WorldWideScience

Sample records for full 3-d stratigraphic

  1. Full 3-D stratigraphic inversion with a priori information: a powerful way to optimize data integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grizon, L.; Leger, M.; Dequirez, P.Y.; Dumont, F.; Richard, V.

    1998-12-31

    Integration between seismic and geological data is crucial to ensure that a reservoir study is accurate and reliable. To reach this goal, there is used a post-stack stratigraphic inversion with a priori information. The global cost-function combines two types of constraints. One is relevant to seismic amplitudes, and the other to an a priori impedance model. This paper presents this flexible and interpretative inversion to determine acoustic impedances constrained by seismic data, log data and geologic information. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  2. 3D inversion of full tensor magnetic gradiometry (FTMG) data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhdanov, Michael; Cai, Hongzhu; Wilson, Glenn

    2011-01-01

    Following recent advances in SQUID technology, full tensor magnetic gradiometry (FTMG) is emerging as a practical exploration method. We introduce 3D regularized focusing inversion for FTMG data. Our model studies show that inversion of magnetic tensor data can significantly improve resolution...... compared to inversion of magnetic vector data for the same model. We present a case study for the 3D inversion of GETMAG® FTMG data acquired over a magnetite skarn at Tallawang, Australia. The results obtained from our 3D inversion agree very well with the known geology of the area....

  3. First fabrication of full 3D-detectors at SINTEF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Thor-Erik; Kok, Angela; Hansen, Trond A; Lietaer, Nicolas; Mielnik, Michal; Storaas, Preben; Via, Cinzia Da'; Hasi, Jasmine; Kenney, Chris; Parker, Sherwood

    2009-01-01

    3D-detectors, with electrodes penetrating through the entire substrates have drawn great interests for high energy physics and medical imaging applications. Since its introduction by C. Kenney et al in 1995, many laboratories have begun research on different 3D-detector structures to simplify and industrialise the fabrication process. SINTEF MiNaLab joined the 3D collaboration in 2006 and started the first 3D fabrication run in 2007. This is the first step in an effort to fabricate affordable 3D-detectors in small to medium size production volumes. The first run was fully completed in February 2008 and preliminary results are promising. Good p-n junction characteristics have been shown on selected devices at the chip level with a leakage current of less than 0.5 nA per pixel. Thus SINTEF is the second laboratory in the world after the Stanford Nanofabrication Facility that has succeeded in demonstrating full 3D-detectors with active edge. A full 3D-stacked detector system were formed by bump-bonding the detectors to the ATLAS readout electronics, and successful particle hit maps using an Am-241 source were recorded. Most modules, however, showed largely increased leakage currents after assembly, which is due to the active edge and p-spray acting as part of the total chip pn-junction and not as a depletion stop. This paper describes the first fabrication and the encountered processing issues. The preliminary measurements on both the individual detector chips and the integrated 3D-stacked modules are discussed. A new lot has now been started on p-type wafers, which offers a more robust configuration with the active edge acting as depletion stop instead of part of the pn-junction.

  4. A MATLAB®-based program for 3D visualization of stratigraphic setting and subsidence evolution of sedimentary basins: example application to the Vienna Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Young; Novotny, Johannes; Wagreich, Michael

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, 3D visualization of sedimentary basins has become increasingly popular. Stratigraphic and structural mapping is highly important to understand the internal setting of sedimentary basins. And subsequent subsidence analysis provides significant insights for basin evolution. This study focused on developing a simple and user-friendly program which allows geologists to analyze and model sedimentary basin data. The developed program is aimed at stratigraphic and subsidence modelling of sedimentary basins from wells or stratigraphic profile data. This program is mainly based on two numerical methods; surface interpolation and subsidence analysis. For surface visualization four different interpolation techniques (Linear, Natural, Cubic Spline, and Thin-Plate Spline) are provided in this program. The subsidence analysis consists of decompaction and backstripping techniques. The numerical methods are computed in MATLAB® which is a multi-paradigm numerical computing environment used extensively in academic, research, and industrial fields. This program consists of five main processing steps; 1) setup (study area and stratigraphic units), 2) loading of well data, 3) stratigraphic modelling (depth distribution and isopach plots), 4) subsidence parameter input, and 5) subsidence modelling (subsided depth and subsidence rate plots). The graphical user interface intuitively guides users through all process stages and provides tools to analyse and export the results. Interpolation and subsidence results are cached to minimize redundant computations and improve the interactivity of the program. All 2D and 3D visualizations are created by using MATLAB plotting functions, which enables users to fine-tune the visualization results using the full range of available plot options in MATLAB. All functions of this program are illustrated with a case study of Miocene sediments in the Vienna Basin. The basin is an ideal place to test this program, because sufficient data is

  5. Plan for 3-D full-scale earthquake testing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtani, K.

    2001-01-01

    Based on the lessons learnt from the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake, National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention plan to construct the 3-D Full-Scale Earthquake Testing Facility. This will be the world's largest and strongest shaking table facility. This paper describes the outline of the project for this facility. This facility will be completed in early 2005. (author)

  6. Fine reservoir structure modeling based upon 3D visualized stratigraphic correlation between horizontal wells: methodology and its application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenghua, Ou; Chaochun, Li; Siyuan, Huang; Sheng, James J.; Yuan, Xu

    2017-12-01

    As the platform-based horizontal well production mode has been widely applied in petroleum industry, building a reliable fine reservoir structure model by using horizontal well stratigraphic correlation has become very important. Horizontal wells usually extend between the upper and bottom boundaries of the target formation, with limited penetration points. Using these limited penetration points to conduct well deviation correction means the formation depth information obtained is not accurate, which makes it hard to build a fine structure model. In order to solve this problem, a method of fine reservoir structure modeling, based on 3D visualized stratigraphic correlation among horizontal wells, is proposed. This method can increase the accuracy when estimating the depth of the penetration points, and can also effectively predict the top and bottom interfaces in the horizontal penetrating section. Moreover, this method will greatly increase not only the number of points of depth data available, but also the accuracy of these data, which achieves the goal of building a reliable fine reservoir structure model by using the stratigraphic correlation among horizontal wells. Using this method, four 3D fine structure layer models have been successfully built of a specimen shale gas field with platform-based horizontal well production mode. The shale gas field is located to the east of Sichuan Basin, China; the successful application of the method has proven its feasibility and reliability.

  7. Scanning 3D full human bodies using Kinects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jing; Zhou, Jin; Liu, Ligang; Pan, Zhigeng; Yan, Hao

    2012-04-01

    Depth camera such as Microsoft Kinect, is much cheaper than conventional 3D scanning devices, and thus it can be acquired for everyday users easily. However, the depth data captured by Kinect over a certain distance is of extreme low quality. In this paper, we present a novel scanning system for capturing 3D full human body models by using multiple Kinects. To avoid the interference phenomena, we use two Kinects to capture the upper part and lower part of a human body respectively without overlapping region. A third Kinect is used to capture the middle part of the human body from the opposite direction. We propose a practical approach for registering the various body parts of different views under non-rigid deformation. First, a rough mesh template is constructed and used to deform successive frames pairwisely. Second, global alignment is performed to distribute errors in the deformation space, which can solve the loop closure problem efficiently. Misalignment caused by complex occlusion can also be handled reasonably by our global alignment algorithm. The experimental results have shown the efficiency and applicability of our system. Our system obtains impressive results in a few minutes with low price devices, thus is practically useful for generating personalized avatars for everyday users. Our system has been used for 3D human animation and virtual try on, and can further facilitate a range of home–oriented virtual reality (VR) applications.

  8. Particle trajectories in full 3D flow field of turbomachinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, Z.G.; Huang, S.L.

    1986-01-01

    Particle trajectory prediction is important for particulate laden flow turbomachinery as it helps to understand the cause of erosion phenomena and to improve the design of blade passages. In this paper, on the basis of previous works, particle trajectories in turbine stages are predicted in connection with full 3D gas flow field solved by time marching method. The secondary flow effect is also partially considered by assuming a total pressure distribution at the inlet of the moving blade row. The results show that passage vortex due to secondary flow will cause upward and downward divergence of particle trajectories at the rear part of near blade pressure surface which is evidenced by the real appearance of eroded trace on turbine blade after long period of operation

  9. Integrating Instrumental Data Provides the Full Science in 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrin, M.; Boghosian, A.; Bell, R. E.; Frearson, N.

    2017-12-01

    Looking at data sparks questions, discussion and insights. By integrating multiple data sets we deepen our understanding of how cryosphere processes operate. Field collected data provide measurements from multiple instruments supporting rapid insights. Icepod provides a platform focused on the integration of multiple instruments. Over the last three seasons, the ROSETTA-Ice project has deployed Icepod to comprehensively map the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica. This integrative data collection along with new methods of data visualization allows us to answer questions about ice shelf structure and evolution that arise during data processing and review. While data are vetted and archived in the field to confirm instruments are operating, upon return to the lab data are again reviewed for accuracy before full analysis. Recent review of shallow ice radar data from the Beardmore Glacier, an outlet glacier into the Ross Ice Shelf, presented an abrupt discontinuity in the ice surface. This sharp 8m surface elevation drop was originally interpreted as a processing error. Data were reexamined, integrating the simultaneously collected shallow and deep ice radar with lidar data. All the data sources showed the surface discontinuity, confirming the abrupt 8m drop in surface elevation. Examining high resolution WorldView satellite imagery revealed a persistent source for these elevation drops. The satellite imagery showed that this tear in the ice surface was only one piece of a larger pattern of "chatter marks" in ice that flows at a rate of 300 m/yr. The markings are buried over a distance of 30 km or after 100 years of travel down Beardmore Glacier towards the front of the Ross Ice Shelf. Using Icepod's lidar and cameras we map this chatter mark feature in 3D to reveal its full structure. We use digital elevation models from WorldView to map the other along flow chatter marks. In order to investigate the relationship between these surface features and basal crevasses, the deep ice

  10. Automated full-3D digitization system for documentation of paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaszewski, Maciej; Adamczyk, Marcin; Sitnik, Robert; Michoński, Jakub; Załuski, Wojciech; Bunsch, Eryk; Bolewicki, Paweł

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, a fully automated 3D digitization system for documentation of paintings is presented. It consists of a specially designed frame system for secure fixing of painting, a custom designed, structured light-based, high-resolution measurement head with no IR and UV emission. This device is automatically positioned in two axes (parallel to the surface of digitized painting) with additional manual positioning in third, perpendicular axis. Manual change of observation angle is also possible around two axes to re-measure even partially shadowed areas. The whole system is built in a way which provides full protection of digitized object (moving elements cannot reach its vicinity) and is driven by computer-controlled, highly precise servomechanisms. It can be used for automatic (without any user attention) and fast measurement of the paintings with some limitation to their properties: maximum size of the picture is 2000mm x 2000mm (with deviation of flatness smaller than 20mm) Measurement head is automatically calibrated by the system and its possible working volume starts from 50mm x 50mm x 20mm (10000 points per square mm) and ends at 120mm x 80mm x 60mm (2500 points per square mm). The directional measurements obtained with this system are automatically initially aligned due to the measurement head's position coordinates known from servomechanisms. After the whole painting is digitized, the measurements are fine-aligned with color-based ICP algorithm to remove any influence of possible inaccuracy of positioning devices. We present exemplary digitization results along with the discussion about the opportunities of analysis which appear for such high-resolution, 3D computer models of paintings.

  11. Full-parallax 3D display from stereo-hybrid 3D camera system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seokmin; Ansari, Amir; Saavedra, Genaro; Martinez-Corral, Manuel

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we propose an innovative approach for the production of the microimages ready to display onto an integral-imaging monitor. Our main contribution is using a stereo-hybrid 3D camera system, which is used for picking up a 3D data pair and composing a denser point cloud. However, there is an intrinsic difficulty in the fact that hybrid sensors have dissimilarities and therefore should be equalized. Handled data facilitate to generating an integral image after projecting computationally the information through a virtual pinhole array. We illustrate this procedure with some imaging experiments that provide microimages with enhanced quality. After projection of such microimages onto the integral-imaging monitor, 3D images are produced with great parallax and viewing angle.

  12. Comparing a quasi-3D to a full 3D nearshore circulation model: SHORECIRC and ROMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Kevin A.; Warner, John C.

    2009-01-01

    Predictions of nearshore and surf zone processes are important for determining coastal circulation, impacts of storms, navigation, and recreational safety. Numerical modeling of these systems facilitates advancements in our understanding of coastal changes and can provide predictive capabilities for resource managers. There exists many nearshore coastal circulation models, however they are mostly limited or typically only applied as depth integrated models. SHORECIRC is an established surf zone circulation model that is quasi-3D to allow the effect of the variability in the vertical structure of the currents while maintaining the computational advantage of a 2DH model. Here we compare SHORECIRC to ROMS, a fully 3D ocean circulation model which now includes a three dimensional formulation for the wave-driven flows. We compare the models with three different test applications for: (i) spectral waves approaching a plane beach with an oblique angle of incidence; (ii) monochromatic waves driving longshore currents in a laboratory basin; and (iii) monochromatic waves on a barred beach with rip channels in a laboratory basin. Results identify that the models are very similar for the depth integrated flows and qualitatively consistent for the vertically varying components. The differences are primarily the result of the vertically varying radiation stress utilized by ROMS and the utilization of long wave theory for the radiation stress formulation in vertical varying momentum balance by SHORECIRC. The quasi-3D model is faster, however the applicability of the fully 3D model allows it to extend over a broader range of processes, temporal, and spatial scales.

  13. A full 3D-navigation system in a suitcase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freysinger, W; Truppe, M J; Gunkel, A R; Thumfart, W F

    2001-01-01

    To reduce the impact of contemporary 3D-navigation systems on the environment of typical otorhinolaryngologic operating rooms, we demonstrate that a transfer of navigation software to modern high-power notebook computers is feasible and results in a practicable way to provide positional information to a surgeon intraoperatively. The ARTMA Virtual Patient System has been implemented on a Macintosh PowerBook G3 and, in connection with the Polhemus FASTRAK digitizer, provides intraoperative positional information during endoscopic endonasal surgery. Satisfactory intraoperative navigation has been realized in two- and three-dimensional medical image data sets (i.e., X-ray, ultrasound images, CT, and MR) and live video. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates that acceptable ergonomics and excellent performance of the system can be achieved with contemporary high-end notebook computers. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. 3D stratigraphic modeling of the Congo turbidite system since 210 ka: an investigation of factors controlling sedimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Dimitri; Picot, Marie; Marsset, Tania; Droz, Laurence; Rabineau, Marina; Granjeon, Didier; Molliex, Stéphane

    2017-04-01

    The geometry and internal functioning of turbidite systems are relatively well-constrained today. However, the respective role of autogenic (topographic compensation, dynamics of turbidity currents…) and allogenic factors (tectonics, sea-level, climate) governing their architectural evolution is still under debate. The geometry of the Quaternary Congo Fan is characterized by successive sedimentary prograding/retrograding cycles bounded by upfan avulsions, reflecting a periodic control of sedimentation (Picot et al., 2016). Multi-proxy studies revealed a strong interplay between autogenic control and climate forcing as evidenced by changes in fluvial sediment supplies consistent with arid and humid periods in the Congo River Basin. In the light of these results, the aim of this study is to investigate the relative impact of internal and external forcing factors controlling, both in time and space, the formation and evolution of depocenters of the Congo Deep-Sea Fan since 210 ka. This work represents the first attempt to model in 3D the stratigraphic architecture of the Congo turbidite system using DionisosFlow (IFP-EN), a diffusion process-based software. It allows the simulation of sediment transport and the 3D geometry reproduction of sedimentary units based on physical processes such as sea level changes, tectonics, sediment supply and transport. According to the modeling results, the role of topographic compensation in the deep-sea fan geometry is secondary compared to climate changes in the drainage basin. It appears that a periodic variation of sediment discharge and water flow is necessary to simulate the timing and volume of prograding/retrograding sedimentary cycles and more particularly the upfan avulsion events. The best-fit simulations show that the overriding factor for such changes corresponds to the expansion of the vegetation cover in the catchment basin associated to the Milankovitch cycle of precession which controlled the West African Monsoon

  15. Full-Angle Quaternions for Robustly Matching Vectors of 3D Rotations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liwicki, Stephan; Pham, Minh-Tri; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja; Stenger, Björn

    In this paper we introduce a new distance for robustly matching vectors of 3D rotations. A special representation of 3D rotations, which we coin full-angle quaternion (FAQ), allows us to express this distance as Euclidean. We apply the distance to the problems of 3D shape recognition from point

  16. Wavefront picking for 3D tomography and full-waveform inversion

    KAUST Repository

    AlTheyab, Abdullah; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2016-01-01

    We have developed an efficient approach for picking firstbreak wavefronts on coarsely sampled time slices of 3D shot gathers. Our objective was to compute a smooth initial velocity model for multiscale full-waveform inversion (FWI). Using

  17. A full-parallax 3D display with restricted viewing zone tracking viewer's eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beppu, Naoto; Yendo, Tomohiro

    2015-03-01

    The Three-Dimensional (3D) vision became widely known as familiar imaging technique now. The 3D display has been put into practical use in various fields, such as entertainment and medical fields. Development of 3D display technology will play an important role in a wide range of fields. There are various ways to the method of displaying 3D image. There is one of the methods that showing 3D image method to use the ray reproduction and we focused on it. This method needs many viewpoint images when achieve a full-parallax because this method display different viewpoint image depending on the viewpoint. We proposed to reduce wasteful rays by limiting projector's ray emitted to around only viewer using a spinning mirror, and to increase effectiveness of display device to achieve a full-parallax 3D display. We propose a method by using a tracking viewer's eye, a high-speed projector, a rotating mirror that tracking viewer (a spinning mirror), a concave mirror array having the different vertical slope arranged circumferentially (a concave mirror array), a cylindrical mirror. About proposed method in simulation, we confirmed the scanning range and the locus of the movement in the horizontal direction of the ray. In addition, we confirmed the switching of the viewpoints and convergence performance in the vertical direction of rays. Therefore, we confirmed that it is possible to realize a full-parallax.

  18. 3D elastic-orthorhombic anisotropic full-waveform inversion: Application to field OBC data

    KAUST Repository

    Oh, Juwon; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2016-01-01

    For the purpose of extracting higher resolution information from a 3D field data set, we apply a 3D elastic orthorhombic (ORT) anisotropic full waveform inversion (FWI) to hopefully better represent the physics of the Earth. We utilize what we consider as the optimal parameterization for surface acquired seismic data over a potentially orthorhombic media. This parameterization admits the possibility of incorporating a hierarchical implementation moving from higher anisotropy symmetry to lower ones. From the analysis of the radiation pattern of this new parameterization, we focus the inversion of the 3D data on the parameters that may have imprint on the data with minimal tradeoff, and as a result we invert for the horizontal P-wave velocity model, an ε1 model, its orthorhombic deviation, and the shear wave velocity. The inverted higher resolution models provide reasonable insights of the medium.

  19. 3D elastic-orthorhombic anisotropic full-waveform inversion: Application to field OBC data

    KAUST Repository

    Oh, Juwon

    2016-09-06

    For the purpose of extracting higher resolution information from a 3D field data set, we apply a 3D elastic orthorhombic (ORT) anisotropic full waveform inversion (FWI) to hopefully better represent the physics of the Earth. We utilize what we consider as the optimal parameterization for surface acquired seismic data over a potentially orthorhombic media. This parameterization admits the possibility of incorporating a hierarchical implementation moving from higher anisotropy symmetry to lower ones. From the analysis of the radiation pattern of this new parameterization, we focus the inversion of the 3D data on the parameters that may have imprint on the data with minimal tradeoff, and as a result we invert for the horizontal P-wave velocity model, an ε1 model, its orthorhombic deviation, and the shear wave velocity. The inverted higher resolution models provide reasonable insights of the medium.

  20. A full 3D time-dependent electromagnetic model for Roebel cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez Zermeno, Victor Manuel; Grilli, Francesco; Sirois, Frederic

    2013-01-01

    High temperature superconductor Roebel cables are well known for their large current capacity and low AC losses. For this reason they have become attractive candidates for many power applications. The continuous transposition of their strands reduces the coupling losses while ensuring better...... is unavoidably a large scale computational problem. In this work, we present a full 3D model of a Roebel cable with 14 strands. The model is based on the H-formulation, widely used for 2D problems. In order to keep the 3D features of the cable (in particular the magnetization currents near the transpositions......), no simplifications are made other than the reduction of the modelled length according to the periodicity of the cable structure. The 3D model is used to study the dependence of AC losses on the amplitude of the AC applied magnetic field or transport current. Beyond the importance of simulating the Roebel cable...

  1. Full Waveform Analysis for Long-Range 3D Imaging Laser Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallace AndrewM

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The new generation of 3D imaging systems based on laser radar (ladar offers significant advantages in defense and security applications. In particular, it is possible to retrieve 3D shape information directly from the scene and separate a target from background or foreground clutter by extracting a narrow depth range from the field of view by range gating, either in the sensor or by postprocessing. We discuss and demonstrate the applicability of full-waveform ladar to produce multilayer 3D imagery, in which each pixel produces a complex temporal response that describes the scene structure. Such complexity caused by multiple and distributed reflection arises in many relevant scenarios, for example in viewing partially occluded targets, through semitransparent materials (e.g., windows and through distributed reflective media such as foliage. We demonstrate our methodology on 3D image data acquired by a scanning time-of-flight system, developed in our own laboratories, which uses the time-correlated single-photon counting technique.

  2. 3D stratigraphic forward modelling of Shu'aiba Platform stratigraphy in the Bu Hasa Field, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J.; Lokier, S. W.

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents the results of three dimensional sequence stratigraphic forward modelling of the Aptian age Shu'aiba Formation from Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (UAE). The Shu'aiba Formation lies within the uppermost part of the Lower Cretaceous Thamama Group and forms one of the most prolific hydrocarbon reservoir intervals of the Middle East with production dating back to the 1960's. The Shu'aiba Formation developed as a series of laterally-extensive shallow-water carbonate platforms in an epeiric sea that extended over the northern margin of the African-Arabian Plate. This shallow sea was bounded by the Arabian Shield to the west and the passive margin with the Neo-Tethys Ocean towards the north and east (Droste, 2010). The exposed Arabian Shield acted as a source of siliciclastic sediments to westernmost regions, however, more offshore areas were dominated by shallow-water carbonate deposition. Carbonate production was variously dominated by Lithocodium-Baccinella, orbitolinid foraminifera and rudist bivalves depending on local conditions. While there have been numerous studies of this important stratigraphic interval (for examples see van Buchem et al., 2010), there has been little attempt to simulate the sequence stratigraphic development of the formation. During the present study modelling was undertaken utilising the CARBONATE-3D stratigraphic forward modelling software (Warrlich et al., 2008; Warrlich et al., 2002)) thus allowing for the control of a diverse range of internal and external parameters on carbonate sequence development. This study focuses on platform development in the onshore Bu Hasa Field - the first giant oilfield to produce from the Shu'aiba Formation in Abu Dhabi. The carbonates of the Bu Hasa field were deposited on the southwest slope of the intra-shelf Bab Basin, siliciclastic content is minor. Initially these carbonates were algal dominated with rudist mounds becoming increasingly important over time (Alsharhan, 1987

  3. Full-view 3D imaging system for functional and anatomical screening of the breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oraevsky, Alexander; Su, Richard; Nguyen, Ha; Moore, James; Lou, Yang; Bhadra, Sayantan; Forte, Luca; Anastasio, Mark; Yang, Wei

    2018-04-01

    Laser Optoacoustic Ultrasonic Imaging System Assembly (LOUISA-3D) was developed in response to demand of diagnostic radiologists for an advanced screening system for the breast to improve on low sensitivity of x-ray based modalities of mammography and tomosynthesis in the dense and heterogeneous breast and low specificity magnetic resonance imaging. It is our working hypothesis that co-registration of quantitatively accurate functional images of the breast vasculature and microvasculature, and anatomical images of breast morphological structures will provide a clinically viable solution for the breast cancer care. Functional imaging is LOUISA-3D is enabled by the full view 3D optoacoustic images acquired at two rapidly toggling laser wavelengths in the near-infrared spectral range. 3D images of the breast anatomical background is enabled in LOUISA-3D by a sequence of B-mode ultrasound slices acquired with a transducer array rotating around the breast. This creates the possibility to visualize distributions of the total hemoglobin and blood oxygen saturation within specific morphological structures such as tumor angiogenesis microvasculature and larger vasculature in proximity of the tumor. The system has four major components: (i) a pulsed dual wavelength laser with fiberoptic light delivery system, (ii) an imaging module with two arc shaped probes (optoacoustic and ultrasonic) placed in a transparent bowl that rotates around the breast, (iii) a multichannel electronic system with analog preamplifiers and digital data acquisition boards, and (iv) computer for the system control, data processing and image reconstruction. The most important advancement of this latest system design compared with previously reported systems is the full breast illumination accomplished for each rotational step of the optoacoustic transducer array using fiberoptic illuminator rotating around the breast independently from rotation of the detector probe. We report here a pilot case studies

  4. A SAS2H/KENO-V Methodology for 3D Full Core depletion analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milosevic, M.; Greenspan, E.; Vujic, J.; Petrovic, B.

    2003-04-01

    This paper describes the use of a SAS2H/KENO-V methodology for 3D full core depletion analysis and illustrates its capabilities by applying it to burnup analysis of the IRIS core benchmarks. This new SAS2H/KENO-V sequence combines a 3D Monte Carlo full core calculation of node power distribution and a 1D Wigner-Seitz equivalent cell transport method for independent depletion calculation of each of the nodes. This approach reduces by more than an order of magnitude the time required for getting comparable results using the MOCUP code system. The SAS2H/KENO-V results for the asymmetric IRIS core benchmark are in good agreement with the results of the ALPHA/PHOENIX/ANC code system. (author)

  5. Vascular stents: Coupling full 3-D with reduced-order structural models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avdeev, I; Shams, M

    2010-01-01

    Self-expanding nitinol stents are used to treat peripheral arterial disease. The peripheral arteries are subjected to a combination of mechanical forces such as compression, torsion, bending, and contraction. Most commercially available peripheral self-expanding stents are composed of a series of sub-millimeter V-shaped struts, which are laser-cut from a nitinol tube and surface-treated for better fatigue performance. The numerical stent models must accurately predict location and distribution of local stresses and strains caused by large arterial deformations. Full 3-D finite element non-linear analysis of an entire stent is computationally expensive to the point of being prohibitive, especially for longer stents. Reduced-order models based on beam or shell elements are fairly accurate in capturing global deformations, but are not very helpful in predicting stent failure. We propose a mixed approach that combines the full 3-D model and reduced-order models. Several global-local, full 3-D/reduced-order finite element models of a peripheral self-expanding stent were validated and compared with experimental data. The kinematic constraint method used to couple various elements together was found to be very efficient and easily applicable to commercial FEA codes. The proposed mixed models can be used to accurately predict stent failure based on realistic (patient-specific), non-linear kinematic behavior of peripheral arteries.

  6. 3-D full core calculations for the long-term behaviour of PWR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, H.J.; Koebke, K.; Wagner, M.R.

    1987-01-01

    Presently, the most realistic simulation of a PWR core is by means of three-dimensional (3-D) full core calculations. Only by such 3-D representations can the large scope of axial effects be treated in an accurate and direct way, without the need to perform various auxiliary calculations. Although the computationally efficient burnup-corrected nodal expansion method (NEM-BC) is used, the computing effort for 3-D reactor calculations becomes rather high, e.g. a storage of about 320000 words is required to describe a 1300 MWe PWR. NEM-BC was introduced (1979) into KWU's package of PWR design codes because of its high accuracy and the great reduction of computing time and storage requirements in comparison to other methods. The application of NEM-BC to 3-dimensional PWR design is strongly correlated with the progress achieved in the solution of the homogenization and dehomogenization problem. By means of suitable methods (equivalence theory) the transport-theoretical information of the pinwise power and burnup distribution for the heterogeneous fuel assemblies is transferred in a consistent manner to the full core reactor solution. The new methods and the corresponding code system are explained in some detail. (orig.)

  7. Exploring Direct 3D Interaction for Full Horizontal Parallax Light Field Displays Using Leap Motion Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vamsi Kiran Adhikarla

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the design and evaluation of direct 3D gesture interaction with a full horizontal parallax light field display. A light field display defines a visual scene using directional light beams emitted from multiple light sources as if they are emitted from scene points. Each scene point is rendered individually resulting in more realistic and accurate 3D visualization compared to other 3D displaying technologies. We propose an interaction setup combining the visualization of objects within the Field Of View (FOV of a light field display and their selection through freehand gesture tracked by the Leap Motion Controller. The accuracy and usefulness of the proposed interaction setup was also evaluated in a user study with test subjects. The results of the study revealed high user preference for free hand interaction with light field display as well as relatively low cognitive demand of this technique. Further, our results also revealed some limitations and adjustments of the proposed setup to be addressed in future work.

  8. Full Scale 3D Preoperative Planning System of the Ankle Joint Replacement Surgery with Multimedia System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuh-Ping Sun

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study is intended to develop a computer-aided pre-surgical planning and simulating system in a multimedia environment for ankle joint replacement surgery. This system uses full-scale 3D reverse engineering techniques in design and development of the pre-surgical planning modules for ankle joint replacement surgery. This planning system not only develops the real-scale 3D image of the artificial ankle joint but also provides a detailed interior measurement of the ankle joint from various cutting planes. In this study, we apply the multimedia user interface to integrate different software functions into a surgical planning system with integrated functions. The functions include 3D model image acquisition, cutting, horizontal shifting and rotation of related bones (tibia and talus of the ankle joint in the predetermined time. For related bones of the ankle joint, it can also be used to design artificial ankle joints for adults in Taiwan. Those planning procedures can be recorded in this system for further research and investigation. Furthermore, since this system is a multimedia user interface, surgeons can use this system to plan and find a better and more efficient surgical approach before surgery. A database is available for this system to update and expand, which can provide different users with clinical cases as per their experience and learning.

  9. Study on orthorhombic parameters for 3D elastic full waveform inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Oh, Juwon

    2015-08-21

    For a better understanding of the influence of the parameterizations on the multi-parameter full waveform inversion (FWI) for 3D elastic orthorhombic media, we analyze the virtual sources for each cij parameter. Because the virtual sources for cij parameters can be regarded as bases of the virtual sources for other parameterizations, the insights developed here explains many of the scattering phenomena of the different parameters. The resulting radiation patterns provide insights on which parameter set is the best in the multi-parameter FWI for 3D elastic orthorhombic media. In this study, we analyze the virtual source for each cij parameter as a linear combination of several moment tensors. After that, we analyze the strain fields deformed by incident waves as momenta of the virtual source and their influences on sensitivity kernels of each cij parameter.

