALICE detector data link

    CERN Document Server

    Rubin, G; Csató, P; Dénes, E; Kiss, T; Meggyesi, Z; Sulyán, J; Vesztergombi, G; Eged, B; Gerencsér, I; Novák, I; Soós, C; Tarján, D; Telegdy, A; Tóth, N

    1999-01-01

    The ALICE detector data link has been designed to cover all the needs for data transfer between the detector and the data-acquisition system. It is a 1 Gbit/s, full-duplex, multi-purpose fibre optic link that can be used as a medium for the bi-directional transmission of data blocks between the front-end electronics and the data- acquisition system and also for the remote control and test of the front-end electronics, In this paper the concept, the protocol, the specific test tools, the prototypes of the detector data link and the read-out receiver card, their application in the ALICE-TPC test system and the integration with the DATE software are presented. The test results on the performance are also shown. (14 refs).

  6. Management of disused smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Smoke detectors containing radioisotopes with long half-life (such as 241 Am and 239 Pu), are widely used all over the world. Very small activities are required for this application but in each country, the smoke detectors are present by thousands. The volume of the radioactive sources being so small compared to the overall volume of the device, the volume reduction is the only responsible option for their management and storage. These sources, collected as such, require deep geological repository that so far are not operational anywhere. The conditioning and the packaging should try to meet the requirement for future repository. The National Institute for Radioelements, in Belgium, (IRE) has acquired a wide experience in the field of handling, conditioning and storage of disused smoke detectors and lightning preventers mainly based on 241 Am sources. Up to now, more than forty different types of smoke detectors were dismantled in the IRE facilities representing a total amount of more than 30,000 items. This report presents a practical management option for disused smoke detectors sources and provides an example of specific technical procedure for 241 Am sources handling and conditioning for long term storage. This management option does not request heavy infrastructure. For this reason this practical approach can be implemented in every waste treatment facility including those in the developing countries. (author)

  7. Mica fission detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.; Anderson, J.D.; Hansen, L.; Lehn, A.V.; Williamson, M.A.

    1977-01-01

    The present development status of the mica fission detectors is summarized. It is concluded that the techniques have been refined and developed to a state such that the mica fission counters are a reliable and reproducible detector for fission events

  8. Barrier Infrared Detector (BIRD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A recent breakthrough in MWIR detector design, has resulted in a high operating temperature (HOT) barrier infrared detector (BIRD) that is capable of spectral...

  9. Simulating detectors dead time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rustom, Ibrahim Farog Ibrahim

    2015-06-01

    Nuclear detectors are used in all aspects of nuclear measurements. All nuclear detectors are characterized by their dead time i.e. the time needed by a detector to recover from a previous incident. A detector dead time influences measurements taken by a detector and specially when measuring high decay rate (>) where is the detector dead time. Two models are usually used to correct for the dead time effect: the paralayzable and the non-paralayzable models. In the current work we use Monte Carlo simulation techniques to simulate radioactivity and the effect of dead time and the count rate of a detector with a dead time =5x10 - 5s assuming the non-paralayzable model. The simulation indicates that assuming a non -paralayzable model could be used to correct for decay rate measured by a detector. The reliability of the non-paralayzable model to correct the measured decay rate could be gauged using the Monte Carlo simulation. (Author)

  10. Forward tracking detectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Forward tracking is an essential part of a detector at the international linear collider (ILC). The requirements for forward tracking are explained and the proposed solutions in the detector concepts are shown.

  11. MUON DETECTOR

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Iaselli

    Drift Tubes The long run of chamber certification and test at ISR ended in October. The full lot of 250 DT chambers, and some of the 16 spare not kept in the assembly sites for further studies and tests, were tested and equipped with Minicrates. It’s the end of a hard work lasted more than three years. 58 BMU Stations (DT + RPC) were installed in three weeks in the wheels YB-1 and -2 in the surface hall at point 5. With the exception of 6 chambers to be installed in the feet of YB0 and -1,-2 after the cabling this achieve¬ment marks the end of the installation of the Barrel MU in surface. Commissioning of the installed chambers is already going on.YB+2 passed the review to certify its readiness for lowering. Lowering is foreseen for the beginning of January, followed within a couple of weeks by that of YB+1. Lot of work is being deployed in the definition of the services on YB0. They are crucial for the definition of the length of many cables foreseen to be installed starting in January....

  12. HIBP primary beam detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, T.W.

    1979-01-01

    A position measuring detector was fabricated for the Heavy Ion Beam Probe. The 11 cm by 50 cm detector was a combination of 15 detector wires in one direction and 63 copper bars - .635 cm by 10 cm to measure along an orthogonal axis by means of a current divider circuit. High transmission tungsten meshes provide entrance windows and suppress secondary electrons. The detector dimensions were chosen to resolve the beam position to within one beam diameter

  13. The OSMOND detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bateman, J.E. [Technology Dept. Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Dalgliesh, R. [ISIS Dept. Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Duxbury, D.M., E-mail: dom.duxbury@stfc.ac.uk [Technology Dept. Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Helsby, W.I. [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Daresbury Laboratory, Keckwick Lane, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Holt, S.A.; Kinane, C.J. [ISIS Dept. Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Marsh, A.S. [Diamond Light Source LTD, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Diamond House, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Rhodes, N.J.; Schooneveld, E.M. [ISIS Dept. Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Spill, E.J.; Stephenson, R. [Technology Dept. Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2013-01-11

    The development and testing of the Off Specular MicrOstrip Neutron Detector (OSMOND) is described. Based on a microstrip gas chamber the aim of the project was to produce a high counting rate detector capable of replacing the existing rate limited scintillator detectors currently in use on the CRISP reflectometer for off specular reflectometry experiments. The detector system is described together with results of neutron beam tests carried out at the ISIS spallation neutron source.

  14. MUON DETECTORS: RPC

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Iaselli

    During the last 3 months the RPC group has made impressive improvements in the refinement of the operation tools and understanding of the detector. The full barrel and part of the plus end cap participated systematically to global runs producing millions of trigger on cosmics. The main monitoring tools were robust and efficient in controlling the detector and in diagnosis of problems. After the refinement of the synchronization procedure, detailed studies of the chamber performances, as a function of high voltage and front-end threshold, were pursued. In parallel, new tools for the prompt analysis were developed which have enabled a fast check of the data at the CMS Centre. This effort has been very valuable since it has helped in discovering many minor bugs in the reconstruction software and database which are now being fixed. Unfortunately, a large part of the RE2 station has developed increasing operational current. Some preliminary investigation leads to the conclusion that the serial gas circulation e...

  15. Full closure strategic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The full closure strategic analysis was conducted to create a decision process whereby full roadway : closures for construction and maintenance activities can be evaluated and approved or denied by CDOT : Traffic personnel. The study reviewed current...

  16. WORKSHOP: Scintillating fibre detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Scintillating fibre detector development and technology for the proposed US Superconducting Supercollider, SSC, was the subject of a recent workshop at Fermilab, with participation from the high energy physics community and from industry. Sessions covered the current status of fibre technology and fibre detectors, new detector applications, fluorescent materials and scintillation compositions, radiation damage effects, amplification and imaging structures, and scintillation fibre fabrication techniques

  17. Shielded regenerative neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terhune, J.H.; Neissel, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    An ion chamber type neutron detector is disclosed which has a greatly extended lifespan. The detector includes a fission chamber containing a mixture of active and breeding material and a neutron shielding material. The breeding and shielding materials are selected to have similar or substantially matching neutron capture cross-sections so that their individual effects on increased detector life are mutually enhanced

  18. The CAPRICE RICH detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basini, G. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Codino, A.; Grimani, C. [Perugia Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Perugia (Italy); De Pascale, M.P. [Rome Univ. `Tor Vergata` (Italy). Dip. di Fisica]|[INFN, Sezione Univ. `Tor Vergata` Rome (Italy); Cafagna, F. [Bari Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Bari (Italy); Golden, R.L. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Particle Astrophysics Lab.; Brancaccio, F.; Bocciolini, M. [Florence Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Florence (Italy); Barbiellini, G.; Boezio, M. [Trieste Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Trieste (Italy)

    1995-09-01

    A compact RICH detector has been developed and used for particle identification in a balloon borne spectrometer to measure the flux of antimatter in the cosmic radiation. This is the first RICH detector ever used in space experiments that is capable of detecting unit charged particles, such as antiprotons. The RICH and all other detectors performed well during the 27 hours long flight.

  19. Self powered neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopalan, C.S.; Ramachandra Rao, M.N.; Ingale, A.D.

    1976-01-01

    Two types of self powered neutron detectors used for in-core flux measurements are described. The characteristics of the various detectors, with emitters Rh, V, Co, Py are presented. Details about the fabrication of these detectors are given. (A.K.)

  20. The JADE muon detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, J.; Armitage, J.C.M.; Baines, J.T.M.; Ball, A.H.; Bamford, G.; Barlow, R.J.; Bowdery, C.K.; Chrin, J.T.M.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Glendinning, I.; Greenshaw, T.; Hassard, J.F.; Hill, P.; King, B.T.; Loebinger, F.K.; Macbeth, A.A.; McCann, H.; Mercer, D.; Mills, H.E.; Murphy, P.G.; Prosper, H.B.; Rowe, P.; Stephens, K.

    1985-01-01

    The JADE muon detector consists of 618 planar drift chambers interspersed between layers of hadron absorber. This paper gives a detailed description of the construction and operation of the detector as a whole and discusses the properties of the drift chambers. The muon detector has been operating successfully at PETRA for five years. (orig.)

  1. Economical stabilized scintillation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anshakov, O.M.; Chudakov, V.A.; Gurinovich, V.I.

    1983-01-01

    An economical scintillation detector with the stabilization system of an integral type is described. Power consumed by the photomultiplier high-voltage power source is 40 mW, energy resolution is not worse than 9%. The given detector is used in a reference detector of a digital radioisotope densimeter for light media which is successfully operating for several years

  2. Gas filled detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, C.

    1993-01-01

    The main types of gas filled nuclear detectors: ionization chambers, proportional counters, parallel-plate avalanche counters (PPAC) and microstrip detectors are described. New devices are shown. A description of the processes involved in such detectors is also given. (K.A.) 123 refs.; 25 figs.; 3 tabs

  3. HP Ge planar detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gornov, M.G.; Gurov, Yu.B.; Soldatov, A.M.; Osipenko, B.P.; Yurkowski, J.; Podkopaev, O.I.

    1989-01-01

    Parameters of planar detectors manufactured of HP Ge are presented. The possibilities to use multilayer spectrometers on the base of such semiconductor detectors for nuclear physics experiments are discussed. It is shown that the obtained detectors including high square ones have spectrometrical characteristics close to limiting possible values. 9 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 tab

  4. Multi-detector CT knee arthrography - initial experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, J.M.Z.; Fallon, M.; Breidahl, W.H.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Traditional plain film arthrography can achieve reasonable accuracy and is an accepted method of investigation of patients with knee pain and possible meniscal tear. Multi-detector CT can potentially provide a more detailed and accurate examination due to its high-resolution crosssectional and multi-planar capabilities. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of our technique. All patients who underwent a multi-detector CT knee arthrogram in an initial 8 month period were identified. Initially the referring clinician was contacted. If the patient was referred to an orthopaedic surgeon the outcome of orthopaedic review was recorded using clinical, arthroscopic and / or MRI follow-up of the patient population. One hundred and twelve patients had a Multi-detector CT knee arthrogram performed within and 8 month period. Follow-up information was received in 69.7% of patients. Of these 68.9% had orthopaedic assessment - of which 69.2% underwent a knee arthroscopy.There was total agreement of findings in 67%, agreement of meniscal findings in 67% and chondral findings in 100%. Overall, orthopaedic opinion agreed with CT findings in 76.9%. At this stage, all meniscal tears not described in the initial CT arthrogram report have in retrospect been visible. Multi-detector CT knee arthrography is an accurate and elegant technique for investigation of knee pain, providing information in a format familiar to those reporting knee MRI. There is an initial learning curve. The technique is particularly useful in chondral assessment. It is accurate for meniscal pathology, although caution and recognition of potential pitfalls is required. Copyright (2002) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  5. Neutron detectors for transmutation of radioactive waste: the state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machrafi, R.

    2002-01-01

    We overview in short the neutron detectors currently used in the investigation of the transmutation of radioactive waste. Such detectors should comply with some specific requirements. In particular, they have to be small enough, non-expensive, easy in use, radiation-resistant and covering sufficiently large energy intervals. These conditions are met to the acceptable extent in the case of activation foils, gas detectors and solid track detectors, which are discussed briefly in our work

  6. Den betingede accept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolind, Torsten

    1999-01-01

    The article focus on aspects of identity and social order in relation to the interaction between ‘normals' and ex-prisoners, that is, ex-prisoners, who wants to live a normal life without criminality. It is argued, that this interaction and the normality that the ex-prisoner is granted often......, on the surface, can look rather unproblematic, but that it, none the less, is ruled by, what the author calls the conditioned accept. That is, the ex-prisoner should see himself as normal, at the same time that he withdraw from those situations, practices and attitude where the normals would have difficulties...

  7. Baby-Crying Acceptance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Tiago; de Magalhães, Sérgio Tenreiro

    The baby's crying is his most important mean of communication. The crying monitoring performed by devices that have been developed doesn't ensure the complete safety of the child. It is necessary to join, to these technological resources, means of communicating the results to the responsible, which would involve the digital processing of information available from crying. The survey carried out, enabled to understand the level of adoption, in the continental territory of Portugal, of a technology that will be able to do such a digital processing. It was used the TAM as the theoretical referential. The statistical analysis showed that there is a good probability of acceptance of such a system.

  8. Acceptance, Tolerance, Participation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The problem of radioactive waste management from an ethical and societal viewpoint was treated in this seminar, which had participants from universities (social, theological, philosophical and science institutes), waste management industry, and regulatory and controlling authorities. After initial reviews on repository technology, policies and schedules, knowledge gaps, and ethical aspects on decision making under uncertainty, four subjects were treated in lectures and discussions: Democratic collective responsibility, Handling threats in democratic decision making, Waste management - a technological operation with a social dimension, Acceptance and legitimity. Lectures with comments and discussions are collected in this report

  9. Fast Acceptance by Common Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Berg

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Schelling (1969, 1971a,b, 1978 observed that macro-level patterns do not necessarily reflect micro-level intentions, desires or goals. In his classic model on neighborhood segregation which initiated a large and influential literature, individuals with no desire to be segregated from those who belong to other social groups nevertheless wind up clustering with their own type. Most extensions of Schelling's model have replicated this result. There is an important mismatch, however, between theory and observation, which has received relatively little attention. Whereas Schelling-inspired models typically predict large degrees of segregation starting from virtually any initial condition, the empirical literature documents considerable heterogeneity in measured levels of segregation. This paper introduces a mechanism that can produce significantly higher levels of integration and, therefore, brings predicted distributions of segregation more in line with real-world observation. As in the classic Schelling model, agents in a simulated world want to stay or move to a new location depending on the proportion of neighbors they judge to be acceptable. In contrast to the classic model, agents' classifications of their neighbors as acceptable or not depend lexicographically on recognition first and group type (e.g., ethnic stereotyping second. The FACE-recognition model nests classic Schelling: When agents have no recognition memory, judgments about the acceptability of a prospective neighbor rely solely on his or her group type (as in the Schelling model. A very small amount of recognition memory, however, eventually leads to different classifications that, in turn, produce dramatic macro-level effects resulting in significantly higher levels of integration. A novel implication of the FACE-recognition model concerns the large potential impact of policy interventions that generate modest numbers of face-to-face encounters with members of other social groups.

  10. An arc detector for neutron crystal structure investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habib, N [Reactor and Neutron Physics Dept., Nuclear Research Center. AEA, Cairo (Egypt)

    1997-12-31

    An arc detector for neutron structure investigations of powder crystals using time-of-flight technique is described. In order to enable the measurement of integral intensity from about 1/4 of the Debye-Scherrer ring and for simplicity reasons, the scattering angle 20-90 degree was chosen and a special arc collimator was built. The arc collimator-detector had a divergency of about 20 minutes of arc, and the distance between detector-sample was 64 cm. Four {sup 3} He detectors were fixed on the arc of the collimator. Both efficiency and space sensitivity of the detector were determined using a point neutron source. Results of measurements show that parameters of the arc detector are acceptable for high resolution crystal structure investigations. 6 figs.

  11. Radiation detectors laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez J, F.J.

    1997-01-01

    The Radiation detectors laboratory was established with the assistance of the International Atomic Energy Agency which gave this the responsibility to provide its services at National and regional level for Latin America and it is located at the ININ. The more expensive and delicate radiation detectors are those made of semiconductor, so it has been put emphasis in the use and repairing of these detectors type. The supplied services by this laboratory are: selection consultant, detectors installation and handling and associated systems. Installation training, preventive and corrective maintenance of detectors and detection systems calibration. (Author)

  12. The ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Huegging, Fabian

    2006-06-26

    The contruction of the ATLAS Pixel Detector which is the innermost layer of the ATLAS tracking system is prgressing well. Because the pixel detector will contribute significantly to the ATLAS track and vertex reconstruction. The detector consists of identical sensor-chip-hybrid modules, arranged in three barrels in the centre and three disks on either side for the forward region. The position of the detector near the interaction point requires excellent radiation hardness, mechanical and thermal robustness, good long-term stability for all parts, combined with a low material budget. The final detector layout, new results from production modules and the status of assembly are presented.

  13. COMMISSIONING AND DETECTOR PERFORMANCE GROUPS

    CERN Document Server

    T. Camporesi

    The major progress made during the last months has been in the consolidation of services for the +endcaps and three barrel wheels (YB+2, YB+1 and YB0): all subdetectors have now final power connections (including Detector Safety protection), the gas systems have been commissioned for all gas detectors (the recirculation is not yet activated for the RPC though) and detector cooling has also been commissioned. Their integration with final services is the necessary condition for being able to operate larger fractions the detector. Recent weeks have seen full HCAL, more than 50% of EB and full wheels of DTs and CSC being operated using final services. This has not yet translated into major progress of global integration due to major interruptions of central services, which have not allowed the necessary debugging and commissioning time to all the subdetec¬tors and central activities like DAQ and trigger. Moreover the running in of the final central services has introduced instabilities related to the co...

  14. Consumer Acceptance of Dry Dog Food Variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brizio Di Donfrancesco

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to compare the acceptance of different dry dog food products by consumers, determine consumer clusters for acceptance, and identify the characteristics of dog food that drive consumer acceptance. Eight dry dog food samples available in the US market were evaluated by pet owners. In this study, consumers evaluated overall liking, aroma, and appearance liking of the products. Consumers were also asked to predict their purchase intent, their dog’s liking, and cost of the samples. The results indicated that appearance of the sample, especially the color, influenced pet owner’s overall liking more than the aroma of the product. Overall liking clusters were not related to income, age, gender, or education, indicating that general consumer demographics do not appear to play a main role in individual consumer acceptance of dog food products.

  15. Full supersymmetry simulation for ATLAS in DC1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biglietti, Michela; Brochu, Frederic; Costanzo, Davide; De, Kaushik; Duchovni, Ehud; Gupta, Ambreesh; Hinchliffe, Ian; Lester, Chris; Lipniacka, Anna; Loch, Peter; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Nielsen, Jakob L.; Paige, Frank; Polesello, Giacomo; Rajagopalan, Srini; Schrager, Dan; Stavropoulos, Georgios; Tovey, Dan; Wielers, Monika

    2004-01-01

    This note reports results from a simulation of 100k events for one example of a minimal SUGRA supersymmetry case at the LHC using full simulation of the ATLAS detector. It was carried out as part ATLAS Data Challenge 1

  16. Radiation detectors laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez J, F.J.

    1996-01-01

    The National Institute for Nuclear Research has established a Radiation detector laboratory that has the possibility of providing to the consultants on the handling and applications of the nuclear radiation detectors. It has special equipment to repair the radiation detectors used in spectroscopy as the hyper pure Germanium for gamma radiation and the Lithium-silica for X-rays. There are different facilities in the laboratory that can become useful for other institutions that use radiation detectors. This laboratory was created to satisfy consultant services, training and repairing of the radiation detectors both in national and regional levels for Latin America. The laboratory has the following sections: Nuclear Electronic Instrumentation; where there are all kind of instruments for the measurement and characterization of detectors like multichannel analyzers of pulse height, personal computers, amplifiers and nuclear pulse preamplifiers, nuclear pulses generator, aleatories, computer programs for radiation spectra analysis, etc. High vacuum; there is a vacuum escape measurer, two high vacuum pumps to restore the vacuum of detectors, so the corresponding measurers and the necessary tools. Detectors cleaning; there is an anaerobic chamber for the detectors handling at inert atmosphere, a smoke extraction bell for cleaning with the detector solvents. Cryogenic; there are vessels and tools for handling liquid nitrogen which is used for cooling the detectors when they required it. (Author)

  17. Full page insight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortsen, Rikke Platz

    2014-01-01

    Alan Moore and his collaborating artists often manipulate time and space by drawing upon the formal elements of comics and making alternative constellations. This article looks at an element that is used frequently in comics of all kinds – the full page – and discusses how it helps shape spatio......, something that it shares with the full page in comics. Through an analysis of several full pages from Moore titles like Swamp Thing, From Hell, Watchmen and Promethea, it is made clear why the full page provides an apt vehicle for an apocalypse in comics....

  18. High-energy detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolotnikov, Aleksey E [South Setauket, NY; Camarda, Giuseppe [Farmingville, NY; Cui, Yonggang [Upton, NY; James, Ralph B [Ridge, NY

    2011-11-22

    The preferred embodiments are directed to a high-energy detector that is electrically shielded using an anode, a cathode, and a conducting shield to substantially reduce or eliminate electrically unshielded area. The anode and the cathode are disposed at opposite ends of the detector and the conducting shield substantially surrounds at least a portion of the longitudinal surface of the detector. The conducting shield extends longitudinally to the anode end of the detector and substantially surrounds at least a portion of the detector. Signals read from one or more of the anode, cathode, and conducting shield can be used to determine the number of electrons that are liberated as a result of high-energy particles impinge on the detector. A correction technique can be implemented to correct for liberated electron that become trapped to improve the energy resolution of the high-energy detectors disclosed herein.

  19. Di-boson production measurements with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Chevalier, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    This talk covers the results of the measurements of diboson production cross sections in proton- proton interactions at 7 TeV in 2011 and at 8 TeV in 2012, performed by the ATLAS experiment. The cross sections are measured in phase space regions defined by the decay kinematics, the detector acceptance and then extrapolated to the full phase space. Cross sections for VV (V=W, Z, γ) production in the leptonic or semileptonic channels are compared to (N)NLO predictions of the Standard Model. Kinematic spectra are used to place constraints on anomalous triple-gauge-boson couplings. All cross sections are in agreement with the Standard Model predictions. No experimental evidence is found of anomalous triple-gauge-boson couplings. PACS: 14.70.-e Gauge bosons.

  20. OPAL jet chamber full scale prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, H M; Hauschild, M; Hartmann, H; Hegerath, A; Boerner, H; Burckhart, H J; Dittmar, M; Hammarstroem, R; Heuer, R D; Mazzone, L

    1986-12-01

    The concept of a jet chamber for the central detector of OPAL has been tested with a full scale prototype. The design of this prototype, its mechanical and electrical structure and its support system for high voltage, gas, laser calibration and readout are described. Operating experience has been gathered since summer 1984. The chamber performance in terms of spatial resolution and particle identification capability is given.

  1. OPAL jet chamber full scale prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, H M; Hauschild, M; Hartmann, H; Hegerath, A; Boerner, H; Burckhart, H J; Dittmar, M; Hammarstreom, R; Heuer, R D; Mazzone, L

    1986-05-22

    The concept of a jet chamber for the central detector of OPAL has been tested with a full scale prototype. The design of this prototype, its mechanical and electrical structure and its support system for high voltage, gas, laser calibration and readout are described. The operating experience gathered since the summer of 1984 and the chamber performance as measured by its spatial resolution and ability to identify particles are also given.

  2. Magnetic monopole search with the MoEDAL test trapping detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katre Akshay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available IMoEDAL is designed to search for monopoles produced in high-energy Large Hadron Collider (LHC collisions, based on two complementary techniques: nucleartrack detectors for high-ionisation signatures and other highly ionising avatars of new physics, and trapping volumes for direct magnetic charge measurements with a superconducting magnetometer. The MoEDAL test trapping detector array deployed in 2012, consisting of over 600 aluminium samples, was analysed and found to be consistent with zero trapped magnetic charge. Stopping acceptances are obtained from a simulation of monopole propagation in matter for a range of charges and masses, allowing to set modelindependent and model-dependent limits on monopole production cross sections. Multiples of the fundamental Dirac magnetic charge are probed for the first time at the LHC.

  3. Public acceptance of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wildgruber, O.H.

    1990-01-01

    The lecture addresses the question why we need public acceptance work and provides some clues to it. It explains various human behaviour patterns which determine the basics for public acceptance. To some extent, the opposition to nuclear energy and the role the media play are described. Public acceptance efforts of industry are critically reviewed. Some hints on difficulties with polling are provided. The lecture concludes with recommendations for further public acceptance work. (author)

  4. Differentiated influences of risk perceptions on nuclear power acceptance according to acceptance targets: Evidence from Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungkook Roh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The determinants of the public's nuclear power acceptance have received considerable attention as decisive factors regarding nuclear power policy. However, the contingency of the relative importance of different determinants has been less explored. Building on the literature of psychological distance between the individual and the object, the present study demonstrates that the relative effects of different types of perceived risks regarding nuclear power generation differ across acceptance targets. Using a sample of Korea, our results show that, regarding national acceptance of nuclear power generation, perceived risk from nuclear power plants exerts a stronger negative effect than that from radioactive waste management; however, the latter exerts a stronger negative effect than the former on local acceptance of a nuclear power plant. This finding provides implications for efficient public communication strategy to raise nuclear power acceptance.

  5. Nuclear radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapoor, S.S.; Ramamurthy, V.S.

    1986-01-01

    The present monograph is intended to treat the commonly used detectors in the field of nuclear physics covering important developments of the recent years. After a general introduction, a brief account of interaction of radiation with matter relevant to the processes in radiation detection is given in Chapter II. In addition to the ionization chamber, proportional counters and Geiger Mueller counters, several gas-filled detectors of advanced design such as those recently developed for heavy ion physics and other types of studies have been covered in Chapter III. Semiconductor detectors are dealt with in Chapter IV. The scintillation detectors which function by sensing the photons emitted by the luminescence process during the interaction of the impinging radiation with the scintillation detector medium are described in Chapter V. The topic of neutron detectors is covered in Chapter VI, as in this case the emphasis is more on the method of neutron detection rather than on detector type. Electronic instrumentation related to signal pulse processing dealt with in Chapter VII. The track etch detectors based on the visualization of the track of the impinging charge particle have also been briefly covered in the last chapter. The scope of this monograph is confined to detectors commonly used in low and medium energy nuclear physics research and applications of nuclear techniques. The monograph is intended for post-graduate students and those beginning to work with the radiation detectors. (author)

  6. RICH Detector for Jefferson Labs CLAS12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotta, Richard; Torisky, Ben; Benmokhtar, Fatiha

    2015-10-01

    Jefferson Lab (Jlab) is performing a large-scale upgrade to its Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) up to 12GeV beams. The Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS12) in Hall B is being upgraded and a new hybrid Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector is being developed to provide better kaon - pion separation throughout the 3 to 8 GeV/c momentum range. This detector will be used for a variety of Semi-Inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering experiments. Cherenkov light can be accurately detected by a large array of sophisticated Multi-Anode Photomultiplier Tubes (MA-PMT) and heavier particles, like kaons, will span the inner radii. We are presenting our work on the creation of the RICH's geometry within the CLAS12 java framework. This development is crucial for future calibration, reconstructions and analysis of the detector.