  10. Study on orthorhombic parameters for 3D elastic full waveform inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Oh, Juwon; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2015-01-01

    For a better understanding of the influence of the parameterizations on the multi-parameter full waveform inversion (FWI) for 3D elastic orthorhombic media, we analyze the virtual sources for each cij parameter. Because the virtual sources for cij parameters can be regarded as bases of the virtual sources for other parameterizations, the insights developed here explains many of the scattering phenomena of the different parameters. The resulting radiation patterns provide insights on which parameter set is the best in the multi-parameter FWI for 3D elastic orthorhombic media. In this study, we analyze the virtual source for each cij parameter as a linear combination of several moment tensors. After that, we analyze the strain fields deformed by incident waves as momenta of the virtual source and their influences on sensitivity kernels of each cij parameter.

  11. 3D full-loop simulation of an industrial-scale circulating fluidized boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Bona; Zhang, Nan; Wang, Wei; Li, Jinghai [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). State Key Lab. of Multi-phase Complex Systems

    2013-07-01

    In this study, 3D full-loop simulations of a CFB boiler are carried out. FLUENT {sup registered} 6.3 is used as the solver, where an Eulerian multiphase model with EMMS-based drag model is employed. The wide particle size distribution are considered and divided into several groups to better represent the polydisperse behavior of ash particles. The simulation shows that, compared to the conventional drag model, EMMS-based model predicts more reasonable pressure drop of furnace and larger slip velocity at the lower elevations of the furnace. Further work is under way to improve the full-loop simulation.

  12. Exploring direct 3D interaction for full horizontal parallax light field displays using leap motion controller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikarla, Vamsi Kiran; Sodnik, Jaka; Szolgay, Peter; Jakus, Grega

    2015-04-14

    This paper reports on the design and evaluation of direct 3D gesture interaction with a full horizontal parallax light field display. A light field display defines a visual scene using directional light beams emitted from multiple light sources as if they are emitted from scene points. Each scene point is rendered individually resulting in more realistic and accurate 3D visualization compared to other 3D displaying technologies. We propose an interaction setup combining the visualization of objects within the Field Of View (FOV) of a light field display and their selection through freehand gesture tracked by the Leap Motion Controller. The accuracy and usefulness of the proposed interaction setup was also evaluated in a user study with test subjects. The results of the study revealed high user preference for free hand interaction with light field display as well as relatively low cognitive demand of this technique. Further, our results also revealed some limitations and adjustments of the proposed setup to be addressed in future work.

  13. Full 3D Microwave Tomography enhanced GPR surveys: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catapano, Ilaria; Soldovieri, Francesco; Affinito, Antonio; Hugenschmidt, Johannes

    2014-05-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) systems are well assessed non-invasive diagnostic tools capable of providing high resolution images of the inner structure of the probed spatial region. Owing to this capability, GPR systems are nowadays more and more considered in the frame of civil engineering surveys since they may give information on constructive details as well as on the aging and risk factors affecting the healthiness of an infrastructure. In this frame, accurate, reliable and easily interpretable images of the probed scenarios are mandatory in order to support the management of maintenance works and assure the safety of structures. Such a requirement motivates the use of different and sophisticated data processing approaches in order to compare more than one image of the same scene, thus improving the reliability and objectiveness of the GPR survey results. Among GPR data processing procedures, Microwave Tomography approaches based on the Born approximation face the imaging as the solution of a linear inverse problem, which is solved by using the Truncated Singular Value Decomposition as a regularized inversion scheme [1]. So far, an approach exploiting a 2D scalar model of the scattering phenomenon have been adopted to process GPR data gathered along a single scan. In this case, 3D images are obtained by interpolating 2D reconstructions (this is referred commonly as pseudo 3D imaging). Such an imaging approach have provided valuable results in several real cases dealing with not only surveys for civil engineering but also archeological prospection, subservice monitoring, security surveys and so on [1-4]. These encouraging results have motivated the development of a full 3D Microwave Tomography approach capable of accounting for the vectorial nature of the wave propagation. The reconstruction capabilities of this novel approach have been assessed mainly against experimental data collected in laboratory controlled conditions. The obtained results corroborate

  14. 3D seismic investigation of the structural and stratigraphic characteristics of the Pagasa Wedge, Southwest Palawan Basin, Philippines, and their tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilao, Kimberly A.; Morley, Christopher K.; Aurelio, Mario A.

    2018-04-01

    The Pagasa Wedge is a poorly imaged deepwater orogenic wedge that has been variously interpreted as representing an accretionary prism, a former accretionary prism modified by thrusting onto a thinned continental margin, and a gravity-driven fold-thrust belt. This study, using 2D and 3D seismic data, together with well information indicates that at least the external part of the wedge is dominantly composed of mass transport complexes, capped by syn-kinematic sediments that have thrusts and normal faults superimposed upon them. Drilling shows that despite stratigraphic repetition of Eocene Middle Miocene units, there is stratigraphic omission of Oligocene and Early Miocene units. This absence suggests that mass transport processes have introduced the Eocene section into the wedge rather than tectonic thrusting. The accretionary prism stage (Oligocene) of the Central Palawan Ophiolite history appears to be marked by predominantly north-vergent deformation. The Deep Regional Unconformity (∼17 Ma) likely indicates the approximate time when obduction ceased in Palawan. The Pagasa Wedge is a late-stage product of the convergence history that was active in its final phase sometime above the top of the Nido Limestone (∼16 Ma) and the base of the Tabon Limestone in the Aboabo-A1X well (∼9 Ma). The top of the wedge is traditionally associated with the Middle Miocene Unconformity (MMU), However the presence of multiple unconformities, diachronous formation tops, local tectonic unconformities and regional diachronous events (e.g. migrating forebulges) all suggest simply giving a single age (or assigning a single unconformity, such as the MMU as defining the top of the Pagasa Wedge is inappropriate. The overall NE-SW trend of the wedge, and the dominant NW transport of structures within the wedge diverge from the more northerly transport direction determined from outcrops in Palawan, and also from the Nido Limestone in the SW part of the Pagasa Wedge. Possibly this NW

  15. Intuitive Visualization of Transient Flow: Towards a Full 3D Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Isabel; Schröder, Simon; Seidel, Torsten; König, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    Visualization of geoscientific data is a challenging task especially when targeting a non-professional audience. In particular, the graphical presentation of transient vector data can be a significant problem. With STRING Fraunhofer ITWM (Kaiserslautern, Germany) in collaboration with delta h Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH (Witten, Germany) developed a commercial software for intuitive 2D visualization of 3D flow problems. Through the intuitive character of the visualization experts can more easily transport their findings to non-professional audiences. In STRING pathlets moving with the flow provide an intuition of velocity and direction of both steady-state and transient flow fields. The visualization concept is based on the Lagrangian view of the flow which means that the pathlets' movement is along the direction given by pathlines. In order to capture every detail of the flow an advanced method for intelligent, time-dependent seeding of the pathlets is implemented based on ideas of the Finite Pointset Method (FPM) originally conceived at and continuously developed by Fraunhofer ITWM. Furthermore, by the same method pathlets are removed during the visualization to avoid visual cluttering. Additional scalar flow attributes, for example concentration or potential, can either be mapped directly to the pathlets or displayed in the background of the pathlets on the 2D visualization plane. The extensive capabilities of STRING are demonstrated with the help of different applications in groundwater modeling. We will discuss the strengths and current restrictions of STRING which have surfaced during daily use of the software, for example by delta h. Although the software focusses on the graphical presentation of flow data for non-professional audiences its intuitive visualization has also proven useful to experts when investigating details of flow fields. Due to the popular reception of STRING and its limitation to 2D, the need arises for the extension to a full 3D tool

  16. 3D fingerprint imaging system based on full-field fringe projection profilometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shujun; Zhang, Zonghua; Zhao, Yan; Dai, Jie; Chen, Chao; Xu, Yongjia; Zhang, E.; Xie, Lili

    2014-01-01

    As an unique, unchangeable and easily acquired biometrics, fingerprint has been widely studied in academics and applied in many fields over the years. The traditional fingerprint recognition methods are based on the obtained 2D feature of fingerprint. However, fingerprint is a 3D biological characteristic. The mapping from 3D to 2D loses 1D information and causes nonlinear distortion of the captured fingerprint. Therefore, it is becoming more and more important to obtain 3D fingerprint information for recognition. In this paper, a novel 3D fingerprint imaging system is presented based on fringe projection technique to obtain 3D features and the corresponding color texture information. A series of color sinusoidal fringe patterns with optimum three-fringe numbers are projected onto a finger surface. From another viewpoint, the fringe patterns are deformed by the finger surface and captured by a CCD camera. 3D shape data of the finger can be obtained from the captured fringe pattern images. This paper studies the prototype of the 3D fingerprint imaging system, including principle of 3D fingerprint acquisition, hardware design of the 3D imaging system, 3D calibration of the system, and software development. Some experiments are carried out by acquiring several 3D fingerprint data. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed 3D fingerprint imaging system.

  17. Full-field wrist pulse signal acquisition and analysis by 3D Digital Image Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yuan; Su, Yong; Zhang, Chi; Xu, Xiaohai; Gao, Zeren; Wu, Shangquan; Zhang, Qingchuan; Wu, Xiaoping

    2017-11-01

    Pulse diagnosis is an essential part in four basic diagnostic methods (inspection, listening, inquiring and palpation) in traditional Chinese medicine, which depends on longtime training and rich experience, so computerized pulse acquisition has been proposed and studied to ensure the objectivity. To imitate the process that doctors using three fingertips with different pressures to feel fluctuations in certain areas containing three acupoints, we established a five dimensional pulse signal acquisition system adopting a non-contacting optical metrology method, 3D digital image correlation, to record the full-field displacements of skin fluctuations under different pressures. The system realizes real-time full-field vibration mode observation with 10 FPS. The maximum sample frequency is 472 Hz for detailed post-processing. After acquisition, the signals are analyzed according to the amplitude, pressure, and pulse wave velocity. The proposed system provides a novel optical approach for digitalizing pulse diagnosis and massive pulse signal data acquisition for various types of patients.

  18. Wavefront picking for 3D tomography and full-waveform inversion

    KAUST Repository

    AlTheyab, Abdullah

    2016-09-08

    We have developed an efficient approach for picking firstbreak wavefronts on coarsely sampled time slices of 3D shot gathers. Our objective was to compute a smooth initial velocity model for multiscale full-waveform inversion (FWI). Using interactive software, first-break wavefronts were geometrically modeled on time slices with a minimal number of picks. We picked sparse time slices, performed traveltime tomography, and then compared the predicted traveltimes with the data in-between the picked slices. The picking interval was refined with iterations until the errors in traveltime predictions fell within the limits necessary to avoid cycle skipping in early arrivals FWI. This approach was applied to a 3D ocean-bottom-station data set. Our results indicate that wavefront picking has 28% fewer data slices to pick compared with picking traveltimes in shot gathers. In addition, by using sparse time samples for picking, data storage is reduced by 88%, and therefore allows for a faster visualization and quality control of the picks. Our final traveltime tomogram is sufficient as a starting model for early arrival FWI. © 2016 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  19. Validation of the 3D Skin Comet assay using full thickness skin models: Transferability and reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisinger, Kerstin; Blatz, Veronika; Brinkmann, Joep; Downs, Thomas R; Fischer, Anja; Henkler, Frank; Hoffmann, Sebastian; Krul, Cyrille; Liebsch, Manfred; Luch, Andreas; Pirow, Ralph; Reus, Astrid A; Schulz, Markus; Pfuhler, Stefan

    2018-03-01

    Recently revised OECD Testing Guidelines highlight the importance of considering the first site-of-contact when investigating the genotoxic hazard. Thus far, only in vivo approaches are available to address the dermal route of exposure. The 3D Skin Comet and Reconstructed Skin Micronucleus (RSMN) assays intend to close this gap in the in vitro genotoxicity toolbox by investigating DNA damage after topical application. This represents the most relevant route of exposure for a variety of compounds found in household products, cosmetics, and industrial chemicals. The comet assay methodology is able to detect both chromosomal damage and DNA lesions that may give rise to gene mutations, thereby complementing the RSMN which detects only chromosomal damage. Here, the comet assay was adapted to two reconstructed full thickness human skin models: the EpiDerm™- and Phenion ® Full-Thickness Skin Models. First, tissue-specific protocols for the isolation of single cells and the general comet assay were transferred to European and US-American laboratories. After establishment of the assay, the protocol was then further optimized with appropriate cytotoxicity measurements and the use of aphidicolin, a DNA repair inhibitor, to improve the assay's sensitivity. In the first phase of an ongoing validation study eight chemicals were tested in three laboratories each using the Phenion ® Full-Thickness Skin Model, informing several validation modules. Ultimately, the 3D Skin Comet assay demonstrated a high predictive capacity and good intra- and inter-laboratory reproducibility with four laboratories reaching a 100% predictivity and the fifth yielding 70%. The data are intended to demonstrate the use of the 3D Skin Comet assay as a new in vitro tool for following up on positive findings from the standard in vitro genotoxicity test battery for dermally applied chemicals, ultimately helping to drive the regulatory acceptance of the assay. To expand the database, the validation will

  20. Determination of CME 3D parameters based on a new full ice-cream cone model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Hyeonock; Moon, Yong-Jae

    2017-08-01

    In space weather forecast, it is important to determine three-dimensional properties of CMEs. Using 29 limb CMEs, we examine which cone type is close to a CME three-dimensional structure. We find that most CMEs have near full ice-cream cone structure which is a symmetrical circular cone combined with a hemisphere. We develop a full ice-cream cone model based on a new methodology that the full ice-cream cone consists of many flat cones with different heights and angular widths. By applying this model to 12 SOHO/LASCO halo CMEs, we find that 3D parameters from our method are similar to those from other stereoscopic methods (i.e., a triangulation method and a Graduated Cylindrical Shell model). In addition, we derive CME mean density (ρmean=Mtotal/Vcone) based on the full ice-cream cone structure. For several limb events, we determine CME mass by applying the Solarsoft procedure (e.g., cme_mass.pro) to SOHO/LASCO C3 images. CME volumes are estimated from the full ice-cream cone structure. From the power-law relationship between CME mean density and its height, we estimate CME mean densities at 20 solar radii (Rs). We will compare the CME densities at 20 Rs with their corresponding ICME densities.

  1. Complex Crustal Structure Beneath Western Turkey Revealed by 3D Seismic Full Waveform Inversion (FWI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubuk-Sabuncu, Yesim; Taymaz, Tuncay; Fichtner, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    We present a 3D radially anisotropic velocity model of the crust and uppermost mantle structure beneath the Sea of Marmara and surroundings based on the full waveform inversion method. The intense seismic activity and crustal deformation are observed in the Northwest Turkey due to transition tectonics between the strike-slip North Anatolian Fault (NAF) and the extensional Aegean region. We have selected and simulated complete waveforms of 62 earthquakes (Mw > 4.0) occurred during 2007-2015, and recorded at (Δ Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK Project No: ÇAYDAG-114Y066), and EU-HORIZON-2020: COST Actions: Earth System Science and Environmental Management: ES1401 - Time Dependent Seismology (TIDES).

  2. Characterization of an SRF gun: a 3D full wave simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, E.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Wang, J.

    2011-01-01

    We characterized a BNL 1.3GHz half-cell SRF gun is tested for GaAs photocathode. The gun already was simulated several years ago via two-dimensional (2D) numerical codes (i.e., Superfish and Parmela) with and without the beam. In this paper, we discuss our investigation of its characteristics using a three dimensional (3D) full-wave code (CST STUDIO SUITE(trademark)).The input/pickup couplers are sited symmetrically on the same side of the gun at an angle of 180 o . In particular, the inner conductor of the pickup coupler is considerably shorter than that of the input coupler. We evaluated the cross-talk between the beam (trajectory) and the signal on the input coupler compared our findings with published results based on analytical models. The CST STUDIO SUITE(trademark) also was used to predict the field within the cavity; particularly, a combination of transient/eigenmode solvers was employed to accurately construct the RF field for the particles, which also includes the effects of the couplers. Finally, we explored the beam's dynamics with a particle in cell (PIC) simulation, validated the results and compare them with 2D code result.

  3. Full 3D internal strain measurement for device packaging materials using synchrotron laminography and volumetric digital image correlation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asada, Takashi; Kimura, Hidehiko; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Kano, Taiki; Kajiwara, Kentaro

    2014-01-01

    In order to measure full 3D internal strain field of resin molding compound specimens, synchrotron computed tomography and laminography at SPring-8 were performed. Then the reconstructed images were applied to 3D digital image correlation method to compute internal strain field. The results showed that internal strains in resin molding compound could be visualized in this way. (author)

  4. Determination of HCME 3-D parameters using a full ice-cream cone model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Hyeonock; Moon, Yong-Jae; Lee, Harim

    2016-05-01

    It is very essential to determine three dimensional parameters (e.g., radial speed, angular width, source location) of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) for space weather forecast. Several cone models (e.g., an elliptical cone model, an ice-cream cone model, an asymmetric cone model) have been examined to estimate these parameters. In this study, we investigate which cone type is close to a halo CME morphology using 26 CMEs: halo CMEs by one spacecraft (SOHO or STEREO-A or B) and as limb CMEs by the other ones. From cone shape parameters of these CMEs such as their front curvature, we find that near full ice-cream cone type CMEs are much closer to observations than shallow ice-cream cone type CMEs. Thus we develop a new cone model in which a full ice-cream cone consists of many flat cones with different heights and angular widths. This model is carried out by the following steps: (1) construct a cone for given height and angular width, (2) project the cone onto the sky plane, (3) select points comprising the outer boundary, and (4) minimize the difference between the estimated projection speeds with the observed ones. By applying this model to 12 SOHO/LASCO halo CMEs, we find that 3-D parameters from our method are similar to those from other stereoscopic methods (a geometrical triangulation method and a Graduated Cylindrical Shell model) based on multi-spacecraft data. We are developing a general ice-cream cone model whose front shape is a free parameter determined by observations.

  5. 3D numerical simulations of negative hydrogen ion extraction using realistic plasma parameters, geometry of the extraction aperture and full 3D magnetic field map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochalskyy, S.; Wünderlich, D.; Ruf, B.; Franzen, P.; Fantz, U.; Minea, T.

    2014-02-01

    Decreasing the co-extracted electron current while simultaneously keeping negative ion (NI) current sufficiently high is a crucial issue on the development plasma source system for ITER Neutral Beam Injector. To support finding the best extraction conditions the 3D Particle-in-Cell Monte Carlo Collision electrostatic code ONIX (Orsay Negative Ion eXtraction) has been developed. Close collaboration with experiments and other numerical models allows performing realistic simulations with relevant input parameters: plasma properties, geometry of the extraction aperture, full 3D magnetic field map, etc. For the first time ONIX has been benchmarked with commercial positive ions tracing code KOBRA3D. A very good agreement in terms of the meniscus position and depth has been found. Simulation of NI extraction with different e/NI ratio in bulk plasma shows high relevance of the direct negative ion extraction from the surface produced NI in order to obtain extracted NI current as in the experimental results from BATMAN testbed.

  6. Radiation hardness properties of full-3D active edge silicon sensors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Da Via, C.; Hasi, J.; Kenney, C.; Linhart, V.; Parker, S.; Slavíček, T.; Watts, S. J.; Bém, Pavel; Horažďovský, T.; Pospíšil, S.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 587, 2-3 (2008), s. 243-249 ISSN 0168-9002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : silicon detectors * radiation hardness * 3D Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.019, year: 2008

  7. Novel, full 3D scintillation dosimetry using a static plenoptic camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulet, Mathieu; Rilling, Madison; Gingras, Luc; Beddar, Sam; Beaulieu, Luc; Archambault, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Patient-specific quality assurance (QA) of dynamic radiotherapy delivery would gain from being performed using a 3D dosimeter. However, 3D dosimeters, such as gels, have many disadvantages limiting to quality assurance, such as tedious read-out procedures and poor reproducibility. The purpose of this work is to develop and validate a novel type of high resolution 3D dosimeter based on the real-time light acquisition of a plastic scintillator volume using a plenoptic camera. This dosimeter would allow for the QA of dynamic radiation therapy techniques such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Methods: A Raytrix R5 plenoptic camera was used to image a 10 × 10 × 10 cm3 EJ-260 plastic scintillator embedded inside an acrylic phantom at a rate of one acquisition per second. The scintillator volume was irradiated with both an IMRT and VMAT treatment plan on a Clinac iX linear accelerator. The 3D light distribution emitted by the scintillator volume was reconstructed at a 2 mm resolution in all dimensions by back-projecting the light collected by each pixel of the light-field camera using an iterative reconstruction algorithm. The latter was constrained by a beam's eye view projection of the incident dose acquired using the portal imager integrated with the linac and by physical consideration of the dose behavior as a function of depth in the phantom. Results: The absolute dose difference between the reconstructed 3D dose and the expected dose calculated using the treatment planning software Pinnacle3 was on average below 1.5% of the maximum dose for both integrated IMRT and VMAT deliveries, and below 3% for each individual IMRT incidences. Dose agreement between the reconstructed 3D dose and a radiochromic film acquisition in the same experimental phantom was on average within 2.1% and 1.2% of the maximum recorded dose for the IMRT and VMAT delivery, respectively. Conclusions: Using plenoptic camera

  8. Collapse and coalescence of spherical voids subject to intense shearing: studied in full 3D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim Lau; Dahl, Jonas; Tvergaard, Viggo

    2012-01-01

    the numerical analysis, which is also reflected in published literature. Rather than moving towards very low triaxiality shearing, work has focused on extracting wide-ranging results for moderate stress triaxiality (T ~ 1), in order to achieve sufficient understanding of the influence of initial porosity, void...... significant straining of the matrix material located on the axis of rotation. In particular, the void surface material is severely deformed during shearing and void surface contact is established early in the deformation process. This 3D effect intensifies with decreasing stress triaxiality and complicates...... shape, void orientation etc. The objective of this work is to expand the range of stress triaxiality usually faced in 3D cell model studies, such that intense shearing is covered, and to bring forward details on the porosity and void shape evolution. The overall material response is presented...

  9. Multimodal and synthetic aperture approach to full-field 3D shape and displacement measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawińska, M.; Sitnik, R.

    2017-08-01

    Recently most of the measurement tasks in industry, civil engineering and culture heritage applications require archiving, characterization and monitoring of 3D objects and structures and their performance under changing conditions. These requirements can be met if multimodal measurement (MM) strategy is applied. It rely on effective combining structured light method and 3D digital image correlation with laser scanning/ToF, thermal imaging, multispectral imaging and BDRF measurements. In the case of big size and/or complicated objects MM have to be combined with hierarchical or synthetic aperture (SA) measurements. The new solutions in MM and SA strategies are presented and their applicability is shown at interesting cultural heritage and civil engineering applications.

  10. Full 3-D OCT-based pseudophakic custom computer eye model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, M.; Pérez-Merino, P.; Martinez-Enriquez, E.; Velasco-Ocana, M.; Marcos, S.

    2016-01-01

    We compared measured wave aberrations in pseudophakic eyes implanted with aspheric intraocular lenses (IOLs) with simulated aberrations from numerical ray tracing on customized computer eye models, built using quantitative 3-D OCT-based patient-specific ocular geometry. Experimental and simulated aberrations show high correlation (R = 0.93; poptical geometrical and surgically-related factors to image quality, and are an excellent tool for characterizing and improving cataract surgery. PMID:27231608

  11. Implementation of a fast running full core pin power reconstruction method in DYN3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez-Torres, Armando Miguel; Sanchez-Espinoza, Victor Hugo; Kliem, Sören; Gommlich, Andre

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • New pin power reconstruction (PPR) method for the nodal diffusion code DYN3D. • Flexible PPR method applicable to a single, a group or to all fuel assemblies (square, hex). • Combination of nodal with pin-wise solutions (non-conform geometry). • PPR capabilities shown for REA of a Minicore (REA) PWR whole core. - Abstract: This paper presents a substantial extension of the pin power reconstruction (PPR) method used in the reactor dynamics code DYN3D with the aim to better describe the heterogeneity within the fuel assembly during reactor simulations. The flexibility of the new implemented PPR permits the local spatial refinement of one fuel assembly, of a cluster of fuel assemblies, of a quarter or eight of a core or even of a whole core. The application of PPR in core regions of interest will pave the way for the coupling with sub-channel codes enabling the prediction of local safety parameters. One of the main advantages of considering regions and not only a hot fuel assembly (FA) is the fact that the cross flow within this region can be taken into account by the subchannel code. The implementation of the new PPR method has been tested analysing a rod ejection accident (REA) in a PWR minicore consisting of 3 × 3 FA. Finally, the new capabilities of DNY3D are demonstrated by the analysing a boron dilution transient in a PWR MOX core and the pin power of a VVER-1000 reactor at stationary conditions

  12. Implementation of a fast running full core pin power reconstruction method in DYN3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Torres, Armando Miguel [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Department of Nuclear Systems, Carretera Mexico – Toluca s/n, La Marquesa, 52750 Ocoyoacac (Mexico); Sanchez-Espinoza, Victor Hugo, E-mail: victor.sanchez@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Hermann-vom-Helmhotz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Kliem, Sören; Gommlich, Andre [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Bautzner Landstraße 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • New pin power reconstruction (PPR) method for the nodal diffusion code DYN3D. • Flexible PPR method applicable to a single, a group or to all fuel assemblies (square, hex). • Combination of nodal with pin-wise solutions (non-conform geometry). • PPR capabilities shown for REA of a Minicore (REA) PWR whole core. - Abstract: This paper presents a substantial extension of the pin power reconstruction (PPR) method used in the reactor dynamics code DYN3D with the aim to better describe the heterogeneity within the fuel assembly during reactor simulations. The flexibility of the new implemented PPR permits the local spatial refinement of one fuel assembly, of a cluster of fuel assemblies, of a quarter or eight of a core or even of a whole core. The application of PPR in core regions of interest will pave the way for the coupling with sub-channel codes enabling the prediction of local safety parameters. One of the main advantages of considering regions and not only a hot fuel assembly (FA) is the fact that the cross flow within this region can be taken into account by the subchannel code. The implementation of the new PPR method has been tested analysing a rod ejection accident (REA) in a PWR minicore consisting of 3 × 3 FA. Finally, the new capabilities of DNY3D are demonstrated by the analysing a boron dilution transient in a PWR MOX core and the pin power of a VVER-1000 reactor at stationary conditions.

  13. Factors influencing the dimensional accuracy of 3D-printed full-coverage dental restorations using stereolithography technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alharbi, N.; Osman, R.B.; Wismeijer, D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the build angle and the support configuration (thick versus thin support) on the dimensional accuracy of 3D-printed full-coverage dental restorations. Materials and Methods: A full-coverage dental crown was digitally designed and

  14. AX-PET A novel PET detector concept with full 3D reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Braem, A; Séguinot, J; Dissertori, G; Djambazov, L; Lustermann, W; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Pauss, F; Schinzel, D; Solevi, P; Lacasta, C; Oliver, J F; Rafecas, M; De Leo, R; Nappi, E; Vilardi, I; Chesi, E; Cochran, E; Honscheid, K; Kagan, H; Rudge, A; Smith, S; Weilhammer, P; Johnson, I; Renker, D; Clinthorne, N; Huh, S; Bolle, E; Stapnes, S; Meddi, F

    2009-01-01

    We describe the concept and first experimental tests of a novel 3D axial Positron Emission Tomography (PET) geometry. It allows for a new way of measuring the interaction point in the detector with very high precision. It is based on a matrix of long Lutetium-Yttrium OxyorthoSilicate (LYSO) crystals oriented in the axial direction, each coupled to one Geiger Mode Avalanche Photodiode (G-APD) array. To derive the axial coordinate, Wave Length Shifter (WLS) strips are mounted orthogonally and interleaved between the crystals. The light from the WLS strips is read by custom-made G-APDs. The weighted mean of the signals in the WLS strips has proven to give very precise axial resolution. The achievable resolution along the three axes is mainly driven by the dimensions of the LYSO crystals and WLS strips. This concept is inherently free of parallax errors. Furthermore, it will allow identification of Compton interactions in the detector and for reconstruction of a fraction of them, which is expected to enhance imag...

  15. Compartmentalization of the Coso East Flank geothermal field imaged by 3-D full-tensor MT inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Nathaniel J.; Kaven, Joern; Davatzes, Nicholas C.; Newman, Gregory A.

    2017-01-01

    Previous magnetotelluric (MT) studies of the high-temperature Coso geothermal system in California identified a subvertical feature of low resistivity (2–5 Ohm m) and appreciable lateral extent (>1 km) in the producing zone of the East Flank field. However, these models could not reproduce gross 3-D effects in the recorded data. We perform 3-D full-tensor inversion and retrieve a resistivity model that out-performs previous 2-D and 3-D off-diagonal models in terms of its fit to the complete 3-D MT data set as well as the degree of modelling bias. Inclusion of secondary Zxx and Zyy data components leads to a robust east-dip (60†) to the previously identified conductive East Flank reservoir feature, which correlates strongly with recently mapped surface faults, downhole well temperatures, 3-D seismic reflection data, and local microseismicity. We perform synthetic forward modelling to test the best-fit dip of this conductor using the response at a nearby MT station. We interpret the dipping conductor as a fractured and fluidized compartment, which is structurally controlled by an unmapped blind East Flank fault zone.

  16. 3D modeling of stratigraphic units and simulation of seismic facies in the Lion gulf margin; Modelisation 3D des unites stratigraphiques et simulation des facies sismiques dans la marge du golfe du Lion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chihi, H.

    1997-05-12

    This work aims at providing a contribution to the studies carried out on reservoir characterization by use of seismic data. The study mainly consisted in the use of geostatistical methods in order to model the geometry of stratigraphic units of the Golfe du Lion margin and to simulate the seismic facies from high resolution seismic data. We propose, for the geometric modelling, a methodology based on the estimation of the surfaces and calculation afterwards of the thicknesses, if the modelling of the depth is possible. On the other hand the method consists in estimating the thickness variable directly and in deducing the boundary surfaces afterwards. In order to simulate the distribution of seismic facies within the units of the western domain, we used the truncated Gaussian method. The used approach gave a satisfactory results, when the seismic facies present slightly dipping reflectors with respect to the reference level. Otherwise the method reaches its limits because of the problems of definition of a reference level which allows to follow the clino-forms. In spite of these difficulties, this simulation allows us to estimate the distribution of seismic facies within the units and then to deduce their probable extension. (author) 150 refs.

  17. Evaluation of Full Reynolds Stress Turbulence Models in FUN3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudek, Julianne C.; Carlson, Jan-Renee

    2017-01-01

    Full seven-equation Reynolds stress turbulence models are a relatively new and promising tool for todays aerospace technology challenges. This paper uses two stress-omega full Reynolds stress models to evaluate challenging flows including shock-wave boundary layer interactions, separation and mixing layers. The Wilcox and the SSGLRR full second-moment Reynolds stress models are evaluated for four problems: a transonic two-dimensional diffuser, a supersonic axisymmetric compression corner, a compressible planar shear layer, and a subsonic axisymmetric jet. Simulation results are compared with experimental data and results using the more commonly used Spalart-Allmaras (SA) one-equation and the Menter Shear Stress Transport (SST) two-equation models.

  18. Stability of Planar Rarefaction Wave to 3D Full Compressible Navier-Stokes Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin-an; Wang, Teng; Wang, Yi

    2018-05-01

    We prove time-asymptotic stability toward the planar rarefaction wave for the three-dimensional full, compressible Navier-Stokes equations with the heat-conductivities in an infinite long flat nozzle domain {R × T^2} . Compared with one-dimensional case, the proof here is based on our new observations on the cancellations on the flux terms and viscous terms due to the underlying wave structures, which are crucial for overcoming the difficulties due to the wave propagation in the transverse directions x 2 and x 3 and its interactions with the planar rarefaction wave in x 1 direction.

  19. 3D palmprint and hand imaging system based on full-field composite color sinusoidal fringe projection technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zonghua; Huang, Shujun; Xu, Yongjia; Chen, Chao; Zhao, Yan; Gao, Nan; Xiao, Yanjun

    2013-09-01

    Palmprint and hand shape, as two kinds of important biometric characteristics, have been widely studied and applied to human identity recognition. The existing research is based mainly on 2D images, which lose the third-dimensional information. The biological features extracted from 2D images are distorted by pressure and rolling, so the subsequent feature matching and recognition are inaccurate. This paper presents a method to acquire accurate 3D shapes of palmprint and hand by projecting full-field composite color sinusoidal fringe patterns and the corresponding color texture information. A 3D imaging system is designed to capture and process the full-field composite color fringe patterns on hand surface. Composite color fringe patterns having the optimum three fringe numbers are generated by software and projected onto the surface of human hand by a digital light processing projector. From another viewpoint, a color CCD camera captures the deformed fringe patterns and saves them for postprocessing. After compensating for the cross talk and chromatic aberration between color channels, three fringe patterns are extracted from three color channels of a captured composite color image. Wrapped phase information can be calculated from the sinusoidal fringe patterns with high precision. At the same time, the absolute phase of each pixel is determined by the optimum three-fringe selection method. After building up the relationship between absolute phase map and 3D shape data, the 3D palmprint and hand are obtained. Color texture information can be directly captured or demodulated from the captured composite fringe pattern images. Experimental results show that the proposed method and system can yield accurate 3D shape and color texture information of the palmprint and hand shape.

  20. The Rufous Hummingbird in hovering flight -- full-body 3D immersed boundary simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira de Sousa, Paulo; Luo, Haoxiang; Bocanegra Evans, Humberto

    2009-11-01

    Hummingbirds are an interesting case study for the development of micro-air vehicles since they combine the high flight stability of insects with the low metabolic power per unit of body mass of bats, during hovering flight. In this study, simulations of a full-body hummingbird in hovering flight were performed at a Reynolds number around 3600. The simulations employ a versatile sharp-interface immersed boundary method recently enhanced at our lab that can treat thin membranes and solid bodies alike. Implemented on a Cartesian mesh, the numerical method allows us to capture the vortex dynamics of the wake accurately and efficiently. The whole-body simulation will allow us to clearly identify the three general patterns of flow velocity around the body of the hummingbird referred in Altshuler et al. (Exp Fluids 46 (5), 2009). One focus of the current study is to understand the interaction between the wakes of the two wings at the end of the upstroke, and how the tail actively defects the flow to contribute to pitch stability. Another focus of the study will be to identify the pair of unconnected loops underneath each wing.

  1. Calculations of 3D full-scale VVER fuel assembly and core models using MCU and BIPR-7A codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleshin, Sergey S.; Bikeev, Artem S.; Bolshagin, Sergey N.; Kalugin, Mikhail A.; Kosourov, Evgeniy K.; Pavlovichev, Aleksandr M.; Pryanichnikov, Aleksandr V.; Sukhino-Khomenko, Evgenia A.; Shcherenko, Anna I.; Shcherenko, Anastasia I.; Shkarovskiy, Denis A. [Nuclear Research Centre ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-15

    Two types of calculations were made to compare BIPR-7A and MCU results for 3D full-scale models. First EPS (emergency protection system) efficiency and in-core power distributions were analyzed for an equilibrium fuel load of VVER-1000 assuming its operation within an 18-month cycle. Computations were performed without feedbacks and with fuel burnup distributed over the core. After 3D infinite lattices of full-scale VVER-1000 fuel assemblies (A's) with uranium fuel 4.4% enrichment and uranium-erbium fuel 4.4% enrichment and Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} 1 % wt were considered. Computations were performed with feedbacks and fuel burnup at the constant power level. For different time moments effective multiplication factor and power distribution were obtained. EPS efficiency and reactivity effects at chosen time moments were analyzed.

  2. Mapping 3D breast lesions from full-field digital mammograms using subject-specific finite element models

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, E.; Oliver, A.; Diaz, O.; Diez, Y.; Gubern-Mérida, A.; Martí, R.; Martí, J.

    2017-03-01

    Patient-specific finite element (FE) models of the breast have received increasing attention due to the potential capability of fusing images from different modalities. During the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to X-ray mammography registration procedure, the FE model is compressed mimicking the mammographic acquisition. Subsequently, suspicious lesions in the MRI volume can be projected into the 2D mammographic space. However, most registration algorithms do not provide the reverse information, avoiding to obtain the 3D geometrical information from the lesions localized in the mammograms. In this work we introduce a fast method to localize the 3D position of the lesion within the MRI, using both cranio-caudal (CC) and medio-lateral oblique (MLO) mammographic projections, indexing the tetrahedral elements of the biomechanical model by means of an uniform grid. For each marked lesion in the Full-Field Digital Mammogram (FFDM), the X-ray path from source to the marker is calculated. Barycentric coordinates are computed in the tetrahedrons traversed by the ray. The list of elements and coordinates allows to localize two curves within the MRI and the closest point between both curves is taken as the 3D position of the lesion. The registration errors obtained in the mammographic space are 9.89 +/- 3.72 mm in CC- and 8.04 +/- 4.68 mm in MLO-projection and the error in the 3D MRI space is equal to 10.29 +/- 3.99 mm. Regarding the uniform grid, it is computed spending between 0.1 and 0.7 seconds. The average time spent to compute the 3D location of a lesion is about 8 ms.

  3. Performance of a neutron transport code with full phase space decomposition on the Cray Research T3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorr, M.R.; Salo, E.M.

    1995-01-01

    We present performance results obtained on a 128-node Cray Research T3D computer by a neutron transport code implementing a standard mtiltigroup, discrete ordinates algorithm on a three-dimensional Cartesian grid. After summarizing the implementation strategy used to obtain a full decomposition of phase space (i.e., simultaneous parallelization of the neutron energy, directional and spatial variables), we investigate the scalability of the fundamental source iteration step with respect to each phase space variable. We also describe enhancements that have enabled performance rates approaching 10 gigaflops on the full 128-node machine

  4. Development of Scientific Simulation 3D Full Wave ICRF Code for Stellarators and Heating/CD Scenarios Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vdovin V.L.

    2005-08-15

    In this report we describe theory and 3D full wave code description for the wave excitation, propagation and absorption in 3-dimensional (3D) stellarator equilibrium high beta plasma in ion cyclotron frequency range (ICRF). This theory forms a basis for a 3D code creation, urgently needed for the ICRF heating scenarios development for the operated LHD, constructed W7-X, NCSX and projected CSX3 stellarators, as well for re evaluation of ICRF scenarios in operated tokamaks and in the ITER . The theory solves the 3D Maxwell-Vlasov antenna-plasma-conducting shell boundary value problem in the non-orthogonal flux coordinates ({Psi}, {theta}, {var_phi}), {Psi} being magnetic flux function, {theta} and {var_phi} being the poloidal and toroidal angles, respectively. All basic physics, like wave refraction, reflection and diffraction are self consistently included, along with the fundamental ion and ion minority cyclotron resonances, two ion hybrid resonance, electron Landau and TTMP absorption. Antenna reactive impedance and loading resistance are also calculated and urgently needed for an antenna -generator matching. This is accomplished in a real confining magnetic field being varying in a plasma major radius direction, in toroidal and poloidal directions, through making use of the hot dense plasma wave induced currents with account to the finite Larmor radius effects. We expand the solution in Fourier series over the toroidal ({var_phi}) and poloidal ({theta}) angles and solve resulting ordinary differential equations in a radial like {Psi}-coordinate by finite difference method. The constructed discretization scheme is divergent-free one, thus retaining the basic properties of original equations. The Fourier expansion over the angle coordinates has given to us the possibility to correctly construct the ''parallel'' wave number k{sub //}, and thereby to correctly describe the ICRF waves absorption by a hot plasma. The toroidal harmonics are tightly

  5. Modal Parameters Evaluation in a Full-Scale Aircraft Demonstrator under Different Environmental Conditions Using HS 3D-DIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Jesús Molina-Viedma

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In real aircraft structures the comfort and the occupational performance of crewmembers and passengers are affected by the presence of noise. In this sense, special attention is focused on mechanical and material design for isolation and vibration control. Experimental characterization and, in particular, experimental modal analysis, provides information for adequate cabin noise control. Traditional sensors employed in the aircraft industry for this purpose are invasive and provide a low spatial resolution. This paper presents a methodology for experimental modal characterization of a front fuselage full-scale demonstrator using high-speed 3D digital image correlation, which is non-invasive, ensuring that the structural response is unperturbed by the instrumentation mass. Specifically, full-field measurements on the passenger window area were conducted when the structure was excited using an electrodynamic shaker. The spectral analysis of the measured time-domain displacements made it possible to identify natural frequencies and full-field operational deflection shapes. Changes in the modal parameters due to cabin pressurization and the behavior of different local structural modifications were assessed using this methodology. The proposed full-field methodology allowed the characterization of relevant dynamic response patterns, complementing the capabilities provided by accelerometers.

  6. 3D elastic full-waveform inversion for OBC data using the P-wave excitation amplitude

    KAUST Repository

    Oh, Juwon

    2017-08-17

    We suggest a fast and efficient 3D elastic full waveform inversion (FWI) algorithm based on the excitation amplitude (maximum energy arrival) of the P-wave in the source wavefield. It evaluates the gradient direction significantly faster than its conventional counterpart. In addition, it removes the long-wavelength artifacts from the gradient, which are often originated from SS correlation process. From these advantages, the excitation approach offers faster convergence not only for the S wave velocity, but also for the entire process of multi-parameter inversion, compared to the conventional FWI. The feasibility of the proposed method is demonstrated through the synthetic Marmousi and a real OBC data from North Sea.

  7. 3D elastic full-waveform inversion for OBC data using the P-wave excitation amplitude

    KAUST Repository

    Oh, Juwon; Kalita, Mahesh; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2017-01-01

    We suggest a fast and efficient 3D elastic full waveform inversion (FWI) algorithm based on the excitation amplitude (maximum energy arrival) of the P-wave in the source wavefield. It evaluates the gradient direction significantly faster than its conventional counterpart. In addition, it removes the long-wavelength artifacts from the gradient, which are often originated from SS correlation process. From these advantages, the excitation approach offers faster convergence not only for the S wave velocity, but also for the entire process of multi-parameter inversion, compared to the conventional FWI. The feasibility of the proposed method is demonstrated through the synthetic Marmousi and a real OBC data from North Sea.

  8. Reducing disk storage of full-3D seismic waveform tomography (F3DT) through lossy online compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Peter; Chen, Po; Lee, En-Jui

    2016-08-01

    Full-3D seismic waveform tomography (F3DT) is the latest seismic tomography technique that can assimilate broadband, multi-component seismic waveform observations into high-resolution 3D subsurface seismic structure models. The main drawback in the current F3DT implementation, in particular the scattering-integral implementation (F3DT-SI), is the high disk storage cost and the associated I/O overhead of archiving the 4D space-time wavefields of the receiver- or source-side strain tensors. The strain tensor fields are needed for computing the data sensitivity kernels, which are used for constructing the Jacobian matrix in the Gauss-Newton optimization algorithm. In this study, we have successfully integrated a lossy compression algorithm into our F3DT-SI workflow to significantly reduce the disk space for storing the strain tensor fields. The compressor supports a user-specified tolerance for bounding the error, and can be integrated into our finite-difference wave-propagation simulation code used for computing the strain fields. The decompressor can be integrated into the kernel calculation code that reads the strain fields from the disk and compute the data sensitivity kernels. During the wave-propagation simulations, we compress the strain fields before writing them to the disk. To compute the data sensitivity kernels, we read the compressed strain fields from the disk and decompress them before using them in kernel calculations. Experiments using a realistic dataset in our California statewide F3DT project have shown that we can reduce the strain-field disk storage by at least an order of magnitude with acceptable loss, and also improve the overall I/O performance of the entire F3DT-SI workflow significantly. The integration of the lossy online compressor may potentially open up the possibilities of the wide adoption of F3DT-SI in routine seismic tomography practices in the near future.

  9. Empirical assessment of the validity limits of the surface wave full ray theory using realistic 3-D Earth models

    KAUST Repository

    Parisi, Laura

    2016-02-10

    The surface wave full ray theory (FRT) is an efficient tool to calculate synthetic waveforms of surface waves. It combines the concept of local modes with exact ray tracing as a function of frequency, providing a more complete description of surface wave propagation than the widely used great circle approximation (GCA). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ability of the FRT approach to model teleseismic long-period surface waveforms (T ∼ 45–150 s) in the context of current 3-D Earth models to empirically assess its validity domain and its scope for future studies in seismic tomography. To achieve this goal, we compute vertical and horizontal component fundamental mode synthetic Rayleigh waveforms using the FRT, which are compared with calculations using the highly accurate spectral element method. We use 13 global earth models including 3-D crustal and mantle structure, which are derived by successively varying the strength and lengthscale of heterogeneity in current tomographic models. For completeness, GCA waveforms are also compared with the spectral element method. We find that the FRT accurately predicts the phase and amplitude of long-period Rayleigh waves (T ∼ 45–150 s) for almost all the models considered, with errors in the modelling of the phase (amplitude) of Rayleigh waves being smaller than 5 per cent (10 per cent) in most cases. The largest errors in phase and amplitude are observed for T ∼ 45 s and for the three roughest earth models considered that exhibit shear wave anomalies of up to ∼20 per cent, which is much larger than in current global tomographic models. In addition, we find that overall the GCA does not predict Rayleigh wave amplitudes well, except for the longest wave periods (T ∼ 150 s) and the smoothest models considered. Although the GCA accurately predicts Rayleigh wave phase for current earth models such as S20RTS and S40RTS, FRT\\'s phase errors are smaller, notably for the shortest wave periods considered (T

  10. Simultaneous full-field 3-D vibrometry of the human eardrum using spatial-bandwidth multiplexed holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaleghi, Morteza; Guignard, Jérémie; Furlong, Cosme; Rosowski, John J

    2015-01-01

    Holographic interferometric methods typically require the use of three sensitivity vectors in order to obtain three-dimensional (3-D) information. Methods based on multiple directions of illumination have limited applications when studying biological tissues that have temporally varying responses such as the tympanic membrane (TM). Therefore, to measure 3-D displacements in such applications, the measurements along all the sensitivity vectors have to be done simultaneously. We propose a multiple-illumination directions approach to measure 3-D displacements from a single-shot hologram that contains displacement information from three sensitivity vectors. The hologram of an object of interest is simultaneously recorded with three incoherently superimposed pairs of reference and object beams. The incident off-axis angles of the reference beams are adjusted such that the frequency components of the multiplexed hologram are completely separate. Because of the differences in the directions and wavelengths of the reference beams, the positions of each reconstructed image corresponding to each sensitivity vector are different. We implemented a registration algorithm to accurately translate individual components of the hologram into a single global coordinate system to calculate 3-D displacements. The results include magnitudes and phases of 3-D sound-induced motions of a human cadaveric TM at several excitation frequencies showing modal and traveling wave motions on its surface.

  11. Accuracy and efficiency of full-arch digitalization and 3D printing: A comparison between desktop model scanners, an intraoral scanner, a CBCT model scan, and stereolithographic 3D printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesemann, Christian; Muallah, Jonas; Mah, James; Bumann, Axel

    2017-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to compare the accuracy and time efficiency of an indirect and direct digitalization workflow with that of a three-dimensional (3D) printer in order to identify the most suitable method for orthodontic use. A master model was measured with a coordinate measuring instrument. The distances measured were the intercanine width, the intermolar width, and the dental arch length. Sixty-four scans were taken with each of the desktop scanners R900 and R700 (3Shape), the intraoral scanner TRIOS Color Pod (3Shape), and the Promax 3D Mid cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) unit (Planmeca). All scans were measured with measuring software. One scan was selected and printed 37 times on the D35 stereolithographic 3D printer (Innovation MediTech). The printed models were measured again using the coordinate measuring instrument. The most accurate results were obtained by the R900. The R700 and the TRIOS intraoral scanner showed comparable results. CBCT-3D-rendering with the Promax 3D Mid CBCT unit revealed significantly higher accuracy with regard to dental casts than dental impressions. 3D printing offered a significantly higher level of deviation than digitalization with desktop scanners or an intraoral scanner. The chairside time required for digital impressions was 27% longer than for conventional impressions. Conventional impressions, model casting, and optional digitization with desktop scanners remains the recommended workflow process. For orthodontic demands, intraoral scanners are a useful alternative for full-arch scans. For prosthodontic use, the scanning scope should be less than one quadrant and three additional teeth.

  12. Imaging of particles with 3D full parallax mode with two-color digital off-axis holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara-Mohammed, Soumaya; Bouamama, Larbi; Picart, Pascal

    2018-05-01

    This paper proposes an approach based on two orthogonal views and two wavelengths for recording off-axis two-color holograms. The approach permits to discriminate particles aligned along the sight-view axis. The experimental set-up is based on a double Mach-Zehnder architecture in which two different wavelengths provides the reference and the object beams. The digital processing to get images from the particles is based on convolution so as to obtain images with no wavelength dependence. The spatial bandwidth of the angular spectrum transfer function is adapted in order to increase the maximum reconstruction distance which is generally limited to a few tens of millimeters. In order to get the images of particles in the 3D volume, a calibration process is proposed and is based on the modulation theorem to perfectly superimpose the two views in a common XYZ axis. The experimental set-up is applied to two-color hologram recording of moving non-calibrated opaque particles with average diameter at about 150 μm. After processing the two-color holograms with image reconstruction and view calibration, the location of particles in the 3D volume can be obtained. Particularly, ambiguity about close particles, generating hidden particles in a single-view scheme, can be removed to determine the exact number of particles in the region of interest.

  13. Empirical assessment of the validity limits of the surface wave full ray theory using realistic 3-D Earth models

    KAUST Repository

    Parisi, Laura; Ferreira, Ana M.G.

    2016-01-01

    The surface wave full ray theory (FRT) is an efficient tool to calculate synthetic waveforms of surface waves. It combines the concept of local modes with exact ray tracing as a function of frequency, providing a more complete description of surface

  14. Development of microgravity, full body functional reach envelope using 3-D computer graphic models and virtual reality technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Patricia F.

    1994-01-01

    In microgravity conditions mobility is greatly enhanced and body stability is difficult to achieve. Because of these difficulties, optimum placement and accessibility of objects and controls can be critical to required tasks on board shuttle flights or on the proposed space station. Anthropometric measurement of the maximum reach of occupants of a microgravity environment provide knowledge about maximum functional placement for tasking situations. Calculations for a full body, functional reach envelope for microgravity environments are imperative. To this end, three dimensional computer modeled human figures, providing a method of anthropometric measurement, were used to locate the data points that define the full body, functional reach envelope. Virtual reality technology was utilized to enable an occupant of the microgravity environment to experience movement within the reach envelope while immersed in a simulated microgravity environment.

  15. The comparison of DYNA3D to approximate solutions for a partially- full waste storage tank subjected to seismic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaslawsky, M.; Kennedy, W.N.

    1992-01-01

    Mathematical solutions to the problem consisting of a partially-full waste tank subjected to seismic loading, embedded in soil, is classically difficult in that one has to address: soil-structure interaction, fluid-structure interaction, non-linear behavior of material, dynamic effects. Separating the problem and applying numerous assumptions will yield approximate solutions. This paper explores methods for generating these solutions accurately

  16. Full scope simulator of a nuclear power plant control room using 3D stereo virtual reality techniques for operators training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghina, Mauricio A.C.; Mol, Antonio Carlos A.; Almeida, Adino Americo A.; Pereira, Claudio M.N.A.; Varela, Thiago F.B.

    2007-01-01

    Practical training of nuclear power plants operators are partially performed by means of simulators. Usually these simulators are physical copies of the original control roam, needing a large space on a facility being also very expensive. In this way, the proposal of this paper is to implement the use of Virtual Reality techniques to design a full scope control room simulator, in a manner to reduce costs and physical space usage. (author)

  17. 3D inversion of full gravity gradient tensor data in spherical coordinate system using local north-oriented frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Wu, Yulong; Yan, Jianguo; Wang, Haoran; Rodriguez, J. Alexis P.; Qiu, Yue

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we propose an inverse method for full gravity gradient tensor data in the spherical coordinate system. As opposed to the traditional gravity inversion in the Cartesian coordinate system, our proposed method takes the curvature of the Earth, the Moon, or other planets into account, using tesseroid bodies to produce gravity gradient effects in forward modeling. We used both synthetic and observed datasets to test the stability and validity of the proposed method. Our results using synthetic gravity data show that our new method predicts the depth of the density anomalous body efficiently and accurately. Using observed gravity data for the Mare Smythii area on the moon, the density distribution of the crust in this area reveals its geological structure. These results validate the proposed method and potential application for large area data inversion of planetary geological structures.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  18. Optical 3D scans for orthodontic diagnostics performed on full-arch impressions. Completeness of surface structure representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Annike B; Kilic, Fatih; Schmidt, Falko; Rübel, Sebastian; Lapatki, Bernd G

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the completeness of surface structure representation offered by full-arch impression scans in different situations of tooth (mal)alignment and whether this completeness could be improved by performing rescans on the same impressions reduced sequentially to different levels of gingival height and by adding extra single scans to the number of single scans recommended by the manufacturer. Three pairs of full-arch resin models were used as reference, characterized either by normal occlusion, by anterior diastematic protrusion (and edentulous spaces in the lower posterior segments), or by anterior crowding. An alginate impression of each arch was taken and digitized with a structured-light scanner, followed by three rescans with the impression cut back to 10, 5, and 1 mm of gingival height. Both the initial scan and the rescans were performed both with 19 basic single scans and with 10 extra single scans. Each impression scan was analyzed for quantitative completeness relative to its homologous direct scan of the original resin model. In addition, the topography of voids in the resultant digital model was assessed by visual inspection. Compared to the homologous reference scans of the original resin models, completeness of the original impression scans--in the absence of both gingival cutback and extra single scans--was 97.23 ± 0.066% in the maxilla or 95.72 ± 0.070% in the mandible with normal occlusion, 91.11 ± 0.132% or 96.07 ± 0.109% in the arches with anterior diastematic protrusion, and 98.24 ± 0.085% or 93.39 ± 0.146% in those with anterior crowding. Gingival cutback and extra single scans were found to improve these values up to 100.35 ± 0.066% or 99.53 ± 0.070% in the arches with normal occlusion, 91.77 ± 0.132% or 97.95 ± 0.109% in those with anterior diastematic protrusion, and 98.59 ± 0.085% or 98.96 ± 0.146% in those with anterior crowding. In strictly quantitative terms, the impression scans did capture

  19. 3D elastic full waveform inversion using P-wave excitation amplitude: Application to OBC field data

    KAUST Repository

    Oh, Juwon; Kalita, Mahesh; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2017-01-01

    We propose an efficient elastic full waveform inversion (FWI) based on the P-wave excitation amplitude (maximum energy arrival) approximation in the source wavefields. Because, based on the P-wave excitation approximation (ExA), the gradient direction is approximated by the cross-correlation of source and receiver wavefields at only excitation time, it estimates the gradient direction faster than its conventional counterpart. In addition to this computational speedup, the P-wave excitation approximation automatically ignores SP and SS correlations in the approximated gradient direction. In elastic FWI for ocean bottom cable (OBC) data, the descent direction for the S-wave velocity is often degraded by undesired long-wavelength features from the SS correlation. For this reason, the P-wave excitation approach increases the convergence rate of multi-parameter FWI compared to the conventional approach. The modified 2D Marmousi model with OBC acquisition is used to verify the differences between the conventional method and ExA. Finally, the feasibility of the proposed method is demonstrated on a real OBC data from North Sea.

  20. 3D elastic full waveform inversion using P-wave excitation amplitude: Application to OBC field data

    KAUST Repository

    Oh, Juwon

    2017-12-05

    We propose an efficient elastic full waveform inversion (FWI) based on the P-wave excitation amplitude (maximum energy arrival) approximation in the source wavefields. Because, based on the P-wave excitation approximation (ExA), the gradient direction is approximated by the cross-correlation of source and receiver wavefields at only excitation time, it estimates the gradient direction faster than its conventional counterpart. In addition to this computational speedup, the P-wave excitation approximation automatically ignores SP and SS correlations in the approximated gradient direction. In elastic FWI for ocean bottom cable (OBC) data, the descent direction for the S-wave velocity is often degraded by undesired long-wavelength features from the SS correlation. For this reason, the P-wave excitation approach increases the convergence rate of multi-parameter FWI compared to the conventional approach. The modified 2D Marmousi model with OBC acquisition is used to verify the differences between the conventional method and ExA. Finally, the feasibility of the proposed method is demonstrated on a real OBC data from North Sea.

  1. EUROPEANA AND 3D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pletinckx

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The current 3D hype creates a lot of interest in 3D. People go to 3D movies, but are we ready to use 3D in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real 3D to a general public and use interactive 3D in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real 3D of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering 3D content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create 3D learning objects, 3D tourist information or 3D scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate 3D objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, 3D has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable 3D objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.

  2. Open 3D Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felician ALECU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many professionals and 3D artists consider Blender as being the best open source solution for 3D computer graphics. The main features are related to modeling, rendering, shading, imaging, compositing, animation, physics and particles and realtime 3D/game creation.

  3. Shape optimization of solid-air porous phononic crystal slabs with widest full 3D bandgap for in-plane acoustic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Luca; Bahr, Bichoy; Daniel, Luca; Weinstein, Dana; Ardito, Raffaele

    2017-09-01

    The use of Phononic Crystals (PnCs) as smart materials in structures and microstructures is growing due to their tunable dynamical properties and to the wide range of possible applications. PnCs are periodic structures that exhibit elastic wave scattering for a certain band of frequencies (called bandgap), depending on the geometric and material properties of the fundamental unit cell of the crystal. PnCs slabs can be represented by plane-extruded structures composed of a single material with periodic perforations. Such a configuration is very interesting, especially in Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems industry, due to the easy fabrication procedure. A lot of topologies can be found in the literature for PnCs with square-symmetric unit cell that exhibit complete 2D bandgaps; however, due to the application demand, it is desirable to find the best topologies in order to guarantee full bandgaps referred to in-plane wave propagation in the complete 3D structure. In this work, by means of a novel and fast implementation of the Bidirectional Evolutionary Structural Optimization technique, shape optimization is conducted on the hole shape obtaining several topologies, also with non-square-symmetric unit cell, endowed with complete 3D full bandgaps for in-plane waves. Model order reduction technique is adopted to reduce the computational time in the wave dispersion analysis. The 3D features of the PnC unit cell endowed with the widest full bandgap are then completely analyzed, paying attention to engineering design issues.

  4. A multi-level surface rebalancing approach for efficient convergence acceleration of 3D full core multi-group fine grid nodal diffusion iterations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geemert, René van

    2014-01-01

    eigenvalue to unity. This paper presents a rigorous derivation of the new approach, followed by a comparison on convergence efficiencies, for a number of 3D full core nodal grid resolution regimes, between the previously available multi-level rebalancing setup and the new multi-level surface rebalancing concept. The surface rebalancing methodology and a number of related concepts are covered in the patents EP2091049, EP2287855, EP2287854 and EP2287853 that were granted in 2012

  5. A Simplified Method for Three-Dimensional (3-D Ovarian Tissue Culture Yielding Oocytes Competent to Produce Full-Term Offspring in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn M Higuchi

    Full Text Available In vitro growth of follicles is a promising technology to generate large quantities of competent oocytes from immature follicles and could expand the potential of assisted reproductive technologies (ART. Isolated follicle culture is currently the primary method used to develop and mature follicles in vitro. However, this procedure typically requires complicated, time-consuming procedures, as well as destruction of the normal ovarian microenvironment. Here we describe a simplified 3-D ovarian culture system that can be used to mature multilayered secondary follicles into antral follicles, generating developmentally competent oocytes in vitro. Ovaries recovered from mice at 14 days of age were cut into 8 pieces and placed onto a thick Matrigel drop (3-D culture for 10 days of culture. As a control, ovarian pieces were cultured on a membrane filter without any Matrigel drop (Membrane culture. We also evaluated the effect of activin A treatment on follicle growth within the ovarian pieces with or without Matrigel support. Thus we tested four different culture conditions: C (Membrane/activin-, A (Membrane/activin+, M (Matrigel/activin-, and M+A (Matrigel/activin+. We found that the cultured follicles and oocytes steadily increased in size regardless of the culture condition used. However, antral cavity formation occurred only in the follicles grown in the 3-D culture system (M, M+A. Following ovarian tissue culture, full-grown GV oocytes were isolated from the larger follicles to evaluate their developmental competence by subjecting them to in vitro maturation (IVM and in vitro fertilization (IVF. Maturation and fertilization rates were higher using oocytes grown in 3-D culture (M, M+A than with those grown in membrane culture (C, A. In particular, activin A treatment further improved 3-D culture (M+A success. Following IVF, two-cell embryos were transferred to recipients to generate full-term offspring. In summary, this simple and easy 3-D ovarian

  6. Full area covered 3D profile measurement of special-shaped optics based on a new prototype non-contact profiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hui-Lin; Zhou, Zhao-Zhong; Sun, Ze-Qing; Ju, Bing-Feng; Xu, Shaoning; Sun, Anyu

    2017-06-01

    A new prototype non-contact profiler based on surface tracking has been specially developed. Surface tracking is carried out by a specially designed dual stage probe system with the aid of a four-Degree Of Freedom high-precision motion platform. The dual stage probe system keeps a short-range optical probe constantly tracking the surface by a self-developed voice coil motor servo, by which a wide measuring range of up to 10 mm is realized. The system performance evaluation including resolution, repeatability, and scanning speed proved the good capability of the new prototype non-contact profiler. To realize a full area covered 3D profile measurement of special-shaped optics within one scanning procedure, a signal intensity monitor integrated in the surface tracking controller is specially developed. In the experiment, a snip-single-corner-rectangular-shaped freeform surface was successfully measured over full area by the new non-contact profiler. This work provides an effective solution for 3D profile measurement of special-shaped optical surfaces over full reflecting area. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed measuring system is of great significance in quality evaluation of optical surfaces.