  7. A Very High Momentum Particle Identification Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Acconcia, T.V.; Barile, F.; Barnaföldi, G.G.; Bellwied, R.; Bencedi, G.; Bencze, G.; Berenyi, D.; Boldizsar, L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Cindolo, F.; Chinellato, D.D.; D'Ambrosio, S.; Das, D.; Das, K.; Das-Bose, L.; Dash, A.K.; De Cataldo, G.; De Pasquale, S.; Di Bari, D.; Di Mauro, A.; Futo, E.; Garcia, E.; Hamar, G.; Harton, A.; Iannone, G.; Jimenez, R.T.; Kim, D.W.; Kim, J.S.; Knospe, A.; Kovacs, L.; Levai, P.; Nappi, E.; Markert, C.; Martinengo, P.; Mayani, D.; Molnar, L.; Olah, L.; Paic, G.; Pastore, C.; Patimo, G.; Patino, M.E.; Peskov, V.; Pinsky, L.; Piuz, F.; Pochybova, S.; Sgura, I.; Sinha, T.; Song, J.; Takahashi, J.; Timmins, A.; Van Beelen, J.B.; Varga, D.; Volpe, G.; Weber, M.; Xaplanteris, L.; Yi, J.; Yoo, I.K.

    2014-01-01

    The construction of a new detector is proposed to extend the capabilities of ALICE in the high transverse momentum (pT) region. This Very High Momentum Particle Identification Detector (VHMPID) performs charged hadron identification on a track-by-track basis in the 5 GeV/c < p < 25 GeV/c momentum range and provides ALICE with new opportunities to study parton-medium interactions at LHC energies. The VHMPID covers up to 30% of the ALICE central barrel and presents sufficient acceptance for triggered- and tagged-jet studies, allowing for the first time identified charged hadron measurements in jets. This Letter of Intent summarizes the physics motivations for such a detector as well as its layout and integration into ALICE.

  8. Radiation-hardened optoelectronic components: detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiczer, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    In this talk, we will survey recent research in the area of radiation hardened optical detectors. We have studied conventional silicon photodiode structures, special radiation hardened silicon photodiodes, and special double heterojunction AlGaAs/GaAs photodiodes in neutron, gamma, pulsed x-ray and charged particle environments. We will present results of our work and summarize other research in this area. Our studies have shown that detectors can be made to function acceptably after exposures to neutron fluences of 10 15 n/cm 2 , total dose gamma exposures of 10 8 rad (Si), and flash x-ray environments of 10 8 rad/sec (Si). We will describe detector structures that can operate through these conditions, pre-rad and post-rad operational characteristics, and experimental conditions that produced these results. 23 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  9. Department of Radiation Detectors: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piekoszewski, J.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Work carried out in 1998 in the Department of Radiation Detectors concentrated on three subjects: (i) Semiconductor Detectors (ii) X-ray Tube Generators (iii) Material Modification Using Ion and Plasma Beams. SEMICONDUCTOR DETECTORS: Semiconductor detectors of ionizing radiation are among the basic tools utilized in such fields of research and industry as nuclear physics, high energy physics, medical (oncology) radiotherapy, radiological protection, environmental monitoring, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence non-destructive analysis of chemical composition, nuclear power industry. The departmental objectives are: a search for new types of detectors; producing unique detectors tailored for physics experiments; manufacturing standard detectors for radiation measuring instruments; scientific development of the staff. These objectives were accomplished in 1998 particularly by: research on unique thin silicon detectors for identification of particles in E-ΔE telescopes, modernization of technology of manufacturing Ge(Li) detectors capable of detecting broader range of gamma energies, manufacturing detectors developed in previous years, re-generating and servicing customer detectors of various origin. In accomplishment of the above the Department co-operated with groups of physicists from IPJ, PAN Institute of Physics (Warsaw), and with some technology Institutes based in Warsaw (ITME, ITE). Some detectors and services have been delivered to customers on a commercial basis. X-Ray TUBE GENERATORS: The Department conducts research on design and technology of manufacturing X-ray generators as well as on imaging and dosimetry of X-ray beams. Various models of special construction X-ray tubes and their power supplies are under construction. In 1998 work concentrated on: completing laboratory equipment for manufacturing X-ray tubes and their components, developing technology of manufacturing X-ray tubes and their components, completing a laboratory set-up with

  10. Determination of sodium bis(2-ethylhexylsulfosuccinate (AOT surfactant with liquid chromatography: Comparative study of evaporative light scattering detector, ultraviolet detector and conductivity detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Ryul Ryu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents comparison of performance of ultraviolet (UV detector, conductivity detector (CD and evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD in terms of quantitative analysis of AOT (sodium bis(2-ethylhexylsulfosuccinate using liquid chromatography. The employed chromatographic condition, including an acetonitrile/water (45:55, v/v isocratic eluent system, is suitable for the three different detectors, and the figures of merits obtained by building up calibration plots are compared. The sensitivities of the detectors are in the order of ELSD ≈ CD >> UV detector. The linear range for quantification of AOT depends on the type of detector: the lower limits are in the order of UV detector (207 ㎍ mL-1 < CD (310 ㎍ mL-1 << ELSD (930 ㎍ mL-1, while the upper limits are 3720 ㎍ mL-1 for all the detectors (the maximum concentration of injected standard solution. The detection limits are 155 ㎍ mL-1 for ELSD, 78 ㎍ mL-1 for UV detector and 13 ㎍ mL-1 for CD, respectively. The figures of merit for each detector could be a guideline in choosing a detector in quantization of AOT. Furthermore, application of the chromatographic method to two commercial products is demonstrated.

  11. Full Service Leasing

    OpenAIRE

    Richter, Ján

    2009-01-01

    Aim of this master thesis is to describe the service of Full Service Leasing, as a modern form of financing and management of assets, primarily automobile fleet. Description of full service leasing is designed as a comprehensive and complete guide to support reader's position when deciding to finance and manage a fleet by this service. Whether the reader is an entrepreneur, CFO, fleet manager, new employee of leasing company, or anyone who is interested in this service, this master thesis wil...

  12. Review Document: Full Software Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Albrecht, J; Raven, G

    2014-01-01

    This document presents a trigger system for the upgraded LHCb detector, scheduled to begin operation in 2020. This document serves as input for the internal review towards the "DAQ, online and trigger TDR". The proposed trigger system is implemented entirely in software. In this document we show that track reconstruction of a similar quality to that available in the offline algorithms can be performed on the full inelastic $pp$-collision rate, without prior event selections implemented in custom hardware and without relying upon a partial event reconstruction. A track nding eciency of 98.8 % relative to oine can be achieved for tracks with $p_T >$ 500 MeV/$c$. The CPU time required for this reconstruction is about 40 % of the available budget. Proof-of-principle selections are presented which demonstrate that excellent performance is achievable using an inclusive beauty trigger, in addition to exclusive beauty and charm triggers. Finally, it is shown that exclusive beauty and charm selections that do not intr...

  13. Detector decoy quantum key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moroder, Tobias; Luetkenhaus, Norbert; Curty, Marcos

    2009-01-01

    Photon number resolving detectors can enhance the performance of many practical quantum cryptographic setups. In this paper, we employ a simple method to estimate the statistics provided by such a photon number resolving detector using only a threshold detector together with a variable attenuator. This idea is similar in spirit to that of the decoy state technique, and is especially suited to those scenarios where only a few parameters of the photon number statistics of the incoming signals have to be estimated. As an illustration of the potential applicability of the method in quantum communication protocols, we use it to prove security of an entanglement-based quantum key distribution scheme with an untrusted source without the need for a squash model and by solely using this extra idea. In this sense, this detector decoy method can be seen as a different conceptual approach to adapt a single-photon security proof to its physical, full optical implementation. We show that in this scenario, the legitimate users can now even discard the double click events from the raw key data without compromising the security of the scheme, and we present simulations on the performance of the BB84 and the 6-state quantum key distribution protocols.

  14. Detectors for Particle Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinknecht, Konrad

    1999-01-01

    This textbook provides a clear, concise and comprehensive review of the physical principles behind the devices used to detect charged particles and gamma rays, and the construction and performance of these many different types of detectors. Detectors for high-energy particles and radiation are used in many areas of science, especially particle physics and nuclear physics experiments, nuclear medicine, cosmic ray measurements, space sciences and geological exploration. This second edition includes all the latest developments in detector technology, including several new chapters covering micro-strip gas chambers, silicion strip detectors and CCDs, scintillating fibers, shower detectors using noble liquid gases, and compensating calorimeters for hadronic showers. This well-illustrated textbook contains examples from the many areas in science in which these detectors are used. It provides both a coursebook for students in physics, and a useful introduction for researchers in other fields.

  15. Silicon Telescope Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Gurov, Yu B; Sandukovsky, V G; Yurkovski, J

    2005-01-01

    The results of research and development of special silicon detectors with a large active area ($> 8 cm^{2}$) for multilayer telescope spectrometers (fulfilled in the Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, JINR) are reviewed. The detector parameters are listed. The production of totally depleted surface barrier detectors (identifiers) operating under bias voltage two to three times higher than depletion voltage is described. The possibility of fabrication of lithium drifted counters with a very thin entrance window on the diffusion side of the detector (about 10--20 $\\mu$m) is shown. The detector fabrication technique has allowed minimizing detector dead regions without degradation of their spectroscopic characteristics and reliability during long time operation in charge particle beams.

  16. Physics of scintillation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novotny, R.

    1991-01-01

    The general concept of a radiation detector is based on three fundamental principles: sensitivity of the device to the radiation of interest which requires a large cross-section in the detector material, detector response function to the physical properties of the radiation. As an example, a scintillation detector for charged particles should allow to identify the charge of the particle, its kinetic energy and the time of impact combined with optimum resolutions. Optimum conversion of the detector response (like luminescence of a scintillator) into electronical signals for further processing. The following article will concentrate on the various aspects of the first two listed principles as far as they appear to be relevant for photon and charged particle detection using organic and inorganic scintillation detectors. (orig.)

  17. Development and operation of tracking detectors in silicon technology for the LHCb upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Adeva, Bernardo

    The LHCb experiment is one of the four main experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. It uses the energy density provided by the LHC to attempt to probe asymmetries between particles and antiparticles that can not be explained by the Standard Model, and thus provide evidence that would allow us to build a new model of fundamental physics. This thesis covers the author's work in the Silicon Tracker $(\\textit{ST})$ and VErtex LOcator $(\\textit{VELO})$ detectors of the LHCb experiment. The thesis explains the installation and commissioning of the $ST$, as well as the development of the slow control for the detector. The $ST$ is a silicon micro-strip detector which provides precise momentum measurements of ionizing particles coming from the collisions. The $ST$consists of two sub-detectors: the Tracker Turicensis $ (TT)$, located upstream of the 4 Tm dipole magnet covering the full acceptance of the experiment, and the Inner Tracker $(IT)$, which covers the region of highest particle density closest...

  18. Bridging the Gap between Social Acceptance and Ethical Acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taebi, Behnam

    2017-10-01

    New technology brings great benefits, but it can also create new and significant risks. When evaluating those risks in policymaking, there is a tendency to focus on social acceptance. By solely focusing on social acceptance, we could, however, overlook important ethical aspects of technological risk, particularly when we evaluate technologies with transnational and intergenerational risks. I argue that good governance of risky technology requires analyzing both social acceptance and ethical acceptability. Conceptually, these two notions are mostly complementary. Social acceptance studies are not capable of sufficiently capturing all the morally relevant features of risky technologies; ethical analyses do not typically include stakeholders' opinions, and they therefore lack the relevant empirical input for a thorough ethical evaluation. Only when carried out in conjunction are these two types of analysis relevant to national and international governance of risky technology. I discuss the Rawlsian wide reflective equilibrium as a method for marrying social acceptance and ethical acceptability. Although the rationale of my argument is broadly applicable, I will examine the case of multinational nuclear waste repositories in particular. This example will show how ethical issues may be overlooked if we focus only on social acceptance, and will provide a test case for demonstrating how the wide reflective equilibrium can help to bridge the proverbial acceptance-acceptability gap. © 2016 The Authors Risk Analysis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Risk Analysis.

  19. History of infrared detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalski, A.

    2012-09-01

    This paper overviews the history of infrared detector materials starting with Herschel's experiment with thermometer on February 11th, 1800. Infrared detectors are in general used to detect, image, and measure patterns of the thermal heat radiation which all objects emit. At the beginning, their development was connected with thermal detectors, such as thermocouples and bolometers, which are still used today and which are generally sensitive to all infrared wavelengths and operate at room temperature. The second kind of detectors, called the photon detectors, was mainly developed during the 20th Century to improve sensitivity and response time. These detectors have been extensively developed since the 1940's. Lead sulphide (PbS) was the first practical IR detector with sensitivity to infrared wavelengths up to ˜3 μm. After World War II infrared detector technology development was and continues to be primarily driven by military applications. Discovery of variable band gap HgCdTe ternary alloy by Lawson and co-workers in 1959 opened a new area in IR detector technology and has provided an unprecedented degree of freedom in infrared detector design. Many of these advances were transferred to IR astronomy from Departments of Defence research. Later on civilian applications of infrared technology are frequently called "dual-use technology applications." One should point out the growing utilisation of IR technologies in the civilian sphere based on the use of new materials and technologies, as well as the noticeable price decrease in these high cost technologies. In the last four decades different types of detectors are combined with electronic readouts to make detector focal plane arrays (FPAs). Development in FPA technology has revolutionized infrared imaging. Progress in integrated circuit design and fabrication techniques has resulted in continued rapid growth in the size and performance of these solid state arrays.

  20. The atlas detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrodo, P.

    2001-01-01

    The ATLAS detector, one of the two multi-purpose detectors at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, is currently being built in order to meet the first proton-proton collisions in time. A description of the detector components will be given, corresponding to the most up to date design and status of construction, completed with test beam results and performances of the first serial modules. (author)

  1. Cherenkov water detector NEVOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrukhin, A. A.

    2015-05-01

    A unique multipurpose Cherenkov water detector, the NEVOD facility, uses quasispherical measuring modules to explore all the basic components of cosmic rays on Earth's surface, including neutrinos. Currently, the experimental complex includes the Cherenkov water detector, a calibration telescope system, and a coordinate detector. This paper traces the basic development stages of NEVOD, examines research directions, presents the results obtained, including the search for the solution to the 'muon puzzle', and discusses possible future development prospects.

  2. Noble Gas Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Aprile, Elena; Bolozdynya, Alexander I; Doke, Tadayoshi

    2006-01-01

    This book discusses the physical properties of noble fluids, operational principles of detectors based on these media, and the best technical solutions to the design of these detectors. Essential attention is given to detector technology: purification methods and monitoring of purity, information readout methods, electronics, detection of hard ultra-violet light emission, selection of materials, cryogenics etc.The book is mostly addressed to physicists and graduate students involved in the preparation of fundamental next generation experiments, nuclear engineers developing instrumentation

  3. Study on Silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gervino, G.; Boero, M.; Manfredotti, C.; Icardi, M.; Gabutti, A.; Bagnolatti, E.; Monticone, E.

    1990-01-01

    Prototypes of Silicon microstrip detectors and Silicon large area detectors (3x2 cm 2 ), realized directly by our group, either by ion implantation or by diffusion are presented. The physical detector characteristics and their performances determined by exposing them to different radioactive sources and the results of extensive tests on passivation, where new technological ways have been investigated, are discussed. The calculation of the different terms contributing to the total dark current is reported

  4. The solenoidal detector collaboration silicon detector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziock, H.J.; Gamble, M.T.; Miller, W.O.; Palounek, A.P.T.; Thompson, T.C.

    1992-01-01

    Silicon tracking systems (STS) will be fundamental components of the tracking systems for both planned major SSC experiments. The STS is physically a small part of the central tracking system and the calorimeter of the detector being proposed by the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC). Despite its seemingly small size, it occupies a volume of more than 5 meters in length and 1 meter in diameter and is an order of magnitude larger than any silicon detector system previously built. The STS will consist of silicon microstrip detectors and possibly silicon pixel detectors. The other two components are an outer barrel tracker, which will consist of straw tubes or scintillating fibers; and an outer intermediate angle tracker, which will consist of gas microstrips. The components are designed to work as an integrated system. Each componenet has specific strengths, but is individually incapable of providing the overall performance required by the physics goals of the SSC. The large particle fluxes, the short times between beam crossing, the high channel count, and the required very high position measurement accuracy pose challenging problems that must be solved. Furthermore, to avoid degrading the measurements, the solutions must be achieved using only a minimal amount of material. An additional constraint is that only low-Z materials are allowed. If that were not difficlut enough, the solutions must also be affordable

  5. LHCb Detector Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassen, Rolf; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Belogurov, Sergey; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Bizzeti, Andrea; Bjørnstad, Pål Marius; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borgia, Alessandra; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Brambach, Tobias; Bressieux, Joël; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Brown, Henry; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Ciba, Krzystof; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Counts, Ian; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pascal; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fol, Philip; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garofoli, Justin; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Geraci, Angelo; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, V.V.; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Hampson, Thomas; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Hunt, Philip; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jaton, Pierre; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Karodia, Sarah; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Korolev, Mikhail; Kozlinskiy, Alexandr; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; La Thi, Viet Nga; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leo, Sabato; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lopez-March, Neus; Lowdon, Peter; Lucchesi, Donatella; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Machikhiliyan, Irina V; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Mapelli, Alessandro; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martens, Aurelien; Martín Sánchez, Alexandra; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; McSkelly, Ben; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Moggi, Niccolò; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Katharina; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nicol, Michelle; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Oggero, Serena; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Orlandea, Marius; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Arantza; Pal, Bilas Kanti; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parkes, Christopher; Parkinson, Christopher John; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Perrin-Terrin, Mathieu; Pescatore, Luca; Pesen, Erhan; Pessina, Gianluigi; Petridis, Konstantin; Petrolini, Alessandro; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rakotomiaramanana, Barinjaka; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz, Hugo; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sepp, Indrek; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skillicorn, Ian; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Anthony; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Sparkes, Ailsa; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Stroili, Roberto; Subbiah, Vijay Kartik; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ubeda Garcia, Mario; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wiedner, Dirk; Wilkinson, Guy; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Wilschut, Hans; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Wen Chao; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang; Zvyagin, Alexander

    2015-03-05

    The LHCb detector is a forward spectrometer at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The experiment is designed for precision measurements of CP violation and rare decays of beauty and charm hadrons. In this paper the performance of the various LHCb sub-detectors and the trigger system are described, using data taken from 2010 to 2012. It is shown that the design criteria of the experiment have been met. The excellent performance of the detector has allowed the LHCb collaboration to publish a wide range of physics results, demonstrating LHCb's unique role, both as a heavy flavour experiment and as a general purpose detector in the forward region.

  6. ALFA Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    ALFA (Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS) is one of the sub-detectors of ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC Apparatus). The ALFA system is composed by four stations installed in the LHC tunnel 240 m away from the ATLAS interaction point. Each station has a vacuum and ventilation system, movement control and all the required electronics for signal processing. The Detector Control System (DCS) provides control and monitoring of several components and ensures the safe operation of the detector contributing to good Data Quality. This paper describes the ALFA DCS system including a detector overview, operation aspects and hardware control through a SCADA system, WinCC OA.

  7. ALFA Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    ALFA (Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS) is one of the sub-detectors of ATLAS/LHC. The ALFA system is composed by two stations installed in the LHC tunnel 240 m away from each side of the ATLAS interaction point. Each station has a vacuum and ventilation system, movement control and all the required electronic for signal processing. The Detector Control System (DCS) provides control and monitoring of several components and ensures the safe operation of the detector contributing to good Data Quality. This paper describes the ALFA DCS system including a detector overview, operation aspects and hardware control through a SCADA system, WinCC OA.

  8. The LHC detector challenge

    CERN Document Server

    Virdee, Tejinder S

    2004-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) from CERN, scheduled to come online in 2007, is a multi-TeV proton-proton collider with vast detectors. Two of the more significant detectors for LHC are ATLAS and CMS. Currently, both detectors are more than 65% complete in terms of financial commitment, and the experiments are being assembled at an increasing pace. ATLAS is being built directly in its underground cavern, whereas CMS is being assembled above ground. When completed, both detectors will aid researchers in determining what lies at the high-energy frontier, in particular the mechanism by which particles attain mass. (Edited abstract).

  9. Giessen polarization facility. III. Multi-detector analyzing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, H H; Stock, R; Arnold, W; Berg, H; Huttel, E; Ulbricht, J; Clausnitzer, G [Giessen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Strahlenzentrum

    1977-06-15

    An analyzing system with a PDP 11 computer and a digital multiplexer is described. It allows to accept signals from 16 detectors with individual ADCs simultaneously. For measurements of analyzing powers the polarization of the ion beam can be switched to zero with a frequency of 1 kHz. The switching operation additionally controls the handling of the detector pulses. The software contains special programs for the analysis of polarization experiments.

  10. Substrate-induced instability in gas microstrip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, J.E.; Connolly, J.F.

    1992-12-01

    The results of a programme of research into substrate-induced gain instability in gas microstrip detectors are reported. Information has been collected on a wide range of substrates including many commonly available glasses and ceramics. A theoretical model of the gain instability is proposed. While we have not yet found an acceptable substrate for the construction of high flux detectors our experience points to electronically conductive glasses as the most promising source of a stable substrate. (Author)

  11. Full faith in myself

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lawrence

    Full faith in myself. Meenakshi Banerjee. 12. Ihad my schooling at the Irish Convent, Loreto, in Asansol,. West Bengal. Perhaps the earliest memories I have are of myself as a very determined child with a deep appreciation of and inquisitiveness regarding nature although not understanding most of it at that tender age.

  12. PAGs - Public perception and acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quillin, Robert M.

    1989-01-01

    Full text: While Protective Action Guides or PAGs have been a part of the lexicon of the radiation protection field for several decades, the concept of accepting higher levels of risk under certain situations has not received adequate scrutiny by the general public, the media or elected officials. Consequently there is a question as to how implementation of PAGs would be perceived by the above groups in the event that such implementation became necessary. A personal case in point involves the response of an executive in the food industry. When the concept of selling a food product meeting the PAGs was explained his response was, 'we won't sell a contaminated product, we would dump the unprocessed raw food. Our industry image is that of a natural unadulterated food'. While this may be an isolated view, there is a need to determine what is the perception and consequently what would be the response if PAGs were implemented today. If the response was negative by anyone of the three groups listed previously, then there is an obvious need for a program to assure receptiveness by those concerned. However, this may face formidable obstacles. This is because the terms radiation and radioactive have gained generally negative word associations, e.g. 'deadly' radiation and radioactive 'desert'. The former term was recently heard in a taped presentation at a Museum of Natural History on a completely unrelated subject. The latter term was part of a recent article heading in the Wall Street Journal. Incidentally the article was discussing television. Thus beyond the scientific issues of setting PAGs and the administrative and procedural issues of implementing PAGs there is the issue of society's understanding and acceptance of PAGs. Particularly, how can such understanding and acceptance be achieved in a situation which is associated with an actual or perceived radiation emergency? These are not questions that radiation or agricultural scientists can answer alone. These are

  13. The surface detector array of the Telescope Array experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu-Zayyad, T. [University of Utah, High Energy Astrophysics Institute, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Aida, R. [University of Yamanashi, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, Kofu, Yamanashi (Japan); Allen, M.; Anderson, R. [University of Utah, High Energy Astrophysics Institute, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Azuma, R. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo (Japan); Barcikowski, E.; Belz, J.W.; Bergman, D.R.; Blake, S.A.; Cady, R. [University of Utah, High Energy Astrophysics Institute, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Cheon, B.G. [Hanyang University, Seongdong-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chiba, J. [Tokyo University of Science, Noda, Chiba (Japan); Chikawa, M. [Kinki University, Higashi Osaka, Osaka (Japan); Cho, E.J. [Hanyang University, Seongdong-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, W.R. [Yonsei University, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Fujii, H. [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, KEK, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Fujii, T. [Osaka City University, Osaka, Osaka (Japan); Fukuda, T. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo (Japan); Fukushima, M. [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan); University of Tokyo, Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan); Gorbunov, D. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); and others

    2012-10-11

    The Telescope Array (TA) experiment, located in the western desert of Utah, USA, is designed for the observation of extensive air showers from extremely high energy cosmic rays. The experiment has a surface detector array surrounded by three fluorescence detectors to enable simultaneous detection of shower particles at ground level and fluorescence photons along the shower track. The TA surface detectors and fluorescence detectors started full hybrid observation in March, 2008. In this article we describe the design and technical features of the TA surface detector.

  14. The surface detector array of the Telescope Array experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Zayyad, T.; Aida, R.; Allen, M.; Anderson, R.; Azuma, R.; Barcikowski, E.; Belz, J.W.; Bergman, D.R.; Blake, S.A.; Cady, R.; Cheon, B.G.; Chiba, J.; Chikawa, M.; Cho, E.J.; Cho, W.R.; Fujii, H.; Fujii, T.; Fukuda, T.; Fukushima, M.; Gorbunov, D.

    2012-01-01

    The Telescope Array (TA) experiment, located in the western desert of Utah, USA, is designed for the observation of extensive air showers from extremely high energy cosmic rays. The experiment has a surface detector array surrounded by three fluorescence detectors to enable simultaneous detection of shower particles at ground level and fluorescence photons along the shower track. The TA surface detectors and fluorescence detectors started full hybrid observation in March, 2008. In this article we describe the design and technical features of the TA surface detector.

  15. MUON DETECTORS: CSC

    CERN Multimedia

    R. Breedon

    Figure 2: Five ME4/2 chambers mounted on the +endcap. At the end of June, five large, outer cathode strip chambers (CSC) that were produced as spares during the original production were mounted on part of the disk space reserved for ME4/2 on the positive endcap (Fig. 2). The chambers were cabled, attached to services, and fully integrated and commissioned into the CSC DAQ and trigger systems. Comprising almost a full trigger sector, CMS will be able to test the significant improvement the trigger efficiency of the EMU system that the presence of the full ME4/2 ring is expected to bring. The return of beam in November was observed as “splash” events in the CSCs in which the detectors were showered with a huge number of particles at the same time. Although the CSCs were operating at a lower standby voltage the multiple hits on a strips could not be individually distinguished.&am...

  16. Plasma measurements with surface barrier detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futch, A.H. Jr.; Bradley, A.E.

    1969-01-01

    A surface barrier detector system for measuring the loss rate of protons from a hydrogen plasma and their energy spectrum is described. A full width at half maximum (FWHM) resolution of 1.4 keV for 15-keV hydrogen atoms was obtained using a selected detector having a sensitive area of 3 mm 2 and a depletion depth of 700 microns

  17. RISK ANALYSES USED IN ACCEPTANCE TESTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oxana STOROJ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is talking about risk based testing approach in user acceptance testing UAT (User Acceptance Testing. There are presented definitions of risk and risk based testing. In addition, we are talking about risks that can appear during UAT and we are describing the process of testing based on risks. We propose some techniques and methods of identifying risks such as using Brainstorming, Delphi method,probability analysis method and others. Also, risk traceability matrix is presented as a method of prioritizing risks.