  7. Full-frame, high-speed 3D shape and deformation measurements using stereo-digital image correlation and a single color high-speed camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Liping; Pan, Bing

    2017-08-01

    Full-frame, high-speed 3D shape and deformation measurement using stereo-digital image correlation (stereo-DIC) technique and a single high-speed color camera is proposed. With the aid of a skillfully designed pseudo stereo-imaging apparatus, color images of a test object surface, composed of blue and red channel images from two different optical paths, are recorded by a high-speed color CMOS camera. The recorded color images can be separated into red and blue channel sub-images using a simple but effective color crosstalk correction method. These separated blue and red channel sub-images are processed by regular stereo-DIC method to retrieve full-field 3D shape and deformation on the test object surface. Compared with existing two-camera high-speed stereo-DIC or four-mirror-adapter-assisted singe-camera high-speed stereo-DIC, the proposed single-camera high-speed stereo-DIC technique offers prominent advantages of full-frame measurements using a single high-speed camera but without sacrificing its spatial resolution. Two real experiments, including shape measurement of a curved surface and vibration measurement of a Chinese double-side drum, demonstrated the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed technique.

  8. 3D nanoscale imaging of the yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, by full-field transmission x-ray microscopy at 5.4 keV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Yang, Yunhao; Zhang, Xiaobo; Andrews, Joy C.; Pianetta, Piero; Guan, Yong; Liu, Gang; Xiong, Ying; Wu, Ziyu; Tian, Yangchao

    2010-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) nanoscale structures of the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, can be obtained by full-field transmission hard x-ray microscopy with 30 nm resolution using synchrotron radiation sources. Sample preparation is relatively simple and the samples are portable across various imaging environments, allowing for high throughput sample screening. The yeast cells were fixed and double stained with Reynold’s lead citrate and uranyl acetate. We performed both absorption contrast and Zernike phase contrast imaging on these cells in order to test this method. The membranes, nucleus and subcellular organelles of the cells were clearly visualized using absorption contrast mode. The x-ray images of the cells could be used to study the spatial distributions of the organelles in the cells. These results show unique structural information, demonstrating that hard x-ray microscopy is a complementary method for imaging and analyzing biological samples. PMID:20349228

  9. 3D nanoscale imaging of the yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, by full-field transmission X-ray microscopy at 5.4 keV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Yang, Yunhao; Zhang, Xiaobo; Andrews, Joy C; Pianetta, Piero; Guan, Yong; Liu, Gang; Xiong, Ying; Wu, Ziyu; Tian, Yangchao

    2010-07-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) nanoscale structures of the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, can be obtained by full-field transmission hard X-ray microscopy with 30 nm resolution using synchrotron radiation sources. Sample preparation is relatively simple and the samples are portable across various imaging environments, allowing for high-throughput sample screening. The yeast cells were fixed and double-stained with Reynold's lead citrate and uranyl acetate. We performed both absorption contrast and Zernike phase contrast imaging on these cells in order to test this method. The membranes, nucleus, and subcellular organelles of the cells were clearly visualized using absorption contrast mode. The X-ray images of the cells could be used to study the spatial distributions of the organelles in the cells. These results show unique structural information, demonstrating that hard X-ray microscopy is a complementary method for imaging and analyzing biological samples.

  10. Implant Restoration of Edentulous Jaws with 3D Software Planning, Guided Surgery, Immediate Loading, and CAD-CAM Full Arch Frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Mario Meloni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical and radiographic outcomes of 23 edentulous jaws treated with 3D software planning, guided surgery, and immediate loading and restored with CAD-CAM full arch frameworks. Materials and Methods. This work was designed as a prospective case series clinical study. Twenty patients have been consecutively rehabilitated with an immediately loaded implant supported fixed full prosthesis. A total of 120 fixtures supporting 23 bridges were placed. 117 out of 120 implants were immediately loaded. Outcome measures were implants survival, radiographic marginal bone levels and remodeling, soft tissue parameters, and complications. Results. 114 of 117 implants reached a 30 months follow-up, and no patients dropped out from the study. The cumulative survival rate was 97.7%; after 30 months, mean marginal bone level was  mm, mean marginal bone remodeling value was , mean PPD value was  mm, and mean BOP value was 4% ± 2.8%. Only minor prosthetic complications were recorded. Conclusion. Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that computer-guided surgery and immediate loading seem to represent a viable option for the immediate rehabilitations of completely edentulous jaws with fixed implant supported restorations. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01866696.

  11. Underwater 3D filming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rinaldi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available After an experimental phase of many years, 3D filming is now effective and successful. Improvements are still possible, but the film industry achieved memorable success on 3D movie’s box offices due to the overall quality of its products. Special environments such as space (“Gravity” and the underwater realm look perfect to be reproduced in 3D. “Filming in space” was possible in “Gravity” using special effects and computer graphic. The underwater realm is still difficult to be handled. Underwater filming in 3D was not that easy and effective as filming in 2D, since not long ago. After almost 3 years of research, a French, Austrian and Italian team realized a perfect tool to film underwater, in 3D, without any constrains. This allows filmmakers to bring the audience deep inside an environment where they most probably will never have the chance to be.

  12. Numerical Simulation of Early Age Cracking of Reinforced Concrete Bridge Decks with a Full-3D Multiscale and Multi-Chemo-Physical Integrated Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Ishida

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In November 2011, the Japanese government resolved to build “Revival Roads” in the Tohoku region to accelerate the recovery from the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 2011. Because the Tohoku region experiences such cold and snowy weather in winter, complex degradation from a combination of frost damage, chloride attack from de-icing agents, alkali–silica reaction, cracking and fatigue is anticipated. Thus, to enhance the durability performance of road structures, particularly reinforced concrete (RC bridge decks, multiple countermeasures are proposed: a low water-to-cement ratio in the mix, mineral admixtures such as ground granulated blast furnace slag and/or fly ash to mitigate the risks of chloride attack and alkali–silica reaction, anticorrosion rebar and 6% entrained air for frost damage. It should be noted here that such high durability specifications may conversely increase the risk of early age cracking caused by temperature and shrinkage due to the large amounts of cement and the use of mineral admixtures. Against this background, this paper presents a numerical simulation of early age deformation and cracking of RC bridge decks with full 3D multiscale and multi-chemo-physical integrated analysis. First, a multiscale constitutive model of solidifying cementitious materials is briefly introduced based on systematic knowledge coupling microscopic thermodynamic phenomena and microscopic structural mechanics. With the aim to assess the early age thermal and shrinkage-induced cracks on real bridge deck, the study began with extensive model validations by applying the multiscale and multi-physical integrated analysis system to small specimens and mock-up RC bridge deck specimens. Then, through the application of the current computational system, factors that affect the generation and propagation of early age thermal and shrinkage-induced cracks are identified via experimental validation and full-scale numerical simulation on real

  13. Comparative analysis of 3D data accuracy of single tooth and full dental arch captured by different intraoral and laboratory digital impression systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryakhovskiy, A N; Kostyukova, V V

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of digital impressions taken by different intraoral and laboratory scanners. For this purpose a synthetic jaw model with prepared tooth was scanned using intraoral scanning systems: 3D Progress (MHT S.P.A., IT - MHT Optic Research AG, CH); True Definition (3M ESPE, USA); Trios (3Shape A/S, DNK); CEREC AC Bluecam, CEREC Omnicam (Sirona Dental System GmbH, DE); Planscan (Planmeca, FIN); and laboratory scanning systems: s600 ARTI (Zirkonzahn GmbH, IT); Imetric Iscan D104, CH); D900 (3Shape A/S, DNK); Zfx Evolution (Zfx GmbH, DE) (each n=10). Reference-scanning was done by ATOS Core (GOM mbH, DE). The resulting digital impressions were superimposed with the master-scan. The measured deviations by points (trueness) for intraoral scanners were: True Definition - 15.0±2.85 μm (single tooth) and 45.0±19.11 µm (full arch); Trios - 17.1±1.44 and 58.8±27.36 µm; CEREC AC Bluecam - 22.3±5.58 and 20.3±4.13 µm; CEREC Omnicam - 25.0±1.06 and 78.5±27.03 µm; 3D Progress - 26.4±5.75 and 213.5±47.44 µm; Planscan - 54.6±11.58 and 205.2±21.73 µm. For laboratory scanners: Imetric Iscan D104 - 10.2±0.87 μm (stamp) and 65.3±5.36 µm (full arch); Zfx Evolution - 12.8±0.83 and 66.4±2.80 µm; Zirkonzahn s600 ARTI - 15.1±1.36 and 65.9±1.33 µm; 3Shape D900 - 19.9±0.53 and 63.6±0.83 µm. Precision was: True Definition - 19.9±2.77 μm (single tooth) and 40.1±11.04 µm (full arch); Trios - 25.8±2.49 and 69.9±18.95 µm; CEREC AC Bluecam - 36.4±2.78 and 46.6±3.44 µm; CEREC Omnicam - 37.6±3.29 and 76.2±13.36 µm; 3D Progress - 76.9±11.04 and 102.2±8.06 µm; Planscan - 74.3±6.58 and 93.9±15.32 µm. For laboratory scanners: Imetric Iscan D104 - 11.7±4.39 μm (stamp) and 31.2±5.58 µm (full arch); Zfx Evolution - 8.4±0.49 and 24.8±3.98 µm; Zirkonzahn s600 ARTI - 13.4±6.74 and 20.7±4.34 µm; 3Shape D900 - 10.4±0.93 and 17.8±0.62 µm. Whole deviation of the dental arch was: 3D Progress - 98.0±5.70 µm

  14. Non-destructive analysis of flake properties in automotive paints with full-field optical coherence tomography and 3D segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinke; Williams, Bryan M; Lawman, Samuel; Atkinson, David; Zhang, Zijian; Shen, Yaochun; Zheng, Yalin

    2017-08-07

    Automotive coating systems are designed to protect vehicle bodies from corrosion and enhance their aesthetic value. The number, size and orientation of small metallic flakes in the base coat of the paint has a significant effect on the appearance of automotive bodies. It is important for quality assurance (QA) to be able to measure the properties of these small flakes, which are approximately 10μm in radius, yet current QA techniques are limited to measuring layer thickness. We design and develop a time-domain (TD) full-field (FF) optical coherence tomography (OCT) system to scan automotive panels volumetrically, non-destructively and without contact. We develop and integrate a segmentation method to automatically distinguish flakes and allow measurement of their properties. We test our integrated system on nine sections of five panels and demonstrate that this integrated approach can characterise small flakes in automotive coating systems in 3D, calculating the number, size and orientation accurately and consistently. This has the potential to significantly impact QA testing in the automotive industry.

  15. Membrane-bound human orphan cytochrome P450 2U1: Sequence singularities, construction of a full 3D model, and substrate docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducassou, Lionel; Dhers, Laura; Jonasson, Gabriella; Pietrancosta, Nicolas; Boucher, Jean-Luc; Mansuy, Daniel; André, François

    2017-09-01

    Human cytochrome P450 2U1 (CYP2U1) is an orphan CYP that exhibits several distinctive characteristics among the 57 human CYPs with a highly conserved sequence in almost all living organisms. We compared its protein sequence with those of the 57 human CYPs and constructed a 3D structure of a full-length CYP2U1 model bound to a POPC membrane. We also performed docking experiments of arachidonic acid (AA) and N-arachidonoylserotonin (AS) in this model. The protein sequence of CYP2U1 displayed two unique characteristics when compared to those of the human CYPs, the presence of a longer N-terminal region upstream of the putative trans-membrane helix (TMH) containing 8 proline residues, and of an insert of about 20 amino acids containing 5 arginine residues between helices A' and A. Its N-terminal part upstream of TMH involved an additional short terminal helix, in a manner similar to what was reported in the crystal structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CYP51. Our model also showed a specific interaction between the charged residues of insert AA' and phosphate groups of lipid polar heads, suggesting a possible role of this insert in substrate recruitment. Docking of AA and AS in this model showed these substrates in channel 2ac, with the terminal alkyl chain of AA or the indole ring of AS close to the heme, in agreement with the reported CYP2U1-catalyzed AA and AS hydroxylation regioselectivities. This model should be useful to find new endogenous or exogenous CYP2U1 substrates and to interpret the regioselectivity of their hydroxylation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  16. Experimental validation of 3D reconstructed pin-power distributions in full-scale BWR fuel assemblies with partial length rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giust, F. D. [Axpo Kernenergie, Parkstrasse 23, CH-5401 Baden (Switzerland); Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Grimm, P. [Paul Scherrer Inst., CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Chawla, R. [Paul Scherrer Inst., CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01

    Total fission rate measurements have been performed on full-size BWR fuel assemblies of type SVEA-96 Optima2 in the framework of Phase III of the LWR-PROTEUS experimental program at the Paul Scherrer Inst.. This paper presents comparisons of calculated, nodal reconstructed, pin-wise total-fission rate distributions with experimental results. Radial comparisons have been performed for the three sections of the assembly (96, 92 and 84 fuel pins), while three-dimensional effects have been investigated at pellet-level for the two transition regions, i.e. the tips of the short (1/3) and long (2/3) partial length rods. The test zone has been modeled using two different code systems: HELIOS/PRESTO-2 and CASMO-5/SIMULATE-5. The first is presently used for core monitoring and design at the Leibstadt Nuclear Power Plant (KKL). The second represents the most recent generation of the widely applied CASMO/SIMULATE system. For representing the PROTEUS test-zone boundaries, Partial Current Ratios (PCRs) - derived from a 3D MCNPX model of the entire reactor - have been applied to the PRESTO-2 and SIMULATE-5 models in the form of 2- and 5-group diagonal albedo matrices, respectively. The MCNPX results have also served as a reference, high-order transport solution in the calculation/experiment comparisons. It is shown that the performance of the nodal methodologies in predicting the global distribution of the total-fission rate is very satisfactory. Considering the various radial comparisons, the standard deviations of the calculated/experimental (C/E) distributions do not exceed 1.9% for any of the three methodologies - PRESTO-2, SIMULATE-5 and MCNPX. For the three-dimensional comparisons at pellet-level, the corresponding standard deviations are 2.7%, 2.0% and 2.1%, respectively. (authors)

  17. DELTA 3D PRINTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ȘOVĂILĂ Florin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available 3D printing is a very used process in industry, the generic name being “rapid prototyping”. The essential advantage of a 3D printer is that it allows the designers to produce a prototype in a very short time, which is tested and quickly remodeled, considerably reducing the required time to get from the prototype phase to the final product. At the same time, through this technique we can achieve components with very precise forms, complex pieces that, through classical methods, could have been accomplished only in a large amount of time. In this paper, there are presented the stages of a 3D model execution, also the physical achievement after of a Delta 3D printer after the model.

  18. Development of hybrid core calculation system using 2-D full-core heterogeneous transport calculation and 3-D advanced nodal calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimura, Naoki; Mori, Masaaki; Hijiya, Masayuki; Ushio, Tadashi; Arakawa, Yasushi

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the Hybrid Core Calculation System which is a very rigorous but a practical calculation system applicable to best estimate core design calculations taking advantage of the recent remarkable progress of computers. The basic idea of this system is to generate the correction factors for assembly homogenized cross sections, discontinuity factors, etc. by comparing the CASMO-4 and SIMULATE-3 2-D core calculation results under the consistent calculation condition and then apply them for SIMULATE-3 3-D calculation. The CASMO-4 2-D heterogeneous core calculation is performed for each depletion step with the core conditions previously determined by ordinary SIMULATE-3 core calculation to avoid time consuming iterative calculations searching for the critical boron concentrations while treating the thermal hydraulic feedback. The final SIMULATE-3 3-D calculation using the correction factors is performed with iterative calculations searching for the critical boron concentrations while treating the thermal hydraulic feedback. (author)

  19. A 3d-3d appetizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, Du; Ye, Ke [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, 91125 (United States)

    2016-11-02

    We test the 3d-3d correspondence for theories that are labeled by Lens spaces. We find a full agreement between the index of the 3d N=2 “Lens space theory” T[L(p,1)] and the partition function of complex Chern-Simons theory on L(p,1). In particular, for p=1, we show how the familiar S{sup 3} partition function of Chern-Simons theory arises from the index of a free theory. For large p, we find that the index of T[L(p,1)] becomes a constant independent of p. In addition, we study T[L(p,1)] on the squashed three-sphere S{sub b}{sup 3}. This enables us to see clearly, at the level of partition function, to what extent G{sub ℂ} complex Chern-Simons theory can be thought of as two copies of Chern-Simons theory with compact gauge group G.

  20. 3D ARCHITECTURAL VIDEOMAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Catanese

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available 3D architectural mapping is a video projection technique that can be done with a survey of a chosen building in order to realize a perfect correspondence between its shapes and the images in projection. As a performative kind of audiovisual artifact, the real event of the 3D mapping is a combination of a registered video animation file with a real architecture. This new kind of visual art is becoming very popular and its big audience success testifies new expressive chances in the field of urban design. My case study has been experienced in Pisa for the Luminara feast in 2012.

  1. Herramientas SIG 3D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco R. Feito Higueruela

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Applications of Geographical Information Systems on several Archeology fields have been increasing during the last years. Recent avances in these technologies make possible to work with more realistic 3D models. In this paper we introduce a new paradigm for this system, the GIS Thetrahedron, in which we define the fundamental elements of GIS, in order to provide a better understanding of their capabilities. At the same time the basic 3D characteristics of some comercial and open source software are described, as well as the application to some samples on archeological researchs

  2. Direct biological effects of fractional ultrapulsed CO2 laser irradiation on keratinocytes and fibroblasts in human organotypic full-thickness 3D skin models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, L; Huth, S; Amann, P M; Marquardt, Y; Heise, R; Fietkau, K; Huth, L; Steiner, T; Hölzle, F; Baron, J M

    2018-05-01

    Molecular effects of various ablative and non-ablative laser treatments on human skin cells-especially primary effects on epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts-are not yet fully understood. We present the first study addressing molecular effects of fractional non-sequential ultrapulsed CO 2 laser treatment using a 3D skin model that allows standardized investigations of time-dependent molecular changes ex vivo. While histological examination was performed to assess morphological changes, we utilized gene expression profiling using microarray and qRT-PCR analyses to identify molecular effects of laser treatment. Irradiated models exhibited dose-dependent morphological changes resulting in an almost complete recovery of the epidermis 5 days after irradiation. On day 5 after laser injury with a laser fluence of 100 mJ/cm 2 , gene array analysis identified an upregulation of genes associated with tissue remodeling and wound healing (e.g., COL12A1 and FGF7), genes that are involved in the immune response (e.g., CXCL12 and CCL8) as well as members of the heat shock protein family (e.g., HSPB3). On the other hand, we detected a downregulation of matrix metalloproteinases (e.g., MMP3), differentiation markers (e.g., LOR and S100A7), and the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL1α.Overall, our findings substantiate the understanding of time-dependent molecular changes after CO 2 laser treatment. The utilized 3D skin model system proved to be a reliable, accurate, and reproducible tool to explore the effects of various laser settings both on skin morphology and gene expression during wound healing.

  3. Imaging of the internal structure of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko from radiotomography CONSERT Data (Rosetta Mission) through a full 3D regularized inversion of the Helmholtz equations on functional spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriot, Jean-Pierre; Serafini, Jonathan; Sichoix, Lydie; Benna, Mehdi; Kofman, Wlodek; Herique, Alain

    We investigate the inverse problem of imaging the internal structure of comet 67P/ Churyumov-Gerasimenko from radiotomography CONSERT data by using a coupled regularized inversion of the Helmholtz equations. A first set of Helmholtz equations, written w.r.t a basis of 3D Hankel functions describes the wave propagation outside the comet at large distances, a second set of Helmholtz equations, written w.r.t. a basis of 3D Zernike functions describes the wave propagation throughout the comet with avariable permittivity. Both sets are connected by continuity equations over a sphere that surrounds the comet. This approach, derived from GPS water vapor tomography of the atmosphere,will permit a full 3D inversion of the internal structure of the comet, contrary to traditional approaches that use a discretization of space at a fraction of the radiowave wavelength.

  4. 3D Animation Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Beane, Andy

    2012-01-01

    The essential fundamentals of 3D animation for aspiring 3D artists 3D is everywhere--video games, movie and television special effects, mobile devices, etc. Many aspiring artists and animators have grown up with 3D and computers, and naturally gravitate to this field as their area of interest. Bringing a blend of studio and classroom experience to offer you thorough coverage of the 3D animation industry, this must-have book shows you what it takes to create compelling and realistic 3D imagery. Serves as the first step to understanding the language of 3D and computer graphics (CG)Covers 3D anim

  5. 3D video

    CERN Document Server

    Lucas, Laurent; Loscos, Céline

    2013-01-01

    While 3D vision has existed for many years, the use of 3D cameras and video-based modeling by the film industry has induced an explosion of interest for 3D acquisition technology, 3D content and 3D displays. As such, 3D video has become one of the new technology trends of this century.The chapters in this book cover a large spectrum of areas connected to 3D video, which are presented both theoretically and technologically, while taking into account both physiological and perceptual aspects. Stepping away from traditional 3D vision, the authors, all currently involved in these areas, provide th

  6. Iowa Stratigraphic Data Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The Iowa stratigraphic column consists of rock materials of varying geologic age that have been categorized into a shapefile for summarizing the 3 dimensional aspect...

  7. Full 3D modelling of pulse propagation enables efficient nonlinear frequency conversion with low energy laser pulses in a single-element tripler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardaś, Tomasz M.; Nejbauer, Michał; Wnuk, Paweł; Resan, Bojan; Radzewicz, Czesław; Wasylczyk, Piotr

    2017-02-01

    Although new optical materials continue to open up access to more and more wavelength bands where femtosecond laser pulses can be generated, light frequency conversion techniques are still indispensable in filling the gaps on the ultrafast spectral scale. With high repetition rate, low pulse energy laser sources (oscillators) tight focusing is necessary for a robust wave mixing and the efficiency of broadband nonlinear conversion is limited by diffraction as well as spatial and temporal walk-off. Here we demonstrate a miniature third harmonic generator (tripler) with conversion efficiency exceeding 30%, producing 246 fs UV pulses via cascaded second order processes within a single laser beam focus. Designing this highly efficient and ultra compact frequency converter was made possible by full 3-dimentional modelling of propagation of tightly focused, broadband light fields in nonlinear and birefringent media.

  8. Monte Carlo simulation of irradiation of MTR fuel plates in the BR2 reactor using a full-scale 3-d model with inclined channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzminov, V. V; Koonen, E.; Ponsard, B.

    2002-01-01

    A three-dimensional full-scale Monte Carlo model of the BR2 reactor has been developed for simulation of irradiation conditions of materials and fuel loaded in various irradiation devices. This new reactor model includes a detailed geometrical description of the inclined reactor channels, the irradiation devices loaded in these channels including the materials to be tested/loaded in these devices, the burn-up of the BR2 fuel elements and the poisoning of the beryllium matrix. Recently a benchmark irradiation of new irradiation device for testing and qualification of MTR fuel plates has been performed. For this purpose the detailed irradiation conditions of fuel plates had to be predetermined. Monte Carlo calculations of neutron fluxes and heat load distributions in irradiated MTR fuel plates were performed taking into account the contents of all loaded experimental devices in the reactor channels. A comparison of the calculated and measured values of neutron fluxes and of heat loads in the BR2 reactor is presented in this paper. The comparison is part of the validation process of the new reactor model. It also serves to establish the capability to conduct a fuel plate irradiation program under requested and well- known irradiation conditions. (author)

  9. The role of superstructure material on the stress distribution in mandibular full-arch implant-supported fixed dentures. A CT-based 3D-FEA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Mayara Barbosa; Barão, Valentim Adelino; Faverani, Leonardo Perez; Hipólito, Ana Carolina; Assunção, Wirley Gonçalves

    2014-02-01

    This study evaluated the stress distribution in mandibular full-arch implant-supported fixed dentures with different veneering and metallic infrastructure materials, using three-dimensional finite element analysis. Ten models were obtained from an edentulous human mandible with a complete denture fixed by four implants. Acrylic resin (RES) and porcelain (POR) teeth were associated with infrastructures of titanium (Ti), gold (Au), silver-palladium (AgPd), chrome-cobalt (CoCr) and nickel-chrome (NiCr). A 100-N oblique was applied. The von Mises (σvM) and maximum (σmax) and minimum (σmin) principal stresses were obtained. The RES-AgPd group showed the lowest σvM values, while the RES-Ni-Cr group showed the highest. In the bone tissue, the RES-Au group was the only one that showed different σmax values with a 12% increase in comparison to the other groups which had similar stress values. In the implants, the groups with Ti, Au and AgPd infrastructures, either with porcelain or resin teeth, showed σvM values similar and lower in comparison to the groups with CoCr and NiCr infrastructures. The tooth veneering material influenced the stress values in metallic infrastructures, in which the acrylic resin had the highest values. The veneering and infrastructure materials have influence on stress values of implant-supported dentures, except for the peri-implant bone tissue. © 2013.

  10. Full-Wave Analysis of the Shielding Effectiveness of Thin Graphene Sheets with the 3D Unidirectionally Collocated HIE-FDTD Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Van Londersele

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Graphene-based electrical components are inherently multiscale, which poses a real challenge for finite-difference time-domain (FDTD solvers due to the stringent time step upper bound. Here, a unidirectionally collocated hybrid implicit-explicit (UCHIE FDTD method is put forward that exploits the planar structure of graphene to increase the time step by implicitizing the critical dimension. The method replaces the traditional Yee discretization by a partially collocated scheme that allows a more accurate numerical description of the material boundaries. Moreover, the UCHIE-FDTD method preserves second-order accuracy even for nonuniform discretization in the direction of collocation. The auxiliary differential equation (ADE approach is used to implement the graphene sheet as a dispersive Drude medium. The finite grid is terminated by a uniaxial perfectly matched layer (UPML to permit open-space simulations. Special care is taken to elaborate on the efficient implementation of the implicit update equations. The UCHIE-FDTD method is validated by computing the shielding effectiveness of a typical graphene sheet.

  11. Frequency Smearing in Full 3D Interferometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vugt, Pieter Karel Anton; Meijerink, Arjan; Wijnholds, S.; Bentum, Marinus Jan

    2017-01-01

    Radio astronomy below 30 MHz has never been properly performed because the ionosphere inhibits this on Earth. In order to properly map the sky at these frequencies, the only financially feasible option is to build a radio telescope that comprises many small satellites. Since the observational

  12. Abusir 3D survey 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukinori Kawae

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2015, in collaboration with the Czech Institute of Egyptology, we, a Japanese consortium, initiated the Abusir 3D Survey (A-3DS for the 3D documentation of the site’s pyramids, which have not been updated since the time of the architectural investigations of Vito Maragioglio and Celeste Rinaldi in the 1960s to the 1970s. The first season of our project focused on the exterior of Neferirkare’s pyramid, the largest pyramid at Abusir. By developing a strategic mathematical 3D survey plan, step-by-step 3D documentation to suit specific archaeological needs, and producing a new display method for the 3D data, we successfully measured the dimensions of the pyramid in a cost-effective way.

  13. E3D, 3-D Elastic Seismic Wave Propagation Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, S.; Harris, D.; Schultz, C.; Maddix, D.; Bakowsky, T.; Bent, L.

    2004-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: E3D is capable of simulating seismic wave propagation in a 3D heterogeneous earth. Seismic waves are initiated by earthquake, explosive, and/or other sources. These waves propagate through a 3D geologic model, and are simulated as synthetic seismograms or other graphical output. 2 - Methods: The software simulates wave propagation by solving the elasto-dynamic formulation of the full wave equation on a staggered grid. The solution scheme is 4-order accurate in space, 2-order accurate in time

  14. 3D full-field quantification of cell-induced large deformations in fibrillar biomaterials by combining non-rigid image registration with label-free second harmonic generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge-Peñas, Alvaro; Bové, Hannelore; Sanen, Kathleen; Vaeyens, Marie-Mo; Steuwe, Christian; Roeffaers, Maarten; Ameloot, Marcel; Van Oosterwyck, Hans

    2017-08-01

    To advance our current understanding of cell-matrix mechanics and its importance for biomaterials development, advanced three-dimensional (3D) measurement techniques are necessary. Cell-induced deformations of the surrounding matrix are commonly derived from the displacement of embedded fiducial markers, as part of traction force microscopy (TFM) procedures. However, these fluorescent markers may alter the mechanical properties of the matrix or can be taken up by the embedded cells, and therefore influence cellular behavior and fate. In addition, the currently developed methods for calculating cell-induced deformations are generally limited to relatively small deformations, with displacement magnitudes and strains typically of the order of a few microns and less than 10% respectively. Yet, large, complex deformation fields can be expected from cells exerting tractions in fibrillar biomaterials, like collagen. To circumvent these hurdles, we present a technique for the 3D full-field quantification of large cell-generated deformations in collagen, without the need of fiducial markers. We applied non-rigid, Free Form Deformation (FFD)-based image registration to compute full-field displacements induced by MRC-5 human lung fibroblasts in a collagen type I hydrogel by solely relying on second harmonic generation (SHG) from the collagen fibrils. By executing comparative experiments, we show that comparable displacement fields can be derived from both fibrils and fluorescent beads. SHG-based fibril imaging can circumvent all described disadvantages of using fiducial markers. This approach allows measuring 3D full-field deformations under large displacement (of the order of 10 μm) and strain regimes (up to 40%). As such, it holds great promise for the study of large cell-induced deformations as an inherent component of cell-biomaterial interactions and cell-mediated biomaterial remodeling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Refined 3d-3d correspondence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alday, Luis F.; Genolini, Pietro Benetti; Bullimore, Mathew; Loon, Mark van [Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Andrew Wiles Building,Radcliffe Observatory Quarter, Woodstock Road, Oxford, OX2 6GG (United Kingdom)

    2017-04-28

    We explore aspects of the correspondence between Seifert 3-manifolds and 3d N=2 supersymmetric theories with a distinguished abelian flavour symmetry. We give a prescription for computing the squashed three-sphere partition functions of such 3d N=2 theories constructed from boundary conditions and interfaces in a 4d N=2{sup ∗} theory, mirroring the construction of Seifert manifold invariants via Dehn surgery. This is extended to include links in the Seifert manifold by the insertion of supersymmetric Wilson-’t Hooft loops in the 4d N=2{sup ∗} theory. In the presence of a mass parameter for the distinguished flavour symmetry, we recover aspects of refined Chern-Simons theory with complex gauge group, and in particular construct an analytic continuation of the S-matrix of refined Chern-Simons theory.

  16. 3D virtuel udstilling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tournay, Bruno; Rüdiger, Bjarne

    2006-01-01

    3d digital model af Arkitektskolens gård med virtuel udstilling af afgangsprojekter fra afgangen sommer 2006. 10 s.......3d digital model af Arkitektskolens gård med virtuel udstilling af afgangsprojekter fra afgangen sommer 2006. 10 s....

  17. Underwater 3D filming

    OpenAIRE

    Rinaldi, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    After an experimental phase of many years, 3D filming is now effective and successful. Improvements are still possible, but the film industry achieved memorable success on 3D movie’s box offices due to the overall quality of its products. Special environments such as space (“Gravity” ) and the underwater realm look perfect to be reproduced in 3D. “Filming in space” was possible in “Gravity” using special effects and computer graphic. The underwater realm is still difficult to be handled. Unde...

  18. Blender 3D cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Valenza, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    This book is aimed at the professionals that already have good 3D CGI experience with commercial packages and have now decided to try the open source Blender and want to experiment with something more complex than the average tutorials on the web. However, it's also aimed at the intermediate Blender users who simply want to go some steps further.It's taken for granted that you already know how to move inside the Blender interface, that you already have 3D modeling knowledge, and also that of basic 3D modeling and rendering concepts, for example, edge-loops, n-gons, or samples. In any case, it'

  19. Professional Papervision3D

    CERN Document Server

    Lively, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Professional Papervision3D describes how Papervision3D works and how real world applications are built, with a clear look at essential topics such as building websites and games, creating virtual tours, and Adobe's Flash 10. Readers learn important techniques through hands-on applications, and build on those skills as the book progresses. The companion website contains all code examples, video step-by-step explanations, and a collada repository.

  20. Stereoscopic 3D graphics generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Liu, Jianping; Zan, Y.

    1997-05-01

    Stereoscopic display technology is one of the key techniques of areas such as simulation, multimedia, entertainment, virtual reality, and so on. Moreover, stereoscopic 3D graphics generation is an important part of stereoscopic 3D display system. In this paper, at first, we describe the principle of stereoscopic display and summarize some methods to generate stereoscopic 3D graphics. Secondly, to overcome the problems which came from the methods of user defined models (such as inconvenience, long modifying period and so on), we put forward the vector graphics files defined method. Thus we can design more directly; modify the model simply and easily; generate more conveniently; furthermore, we can make full use of graphics accelerator card and so on. Finally, we discuss the problem of how to speed up the generation.

  1. Wearable 3D measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manabe, Yoshitsugu; Imura, Masataka; Tsuchiya, Masanobu; Yasumuro, Yoshihiro; Chihara, Kunihiro

    2003-01-01

    Wearable 3D measurement realizes to acquire 3D information of an objects or an environment using a wearable computer. Recently, we can send voice and sound as well as pictures by mobile phone in Japan. Moreover it will become easy to capture and send data of short movie by it. On the other hand, the computers become compact and high performance. And it can easy connect to Internet by wireless LAN. Near future, we can use the wearable computer always and everywhere. So we will be able to send the three-dimensional data that is measured by wearable computer as a next new data. This paper proposes the measurement method and system of three-dimensional data of an object with the using of wearable computer. This method uses slit light projection for 3D measurement and user"s motion instead of scanning system.

  2. 3D Digital Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundebøl, Jesper

    wave of new building information modelling tools demands further investigation, not least because of industry representatives' somewhat coarse parlance: Now the word is spreading -3D digital modelling is nothing less than a revolution, a shift of paradigm, a new alphabet... Research qeustions. Based...... on empirical probes (interviews, observations, written inscriptions) within the Danish construction industry this paper explores the organizational and managerial dynamics of 3D Digital Modelling. The paper intends to - Illustrate how the network of (non-)human actors engaged in the promotion (and arrest) of 3...... important to appreciate the analysis. Before turning to the presentation of preliminary findings and a discussion of 3D digital modelling, it begins, however, with an outline of industry specific ICT strategic issues. Paper type. Multi-site field study...

  3. Interaktiv 3D design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villaume, René Domine; Ørstrup, Finn Rude

    2002-01-01

    Projektet undersøger potentialet for interaktiv 3D design via Internettet. Arkitekt Jørn Utzons projekt til Espansiva blev udviklet som et byggesystem med det mål, at kunne skabe mangfoldige planmuligheder og mangfoldige facade- og rumudformninger. Systemets bygningskomponenter er digitaliseret som...... 3D elementer og gjort tilgængelige. Via Internettet er det nu muligt at sammenstille og afprøve en uendelig  række bygningstyper som  systemet blev tænkt og udviklet til....

  4. 3D Projection Installations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halskov, Kim; Johansen, Stine Liv; Bach Mikkelsen, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional projection installations are particular kinds of augmented spaces in which a digital 3-D model is projected onto a physical three-dimensional object, thereby fusing the digital content and the physical object. Based on interaction design research and media studies, this article ...... Fingerplan to Loop City, is a 3-D projection installation presenting the history and future of city planning for the Copenhagen area in Denmark. The installation was presented as part of the 12th Architecture Biennale in Venice in 2010....

  5. Bootstrapping 3D fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iliesiu, Luca [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Kos, Filip; Poland, David [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Pufu, Silviu S. [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Simmons-Duffin, David [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Yacoby, Ran [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2016-03-17

    We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions 〈ψψψψ〉 in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ×ψ OPE, and also on the central charge C{sub T}. We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the Gross-Neveu models at large N. We also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.

  6. Shaping 3-D boxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenholt, Rasmus; Madsen, Claus B.

    2011-01-01

    Enabling users to shape 3-D boxes in immersive virtual environments is a non-trivial problem. In this paper, a new family of techniques for creating rectangular boxes of arbitrary position, orientation, and size is presented and evaluated. These new techniques are based solely on position data...

  7. 3D Wire 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordi, Moréton; F, Escribano; J. L., Farias

    This document is a general report on the implementation of gamification in 3D Wire 2015 event. As the second gamification experience in this event, we have delved deeply in the previous objectives (attracting public areas less frequented exhibition in previous years and enhance networking) and have...

  8. 3D Harmonic Echocardiography:

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Voormolen (Marco)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThree dimensional (3D) echocardiography has recently developed from an experimental technique in the ’90 towards an imaging modality for the daily clinical practice. This dissertation describes the considerations, implementation, validation and clinical application of a unique

  9. 3DSEM: A 3D microscopy dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad P. Tafti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM as a 2D imaging instrument has been widely used in many scientific disciplines including biological, mechanical, and materials sciences to determine the surface attributes of microscopic objects. However the SEM micrographs still remain 2D images. To effectively measure and visualize the surface properties, we need to truly restore the 3D shape model from 2D SEM images. Having 3D surfaces would provide anatomic shape of micro-samples which allows for quantitative measurements and informative visualization of the specimens being investigated. The 3DSEM is a dataset for 3D microscopy vision which is freely available at [1] for any academic, educational, and research purposes. The dataset includes both 2D images and 3D reconstructed surfaces of several real microscopic samples. Keywords: 3D microscopy dataset, 3D microscopy vision, 3D SEM surface reconstruction, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM

  10. 3D Surgical Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Cevidanes, Lucia; Tucker, Scott; Styner, Martin; Kim, Hyungmin; Chapuis, Jonas; Reyes, Mauricio; Proffit, William; Turvey, Timothy; Jaskolka, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of methods for computer-aided jaw surgery. Computer-aided jaw surgery allows us to incorporate the high level of precision necessary for transferring virtual plans into the operating room. We also present a complete computer-aided surgery (CAS) system developed in close collaboration with surgeons. Surgery planning and simulation include construction of 3D surface models from Cone-beam CT (CBCT), dynamic cephalometry, semi-automatic mirroring, interactive ...

  11. LandSIM3D: modellazione in real time 3D di dati geografici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lambo Srl Lambo Srl

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available LandSIM3D: realtime 3D modelling of geographic data LandSIM3D allows to model in 3D an existing landscape in a few hours only and geo-referenced offering great landscape analysis and understanding tools. 3D projects can then be inserted into the existing landscape with ease and precision. The project alternatives and impact can then be visualized and studied into their immediate environmental. The complex evolution of the landscape in the future can also be simulated and the landscape model can be manipulated interactively and better shared with colleagues. For that reason, LandSIM3D is different from traditional 3D imagery solutions, normally reserved for computer graphics experts. For more information about LandSIM3D, go to www.landsim3d.com.

  12. 3D Printing A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zulkifl Hasan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Solid free fabrication SFF are produced to enhance the printing instrument utilizing distinctive strategies like Piezo spout control multi-spout injet printers or STL arrange utilizing cutting information. The procedure is utilized to diminish the cost and enhance the speed of printing. A few techniques take long at last because of extra process like dry the printing. This study will concentrate on SFFS utilizing UV gum for 3D printing.

  13. ERP system for 3D printing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deaky Bogdan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available GOCREATE is an original cloud-based production management and optimization service which helps 3D printing service providers to use their resources better. The proposed Enterprise Resource Planning system can significantly increase income through improved productivity. With GOCREATE, the 3D printing service providers get a much higher production efficiency at a much lower licensing cost, to increase their competitiveness in the fast growing 3D printing market.

  14. Tangible 3D Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejlesen, Aske K.; Ovesen, Nis

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental approach to teaching 3D modelling techniques in an Industrial Design programme. The approach includes the use of tangible free form models as tools for improving the overall learning. The paper is based on lecturer and student experiences obtained through...... facilitated discussions during the course as well as through a survey distributed to the participating students. The analysis of the experiences shows a mixed picture consisting of both benefits and limits to the experimental technique. A discussion about the applicability of the technique and about...

  15. Mortars for 3D printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demyanenko Olga

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is aimed at developing scientifically proven compositions of mortars for 3D printing modified by a peat-based admixture with improved operational characteristics. The paper outlines the results of experimental research on hardened cement paste and concrete mixture with the use of modifying admixture MT-600 (thermally modified peat. It is found that strength of hardened cement paste increases at early age when using finely dispersed admixtures, which is the key factor for formation of construction and technical specifications of concrete for 3D printing technologies. The composition of new formations of hardened cement paste modified by MT-600 admixture were obtained, which enabled to suggest the possibility of their physico-chemical interaction while hardening.

  16. 3D Surgical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevidanes, Lucia; Tucker, Scott; Styner, Martin; Kim, Hyungmin; Chapuis, Jonas; Reyes, Mauricio; Proffit, William; Turvey, Timothy; Jaskolka, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of methods for computer-aided jaw surgery. Computer-aided jaw surgery allows us to incorporate the high level of precision necessary for transferring virtual plans into the operating room. We also present a complete computer-aided surgery (CAS) system developed in close collaboration with surgeons. Surgery planning and simulation include construction of 3D surface models from Cone-beam CT (CBCT), dynamic cephalometry, semi-automatic mirroring, interactive cutting of bone and bony segment repositioning. A virtual setup can be used to manufacture positioning splints for intra-operative guidance. The system provides further intra-operative assistance with the help of a computer display showing jaw positions and 3D positioning guides updated in real-time during the surgical procedure. The CAS system aids in dealing with complex cases with benefits for the patient, with surgical practice, and for orthodontic finishing. Advanced software tools for diagnosis and treatment planning allow preparation of detailed operative plans, osteotomy repositioning, bone reconstructions, surgical resident training and assessing the difficulties of the surgical procedures prior to the surgery. CAS has the potential to make the elaboration of the surgical plan a more flexible process, increase the level of detail and accuracy of the plan, yield higher operative precision and control, and enhance documentation of cases. Supported by NIDCR DE017727, and DE018962 PMID:20816308

  17. 3D Graphics with Spreadsheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Benacka

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the formulas for orthographic parallel projection of 3D bodies on computer screen are derived using secondary school vector algebra. The spreadsheet implementation is demonstrated in six applications that project bodies with increasing intricacy – a convex body (cube with non-solved visibility, convex bodies (cube, chapel with solved visibility, a coloured convex body (chapel with solved visibility, and a coloured non-convex body (church with solved visibility. The projections are revolvable in horizontal and vertical plane, and they are changeable in size. The examples show an unusual way of using spreadsheets as a 3D computer graphics tool. The applications can serve as a simple introduction to the general principles of computer graphics, to the graphics with spreadsheets, and as a tool for exercising stereoscopic vision. The presented approach is usable at visualising 3D scenes within some topics of secondary school curricula as solid geometry (angles and distances of lines and planes within simple bodies or analytic geometry in space (angles and distances of lines and planes in E3, and even at university level within calculus at visualising graphs of z = f(x,y functions. Examples are pictured.

  18. VirtoScan - a mobile, low-cost photogrammetry setup for fast post-mortem 3D full-body documentations in x-ray computed tomography and autopsy suites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottner, Sören; Ebert, Lars C; Ampanozi, Garyfalia; Braun, Marcel; Thali, Michael J; Gascho, Dominic

    2017-03-01

    Injuries such as bite marks or boot prints can leave distinct patterns on the body's surface and can be used for 3D reconstructions. Although various systems for 3D surface imaging have been introduced in the forensic field, most techniques are both cost-intensive and time-consuming. In this article, we present the VirtoScan, a mobile, multi-camera rig based on close-range photogrammetry. The system can be integrated into automated PMCT scanning procedures or used manually together with lifting carts, autopsy tables and examination couch. The VirtoScan is based on a moveable frame that carries 7 digital single-lens reflex cameras. A remote control is attached to each camera and allows the simultaneous triggering of the shutter release of all cameras. Data acquisition in combination with the PMCT scanning procedures took 3:34 min for the 3D surface documentation of one side of the body compared to 20:20 min of acquisition time when using our in-house standard. A surface model comparison between the high resolution output from our in-house standard and a high resolution model from the multi-camera rig showed a mean surface deviation of 0.36 mm for the whole body scan and 0.13 mm for a second comparison of a detailed section of the scan. The use of the multi-camera rig reduces the acquisition time for whole-body surface documentations in medico-legal examinations and provides a low-cost 3D surface scanning alternative for forensic investigations.

  19. Virtual 3-D Facial Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Paul Evison

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Facial reconstructions in archaeology allow empathy with people who lived in the past and enjoy considerable popularity with the public. It is a common misconception that facial reconstruction will produce an exact likeness; a resemblance is the best that can be hoped for. Research at Sheffield University is aimed at the development of a computer system for facial reconstruction that will be accurate, rapid, repeatable, accessible and flexible. This research is described and prototypical 3-D facial reconstructions are presented. Interpolation models simulating obesity, ageing and ethnic affiliation are also described. Some strengths and weaknesses in the models, and their potential for application in archaeology are discussed.

  20. Mobile 3D tomograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illerhaus, Bernhard; Goebbels, Juergen; Onel, Yener; Sauerwein, Christoph

    2008-01-01

    Mobile tomographs often have the problem that high spatial resolution is impossible owing to the position or setup of the tomograph. While the tree tomograph developed by Messrs. Isotopenforschung Dr. Sauerwein GmbH worked well in practice, it is no longer used as the spatial resolution and measuring time are insufficient for many modern applications. The paper shows that the mechanical base of the method is sufficient for 3D CT measurements with modern detectors and X-ray tubes. CT measurements with very good statistics take less than 10 min. This means that mobile systems can be used, e.g. in examinations of non-transportable cultural objects or monuments. Enhancement of the spatial resolution of mobile tomographs capable of measuring in any position is made difficult by the fact that the tomograph has moving parts and will therefore have weight shifts. With the aid of tomographies whose spatial resolution is far higher than the mechanical accuracy, a correction method is presented for direct integration of the Feldkamp algorithm [de

  1. 3D PHOTOGRAPHS IN CULTURAL HERITAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Schuhr

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper on providing "oo-information" (= objective object-information on cultural monuments and sites, based on 3D photographs is also a contribution of CIPA task group 3 to the 2013 CIPA Symposium in Strasbourg. To stimulate the interest in 3D photography for scientists as well as for amateurs, 3D-Masterpieces are presented. Exemplary it is shown, due to their high documentary value ("near reality", 3D photography support, e.g. the recording, the visualization, the interpretation, the preservation and the restoration of architectural and archaeological objects. This also includes samples for excavation documentation, 3D coordinate calculation, 3D photographs applied for virtual museum purposes and as educational tools. In addition 3D photography is used for virtual museum purposes, as well as an educational tool and for spatial structure enhancement, which in particular holds for inscriptions and in rock arts. This paper is also an invitation to participate in a systematic survey on existing international archives of 3D photographs. In this respect it is also reported on first results, to define an optimum digitization rate for analog stereo views. It is more than overdue, in addition to the access to international archives for 3D photography, the available 3D photography data should appear in a global GIS(cloud-system, like on, e.g., google earth. This contribution also deals with exposing new 3D photographs to document monuments of importance for Cultural Heritage, including the use of 3D and single lense cameras from a 10m telescope staff, to be used for extremely low earth based airborne 3D photography, as well as for "underwater staff photography". In addition it is reported on the use of captive balloon and drone platforms for 3D photography in Cultural Heritage. It is liked to emphasize, the still underestimated 3D effect on real objects even allows, e.g., the spatial perception of extremely small scratches as well as of nuances in

  2. 3D Printing and 3D Bioprinting in Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayavenkataraman, Sanjairaj; Fuh, Jerry Y H; Lu, Wen Feng

    2017-07-13

    Additive manufacturing, commonly referred to as 3D printing, is a technology that builds three-dimensional structures and components layer by layer. Bioprinting is the use of 3D printing technology to fabricate tissue constructs for regenerative medicine from cell-laden bio-inks. 3D printing and bioprinting have huge potential in revolutionizing the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. This paper reviews the application of 3D printing and bioprinting in the field of pediatrics.

  3. 3D Printing and 3D Bioprinting in Pediatrics

    OpenAIRE

    Vijayavenkataraman, Sanjairaj; Fuh, Jerry Y H; Lu, Wen Feng

    2017-01-01

    Additive manufacturing, commonly referred to as 3D printing, is a technology that builds three-dimensional structures and components layer by layer. Bioprinting is the use of 3D printing technology to fabricate tissue constructs for regenerative medicine from cell-laden bio-inks. 3D printing and bioprinting have huge potential in revolutionizing the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. This paper reviews the application of 3D printing and bioprinting in the field of pediatrics.

  4. 3D printing for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Hausman, Kalani Kirk

    2014-01-01

    Get started printing out 3D objects quickly and inexpensively! 3D printing is no longer just a figment of your imagination. This remarkable technology is coming to the masses with the growing availability of 3D printers. 3D printers create 3-dimensional layered models and they allow users to create prototypes that use multiple materials and colors.  This friendly-but-straightforward guide examines each type of 3D printing technology available today and gives artists, entrepreneurs, engineers, and hobbyists insight into the amazing things 3D printing has to offer. You'll discover methods for

  5. 3D Volume Rendering and 3D Printing (Additive Manufacturing).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katkar, Rujuta A; Taft, Robert M; Grant, Gerald T

    2018-07-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) volume-rendered images allow 3D insight into the anatomy, facilitating surgical treatment planning and teaching. 3D printing, additive manufacturing, and rapid prototyping techniques are being used with satisfactory accuracy, mostly for diagnosis and surgical planning, followed by direct manufacture of implantable devices. The major limitation is the time and money spent generating 3D objects. Printer type, material, and build thickness are known to influence the accuracy of printed models. In implant dentistry, the use of 3D-printed surgical guides is strongly recommended to facilitate planning and reduce risk of operative complications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. 3D game environments create professional 3D game worlds

    CERN Document Server

    Ahearn, Luke

    2008-01-01

    The ultimate resource to help you create triple-A quality art for a variety of game worlds; 3D Game Environments offers detailed tutorials on creating 3D models, applying 2D art to 3D models, and clear concise advice on issues of efficiency and optimization for a 3D game engine. Using Photoshop and 3ds Max as his primary tools, Luke Ahearn explains how to create realistic textures from photo source and uses a variety of techniques to portray dynamic and believable game worlds.From a modern city to a steamy jungle, learn about the planning and technological considerations for 3D modelin

  7. Density-Based 3D Shape Descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitt Francis

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel probabilistic framework for the extraction of density-based 3D shape descriptors using kernel density estimation. Our descriptors are derived from the probability density functions (pdf of local surface features characterizing the 3D object geometry. Assuming that the shape of the 3D object is represented as a mesh consisting of triangles with arbitrary size and shape, we provide efficient means to approximate the moments of geometric features on a triangle basis. Our framework produces a number of 3D shape descriptors that prove to be quite discriminative in retrieval applications. We test our descriptors and compare them with several other histogram-based methods on two 3D model databases, Princeton Shape Benchmark and Sculpteur, which are fundamentally different in semantic content and mesh quality. Experimental results show that our methodology not only improves the performance of existing descriptors, but also provides a rigorous framework to advance and to test new ones.

  8. Wireless 3D Chocolate Printer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FROILAN G. DESTREZA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study is for the BSHRM Students of Batangas State University (BatStateU ARASOF for the researchers believe that the Wireless 3D Chocolate Printer would be helpful in their degree program especially on making creative, artistic, personalized and decorative chocolate designs. The researchers used the Prototyping model as procedural method for the successful development and implementation of the hardware and software. This method has five phases which are the following: quick plan, quick design, prototype construction, delivery and feedback and communication. This study was evaluated by the BSHRM Students and the assessment of the respondents regarding the software and hardware application are all excellent in terms of Accuracy, Effecitveness, Efficiency, Maintainability, Reliability and User-friendliness. Also, the overall level of acceptability of the design project as evaluated by the respondents is excellent. With regard to the observation about the best raw material to use in 3D printing, the chocolate is good to use as the printed material is slightly distorted,durable and very easy to prepare; the icing is also good to use as the printed material is not distorted and is very durable but consumes time to prepare; the flour is not good as the printed material is distorted, not durable but it is easy to prepare. The computation of the economic viability level of 3d printer with reference to ROI is 37.14%. The recommendation of the researchers in the design project are as follows: adding a cooling system so that the raw material will be more durable, development of a more simplified version and improving the extrusion process wherein the user do not need to stop the printing process just to replace the empty syringe with a new one.

  9. The Future Is 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Luke

    2015-01-01

    3D printers are a way of producing a 3D model of an item from a digital file. The model builds up in successive layers of material placed by the printer controlled by the information in the computer file. In this article the author argues that 3D printers are one of the greatest technological advances of recent times. He discusses practical uses…

  10. The 3D additivist cookbook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allahyari, Morehshin; Rourke, Daniel; Rasch, Miriam

    The 3D Additivist Cookbook, devised and edited by Morehshin Allahyari & Daniel Rourke, is a free compendium of imaginative, provocative works from over 100 world-leading artists, activists and theorists. The 3D Additivist Cookbook contains .obj and .stl files for the 3D printer, as well as critical

  11. Digital Dentistry — 3D Printing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaharia Cristian

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D printing is an additive manufacturing method in which a 3D item is formed by laying down successive layers of material. 3D printers are machines that produce representations of objects either planned with a CAD program or scanned with a 3D scanner. Printing is a method for replicating text and pictures, typically with ink on paper. We can print different dental pieces using different methods such as selective laser sintering (SLS, stereolithography, fused deposition modeling, and laminated object manufacturing. The materials are certified for printing individual impression trays, orthodontic models, gingiva mask, and different prosthetic objects. The material can reach a flexural strength of more than 80 MPa. 3D printing takes the effectiveness of digital projects to the production phase. Dental laboratories are able to produce crowns, bridges, stone models, and various orthodontic appliances by methods that combine oral scanning, 3D printing, and CAD/CAM design. Modern 3D printing has been used for the development of prototypes for several years, and it has begun to find its use in the world of manufacturing. Digital technology and 3D printing have significantly elevated the rate of success in dental implantology using custom surgical guides and improving the quality and accuracy of dental work.

  12. Case study of 3D fingerprints applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Liu

    Full Text Available Human fingers are 3D objects. More information will be provided if three dimensional (3D fingerprints are available compared with two dimensional (2D fingerprints. Thus, this paper firstly collected 3D finger point cloud data by Structured-light Illumination method. Additional features from 3D fingerprint images are then studied and extracted. The applications of these features are finally discussed. A series of experiments are conducted to demonstrate the helpfulness of 3D information to fingerprint recognition. Results show that a quick alignment can be easily implemented under the guidance of 3D finger shape feature even though this feature does not work for fingerprint recognition directly. The newly defined distinctive 3D shape ridge feature can be used for personal authentication with Equal Error Rate (EER of ~8.3%. Also, it is helpful to remove false core point. Furthermore, a promising of EER ~1.3% is realized by combining this feature with 2D features for fingerprint recognition which indicates the prospect of 3D fingerprint recognition.

  13. 3D light robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Palima, Darwin; Villangca, Mark Jayson

    2016-01-01

    As celebrated by the Nobel Prize 2014 in Chemistry light-based technologies can now overcome the diffraction barrier for imaging with nanoscopic resolution by so-called super-resolution microscopy1. However, interactive investigations coupled with advanced imaging modalities at these small scale ...... research discipline that could potentially be able to offer the full packet needed for true "active nanoscopy" by use of so-called light-driven micro-robotics or Light Robotics in short....

  14. Conducting Polymer 3D Microelectrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Emnéus

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes have been fabricated for possible future neurological applications. A combination of micro-fabrication techniques and chemical polymerization methods has been used to create pillar electrodes in polyaniline and polypyrrole. The thin polymer films obtained showed uniformity and good adhesion to both horizontal and vertical surfaces. Electrodes in combination with metal/conducting polymer materials have been characterized by cyclic voltammetry and the presence of the conducting polymer film has shown to increase the electrochemical activity when compared with electrodes coated with only metal. An electrochemical characterization of gold/polypyrrole electrodes showed exceptional electrochemical behavior and activity. PC12 cells were finally cultured on the investigated materials as a preliminary biocompatibility assessment. These results show that the described electrodes are possibly suitable for future in-vitro neurological measurements.

  15. The Idaho Virtualization Laboratory 3D Pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A. Holmer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Three dimensional (3D virtualization and visualization is an important component of industry, art, museum curation and cultural heritage, yet the step by step process of 3D virtualization has been little discussed. Here we review the Idaho Virtualization Laboratory’s (IVL process of virtualizing a cultural heritage item (artifact from start to finish. Each step is thoroughly explained and illustrated including how the object and its metadata are digitally preserved and ultimately distributed to the world.

  16. 3D Reconstruction of NMR Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Izak

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces experiment of 3D reconstruction NMR images scanned from magnetic resonance device. There are described methods which can be used for 3D reconstruction magnetic resonance images in biomedical application. The main idea is based on marching cubes algorithm. For this task was chosen sophistication method by program Vision Assistant, which is a part of program LabVIEW.

  17. LOTT RANCH 3D PROJECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larry Lawrence; Bruce Miller

    2004-01-01

    , and scout ticket data were integrated with the 3D interpretations to evaluate drilling opportunities resulting in an initial three well drilling program. Thousands of miles of signed bit data exist. Much of this data was processed during a time when software and hardware capabilities were either incapable or cost prohibitive to glean the full potential of the data. In fact in some circles signed bit gained an undeserved reputation for being less than optimum. As a consequence much of the older signed bit data sits on the shelf long forgotten or overlooked. With the high cost of new acquisition and permitting it might behoove other exploration companies to reconsider resurrecting perfectly viable existing volumes and have them reprocessed at a fraction of the cost of new acquisition

  18. 3D Laser Scanner for Underwater Manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Palomer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, research in autonomous underwater manipulation has demonstrated simple applications like picking an object from the sea floor, turning a valve or plugging and unplugging a connector. These are fairly simple tasks compared with those already demonstrated by the mobile robotics community, which include, among others, safe arm motion within areas populated with a priori unknown obstacles or the recognition and location of objects based on their 3D model to grasp them. Kinect-like 3D sensors have contributed significantly to the advance of mobile manipulation providing 3D sensing capabilities in real-time at low cost. Unfortunately, the underwater robotics community is lacking a 3D sensor with similar capabilities to provide rich 3D information of the work space. In this paper, we present a new underwater 3D laser scanner and demonstrate its capabilities for underwater manipulation. In order to use this sensor in conjunction with manipulators, a calibration method to find the relative position between the manipulator and the 3D laser scanner is presented. Then, two different advanced underwater manipulation tasks beyond the state of the art are demonstrated using two different manipulation systems. First, an eight Degrees of Freedom (DoF fixed-base manipulator system is used to demonstrate arm motion within a work space populated with a priori unknown fixed obstacles. Next, an eight DoF free floating Underwater Vehicle-Manipulator System (UVMS is used to autonomously grasp an object from the bottom of a water tank.

  19. 3D Spectroscopy in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediavilla, Evencio; Arribas, Santiago; Roth, Martin; Cepa-Nogué, Jordi; Sánchez, Francisco

    2011-09-01

    Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Introductory review and technical approaches Martin M. Roth; 2. Observational procedures and data reduction James E. H. Turner; 3. 3D Spectroscopy instrumentation M. A. Bershady; 4. Analysis of 3D data Pierre Ferruit; 5. Science motivation for IFS and galactic studies F. Eisenhauer; 6. Extragalactic studies and future IFS science Luis Colina; 7. Tutorials: how to handle 3D spectroscopy data Sebastian F. Sánchez, Begona García-Lorenzo and Arlette Pécontal-Rousset.

  20. 3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.

    2016-04-14

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.  

  1. 3D IBFV : Hardware-Accelerated 3D Flow Visualization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telea, Alexandru; Wijk, Jarke J. van

    2003-01-01

    We present a hardware-accelerated method for visualizing 3D flow fields. The method is based on insertion, advection, and decay of dye. To this aim, we extend the texture-based IBFV technique for 2D flow visualization in two main directions. First, we decompose the 3D flow visualization problem in a

  2. 3D IBFV : hardware-accelerated 3D flow visualization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telea, A.C.; Wijk, van J.J.

    2003-01-01

    We present a hardware-accelerated method for visualizing 3D flow fields. The method is based on insertion, advection, and decay of dye. To this aim, we extend the texture-based IBFV technique presented by van Wijk (2001) for 2D flow visualization in two main directions. First, we decompose the 3D

  3. 3D for Graphic Designers

    CERN Document Server

    Connell, Ellery

    2011-01-01

    Helping graphic designers expand their 2D skills into the 3D space The trend in graphic design is towards 3D, with the demand for motion graphics, animation, photorealism, and interactivity rapidly increasing. And with the meteoric rise of iPads, smartphones, and other interactive devices, the design landscape is changing faster than ever.2D digital artists who need a quick and efficient way to join this brave new world will want 3D for Graphic Designers. Readers get hands-on basic training in working in the 3D space, including product design, industrial design and visualization, modeling, ani

  4. Using 3D in Visualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood, Jo; Kirschenbauer, Sabine; Döllner, Jürgen

    2005-01-01

    to display 3D imagery. The extra cartographic degree of freedom offered by using 3D is explored and offered as a motivation for employing 3D in visualization. The use of VR and the construction of virtual environments exploit navigational and behavioral realism, but become most usefil when combined...... with abstracted representations embedded in a 3D space. The interactions between development of geovisualization, the technology used to implement it and the theory surrounding cartographic representation are explored. The dominance of computing technologies, driven particularly by the gaming industry...

  5. Qademah Fault 3D Survey

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Collect 3D seismic data at Qademah Fault location to 1. 3D traveltime tomography 2. 3D surface wave migration 3. 3D phase velocity 4. Possible reflection processing Acquisition Date: 26 – 28 September 2014 Acquisition Team: Sherif, Kai, Mrinal, Bowen, Ahmed Acquisition Layout: We used 288 receiver arranged in 12 parallel lines, each line has 24 receiver. Inline offset is 5 m and crossline offset is 10 m. One shot is fired at each receiver location. We use the 40 kgm weight drop as seismic source, with 8 to 15 stacks at each shot location.