  18. Simulations of the Response of the Cluster Detector/Scintillator Wall for the 4π facility at SIS/ESR using the GEANT Detector program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, N.; Maguire, C.F.; Cerruti, C.; Coffin, J.P.; Fintz, P.; Guillaume, G.; Jundt, F.; Rami, F.; Tezkratt, R.; Wagner, P.

    1990-01-01

    The expected response of the cluster detector/scintillator wall of the SIS/ESR 4π facility has been investigated with the use of the GEANT detector program and the FREESCO event generator code. Results are presented and discussed. It is shown in particular that the efficiency of the track reconstruction method should be acceptable

  19. Plate Full of Color

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Plate Full of Color teaches the value of eating a variety of colorful and healthy foods.

  20. Preparation of bubble damage detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu Caiqing; Guo Shilun; Wang Yulan; Hao Xiuhong; Chen Changmao; Su Jingling

    1997-01-01

    Bubble damage detectors have been prepared by using polyacrylamide as detector solid and freon as detector liquid. Tests show that the prepared detectors are sensitive to fast neutrons and have proportionality between bubble number and neutron fluence within a certain range of neutron fluence. Therefore, it can be used as a fast neutron detector and a dosimeter

  1. The TOTEM detector at LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antchev, G.; Aspell, P.; Atanassov, I.; Avati, V.; Berardi, V.; Berretti, M.; Bozzo, M.; Brucken, E.; Buzzo, A.; Cafagna, F.; Calicchio, M.; Catanesi, M. G.; Ciocci, M. A.; Csanád, M.; Csörgő, T.; Deile, M.; Dénes, E.; Dimovasili, E.; Doubek, M.; Eggert, K.; Ferro, F.; Garcia, F.; Giani, S.; Greco, V.; Grzanka, L.; Heino, J.; Hilden, T.; Janda, M.; Kaˇspar, J.; Kopal, J.; Kundrat, V.; Kurvinen, K.; Lami, S.; Latino, G.; Lauhakangas, R.; Lippmaa, E.; Lokajicek, M.; Lo Vetere, M.; Lucas Rodriguez, F.; Macri`, M.; Magazzu`, G.; Minutoli, S.; Niewiadomski, H.; Notarnicola, G.; Novak, T.; Oliveri, E.; Oljemark, F.; Orava, R.; Oriunno, M.; Osterberg, K.; Palazzi, P.; Pedreschi, E.; Petajajarvi, J.; Quinto, M.; Radermacher, E.; Radicioni, E.; Ravotti, F.; Robutti, E.; Ropelewski, L.; Ruggiero, G.; Rummel, A.; Saarikko, H.; Sanguinetti, G.; Santroni, A.; Scribano, A.; Sette, G.; Snoeys, W.; Spearman, W.; Spinella, F.; Ster, A.; Taylor, C.; Trummal, A.; Turini, N.; Vacek, V.; Vitek, M.; Whitmore, J.; Wu, J.

    2010-05-01

    The TOTEM experiment, small in size compared to the others at the LHC, is dedicated to the measurement of the total proton-proton cross-sections with a luminosity-independent method and to the study of elastic and diffractive scattering at the LHC. To achieve optimum forward coverage for charged particles emitted by the pp collisions in the IP5 interaction point, two tracking telescopes, T1 and T2, will be installed on each side in the pseudo-rapidity region between 3.1 and 6.5, and Roman Pot stations will be placed at distances of 147 and 220 m from IP5. The telescope closest to the interaction point (T1, centred at z=9 m) consists of Cathode Strip Chambers (CSC), while the second one (T2, centred at 13.5 m), makes use of Gas Electron Multipliers (GEM). The proton detectors in the Roman Pots are silicon devices designed by TOTEM with the specific objective of reducing down to a few tens of microns the insensitive area at the edge. High efficiency as close as possible to the physical detector boundary is an essential feature. It maximizes the experimental acceptance for protons scattered elastically or interactively at polar angles down to a few micro-radians at IP5. To measure protons at the lowest possible emission angles, special beam optics have been conceived to optimize proton detection in terms of acceptance and resolution. The read-out of all TOTEM subsystems is based on the custom-developed digital VFAT chip with trigger capability.

  2. The TOTEM detector at LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antchev, G.; Aspell, P.; Atanassov, I.; Avati, V.; Berardi, V.; Berretti, M.; Bozzo, M.; Brucken, E.; Buzzo, A.; Cafagna, F.; Calicchio, M.; Catanesi, M.G.; Ciocci, M.A.; Csanad, M.; Csoergo, T.; Deile, M.; Denes, E.; Dimovasili, E.; Doubek, M.; Eggert, K.

    2010-01-01

    The TOTEM experiment, small in size compared to the others at the LHC, is dedicated to the measurement of the total proton-proton cross-sections with a luminosity-independent method and to the study of elastic and diffractive scattering at the LHC. To achieve optimum forward coverage for charged particles emitted by the pp collisions in the IP5 interaction point, two tracking telescopes, T1 and T2, will be installed on each side in the pseudo-rapidity region between 3.1 and 6.5, and Roman Pot stations will be placed at distances of 147 and 220 m from IP5. The telescope closest to the interaction point (T1, centred at z=9 m) consists of Cathode Strip Chambers (CSC), while the second one (T2, centred at 13.5 m), makes use of Gas Electron Multipliers (GEM). The proton detectors in the Roman Pots are silicon devices designed by TOTEM with the specific objective of reducing down to a few tens of microns the insensitive area at the edge. High efficiency as close as possible to the physical detector boundary is an essential feature. It maximizes the experimental acceptance for protons scattered elastically or interactively at polar angles down to a few micro-radians at IP5. To measure protons at the lowest possible emission angles, special beam optics have been conceived to optimize proton detection in terms of acceptance and resolution. The read-out of all TOTEM subsystems is based on the custom-developed digital VFAT chip with trigger capability.

  3. The TOTEM detector at LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antchev, G.; Aspell, P.; Atanassov, I. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Avati, V. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Penn State University, Dept. of Physics, University Park, PA (United States); Berardi, V. [INFN Sezione di Bari and Politecnico di Bari, Bari (Italy); Berretti, M. [INFN Sezione di Pisa and Universita di Siena (Italy); Bozzo, M. [Universita di Genova and Sezione INFN, Genova (Italy); Brucken, E. [Helsinki Institute of Physics and Department of Physics, University of Helsinki (Finland); Buzzo, A. [Universita di Genova and Sezione INFN, Genova (Italy); Cafagna, F.; Calicchio, M.; Catanesi, M.G. [INFN Sezione di Bari and Politecnico di Bari, Bari (Italy); Ciocci, M.A. [INFN Sezione di Pisa and Universita di Siena (Italy); Csanad, M.; Csoergo, T. [MTA KFKI RMKI, Budapest (Hungary); Deile, M. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Denes, E. [MTA KFKI RMKI, Budapest (Hungary); Dimovasili, E. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Penn State University, Dept. of Physics, University Park, PA (United States); Doubek, M.; Eggert, K. [Penn State University, Dept. of Physics, University Park, PA (United States)

    2010-05-21

    The TOTEM experiment, small in size compared to the others at the LHC, is dedicated to the measurement of the total proton-proton cross-sections with a luminosity-independent method and to the study of elastic and diffractive scattering at the LHC. To achieve optimum forward coverage for charged particles emitted by the pp collisions in the IP5 interaction point, two tracking telescopes, T1 and T2, will be installed on each side in the pseudo-rapidity region between 3.1 and 6.5, and Roman Pot stations will be placed at distances of 147 and 220 m from IP5. The telescope closest to the interaction point (T1, centred at z=9 m) consists of Cathode Strip Chambers (CSC), while the second one (T2, centred at 13.5 m), makes use of Gas Electron Multipliers (GEM). The proton detectors in the Roman Pots are silicon devices designed by TOTEM with the specific objective of reducing down to a few tens of microns the insensitive area at the edge. High efficiency as close as possible to the physical detector boundary is an essential feature. It maximizes the experimental acceptance for protons scattered elastically or interactively at polar angles down to a few micro-radians at IP5. To measure protons at the lowest possible emission angles, special beam optics have been conceived to optimize proton detection in terms of acceptance and resolution. The read-out of all TOTEM subsystems is based on the custom-developed digital VFAT chip with trigger capability.

  4. The design and performance of the ZEUS micro vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polini, A.; Brock, I.; Goers, S.

    2007-08-01

    In order to extend the tracking acceptance, to improve the primary and secondary vertex reconstruction and thus enhancing the tagging capabilities for short lived particles, the ZEUS experiment at the HERA Collider at DESY installed a silicon strip vertex detector. The barrel part of the detector is a 63 cm long cylinder with silicon sensors arranged around an elliptical beampipe. The forward part consists of four circular shaped disks. In total just over 200k channels are read out using 2.9 m 2 of silicon. In this report a detailed overview of the design and construction of the detector is given and the performance of the completed system is reviewed. (orig.)

  5. Design and performance of a cesium iodide detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, T.; Bishop, J.M.; Cady, R. [Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States)] [and others

    1996-01-11

    The design, construction, and performance of a 198-element CsI detector built for Brookhaven experiment E852 is described. Design considerations for the array included such factors as rate, magnetic field, sensitivity and acceptance. Signals were obtained with a photodiode/preamplifier combination using PIN photodiodes. Data were taken over the course of two runs during the summers of 1993 and 1994. A calibration procedure using halo muons is described. The gain, energy resolution, and position resolution of the detector are discussed. Finally, the ability of the detector to be used as a low energy photon veto is illustrated using the data. (orig.).

  6. New detector concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemmer, J.; Lutz, G.

    1986-07-01

    On the basis of the semiconductor drift chamber many new detectors are proposed, which enable the determination of energy, energy loss, position and penetration depth of radiation. A novel integrated transistor-detector configuration allows non destructive repeated readout and amplification of the signal. The concept may be used for the construction of one or two-dimensional PIXEL arrays. (orig.)

  7. Stanford's big new detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    A detector constructed for the Standford Linear Collider is described. It consists of a central drift chamber in the field of a surrounding superconducting solenoid. Furthermore included are a Cherenkov ring imaging detector for particle identification and a liquid argon calorimeter. (HSI).

  8. CMS Detector Posters

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    CMS Detector posters (produced in 2000): CMS installation CMS collaboration From the Big Bang to Stars LHC Magnetic Field Magnet System Trackering System Tracker Electronics Calorimetry Eletromagnetic Calorimeter Hadronic Calorimeter Muon System Muon Detectors Trigger and data aquisition (DAQ) ECAL posters (produced in 2010, FR & EN): CMS ECAL CMS ECAL-Supermodule cooling and mechatronics CMS ECAL-Supermodule assembly

  9. Pixel detector readout chip

    CERN Multimedia

    1991-01-01

    Close-up of a pixel detector readout chip. The photograph shows an aera of 1 mm x 2 mm containing 12 separate readout channels. The entire chip contains 1000 readout channels (around 80 000 transistors) covering a sensitive area of 8 mm x 5 mm. The chip has been mounted on a silicon detector to detect high energy particles.

  10. Drift chamber detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, I.; Martinez Laso, L.

    1989-01-01

    A review of High Energy Physics detectors based on drift chambers is presented. The ionization, drift diffusion, multiplication and detection principles are described. Most common drift media are analysied, and a classification of the detectors according to its geometry is done. Finally the standard read-out methods are displayed and the limits of the spatial resolution are discussed. (Author)

  11. Drift Chambers detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, I.; Martinez laso, L.

    1989-01-01

    We present here a review of High Energy Physics detectors based on drift chambers. The ionization, drift diffusion, multiplication and detection principles are described. Most common drift media are analysed, and a classification of the detectors according to its geometry is done. Finally the standard read-out methods are displayed and the limits of the spatial resolution are discussed. (Author) 115 refs

  12. Solid state track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuther, H.

    1976-11-01

    This paper gives a survey of the present state of the development and the application of solid state track detectors. The fundamentals of the physical and chemical processes of the track formation and development are explained, the different detector materials and their registration characteristics are mentioned, the possibilities of the experimental practice and the most variable applications are discussed. (author)

  13. LHCb detector performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinol, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreassen, R.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Gutierrez, O. Aquines; Archilli, F.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Belogurov, S.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Pellegrino, A.; Wilschut, H. W.

    2015-01-01

    The LHCb detector is a forward spectrometer at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The experiment is designed for precision measurements of CP violation and rare decays of beauty and charm hadrons. In this paper the performance of the various LHCb sub-detectors and the trigger system are

  14. The LDC detector concept

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In preparation of the experimental program at the international linear collider (ILC), the large detector concept (LDC) is being developed. The main points of the LDC are a large volume gaseous tracking system, combined with high precision vertex detector and an extremely granular calorimeter. The main design ...

  15. Detector Systems at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Frank

    2011-01-01

    The Compact Linear Collider CLIC is designed to deliver e+e- collisions at a center of mass energy of up to 3 TeV. The detector systems at this collider have to provide highly efficient tracking and excellent jet energy resolution and hermeticity for multi-TeV final states with multiple jets and leptons. In addition, the detector systems have to be capable of distinguishing physics events from large beam-induced background at a crossing frequency of 2 GHz. Like for the detector concepts at the ILC, CLIC detectors are based on event reconstruction using particle flow algorithms. The two detector concepts for the ILC, ILD and SID, were adapted for CLIC using calorimeters with dense absorbers limiting leakage through increased compactness, as well as modified forward and vertex detector geometries and precise time stamping to cope with increased background levels. The overall detector concepts for CLIC are presented, with particular emphasis on the main detector and engineering challenges, such as: the ultra-thi...

  16. Future particle detector systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Allan G.

    2000-01-01

    Starting with a short summary of the major new experimental physics programs, we attempt to motivate the reasons why existing general-purpose detectors at Hadron Colliders are what they are, why they are being upgraded, and why new facilities are being constructed. The CDF and ATLAS detectors are used to illustrate these motivations. Selected physics results from the CDF experiment provide evidence for limitations on the detector performance, and new physics opportunities motivate both machine and detector upgrades. This is discussed with emphasis on the improved physics reach of the CDF experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron (√(s)=2 TeV). From 2005, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will become operational at a collision energy of √(s)=14 TeV, seven times larger than at the Tevatron Collider. To exploit the physics capability of the LHC, several large detectors are being constructed. The detectors are significantly more complex than those at the Tevatron Collider because of physics and operational constraints. The detector design and technology of the aspects of the large general-purpose detector ATLAS is described

  17. Developments on RICH detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besson, P.; Bourgeois, P.

    1996-01-01

    The RICH (ring imaging Cherenkov) detector which is dedicated to Cherenkov radiation detection is described. An improvement made by replacing photo sensible vapor with solid photocathode is studied. A RICH detector prototype with a CsI photocathode has been built in Saclay and used with Saturne. The first results are presented. (A.C.)

  18. ALICE Silicon Strip Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Nooren, G

    2013-01-01

    The Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) constitutes the two outermost layers of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) of the ALICE Experiment. The SSD plays a crucial role in the tracking of the particles produced in the collisions connecting the tracks from the external detectors (Time Projection Chamber) to the ITS. The SSD also contributes to the particle identification through the measurement of their energy loss.

  19. CVD polycrystalline diamond. A novel neutron detector and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mongkolnavin, R.

    1998-01-01

    Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) Polycrystalline Diamond film has been investigated as a low noise sensor for beta particles, gammas and neutrons using High Energy Physics technologies. Its advantages and disadvantages have been explored in comparison with other particle detectors such as silicon detector and other plastic scintillators. The performance and characteristic of the diamond detector have been fully studied and discussed. These studies will lead to a better understanding of how CVD diamonds perform as a detector and how to improve their performance under various conditions. A CVD diamond detector model has been proposed which is an attempt to explain the behaviour of such an extreme detector material. A novel neutron detector is introduced as a result of these studies. A good thermal and fast neutron detector can be fabricated with CVD diamond with new topologies. This detector will perform well without degradation in a high neutron radiation environment, as diamond is known to be radiation hard. It also offers better neutrons and gammas discrimination for high gamma background applications compared to other semiconductor detectors. A full simulation of the detector has also been done using GEANT, a Monte-Carlo simulation program for particle detectors. Simulation results show that CVD diamond detectors with this novel topology can detect neutrons with great directionality. Experimental work has been done on this detector in a nuclear reactor environment and accelerator source. A novel neutron source which offers a fast pulse high-energy neutrons has also been studied. With this detector, applications in neutron spectrometer for low-Z material have been pursued with various neutron detection techniques. One of these is a low-Z material identification system. The system has been designed and simulated for contraband luggage interrogation using the detector and the novel neutron source. Also other neutron related applications have been suggested. (author)

  20. CVD polycrystalline diamond. A novel neutron detector and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mongkolnavin, R.

    1998-07-01

    Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) Polycrystalline Diamond film has been investigated as a low noise sensor for beta particles, gammas and neutrons using High Energy Physics technologies. Its advantages and disadvantages have been explored in comparison with other particle detectors such as silicon detector and other plastic scintillators. The performance and characteristic of the diamond detector have been fully studied and discussed. These studies will lead to a better understanding of how CVD diamonds perform as a detector and how to improve their performance under various conditions. A CVD diamond detector model has been proposed which is an attempt to explain the behaviour of such an extreme detector material. A novel neutron detector is introduced as a result of these studies. A good thermal and fast neutron detector can be fabricated with CVD diamond with new topologies. This detector will perform well without degradation in a high neutron radiation environment, as diamond is known to be radiation-hard. It also offers better neutrons and gammas discrimination for high gamma background applications compared to other semiconductor detectors. A full simulation of the detector has also been done using GEANT, a Monte Carlo simulation program for particle detectors. Simulation results show that CVD diamond detectors with this novel topology can detect neutrons with great directionality. Experimental work has been done on this detector in a nuclear reactor environment and accelerator source. A novel neutron source which offers a fast pulse high-energy neutrons has also been studied. With this detector, applications in neutron spectrometry for low-Z material have been pursued with various neutron detection techniques. One of these is a low-Z material identification system. The system has been designed and simulated for contraband luggage interrogation using the detector and the novel neutron source. (author)

  1. Plate Full of Color

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-08-04

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Plate Full of Color teaches the value of eating a variety of colorful and healthy foods.  Created: 8/4/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/5/2008.

  2. American acceptance of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, W.

    1980-01-01

    The characteristic adventurous spirit that built American technology will eventually lead to American acceptance of nuclear power unless an overpowering loss of nerve causes us to reject both nuclear technology and world leadership. The acceptance of new technology by society has always been accompanied by activist opposition to industralization. To resolve the debate between environmental and exploitive extremists, we must accept with humility the basic premise that human accomplishment is a finite part of nature

  3. Understanding Retailers’ Acceptance of Virtual Stores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Y.L. Chen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The acceptance of e-commerce among consumers has stimulated the rise of virtual stores. Increasing traditional retailers or people who do not have sufficient capital for maintaining a brick-and-mortar store have considered using virtual stores to reach global market. In the e-commerce literature, there has been rich research evidence concerning consumers’ acceptance of virtual stores. However, rigorous academic research on retailers’ acceptance of virtual stores is relatively scarce today. This study draws upon the theory of planned behavior and information richness theory to propose an integrated theoretical model. A field survey is used to collect data from e-tailers. The data are analyzed to examine the six relationships posited in the research model. Findings of this study provide a further research avenue for e-commerce, and implications for those who are managing or considering using virtual stores.

  4. Introduction to detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Walenta, Albert H

    1995-01-01

    Concepts for momentum measurements,particle identification and energy measurements (calorimeters) as well for imaging applications in medecine, biology and industry (non destructive testing) will be put into relation to the specific detection princip In particular the resolution for position, time, energy and intensity measurement and the efficiency will be discussed. Signal extraction,electronic signal processing and principles of information capture will close the logic circle to the input : the radiation properties.The lecture will provide some sources for data tables and small demonstration computer programs f The basic detector physics as interaction of radiation with matter, information transport via free charges,photons and phonons and the signal formation will be presented in some depth with emphasis on the influence on specific parameters for detector The lecture will cover the most popular detector principles, gas detectors (ion chambers,MPWC's and MSGC's), semiconductor detectors scintillators and ...

  5. ATLAS ITk Pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Gemme, Claudia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The high luminosity upgrade of the LHC (HL-LHC) in 2026 will provide new challenge to the ATLAS tracker. The current inner detector will be replaced with a whole silicon tracker which will consist of a five barrel layer Pixel detector surrounded by a four barrel layer Strip detector. The expected high radiation level are requiring the development of upgraded silicon sensors as well as new a front-end chip. The dense tracking environment will require finer granularity detectors. The data rates will require new technologies for high bandwidth data transmission and handling. The current status of the HL-LHC ATLA Pixel detector developments as well as the various layout options will be reviewed.

  6. Undepleted silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rancoita, P.G.; Seidman, A.

    1985-01-01

    Large-size silicon detectors employing relatively low resistivity material can be used in electromagnetic calorimetry. They can operate in strong magnetic fields, under geometric constraints and with microstrip detectors a high resolution can be achieved. Low noise large capacitance oriented electronics was developed to enable good signal-to-noise ratio for single relativistic particles traversing large area detectors. In undepleted silicon detectors, the charge migration from the field-free region has been investigated by comparing the expected peak position (from the depleted layer only) of the energy-loss of relativistic electrons with the measured one. Furthermore, the undepleted detectors have been employed in a prototype of Si/W electromagnetic colorimeter. The sensitive layer was found to be systematically larger than the depleted one

  7. Advanced far infrared detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haller, E.E.

    1993-05-01

    Recent advances in photoconductive and bolometric semiconductor detectors for wavelength 1 mm > λ > 50 μm are reviewed. Progress in detector performance in this photon energy range has been stimulated by new and stringent requirements for ground based, high altitude and space-borne telescopes for astronomical and astrophysical observations. The paper consists of chapters dealing with the various types of detectors: Be and Ga doped Ge photoconductors, stressed Ge:Ga devices and neutron transmutation doped Ge thermistors. Advances in the understanding of basic detector physics and the introduction of modern semiconductor device technology have led to predictable and reliable fabrication techniques. Integration of detectors into functional arrays has become feasible and is vigorously pursued by groups worldwide

  8. Charged corpuscular beam detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hikawa, H; Nishikawa, Y

    1970-09-29

    The present invention relates to a charged particle beam detector which prevents transient phenomena disturbing the path and focusing of a charged particle beam travelling through a mounted axle. The present invention provides a charged particle beam detector capable of decreasing its reaction to the charge in energy of the charged particle beam even if the relative angle between the mounted axle and the scanner is unstable. The detector is characterized by mounting electrically conductive metal pieces of high melting point onto the face of a stepped, heat-resistant electric insulating material such that the pieces partially overlap each other and individually provide electric signals, whereby the detector is no longer affected by the beam. The thickness of the metal piece is selected so that an eddy current is not induced therein by an incident beam, thus the incident beam is not affected. The detector is capable of detecting a misaligned beam since the metal pieces partially overlap each other.

  9. Bridging the Gap between Social Acceptance and Ethical Acceptability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taebi, B.

    2016-01-01

    New technology brings great benefits, but it can also create new and significant risks. When evaluating those risks in policymaking, there is a tendency to focus on social acceptance. By solely focusing on social acceptance, we could, however, overlook important ethical aspects of technological

  10. The Solenoidal Detector Collaboration silicon detector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziock, H.J.; Gamble, M.T.; Miller, W.O.; Palounek, A.P.T.; Thompson, T.C.

    1992-01-01

    Silicon tracking systems will be fundamental components of the tracking systems for both planned major SSC experiments. Despite its seemingly small size, it occupies a volume of more than 5 meters in length and 1 meter in diameter and is an order of magnitude larger than any silicon detector system previously built. This report discusses its design and operation

  11. Factors Influencing Acceptance Of Contraceptive Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Gupta

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Research Problem: What are the factors influencing acceptance of contraceptive methods. Objective: To study the determinants influencing contra­ceptive acceptance. Study design: Population based cross - sectional study. Setting: Rural area of East Delhi. Participants: Married women in the reproductive age group. Sample:Stratified sampling technique was used to draw the sample. Sample Size: 328 married women of reproductive age group. Study Variables: Socio-economic status, Type of contraceptive, Family size, Male child. Outcome Variables: Acceptance of contraceptives Statistical Analysis: By proportions. Result: Prevalence of use of contraception at the time of data collection was 40.5%. Tubectomy and vasectomy were most commonly used methods. (59.4%, n - 133. Educational status of the women positively influenced the contraceptive acceptance but income did not. Desire for more children was single most important deterrent for accepting contraception. Recommendations: (i             Traditional method of contraception should be given more attention. (ii            Couplesshould be brought in the contraceptive use net at the early stage of marriage.

  12. Acceptance of Swedish e-health services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary-Louise Jung

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Mary-Louise Jung1, Karla Loria11Division of Industrial Marketing, e-Commerce and Logistics, Lulea University of Technology, SwedenObjective: To investigate older people’s acceptance of e-health services, in order to identify determinants of, and barriers to, their intention to use e-health.Method: Based on one of the best-established models of technology acceptance, Technology Acceptance Model (TAM, in-depth exploratory interviews with twelve individuals over 45 years of age and of varying backgrounds are conducted.Results: This investigation could find support for the importance of usefulness and perceived ease of use of the e-health service offered as the main determinants of people’s intention to use the service. Additional factors critical to the acceptance of e-health are identified, such as the importance of the compatibility of the services with citizens’ needs and trust in the service provider. Most interviewees expressed positive attitudes towards using e-health and find these services useful, convenient, and easy to use.Conclusion: E-health services are perceived as a good complement to traditional health care service delivery, even among older people. These people, however, need to become aware of the e-health alternatives that are offered to them and the benefits they provide.Keywords: health services, elderly, technology, Internet, TAM, patient acceptance, health-seeking behavior

  13. Emptiness and Fullness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnbæk, Susanne; Bunkenborg, Mikkel

    As critical voices question the quality, authenticity, and value of people, goods, and words in post-Mao China, accusations of emptiness render things open to new investments of meaning, substance, and value. Exploring the production of lack and desire through fine-grained ethnography, this volume...... examines how diagnoses of emptiness operate in a range of very different domains in contemporary China: In the ostensibly meritocratic exam system and the rhetoric of officials, in underground churches, housing bubbles, and nationalist fantasies, in bodies possessed by spirits and evaluations of jade......, there is a pervasive concern with states of lack and emptiness and the contributions suggest that this play of emptiness and fullness is crucial to ongoing constructions of quality, value, and subjectivity in China....

  14. Full employment maintenance in the private sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, G. A.

    1976-01-01

    Operationally, full employment can be accomplished by applying modern computer capabilities, game and decision concepts, and communication feedback possibilities, rather than accepted economic tools, to the problem of assuring invariant full employment. The government must provide positive direction to individual firms concerning the net number of employees that each firm must hire or refrain from hiring to assure national full employment. To preserve free enterprise and the decision making power of the individual manager, this direction must be based on each private firm's own numerical employment projections.

  15. MUON DETECTORS: RPC

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Paolucci

    2012-01-01

      2011 data-taking was very satisfactory for both the RPC detector and trigger. The RPC system ran very smoothly in 2011, showing an excellent stability and very high data-tacking efficiency. Data loss for RPC was about 0.37%, corresponding to 19 pb−1. Most of the performance studies, based on 2011 data, are now completed and the results have been already approved by CMS to be presented at the RPC 2012 conference (February 2012 at LNF). During 2011, the number of disconnected chambers increased from six to eight corresponding to 0.8% of the full system, while the single-gap-mode chambers increased from 28 to 31. Most of the problematic chambers are due to bad high-voltage connection and electronic failures that can be solved only during the 2013-2014 Long Shutdown. 98.4% of the electronic channels were operational. The average detection efficiency in 2011 was about 95%, which was the same value measured during the HV scan done at the beginning of the 2011 data-taking. Efficiency has be...