  6. 3D Bayesian contextual classifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus

    2000-01-01

    We extend a series of multivariate Bayesian 2-D contextual classifiers to 3-D by specifying a simultaneous Gaussian distribution for the feature vectors as well as a prior distribution of the class variables of a pixel and its 6 nearest 3-D neighbours.......We extend a series of multivariate Bayesian 2-D contextual classifiers to 3-D by specifying a simultaneous Gaussian distribution for the feature vectors as well as a prior distribution of the class variables of a pixel and its 6 nearest 3-D neighbours....

  7. 3-D printers for libraries

    CERN Document Server

    Griffey, Jason

    2014-01-01

    As the maker movement continues to grow and 3-D printers become more affordable, an expanding group of hobbyists is keen to explore this new technology. In the time-honored tradition of introducing new technologies, many libraries are considering purchasing a 3-D printer. Jason Griffey, an early enthusiast of 3-D printing, has researched the marketplace and seen several systems first hand at the Consumer Electronics Show. In this report he introduces readers to the 3-D printing marketplace, covering such topics asHow fused deposition modeling (FDM) printing workBasic terminology such as build

  8. 3-D interactive visualisation tools for Hi spectral line imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hulst, J. M.; Punzo, D.; Roerdink, J. B. T. M.

    2016-01-01

    Upcoming HI surveys will deliver such large datasets that automated processing using the full 3-D information to find and characterize HI objects is unavoidable. Full 3-D visualization is an essential tool for enabling qualitative and quantitative inspection and analysis of the 3-D data, which is

  9. 3D Maps Representation Using GNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Morell

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Current RGB-D sensors provide a big amount of valuable information for mobile robotics tasks like 3D map reconstruction, but the storage and processing of the incremental data provided by the different sensors through time quickly become unmanageable. In this work, we focus on 3D maps representation and propose the use of the Growing Neural Gas (GNG network as a model to represent 3D input data. GNG method is able to represent the input data with a desired amount of neurons or resolution while preserving the topology of the input space. Experiments show how GNG method yields a better input space adaptation than other state-of-the-art 3D map representation methods.

  10. 3D VISUALIZATION FOR VIRTUAL MUSEUM DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Skamantzari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The interest in the development of virtual museums is nowadays rising rapidly. During the last decades there have been numerous efforts concerning the 3D digitization of cultural heritage and the development of virtual museums, digital libraries and serious games. The realistic result has always been the main concern and a real challenge when it comes to 3D modelling of monuments, artifacts and especially sculptures. This paper implements, investigates and evaluates the results of the photogrammetric methods and 3D surveys that were used for the development of a virtual museum. Moreover, the decisions, the actions, the methodology and the main elements that this kind of application should include and take into consideration are described and analysed. It is believed that the outcomes of this application will be useful to researchers who are planning to develop and further improve the attempts made on virtual museums and mass production of 3D models.

  11. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Subspecialties & More Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology Ophthalmology Retina ... With the popularity of 3-D movies, it's natural to wonder what, if any, effect the technology has on your eyes. Is 3-D technology ...

  12. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... function in children, nor are there persuasive, conclusive theories on how 3-D digital products could cause damage in children with healthy eyes. The development of normal 3-D vision in children is ...

  13. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... discomfort. More on computer use and your eyes . Children and 3-D Technology Following the lead of Nintendo, several 3-D device companies have issued warnings about children's use of their new products. The original Nintendo ...

  14. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use and your eyes . Children and 3-D Technology Following the lead of Nintendo, several 3-D ... Your Glaucoma Risk Factors? Jan 18, 2017 New Technology Helps the Legally Blind Be More Independent Oct ...

  15. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use and your eyes . Children and 3-D Technology Following the lead of Nintendo, several 3-D device companies have issued warnings about children's use of their new products. The original Nintendo warning, in late 2010, ...

  16. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use and your eyes . Children and 3-D Technology Following the lead of Nintendo, several 3-D ... Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms ...

  17. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... techniques used to create the 3-D effect can confuse or overload the brain, causing some people ... images. That does not mean that vision disorders can be caused by 3-D digital products. However, ...

  18. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... from viewing usually relieves the discomfort. More on computer use and your eyes . Children and 3-D ... theories on how 3-D digital products could cause damage in children with healthy eyes. The development ...

  19. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... discomfort. More on computer use and your eyes . Children and 3-D Technology Following the lead of ... 3-D device companies have issued warnings about children's use of their new products. The original Nintendo ...

  20. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and 3-D Technology Following the lead of Nintendo, several 3-D device companies have issued warnings ... children's use of their new products. The original Nintendo warning, in late 2010, urged parents to prevent ...

  1. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... function in children, nor are there persuasive, conclusive theories on how 3-D digital products could cause ... or other conditions that persistently inhibit focusing, depth perception or normal 3-D vision, would have difficulty ...

  2. Advanced 3-D Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten Fischer

    The main purpose of the PhD project was to develop methods that increase the 3-D ultrasound imaging quality available for the medical personnel in the clinic. Acquiring a 3-D volume gives the medical doctor the freedom to investigate the measured anatomy in any slice desirable after the scan has...... been completed. This allows for precise measurements of organs dimensions and makes the scan more operator independent. Real-time 3-D ultrasound imaging is still not as widespread in use in the clinics as 2-D imaging. A limiting factor has traditionally been the low image quality achievable using...... a channel limited 2-D transducer array and the conventional 3-D beamforming technique, Parallel Beamforming. The first part of the scientific contributions demonstrate that 3-D synthetic aperture imaging achieves a better image quality than the Parallel Beamforming technique. Data were obtained using both...

  3. 3D vector flow imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Michael Johannes

    The main purpose of this PhD project is to develop an ultrasonic method for 3D vector flow imaging. The motivation is to advance the field of velocity estimation in ultrasound, which plays an important role in the clinic. The velocity of blood has components in all three spatial dimensions, yet...... are (vx, vy, vz) = (-0.03, 95, 1.0) ± (9, 6, 1) cm/s compared with the expected (0, 96, 0) cm/s. Afterwards, 3D vector flow images from a cross-sectional plane of the vessel are presented. The out of plane velocities exhibit the expected 2D circular-symmetric parabolic shape. The experimental results...... verify that the 3D TO method estimates the complete 3D velocity vectors, and that the method is suitable for 3D vector flow imaging....

  4. 3D printing in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A

    2015-12-01

    3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery.

  5. ASSESSING 3D PHOTOGRAMMETRY TECHNIQUES IN CRANIOMETRICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Moshobane

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Morphometrics (the measurement of morphological features has been revolutionized by the creation of new techniques to study how organismal shape co-varies with several factors such as ecophenotypy. Ecophenotypy refers to the divergence of phenotypes due to developmental changes induced by local environmental conditions, producing distinct ecophenotypes. None of the techniques hitherto utilized could explicitly address organismal shape in a complete biological form, i.e. three-dimensionally. This study investigates the use of the commercial software, Photomodeler Scanner® (PMSc® three-dimensional (3D modelling software to produce accurate and high-resolution 3D models. Henceforth, the modelling of Subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis and Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella skulls which could allow for 3D measurements. Using this method, sixteen accurate 3D skull models were produced and five metrics were determined. The 3D linear measurements were compared to measurements taken manually with a digital caliper. In addition, repetitive measurements were recorded by varying researchers to determine repeatability. To allow for comparison straight line measurements were taken with the software, assuming that close accord with all manually measured features would illustrate the model’s accurate replication of reality. Measurements were not significantly different demonstrating that realistic 3D skull models can be successfully produced to provide a consistent basis for craniometrics, with the additional benefit of allowing non-linear measurements if required.

  6. Exploring interaction with 3D volumetric displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Tovi; Wigdor, Daniel; Balakrishnan, Ravin

    2005-03-01

    Volumetric displays generate true volumetric 3D images by actually illuminating points in 3D space. As a result, viewing their contents is similar to viewing physical objects in the real world. These displays provide a 360 degree field of view, and do not require the user to wear hardware such as shutter glasses or head-trackers. These properties make them a promising alternative to traditional display systems for viewing imagery in 3D. Because these displays have only recently been made available commercially (e.g., www.actuality-systems.com), their current use tends to be limited to non-interactive output-only display devices. To take full advantage of the unique features of these displays, however, it would be desirable if the 3D data being displayed could be directly interacted with and manipulated. We investigate interaction techniques for volumetric display interfaces, through the development of an interactive 3D geometric model building application. While this application area itself presents many interesting challenges, our focus is on the interaction techniques that are likely generalizable to interactive applications for other domains. We explore a very direct style of interaction where the user interacts with the virtual data using direct finger manipulations on and around the enclosure surrounding the displayed 3D volumetric image.

  7. Quasi 3D dosimetry (EPID, conventional 2D/3D detector matrices)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bäck, A

    2015-01-01

    Patient specific pretreatment measurement for IMRT and VMAT QA should preferably give information with a high resolution in 3D. The ability to distinguish complex treatment plans, i.e. treatment plans with a difference between measured and calculated dose distributions that exceeds a specified tolerance, puts high demands on the dosimetry system used for the pretreatment measurements and the results of the measurement evaluation needs a clinical interpretation. There are a number of commercial dosimetry systems designed for pretreatment IMRT QA measurements. 2D arrays such as MapCHECK ® (Sun Nuclear), MatriXX Evolution (IBA Dosimetry) and OCTAVIOUS ® 1500 (PTW), 3D phantoms such as OCTAVIUS ® 4D (PTW), ArcCHECK ® (Sun Nuclear) and Delta 4 (ScandiDos) and software for EPID dosimetry and 3D reconstruction of the dose in the patient geometry such as EPIDose TM (Sun Nuclear) and Dosimetry Check TM (Math Resolutions) are available. None of those dosimetry systems can measure the 3D dose distribution with a high resolution (full 3D dose distribution). Those systems can be called quasi 3D dosimetry systems. To be able to estimate the delivered dose in full 3D the user is dependent on a calculation algorithm in the software of the dosimetry system. All the vendors of the dosimetry systems mentioned above provide calculation algorithms to reconstruct a full 3D dose in the patient geometry. This enables analyzes of the difference between measured and calculated dose distributions in DVHs of the structures of clinical interest which facilitates the clinical interpretation and is a promising tool to be used for pretreatment IMRT QA measurements. However, independent validation studies on the accuracy of those algorithms are scarce. Pretreatment IMRT QA using the quasi 3D dosimetry systems mentioned above rely on both measurement uncertainty and accuracy of calculation algorithms. In this article, these quasi 3D dosimetry systems and their use in patient specific

  8. 3-D neutron transport benchmarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, T.; Ikeda, H.

    1991-03-01

    A set of 3-D neutron transport benchmark problems proposed by the Osaka University to NEACRP in 1988 has been calculated by many participants and the corresponding results are summarized in this report. The results of K eff , control rod worth and region-averaged fluxes for the four proposed core models, calculated by using various 3-D transport codes are compared and discussed. The calculational methods used were: Monte Carlo, Discrete Ordinates (Sn), Spherical Harmonics (Pn), Nodal Transport and others. The solutions of the four core models are quite useful as benchmarks for checking the validity of 3-D neutron transport codes

  9. Handbook of 3D integration

    CERN Document Server

    Garrou , Philip; Ramm , Peter

    2014-01-01

    Edited by key figures in 3D integration and written by top authors from high-tech companies and renowned research institutions, this book covers the intricate details of 3D process technology.As such, the main focus is on silicon via formation, bonding and debonding, thinning, via reveal and backside processing, both from a technological and a materials science perspective. The last part of the book is concerned with assessing and enhancing the reliability of the 3D integrated devices, which is a prerequisite for the large-scale implementation of this emerging technology. Invaluable reading fo

  10. 3D Model Optimization of Four-Facet Drill for 3D Drilling Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buranský Ivan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on optimization of four-facet drill for 3D drilling numerical modelling. For optimization, the process of reverse engineering by PowerShape software was used. The design of four-facet drill was created in NumrotoPlus software. The modified 3D model of the drill was used in the numerical analysis of cutting forces. Verification of the accuracy of 3D models for reverse engineering was implemented using the colour deviation maps. The CAD model was in the STEP format. For simulation software, 3D model in the STEP format is ideal. STEP is a solid model. Simulation software automatically splits the 3D model into finite elements. The STEP model was therefore more suitable than the STL model.

  11. CROWDSOURCING BASED 3D MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Somogyi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Web-based photo albums that support organizing and viewing the users’ images are widely used. These services provide a convenient solution for storing, editing and sharing images. In many cases, the users attach geotags to the images in order to enable using them e.g. in location based applications on social networks. Our paper discusses a procedure that collects open access images from a site frequently visited by tourists. Geotagged pictures showing the image of a sight or tourist attraction are selected and processed in photogrammetric processing software that produces the 3D model of the captured object. For the particular investigation we selected three attractions in Budapest. To assess the geometrical accuracy, we used laser scanner and DSLR as well as smart phone photography to derive reference values to enable verifying the spatial model obtained from the web-album images. The investigation shows how detailed and accurate models could be derived applying photogrammetric processing software, simply by using images of the community, without visiting the site.

  12. Scoops3D: software to analyze 3D slope stability throughout a digital landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Mark E.; Christian, Sarah B.; Brien, Dianne L.; Henderson, Scott T.

    2015-01-01

    The computer program, Scoops3D, evaluates slope stability throughout a digital landscape represented by a digital elevation model (DEM). The program uses a three-dimensional (3D) method of columns approach to assess the stability of many (typically millions) potential landslides within a user-defined size range. For each potential landslide (or failure), Scoops3D assesses the stability of a rotational, spherical slip surface encompassing many DEM cells using a 3D version of either Bishop’s simplified method or the Ordinary (Fellenius) method of limit-equilibrium analysis. Scoops3D has several options for the user to systematically and efficiently search throughout an entire DEM, thereby incorporating the effects of complex surface topography. In a thorough search, each DEM cell is included in multiple potential failures, and Scoops3D records the lowest stability (factor of safety) for each DEM cell, as well as the size (volume or area) associated with each of these potential landslides. It also determines the least-stable potential failure for the entire DEM. The user has a variety of options for building a 3D domain, including layers or full 3D distributions of strength and pore-water pressures, simplistic earthquake loading, and unsaturated suction conditions. Results from Scoops3D can be readily incorporated into a geographic information system (GIS) or other visualization software. This manual includes information on the theoretical basis for the slope-stability analysis, requirements for constructing and searching a 3D domain, a detailed operational guide (including step-by-step instructions for using the graphical user interface [GUI] software, Scoops3D-i) and input/output file specifications, practical considerations for conducting an analysis, results of verification tests, and multiple examples illustrating the capabilities of Scoops3D. Easy-to-use software installation packages are available for the Windows or Macintosh operating systems; these packages

  13. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 3-D effect can confuse or overload the brain, causing some people discomfort even if they have normal vision. Taking a break from viewing usually relieves the discomfort. More on computer use and your eyes . Children and 3-D Technology Following the lead of Nintendo, several 3-D ...

  14. A 3D Printing Model Watermarking Algorithm Based on 3D Slicing and Feature Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giao N. Pham

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available With the increase of three-dimensional (3D printing applications in many areas of life, a large amount of 3D printing data is copied, shared, and used several times without any permission from the original providers. Therefore, copyright protection and ownership identification for 3D printing data in communications or commercial transactions are practical issues. This paper presents a novel watermarking algorithm for 3D printing models based on embedding watermark data into the feature points of a 3D printing model. Feature points are determined and computed by the 3D slicing process along the Z axis of a 3D printing model. The watermark data is embedded into a feature point of a 3D printing model by changing the vector length of the feature point in OXY space based on the reference length. The x and y coordinates of the feature point will be then changed according to the changed vector length that has been embedded with a watermark. Experimental results verified that the proposed algorithm is invisible and robust to geometric attacks, such as rotation, scaling, and translation. The proposed algorithm provides a better method than the conventional works, and the accuracy of the proposed algorithm is much higher than previous methods.

  15. 3D Models of Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    This collaborative grant is developing 3D models of both mouse and human biology to investigate aspects of therapeutic vaccination in order to answer key questions relevant to human cancer immunotherapy.

  16. AI 3D Cybug Gaming

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Zeeshan

    2010-01-01

    In this short paper I briefly discuss 3D war Game based on artificial intelligence concepts called AI WAR. Going in to the details, I present the importance of CAICL language and how this language is used in AI WAR. Moreover I also present a designed and implemented 3D War Cybug for AI WAR using CAICL and discus the implemented strategy to defeat its enemies during the game life.

  17. 3D Face Apperance Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lading, Brian; Larsen, Rasmus; Astrom, K

    2006-01-01

    We build a 3D face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical Jacobian of its resulting 2D rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations......We build a 3D face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical Jacobian of its resulting 2D rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations...

  18. 3D accelerator magnet calculations using MAGNUS-3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pissanetzky, S.; Miao, Y.

    1989-01-01

    The steady trend towards increased magnetic and geometric complexity in the design of accelerator magnets has caused a need for reliable 3D computer models and a better understanding of the behavior of magnetic system in three dimensions. The capabilities of the MAGNUS-3D family of programs are ideally suited to solve this class of problems and provide insight into 3D effects. MAGNUS-3D can solve any problem of magnetostatics involving permanent magnets, nonlinear ferromagnetic materials and electric conductors. MAGNUS-3D uses the finite element method and the two-scalar-potentials formulation of Maxwell's equations to obtain the solution, which can then be used interactively to obtain tables of field components at specific points or lines, plots of field lines, function graphs representing a field component plotted against a coordinate along any line in space (such as the beam line), and views of the conductors, the mesh and the magnetic bodies. The magnetic quantities that can be calculated include the force or torque on conductors or magnetic parts, the energy, the flux through a specified surface, line integrals of any field component along any line in space, and the average field or potential harmonic coefficients. We describe the programs with emphasis placed on their use for accelerator magnet design, and present an advanced example of actual calculations. (orig.)

  19. Uncertainty management in stratigraphic well correlation and stratigraphic architectures: A training-based method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jonathan; Lallier, Florent; Caumon, Guillaume; Carpentier, Cédric

    2018-02-01

    We discuss the sampling and the volumetric impact of stratigraphic correlation uncertainties in basins and reservoirs. From an input set of wells, we evaluate the probability for two stratigraphic units to be associated using an analog stratigraphic model. In the presence of multiple wells, this method sequentially updates a stratigraphic column defining the stratigraphic layering for each possible set of realizations. The resulting correlations are then used to create stratigraphic grids in three dimensions. We apply this method on a set of synthetic wells sampling a forward stratigraphic model built with Dionisos. To perform cross-validation of the method, we introduce a distance comparing the relative geological time of two models for each geographic position, and we compare the models in terms of volumes. Results show the ability of the method to automatically generate stratigraphic correlation scenarios, and also highlight some challenges when sampling stratigraphic uncertainties from multiple wells.

  20. 3D-PRINTING OF BUILD OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAVYTSKYI M. V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. Today, in all spheres of our life we can constate the permanent search for new, modern methods and technologies that meet the principles of sustainable development. New approaches need to be, on the one hand more effective in terms of conservation of exhaustible resources of our planet, have minimal impact on the environment and on the other hand to ensure a higher quality of the final product. Construction is not exception. One of the new promising technology is the technology of 3D -printing of individual structures and buildings in general. 3Dprinting - is the process of real object recreating on the model of 3D. Unlike conventional printer which prints information on a sheet of paper, 3D-printer allows you to display three-dimensional information, i.e. creates certain physical objects. Currently, 3D-printer finds its application in many areas of production: machine building elements, a variety of layouts, interior elements, various items. But due to the fact that this technology is fairly new, it requires the creation of detailed and accurate technologies, efficient equipment and materials, and development of common vocabulary and regulatory framework in this field. Research Aim. The analysis of existing methods of creating physical objects using 3D-printing and the improvement of technology and equipment for the printing of buildings and structures. Conclusion. 3D-printers building is a new generation of equipment for the construction of buildings, structures, and structural elements. A variety of building printing technics opens up wide range of opportunities in the construction industry. At this stage, printers design allows to create low-rise buildings of different configurations with different mortars. The scientific novelty of this work is to develop proposals to improve the thermal insulation properties of constructed 3D-printing objects and technological equipment. The list of key terms and notions of construction

  1. Stratigraphic implications of uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langford, F.F.

    1980-01-01

    One of the most consistent characteristics of economic uranium deposits is their restricted stratigraphic distribution. Uraninite deposited with direct igneous affiliation contains thorium, whereas chemical precipitates in sedimentary rocks are characterized by thorium-free primary uranium minerals with vanadium and selenium. In marine sediments, these minerals form low-grade disseminations; but in terrestrial sediments, chiefly fluvial sandstones, the concentration of uranium varies widely, with the high-grade portions constituting ore. Pitchblende vein deposits not only exhibit the same chemical characteristics as the Colorado-type sandstone deposits, but they have a stratigraphically consistent position at unconformities covered by fluvial sandstones. If deposits in such diverse situations have critical features in common, they are likely to have had many features of their origin in common. Thus, vein deposits in Saskatchewan and Australia may have analogues in areas that contain Colorado-type sandstone deposits. In New Mexico, the presence of continental sandstones with peneconformable uranium deposits should also indicate good prospecting ground for unconformity-type vein deposits. All unconformities within the periods of continental deposition ranging from Permian to Cretaceous should have uranium potential. Some situations, such as the onlap of the Abo Formation onto Precambrian basement in the Zuni Mountains, may be directly comparable to Saskatchewan deposition. However, uranium occurrences in the upper part of the Entrada Sandstone suggest that unconformities underlain by sedimentary rocks may also be exploration targets

  2. From 3D view to 3D print

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dima, M.; Farisato, G.; Bergomi, M.; Viotto, V.; Magrin, D.; Greggio, D.; Farinato, J.; Marafatto, L.; Ragazzoni, R.; Piazza, D.

    2014-08-01

    In the last few years 3D printing is getting more and more popular and used in many fields going from manufacturing to industrial design, architecture, medical support and aerospace. 3D printing is an evolution of bi-dimensional printing, which allows to obtain a solid object from a 3D model, realized with a 3D modelling software. The final product is obtained using an additive process, in which successive layers of material are laid down one over the other. A 3D printer allows to realize, in a simple way, very complex shapes, which would be quite difficult to be produced with dedicated conventional facilities. Thanks to the fact that the 3D printing is obtained superposing one layer to the others, it doesn't need any particular work flow and it is sufficient to simply draw the model and send it to print. Many different kinds of 3D printers exist based on the technology and material used for layer deposition. A common material used by the toner is ABS plastics, which is a light and rigid thermoplastic polymer, whose peculiar mechanical properties make it diffusely used in several fields, like pipes production and cars interiors manufacturing. I used this technology to create a 1:1 scale model of the telescope which is the hardware core of the space small mission CHEOPS (CHaracterising ExOPlanets Satellite) by ESA, which aims to characterize EXOplanets via transits observations. The telescope has a Ritchey-Chrétien configuration with a 30cm aperture and the launch is foreseen in 2017. In this paper, I present the different phases for the realization of such a model, focusing onto pros and cons of this kind of technology. For example, because of the finite printable volume (10×10×12 inches in the x, y and z directions respectively), it has been necessary to split the largest parts of the instrument in smaller components to be then reassembled and post-processed. A further issue is the resolution of the printed material, which is expressed in terms of layers

  3. 3D imaging, 3D printing and 3D virtual planning in endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Pratik; Chong, B S

    2018-03-01

    The adoption and adaptation of recent advances in digital technology, such as three-dimensional (3D) printed objects and haptic simulators, in dentistry have influenced teaching and/or management of cases involving implant, craniofacial, maxillofacial, orthognathic and periodontal treatments. 3D printed models and guides may help operators plan and tackle complicated non-surgical and surgical endodontic treatment and may aid skill acquisition. Haptic simulators may assist in the development of competency in endodontic procedures through the acquisition of psycho-motor skills. This review explores and discusses the potential applications of 3D printed models and guides, and haptic simulators in the teaching and management of endodontic procedures. An understanding of the pertinent technology related to the production of 3D printed objects and the operation of haptic simulators are also presented.

  4. Body Language Advanced 3D Character Rigging

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Eric; Fong, Jared; Sidwell, Adam G

    2011-01-01

    Whether you're a professional Character TD or just like to create 3D characters, this detailed guide reveals the techniques you need to create sophisticated 3D character rigs that range from basic to breathtaking. Packed with step-by-step instructions and full-color illustrations, Body Language walks you through rigging techniques for all the body parts to help you create realistic and believable movements in every character you design. You'll learn advanced rigging concepts that involve MEL scripting and advanced deformation techniques and even how to set up a character pipeline.

  5. YouDash3D: exploring stereoscopic 3D gaming for 3D movie theaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schild, Jonas; Seele, Sven; Masuch, Maic

    2012-03-01

    Along with the success of the digitally revived stereoscopic cinema, events beyond 3D movies become attractive for movie theater operators, i.e. interactive 3D games. In this paper, we present a case that explores possible challenges and solutions for interactive 3D games to be played by a movie theater audience. We analyze the setting and showcase current issues related to lighting and interaction. Our second focus is to provide gameplay mechanics that make special use of stereoscopy, especially depth-based game design. Based on these results, we present YouDash3D, a game prototype that explores public stereoscopic gameplay in a reduced kiosk setup. It features live 3D HD video stream of a professional stereo camera rig rendered in a real-time game scene. We use the effect to place the stereoscopic effigies of players into the digital game. The game showcases how stereoscopic vision can provide for a novel depth-based game mechanic. Projected trigger zones and distributed clusters of the audience video allow for easy adaptation to larger audiences and 3D movie theater gaming.

  6. 3D Printed Multimaterial Microfluidic Valve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J Keating

    Full Text Available We present a novel 3D printed multimaterial microfluidic proportional valve. The microfluidic valve is a fundamental primitive that enables the development of programmable, automated devices for controlling fluids in a precise manner. We discuss valve characterization results, as well as exploratory design variations in channel width, membrane thickness, and membrane stiffness. Compared to previous single material 3D printed valves that are stiff, these printed valves constrain fluidic deformation spatially, through combinations of stiff and flexible materials, to enable intricate geometries in an actuated, functionally graded device. Research presented marks a shift towards 3D printing multi-property programmable fluidic devices in a single step, in which integrated multimaterial valves can be used to control complex fluidic reactions for a variety of applications, including DNA assembly and analysis, continuous sampling and sensing, and soft robotics.

  7. Teknologi 3D dalam Proses Pembuatan Komik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanes Baptista Permadi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Comic has been people’s favorite since 1930. As the growth of years and technology, the demands in designing comic were also increasing. To fulfill the demands, comic authors spent their times to draw so that they have no time to discover other element besides technical. Therefore, it is important if the comic author helped by 3D technology to accelerate technical process so that the comic authors will get extra time to develop other elements like concept and story. Data is gathered from interviews with both semi-professional and professional comic authors who are having problems being solved. Solving problems are conducted by using 3D software to draw picture of distorted space. And then two semi-professional comic authors will try to draw distorted space in tracing the picture from 3D software to see how many times needed to draw hard part traditionally. 

  8. 3D Object Metamorphosis with Pseudo Metameshes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOCANU, B.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce a novel framework for 3D object metamorphosis, represented by closed triangular meshes. The systems returns a high quality transition sequence, smooth and gradual, that is visual pleasant and consistent to both source and target topologies. The method starts by parameterizing both the source and the target model to a common domain (the unit sphere. Then, the features selected from the two models are aligned by applying the CTPS C2a radial basis functions. We demonstrate how the selected approach can create valid warping by deforming the models embedded into the parametric domain. In the final stage, we propose and validate a novel algorithm to construct a pseudo-supermesh able to approximate both, the source and target 3D objects. By using the pseudo-supermesh we developed a morphing transition consistent with respect to both geometry and topology of the 3D models.

  9. FABLAB PRONTO3D: learning with practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regiane Trevisan Pupo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The recent development and use of digital fabrication techniques for architecture, product design, engineering, construction, among many others, has caused impact changes on design processes since its beginning until final construction. New construction methods have been developed with the use of those new techniques, spreading many ways of possibilities hardly achieved before. Nowadays, spaces called FABLABs offer a range of procedures and equipment that provide the manufacture of scale models, prototypes or final elements in different fidelity degrees. This paper shows the possibilities and activities being implemented, with the use of technology, at PRONTO3D - Prototyping and New 3D Oriented Technology Laboratory, at UFSC, that belongs to PRONTO3D Network Labs, in Santa Catarina State, since 2013.

  10. A Hybrid 3D Indoor Space Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jamali

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available GIS integrates spatial information and spatial analysis. An important example of such integration is for emergency response which requires route planning inside and outside of a building. Route planning requires detailed information related to indoor and outdoor environment. Indoor navigation network models including Geometric Network Model (GNM, Navigable Space Model, sub-division model and regular-grid model lack indoor data sources and abstraction methods. In this paper, a hybrid indoor space model is proposed. In the proposed method, 3D modeling of indoor navigation network is based on surveying control points and it is less dependent on the 3D geometrical building model. This research proposes a method of indoor space modeling for the buildings which do not have proper 2D/3D geometrical models or they lack semantic or topological information. The proposed hybrid model consists of topological, geometrical and semantical space.

  11. Materialedreven 3d digital formgivning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming Tvede

    2010-01-01

    Formålet med forskningsprojektet er for det første at understøtte keramikeren i at arbejde eksperimenterende med digital formgivning, og for det andet at bidrage til en tværfaglig diskurs om brugen af digital formgivning. Forskningsprojektet fokuserer på 3d formgivning og derved på 3d digital...... formgivning og Rapid Prototyping (RP). RP er en fællesbetegnelse for en række af de teknikker, der muliggør at overføre den digitale form til 3d fysisk form. Forskningsprojektet koncentrerer sig om to overordnede forskningsspørgsmål. Det første handler om, hvordan viden og erfaring indenfor det keramiske...... fagområde kan blive udnyttet i forhold til 3d digital formgivning. Det andet handler om, hvad en sådan tilgang kan bidrage med, og hvordan den kan blive udnyttet i et dynamisk samspil med det keramiske materiale i formgivningen af 3d keramiske artefakter. Materialedreven formgivning er karakteriseret af en...

  12. 3D future internet media

    CERN Document Server

    Dagiuklas, Tasos

    2014-01-01

    This book describes recent innovations in 3D media and technologies, with coverage of 3D media capturing, processing, encoding, and adaptation, networking aspects for 3D Media, and quality of user experience (QoE). The main contributions are based on the results of the FP7 European Projects ROMEO, which focus on new methods for the compression and delivery of 3D multi-view video and spatial audio, as well as the optimization of networking and compression jointly across the Future Internet (www.ict-romeo.eu). The delivery of 3D media to individual users remains a highly challenging problem due to the large amount of data involved, diverse network characteristics and user terminal requirements, as well as the user’s context such as their preferences and location. As the number of visual views increases, current systems will struggle to meet the demanding requirements in terms of delivery of constant video quality to both fixed and mobile users. ROMEO will design and develop hybrid-networking solutions that co...

  13. Novel 3D media technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Dagiuklas, Tasos

    2015-01-01

    This book describes recent innovations in 3D media and technologies, with coverage of 3D media capturing, processing, encoding, and adaptation, networking aspects for 3D Media, and quality of user experience (QoE). The contributions are based on the results of the FP7 European Project ROMEO, which focuses on new methods for the compression and delivery of 3D multi-view video and spatial audio, as well as the optimization of networking and compression jointly across the future Internet. The delivery of 3D media to individual users remains a highly challenging problem due to the large amount of data involved, diverse network characteristics and user terminal requirements, as well as the user’s context such as their preferences and location. As the number of visual views increases, current systems will struggle to meet the demanding requirements in terms of delivery of consistent video quality to fixed and mobile users. ROMEO will present hybrid networking solutions that combine the DVB-T2 and DVB-NGH broadcas...

  14. CASTLE3D - A Computer Aided System for Labelling Archaeological Excavations in 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houshiar, H.; Borrmann, D.; Elseberg, J.; Nüchter, A.; Näth, F.; Winkler, S.

    2015-08-01

    one label. Further information such as color, orientation and archaeological notes are added to the label to improve the documentation. The available 3D information allows for easy measurements in the data. The full 3D information of a region of interest can be segmented from the entire data. By joining this data from different georeferenced views the full 3D shape of findings is stored. All the generated documentation in CASTLE3D is exported to an XML format and serves as input for other systems and databases. Apart from presenting the functionalities of CASTLE3D we evaluate its documentation process in a sample project. For this purpose we export the data to the Adiuvabit database (http://adiuvabit.de) where more information is added for further analysis. The documentation process is compared to traditional documentation methods and it is shown how the automated system helps in accelerating the documentation process and decreases errors to a minimum.

  15. Modification of 3D milling machine to 3D printer

    OpenAIRE

    Taska, Abraham

    2014-01-01

    Tato práce se zabývá přestavbou gravírovací frézky na 3D tiskárnu. V první části se práce zabývá možnými technologiemi 3D tisku a možností jejich využití u přestavby. Dále jsou popsány a vybrány vhodné součásti pro přestavbu. V další části je realizováno řízení ohřevu podložky, trysky a řízení posuvu drátu pomocí softwaru TwinCat od společnosti Beckhoff na průmyslovém počítači. Výsledkem práce by měla být oživená 3D tiskárna. This thesis deals with rebuilding of engraving machine to 3D pri...

  16. Aspects of defects in 3d-3d correspondence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gang, Dongmin; Kim, Nakwoo; Romo, Mauricio; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study supersymmetric co-dimension 2 and 4 defects in the compactification of the 6d (2,0) theory of type A_N_−_1 on a 3-manifold M. The so-called 3d-3d correspondence is a relation between complexified Chern-Simons theory (with gauge group SL(N,ℂ)) on M and a 3d N=2 theory T_N[M]. We study this correspondence in the presence of supersymmetric defects, which are knots/links inside the 3-manifold. Our study employs a number of different methods: state-integral models for complex Chern-Simons theory, cluster algebra techniques, domain wall theory T[SU(N)], 5d N=2 SYM, and also supergravity analysis through holography. These methods are complementary and we find agreement between them. In some cases the results lead to highly non-trivial predictions on the partition function. Our discussion includes a general expression for the cluster partition function, which can be used to compute in the presence of maximal and certain class of non-maximal punctures when N>2. We also highlight the non-Abelian description of the 3d N=2T_N[M] theory with defect included, when such a description is available. This paper is a companion to our shorter paper http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1751-8113/49/30/30LT02, which summarizes our main results.

  17. 3-D Vector Flow Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbek, Simon

    , if this significant reduction in the element count can still provide precise and robust 3-D vector flow estimates in a plane. The study concludes that the RC array is capable of estimating precise 3-D vector flow both in a plane and in a volume, despite the low channel count. However, some inherent new challenges...... ultrasonic vector flow estimation and bring it a step closer to a clinical application. A method for high frame rate 3-D vector flow estimation in a plane using the transverse oscillation method combined with a 1024 channel 2-D matrix array is presented. The proposed method is validated both through phantom...... hampers the task of real-time processing. In a second study, some of the issue with the 2-D matrix array are solved by introducing a 2-D row-column (RC) addressing array with only 62 + 62 elements. It is investigated both through simulations and via experimental setups in various flow conditions...

  18. 3D Printed Bionic Nanodevices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yong Lin; Gupta, Maneesh K; Johnson, Blake N; McAlpine, Michael C

    2016-06-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological and functional materials could enable the creation of bionic devices possessing unique and compelling geometries, properties, and functionalities. Indeed, interfacing high performance active devices with biology could impact a variety of fields, including regenerative bioelectronic medicines, smart prosthetics, medical robotics, and human-machine interfaces. Biology, from the molecular scale of DNA and proteins, to the macroscopic scale of tissues and organs, is three-dimensional, often soft and stretchable, and temperature sensitive. This renders most biological platforms incompatible with the fabrication and materials processing methods that have been developed and optimized for functional electronics, which are typically planar, rigid and brittle. A number of strategies have been developed to overcome these dichotomies. One particularly novel approach is the use of extrusion-based multi-material 3D printing, which is an additive manufacturing technology that offers a freeform fabrication strategy. This approach addresses the dichotomies presented above by (1) using 3D printing and imaging for customized, hierarchical, and interwoven device architectures; (2) employing nanotechnology as an enabling route for introducing high performance materials, with the potential for exhibiting properties not found in the bulk; and (3) 3D printing a range of soft and nanoscale materials to enable the integration of a diverse palette of high quality functional nanomaterials with biology. Further, 3D printing is a multi-scale platform, allowing for the incorporation of functional nanoscale inks, the printing of microscale features, and ultimately the creation of macroscale devices. This blending of 3D printing, novel nanomaterial properties, and 'living' platforms may enable next-generation bionic systems. In this review, we highlight this synergistic integration of the unique properties of nanomaterials with the

  19. 3D Printed Bionic Nanodevices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yong Lin; Gupta, Maneesh K.; Johnson, Blake N.; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological and functional materials could enable the creation of bionic devices possessing unique and compelling geometries, properties, and functionalities. Indeed, interfacing high performance active devices with biology could impact a variety of fields, including regenerative bioelectronic medicines, smart prosthetics, medical robotics, and human-machine interfaces. Biology, from the molecular scale of DNA and proteins, to the macroscopic scale of tissues and organs, is three-dimensional, often soft and stretchable, and temperature sensitive. This renders most biological platforms incompatible with the fabrication and materials processing methods that have been developed and optimized for functional electronics, which are typically planar, rigid and brittle. A number of strategies have been developed to overcome these dichotomies. One particularly novel approach is the use of extrusion-based multi-material 3D printing, which is an additive manufacturing technology that offers a freeform fabrication strategy. This approach addresses the dichotomies presented above by (1) using 3D printing and imaging for customized, hierarchical, and interwoven device architectures; (2) employing nanotechnology as an enabling route for introducing high performance materials, with the potential for exhibiting properties not found in the bulk; and (3) 3D printing a range of soft and nanoscale materials to enable the integration of a diverse palette of high quality functional nanomaterials with biology. Further, 3D printing is a multi-scale platform, allowing for the incorporation of functional nanoscale inks, the printing of microscale features, and ultimately the creation of macroscale devices. This blending of 3D printing, novel nanomaterial properties, and ‘living’ platforms may enable next-generation bionic systems. In this review, we highlight this synergistic integration of the unique properties of nanomaterials with

  20. Coronary Arteries Segmentation Based on the 3D Discrete Wavelet Transform and 3D Neutrosophic Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo-Tsung Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Most applications in the field of medical image processing require precise estimation. To improve the accuracy of segmentation, this study aimed to propose a novel segmentation method for coronary arteries to allow for the automatic and accurate detection of coronary pathologies. Methods. The proposed segmentation method included 2 parts. First, 3D region growing was applied to give the initial segmentation of coronary arteries. Next, the location of vessel information, HHH subband coefficients of the 3D DWT, was detected by the proposed vessel-texture discrimination algorithm. Based on the initial segmentation, 3D DWT integrated with the 3D neutrosophic transformation could accurately detect the coronary arteries. Results. Each subbranch of the segmented coronary arteries was segmented correctly by the proposed method. The obtained results are compared with those ground truth values obtained from the commercial software from GE Healthcare and the level-set method proposed by Yang et al., 2007. Results indicate that the proposed method is better in terms of efficiency analyzed. Conclusion. Based on the initial segmentation of coronary arteries obtained from 3D region growing, one-level 3D DWT and 3D neutrosophic transformation can be applied to detect coronary pathologies accurately.

  1. NGT-3D: a simple nematode cultivation system to study Caenorhabditis elegans biology in 3D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Young Lee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is one of the premier experimental model organisms today. In the laboratory, they display characteristic development, fertility, and behaviors in a two dimensional habitat. In nature, however, C. elegans is found in three dimensional environments such as rotting fruit. To investigate the biology of C. elegans in a 3D controlled environment we designed a nematode cultivation habitat which we term the nematode growth tube or NGT-3D. NGT-3D allows for the growth of both nematodes and the bacteria they consume. Worms show comparable rates of growth, reproduction and lifespan when bacterial colonies in the 3D matrix are abundant. However, when bacteria are sparse, growth and brood size fail to reach levels observed in standard 2D plates. Using NGT-3D we observe drastic deficits in fertility in a sensory mutant in 3D compared to 2D, and this defect was likely due to an inability to locate bacteria. Overall, NGT-3D will sharpen our understanding of nematode biology and allow scientists to investigate questions of nematode ecology and evolutionary fitness in the laboratory.

  2. ROOFN3D: DEEP LEARNING TRAINING DATA FOR 3D BUILDING RECONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wichmann

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Machine learning methods have gained in importance through the latest development of artificial intelligence and computer hardware. Particularly approaches based on deep learning have shown that they are able to provide state-of-the-art results for various tasks. However, the direct application of deep learning methods to improve the results of 3D building reconstruction is often not possible due, for example, to the lack of suitable training data. To address this issue, we present RoofN3D which provides a new 3D point cloud training dataset that can be used to train machine learning models for different tasks in the context of 3D building reconstruction. It can be used, among others, to train semantic segmentation networks or to learn the structure of buildings and the geometric model construction. Further details about RoofN3D and the developed data preparation framework, which enables the automatic derivation of training data, are described in this paper. Furthermore, we provide an overview of other available 3D point cloud training data and approaches from current literature in which solutions for the application of deep learning to unstructured and not gridded 3D point cloud data are presented.

  3. Ideal 3D asymmetric concentrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Botella, Angel [Departamento Fisica Aplicada a los Recursos Naturales, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, E.T.S.I. de Montes, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Fernandez-Balbuena, Antonio Alvarez; Vazquez, Daniel; Bernabeu, Eusebio [Departamento de Optica, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Fac. CC. Fisicas, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    Nonimaging optics is a field devoted to the design of optical components for applications such as solar concentration or illumination. In this field, many different techniques have been used for producing reflective and refractive optical devices, including reverse engineering techniques. In this paper we apply photometric field theory and elliptic ray bundles method to study 3D asymmetric - without rotational or translational symmetry - concentrators, which can be useful components for nontracking solar applications. We study the one-sheet hyperbolic concentrator and we demonstrate its behaviour as ideal 3D asymmetric concentrator. (author)

  4. Markerless 3D Face Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walder, Christian; Breidt, Martin; Bulthoff, Heinrich

    2009-01-01

    We present a novel algorithm for the markerless tracking of deforming surfaces such as faces. We acquire a sequence of 3D scans along with color images at 40Hz. The data is then represented by implicit surface and color functions, using a novel partition-of-unity type method of efficiently...... the scanned surface, using the variation of both shape and color as features in a dynamic energy minimization problem. Our prototype system yields high-quality animated 3D models in correspondence, at a rate of approximately twenty seconds per timestep. Tracking results for faces and other objects...

  5. W17_geowave “3D full waveform geophysical models”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larmat, Carene [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Maceira, Monica [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Roy, Corinna [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2018-02-12

    Performance of the MCMC inversion according to the number of cores for the computation. A) 64 cores. B) 480 cores. C) 816 cores. The true model is represented by the black line. Vsv is the wave speed of S waves polarized in the vertical plane, ξ is an anisotropy parameter. The Earth is highly anisotropics; the wavespeed of seismic waves depends on the polarization of the wave. Seismic inversion of the elastic structure is usually limited to isotropic information such as Vsv. Our research looked at the inversion of Earth anisotropy.

  6. REVIEW OF 3D GIS DATA FUSION METHODS AND PROGRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Hua

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available 3D data fusion is a research hotspot in the field of computer vision and fine mapping, and plays an important role in fine measurement, risk monitoring, data display and other processes. At present, the research of 3D data fusion in the field of Surveying and mapping focuses on the 3D model fusion of terrain and ground objects. This paper summarizes the basic methods of 3D data fusion of terrain and ground objects in recent years, and classified the data structure and the establishment method of 3D model, and some of the most widely used fusion methods are analysed and commented.

  7. 3D CAPABILITIES OF PLEIADES SATELLITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bernard

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available End of 2011 a new optical satellite, called Pléiades, was launched by the French space agency (CNES. It provides 20 km x 20 km images at 0.5 meters. This agile acquisition system is able to relocate very rapidly and scan the earth in any direction. The agility of the system offers the ability to acquire multi viewing angle images of the same area during the same orbit. This ability to capture, from a single stereoscopic pair, to a sequence of 25 images, allows enhancing the quality and the completeness of automatically extracted 3D maps. The aim of the study is to validate and quantify the capacity of the Pléiades system to perform 3D mapping. The analysis explores the advantages in terms of quality and automatism to use more than 2 stereoscopic images. In the last 10 years, automatic 3D processing of digital images became more and more popular and efficient. Thanks to aerial images with very large overlap and very high resolution satellite images, new methodologies and algorithms have been implemented to improve the quality and accuracy of automatic 3D processing. We propose to experiment the same type of approaches using Pléiades images to produce digital elevation models (DEM. A focus is made on analysing the 3D processing using video like (multi viewing acquisitions. Different reference sites with very accurate 3D control points are used to quantify the quality of the Pléiades DEM. Different acquisition modes are explored from a single stereo pair to a sequence of 17 images.

  8. 3D Terahertz Beam Profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille Klarskov; Strikwerda, Andrew; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2013-01-01

    We present a characterization of THz beams generated in both a two-color air plasma and in a LiNbO3 crystal. Using a commercial THz camera, we record intensity images as a function of distance through the beam waist, from which we extract 2D beam profiles and visualize our measurements into 3D beam...

  9. 3D Printing: Exploring Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Kyle; Flowers, Jim

    2015-01-01

    As 3D printers become more affordable, schools are using them in increasing numbers. They fit well with the emphasis on product design in technology and engineering education, allowing students to create high-fidelity physical models to see and test different iterations in their product designs. They may also help students to "think in three…

  10. 3D Pit Stop Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Lael; Shaw, Daniel; Gaidds, Kimberly; Lyman, Gregory; Sorey, Timothy

    2018-01-01

    Although solving an engineering design project problem with limited resources or structural capabilities of materials can be part of the challenge, students making their own parts can support creativity. The authors of this article found an exciting solution: 3D printers are not only one of several tools for making but also facilitate a creative…

  11. 3D histomorphometric quantification from 3D computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, L.F. de; Lopes, R.T.

    2004-01-01

    The histomorphometric analysis is based on stereologic concepts and was originally applied to biologic samples. This technique has been used to evaluate different complex structures such as ceramic filters, net structures and cancellous objects that are objects with inner connected structures. The measured histomorphometric parameters of structure are: sample volume to total reconstructed volume (BV/TV), sample surface to sample volume (BS/BV), connection thickness (Tb Th ), connection number (Tb N ) and connection separation (Tb Sp ). The anisotropy was evaluated as well. These parameters constitute the base of histomorphometric analysis. The quantification is realized over cross-sections recovered by cone beam reconstruction, where a real-time microfocus radiographic system is used as tomographic system. The three-dimensional (3D) histomorphometry, obtained from tomography, corresponds to an evolution of conventional method that is based on 2D analysis. It is more coherent with morphologic and topologic context of the sample. This work shows result from 3D histomorphometric quantification to characterize objects examined by 3D computer tomography. The results, which characterizes the internal structures of ceramic foams with different porous density, are compared to results from conventional methods

  12. DYNA3D2000*, Explicit 3-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, J.

    2002-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: DYNA3D2000 is a nonlinear explicit finite element code for analyzing 3-D structures and solid continuum. The code is vectorized and available on several computer platforms. The element library includes continuum, shell, beam, truss and spring/damper elements to allow maximum flexibility in modeling physical problems. Many materials are available to represent a wide range of material behavior, including elasticity, plasticity, composites, thermal effects and rate dependence. In addition, DYNA3D has a sophisticated contact interface capability, including frictional sliding, single surface contact and automatic contact generation. 2 - Method of solution: Discretization of a continuous model transforms partial differential equations into algebraic equations. A numerical solution is then obtained by solving these algebraic equations through a direct time marching scheme. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Recent software improvements have eliminated most of the user identified limitations with dynamic memory allocation and a very large format description that has pushed potential problem sizes beyond the reach of most users. The dominant restrictions remain in code execution speed and robustness, which the developers constantly strive to improve

  13. 3-D Discrete Analytical Ridgelet Transform

    OpenAIRE

    Helbert , David; Carré , Philippe; Andrès , Éric

    2006-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we propose an implementation of the 3-D Ridgelet transform: the 3-D discrete analytical Ridgelet transform (3-D DART). This transform uses the Fourier strategy for the computation of the associated 3-D discrete Radon transform. The innovative step is the definition of a discrete 3-D transform with the discrete analytical geometry theory by the construction of 3-D discrete analytical lines in the Fourier domain. We propose two types of 3-D discrete lines:...

  14. Geomorphologic, stratigraphic and sedimentologic evidences of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The EPF particularly has acted significantly and influenced in evolving the geomorphological landscape and the stratigraphic architecture of the area. The block bounded by the two faults has earlier been considered as a single entity, constituting a half-graben. The present investigation (by morpho-stratigraphic and ...

  15. MRI Volume Fusion Based on 3D Shearlet Decompositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Duan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays many MRI scans can give 3D volume data with different contrasts, but the observers may want to view various contrasts in the same 3D volume. The conventional 2D medical fusion methods can only fuse the 3D volume data layer by layer, which may lead to the loss of interframe correlative information. In this paper, a novel 3D medical volume fusion method based on 3D band limited shearlet transform (3D BLST is proposed. And this method is evaluated upon MRI T2* and quantitative susceptibility mapping data of 4 human brains. Both the perspective impression and the quality indices indicate that the proposed method has a better performance than conventional 2D wavelet, DT CWT, and 3D wavelet, DT CWT based fusion methods.

  16. The New Realm of 3-D Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Dimension Technologies Inc., developed a line of 2-D/3-D Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) screens, including a 15-inch model priced at consumer levels. DTI's family of flat panel LCD displays, called the Virtual Window(TM), provide real-time 3-D images without the use of glasses, head trackers, helmets, or other viewing aids. Most of the company initial 3-D display research was funded through NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The images on DTI's displays appear to leap off the screen and hang in space. The display accepts input from computers or stereo video sources, and can be switched from 3-D to full-resolution 2-D viewing with the push of a button. The Virtual Window displays have applications in data visualization, medicine, architecture, business, real estate, entertainment, and other research, design, military, and consumer applications. Displays are currently used for computer games, protein analysis, and surgical imaging. The technology greatly benefits the medical field, as surgical simulators are helping to increase the skills of surgical residents. Virtual Window(TM) is a trademark of Dimension Technologies Inc.

  17. 3D Cell Culture in Alginate Hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese Andersen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This review compiles information regarding the use of alginate, and in particular alginate hydrogels, in culturing cells in 3D. Knowledge of alginate chemical structure and functionality are shown to be important parameters in design of alginate-based matrices for cell culture. Gel elasticity as well as hydrogel stability can be impacted by the type of alginate used, its concentration, the choice of gelation technique (ionic or covalent, and divalent cation chosen as the gel inducing ion. The use of peptide-coupled alginate can control cell–matrix interactions. Gelation of alginate with concomitant immobilization of cells can take various forms. Droplets or beads have been utilized since the 1980s for immobilizing cells. Newer matrices such as macroporous scaffolds are now entering the 3D cell culture product market. Finally, delayed gelling, injectable, alginate systems show utility in the translation of in vitro cell culture to in vivo tissue engineering applications. Alginate has a history and a future in 3D cell culture. Historically, cells were encapsulated in alginate droplets cross-linked with calcium for the development of artificial organs. Now, several commercial products based on alginate are being used as 3D cell culture systems that also demonstrate the possibility of replacing or regenerating tissue.

  18. 3D integrated superconducting qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, D.; Kim, D.; Das, R.; Yost, D.; Gustavsson, S.; Hover, D.; Krantz, P.; Melville, A.; Racz, L.; Samach, G. O.; Weber, S. J.; Yan, F.; Yoder, J. L.; Kerman, A. J.; Oliver, W. D.

    2017-10-01

    As the field of quantum computing advances from the few-qubit stage to larger-scale processors, qubit addressability and extensibility will necessitate the use of 3D integration and packaging. While 3D integration is well-developed for commercial electronics, relatively little work has been performed to determine its compatibility with high-coherence solid-state qubits. Of particular concern, qubit coherence times can be suppressed by the requisite processing steps and close proximity of another chip. In this work, we use a flip-chip process to bond a chip with superconducting flux qubits to another chip containing structures for qubit readout and control. We demonstrate that high qubit coherence (T1, T2,echo > 20 μs) is maintained in a flip-chip geometry in the presence of galvanic, capacitive, and inductive coupling between the chips.

  19. 3D Printed Robotic Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A 3D model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 3D printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.

  20. Automated 3-D Radiation Mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarpinian, J. E.

    1991-01-01

    This work describes an automated radiation detection and imaging system which combines several state-of-the-art technologies to produce a portable but very powerful visualization tool for planning work in radiation environments. The system combines a radiation detection system, a computerized radiation imaging program, and computerized 3-D modeling to automatically locate and measurements are automatically collected and imaging techniques are used to produce colored, 'isodose' images of the measured radiation fields. The isodose lines from the images are then superimposed over the 3-D model of the area. The final display shows the various components in a room and their associated radiation fields. The use of an automated radiation detection system increases the quality of radiation survey obtained measurements. The additional use of a three-dimensional display allows easier visualization of the area and associated radiological conditions than two-dimensional sketches

  1. Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LITTLE, CHARLES Q.; PETERS, RALPH R.; RIGDON, J. BRIAN; SMALL, DANIEL E.

    1999-01-01

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene

  2. PRODUCTION WITH 3D PRINTERS IN TEXTILES [REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KESKIN Reyhan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available 3D printers are gaining more attention, finding different applications and 3D printing is being regarded as a ‘revolution’ of the 2010s for production. 3D printing is a production method that produces 3-dimensional objects by combining very thin layers over and over to form the object using 3D scanners or via softwares either private or open source. 3D printed materials find application in a large range of fields including aerospace, automotive, medicine and material science. There are several 3D printing methods such as fused deposition modeling (FDM, stereolithographic apparatus (SLA, selective laser sintering (SLS, inkjet 3D printing and laminated object manufacturing (LOM. 3D printing process involves three steps: production of the 3D model file, conversion of the 3D model file into G-code and printing the object. 3D printing finds a large variety of applications in many fields; however, textile applications of 3D printing remain rare. There are several textile-like 3D printed products mostly for use in fashion design, for research purposes, for technical textile applications and for substituting traditional textiles suchas weft-knitted structures and lace patterns. 3D printed textile-like structures are not strong enough for textile applications as they tend to break easily and although they have the drape of a textile material, they still lack the flexibility of textiles. 3D printing technology has to gain improvement to produce materials that will be an equivalent for textile materials, and has to be a faster method to compete with traditional textile production methods.

  3. 3D neutron transport modelization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warin, X.

    1996-12-01

    Some nodal methods to solve the transport equation in 3D are presented. Two nodal methods presented at an OCDE congress are described: a first one is a low degree one called RTN0; a second one is a high degree one called BDM1. The two methods can be made faster with a totally consistent DSA. Some results of parallelization show that: 98% of the time is spent in sweeps; transport sweeps are easily parallelized. (K.A.)

  4. 3D neutron transport modelization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warin, X.

    1996-12-01

    Some nodal methods to solve the transport equation in 3D are presented. Two nodal methods presented at an OCDE congress are described: a first one is a low degree one called RTN0; a second one is a high degree one called BDM1. The two methods can be made faster with a totally consistent DSA. Some results of parallelization show that: 98% of the time is spent in sweeps; transport sweeps are easily parallelized. (K.A.). 10 refs.

  5. Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasso, Luigi; Vazquez, Patricia; Vedarethinam, Indumathi

    2010-01-01

    Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes have been fabricated for possible future neurological applications. A combination of micro-fabrication techniques and chemical polymerization methods has been used to create pillar electrodes in polyaniline and polypyrrole. The thin polymer films obtained...... showed uniformity and good adhesion to both horizontal and vertical surfaces. Electrodes in combination with metal/conducting polymer materials have been characterized by cyclic voltammetry and the presence of the conducting polymer film has shown to increase the electrochemical activity when compared...

  6. Pembuatan Aplikasi Catalog 3D Desain Rumah Sebagai Sarana Promosi Dengan Menggunakan Unity 3D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siryantini Nurul Adnin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study incorporate AR into a technology home Catalog sales, thus Catalog home is becoming more real with 3D objects in it. This research aims to produce an application that can display a 3D model of a house that can help buyers to know well the home to be purchased, and will simplify the home seller as a media campaign to consumers. 3D objects used to develop two kinds of Software that Sweet Home 3D and Blender, whereas to create application in programming used Unity 3D Software using the C # programming language. Application home design Catalog is made through several stages of design 3D objects, Marker workmanship and application design. The end result consists of two forms, namely in the form of physical (in the form of print media Catalog that contains a marker on some pages and Augmented Reality applications based on Android in the form of .apk which is then installed on Smartphones, where the two are complementary.

  7. [Real time 3D echocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, F.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients.

  8. 3D treatment planning systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Cheng B; Li, Sicong

    2018-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) treatment planning systems have evolved and become crucial components of modern radiation therapy. The systems are computer-aided designing or planning softwares that speed up the treatment planning processes to arrive at the best dose plans for the patients undergoing radiation therapy. Furthermore, the systems provide new technology to solve problems that would not have been considered without the use of computers such as conformal radiation therapy (CRT), intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). The 3D treatment planning systems vary amongst the vendors and also the dose delivery systems they are designed to support. As such these systems have different planning tools to generate the treatment plans and convert the treatment plans into executable instructions that can be implemented by the dose delivery systems. The rapid advancements in computer technology and accelerators have facilitated constant upgrades and the introduction of different and unique dose delivery systems than the traditional C-arm type medical linear accelerators. The focus of this special issue is to gather relevant 3D treatment planning systems for the radiation oncology community to keep abreast of technology advancement by assess the planning tools available as well as those unique "tricks or tips" used to support the different dose delivery systems. Copyright © 2018 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Compact 3D quantum memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Edwar; Deppe, Frank; Renger, Michael; Repp, Daniel; Eder, Peter; Fischer, Michael; Goetz, Jan; Pogorzalek, Stefan; Fedorov, Kirill G.; Marx, Achim; Gross, Rudolf

    2018-05-01

    Superconducting 3D microwave cavities offer state-of-the-art coherence times and a well-controlled environment for superconducting qubits. In order to realize at the same time fast readout and long-lived quantum information storage, one can couple the qubit to both a low-quality readout and a high-quality storage cavity. However, such systems are bulky compared to their less coherent 2D counterparts. A more compact and scalable approach is achieved by making use of the multimode structure of a 3D cavity. In our work, we investigate such a device where a transmon qubit is capacitively coupled to two modes of a single 3D cavity. External coupling is engineered so that the memory mode has an about 100 times larger quality factor than the readout mode. Using an all-microwave second-order protocol, we realize a lifetime enhancement of the stored state over the qubit lifetime by a factor of 6 with a fidelity of approximately 80% determined via quantum process tomography. We also find that this enhancement is not limited by fundamental constraints.

  10. 3D-ICONS Ireland – fulfilling the potential of a rich 3D resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Corns

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As a partner in the EU co-funded 3D-ICONS project, the Discovery Programme undertook the 3D documentation of some of the most iconic cultural heritage sites in Ireland. This pan-European project aimed to establish a complete pipeline for the production of 3D replicas of archaeological monuments and historic buildings, and to publish the content to Europeana for public access. The list of Irish icons range from wider cultural landscapes to smaller ornately carved stones and includes a wide range of chronological periods: from Neolithic rock art from 2500 BC to Derry's 17th-century fortifications. The primary digitisation methods include airborne laser scanning (ALS, phase-based terrestrial laser scanning (Faro Focus 3D and close range structured light scanning (Artec EVA. These are now mainstream approaches for surveying historic landscapes, structures and objects, generating precise, high-resolution point cloud data, primarily for viewing and interaction in proprietary software applications. The challenge was to convert these complex high-volume datasets into textured 3D models, retaining the geometric integrity of the original data. The article highlights the development of a pipeline to produce a lightweight 3D model that enables the public to interact with a photorealistic model based upon accurate survey and texture data. 3D-ICONS ended in January 2015, but a new website 3dicons.ie was launched to offer continued access to the Irish 3D models and associated content and media generated during the project. The article will consider the impact of this online content, particularly how it has been used as a teaching aid in secondary schools and how this may be extended in the future. It will also demonstrate how content from the project has been remodelled to develop an interactive and immersive experience for the great mound at Knowth, a development in partnership with the operators of the Brú na Bóinne visitor centre.

  11. Experimental Satellite Phase 3D before Launch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sebesta

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available To build a satellite can be a dream for many engineers. We are happy that we can participate in the AMSAT PHASE 3D project. Our responsibility is very high because one of our on-board receivers is the main one of the command link and will never be switched off. The project is also a very good opportunity for our students to meet satellite technology.

  12. 3D geodetic monitoring slope deformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiss Gabriel

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available For plenty of slope failures that can be found in Slovakia is necessary and very important their geodetic monitoring (because of their activity, reactivisations, checks. The paper gives new methodologies for these works, using 3D terrestrial survey technologies for measurements in convenient deformation networks. The design of an optimal type of deformation model for various kinds of landslides and their exact processing with an efficient testing procedure to determine the kinematics of the slope deformations are presented too.

  13. Random-Profiles-Based 3D Face Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joongrock Kim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a noble nonintrusive three-dimensional (3D face modeling system for random-profile-based 3D face recognition is presented. Although recent two-dimensional (2D face recognition systems can achieve a reliable recognition rate under certain conditions, their performance is limited by internal and external changes, such as illumination and pose variation. To address these issues, 3D face recognition, which uses 3D face data, has recently received much attention. However, the performance of 3D face recognition highly depends on the precision of acquired 3D face data, while also requiring more computational power and storage capacity than 2D face recognition systems. In this paper, we present a developed nonintrusive 3D face modeling system composed of a stereo vision system and an invisible near-infrared line laser, which can be directly applied to profile-based 3D face recognition. We further propose a novel random-profile-based 3D face recognition method that is memory-efficient and pose-invariant. The experimental results demonstrate that the reconstructed 3D face data consists of more than 50 k 3D point clouds and a reliable recognition rate against pose variation.