  16. The International Large Detector: Letter of Intent

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, Toshinori; Abramowicz, Halina; Adamus, Marek; Adeva, Bernardo; Afanaciev, Konstantin; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Alabau Pons, Carmen; Albrecht, Hartwig; Andricek, Ladislav; Anduze, Marc; Aplin, Steve J.; Arai, Yasuo; Asano, Masaki; Attie, David; Attree, Derek J.; Burger, Jochen; Bailey, David; Balbuena, Juan Pablo; Ball, Markus; Ballin, James; Barbi, Mauricio; Barlow, Roger; Bartels, Christoph; Bartsch, Valeria; Bassignana, Daniela; Bates, Richard; Baudot, Jerome; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Jeannine; Beckmann, Moritz; Bedjidian, Marc; Behnke, Ties; Belkadhi, Khaled; Bellerive, Alain; Bentvelsen, Stan; Bergauer, Thomas; Berggren, C.Mikael U.; Bergholz, Matthias; Bernreuther, Werner; Besancon, Marc; Besson, Auguste; Bhattacharya, Sudeb; Bhuyan, Bipul; Biebel, Otmar; Bilki, Burak; Blair, Grahame; Blumlein, Johannes; Bo, Li; Boisvert, Veronique; Bondar, A.; Bonvicini, Giovanni; Boos, Eduard; Boudry, Vincent; Bouquet, Bernard; Bouvier, Joel; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Brient, Jean-Claude; Brock, Ian; Brogna, Andrea; Buchholz, Peter; Buesser, Karsten; Bulgheroni, Antonio; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Buzulutskov, A.F.; Caccia, Massimo; Caiazza, Stefano; Calcaterra, Alessandro; Caldwell, Allen; Callier, Stephane L.C.; Calvo Alamillo, Enrique; Campbell, Michael; Campbell, Alan J.; Cappellini, Chiara; Carloganu, Cristina; Castro, Nuno; Castro Carballo, Maria Elena; Chadeeva, Marina; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chang, Paoti; Charpy, Alexandre; Chen, Xun; Chen, Shaomin; Chen, Hongfang; Cheon, Byunggu; Choi, Suyong; Choudhary, B.C.; Christen, Sandra; Ciborowski, Jacek; Ciobanu, Catalin; Claus, Gilles; Clerc, Catherine; Coca, Cornelia; Colas, Paul; Colijn, Auke; Colledani, Claude; Combaret, Christophe; Cornat, Remi; Cornebise, Patrick; Corriveau, Francois; Cvach, Jaroslav; Czakon, Michal; D'Ascenzo, Nicola; Da Silva, Wilfrid; Dadoun, Olivier; Dam, Mogens; Damerell, Chris; Danilov, Mikhail; Daniluk, Witold; Daubard, Guillaume; David, Dorte; David, Jacques; De Boer, Wim; De Groot, Nicolo; De Jong, Sijbrand; De Jong, Paul; De La Taille, Christophe; De Masi, Rita; De Roeck, Albert; Decotigny, David; Dehmelt, Klaus; Delagnes, Eric; Deng, Zhi; Desch, Klaus; Dieguez, Angel; Diener, Ralf; Dima, Mihai-Octavian; Dissertori, Gunther; Dixit, Madhu S.; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris A.; Dollan, Ralph; Dorokhov, Andrei; Doublet, Philippe; Doyle, Tony; Doziere, Guy; Dragicevic, Marko; Drasal, Zbynek; Drugakov, Vladimir; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Dulucq, Frederic; Dumitru, Laurentiu Alexandru; Dzahini, Daniel; Eberl, Helmut; Eckerlin, Guenter; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eigen, Gerald; Eklund, Lars; Elsen, Eckhard; Elsener, Konrad; Emeliantchik, Igor; Engels, Jan; Evrard, Christophe; Fabbri, Riccardo; Faber, Gerard; Faucci Giannelli, Michele; Faus-Golfe, Angeles; Feege, Nils; Feng, Cunfeng; Ferencei, Jozef; Fernandez Garcia, Marcos; Filthaut, Frank; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischer, Manfred; Fleta, Celeste; Fleury, Julien L.; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Foster, Brian; Fourches, Nicolas; Fouz, Mary-Cruz; Frank, Sebastian; Frey, Ariane; Frotin, Mickael; Fujii, Hirofumi; Fujii, Keisuke; Fujimoto, Junpei; Fujita, Yowichi; Fusayasu, Takahiro; Fuster, Juan; Gaddi, Andrea; Gaede, Frank; Galkin, Alexei; Galkin, Valery; Gallas, Abraham; Gallin-Martel, Laurent; Gamba, Diego; Gao, Yuanning; Garrido Beltran, Lluis; Garutti, Erika; Gastaldi, Franck; Gaur, Bakul; Gay, Pascal; Gellrich, Andreas; Genat, Jean-Francois; Gentile, Simonetta; Gerwig, Hubert; Gibbons, Lawrence; Ginina, Elena; Giraud, Julien; Giraudo, Giuseppe; Gladilin, Leonid; Goldstein, Joel; Gonzalez Sanchez, Francisco Javier; Gournaris, Filimon; Greenshaw, Tim; Greenwood, Z.D.; Grefe, Christian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Gerald Jean; Gris, Philippe; Grondin, Denis; Grunewald, Martin; Grzelak, Grzegorz; Gurtu, Atul; Haas, Tobias; Haensel, Stephan; Hajdu, Csaba; Hallermann, Lea; Han, Liang; Hansen, Peter H.; Hara, Takanori; Harder, Kristian; Hartin, Anthony; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Harz, Martin; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hauschild, Michael; He, Qing; Hedberg, Vincent; Hedin, David; Heinze, Isa; Helebrant, Christian; Henschel, Hans; Hensel, Carsten; Hertenberger, Ralf; Herve, Alain; Higuchi, Takeo; Himmi, Abdelkader; Hironori, Kazurayama; Hlucha, Hana; Hommels, Bart; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horvath, Dezso; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Wei-Shu; Hu-Guo, Christine; Huang, Xingtao; Huppert, Jean Francois; Ide, Yasuhiro; Idzik, Marek; Iglesias Escudero, Carmen; Ignatenko, Alexandr; Igonkina, Olga; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikemoto, Yukiko; Ikuno, Toshinori; Imbault, Didier; Imhof, Andreas; Imhoff, Marc; Ingbir, Ronen; Inoue, Eiji; Ioannis, Giomataris; Ishikawa, Akimasa; Itagaki, Kennosuke; Ito, Kazutoshi; Itoh, Hideo; Iwabuchi, Masaya; Iwai, Go; Iwamoto, Toshiyuki; Jacosalem, Editha P.; Jaramillo Echeverria, Richard; Jeans, Daniel T D.; Jing, Fanfan; Jing, Ge; Jokic, Stevan; Jonsson, Leif; Jore, Matthieu; Jovin, Tatjana; Kafer, Daniela; Kajino, Fumiyoshi; Kamai, Yusuke; Kaminski, Jochen; Kamiya, Yoshio; Kaplan, Alexander; Kapusta, Frederic; Kar, Deepak; Karlen, Dean; Katayama, Nobu; Kato, Eriko; Kato, Yukihiro; Kaukher, Alexander; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawahara, Hiroki; Kawai, Masanori; Kawasaki, Takeo; Khan, Sameen Ahmed; Kieffer, Robert; Kielar, Eryk; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Kiesling, Christian M.; Killenberg, Martin; Kim, Donghee; Kim, Choong Sun; Kim, Guinyun; Kim, Hong Joo; Kim, Eun-Joo; Kim, Hyunok; Kim, Shinhong; Kircher, Francois; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kleinwort, Claus; Klimkovich, Tatsiana; Kluge, Hanna; Kluit, Peter Martin; Kobayashi, Makoto; Kobel, Michael; Kodama, Hideyo; Kodys, Peter; Koetz, U.; Koffeman, Els; Kohriki, Takashi; Komamiya, Sachio; Kondou, Yoshinari; Korbel, Volker; Kotera, Katsushige; Krucker, Dirk; Kraml, Sabine; Krammer, Manfred; Krastev, Kaloyan; Krause, Bernward; Krautscheid, Thorsten; Kschioneck, Kirsten; Kuang, Yu-Ping; Kuhlmann, Jan; Kuroiwa, Hirotoshi; Kusano, Tomonori; Kvasnicka, Peter; Lacasta Llacer, Carlos; Lagorio, Eric; Laktineh, Imad; Lange, Wolfgang; Lebrun, Patrice; Lee, Jik; Lehner, Frank; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Levy, Aharon; Li, Bo; Li, Ting; Li, Yulan; Li, Hengne; Liang, Zuotang; Lima, Guilherme; Linde, Frank; Linssen, Lucie; Linzmaier, Diana; List, Benno; List, Jenny; Liu, Bo; Llopart Cudie, Xavier; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Lozano, Manuel; Lu, Shaojun; Lucaci-Timoce, Angela Isabela; Lumb, Nick; Lundberg, Bjorn; Lutz, Pierre; Lutz, Benjamin; Lux, Thorsten; Luzniak, Pawel; Lyapin, Alexey; Ma, Wengan; Maczewski, Lukasz; Mader, Wolfgang F.; Maity, Manas; Majumdar, Nayana; Majumder, Gobinda; Maki, Akihiro; Makida, Yasuhiro; Mamuzic, Judita; Marc, Dhellot; Marchesini, Ivan; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marias, Carlos; Marshall, John; Martens, Cornelius; Martin, Victoria J.; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin-Chassard, Gisele; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Martyn, Hans-Ulrich; Mathez, Herve; Mathieu, Antoine; Matsuda, Takeshi; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mcdonald, Kirk T.; Mereu, Paolo; Merk, Marcel; Merkin, Mikhail M.; Meyer, Niels; Meyners, Norbert; Mihara, Satoshi; Miller, David J.; Miller, Owen; Mitaroff, Winfried A.; Miyamoto, Akiya; Miyata, Hitoshi; Mjornmark, Ulf; Mnich, Joachim; Monig, Klaus; Moll, Andreas; Moortgat-Pick, Gudrid A.; Mora De Freitas, Paulo; Morel, Frederic; Moretti, Stefano; Morgunov, Vasily; Mori, Toshinori; Mori, Takashi; Morin, Laurent; Morozov, Sergey; Moser, Hans-Gunther; Moser, Fabian; Moya, David; Mudrinic, Mihajlo; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Murakami, Takeshi; Musa, Luciano; Musat, Gabriel; Nagamine, Tadashi; Nakamura, Isamu; Nakano, Eiichi; Nakashima, Kenichi; Nakayoshi, Kazuo; Nakazawa, Hideyuki; Nam, Shinwoo; Nam, Jiwoo; Nemecek, Stanislav; Niebuhr, Carsten; Niechciol, Marcus; Niezurawski, Piotr; Nishida, Shohei; Nishiyama, Miho; Nitoh, Osamu; Norbeck, Ed; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; O'Shea, Val; Ohlerich, Martin; Okada, Nobuchika; Olchevski, Alexander; Olivier, Bob; Oliwa, Krzysztof; Omori, Tsunehiko; Onel, Yasar; Ono, Hiroaki; Ono, Yoshimasa; Onuki, Yoshiyuki; Ootani, Wataru; Orava, Risto; Orlandea, Marius Ciprian; Oskarsson, Anders; Osland, Per; Ossetski, Dmitri; Osterman, Lennart; Padilla, Cristobal; Pandurovic, Mila; Park, Il Hung; Park, Hwanbae; Parkes, Chris; Patrick, Ghislain; Patterson, J.Ritchie; Pawlik, Bogdan; Pellegrini, Giulio; Pellegrino, Antonio; Peterson, Daniel; Petrov, Alexander; Pham, Thanh Hung; Piccolo, Marcello; Poeschl, Roman; Polak, Ivo; Popova, Elena; Postranecky, Martin; Prahl, Volker; Prudent, Xavier; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Puerta-Pelayo, Jesus; Qian, Wenbin; Quadt, Arnulf; Rarbi, Fatah-Ellah; Raspereza, Alexei; Ratti, Lodovico; Raux, Ludovic; Raven, Gerhard; Re, Valerio; Regler, Meinhard; Reinhard, Marcel; Renz, Uwe; Repain, Philippe; Repond, Jose; Richard, Francois; Riemann, Sabine; Riemann, Tord; Riera-Babures, Jordi; Riu, Imma; Robert, Kieffer; Robson, Aidan; Roloff, Philipp; Rosca, Aura; Rosemann, Christoph; Rosiek, Janusz; Rossmanith, Robert; Roth, Stefan; Royon, Christophe; Ruan, Manqi; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Rusinov, Vladimir; Ruzicka, Pavel; Ryzhikov, Dmitri; Saborido, Juan J.; Sadeh, Iftach; Sailer, Andre; Saito, Masatoshi; Sakuma, Takayuki; Sanami, Toshiya; Sanuki, Tomoyuki; Sarkar, Sandip; Sasaki, Rei; Sato, Yutaro; Saveliev, Valeri; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Sawyer, Lee; Schafer, Oliver; Schalicke, Andreas; Schuler, K.Peter; Schade, Peter; Schaffran, Joern; Scheirich, Jan; Schlatter, Dieter; Schmidt, Ringo Sebastian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schneekloth, Uwe; Schreiber, Heinz Juergen; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce A.; Schuwalow, Sergej; Schwierz, Rainer; Sefkow, Felix; Sefri, Rachid; Seguin-Moreau, Nathalie; Seidel, Katja; Sekaric, Jadranka; Sendai, Hiroshi; Settles, Ronald Dean; Shao, Ming; Shechtman, L.I.; Shimazaki, Shoichi; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Sicho, Petr; Simon, Frank; Sinram, Klaus; Smiljanic, Ivan; Smiljkovic, Nebojsa; Smolik, Jan; Sobloher, Blanka; Soldner, Christian; Song, Kezhu; Sopczak, Andre; Speckmayer, Peter; Stenlund, Evert; Stockinger, Dominik; Stoeck, Holger; Strohmer, Raimund; Straessner, Arno; Stromhagen, Richard; Sudo, Yuji; Suehara, Taikan; Suekane, Fumihiko; Suetsugu, Yusuke; Sugimoto, Yasuhiro; Sugiyama, Akira; Sumisawa, Kazutaka; Suzuki, Shiro; Swientek, Krzysztof; Tabassam, Hajrah; Takahashi, Tohru; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Tanabe, Tomohiko; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanaka, Ken-Ichi; Tanaka, Manobu; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarkovsky, Evgueny I.; Tauchi, Toshiaki; Tauchi, Kazuya; Telnov, Valery I.; Teodorescu, Eliza; Thomson, Mark; Tian, Junping; Timmermans, Jan; Titov, Maxim P.; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tozuka, Shunsuke; Tsuboyama, Toru; Ueno, Koji; Ullan, Miguel; Uozumi, Satoru; Urakawa, Junji; Ushakov, Andriy; Ushiroda, Yutaka; Valentan, Manfred; Valin, Isabelle; Van Der Graaf, Harry; Van Doren, Brian; Van Kooten, Rick J.; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Vanel, Jean-Charles; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Verzocchi, Marco; Vescovi, Christophe; Videau, Henri L.; Vila, Ivan; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vogel, Adrian; Volkenborn, Robert; Vos, Marcel; Voutsinas, Yorgos; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Walsh, Roberval; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wang, Min-Zu; Wang, Yi; Wang, Xiaoliang; Wang, Qun; Wang, Meng; Ward, David R.; Warren, Matthew; Watanabe, Minori; Watanabe, Takashi; Watson, Nigel K.; Wattimena, Nanda; Wendt, Oliver; Wermes, Norbert; Weuste, Lars; Wichmann, Katarzyna; Wienemann, Peter; Wierba, Wojciech; Wilson, Graham W.; Wilson, John A.; Wing, Matthew; Winter, Marc; Wobisch, Markus; Worek, Malgorzata; Xella, Stefania; Xu, Zizong; Yamaguchi, Akira; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Yamaoka, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Satoru; Yamauchi, M.; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yamouni, Mahfoud; Yan, Wenbiao; Yanagida, Koji; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Jongmann; Yang, Jin Min; Yang, Zhenwei; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yonamine, Ryo; Yoshida, Kohei; Yoshida, Takuo; Yoshioka, Tamaki; Yu, Chunxu; Yu, Intae; Yue, Qian; Zacek, Josef; Zalesak, Jaroslav; Zarnecki, Aleksander Filip; Zawiejski, Leszek; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zerwas, Dirk; Zeuner, Wolfram; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhang, Ziping; Zhang, Renyou; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Jiawei; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zheng, Baojun; Zhong, Liang; Zhou, Yongzhao; Zhu, Xianglei; Zhu, Chengguang; Zomer, Fabian; Zutshi, Vishnu

    2010-01-01

    The International Large Detector (ILD) is a concept for a detector at the International Linear Collider, ILC. The ILC will collide electrons and positrons at energies of initially 500 GeV, upgradeable to 1 TeV. The ILC has an ambitious physics program, which will extend and complement that of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). A hallmark of physics at the ILC is precision. The clean initial state and the comparatively benign environment of a lepton collider are ideally suited to high precision measurements. To take full advantage of the physics potential of ILC places great demands on the detector performance. The design of ILD is driven by these requirements. Excellent calorimetry and tracking are combined to obtain the best possible overall event reconstruction, including the capability to reconstruct individual particles within jets for particle ow calorimetry. This requires excellent spatial resolution for all detector systems. A highly granular calorimeter system is combined with a central tracker which st...

  17. Full metal jacket!

    CERN Document Server

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2011-01-01

    Ten years ago, standard issue clothing only gave CERN firemen partial protection but today our fire-fighters are equipped with state-of-the-art, full personal protective equipment.   CERN's Fire Brigade team. For many years, the members of CERN's Fire Brigade went on call-outs clad in their work trousers and fire-rescue coats, which only afforded them partial protection. Today, textile manufacturing techniques have moved on a long way and CERN's firemen are now kitted out with state-of-the-art personal protective equipment. The coat and trousers are three-layered, comprising fire-resistant aramide, a protective membrane and a thermal lining. The CERN Fire Brigade' new state-of-the-art personal protection equipment. "This equipment is fully compliant with the standards in force and is therefore resistant to cuts, abrasion, electrical arcs with thermal effects and, of course, fire," explains Patrick Berlinghi, the CERN Fire Brigade's Logistics Officer. You might think that su...

  18. Policies for full employment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Koning, Jaap; Layard, Richard; Nickel, Stephen

    European unemployment is too high, and employment is too low. Over 7½ per cent of Europe's workforce is unemployed, and only two thirds of people aged 15-64 are in work. At the Lisbon summit two years ago the heads of government set the target that by 2010 the employment rate should rise from 64...... per cent to at least 70 per cent. And for older workers between 55 and 64 the employment rate should rise from 38 per cent to at least one half. These are ambitious targets. They will require two big changes: more people must seek work, and among those seeking work a higher proportion must get a job....... So we need higher participation, and (for full employment) we need a much lower unemployment rate. Can it be done? A mere glance at the experience of different European countries shows that it can. As Table 1 shows, four E.U. countries already exceed the overall target for 2010 (Britain, Denmark...

  19. ATLAS Detector Interface Group

    CERN Multimedia

    Mapelli, L

    Originally organised as a sub-system in the DAQ/EF-1 Prototype Project, the Detector Interface Group (DIG) was an information exchange channel between the Detector systems and the Data Acquisition to provide critical detector information for prototype design and detector integration. After the reorganisation of the Trigger/DAQ Project and of Technical Coordination, the necessity to provide an adequate context for integration of detectors with the Trigger and DAQ lead to organisation of the DIG as one of the activities of Technical Coordination. Such an organisation emphasises the ATLAS wide coordination of the Trigger and DAQ exploitation aspects, which go beyond the domain of the Trigger/DAQ project itself. As part of Technical Coordination, the DIG provides the natural environment for the common work of Trigger/DAQ and detector experts. A DIG forum for a wide discussion of all the detector and Trigger/DAQ integration issues. A more restricted DIG group for the practical organisation and implementation o...

  20. The HERMES recoil detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airapetian, A.; Belostotski, S.

    2013-02-01

    For the final running period of HERA, a recoil detector was installed at the HERMES experiment to improve measurements of hard exclusive processes in charged-lepton nucleon scattering. Here, deeply virtual Compton scattering is of particular interest as this process provides constraints on generalised parton distributions that give access to the total angular momenta of quarks within the nucleon. The HERMES recoil detector was designed to improve the selection of exclusive events by a direct measurement of the four-momentum of the recoiling particle. It consisted of three components: two layers of double-sided silicon strip sensors inside the HERA beam vacuum, a two-barrel scintillating fibre tracker, and a photon detector. All sub-detectors were located inside a solenoidal magnetic field with an integrated field strength of 1Tm. The recoil detector was installed in late 2005. After the commissioning of all components was finished in September 2006, it operated stably until the end of data taking at HERA end of June 2007. The present paper gives a brief overview of the physics processes of interest and the general detector design. The recoil detector components, their calibration, the momentum reconstruction of charged particles, and the event selection are described in detail. The paper closes with a summary of the performance of the detection system.

  1. Smile detectors correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Kivanc; Chang, Xin; Skarbek, Władysław

    2017-08-01

    The novel smile recognition algorithm is presented based on extraction of 68 facial salient points (fp68) using the ensemble of regression trees. The smile detector exploits the Support Vector Machine linear model. It is trained with few hundreds exemplar images by SVM algorithm working in 136 dimensional space. It is shown by the strict statistical data analysis that such geometric detector strongly depends on the geometry of mouth opening area, measured by triangulation of outer lip contour. To this goal two Bayesian detectors were developed and compared with SVM detector. The first uses the mouth area in 2D image, while the second refers to the mouth area in 3D animated face model. The 3D modeling is based on Candide-3 model and it is performed in real time along with three smile detectors and statistics estimators. The mouth area/Bayesian detectors exhibit high correlation with fp68/SVM detector in a range [0:8; 1:0], depending mainly on light conditions and individual features with advantage of 3D technique, especially in hard light conditions.

  2. The HERMES recoil detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airapetian, A. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Randall Laboratory of Physics; Aschenauer, E.C. [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Belostotski, S. [B.P. Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Insitute, Gatchina (Russian Federation)] [and others; Collaboration: HERMES Recoil Detector Group

    2013-02-15

    For the final running period of HERA, a recoil detector was installed at the HERMES experiment to improve measurements of hard exclusive processes in charged-lepton nucleon scattering. Here, deeply virtual Compton scattering is of particular interest as this process provides constraints on generalised parton distributions that give access to the total angular momenta of quarks within the nucleon. The HERMES recoil detector was designed to improve the selection of exclusive events by a direct measurement of the four-momentum of the recoiling particle. It consisted of three components: two layers of double-sided silicon strip sensors inside the HERA beam vacuum, a two-barrel scintillating fibre tracker, and a photon detector. All sub-detectors were located inside a solenoidal magnetic field with an integrated field strength of 1Tm. The recoil detector was installed in late 2005. After the commissioning of all components was finished in September 2006, it operated stably until the end of data taking at HERA end of June 2007. The present paper gives a brief overview of the physics processes of interest and the general detector design. The recoil detector components, their calibration, the momentum reconstruction of charged particles, and the event selection are described in detail. The paper closes with a summary of the performance of the detection system.

  3. Cone penetrometer acceptance test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boechler, G.N.

    1996-09-19

    This Acceptance Test Report (ATR) documents the results of acceptance test procedure WHC-SD-WM-ATR-151. Included in this report is a summary of the tests, the results and issues, the signature and sign- off ATP pages, and a summarized table of the specification vs. ATP section that satisfied the specification.

  4. Acceptance conditions in automated negotiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baarslag, T.; Hindriks, K.V.; Jonker, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    In every negotiation with a deadline, one of the negotiating parties has to accept an offer to avoid a break off. A break off is usually an undesirable outcome for both parties, therefore it is important that a negotiator employs a proficient mechanism to decide under which conditions to accept.

  5. Consumer Acceptance of Novel Foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, A.R.H.; Reinders, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    The success of novel foods depends to a considerable extent on whether consumers accept those innovations. This chapter provides an overview of current knowledge relevant to consumer acceptance of innovations in food. A broad range of theories and approaches to assess consumer response to

  6. Worldwide nuclear revival and acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraets, Luc H.; Crommelynck, Yves A.

    2009-01-01

    The current status and trends of the nuclear revival in Europe and abroad are outlined. The development of public opinion in the last decade is playing an important part. This has turned from clear rejection to careful acceptance. Transparency and open communication will be important aspects in the further development of nuclear acceptance. (orig.)

  7. A New Virtual Point Detector Concept for a HPGe detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Jong In; Yun, Ju Yong

    2009-01-01

    For last several decades, the radiation measurement and radioactivity analysis techniques using gamma detectors have been well established. Especially , the study about the detection efficiency has been done as an important part of gamma spectrometry. The detection efficiency depends strongly on source-to-detector distance. The detection efficiency with source-to-detector distance can be expressed by a complex function of geometry and physical characteristics of gamma detectors. In order to simplify the relation, a virtual point detector concept was introduced by Notea. Recently, further studies concerning the virtual point detector have been performed. In previous other works the virtual point detector has been considered as a fictitious point existing behind the detector end cap. However the virtual point detector position for the front and side of voluminous detectors might be different due to different effective central axis of them. In order to more accurately define the relation, therefore, we should consider the virtual point detector for the front as well as side and off-center of the detector. The aim of this study is to accurately define the relation between the detection efficiency and source-to-detector distance with the virtual point detector. This paper demonstrates the method to situate the virtual point detectors for a HPGe detector. The new virtual point detector concept was introduced for three area of the detector and its characteristics also were demonstrated by using Monte Carlo Simulation method. We found that the detector has three virtual point detectors except for its rear area. This shows that we should consider the virtual point detectors for each area when applying the concept to radiation measurement. This concept can be applied to the accurate geometric simplification for the detector and radioactive sources.

  8. Detectors - Electronics; Detecteurs - Electronique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bregeault, J.; Gabriel, J.L.; Hierle, G.; Lebotlan, P.; Leconte, A.; Lelandais, J.; Mosrin, P.; Munsch, P.; Saur, H.; Tillier, J. [Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire, Caen Univ., 14 (France)

    1998-04-01

    The reports presents the main results obtained in the fields of radiation detectors and associated electronics. In the domain of X-ray gas detectors for the keV range efforts were undertaken to rise the detector efficiency. Multiple gap parallel plate chambers of different types as well as different types of X {yields} e{sup -} converters were tested to improve the efficiency (values of 2.4% at 60 KeV were reached). In the field of scintillators a study of new crystals has been carried out (among which Lutetium orthosilicate). CdTe diode strips for obtaining X-ray imaging were studied. The complete study of a linear array of 8 CdTe pixels has been performed and certified. The results are encouraging and point to this method as a satisfying solution. Also, a large dimension programmable chamber was used to study the influence of temperature on the inorganic scintillators in an interval from -40 deg. C to +150 deg. C. Temperature effects on other detectors and electronic circuits were also investigated. In the report mentioned is also the work carried out for the realization of the DEMON neutron multidetector. For neutron halo experiments different large area Si detectors associated with solid and gas position detectors were realized. In the frame of a contract with COGEMA a systematic study of Li doped glasses was undertaken aiming at replacing with a neutron probe the {sup 3}He counters presently utilized in pollution monitoring. An industrial prototype has been realised. Other studies were related to integrated analog chains, materials for Cherenkov detectors, scintillation probes for experiments on fundamental processes, gas position sensitive detectors, etc. In the field of associated electronics there are mentioned the works related to the multidetector INDRA, data acquisition, software gamma spectrometry, automatic gas pressure regulation in detectors, etc

  9. Layered semiconductor neutron detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Samuel S; Perry, Dale L

    2013-12-10

    Room temperature operating solid state hand held neutron detectors integrate one or more relatively thin layers of a high neutron interaction cross-section element or materials with semiconductor detectors. The high neutron interaction cross-section element (e.g., Gd, B or Li) or materials comprising at least one high neutron interaction cross-section element can be in the form of unstructured layers or micro- or nano-structured arrays. Such architecture provides high efficiency neutron detector devices by capturing substantially more carriers produced from high energy .alpha.-particles or .gamma.-photons generated by neutron interaction.

  10. Lithium germanium detectors reactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolai, J.A.; Marti, G.V.; Riso, J.M.; Gimenez, C.R.

    1981-01-01

    A convenient method to regenerate the characteristics of damaged Ge(li) detectors, that has been applied in the authors' laboratory, is described. The procedure consists in warming-up the crystal in its cryostat to temperatures between 10 deg C and 30 deg C above room temperature, in order to clean its surface. Subsequent cooling down to liquid nitrogen temperature, followed by one or more clean-up drifting processes, are applied to the crystals. This paper summarizes the results obtained with several detectors; this method was applied successfully to 15 detectors more. (author) [es

  11. The AGILE anticoincidence detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perotti, F.; Fiorini, M.; Incorvaia, S.; Mattaini, E.; Sant'Ambrogio, E.

    2006-01-01

    AGILE is a γ-ray astrophysics space mission which will operate, starting from 2006, in the 30 MeV-50 GeV energy range with imaging capability also in the 15-45 keV energy band. In order to achieve the required detection sensitivity, all AGILE detectors are surrounded by an anticoincidence detector aimed at charged particle background rejection with an inefficiency as low as 10 -4 . In this work, the design and the structure of this anticoincidence detector are presented, as well as its performances in terms of charged particles detection inefficiency as derived from extensive calibrations performed at CERN PS

  12. Liquid ionizing radiaion detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    deGaston, A.N.

    1979-01-01

    A normally nonconducting liquid such as liquid hydrocarbon is encased between a pair of electrodes in an enclosure so that when the liquid is subjected to ionizing radiation, the ion pairs so created measurably increase the conductivity of the fluid. The reduced impedance between the electrodes is detectable with a sensitive ohm-meter and indicates the amount of ionizing radiation. The enclosure, the electrodes and the fluid can be constructed of materials that make the response of the detector suitable for calibrating a large range of radiation energy levels. The detector is especially useful in medical applications where tissue equivalent X ray detectors are desired

  13. Ionization detectors, ch. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevcik, J.

    1976-01-01

    Most measuring devices used in gas chromatography consist of detectors that measure the ionization current. The process is based on the collision of a moving high-energy particle with a target particle that is ionised while an electron is freed. The discussion of the conditions of the collision reaction, the properties of the colliding particles, and the intensity of the applied field point to a unified classification of ionisation detectors. Radioactive sources suitable for use in these detectors are surveyed. The slow-down mechanism, recombination and background current effect are discussed

  14. The Clover detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, F A; Byrski, Th; Durien, D; Duchene, G; France, G de; Kharraja, B; Wei, L [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires; Butler, P; Jones, G; Jones, P [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Oliver Lodge Lab.; Hannachi, F [Daresbury Lab. (United Kingdom)

    1992-08-01

    The EUROGAM Phase I device is almost running for experiments and new technical developments are in progress for its second phase. For example, a composite Ge detector should enable: a very large photopeak efficiency with good energy and timing resolutions; and, the covering, with Ge, of a large portion of 4{pi}-Str. The Clover detector, proposed by the CRN, Strasbourg, is one of this new generation of Ge detectors. It is currently developed in France by the EUROGAM collaboration. The design, the technical characteristics of the counter and the first results of the prototype tests are discussed in this contribution. (author). 1 ref., 2 tabs., 2 refs.

  15. Fuel rod leak detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Womack, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    A typical embodiment of the invention detects leaking fuel rods by means of a radiation detector that measures the concentration of xenon-133 ( 133 Xe) within each individual rod. A collimated detector that provides signals related to the energy of incident radiation is aligned with one of the ends of a fuel rod. A statistically significant sample of the gamma radiation (γ-rays) that characterize 133 Xe is accumulated through the detector. The data so accumulated indicates the presence of a concentration of 133 Xe appropriate to a sound fuel rod, or a significantly different concentration that reflects a leaking fuel rod

  16. The HOTWAXS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bateman, J.E.; Derbyshire, G.E. [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Diakun, G. [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Daresbury Laboratory, Keckwick Lane, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Duxbury, D.M. [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)], E-mail: d.m.duxbury@rl.ac.uk; Fairclough, J.P.A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Sheffield, Brook Hill, Sheffield S3 7HF (United Kingdom); Harvey, I.; Helsby, W.I. [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Daresbury Laboratory, Keckwick Lane, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Lipp, J.D.; Marsh, A.S.; Salisbury, J. [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Sankar, G. [Royal Institution of GB, 21 Albemarle Street, London W1S 4BS (United Kingdom); Spill, E.J.; Stephenson, R. [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Terrill, N.J. [Diamond Light Source LTD, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Diamond House, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)

    2007-10-11

    The development and testing of the HOTWAXS position-sensitive X-ray detector for Synchrotron Radiation Sources is described. Funded from a facility development grant, the aim of the project was to produce a high counting rate, parallax-free photon counting detector to be used in the combined studies of X-ray absorption fine structure and X-ray diffraction (XAFS/XRD), and also in the technique of small angle and wide angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS). The detector system is described together with results of experiments carried out at the Daresbury Laboratory Synchrotron Radiation Source.

  17. The HOTWAXS detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, J.E.; Derbyshire, G.E.; Diakun, G.; Duxbury, D.M.; Fairclough, J.P.A.; Harvey, I.; Helsby, W.I.; Lipp, J.D.; Marsh, A.S.; Salisbury, J.; Sankar, G.; Spill, E.J.; Stephenson, R.; Terrill, N.J.

    2007-01-01

    The development and testing of the HOTWAXS position-sensitive X-ray detector for Synchrotron Radiation Sources is described. Funded from a facility development grant, the aim of the project was to produce a high counting rate, parallax-free photon counting detector to be used in the combined studies of X-ray absorption fine structure and X-ray diffraction (XAFS/XRD), and also in the technique of small angle and wide angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS). The detector system is described together with results of experiments carried out at the Daresbury Laboratory Synchrotron Radiation Source

  18. Microfluidic Scintillation Detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    Microfluidic scintillation detectors are devices of recent introduction for the detection of high energy particles, developed within the EP-DT group at CERN. Most of the interest for such technology comes from the use of liquid scintillators, which entails the possibility of changing the active material in the detector, leading to an increased radiation resistance. This feature, together with the high spatial resolution and low thickness deriving from the microfabrication techniques used to manufacture such devices, is desirable not only in instrumentation for high energy physics experiments but also in medical detectors such as beam monitors for hadron therapy.

  19. Summary and Outlook of the International Workshop on Aging Phenomena in Gaseous Detectors (DESY, Hamburg, October, 2001)

    OpenAIRE

    Titov, M L; Hohlmann, M; Padilla, C; Tesch, N

    2002-01-01

    High Energy Physics experiments are currently entering a new era which requires the operation of gaseous particle detectors at unprecedented high rates and integrated particle fluxes. Full functionality of such detectors over the lifetime of an experiment in a harsh radiation environment is of prime concern to the involved experimenters. New classes of gaseous detectors such as large-scale straw-type detectors, Micro-pattern Gas Detectors and related detector types with their own specific agi...

  20. Detector technologies for LHC experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Hansl-Kozanecka, Traudl

    1999-01-01

    Abstract The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will provide proton-proton collisions ata centre-of-mass energy of 14 TeV with a design luminosity of 10^34cm^-2s^-1. The exploitation of the rich physics potential is illustrated using the expected performance of the two general-purpose detectors ATLAS and CMS.The lecture introduces the physics motivation for experiments at the LHC energy.The design parameters and expected performance of the LHC machine are then discussed, followed by the design objectives for the detectors. The technical solutions are presented for each detector system (calorimetry, muon system, inner tracker, trigger). For each system the requirements, the technology choices and the achieved and expected performance are discussed. Lectures given at Herbstschule fu:r Hochenergiephysik, Maria Laach, 1999Copies of the transparencies are available in reduced format (black-and-white) from the secretariats of ATLAS and CMS (1999-093 Talk). A full-size colour version is available for consultation.e...

  1. Build Your Own Particle Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Mehlhase, Sascha; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    To support the outreach activities of Atlas institutes and to grab people's attention in science exhibitions and during public events, we have created both a very detailed model of the experiment built entirely out of about Lego bricks as well as an outreach programme using Lego bricks to get people to think about particle detectors and involve them into a conversation about particle physics in general. A large Lego model, consisting of about 9500 pieces, has been 'exported' to more than 55 Atlas institutes and has been used in numerous exhibitions to explain the proportion and composition of the experiment to the public. As part of 'Build Your Own Particle Detector' programme (byopd.org) we conducted more than 15 events,either involving a competition to design and build the 'best' particle detector from a random pile of pieces or to take part in the construction of one of the large models, as part of a full day outreach event. Recently we've added miniature models of all four LHC experiments, that will be us...

  2. Parametric Adaptive Radar Detector with Enhanced Mismatched Signals Rejection Capabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Bin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of adaptive signal detection in the presence of Gaussian noise with unknown covariance matrix. We propose a parametric radar detector by introducing a design parameter to trade off the target sensitivity with sidelobes energy rejection. The resulting detector merges the statistics of Kelly's GLRT and of the Rao test and so covers Kelly's GLRT and the Rao test as special cases. Both invariance properties and constant false alarm rate (CFAR behavior for this detector are studied. At the analysis stage, the performance of the new receiver is assessed and compared with several traditional adaptive detectors. The results highlight better rejection capabilities of this proposed detector for mismatched signals. Further, we develop two two-stage detectors, one of which consists of an adaptive matched filter (AMF followed by the aforementioned detector, and the other is obtained by cascading a GLRT-based Subspace Detector (SD and the proposed adaptive detector. We show that the former two-stage detector outperforms traditional two-stage detectors in terms of selectivity, and the latter yields more robustness.

  3. A large-acceptance Bragg curve spectrometer with a longitudinal electric field and a segmented anode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, K.A.; Hasan, A.T.; Prosser, F.W.; Sanders, S.J.; Henderson, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    A large-acceptance Bragg curve spectrometer with a longitudinal electron collection field and a segmented anode has been constructed and tested. The effects on the charge resolution of the entrance angle and entrance position of the incident particle have been studied. Simulations have been done in order to isolate the contribution to the overall detector performance of the signal-shaping electronics from that of the intrinsic design of the detector. ((orig.))

  4. Training detector as simulator of alpha detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirosh, D.; Duvniz, E.; Assido, H.; Barak, D.; Paran, J.

    1997-01-01

    Alpha contamination is a common phenomena in radiation research laboratories and other sites. Training staff to properly detect and control alpha contamination, present special problems. In order to train health physics personnel, while using alpha sources, both the trainers and the trainees are inevitably exposed to alpha contamination. This fact of course, comes in conflict with safety principles. In order to overcome these difficulties, a training detector was developed, built and successfully tested. (authors)

  5. Exploring new frontiers in nuclear and particle physics with the STAR detector at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallman, T.J.

    1996-01-01

    The Solenoidal Tracker At RHIC (STAR) is a large acceptance collider detector scheduled to begin operation at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory in the fall of 1999. In the sections which follow, details of the STAR detector and physics program, as well as the status of the RHIC construction project will be presented

  6. Multi electrode semiconductors detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Amendolia, S R; Bertolucci, Ennio; Bosisio, L; Bradaschia, C; Budinich, M; Fidecaro, F; Foà, L; Focardi, E; Giazotto, A; Giorgi, M A; Marrocchesi, P S; Menzione, A; Ristori, L; Rolandi, Luigi; Scribano, A; Stefanini, A; Vincelli, M L

    1981-01-01

    Detectors with very high space resolution have been built in this laboratory and tested at CERN in order to investigate their possible use in high energy physics experiments. These detectors consist of thin layers of silicon crystals acting as ionization chambers. Thin electrodes, structured in strips or in more fancy shapes are applied to their surfaces by metal coating. The space resolution which could be reached is of the order of a few microns. An interesting feature of these solid state detectors is that they can work under very high or low external pressure or at very low temperature. The use of these detectors would strongly reduce the dimensions and the cost of high energy experiments. (3 refs).

  7. Multi electrode semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amendolia, S.R.; Batignani, G.; Bertolucci, E.; Bosisio, L.; Budinich, M.; Bradaschia, C.; Fidecaro, F.; Foa, L.; Focardi, E.; Giazotto, A.; Giorgi, M.A.; Marrocchesi, P.S.; Menzione, A.; Ristori, L.; Rolandi, L.; Scribano, A.; Stefanini, A.; Vincelli, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    Detectors with very high space resolution have been built in the laboratory and tested at CERN in order to investigate their possible use in high energy physics experiments. These detectors consist of thin layers of silicon crystals acting as ionization chambers. Thin electrodes, structured in strips or in more fancy shapes are applied to their surfaces by metal coating. The space resolution which could be reached is of the order of a few microns. An interesting feature of these solid state detectors is that they can work under very high or low external pressure or at very low temperature. The use of these detectors would strongly reduce the dimensions and the cost of high energy experiments. (Auth.)

  8. Inverter ratio failure detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, A. P.; Ebersole, T. J.; Andrews, R. E. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A failure detector which detects the failure of a dc to ac inverter is disclosed. The inverter under failureless conditions is characterized by a known linear relationship of its input and output voltages and by a known linear relationship of its input and output currents. The detector includes circuitry which is responsive to the detector's input and output voltages and which provides a failure-indicating signal only when the monitored output voltage is less by a selected factor, than the expected output voltage for the monitored input voltage, based on the known voltages' relationship. Similarly, the detector includes circuitry which is responsive to the input and output currents and provides a failure-indicating signal only when the input current exceeds by a selected factor the expected input current for the monitored output current based on the known currents' relationship.

  9. Sensitive detectors in HPLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Detection of sample components in HPLC is difficult for many reasons; the key difficulty is the mobile phase which usually has properties similar to the solute. A variety of detectors have been developed for use in HPLC based on one of the above approaches; however, the search is still continuing for an ideal or universal detector. A universal detector should have the following characteristics: (1) responds to all solutes or has predictable specificity; (2) high detectability and the same predictable response; (3) fast response; (4) wide range of linearity; (5) unaffected by changes in temperature and mobile-phase flow; (6) responds independently of the mobile phase; (7) makes no contribution to extracolumn band broadening; (8) reliable and convenient to use; (9) nondestructive to the solute; (10) provides qualitative information on the detected peak. Unfortunately, no available HPLC detector possesses all these properties. 145 refs

  10. OPAL detector electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    1988-01-01

    Half of the electromagnetic calorimeter of the OPAL detector is seen in this photo. This calorimeter consists of 4720 blocks of lead glass. It was used to detect and measure the energy of photons, electrons and positrons by absorbing them.

  11. Acceptance of Colonoscopy Requires more than Test Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Condon

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Colon cancer screening, including colonoscopy, lags behind other forms of cancer screening for participation rates. The intrinsic nature of the endoscopic procedure may be an important barrier that limits patients from finding this test acceptable and affects willingness to undergo screening. With colon cancer screening programs emerging in Canada, test characteristics and their impact on acceptance warrant consideration.

  12. Infrared detectors for Earth observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, K.; Davis, R. P.; Knowles, P.; Shorrocks, N.

    2016-05-01

    IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer), developed by CNES and launched since 2006 on the Metop satellites, is established as a major source of data for atmospheric science and weather prediction. The next generation - IASI NG - is a French national contribution to the Eumetsat Polar System Second Generation on board of the Metop second generation satellites and is under development by Airbus Defence and Space for CNES. The mission aim is to achieve twice the performance of the original IASI instrument in terms of sensitivity and spectral resolution. In turn, this places very demanding requirements on the infrared detectors for the new instrument. Selex ES in Southampton has been selected for the development of the infrared detector set for the IASI-NG instruments. The wide spectral range, 3.6 to 15.5 microns, is covered in four bands, each served by a dedicated detector design, with a common 4 x 4 array format of 1.3 mm square macropixels. Three of the bands up to 8.7 microns employ photovoltaic MCT (mercury cadmium telluride) technology and the very long wave band employs photoconductive MCT, in common with the approach taken between Airbus and Selex ES for the SEVIRI instrument on Second Generation Meteosat. For the photovoltaic detectors, the MCT crystal growth of heterojunction photodiodes is by the MOVPE technique (metal organic vapour phase epitaxy). Novel approaches have been taken to hardening the photovoltaic macropixels against localised crystal defects, and integrating transimpedance amplifiers for each macropixel into a full-custom silicon read out chip, which incorporates radiation hard design.

  13. Detector Control System for the ATLAS Forward Proton detector

    CERN Document Server

    Czekierda, Sabina; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) is a forward detector using a Roman Pot technique, recently installed in the LHC tunnel. It is aiming at registering protons that were diffractively or electromagnetically scattered in soft and hard processes. Infrastructure of the detector consists of hardware placed both in the tunnel and in the control room USA15 (about 330 meters from the Roman Pots). AFP detector, like the other detectors of the ATLAS experiment, uses the Detector Control System (DCS) to supervise the detector and to ensure its safe and coherent operation, since the incorrect detector performance may influence the physics results. The DCS continuously monitors the detector parameters, subset of which is stored in data bases. Crucial parameters are guarded by alarm system. A detector representation as a hierarchical tree-like structure of well-defined subsystems built with the use of the Finite State Machine (FSM) toolkit allows for overall detector operation and visualization. Every node in the hierarchy is...

  14. New detector techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Iarocci, Enzo

    1994-03-14

    The intense R&D effort being carried out in view of LHC has given rise in a relatively short time to a wide spectrum of new detector concepts and technologies. Subject of the lectures will be some of the most interesting new ideas and developments, in the field of noble liquid, crystal and scintillating fiber trackers. The emphasis will be on the basic aspects of detector operation.

  15. The Micro Wire Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeva, B.; Gomez, F.; Pazos, A.; Pfau, R.; Plo, M.; Rodriguez, J.M.; Vazquez, P.; Labbe, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    We present the performance of a new proportional gas detector. Its geometry consists of a cathode plane with 70x70 μm 2 apertures, crossed by 25 μm anode strips to which it is attached by 50 μm kapton spacers. In the region where the avalanche takes place, the anode strips are suspended in the gas mixture as in a standard wire chamber. This detector exhibits high rate capability and large gains, introducing very little material. (author)

  16. Lepton detector workshop summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imlay, R.; Iwata, S.; Thorndike, A.

    1976-01-01

    The study group met from June 7 to 11, 1976, with the dual purpose of reviewing an earlier Lepton Detector report in order to resolve some of the remaining design problems and of considering possible alternatives. Since the role of this group was primarily that of providing a critique of the earlier work, the reader is referred to that earlier paper for the general motivation and design of the detector. Problems studied at this session are described

  17. Liquid xenon detector engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, E.; Chen, M.; Gaudreau, M.P.J.; Montgomery, D.B.; Pelly, J.D.; Shotkin, S.; Sullivan, J.D.; Sumorok, K.; Yan, X.; Zhang, X.; Lebedenko, V.

    1991-01-01

    The design, engineering constraints and R and D status of a 15 m 3 precision liquid xenon, electromagnetic calorimeter for the Superconducting Super Collider are discussed in this paper. Several prototype liquid xenon detectors have been built, and preliminary results are described. The design of a conical 7 cell by 7 cell detector capable of measuring fully contained high energy electron showers is described in detail

  18. The LUCID-2 Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Sbarra, Carla; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    LUCID-2 (LUminosity Cherenkov Integrating Detector) is the upgrade of the main detector dedicated to luminosity measurements in ATLAS. Most changes were motivated by the number of interactions per bunch-crossing and the 25 ns bunch-spacing expected in LHC RUN II (2015-2018). Both fast online information used by LHC for luminosity optimisation and levelling in ATLAS, and per-bunch data to be used offline, come from LUCID-2

  19. FERMILAB: Collider detectors -2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Last month's edition (April, page 12) included a status report on data collection and preliminary physics results from the 'newcomer' DO detector at Fermilab's Tevatron proton-antiproton collider. This time the spotlight falls in the Veteran' CDF detector, in action since 1985 and meanwhile significantly upgraded. Meanwhile the Tevatron collider continues to improve, with record collision rates

  20. Microsonic detector (MSD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bober, J.T.; Haridas, P.; Oh, S.H.; Pless, I.A.; Stoughton, T.B.

    1983-01-01

    The microsonic detector (MSD) has good spatial resolution, moderate flux capacity, moderate event rate, and small volume. The MSD is a super clean bubble chamber driven at 10-50 KHz. It would be used in experiments as a vertex detector to detect short lived particles. Its characteristics--active volume, density, absorption length, radiation length, and spatial resolution--are given. The setup is schematicized, and a photograph of a 130 MeV/C photon bremsstrahlung beam is given

  1. Consumer acceptance of functional foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frewer, Lynn J.; Scholderer, Joachim; Lambert, Nigel

    2003-01-01

    In the past, it has been assumed that consumers would accept novel foods if there is a concrete and tangible consumer benefit associated with them, which implies that those functional foods would quickly be accepted. However, there is evidence that individuals are likely to differ in the extent...... to which they are likely to buy products with particular functional properties. Various cross-cultural and demographic differences in acceptance found in the literature are reviewed, as well as barriers to dietary change. In conclusion, it is argued that understanding consumer's risk perceptions...

  2. MEASUREMENT FOR ACCEPTANCE OF SUPPLY CHAIN SIMULATOR APPLICATION USING TECHNOLOGY ACCEPTANCE MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulyati E.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research for was to measure the user acceptance of simulator application which was built as a tool for student in learning of supply chain, particularly in bullwhip effect problem. The measurements used for the acceptance of supply chain simulator application in this research was the Technology Acceptance Model from 162 samples which were analyzed with Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Structural Equation Modelling. The result of this research indicated that the user acceptance (shown by customer participation of supply chain simulator was directly influence by perceived usefulness of supply chain simulator application used (positive and significant; the user acceptance of supply chain simulator was indirectly influenced by perceived ease of use in using supply chain simulator application (positive but not significant; the user acceptance of supply chain simulator was indirectly influenced by perceived enjoyment when the supply chain simulator application was used. The research would give a better understanding about a bullwhip effect and better experience for students, which would not be obtained through conventional learning, when the tools were not used.

  3. Improvement of the drift chamber system in the SAPHIR detector and first measurements of the Φ meson production at threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholmann, J.N.

    1996-09-01

    The SAPHIR detector at ELSA enables the measurement of photon induced Φ meson production from threshold up to 3 GeV in the full kinematical range. A considerable improvement of the drift chamber system is a precondition of gaining the necessary data rate in an acceptable time. The research focuses attention on the choice of the chamber gas and on a different mechanical construction, so as to minimize the negative influences of the photon beam crossing the sensitive volume of the drift chamber system. In addition, first preliminary results of the total and the differential cross section for the Φ meson production close to threshold were evaluated. (orig.)

  4. Protecting detectors in ALICE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lechman, M.; Augustinus, A.; Chochula, P.; Di Mauro, A.; Stig Jirden, L.; Rosinsky, P.; Schindler, H.; Cataldo, G. de; Pinazza, O.; Kurepin, A.; Moreno, A.

    2012-01-01

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is one of the big LHC (Large Hadron Collider) experiments at CERN in Geneva. It is composed of many sophisticated and complex detectors mounted very compactly around the beam pipe. Each detector is a unique masterpiece of design, engineering and construction and any damage to it could stop the experiment for months or even for years. It is therefore essential that the detectors are protected from any danger and this is one very important role of the Detector Control System (DCS). One of the main dangers for the detectors is the particle beam itself. Since the detectors are designed to be extremely sensitive to particles they are also vulnerable to any excess of beam conditions provided by the LHC accelerator. The beam protection consists of a combination of hardware interlocks and control software and this paper will describe how this is implemented and handled in ALICE. Tools have also been developed to support operators and shift leaders in the decision making related to beam safety. The gained experiences and conclusions from the individual safety projects are also presented. (authors)

  5. Radiation detectors for reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balagi, V.

    2005-01-01

    Detection and measurement of radiation plays a vital role in nuclear reactors from the point of view of control and safety, personnel protection and process control applications. Various types of radiation are measured over a wide range of intensity. Consequently a variety of detectors find use in nuclear reactors. Some of these devices have been developed in Electronics Division. They include gas-filled detectors such as 10 B-lined proportional counters and chambers, fission detectors and BF 3 counters are used for the measurement of neutron flux both for reactor control and safety, process control as well as health physics instrumentation. In-core neutron flux instrumentation employs the use detectors such as miniature fission detectors and self-powered detectors. In this development effort, several indigenous materials, technologies and innovations have been employed to suit the specific requirement of nuclear reactor applications. This has particular significance in view of the fact that several new types of reactors such as P-4, PWR and AHWR critical facilities, FBTR, PFBR as well as the refurbishment of old units like CIRUS are being developed. The development work has sought to overcome some difficulties associated with the non-availability of isotopically enriched neutron-sensing materials, achieving all-welded construction etc. The present paper describes some of these innovations and performance results. (author)

  6. GANIL beam profile detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tribouillard, C.

    1997-01-01

    In the design phase of GANIL which started in 1977, one of the priorities of the project management was equipping the beamlines with a fast and efficient system for visualizing the beam position, thus making possible adjustment of the beam transport lines optics and facilitating beam control. The implantation of some thirty detectors was foreseen in the initial design. The assembly of installed detectors (around 190) proves the advantages of these detectors for displaying all the beams extracted from GANIL: transfer and transport lines, beam extracted from SISSI, very high intensity beam, secondary ion beams from the production target of the LISE and SPEG spectrometers, different SPIRAL project lines. All of these detectors are based on standard characteristics: - standard flange diameter (DN 160) with a standard booster for all the sensors; - identical analog electronics for all the detectors, with networking; - unique display system. The new micro-channel plate non-interceptive detectors (beam profile and ion packet lengths) make possible in-line control of the beam quality and accelerator stability. (author)

  7. AFP detectors - first experience with data

    CERN Document Server

    Czekierda, Sabina; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) is a forward detector using a Roman Pot technique, recently installed in the LHC tunnel. It is aiming at registering protons that were diffractively or electromagnetically scattered in soft and hard processes. AFP plans to take data both in standard high-luminosity periods, as well as in dedicated runs, where colliding beams are separated in order to decrease the luminosity. The advantage of dedicated running is that pile-up is small and in consequence, in the majority of registered events there is only one proton-proton interaction. By combining AFP data together with the data from the ATLAS Inner Detector, it is possible to have insight on what happens in diffractive events in the whole available acceptance. In 2016 the AFP detectors were present only on one side of the interaction point. The collected data can be used for studies of single diffractive processes. In 2017 the detectors on the other side have been installed, which allows studies of central diffractive production...

  8. Basic Radiation Detectors. Chapter 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Eijk, C. W.E. [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)

    2014-12-15

    Radiation detectors are of paramount importance in nuclear medicine. The detectors provide a wide range of information including the radiation dose of a laboratory worker and the positron emission tomography (PET) image of a patient. Consequently, detectors with strongly differing specifications are used. In this chapter, general aspects of detectors are discussed.

  9. Frontier detectors for frontier physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervelli, F.; Scribano, A.

    1984-01-01

    These proceedings contain the articles presented at the named meeting. These concern developments of radiation detectors and counting techniques in high energy physics. Especially considered are tracking detectors, calorimeters, time projection chambers, detectors for rare events, solid state detectors, particle identification, and optical readout systems. See hints under the relevant topics. (HSI)

  10. The ALICE forward multiplicity detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm Christensen, Christian; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan; Sogaard, Carsten

    2007-01-01

    The ALICE Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) is a silicon strip detector with 51,200 strips arranged in 5 rings, covering the range $-3.4......The ALICE Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) is a silicon strip detector with 51,200 strips arranged in 5 rings, covering the range $-3.4...

  11. Progress in semiconductor drift detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehak, P.; Walton, J.; Gatti, E.

    1985-01-01

    Progress in testing semiconductor drift detectors is reported. Generally better position and energy resolutions were obtained than resolutions published previously. The improvement is mostly due to new electronics better matched to different detectors. It is shown that semiconductor drift detectors are becoming versatile and reliable detectors for position and energy measurements

  12. Market Acceptance of Smart Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report finds that smart growth developments enjoy market acceptance because of stability in prices over time. Housing resales in smart growth developments often have greater appreciation than their conventional suburban counterparts.

  13. L-286, Acceptance Test Record

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HARMON, B.C.

    2000-01-01

    This document provides a detailed account of how the acceptance testing was conducted for Project L-286, ''200E Area Sanitary Water Plant Effluent Stream Reduction''. The testing of the L-286 instrumentation system was conducted under the direct supervision

  14. Standards regulations and public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, E.C.

    1977-01-01

    Spanish nuclear legislation and the associated procedure for the authorization of installations is summarized. Public acceptance is discussed in the context of the needs for and hazards of nuclear energy. (U.K.)

  15. Examining Information Technology Acceptance by Individual Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licen Indahwati Darsono

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The mixed results of information technology (IT investment have made the investigation of user acceptance of IT increasingly challenging. A growing body of research in user acceptance of IT literature has limited focus on individual professionals as target users. Therefore, this research investigates how external variables, namely individual differences and system characteristics influence lecturers as individual professionals to accept the internet technology. Technology Acceptance Model (TAM and Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB are used as the main reference in this research. Findings of this research indicate that individual differences (computer self-efficacy, knowledge of search domain and system characteristics (terminology, screen design, relevance have indirect impact through perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, and attitude on lecturers’ intention to use the internet. Specifically, computer self-efficacy and screen design have direct and indirect impact on intention. One issue concerning with the explanatory power of the proposed research model, which is based on TAM and TPB, compared to the rival model, which is called extended TAM, is also analyzed.

  16. Acceptance of irradiated food: an education issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modanez, Leila

    2012-01-01

    The commercial use of irradiated food technology in Brazil has a slow growing due to misinterpretation by most Brazilian consumers, who have been mislead by wrong ideas about the meaning of what is nuclear energy. Researches indicate that consumers have difficult in accepting such a technology due to the confusion between the terms irradiation and radioactivity, which are often related to health risks. When properly informed about the process, its purpose and the benefits offered by food irradiation technology, most consumers react positively. Therefore, this work aims to: first, to evaluate the acceptance of irradiated foods by Brazilian consumers; second, to verify the teaching at school about the food irradiation process; third, to analyze the Brazilian school curriculum from elementary school to high school, regarding nuclear energy applications; then, to compare the content taught in Brazil with the content covered in other surveyed countries, such as France, United States, and China. The methodology of this study consisted of a systematic survey of the specific literature, and a questionnaire to verify the acceptance of irradiated food by Brazilian consumers. According to the researched bibliography, it was clear the recommendation of an early school education about the usage of nuclear energy, more specifically, food irradiation. Such a recommendation is due to the fact that the consulted costumers, in Brazil and other countries mentioned in this work, do not clearly understand the full benefits of irradiated food. Hence, education is fundamental for the acceptance of new technologies by consumers, as it is the case with irradiated food. (author)

  17. Detectors on the drawing board

    CERN Document Server

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Linear collider detector developers inside and outside CERN are tackling the next generation of detector technology. While their focus has centred on high-energy linear collider detectors, their innovative concepts and designs will be applicable to any future detector.   A simulated event display in one of the new generation detectors. “While the LHC experiments remain the pinnacle of detector technology, you may be surprised to realise that the design and expertise behind them is well over 10 years old,” says Lucie Linssen, CERN’s Linear Collider Detector (LCD) project manager whose group is pushing the envelope of detector design. “The next generation of detectors will have to surpass the achievements of the LHC experiments. It’s not an easy task but, by observing detectors currently in operation and exploiting a decade’s worth of technological advancements, we’ve made meaningful progress.” The LCD team is curr...

  18. Collider and Detector Protection at Beam Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhno, I. L.; Mokhov, N. V.; Drozhdin, A. I.

    2003-12-01

    Dealing with beam loss due to abort kicker prefire is considered for hadron colliders. The prefires occured at Tevatron (Fermilab) during Run I and Run II are analyzed and a protection system implemented is described. The effect of accidental beam loss in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN on machine and detector components is studied via realistic Monte Carlo calculations. The simulations show that beam loss at an unsynchronized beam abort would result in severe heating of conventional and superconducting magnets and possible damage to the collider detector elements. A proposed set of collimators would reduce energy deposition effects to acceptable levels. Special attention is paid to reducing peak temperature rise within the septum magnet and minimizing quench region length downstream of the LHC beam abort straight section.

  19. Collider and Detector Protection at Beam Accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakhno, I.L.; Mokhov, N.V.; Drozhdin, A.I.

    2003-01-01

    Dealing with beam loss due to abort kicker prefire is considered for hadron colliders. The prefires occurred at Tevatron (Fermilab) during Run I and Run II are analyzed and a protection system implemented is described. The effect of accidental beam loss in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN on machine and detector components is studied via realistic Monte Carlo calculations. The simulations show that beam loss at an unsynchronized beam abort would result in severe heating of conventional and superconducting magnets and possible damage to the collider detector elements. A proposed set of collimators would reduce energy deposition effects to acceptable levels. Special attention is paid to reducing peak temperature rise within the septum magnet and minimizing quench region length downstream of the LHC beam abort straight section

  20. Collider and detector protection at beam accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakhno, I.L.; Mokhov, N.V.; Drozhdin, A.I.

    2003-01-01

    Dealing with beam loss due to abort kicker prefire is considered for hadron colliders. The prefires occurred at Tevatron (Fermilab) during Run I and Run II are analyzed and a protection system implemented is described. The effect of accidental beam loss in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN on machine and detector components is studied via realistic Monte Carlo calculations. The simulations show that beam loss at an unsynchronized beam abort would result in severe heating of conventional and superconducting magnets and possible damage to the collider detector elements. A proposed set of collimators would reduce energy deposition effects to acceptable levels. Special attention is paid to reducing peak temperature rise within the septum magnet and minimizing quench region length downstream of the LHC beam abort straight section

  1. Public acceptance of small reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDougall, D.S.

    1997-01-01

    The success of any nuclear program requires acceptance by the local public and all levels of government involved in the decision to initiate a reactor program. Public acceptance of a nuclear energy source is a major challenge in successful initiation of a small reactor program. In AECL's experience, public acceptance will not be obtained until the public is convinced that the specific nuclear program is needed, safe and economic and environmental benefit to the community. The title of public acceptance is misleading. The objective of the program is a fully informed public. The program proponent cannot force public acceptance, which is beyond his control. He can, however, ensure that the public is informed. Once information has begun to flow to the public by various means as will be explained later, the proponent is responsible to ensure that the information that is provided by him and by others is accurate. Most importantly, and perhaps most difficult to accomplish, the proponent must develop a consultative process that allows the proponent and the public to agree on actions that are acceptable to the proponent and the community

  2. Neutron and X-ray Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carini, Gabriella [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Denes, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gruener, Sol [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Lessner, Elianne [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Science Office of Basic Energy Sciences

    2012-08-01

    (and two computing hurdles that result from the corresponding increase in data volume) for the detector community to overcome in order to realize the full potential of BES neutron and X-ray facilities. Resolving these detector impediments will improve scientific productivity both by enabling new types of experiments, which will expand the scientific breadth at the X-ray and neutron facilities, and by potentially reducing the beam time required for a given experiment. These research priorities are summarized in the table below. Note that multiple, simultaneous detector improvements are often required to take full advantage of brighter sources. High-efficiency hard X-ray sensors: The fraction of incident particles that are actually detected defines detector efficiency. Silicon, the most common direct-detection X-ray sensor material, is (for typical sensor thicknesses) 100% efficient at 8 keV, 25%efficient at 20 keV, and only 3% efficient at 50 keV. Other materials are needed for hard X-rays. Replacement for 3He for neutron detectors: 3He has long been the neutron detection medium of choice because of its high cross section over a wide neutron energy range for the reaction 3He + n —> 3H + 1H + 0.764 MeV. 3He stockpiles are rapidly dwindling, and what is available can be had only at prohibitively high prices. Doped scintillators hold promise as ways to capture neutrons and convert them into light, although work is needed on brighter, more efficient scintillator solutions. Neutron detectors also require advances in speed and resolution. Fast-framing X-ray detectors: Today’s brighter X-ray sources make time-resolved studies possible. For example, hybrid X-ray pixel detectors, initially developed for particle physics, are becoming fairly mature X-ray detectors, with considerable development in Europe. To truly enable time-resolved studies, higher frame rates and dynamic range are required, and smaller pixel sizes are desirable. High-speed spectroscopic X-ray detectors

  3. 3D simulations and modeling of new low capacitance silicon pixel detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Bo; Li, Yu Yun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105 (China); Center for Semiconductor Particle and photon Imaging Detector Development and Fabrication, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105 (China); Li, Zheng, E-mail: zhengli58@gmail.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105 (China); Center for Semiconductor Particle and photon Imaging Detector Development and Fabrication, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105 (China)

    2016-09-21

    With signal to noise ratio (S/N) being a key parameter of a high performance detector, reducing the detector noise has been one of the main tasks in detector development. A new low capacitance silicon pixel detector is proposed, which is based on a new electrode geometry with reduced effective electrode area while keeping the sensitive volume unchanged. Detector electrical characteristics including electrostatic potential, electric field, full depletion voltage, and capacitance have been simulated in detail using a 3D TCAD tool. From these simulations and calculations, we confirm that the new detector structure has a much reduced capacitance (by a factor of 3) as compared to the traditional pixel detectors with the same sensitive volume. This reduction in detector capacitance can certainly improve the detector signal to noise ratio. However, the full depletion voltage for the new structure is larger than that of the traditional one due to the small electrode effect.

  4. Evaluation of the influence of parameters that determine the mean glandular dose in mammography using different detectors; Evaluacion de la influencia de los parametros que determinan la dosis glandular media en Mamografia utilizando diferentes detectores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, K.; Nogueira, M. S., E-mail: katicostabh@gmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, Pos-graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnologia das Radiacoes, Minerais e Materiais / CNEN, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: Mammography is a test used for early detection of breast cancer. The mean glandular dose (MGD) is dosimetric greatness accepted as indicative of carcinogenic risk induced by ionizing radiation in the breasts of women undergoing mammography exams. MGD value is estimated from the incident air kerma (k i), associated with conversion factors which depend on the half-value layer (HVL), the breast composition and thickness compressed breast. This study aims to evaluate the influence of the parameters used to determine the MGD using different measurement detectors. Measurements were performed on a Siemens Mammomat Model 300 Nova mammography equipment; this has the combinations Anode/Filter of Mo/Mo, Mo/Rh and W/Rh. Detectors used were the ionization chamber Model 10X6-6M manufactured by Radcal Co., two solid-state detectors, one Model AGMS-M manufactured by Radcal Co. and other Model Xi Mammo manufactured by UNFORS. The detectors measures were compared and the MGD value was estimated; differences between measurements and the reference values were higher in HVL and k i parameters. The results are displayed according to other published works. (Author)

  5. Acceptance of enterprise resource planning systems by small manufacturing enterprises

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Adam, R

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available systems by small enterprises. This paper addresses this gap by considering the strategic, business, technical and human factors that influence the acceptance of ERP systems in small manufacturing enterprises in South Africa. The consultative list...

  6. Detectors for proton counting. Si-APD and scintillation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishimoto, Shunji

    2008-01-01

    Increased intensity of synchrotron radiation requests users to prepare photon pulse detectors having higher counting rates. As detectors for photon counting, silicon-avalanche photodiode (Si-APD) and scintillation detectors were chosen for the fifth series of detectors. Principle of photon detection by pulse and need of amplification function of the detector were described. Structure and working principle, high counting rate measurement system, bunch of electrons vs. counting rate, application example of NMR time spectroscopy measurement and comments for users were described for the Si-APD detector. Structure of scintillator and photomultiplier tube, characteristics of scintillator and performance of detector were shown for the NaI detector. Future development of photon pulse detectors was discussed. (T. Tanaka)

  7. Particle identification for a future EIC detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilieva, Y.; Allison, L.; Barber, C.; Cao, T.; Del Dotto, A.; Gleason, C.; He, X.; Kalicy, G.; McKisson, J.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Park, K.; Rapoport, J.; Schwarz, C.; Schwiening, J.; Wong, C. P.; Zhao, Zh.; Zorn, C.

    2018-03-01

    In its latest Long Range Plan for Nuclear Science Research in the U.S., the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee to the Department of Energy recommended that in regards to new nuclear-physics facilities, the construction of an Electron Ion Collider (EIC) be of the highest priority after the completion of the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams. In order to carry out key aspects of the scientific program of the EIC, the EIC central detector must be capable of hadron particle identification (PID) over a broad momentum range of up to 50 GeV/c. The goal of the EIC-PID consortium is to develop an integrated program for PID at EIC, which employs several different technologies for imaging Cherenkov detectors. Here we discuss the conceptual designs and the expected PID performance of two of these detectors, as well as the newest results of gain evaluation studies of photon sensors that are good candidates to read out these detectors. Development of a gas-aerogel dual-radiator Ring Imaging Cherenkov (dRICH) detector with outward focusing mirrors is being pursued for the hadron endcap. Simulations demonstrate that the dRICH can provide a continuous >= 3σ π /K/p separation from 2.5 GeV/c to 50 GeV/c. A modular aerogel Ring Imaging Cherenkov (mRICH) detector with a Fresnel lens as a focusing element is being pursued for the electron endcap. The design provides for hadron identification over a momentum range of 3 GeV/c-10 GeV/c. The working principle of the mRICH design has been proven in a beam test with a first prototype. The location of the sensor readout planes of the Cherenkov detectors in the magnetic field of the central-detector solenoid, which is expected to be within 1.5 T-3 T, makes is necessary to evaluate the limit of the acceptable performance of commercially available photosensors, such as microchannel-plate photomultipliers (MCP PMTs). Here we present the results of gain evaluation of multi-anode MCP PMTs with a pore size of 10 μm. Overall, our preliminary results

  8. Evaluation of the influence of parameters that determine the mean glandular dose in mammography using different detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, K.; Nogueira, M. S.

    2015-10-01

    Full text: Mammography is a test used for early detection of breast cancer. The mean glandular dose (MGD) is dosimetric greatness accepted as indicative of carcinogenic risk induced by ionizing radiation in the breasts of women undergoing mammography exams. MGD value is estimated from the incident air kerma (k i), associated with conversion factors which depend on the half-value layer (HVL), the breast composition and thickness compressed breast. This study aims to evaluate the influence of the parameters used to determine the MGD using different measurement detectors. Measurements were performed on a Siemens Mammomat Model 300 Nova mammography equipment; this has the combinations Anode/Filter of Mo/Mo, Mo/Rh and W/Rh. Detectors used were the ionization chamber Model 10X6-6M manufactured by Radcal Co., two solid-state detectors, one Model AGMS-M manufactured by Radcal Co. and other Model Xi Mammo manufactured by UNFORS. The detectors measures were compared and the MGD value was estimated; differences between measurements and the reference values were higher in HVL and k i parameters. The results are displayed according to other published works. (Author)

  9. Development and test of the CO2 evaporative cooling system for the LHCb UT Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Coelli, Simone

    2016-01-01

    The upgrade of the LHCb detector, which will take place during the Long Shutdown 2 from mid 2018 to the end of 2019, will extend significantly the physics reach of the experiment by allowing it to run at higher instantaneous luminosity with increased trigger efficiency for a wide range of decay channels. The LHCb upgrade relies on two major changes. Firstly, the full read-out of the front-end electronics, currently limited by a Level-0 trigger to 1 MHz, will be replaced with a 40 MHz trigger system. Secondly, the upgraded LHCb detector will be designed to cope with an increase of the nominal operational luminosity by a factor five compared to the current detector. Compared to the current experiment several subsystems need to be partially rebuilt. Among these the 4 TT planes will be replaced by new high granularity silicon micro-strip planes with an improved coverage of the LHCb acceptance.The new system is called the Upstream Tracker. The radiation length of each UT plane should not exceed the value of 1 % X0...

  10. The ALICE Transition Radiation Detector: status and perspectives for Run II

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    The ALICE Transition Radiation Detector contributes to the tracking, particle identification, and triggering capabilities of the experiment. It is composed of six layers of multi-wire proportional chambers, each of which is preceded by a radiator and a Xe/CO$_2$-filled drift volume. The signal is sampled in timebins of 100~ns over the drift length which allows for the reconstruction of chamber-wise track segments, both online and offline. The particle identification is based on the specific energy loss of charged particles and additional transition radiation photons, the latter being a signature for electrons. The detector is segmented into 18 sectors, of which 13 were installed in Run I. The TRD was included in data taking since the LHC start-up and was successfully used for electron identification and triggering. During the Long Shutdown 1, the detector was completed and now covers the full azimuthal acceptance. Furthermore, the readout and trigger components were upgraded. When data taking was started for ...

  11. Magnesium borate radiothermoluminescent detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazanskaya, V.A.; Kuzmin, V.V.; Minaeva, E.E.; Sokolov, A.D.

    1974-01-01

    In the report the technology of obtaining polycrystalline magnesium borate activated by dysprosium is described briefly and the method of preparing the tabletted detectors from it is presented. The dependence of the light sum of the samples on the proportion of the components and on the sintering regime has shown that the most sensitive material is obtained at the proportion of boric anhydride and magnesium oxide 2.2-2.4 and at the dysprosium concentration about 1 milligram-atom per gram molecule of the base. The glow curve of such a material has a simple form with one peak the maximum of which is located at 190-200 0 C. The measurement of the main dosimetric characteristics of the magnesium borate tabletted detectors and the comparison with similar parmaeters of the lithium fluoride tabletted detectors have shown that at practically identical effective number the former detectors have the following substantial advantages: the sensitivity is ten-twenty times as large, they are substantially more technological on synthesis of the radiothermoluminophor and during the production of the tabletted detectors, they have a simple glow curve, they do not require the utilization of the thermocycling during the use. (author)

  12. HPGe detector shielding adjustment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trnkova, L.; Rulik, P.

    2008-01-01

    Low-level background shielding of HPGe detectors is used mainly for environmental samples with very low content of radionuclides. National Radiation Protection Institute (SURO) in Prague is equipped with 14 HPGe detectors with relative efficiency up to 150%. The detectors are placed in a room built from materials with low content of natural radionuclides and equipped with a double isolation of the floor against radon. Detectors themselves are placed in lead or steel shielding. Steel shielding with one of these detectors with relative efficiency of 100% was chosen to be rebuilt to achieve lower minimum detectable activity (MDA). Additional lead and copper shielding was built up inside the original steel shielding to reduce the volume of the inner space and filled with nitrogen by means of evaporating liquid nitrogen. The additional lead and copper shielding, consequent reduction of the inner volume and supply of evaporated nitrogen, caused a decrease of the background count and accordingly MDA values as well. The effect of nitrogen evaporation on the net areas of peaks belonging to radon daughters is significant. The enhanced shielding adjustment has the biggest influence in low energy range, what can be seen in collected data. MDA values in energy range from 30 keV to 400 keV decreased to 0.65-0.85 of original value, in energy range from 400 keV to 2 MeV they fell to 0.70-0.97 of original value. (authors)

  13. ATLAS muon detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Muon detectors from the outer layer of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. Over a million individual detectors combine to make up the outer layer of ATLAS. All of this is exclusively to track the muons, the only detectable particles to make it out so far from the collision point. How the muon’s path curves in the magnetic field depends on how fast it is travelling. A fast muon curves only a very little, a slower one curves a lot. Together with the calorimeters, the muon detectors play an essential role in deciding which collisions to store and which to ignore. Certain signals from muons are a sure sign of exciting discoveries. To make sure the data from these collisions is not lost, some of the muon detectors react very quickly and trigger the electronics to record. The other detectors take a little longer, but are much more precise. Their job is to measure exactly where the muons have passed, calculating the curvature of their tracks in the magnetic field to the nearest five hundredths of a ...

  14. Lepton detector workshop summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imlay, R.; Iwata, S.; Jacobs, S.

    1976-01-01

    A discussion is given of the initial detector design, focusing on the cost estimates and on the inner detector modules. With regard to inner modules, the rate problem was examined for the closest elements, and the question whether one should use argon or lead-liquid scintillator calorimeters was discussed. New designs which involved major modifications to the lepton detector are considered. The major motivations for alternative designs were twofold. One was that the original detector looked quite expensive, and a study of the tradeoff of money versus physics had not really been done yet. The second point was that, since the physics region to be explored was totally new ground, one would like to leave as many options open as possible and build a detector that was as flexible as possible. A scaled-down version of the original design, which was strongly favored by this study, appears to save an appreciable amount of money with a small decrease in the initial physics scope. The more modular designs seem quite attractive, but not enough time was spent to demonstrate feasibility

  15. Nickel Foil as Transmutation Detector for Neutron Fluence Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klupák Vít

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Activation detectors are very often used for determination of the neutron fluence in reactor dosimetry. However, there are few disadvantages concerning these detectors; it is the demand of the knowledge of the irradiation history and a loss of information due to a radioactive decay in time. Transmutation detectors TMD could be a solution in this case. The transmutation detectors are materials in which stable or long-lived nuclides are produced by nuclear reactions with neutrons. From a measurement of concentration of these nuclides, neutron fluence can be evaluated regardless of the cooling time.

  16. Modelling of performance of the ATLAS SCT detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazi, S.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The ATLAS detector being built at LHC will use the SCT (semiconductor tracking) module for particle tracking in the inner core of the detector. An analytical/numerical model of the discriminator threshold dependence and the temperature dependence of the SCT module was derived. Measurements were conducted on the performance of the SCT module versus temperature and these results were compared with the predictions made by the model. The affect of radiation damage of the SCT detector was also investigated. The detector will operate for approximately 10 years so a study was carried out on the effects of the 10 years of radiation exposure to the SCT

  17. Muon System Design Studies for Detectors at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    van der Kraaij, E

    2011-01-01

    The two concepts for CLIC detectors inherited their design of the muon systems from the ILC community. In this note the outcome of a reevaluation of the design for the CLIC environment is presented. Based on a full detector simulation, the muon identification performance is analysed for different detector layouts and different cellsizes. As a result, nine layers are suggested for the muon systems of the CLIC ILD and CLIC SiD detectors, which are arranged in three groups of three layers. The cellsizes have been kept at 30×30 mm2. These layouts are used for the performance studies of the CLIC Conceptual Design Report (CDR).

  18. Geometry simulation and physics with the CMS forward pixel detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parashar, N [Purdue University Calumet, Hammond, Indiana (United States)], E-mail: Neeti@fnal.gov

    2008-06-15

    The Forward Pixel Detector of CMS is an integral part of the Tracking system, which will play a key role in addressing the full physics potential of the collected data. It has a very complex geometry that encompasses multilayer structure of its detector modules. This presentation describes the development of geometry simulation for the Forward Pixel Detector. A new geometry package has been developed, which uses the detector description database (DDD) interface for the XML (eXtensive Markup Language) to GEANT simulation. This is necessary for digitization and GEANT4 reconstruction software for tracking. The expected physics performance is also discussed.

  19. Geometry simulation and physics with the CMS forward pixel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parashar, N

    2008-01-01

    The Forward Pixel Detector of CMS is an integral part of the Tracking system, which will play a key role in addressing the full physics potential of the collected data. It has a very complex geometry that encompasses multilayer structure of its detector modules. This presentation describes the development of geometry simulation for the Forward Pixel Detector. A new geometry package has been developed, which uses the detector description database (DDD) interface for the XML (eXtensive Markup Language) to GEANT simulation. This is necessary for digitization and GEANT4 reconstruction software for tracking. The expected physics performance is also discussed

  20. New neutron detector based on micromegas technology for ADS projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriamonje, Samuel; Andriamonje, Gregory; Aune, Stephan; Ban, Gilles; Breaud, Stephane; Blandin, Christophe; Ferrer, Esther; Geslot, Benoit; Giganon, Arnaud; Giomataris, Ioannis; Jammes, Christian; Kadi, Yacine; Laborie, Philippe; Lecolley, Jean Francois; Pancin, Julien; Riallot, Marc; Rosa, Roberto; Sarchiapone, Lucia; Steckmeyer, Jean Claude; Tillier, Joel

    2006-01-01

    A new neutron detector based on Micromegas technology has been developed for the measurement of the simulated neutron spectrum in the ADS project. After the presentation of simulated neutron spectra obtained in the interaction of 140 MeV protons with the spallation target inside the TRIGA core, a full description of the new detector configuration is given. The advantage of this detector compared to conventional neutron flux detectors and the results obtained with the first prototype at the CELINA 14 MeV neutron source facility at CEA-Cadarache are presented. The future developments of operational Piccolo-Micromegas for fast neutron reactors are also described

  1. New neutron detector based on micromegas technology for ADS projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andriamonje, Samuel [CEA-Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)]. E-mail: sandriamonje@cea.fr; Andriamonje, Gregory [IXL-Universite Bordeaux 1-BAT. A31-351 cours de la Liberation-F-33405 Talence Cedex (France); Aune, Stephan [CEA-Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Ban, Gilles [CNRS/IN2P3 LPC Caen, 6 Boulevard Marechal Juin, F-14050 Caen Cedex (France); Breaud, Stephane [CEA/DEN/Cadarache, 13108 Saint-Paul Lez Durance (France); Blandin, Christophe [CEA/DEN/Cadarache, 13108 Saint-Paul Lez Durance (France); Ferrer, Esther [CEA-Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Geslot, Benoit [CEA/DEN/Cadarache, 13108 Saint-Paul Lez Durance (France); Giganon, Arnaud [CEA-Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Giomataris, Ioannis [CEA-Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Jammes, Christian [CEA/DEN/Cadarache, 13108 Saint-Paul Lez Durance (France); Kadi, Yacine [CERN CH 1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Laborie, Philippe [CNRS/IN2P3 LPC Caen, 6 Boulevard Marechal Juin, F-14050 Caen Cedex (France); Lecolley, Jean Francois [CNRS/IN2P3 LPC Caen, 6 Boulevard Marechal Juin, F-14050 Caen Cedex (France); Pancin, Julien [CEA-Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Riallot, Marc [CEA-Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Rosa, Roberto [ENEA-Casaccia, Via Anguillarese, 00060 Rome (Italy); Sarchiapone, Lucia [CERN CH 1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Steckmeyer, Jean Claude [CNRS/IN2P3 LPC Caen, 6 Boulevard Marechal Juin, F-14050 Caen Cedex (France); Tillier, Joel [CNRS/IN2P3 LPC Caen, 6 Boulevard Marechal Juin, F-14050 Caen Cedex (France)

    2006-06-23

    A new neutron detector based on Micromegas technology has been developed for the measurement of the simulated neutron spectrum in the ADS project. After the presentation of simulated neutron spectra obtained in the interaction of 140 MeV protons with the spallation target inside the TRIGA core, a full description of the new detector configuration is given. The advantage of this detector compared to conventional neutron flux detectors and the results obtained with the first prototype at the CELINA 14 MeV neutron source facility at CEA-Cadarache are presented. The future developments of operational Piccolo-Micromegas for fast neutron reactors are also described.

  2. A first principle approach for encapsulated type composite detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kshetri, R

    2012-01-01

    A first principle approach is presented for modeling a composite detector consisting of several high-purity germanium detector modules. Without making assumptions, if we consider the full energy peak counts from single and multiple detector module interactions, and the decomposition of background counts to counts corresponding to the escaping γ-rays and counts for γ-rays which could be recovered in addback mode, it is observed that the addback mode of a composite detector could be described in terms of four probability amplitudes only. Expressions for peak-to-total and peak-to-background ratios are obtained. Considering details of the scattering and absorption processes in a composite detector, a formalism is introduced for understanding the probability amplitudes. Detailed investigation has been performed on the effect of shape and size of composite detectors on peak-to-total and peak-to-background ratios. In accordance with isoperimetric inequality for hexagonal shapes, we have discussed about the optimal design of detector layout for extremely large values of detector modules. Using experimental data on relative single crystal efficiency, addback factor and peak-to-total ratio at 1332 keV for cluster detector, the peak-to-total and peak-to-background ratios have been calculated for several composite detectors.

  3. Polarimetric Edge Detector Based on the Complex Wishart Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Henning; Schou, Jesper; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2001-01-01

    polarimetric edge detector provides a constant false alarm rate and it utilizes the full polarimetric information. The edge detector has been applied to polarimetric SAR data from the Danish dual-frequency, airborne polarimetric SAR, EMISAR. The results show clearly an improved edge detection performance...

  4. Aging phenomena in gaseous detectors - perspectives from the 2001 workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Hohlmann, M; Tesch, N; Titov, M

    2002-01-01

    High-Energy Physics experiments are currently entering a new era which requires the operation of gaseous particle detectors at unprecedented high rates and integrated particle fluxes. Full functionality of such detectors over the lifetime of an experiment in a harsh radiation environment is of prime concern. New classes of gaseous detectors such as large-scale straw-type detectors, Micro-pattern Gas Detectors, and resistive plate chambers--each with their own specific aging characteristics--have evolved since the first workshop on wire chamber aging was held at LBL, Berkeley in 1986. The 2001 workshop provided a forum to review the progress since 1986 in understanding aging effects and to exchange recent experiences. A summary of the main results reported at the 2001 workshop is presented providing a systematic review of aging effects in state-of-the-art detectors.

  5. The 150 ns detector project: Prototype preamplifier results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, W. K.; Russell, S. R.; Kleinfelder, Stuart A.

    1994-08-01

    The long-term goal of the 150 ns detector project is to develop a pixel area detector capable of 6 MHz frame rates (150 ns/frame). Our milestones toward this goal are: a single pixel, 1×256 1D and 8×8 2D detectors, 256×256 2D detectors and, finally, 1024 × 1024 2D detectors. The design strategy is to supply a complete electronics chain (resetting preamp, selectable gain amplifier, analog-to-digital converter (ADC), and memory) for each pixel. In the final detectors these will all be custom integrated circuits. The front-end preamplifiers are integrated first, since their design and performance are the most unusual and also critical to the project's success. Similarly, our early work is concentrated on devising and perfecting detector structures. In this paper we demonstrate the performance of prototypes of our integrated preamplifiers. While the final design will have 64 preamps to a chip, including a switchable gain stage, the prototypes were integrated 8 channels to a "Tiny Chip" and tested in 4 configurations (feedback capacitor Cf equal 2.5 or 4.0 pF, output directly or through a source follower). These devices have been tested thoroughly for reset settling times, gain, linearity, and electronic noise. They generally work as designed, being fast enough to easily integrate detector charge, settle, and reset in 150 ns. Gain and linearity appear to be acceptable. Current values of electronic noise, in double-sampling mode, are about twice the design goal of {2}/{3} of a single photon at 6 keV. We expect this figure to improve with the addition of the onboard amplifier stage and improved packaging. Our next test chip will include these improvements and allow testing with our first detector samples, which will be 1×256 (50 μm wide pixels) and 8×8 (1 mm 2 pixels) element detector on 1 mm thick silicon.

  6. RD50 Collaboration overview: Development of new radiation hard detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehn, S., E-mail: susanne.kuehn@cern.ch

    2016-07-11

    Silicon sensors are widely used as tracking detectors in high energy physics experiments. This results in several specific requirements like radiation hardness and granularity. Therefore research for highly performing silicon detectors is required. The RD50 Collaboration is a CERN R&D collaboration dedicated to the development of radiation hard silicon devices for application in high luminosity collider experiments. Extensive research is ongoing in different fields since 2001. The collaboration investigates both defect and material characterization, detector characterization, the development of new structures and full detector systems. The report gives selected results of the collaboration and places an emphasis on the development of new structures, namely 3D devices, CMOS sensors in HV technology and low gain avalanche detectors. - Highlights: • The RD50 Collaboration is a CERN R&D collaboration dedicated to the development of radiation hard silicon devices for high luminosity collider experiments. • The collaboration investigates defect, material and detector characterization, the development of new structures and full detector systems. • Results of measured data of n-in-p type sensors allow recommendations for silicon tracking detectors at the HL-LHC. • The charge multiplication effect was investigated to allow its exploitation and resulted in new structures like LGAD sensors. • New sensor types like slim and active edge sensors, 3D detectors, and lately HVCMOS devices were developed in the active collaboration.

  7. Solid state detector module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    A solid state detector in which each scintillator is optimally configured and coupled with its associated sensing diode in a way which exploits light piping effects to enhance efficiency, and at the same time provide a detector which is modular in nature. To achieve light piping, the scintillator crystal is oriented such that its sides conform with the crystal cleavage plane, and the sides are highly polished. An array of tungsten collimator plates define the individual channels. Multi-channel scintillator/diode modules are mounted behind and in registry with the plurality of collimator plates. A plurality of scintillators are bonded together after coating the surfaces thereof to minimize optical crosstalk. After lapping the face of the scintillator module, it is then bonded to a diode module with individual scintillators in registration with individual diodes. The module is then positioned in the detector array with collimator plates at the junctions between the scintillators

  8. Cryogenic Tracking Detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    Luukka, P R; Tuominen, E M; Mikuz, M

    2002-01-01

    The recent advances in Si and diamond detector technology give hope of a simple solution to the radiation hardness problem for vertex trackers at the LHC. In particular, we have recently demonstrated that operating a heavily irradiated Si detector at liquid nitrogen (LN$_2$) temperature results in significant recovery of Charge Collection Efficiency (CCE). Among other potential benefits of operation at cryogenic temperatures are the use of large low-resistivity wafers, simple processing, higher and faster electrical signal because of higher mobility and drift velocity of carriers, and lower noise of the readout circuit. A substantial reduction in sensor cost could result The first goal of the approved extension of the RD39 program is to demonstrate that irradiation at low temperature in situ during operation does not affect the results obtained so far by cooling detectors which were irradiated at room temperature. In particular we shall concentrate on processes and materials that could significantly reduce th...

  9. The H1 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cozzika, G.

    1992-11-01

    The H1 detector presently operating at the HERA e-p collider is described. A general overview of the detector is given with particular emphasis on the calorimeters, the main element of which is a liquid Argon calorimeter enclosed within a large radius solenoid. Calorimetry in the proton direction, close to the beam-pipe is provided by a copper-silicon pad hadronic calorimeter. In the electron direction a lead-scintillator electromagnetic calorimeter closes the solid angle between the rear part of the liquid Argon calorimeter and the beam-pipe. An iron limited streamer tube tail catcher using the return yoke of the solenoid as absorber completes the calorimetry of the detector. The hardware triggers derived from the calorimeters are also described and some performance details of the calorimeters are given

  10. Improved photon detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zermeno, A.; Marsh, L.M.

    1981-01-01

    Apparatus and methods used to obtain image information from modulation of a uniform flux. A multi-layered detector apparatus is disclosed which comprises a first conductive layer having two sides, a photoconductive layer thick enough to obtain a desired level of sensitivity and resolution of the detector apparatus when the detector apparatus is exposed to radiation of known energy, one side of the photoconductive layer being integrally affixed to and in electrical contact with one side of the first conductive layer, an insulating layer having two sides that is a phosphor that will emit light when irradiated by x-rays, one side of the insulating layer being affixed to the other side of the photoconductive layer and a transparent conductive layer having two sides, one side of the transparent conductive layer being affixed to the other side of the insulating layer. (author)

  11. The ATLAS Inner Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Gray, HM; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the LHC is equipped with a charged particle tracking system, the Inner Detector, built on three subdetectors, which provide high precision measurements made from a fine detector granularity. The Pixel and microstrip (SCT) subdetectors, which use the silicon technology, are complemented with the Transition Radiation Tracker. Since the LHC startup in 2009, the ATLAS inner tracker has played a central role in many ATLAS physics analyses. Rapid improvements in the calibration and alignment of the detector allowed it to reach nearly the nominal performance in the timespan of a few months. The tracking performance proved to be stable as the LHC luminosity increased by five orders of magnitude during the 2010 proton run, New developments in the offline reconstruction for the 2011 run will improve the tracking performance in high pile-up conditions as well as in highly boosted jets will be discussed.

  12. Silicon radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benc, I.; Kerhart, J.; Kopecky, J.; Krca, P.; Veverka, V.; Weidner, M.; Weinova, H.

    1992-01-01

    The silicon radiation detector, which is designed for the detection of electrons with energies above 500 eV and of radiation within the region of 200 to 1100 nm, comprises a PIN or PNN + type photodiode. The active acceptor photodiode is formed by a detector surface of shallow acceptor diffusion surrounded by a collector band of deep acceptor diffusion. The detector surface of shallow P-type diffusion with an acceptor concentration of 10 15 to 10 17 atoms/cm 3 reaches a depth of 40 to 100 nm. One sixth to one eighth of the collector band width is overlapped by the P + collector band at a width of 150 to 300 μm with an acceptor concentration of 10 20 to 10 21 atoms/cm 3 down a depth of 0.5 to 3 μm. This band is covered with a conductive layer, of NiCr for instance. (Z.S.)

  13. Superlattice electroabsorption radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, B.J.

    1993-06-01

    This paper provides a preliminary investigation of a new class of superlattice electroabsorption radiation detectors that employ direct optical modulation for high-speed, two-dimensional (2-D), high-resolution imaging. Applications for the detector include nuclear radiation measurements, tactical guidance and detection (laser radar), inertial fusion plasma studies, and satellite-based sensors. Initial calculations discussed in this paper indicate that a 1.5-μm (GaAlAs) multi-quantum-well (MQW) Fabry-Perot detector can respond directly to radiation of energies 1 eV to 10 KeV, and indirectly (with scattering targets) up through gamma, with 2-D sample rates on the order of 20 ps

  14. The AFP Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00514541; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) detector is one of the forward detectors of the ATLAS experiment at CERN aiming at measuring momenta and angles of diffractively scattered protons. Silicon Tracking and Time-of-Flight detectors are located inside Roman Pot stations inserted into beam pipe aperture. The AFP detector is composed of two stations on each side of the ATLAS interaction point and is under commissioning. The detector is provided with high and low voltage distribution systems. Each station has vacuum and cooling systems, movement control and all the required electronics for signal processing. Monitoring of environmental parameters, like temperature and radiation, is also available. The Detector Control System (DCS) provides control and monitoring of the detector hardware and ensures the safe and reliable operation of the detector, assuring good data quality. Comparing with DCS systems of other detectors, the AFP DCS main challenge is to cope with the large variety of AFP equipment. This paper describes t...

  15. The AFP detector control system

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00514541; The ATLAS collaboration; Caforio, Davide; Czekierda, Sabina; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Olszowska, Jolanta; Sicho, Petr; Zabinski, Bartlomiej

    The ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) detector is one of the forward detectors of the ATLAS experiment at CERN aiming at measuring momenta and angles of diffractively scattered protons. Silicon Tracking and Time-of-Flight detectors are located inside Roman Pot stations inserted into beam pipe aperture. The AFP detector is composed of two stations on each side of the ATLAS interaction point and is under commissioning. The detector is provided with high and low voltage distribution systems. Each station has vacuum and cooling systems, movement control and all the required electronics for signal processing. Monitoring of environmental parameters, like temperature and radiation, is also available. The Detector Control System (DCS) provides control and monitoring of the detector hardware and ensures the safe and reliable operation of the detector, assuring good data quality. Comparing with DCS systems of other detectors, the AFP DCS main challenge is to cope with the large variety of AFP equipment. This paper describes t...

  16. Development of a Gamma-Ray Detector for Z-Selective Radiographic Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandis, Michal

    2013-11-01

    Dual-Discrete Energy Gamma-Radiography (DDEGR) is a method for Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) detection. DDEGR utilizes 15.11 and 4.43 MeV gamma-rays produced in the 11B(d,n)12C reaction, in contrast to the conventional use of continuous Bremsstrahlung radiation. The clean and well separated gamma-rays result in high contrast sensitivity, enabling detection of small quantities of SNM. The most important aspects of a DDEGR system were discussed, simulated, measured and demonstrated. An experimental measurement of gamma-ray yields from the 11B(d,n)12C reaction showed that the yields from deuterons with 3{12 MeV energy are 2{201010 N/sr/mC 4.4 MeV gamma- rays and 2{5109 N/sr/mC 15.1 MeV gamma-rays. The measured neutron yields show that the neutron energies extend to 15-23 MeV for the same deuteron energy range. A simplied inspection system was simulated with GEANT4, showing that the ect of scattering on the signal measured in the detector is acceptable. Considering the reaction gamma yields, 1.8 mA deuteron current is required for separation of high-Z materials from medium- and low-Z materials and a 4.5 mA current is required for the additional capability of separating benign high-Z materials from SNM. The main part of the work was development of a detector suitable for a DDEGR system | Time Resolved Event Counting Optical Radiation (TRECOR) detector. TRECOR detector is a novel spectroscopic imaging detector for gamma-rays within the MeV energy range that uses an event counting image intensier with gamma-rays for the rst time. Neutrons that accompany the gamma radiation enable to implement, in parallel, Fast Neutron Resonance Radiography (FNRR), a method for explosives detection. A second generation detector, TRECOR-II, is capable of detecting gamma-rays and neutrons in parallel, separating them to create particle-specic images and energy-specic images for each particle, thus enabling simultaneous implementation of the two detection methods. A full DDEGR laboratory

  17. CHICSi - a compact ultra-high vacuum compatible detector system for nuclear reaction experiments at storage rings. II. Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golubev, P.; Avdeichikov, V.; Carlen, L.; Jakobsson, B. E-mail: bo.jakobsson@kosufy.lu.se; Siwek, A.; Veldhuizen, E.J. van; Westerberg, L.; Whitlow, H.J

    2003-03-11

    We describe the detectors for identification of charged particles and fragments in CHICSi, a large solid angle multi-telescope system mounted inside an ultra-high vacuum (UHV), cluster-jet target chamber. CHICSi performs nuclear reaction experiments at storage rings. The telescopes consist of a first very thin, 10-14 {mu}m Si detector, a second 300 {mu}m (or possibly 500 {mu}m) ion implanted Si detector supplemented by a 6 mm GSO(Ce) scintillator read out by a photodiode (PD) or by a third 300 {mu}m Si detector. The telescopes provide full charge separation up to Z=17 and mass resolution up to A=9 in the energy range 0.7-60A MeV. The thin p-i-n diode detector, etched out from a 280 {mu}m Si wafer, and the GSO/PD detector, both exclusively developed for CHICSi, provide an energy resolution {<=}8%, while the standard 300 {mu}m detectors have {<=}2% energy resolution. Radiation stability of the Si detectors is confirmed up to an integrated flux of 10{sup 10} alpha particles. The GSO detector has 70% light collection efficiency with the optical coupling to the PD a simple open, 0.2 mm, gap. A new method, developed to perform absolute energy calibration for the GSO/PD detector is presented.

  18. CHICSi - a compact ultra-high vacuum compatible detector system for nuclear reaction experiments at storage rings. II. Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubev, P.; Avdeichikov, V.; Carlen, L.; Jakobsson, B.; Siwek, A.; Veldhuizen, E.J. van; Westerberg, L.; Whitlow, H.J.

    2003-01-01

    We describe the detectors for identification of charged particles and fragments in CHICSi, a large solid angle multi-telescope system mounted inside an ultra-high vacuum (UHV), cluster-jet target chamber. CHICSi performs nuclear reaction experiments at storage rings. The telescopes consist of a first very thin, 10-14 μm Si detector, a second 300 μm (or possibly 500 μm) ion implanted Si detector supplemented by a 6 mm GSO(Ce) scintillator read out by a photodiode (PD) or by a third 300 μm Si detector. The telescopes provide full charge separation up to Z=17 and mass resolution up to A=9 in the energy range 0.7-60A MeV. The thin p-i-n diode detector, etched out from a 280 μm Si wafer, and the GSO/PD detector, both exclusively developed for CHICSi, provide an energy resolution ≤8%, while the standard 300 μm detectors have ≤2% energy resolution. Radiation stability of the Si detectors is confirmed up to an integrated flux of 10 10 alpha particles. The GSO detector has 70% light collection efficiency with the optical coupling to the PD a simple open, 0.2 mm, gap. A new method, developed to perform absolute energy calibration for the GSO/PD detector is presented

  19. Detectors for rare events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpak, G.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter discusses the possibility of combining the advantages of photographic data retrieval with the flexibility of operation of conventional gaseous or liquid detectors operated with electronic data retrieval. Possible applications of the proposed detectors to such problems as nucleon decay, neutrinoelectron interaction, and the search for magnetic monopoles are examined. Topics considered include the photography of ionization patterns, the photography of ionization tracks with the multistep avalanche chambers, and exploiting the stimulated scintillation light. Two processes which give rise to the emission of light when ionizing electrons interact in gases under the influence of an electric field are described

  20. The Micro Wire Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adeva, B.; Gomez, F.; Pazos, A.; Pfau, R.; Plo, M. E-mail: maximo.plo@cern.ch; Rodriguez, J.M.; Vazquez, P.; Labbe, J.C

    1999-10-11

    We present the performance of a new proportional gas detector. Its geometry consists of a cathode plane with 70x70 {mu}m{sup 2} apertures, crossed by 25 {mu}m anode strips to which it is attached by 50 {mu}m kapton spacers. In the region where the avalanche takes place, the anode strips are suspended in the gas mixture as in a standard wire chamber. This detector exhibits high rate capability and large gains, introducing very little material. (author)

  1. A neutron activation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambardanishvili, T.S.; Kolomiitsev, M.A.; Zakharina, T.Y.; Dundua, V.J.; Chikhladze, N.V.

    1973-01-01

    The present invention concerns a neutron activation detector made from a moulded and hardened composition. According to the invention, that composition contains an activable substance constituted by at least two chemical elements and/or compounds of at least two chemical elements. Each of these chemical elements is capable of reacting with the neutrons forming radio-active isotopes with vatious levels of energy during desintegration. This neutron detector is mainly suitable for measuring integral thermal neutron and fast neutron fluxes during irradiation of the sample, and also for measuring the intensities of neutron fields [fr

  2. Acoustic emission intrusion detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carver, D.W.; Whittaker, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    An intrusion detector is provided for detecting a forcible entry into a secured structure while minimizing false alarms. The detector uses a piezoelectric crystal transducer to sense acoustic emissions. The transducer output is amplified by a selectable gain amplifier to control the sensitivity. The rectified output of the amplifier is applied to a Schmitt trigger circuit having a preselected threshold level to provide amplitude discrimination. Timing circuitry is provided which is activated by successive pulses from the Schmitt trigger which lie within a selected time frame for frequency discrimination. Detected signals having proper amplitude and frequency trigger an alarm within the first complete cycle time of a detected acoustical disturbance signal

  3. Compton current detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho Campos, J.S. de.

    1984-01-01

    The project and construction of a Compton current detector, with cylindrical geometry using teflon as dielectric material; for electromagnetic radiation in range energy between 10 KeV and 2 MeV are described. The measurements of Compton current in teflon were obtained using an electrometer. The Compton current was promoted by photon flux proceeding from X ray sources (MG 150 Muller device) and gamma rays of 60 Co. The theory elaborated to explain the experimental results is shown. The calibration curves for accumulated charge and current in detector in function of exposition rates were obtained. (M.C.K.) [pt

  4. Failed fuel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogure, Sumio; Seya, Toru; Watanabe, Masaaki.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To enhance the reliability of a failed fuel detector which detects radioactivity of nuclear fission products leaked out from fuel elements in cooling water. Constitution: Collected specimen is introduced into a separator and co-existing material considered to be an impediment is separated and removed by ion exchange resins, after which this specimen is introduced into a container housing therein a detector to systematically measure radioactivity. Thereby, it is possible to detect a signal lesser in variation in background, and inspection work also becomes simple. (Kawakami, Y.)

  5. Neutron detector assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanai, Koi; Shirayama, Shinpei.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent gamma-ray from leaking externally passing through the inside of a neutron detector assembly. Constitution: In a neutron detector assembly having a protection pipe formed with an enlarged diameter portion which serves also as a spacer, partition plates with predetermined width are disposed at the upper and the lower portions in this expanded portion. A lot of metal particles are filled into spaces formed by the partition plates. In such a structure, the metal particles well-absorb the gamma-rays from above and convert them into heat to provide shielding for the gamma-rays. (Horiuchi, T.)

  6. Multiple chamber ionization detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, E.E.

    1982-01-01

    An ionization smoke detector employs a single radiation source in a construction comprising at least two chambers with a center or node electrode. The radioactive source is associated with this central electrode, and its positioning may be adjusted relative to the electrode to alter the proportion of the source that protrudes into each chamber. The source may also be mounted in the plane of the central electrode, and positioned relative to the center of the electrode. The central electrode or source may be made tiltable relative to the body of the detector

  7. High efficiency scintillation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noakes, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    A scintillation counter consisting of a scintillation detector, usually a crystal scintillator optically coupled to a photomultiplier tube which converts photons to electrical pulses is described. The photomultiplier pulses are measured to provide information on impinging radiation. In inorganic crystal scintillation detectors to achieve maximum density, optical transparency and uniform activation, it has been necessary heretofore to prepare the scintillator as a single crystal. Crystal pieces fail to give a single composite response. Means are provided herein for obtaining such a response with crystal pieces, such means comprising the combination of crystal pieces and liquid or solid organic scintillator matrices having a cyclic molecular structure favorable to fluorescence. 8 claims, 6 drawing figures

  8. ALICE Transition Radiation Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Pachmayer, Y

    2013-01-01

    The Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) is the main electron detector in ALICE. In conduction with the TPC and the ITS, it provides the necessary electron identification capability to study: - Production of light and heavy vector mesons as well as the continuum in the di-electron channel, - Semi leptonic decays of hadrons with open charm and open beauty via the single-electron channel using the displaced vertex information provided by the ITS, - Correlated DD and BB pairs via coincidences of electrons in the central barrel and muons in the forward muon arm, - Jets with high Pτ tracks in one single TRD stack.

  9. The LUCID-2 Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Sbarra, Carla; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    LUCID-2 (LUminosity Cherenkov Integrating Detector) is the upgrade of the main detector dedicated to luminosity monitoring and measurements in the ATLAS Experiment at CERN. Most changes were motivated by the large (up to 50) number of interactions per bunch-crossing and short (25 ns) bunch-spacing expected in LHC run 2 (2015-2018). Both fast online information used by LHC for luminosity optimisation and levelling in ATLAS, and per-bunch data to be used offline, come from LUCID-2.

  10. Electret radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubu, M.

    1981-01-01

    The electret radiation detector consists of 30 to 35% of bee wax and of 65 to 70% of colophony. It is mainly the induction conductivity of charo.es between the dipoles in the electret which is used for detection. In the manufacture of the detector, the average atomic number of the electret can be altered by adding various compounds, such as ZnO, which also increases efficiency for gamma radiation. An alpha or beta emitter can also be built-in in the electret. (B.S.)

  11. Report of the compact detector subgroup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkby, J.; Kondo, T.; Olsen, S.L.

    1988-01-01

    This report discusses different detector designs that are being proposed for Superconducting Super Collider experiments. The detectors discussed are: Higgs particle detector, Solid State Box detector, SMART detector, muon detection system, and forward detector. Also discussed are triggering strategies for these detectors, high field solenoids, barium fluoride option for EM calorimetry, radiation damage considerations, and cost estimates

  12. Nuclear Energy and Public Acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daifuku, K.

    2002-01-01

    The continued use of nuclear power in the European Union and elsewhere requires an adequate level of public and political acceptance. A lack of acceptance is often mistakenly cited as a reason for the slowdown in nuclear power plant construction in Western Europe and as a justification for abandoning nuclear power. In fact, the reasons for the slowdown have more to do with the following two factors: Plentiful supplies of low-priced natural gas, making gas-fired power plants a more attractive investment choice; more than adequate supplies of electricity which have curbed the need for the construction of new plant of any kind. In general, moves towards a withdrawal from nuclear in certain Community countries have been due to party political pressures and have not been a response to public opposition to nuclear. In addition, opinion polls do not show widespread public opposition to the use of nuclear power. Figures consistently indicate that the use of nuclear power does not come high on the list of most people's main worries. Their main concerns focus on other issues such as crime and financial problems. In the main, electricity is taken for granted in the industrialised world. Electric power only becomes an issue when there is a threat of shortages. So if public acceptance is not the main obstacle, what is? Political acceptance is an integral part of the process in which nuclear becomes acceptable or not. The relationship between public and political acceptance and the role of the industry in this context, on how to foster a better trialogue, will be examined. (author)

  13. Patient acceptance of awake craniotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrede, Karsten H; Stieglitz, Lennart H; Fiferna, Antje; Karst, Matthias; Gerganov, Venelin M; Samii, Madjid; von Gösseln, Hans-Henning; Lüdemann, Wolf O

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to objectively assess the patients' acceptance for awake craniotomy in a group of neurosurgical patients, who underwent this procedure for removal of lesions in or close to eloquent brain areas. Patients acceptance for awake craniotomy under local anesthesia and conscious sedation was assessed by a formal questionnaire (PPP33), initially developed for general surgery patients. The results are compared to a group of patients who had brain surgery under general anesthesia and to previously published data. The awake craniotomy (AC) group consisted of 37 male and 9 female patients (48 craniotomies) with age ranging from 18 to 71 years. The general anesthesia (GA) group consisted of 26 male and 15 female patients (43 craniotomies) with age ranging from 26 to 83 years. All patients in the study were included in the questionnaire analysis. In comparison to GA the overall PPP33 score for AC was higher (p=0.07), suggesting better overall acceptance for AC. The subscale scores for AC were also significantly better compared to GA for the two subscales "postoperative pain" (p=0.02) and "physical disorders" (p=0.01) and equal for the other 6 subscales. The results of the overall mean score and the scores for the subscales of the PPP33 questionnaire verify good patients' acceptance for AC. Previous studies have shown good patients' acceptance for awake craniotomy, but only a few times using formal approaches. By utilizing a formal questionnaire we could verify good patient acceptance for awake craniotomy for the treatment of brain tumors in or close to eloquent areas. This is a novel approach that substantiates previously published experiences. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Upgraded D0 detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abazov, V.M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, D.L.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agelou, M.; Agram, J.-L.; Ahmed, S.N.; Ahn, S.H.; Ahsan, M.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Alves, G.A.; Anastasoaie, M.; Andeen, T.; Anderson, J.T.; Anderson, S.; /Buenos Aires U. /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF /Sao Paulo, IFT /Alberta U.

    2005-07-01

    The D0 experiment enjoyed a very successful data-collection run at the Fermilab Tevatron collider between 1992 and 1996. Since then, the detector has been upgraded to take advantage of improvements to the Tevatron and to enhance its physics capabilities. We describe the new elements of the detector, including the silicon microstrip tracker, central fiber tracker, solenoidal magnet, preshower detectors, forward muon detector, and forward proton detector. The uranium/liquid-argon calorimeters and central muon detector, remaining from Run I, are discussed briefly. We also present the associated electronics, triggering, and data acquisition systems, along with the design and implementation of software specific to D0.

  15. DEPFET-detectors: New developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, G. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, Max Planck Institut fuer Physik, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D 81739 Munich (Germany)]. E-mail: gerhard.lutz@cern.ch; Andricek, L. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, Max Planck Institut fuer Physik, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D 81739 Munich (Germany); Eckardt, R. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, Max Planck Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D 81739 Munich (Germany); Haelker, O. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, Max Planck Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D 81739 Munich (Germany); Hermann, S. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, Max Planck Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D 81739 Munich (Germany); Lechner, P. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, PNSensor GmbH, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D 81739 Munich (Germany); Richter, R. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, Max Planck Institut fuer Physik, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D 81739 Munich (Germany); Schaller, G. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, Max Planck Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D 81739 Munich (Germany); Schopper, F. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, Max Planck Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D 81739 Munich (Germany); Soltau, H. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, PNSensor GmbH, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D 81739 Munich (Germany); Strueder, L. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, Max Planck Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D 81739 Munich (Germany); Treis, J. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, Max Planck Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D 81739 Munich (Germany); Woelfl, S. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, Max Planck Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D 81739 Munich (Germany); Zhang, C. [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, Max Planck Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D 81739 Munich (Germany)

    2007-03-01

    The Depleted Field Effect Transistor (DEPFET) detector-amplifier structure forms the basis of a variety of detectors being developed at the MPI semiconductor laboratory. These detectors are foreseen to be used in astronomy and particle physics as well as other fields of science. The detector developments are described together with some intended applications. They comprise the X-ray astronomy missions XEUS and SIMBOL-X as well as the vertex detector of the planned International Linear Collider (ILC). All detectors are produced in the MPI semiconductor laboratory that has a complete silicon technology available.

  16. DEPFET-detectors: New developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, G.; Andricek, L.; Eckardt, R.; Haelker, O.; Hermann, S.; Lechner, P.; Richter, R.; Schaller, G.; Schopper, F.; Soltau, H.; Strueder, L.; Treis, J.; Woelfl, S.; Zhang, C.

    2007-01-01

    The Depleted Field Effect Transistor (DEPFET) detector-amplifier structure forms the basis of a variety of detectors being developed at the MPI semiconductor laboratory. These detectors are foreseen to be used in astronomy and particle physics as well as other fields of science. The detector developments are described together with some intended applications. They comprise the X-ray astronomy missions XEUS and SIMBOL-X as well as the vertex detector of the planned International Linear Collider (ILC). All detectors are produced in the MPI semiconductor laboratory that has a complete silicon technology available

  17. Text recycling: acceptable or misconduct?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harriman, Stephanie; Patel, Jigisha

    2014-08-16

    Text recycling, also referred to as self-plagiarism, is the reproduction of an author's own text from a previous publication in a new publication. Opinions on the acceptability of this practice vary, with some viewing it as acceptable and efficient, and others as misleading and unacceptable. In light of the lack of consensus, journal editors often have difficulty deciding how to act upon the discovery of text recycling. In response to these difficulties, we have created a set of guidelines for journal editors on how to deal with text recycling. In this editorial, we discuss some of the challenges of developing these guidelines, and how authors can avoid undisclosed text recycling.

  18. Toward an acceptable nuclear future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, A.M.

    1977-11-01

    The nuclear option is in danger of being foreclosed. The trend toward antinuclearism may be reversed if concerns about low-level radiation insult can be shown ultimately to be without foundation; evidence for this speculation is presented. Nevertheless it is suggested that the nuclear enterprise itself must propose new initiatives to increase the acceptability of nuclear energy. A key element of an acceptable nuclear future is cluster siting of reactors. This siting plan might be achieved by confining new reactors essentially to existing sites

  19. Dark Matter Searches with the ATLAS detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliot Alison

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of a non-baryonic dark matter component in the Universe is inferred from the observation of its gravitational interaction. If dark matter interacts weakly with the Standard Model it would be produced at the LHC, escaping the detector and leaving a large missing transverse momentum as its signature. The ATLAS detector has developed a broad and systematic search program for dark matter production in LHC collisions. The results of these searches on the first 13 TeV data, their interpretation, and the design and possible evolution of the search program will be presented.

  20. A particle identification technique for large acceptance spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappuzzello, F.; Cavallaro, M.; Cunsolo, A.; Foti, A.; Carbone, D.; Orrigo, S.E.A.; Rodrigues, M.R.D.

    2010-01-01

    A technique to identify the heavy ions produced in nuclear reactions is presented. It is based on the use of a hybrid detector, which measures the energy loss, the residual energy, the position and angle of the ions at the focal plane of a magnetic spectrometer. The key point is the use of a powerful algorithm for the reconstruction of the ion trajectory, which makes the technique reliable even with large acceptance optical devices. Experimental results with the MAGNEX spectrometer show a remarkable resolution of about 1/160 in the mass parameter.

  1. Electromagnetic radiation detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Jay L.; Hansen, Gordon J.

    1976-01-01

    An electromagnetic radiation detector including a collimating window, a cathode member having a photoelectric emissive material surface angularly disposed to said window whereby radiation is impinged thereon at acute angles, an anode, separated from the cathode member by an evacuated space, for collecting photoelectrons emitted from the emissive cathode surface, and a negatively biased, high transmissive grid disposed between the cathode member and anode.

  2. B-factory detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marlow, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    The designs of the recently commissioned BaBar and Belle B-Factory detectors are described. The discussion is organized around the methods and instruments used to detect the so-called gold-plated-mode B 0 →J/ΨK S decays and related modes

  3. The LUCID-2 Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Pinfold, James; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The LUCID-2 detector is the main online and offline luminosity provider of the ATLAS experiment. It provides over 100 different luminosity measurements from different algorithms for each of the 2808/3546 filled/total LHC bunches. LUCID was entirely redesigned in preparation for LHC Run 2: both the detector and the electronics were upgraded in order to cope with the challenging conditions expected at the LHC center of mass energy of 13 TeV with only 25 ns bunch-spacing. While LUCID-1 used gas as a Cherenkov medium, the LUCID-2 detector is in a new unique way using the quartz windows of small photomultipliers as the Cherenkov medium. The main challenge for a luminometer is to keep the efficiency constant during years of data-taking. LUCID-2 is using an innovative calibration system based on radioactive 207 Bi sources deposited on the quartz window of the readout photomultipliers. This makes it possible to accurately monitor and control the gain of the photomultipliers so that the detector efficiency can be kept...

  4. ATLAS Pixel Detector Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Flick, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    The first upgrade for higher luminosity at LHC for the ATLAS pixel detector is the insertion of a forth layer, the IBL. The talk gives an overview about what the IBL is and how it will be set up, as well as to give a status of the research and develoment work.

  5. Calibration of germanium detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debertin, K.

    1983-01-01

    The process of determining the energy-dependent detection probability with measurements using Ge (Li) and high-grade germanium detectors is described. The paper explains which standards are best for a given purpose and given requirements as to accuracy, and how to assess measuring geometry variations and summation corrections. (DG) [de

  6. filled neutron detectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Boron trifluoride (BF3) proportional counters are used as detectors for thermal neutrons. They are characterized by high neutron sensitivity and good gamma discriminating properties. Most practical BF3 counters are filled with pure boron trifluoride gas enriched up to 96% 10B. But BF3 is not an ideal proportional counter ...

  7. The BABAR Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luth, Vera G

    2001-05-18

    BABAR, the detector for the SLAC PEP-II asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} B Factory operating at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance, was designed to allow comprehensive studies of CP-violation in B-meson decays. Charged particle tracks are measured in a multi-layer silicon vertex tracker surrounded by a cylindrical wire drift chamber. Electromagentic showers from electrons and photons are detected in an array of CsI crystals located just inside the solenoidal coil of a superconducting magnet. Muons and neutral hadrons are identified by arrays of resistive plate chambers inserted into gaps in the steel flux return of the magnet. Charged hadrons are identified by dE/dx measurements in the tracking detectors and in a ring-imaging Cherenkov detector surrounding the drift chamber. The trigger, data acquisition and data-monitoring systems, VME- and network-based, are controlled by custom-designed online software. Details of the layout and performance of the detector components and their associated electronics and software are presented.

  8. The LUCID-2 Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Soluk, Richard; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The LUCID-2 detector is the main online and offline luminosity provider of the ATLAS experiment. It provides over 100 different luminosity measurements from different algorithms for each of the 2808 LHC bunches. LUCID was entirely redesigned in preparation for LHC Run 2: both the detector and the electronics were upgraded in order to cope with the challenging conditions expected at the LHC center of mass energy of 13 TeV with only 25 ns bunch-spacing. While LUCID-1 used gas as a Cherenkov medium, the LUCID-2 detector is in a new unique way using the quartz windows of small photomultipliers as the Cherenkov medium. The main challenge for a luminometer is to keep the efficiency constant during years of data-taking. LUCID-2 is using an innovative calibration system based on radioactive 207 Bi sources deposited on the quartz window of the readout photomultipliers. This makes it possible to accurately monitor and control the gain of the photomultipliers so that the detector efficiency can be kept stable at a perce...

  9. Diamond Pixel Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D'Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Doroshenko, J.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foster, J.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Gobbi, B.; Grim, G.P.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Lander, R.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Lynne, L.M.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Pernicka, M.; Perera, L.; Pirollo, S.; Plano, R.; Procario, M.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rott, C.; Rousseau, L.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M.

    2001-01-01

    Diamond based pixel detectors are a promising radiation-hard technology for use at the LHC. We present first results on a CMS diamond pixel sensor. With a threshold setting of 2000 electrons, an average pixel efficiency of 78% was obtained for normally incident minimum ionizing particles

  10. Diamond Pixel Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D' Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Doroshenko, J.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foster, J.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Gobbi, B.; Grim, G.P.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Lander, R.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Lynne, L.M.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Pernicka, M.; Perera, L. E-mail: perera@physics.rutgers.edu; Pirollo, S.; Plano, R.; Procario, M.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rott, C.; Rousseau, L.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M

    2001-06-01

    Diamond based pixel detectors are a promising radiation-hard technology for use at the LHC. We present first results on a CMS diamond pixel sensor. With a threshold setting of 2000 electrons, an average pixel efficiency of 78% was obtained for normally incident minimum ionizing particles.

  11. The Borexino Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanari, David

    2010-04-01

    The Borexino detector is a large volume liquid scintillator detector for low energy neutrino spetroscopy currently running underground at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Italy. Main goal of the experiment is the real-time measurement of sub-MeV solar neutrinos, and particularly of the mono-energetic (862KeV) 7Be electron capture neutrinos, via neutrino-electron scattering in ultra-pure liquid scintillator. We report the description of the detector itself from its construction to the final current configuration. The initial requirements are first presented, then the strategy developed to achieve them: choice of materials and components, purification of the scintillator, cleaning, leak tightness, fluid handling. Every single point is analyzed, particularly the purification plants, that allowed reaching an ultra high pure scintillator and the fluid handling system, a large modular system connecting fluid receiving, purification and fluid delivery processes for every fluid involved. The different phases of the filling follow: from air to water to the final liquid scintillator, mainly focusing on the scintillator filling. The performances of the detector and the results are then presented.

  12. Ionic smoke detectors

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Ionic smoke detectors are products incorporating radioactive material. This article summarises the process for their commercialization and marketing, and how the activity is controlled, according to regulations establishing strict design and production requisites to guarantee the absence of radiological risk associated both with their use and their final handling as conventional waste. (Author)

  13. Superconducting Single Photon Detectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorenbos, S.N.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is about the development of a detector for single photons, particles of light. New techniques are being developed that require high performance single photon detection, such as quantum cryptography, single molecule detection, optical radar, ballistic imaging, circuit testing and

  14. The LUCID-2 detector

    CERN Document Server

    Sbarra, Carla; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The LUCID-2 detector is the main online and offline luminosity provider of the ATLAS experiment. It provides over 100 different luminosity measurements from different algorithms for each of the 2808 LHC bunches. LUCID was entirely redesigned in preparation for LHC Run 2: both the detector and the electronics were upgraded in order to cope with the challenging conditions expected at the LHC center of mass energy of 13 TeV with only 25 ns bunch-spacing. While LUCID-1 used gas as a Cherenkov medium, the LUCID-2 detector is in a new unique way using the quartz windows of small photomultipliers as the Cherenkov medium. The main challenge for a luminometer is to keep the efficiency constant during years of data-taking. LUCID-2 is using an innovative calibration system based on radioactive 207 Bi sources deposited on the quartz window of the readout photomultipliers. This makes it possible to accurately monitor and control the gain of the photomultipliers so that the detector efficiency can be kept stable at a perce...

  15. Semiconductor detector physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equer, B.

    1987-01-01

    Comprehension of semiconductor detectors follows comprehension of some elements of solid state physics. They are recalled here, limited to the necessary physical principles, that is to say the conductivity. P-n and MIS junctions are discussed in view of their use in detection. Material and structure (MOS, p-n, multilayer, ..) are also reviewed [fr

  16. Ionization chamber smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    One kind of smoke detector, the ionization-type, is regulated by the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) because it uses a radioactive substance in its mechanism. Radioactivity and radiation are natural phenomena, but they are not very familiar to the average householder. This has led to a number of questions being asked of the AECB. These questions and AECB responses are outlined

  17. Radiation detector. [100 A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, P D; Hollands, D V

    1975-12-04

    A radiation detector is described in which the radiation is led to a sensor via a 100 A thick gold film filter, which reduces the infrared components of the irradiation to a greater extent than the ultra-violet component reaching the sensor.

  18. The LDC detector concept

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    foresees a TPC with around 200 points measured along a track, and read out by a system of micro-pattern gas detectors. These novel gas amplification devices promise to provide a stable, reliable readout system, which can be realized with comparatively little material in the endplate compared to a traditional wire readout.

  19. Choosing a Motion Detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, David M.

    1990-01-01

    Examines the characteristics of three types of motion detectors: Doppler radar, infrared, and ultrasonic wave, and how they are used on school buses to prevent students from being killed by their own school bus. Other safety devices cited are bus crossing arms and a camera monitor system. (MLF)

  20. Photovoltaic radiation detector element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agouridis, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    A radiation detector element is formed of a body of semiconductor material, a coating on the body which forms a photovoltaic junction therewith, and a current collector consisting of narrow metallic strips, the aforesaid coating having an opening therein in the edge of which closely approaches but is spaced from the current collector strips

  1. ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Manzari, V

    2013-01-01

    The Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) forms the innermost two layers of the 6-layer barrel Inner Tracking System (ITS). The SPD plays a key role in the determination of the position of the primary collision and in the reconstruction of the secondary vertices from particle decays.

  2. First ALICE detectors installed!

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Detectors to track down penetrating muon particles are the first to be placed in their final position in the ALICE cavern. The Alice muon spectrometer: in the foreground the trigger chamber is positioned in front of the muon wall, with the dipole magnet in the background. After the impressive transport of its dipole magnet, ALICE has begun to fill the spectrometer with detectors. In mid-July, the ALICE muon spectrometer team achieved important milestones with the installation of the trigger and the tracking chambers of the muon spectrometer. They are the first detectors to be installed in their final position in the cavern. All of the eight half planes of the RPCs (resistive plate chambers) have been installed in their final position behind the muon filter. The role of the trigger detector is to select events containing a muon pair coming, for instance, from the decay of J/ or Y resonances. The selection is made on the transverse momentum of the two individual muons. The internal parts of the RPCs, made o...

  3. Smoke Detector Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Pamela, Ed.; Portugill, Jestyn, Ed.

    This manual, one in a series developed for public education, provides information on smoke detector selection, installation, operation, and maintenance. For the prospective buyer, the importance of looking for the seal of a recognized national testing laboratory--such as Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc. (UL)--indicating adequate laboratory testing…

  4. MUON DETECTORS: RPC

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Paolucci

    2012-01-01

    The RPC system is operating with a very high uptime, an average chamber efficiency of about 95% and an average cluster size around 1.8. The average number of active channels is 97.7%. Eight chambers are disconnected and forty are working in single-gap mode due to high-voltage problems. The total luminosity lost due to RPCs in 2012 is 88.46 pb–1. One of the main goals of 2012 was to improve the stability of the endcap trigger that is strongly correlated to the performances of the detector, due to the 3-out-3 trigger logic. At beginning of 2011 the instability of the detector efficiency was about 10%. Detailed studies found that this was mainly due to the strong correlation between the performance of the detector and the atmospheric pressure (P). Figure XXY shows the linear correlation between the average cluster size of the endcap chamber versus P. This effect is expected for gaseous detectors and can be reduced by correcting the applied high-voltage working point (HVapp) according to the followi...

  5. Performance of a prototype water Cherenkov detector for LHAASO project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Q.; Bai, Y.X.; Bi, X.J.; Cao, Z.; Cao, Zhe; Chang, J.F.; Chen, G.; Chen, L.H.; Chen, M.J.; Chen, T.L.; Chen, Y.T.; Cui, S.W.; Dai, B.Z.; Danzengluobu; Feng, C.F.; Gao, B.; Gu, M.H.; Hao, X.J.; He, H.H.; Hu, H.B.

    2011-01-01

    A large high-altitude air shower observatory is to be built at Yang-Ba-Jing, Tibet, China. One of its main purposes is to survey the northern sky for very-high-energy (above 100 GeV) gamma ray sources via its ground-based water Cherenkov detector array. To gain full knowledge of water Cherenkov technique in detecting air showers, a prototype water Cherenkov detector is built at the Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing. The performance of the prototype water Cherenkov detector is studied by measuring its response to cosmic muons. The results are compared with those from a full Monte Carlo simulation to provide a series of information regarding the prototype detector in guiding electronics design and detector optimization.

  6. Chemochromic Hydrogen Leak Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, Luke; Captain, Janine; Williams, Martha; Smith, Trent; Tate, LaNetra; Raissi, Ali; Mohajeri, Nahid; Muradov, Nazim; Bokerman, Gary

    2009-01-01

    At NASA, hydrogen safety is a key concern for space shuttle processing. Leaks of any level must be quickly recognized and addressed due to hydrogen s lower explosion limit. Chemo - chromic devices have been developed to detect hydrogen gas in several embodiments. Because hydrogen is odorless and colorless and poses an explosion hazard, there is an emerging need for sensors to quickly and accurately detect low levels of leaking hydrogen in fuel cells and other advanced energy- generating systems in which hydrogen is used as fuel. The device incorporates a chemo - chromic pigment into a base polymer. The article can reversibly or irreversibly change color upon exposure to hydrogen. The irreversible pigment changes color from a light beige to a dark gray. The sensitivity of the pigment can be tailored to its application by altering its exposure to gas through the incorporation of one or more additives or polymer matrix. Furthermore, through the incorporation of insulating additives, the chemochromic sensor can operate at cryogenic temperatures as low as 78 K. A chemochromic detector of this type can be manufactured into any feasible polymer part including injection molded plastic parts, fiber-spun textiles, or extruded tapes. The detectors are simple, inexpensive, portable, and do not require an external power source. The chemochromic detectors were installed and removed easily at the KSC launch pad without need for special expertise. These detectors may require an external monitor such as the human eye, camera, or electronic detector; however, they could be left in place, unmonitored, and examined later for color change to determine whether there had been exposure to hydrogen. In one type of envisioned application, chemochromic detectors would be fabricated as outer layers (e.g., casings or coatings) on high-pressure hydrogen storage tanks and other components of hydrogen-handling systems to provide visible indications of hydrogen leaks caused by fatigue failures or

  7. PROTON RADIOGRAPHY WITH THE PIXEL DETECTOR TIMEPIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Olšanský

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the processing of radiographic data acquired using the position-sensitive hybrid semiconductor pixel detector Timepix. Measurements were made on thin samples at the medical ion-synchrotron HIT [1] in Heidelberg (Germany with a 221 MeV proton beam. The charge is energy by the particles crossing the sample is registered for generation of image contrast. Experimental data from the detector were processed for derivation of the energy loss of each proton using calibration matrices. The interaction point of the protons on the detector were determined with subpixel resolution by model fitting of the individual signals in the pixelated matrix. Three methods were used for calculation of these coordinates: Hough transformation, 2D Gaussian fitting and estimate the 2D mean. Parameters of calculation accuracy and calculation time are compared for each method. The final image was created by method with best parameters.

  8. Sample Selection for Training Cascade Detectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Vállez

    Full Text Available Automatic detection systems usually require large and representative training datasets in order to obtain good detection and false positive rates. Training datasets are such that the positive set has few samples and/or the negative set should represent anything except the object of interest. In this respect, the negative set typically contains orders of magnitude more images than the positive set. However, imbalanced training databases lead to biased classifiers. In this paper, we focus our attention on a negative sample selection method to properly balance the training data for cascade detectors. The method is based on the selection of the most informative false positive samples generated in one stage to feed the next stage. The results show that the proposed cascade detector with sample selection obtains on average better partial AUC and smaller standard deviation than the other compared cascade detectors.

  9. Study on stability of DMS meridian detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ning; Huang, Li; Yuan, Jiamin; Zhang, Zhifang; Yang, Zhimin

    2016-05-01

    The stability of meridian detector was the basis to study meridian through conductance method. Ancient documents mentioned that the human body's blood could change with the time and meridians. When qi and blood came, the qi and blood would be full of that place; when qi and blood gone, the local skin shining could fade and recess. It liked the tidal fluctuation, then caused the corresponding acupuncture points conductance value changes. Modern studies had reported that meridian detector instrument the skin area of twelve meridians acupuncture points could change along with time within 24 hours. In this circumstance, whether the conductance values changes in human acupuncture points had statistical significance was vital important. DMS meridian detector instruction was adopt to measure the twelve meridian jingyuan acupuncture point in order to analyze the acupuncture point conductance value changes within one day.

  10. Nitrogen trailer acceptance test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostelnik, A.J.

    1996-01-01

    This Acceptance Test Report documents compliance with the requirements of specification WHC-S-0249. The equipment was tested according to WHC-SD-WM-ATP-108 Rev.0. The equipment being tested is a portable contained nitrogen supply. The test was conducted at Norco's facility

  11. Consumer Acceptability Of Irradiated Foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awoyinka, A.; Akingbohungbe, A.E.

    1994-01-01

    Three commonly used food items; maize, beans and smoked fish were irradiated and consumer acceptability was tested through a questionnaire method. Subjects were residents in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Respondents attitudes towards the processing and tasting of the food were very positive and the possibility of marketing the foods was suggested by them

  12. W-025, acceptance test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roscha, V.

    1994-01-01

    This acceptance test report (ATR) has been prepared to establish the results of the field testing conducted on W-025 to demonstrate that the electrical/instrumentation systems functioned as intended by design. This is part of the RMW Land Disposal Facility

  13. Safety culture and public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhalevich, Alexander A.

    2002-01-01

    After the Chernobyl NPP accident a public acceptance has become a key factor in nuclear power development all over the world. Therefore, nuclear safety culture should be based not only on technical principles, responsibilities, supervision, regulatory provisions, emergency preparedness, but the public awareness of minimum risk during the operation and decommissioning of NPPs, radioactive waste management, etc. (author)

  14. Euthanasia Acceptance: An Attitudinal Inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopfer, Fredrick J.; Price, William F.

    The study presented was conducted to examine potential relationships between attitudes regarding the dying process, including acceptance of euthanasia, and other attitudinal or demographic attributes. The data of the survey was comprised of responses given by 331 respondents to a door-to-door interview. Results are discussed in terms of preferred…

  15. AAL- technology acceptance through experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huldtgren, A.; Ascencio San Pedro, G.; Pohlmeyer, A.E.; Romero Herrera, N.A.

    2014-01-01

    Despite substantial research and development of Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) technologies, their acceptance remains low. This is partially caused by a lack of accounting for users' needs and values, and the social contexts these systems are to be embedded in. Participatory design has some potential

  16. Energy justice: Participation promotes acceptance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Jamie

    2017-08-01

    Wind turbines have been a go-to technology for addressing climate change, but they are increasingly a source of frustration for all stakeholders. While community ownership is often lauded as a panacea for maximizing turbine acceptance, a new study suggests that decision-making involvement — procedural fairness — matters most.

  17. Worldwide nuclear revival and acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraets, Luc H.; Crommelynck, Yves A.

    2010-01-01

    The paper outlines the current status and trends of the nuclear revival in Europe and abroad, the evolution of the public opinion in the last decade, and the interaction between the former and the latter. It emphasises the absolute priority of a professional communication and exchange to gain public acceptance. (orig.)

  18. An Unsupervised Deep Hyperspectral Anomaly Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Ma

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Hyperspectral image (HSI based detection has attracted considerable attention recently in agriculture, environmental protection and military applications as different wavelengths of light can be advantageously used to discriminate different types of objects. Unfortunately, estimating the background distribution and the detection of interesting local objects is not straightforward, and anomaly detectors may give false alarms. In this paper, a Deep Belief Network (DBN based anomaly detector is proposed. The high-level features and reconstruction errors are learned through the network in a manner which is not affected by previous background distribution assumption. To reduce contamination by local anomalies, adaptive weights are constructed from reconstruction errors and statistical information. By using the code image which is generated during the inference of DBN and modified by adaptively updated weights, a local Euclidean distance between under test pixels and their neighboring pixels is used to determine the anomaly targets. Experimental results on synthetic and recorded HSI datasets show the performance of proposed method outperforms the classic global Reed-Xiaoli detector (RXD, local RX detector (LRXD and the-state-of-the-art Collaborative Representation detector (CRD.

  19. Fire Emulator/Detector Evaluator

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:The fire emulator/detector evaluator (FE/DE) is a computer-controlled flow tunnel used to re-create the environments surrounding detectors in the early...

  20. Considerations for acceptability in Bible translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diphus C. Chemorion

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The ministry of Bible translation is an important component of the Great Commission (Matthew 28:18�20 and its mandate is to reach everyone with the word of God. One of the main goals of a Bible translation project is to produce a translation that will be used by the church in a given language group. Bible translation teams believe that the lives of the intended recipients will be changed positively when they gain access to Scripture in their own language. However, recent developments regarding Scripture use have shown that the success of any Bible translation project depends on whether or not its products are acceptable. If a translation is not acceptable to the intended audience, it may not be used, and as a result, it may fail to bring about the desired impact. This article explores the concept of �acceptability� as used in Bible translation and highlights important considerations that translators need to keep in mind in order to enhance the acceptability of their translation products.