  14. 3D composite image, 3D MRI, 3D SPECT, hydrocephalus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mito, T.; Shibata, I.; Sugo, N.; Takano, M.; Takahashi, H.

    2002-01-01

    The three-dimensional (3D)SPECT imaging technique we have studied and published for the past several years is an analytical tool that permits visual expression of the cerebral circulation profile in various cerebral diseases. The greatest drawback of SPECT is that the limitation on precision of spacial resolution makes intracranial localization impossible. In 3D SPECT imaging, intracranial volume and morphology may vary with the threshold established. To solve this problem, we have produced complimentarily combined SPECT and helical-CT 3D images by means of general-purpose visualization software for intracranial localization. In hydrocephalus, however, the key subject to be studied is the profile of cerebral circulation around the ventricles of the brain. This suggests that, for displaying the cerebral ventricles in three dimensions, CT is a difficult technique whereas MRI is more useful. For this reason, we attempted to establish the profile of cerebral circulation around the cerebral ventricles by the production of combined 3D images of SPECT and MRI. In patients who had shunt surgery for hydrocephalus, a difference between pre- and postoperative cerebral circulation profiles was assessed by a voxel distribution curve, 3D SPECT images, and combined 3D SPECT and MRI images. As the shunt system in this study, an Orbis-Sigma valve of the automatic cerebrospinal fluid volume adjustment type was used in place of the variable pressure type Medos valve currently in use, because this device requires frequent changes in pressure and a change in pressure may be detected after MRI procedure. The SPECT apparatus used was PRISM3000 of the three-detector type, and 123I-IMP was used as the radionuclide in a dose of 222 MBq. MRI data were collected with an MAGNEXa+2 with a magnetic flux density of 0.5 tesla under the following conditions: field echo; TR 50 msec; TE, 10 msec; flip, 30ueK; 1 NEX; FOV, 23 cm; 1-mm slices; and gapless. 3D images are produced on the workstation TITAN

  15. 3D silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parzefall, Ulrich; Bates, Richard; Boscardin, Maurizio; Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco; Eckert, Simon; Eklund, Lars; Fleta, Celeste; Jakobs, Karl; Kuehn, Susanne; Lozano, Manuel; Pahn, Gregor; Parkes, Chris; Pellegrini, Giulio; Pennicard, David; Piemonte, Claudio; Ronchin, Sabina; Szumlak, Tomasz; Zoboli, Andrea; Zorzi, Nicola

    2009-01-01

    While the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN has started operation in autumn 2008, plans for a luminosity upgrade to the Super-LHC (sLHC) have already been developed for several years. This projected luminosity increase by an order of magnitude gives rise to a challenging radiation environment for tracking detectors at the LHC experiments. Significant improvements in radiation hardness are required with respect to the LHC. Using a strawman layout for the new tracker of the ATLAS experiment as an example, silicon strip detectors (SSDs) with short strips of 2-3 cm length are foreseen to cover the region from 28 to 60 cm distance to the beam. These SSD will be exposed to radiation levels up to 10 15 N eq /cm 2 , which makes radiation resistance a major concern for the upgraded ATLAS tracker. Several approaches to increasing the radiation hardness of silicon detectors exist. In this article, it is proposed to combine the radiation hard 3D-design originally conceived for pixel-style applications with the benefits of the established planar technology for strip detectors by using SSDs that have regularly spaced doped columns extending into the silicon bulk under the detector strips. The first 3D SSDs to become available for testing were made in the Single Type Column (STC) design, a technological simplification of the original 3D design. With such 3D SSDs, a small number of prototype sLHC detector modules with LHC-speed front-end electronics as used in the semiconductor tracking systems of present LHC experiments were built. Modules were tested before and after irradiation to fluences of 10 15 N eq /cm 2 . The tests were performed with three systems: a highly focused IR-laser with 5μm spot size to make position-resolved scans of the charge collection efficiency, an Sr 90 β-source set-up to measure the signal levels for a minimum ionizing particle (MIP), and a beam test with 180 GeV pions at CERN. This article gives a brief overview of the results obtained with 3D-STC-modules.

  16. 3D silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parzefall, Ulrich [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany)], E-mail: ulrich.parzefall@physik.uni-freiburg.de; Bates, Richard [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Boscardin, Maurizio [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco [INFN and Universita' di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Eckert, Simon [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Eklund, Lars; Fleta, Celeste [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Jakobs, Karl; Kuehn, Susanne [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Lozano, Manuel [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona, IMB-CNM, CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Pahn, Gregor [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Parkes, Chris [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Pellegrini, Giulio [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona, IMB-CNM, CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Pennicard, David [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Piemonte, Claudio; Ronchin, Sabina [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Szumlak, Tomasz [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Zoboli, Andrea [INFN and Universita' di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Zorzi, Nicola [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2009-06-01

    While the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN has started operation in autumn 2008, plans for a luminosity upgrade to the Super-LHC (sLHC) have already been developed for several years. This projected luminosity increase by an order of magnitude gives rise to a challenging radiation environment for tracking detectors at the LHC experiments. Significant improvements in radiation hardness are required with respect to the LHC. Using a strawman layout for the new tracker of the ATLAS experiment as an example, silicon strip detectors (SSDs) with short strips of 2-3 cm length are foreseen to cover the region from 28 to 60 cm distance to the beam. These SSD will be exposed to radiation levels up to 10{sup 15}N{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}, which makes radiation resistance a major concern for the upgraded ATLAS tracker. Several approaches to increasing the radiation hardness of silicon detectors exist. In this article, it is proposed to combine the radiation hard 3D-design originally conceived for pixel-style applications with the benefits of the established planar technology for strip detectors by using SSDs that have regularly spaced doped columns extending into the silicon bulk under the detector strips. The first 3D SSDs to become available for testing were made in the Single Type Column (STC) design, a technological simplification of the original 3D design. With such 3D SSDs, a small number of prototype sLHC detector modules with LHC-speed front-end electronics as used in the semiconductor tracking systems of present LHC experiments were built. Modules were tested before and after irradiation to fluences of 10{sup 15}N{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}. The tests were performed with three systems: a highly focused IR-laser with 5{mu}m spot size to make position-resolved scans of the charge collection efficiency, an Sr{sup 90}{beta}-source set-up to measure the signal levels for a minimum ionizing particle (MIP), and a beam test with 180 GeV pions at CERN. This article gives a brief overview of

  17. Magmatic Systems in 3-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, G. M.; Harding, A. J.; Babcock, J. M.; Orcutt, J. A.; Bazin, S.; Singh, S.; Detrick, R. S.; Canales, J. P.; Carbotte, S. M.; Diebold, J.

    2002-12-01

    Multichannel seismic (MCS) images of crustal magma chambers are ideal targets for advanced visualization techniques. In the mid-ocean ridge environment, reflections originating at the melt-lens are well separated from other reflection boundaries, such as the seafloor, layer 2A and Moho, which enables the effective use of transparency filters. 3-D visualization of seismic reflectivity falls into two broad categories: volume and surface rendering. Volumetric-based visualization is an extremely powerful approach for the rapid exploration of very dense 3-D datasets. These 3-D datasets are divided into volume elements or voxels, which are individually color coded depending on the assigned datum value; the user can define an opacity filter to reject plotting certain voxels. This transparency allows the user to peer into the data volume, enabling an easy identification of patterns or relationships that might have geologic merit. Multiple image volumes can be co-registered to look at correlations between two different data types (e.g., amplitude variation with offsets studies), in a manner analogous to draping attributes onto a surface. In contrast, surface visualization of seismic reflectivity usually involves producing "fence" diagrams of 2-D seismic profiles that are complemented with seafloor topography, along with point class data, draped lines and vectors (e.g. fault scarps, earthquake locations and plate-motions). The overlying seafloor can be made partially transparent or see-through, enabling 3-D correlations between seafloor structure and seismic reflectivity. Exploration of 3-D datasets requires additional thought when constructing and manipulating these complex objects. As numbers of visual objects grow in a particular scene, there is a tendency to mask overlapping objects; this clutter can be managed through the effective use of total or partial transparency (i.e., alpha-channel). In this way, the co-variation between different datasets can be investigated

  18. Interactive 3D Mars Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    The Interactive 3D Mars Visualization system provides high-performance, immersive visualization of satellite and surface vehicle imagery of Mars. The software can be used in mission operations to provide the most accurate position information for the Mars rovers to date. When integrated into the mission data pipeline, this system allows mission planners to view the location of the rover on Mars to 0.01-meter accuracy with respect to satellite imagery, with dynamic updates to incorporate the latest position information. Given this information so early in the planning process, rover drivers are able to plan more accurate drive activities for the rover than ever before, increasing the execution of science activities significantly. Scientifically, this 3D mapping information puts all of the science analyses to date into geologic context on a daily basis instead of weeks or months, as was the norm prior to this contribution. This allows the science planners to judge the efficacy of their previously executed science observations much more efficiently, and achieve greater science return as a result. The Interactive 3D Mars surface view is a Mars terrain browsing software interface that encompasses the entire region of exploration for a Mars surface exploration mission. The view is interactive, allowing the user to pan in any direction by clicking and dragging, or to zoom in or out by scrolling the mouse or touchpad. This set currently includes tools for selecting a point of interest, and a ruler tool for displaying the distance between and positions of two points of interest. The mapping information can be harvested and shared through ubiquitous online mapping tools like Google Mars, NASA WorldWind, and Worldwide Telescope.

  19. DEVELOPING 3D AWARENESS WHEN TEACHING TECHNICAL DRAFTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADUICA Felix

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper details a new method of developing 3D awareness when teaching technical drafting. The latest advancements in technology allow us to develop 3D parts in a virtual environment relatively easy. Allowing students to see the 2D part they are drawing in a 3D presentation may allow them to better understand the concepts of spatiality and planes of view.

  20. 3D Display of Spacecraft Dynamics Using Real Telemetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanguk Lee

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available 3D display of spacecraft motion by using telemetry data received from satellite in real-time is described. Telemetry data are converted to the appropriate form for 3-D display by the real-time preprocessor. Stored playback telemetry data also can be processed for the display. 3D display of spacecraft motion by using real telemetry data provides intuitive comprehension of spacecraft dynamics.

  1. Special Issue: NextGen Materials for 3D Printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee Kai Chua

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Only a handful of materials are well-established in three-dimensional (3D printing and well-accepted in industrial manufacturing applications. However, recent advances in 3D printable materials have shown potential for enabling numerous novel applications in the future. This special issue, consisting of 2 reviews and 10 research articles, intends to explore the possible materials that could define next-generation 3D printing.

  2. Structured Light-Based 3D Reconstruction System for Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Thuy Tuong; Slaughter, David C.; Max, Nelson; Maloof, Julin N.; Sinha, Neelima

    2015-01-01

    Camera-based 3D reconstruction of physical objects is one of the most popular computer vision trends in recent years. Many systems have been built to model different real-world subjects, but there is lack of a completely robust system for plants. This paper presents a full 3D reconstruction system that incorporates both hardware structures (including the proposed structured light system to enhance textures on object surfaces) and software algorithms (including the proposed 3D point cloud regi...

  3. Laser scanner 3D terrestri e mobile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Ciamba

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Recentemente si è svolto a Roma un evento dimostrativo per informare, professionisti e ricercatori del settore inerente il rilievo strumentale, sulle recenti innovazioni che riguardano i laser scanner 3d. Il mercato della strumentazione dedicata al rilevamento architettonico e dell'ambiente, offre molte possibilità di scelta. Oggi i principali marchi producono strumenti sempre più efficienti ed ideati per ambiti di applicazione specifici, permettendo ai professionisti, la giusta scelta in termini di prestazioni ed economia. A demonstration event was recently held in Rome with the aim to inform professionals and researchers on recent innovations on instrumental survey related to the 3d laser scanner. The market of instrumentation for architectural survey offers many possibilitiesof choice. Today the major brands produce instruments that are more efficient and designed for specific areas of application, allowing the right choice in terms of performance and economy.

  4. Laser scanner 3D terrestri e mobile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Ciamba

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Recentemente si è svolto a Roma un evento dimostrativo per informare, professionisti e ricercatori del settore inerente il rilievo strumentale, sulle recenti innovazioni che riguardano i laser scanner 3d. Il mercato della strumentazione dedicata al rilevamento architettonico e dell'ambiente, offre molte possibilità di scelta. Oggi i principali marchi producono strumenti sempre più efficienti ed ideati per ambiti di applicazione specifici, permettendo ai professionisti, la giusta scelta in termini di prestazioni ed economia.A demonstration event was recently held in Rome with the aim to inform professionals and researchers on recent innovations on instrumental survey related to the 3d laser scanner. The market of instrumentation for architectural survey offers many possibilitiesof choice. Today the major brands produce instruments that are more efficient and designed for specific areas of application, allowing the right choice in terms of performance and economy.

  5. 3D GEO: AN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Georgopoulos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The expression GEO is mostly used to denote relation to the earth. However it should not be confined to what is related to the earth's surface, as other objects also need three dimensional representation and documentation, like cultural heritage objects. They include both tangible and intangible ones. In this paper the 3D data acquisition and 3D modelling of cultural heritage assets are briefly described and their significance is also highlighted. Moreover the organization of such information, related to monuments and artefacts, into relational data bases and its use for various purposes, other than just geometric documentation is also described and presented. In order to help the reader understand the above, several characteristic examples are presented and their methodology explained and their results evaluated.

  6. Imaging chemical reactions - 3D velocity mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichinin, A. I.; Gericke, K.-H.; Kauczok, S.; Maul, C.

    Visualising a collision between an atom or a molecule or a photodissociation (half-collision) of a molecule on a single particle and single quantum level is like watching the collision of billiard balls on a pool table: Molecular beams or monoenergetic photodissociation products provide the colliding reactants at controlled velocity before the reaction products velocity is imaged directly with an elaborate camera system, where one should keep in mind that velocity is, in general, a three-dimensional (3D) vectorial property which combines scattering angles and speed. If the processes under study have no cylindrical symmetry, then only this 3D product velocity vector contains the full information of the elementary process under study.

  7. Analysis of 3-D images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, M. Arif; Batchelor, Bruce G.

    1992-03-01

    Deriving generalized representation of 3-D objects for analysis and recognition is a very difficult task. Three types of representations based on type of an object is used in this paper. Objects which have well-defined geometrical shapes are segmented by using a fast edge region based segmentation technique. The segmented image is represented by plan and elevation of each part of the object if the object parts are symmetrical about their central axis. The plan and elevation concept enables representing and analyzing such objects quickly and efficiently. The second type of representation is used for objects having parts which are not symmetrical about their central axis. The segmented surface patches of such objects are represented by the 3-D boundary and the surface features of each segmented surface. Finally, the third type of representation is used for objects which don't have well-defined geometrical shapes (for example a loaf of bread). These objects are represented and analyzed from its features which are derived using a multiscale contour based technique. Anisotropic Gaussian smoothing technique is introduced to segment the contours at various scales of smoothing. A new merging technique is used which enables getting the current best estimate of break points at each scale. This new technique enables elimination of loss of accuracy of localization effects at coarser scales without using scale space tracking approach.

  8. 3D Printed Bionic Ears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannoor, Manu S.; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A.; Soboyejo, Winston O.; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H.; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the precise anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  9. 3D DNA Origami Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Hartl, Caroline; Frank, Kilian; Heuer-Jungemann, Amelie; Fischer, Stefan; Nickels, Philipp C; Nickel, Bert; Liedl, Tim

    2018-05-18

    3D crystals assembled entirely from DNA provide a route to design materials on a molecular level and to arrange guest particles in predefined lattices. This requires design schemes that provide high rigidity and sufficiently large open guest space. A DNA-origami-based "tensegrity triangle" structure that assembles into a 3D rhombohedral crystalline lattice with an open structure in which 90% of the volume is empty space is presented here. Site-specific placement of gold nanoparticles within the lattice demonstrates that these crystals are spacious enough to efficiently host 20 nm particles in a cavity size of 1.83 × 10 5 nm 3 , which would also suffice to accommodate ribosome-sized macromolecules. The accurate assembly of the DNA origami lattice itself, as well as the precise incorporation of gold particles, is validated by electron microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering experiments. The results show that it is possible to create DNA building blocks that assemble into lattices with customized geometry. Site-specific hosting of nano objects in the optically transparent DNA lattice sets the stage for metamaterial and structural biology applications. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. 3D printed bionic ears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing.

  11. RELAP5-3D User Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riemke, Richard Allan

    2001-01-01

    The Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program with 3D capability (RELAP5-3D) is a reactor system analysis code that has been developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). The 3D capability in RELAP5-3D includes 3D hydrodynamics and 3D neutron kinetics. Assessment, verification, and validation of the 3D capability in RELAP5-3D is discussed in the literature. Additional assessment, verification, and validation of the 3D capability of RELAP5-3D will be presented in other papers in this users seminar. As with any software, user problems occur. User problems usually fall into the categories of input processing failure, code execution failure, restart/renodalization failure, unphysical result, and installation. This presentation will discuss some of the more generic user problems that have been reported on RELAP5-3D as well as their resolution

  12. A STUDY ON USING 3D VISUALIZATION AND SIMULATION PROGRAM (OPTITEX 3D ON LEATHER APPAREL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ork Nilay

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Leather is a luxury garment. Design, material, labor, fitting and time costs are very effective on the production cost of the consumer leather good. 3D visualization and simulation programs which are getting popular in textile industry can be used for material, labor and time saving in leather apparel. However these programs have a very limited use in leather industry because leather material databases are not sufficient as in textile industry. In this research, firstly material properties of leather and textile fabric were determined by using both textile and leather physical test methods, and interpreted and introduced in the program. Detailed measures of an experimental human body were measured from a 3D body scanner. An avatar was designed according to these measurements. Then a prototype dress was made by using Computer Aided Design-CAD program for designing the patterns. After the pattern making, OptiTex 3D visualization and simulation program was used to visualize and simulate the dresses. Additionally the leather and cotton fabric dresses were sewn in real life. Then the visual and real life dresses were compared and discussed. 3D virtual prototyping seems a promising potential in future manufacturing technologies by evaluating the fitting of garments in a simple and quick way, filling the gap between 3D pattern design and manufacturing, providing virtual demonstrations to customers.

  13. 3D FaceCam: a fast and accurate 3D facial imaging device for biometrics applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jason; Zhuang, Ping; May, Patrick; Yi, Steven; Tunnell, David

    2004-08-01

    Human faces are fundamentally three-dimensional (3D) objects, and each face has its unique 3D geometric profile. The 3D geometric features of a human face can be used, together with its 2D texture, for rapid and accurate face recognition purposes. Due to the lack of low-cost and robust 3D sensors and effective 3D facial recognition (FR) algorithms, almost all existing FR systems use 2D face images. Genex has developed 3D solutions that overcome the inherent problems in 2D while also addressing limitations in other 3D alternatives. One important aspect of our solution is a unique 3D camera (the 3D FaceCam) that combines multiple imaging sensors within a single compact device to provide instantaneous, ear-to-ear coverage of a human face. This 3D camera uses three high-resolution CCD sensors and a color encoded pattern projection system. The RGB color information from each pixel is used to compute the range data and generate an accurate 3D surface map. The imaging system uses no moving parts and combines multiple 3D views to provide detailed and complete 3D coverage of the entire face. Images are captured within a fraction of a second and full-frame 3D data is produced within a few seconds. This described method provides much better data coverage and accuracy in feature areas with sharp features or details (such as the nose and eyes). Using this 3D data, we have been able to demonstrate that a 3D approach can significantly improve the performance of facial recognition. We have conducted tests in which we have varied the lighting conditions and angle of image acquisition in the "field." These tests have shown that the matching results are significantly improved when enrolling a 3D image rather than a single 2D image. With its 3D solutions, Genex is working toward unlocking the promise of powerful 3D FR and transferring FR from a lab technology into a real-world biometric solution.

  14. Losing our Senses, an Exploration of 3D Object Scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eve Stuart

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available 3D scanning and photogrammetry of archaeological objects are now becoming commonplace. Virtual 3D scans are in many cases replacing the drawn record and are leading to objects being more easily accessed, shared and analysed. However, the wholesale production of 3D virtual replicas of artefacts is not always supported by adequate information regarding the multi-sensory nature of artefacts. The visual and geometric aspects are well represented, but the sounds and smells of the artefacts are lost. This paper explores the possible consequences of this and provides some indications of how we may remedy the situation, before our 3D archives become senseless.

  15. 3D painting documentation: evaluation of conservation conditions with 3D imaging and ranging techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Abate

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of paintings, both on canvas and wooden support, is a crucial issue for the preservation and conservation of this kind of artworks. Many environmental factors (e.g. humidity, temperature, illumination, etc., as well as bad conservation practices (e.g. wrong restorations, inappropriate locations, etc., can compromise the material conditions over time and deteriorate an artwork. The article presents an on-going project realized by a multidisciplinary team composed by the ENEA UTICT 3D GraphLab, the 3D Optical Metrology Unit of the Bruno Kessler Foundation and the Soprintendenza per i Beni Storico Artistici ed Etnoantropologici of Bologna (Italy. The goal of the project is the multi-temporal 3D documentation and monitoring of paintings – at the moment in bad conservation’s situation - and the provision of some metrics to quantify the deformations and damages.

  16. Poaching Museum Collections using Digital 3D Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Younan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the creative engagement with digital 3D models of museum artefacts and gives insight into new uses of museum collections enabled by digital scanning, editing and 3D printing technologies. Digital 3D models of museum artefacts are malleable and increasingly easy to use. Additionally, freely available 3D software has made 3D scanning, editing and manufacturing possible for non-specialists. These technologies allow users to create new artworks through the creation and transformation of digital replicas of museum artefacts. Examples of creative works, taken from two case studies that involve the creative use of digital reproductions of museum artefacts are presented in this paper. These projects are illustrative of a larger trend: the digital ‘poaching’ of heritage artefacts. This paper examines how digital 3D technologies can foster creative forms of museum engagement, democratise access to museum collections and engage users with personal forms of museum experience.

  17. The future of 3D printing technology in biomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Nabipour

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available 3D printing, one of the hottest cutting-edge interdisciplinary technologies, is projected to have revenue of $8.4 billion in 2020. #D printing technology will implement the concept of personalized medicine in medical healthcare industry and pharmaceutical fabrication. Organ printing, which it is defined as computer-aided, jet based 3D tissue-engineering of living human organs, is an interesting and challengeable field for 3D printing. Customized implants and prostheses can be produced in any imaginable geometry through the translation of radiological images of patients into digital.stl 3D print files. The creation of anatomical models based on the patient’s pathological conditions using 3D printing technologies would provide good models for training and to design surgical approaches. Hence, 3D printing not only will transform medical healthcare industry but also promises new converging technologies in the field of regenerative medicine.

  18. Bologna 3D: la pianificazione partecipata del Piano Strutturale Comunale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Deiana

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Bologna 3D: the Municipal Structural Plan partecipated planning The Bologna Municipality used 3D GIS solutions by Skyline for opening to citizens the decision process which leaded to its new urban plan (PSC: 3D prospective is enhancing understanding of territory strategical planning, even to nontechnical and common people. A Skyline 3D terrain, produced in TerraBuilder environment from 10 meters DTM and from 50 centimeters per pixel colour imagery, is served online by TerraGate streaming server as basis layer for the delivering of interactive 3D GIS applications made using TerraExplorer Pro’s authoring environment, integrating all the significant GIS layers and various informations into many 3D projects, now also available online by installing the free plugin TerraExplorer Viewer.

  19. Bologna 3D: la pianificazione partecipata del Piano Strutturale Comunale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Deiana

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Bologna 3D: the Municipal Structural Plan partecipated planningThe Bologna Municipality used 3D GIS solutions by Skyline for opening to citizens the decision process which leaded to its new urban plan (PSC: 3D prospective is enhancing understanding of territory strategical planning, even to nontechnical and common people. A Skyline 3D terrain, produced in TerraBuilder environment from 10 meters DTM and from 50 centimeters per pixel colour imagery, is served online by TerraGate streaming server as basis layer for the delivering of interactive 3D GIS applications made using TerraExplorer Pro’s authoring environment, integrating all the significant GIS layers and various informations into many 3D projects, now also available online by installing the free plugin TerraExplorer Viewer.

  20. Emerging Applications of Bedside 3D Printing in Plastic Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Chae

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Modern imaging techniques are an essential component of preoperative planning in plastic and reconstructive surgery. However, conventional modalities, including three-dimensional (3D reconstructions, are limited by their representation on 2D workstations. 3D printing has been embraced by early adopters to produce medical imaging-guided 3D printed biomodels that facilitate various aspects of clinical practice. The cost and size of 3D printers have rapidly decreased over the past decade in parallel with the expiration of key 3D printing patents. With increasing accessibility, investigators are now able to convert standard imaging data into Computer Aided Design (CAD files using various 3D reconstruction softwares and ultimately fabricate 3D models using 3D printing techniques, such as stereolithography (SLA, multijet modeling (MJM, selective laser sintering (SLS, binder jet technique (BJT, and fused deposition modeling (FDM. Significant improvements in clinical imaging and user-friendly 3D software have permitted computer-aided 3D modeling of anatomical structures and implants without out-sourcing in many cases. These developments offer immense potential for the application of 3D printing at the bedside for a variety of clinical applications. However, many clinicians have questioned whether the cost-to-benefit ratio justifies its ongoing use. In this review the existing uses of 3D printing in plastic surgery practice, spanning the spectrum from templates for facial transplantation surgery through to the formation of bespoke craniofacial implants to optimize post-operative aesthetics, are described. Furthermore, we discuss the potential of 3D printing to become an essential office-based tool in plastic surgery to assist in preoperative planning, patient and surgical trainee education, and the development of intraoperative guidance tools and patient-specific prosthetics in everyday surgical practice.

  1. Paleocene stratigraphic plays in Uruguay offshore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, E; Soto, M; Ferro, S; Tomasini, J; De Santa Ana, H; Conti, B.; Veroslavsky, G.

    2012-01-01

    The Uruguayan continental margin offshore evolution is represented by three large mega sequences: pre rift, rift and post rift, which are correlated with other South Atlantic basins. The tectonic and stratigraphic knowledge about the Uruguayan offshore evolution enable a hydrocarbon potential approximation . The mapping of the seismic depositional sequences are covered by deep basins. The methodology used identify the migration of Uruguayan side depo centers such as the stratigraphic plays group in particular a prospective Paleocene sequence

  2. A Case Study in Astronomical 3-D Printing: The Mysterious Eta Carinae

    OpenAIRE

    Madura, Thomas I.

    2016-01-01

    3-D printing moves beyond interactive 3-D graphics and provides an excellent tool for both visual and tactile learners, since 3-D printing can now easily communicate complex geometries and full color information. Some limitations of interactive 3-D graphics are also alleviated by 3-D printable models, including issues of limited software support, portability, accessibility, and sustainability. We describe the motivations, methods, and results of our work on using 3-D printing (1) to visualize...

  3. 3D biometrics systems and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, David

    2013-01-01

    Includes discussions on popular 3D imaging technologies, combines them with biometric applications, and then presents real 3D biometric systems Introduces many efficient 3D feature extraction, matching, and fusion algorithms Techniques presented have been supported by experimental results using various 3D biometric classifications

  4. 3D space analysis of dental models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, Joon H.; Ong, Sim Heng; Kondo, Toshiaki; Foong, Kelvin W. C.; Yong, Than F.

    2001-05-01

    Space analysis is an important procedure by orthodontists to determine the amount of space available and required for teeth alignment during treatment planning. Traditional manual methods of space analysis are tedious and often inaccurate. Computer-based space analysis methods that work on 2D images have been reported. However, as the space problems in the dental arch exist in all three planes of space, a full 3D analysis of the problems is necessary. This paper describes a visualization and measurement system that analyses 3D images of dental plaster models. Algorithms were developed to determine dental arches. The system is able to record the depths of the Curve of Spee, and quantify space liabilities arising from a non-planar Curve of Spee, malalignment and overjet. Furthermore, the difference between total arch space available and the space required to arrange the teeth in ideal occlusion can be accurately computed. The system for 3D space analysis of the dental arch is an accurate, comprehensive, rapid and repeatable method of space analysis to facilitate proper orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning.

  5. When fast atom diffraction turns 3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zugarramurdi, Asier; Borisov, Andrei G.

    2013-01-01

    Fast atom diffraction at surfaces (FAD) in grazing incidence geometry is characterized by the slow motion in the direction perpendicular to the surface and fast motion parallel to the surface plane along a low index direction. It is established experimentally that for the typical surfaces the FAD reveals the 2D diffraction patterns associated with exchange of the reciprocal lattice vector perpendicular to the direction of fast motion. The reciprocal lattice vector exchange along the direction of fast motion is negligible. The usual approximation made in the description of the experimental data is then to assume that the effective potential leading to the diffraction results from the averaging of the 3D surface potential along the atomic strings forming the axial channel. In this work we use full quantum wave packet propagation calculations to study theoretically the possibility to observe the 3D diffraction in FAD experiments. We show that for the surfaces with large unit cell, such as can be the case for reconstructed or vicinal surfaces, the 3D diffraction can be observed. The reciprocal lattice vector exchange along the direction of fast motion leads to several Laue circles in the diffraction pattern

  6. DNA Assembly in 3D Printed Fluidics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William G Patrick

    Full Text Available The process of connecting genetic parts-DNA assembly-is a foundational technology for synthetic biology. Microfluidics present an attractive solution for minimizing use of costly reagents, enabling multiplexed reactions, and automating protocols by integrating multiple protocol steps. However, microfluidics fabrication and operation can be expensive and requires expertise, limiting access to the technology. With advances in commodity digital fabrication tools, it is now possible to directly print fluidic devices and supporting hardware. 3D printed micro- and millifluidic devices are inexpensive, easy to make and quick to produce. We demonstrate Golden Gate DNA assembly in 3D-printed fluidics with reaction volumes as small as 490 nL, channel widths as fine as 220 microns, and per unit part costs ranging from $0.61 to $5.71. A 3D-printed syringe pump with an accompanying programmable software interface was designed and fabricated to operate the devices. Quick turnaround and inexpensive materials allowed for rapid exploration of device parameters, demonstrating a manufacturing paradigm for designing and fabricating hardware for synthetic biology.

  7. 3D structure of muscle dihydropyridine receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Samsó

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Excitation contraction coupling, the rapid and massive Ca2+ release under control of an action potential that triggers muscle contraction, takes places at specialized regions of the cell called triad junctions. There, a highly ordered supramolecular complex between the dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR and the ryanodine receptor (RyR1 mediates the quasi‐instantaneous conversion from T‐tubule depolarization into Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR. The DHPR has several key modules required for EC coupling: the voltage sensors and II‐III loop in the alpha1s subunit, and the beta subunit. To gain insight into their molecular organization, this review examines the most updated 3D structure of the DHPR as obtained by transmission electron microscopy and image reconstruction. Although structure determination of a heteromeric membrane protein such as the DHPR is challenging, novel technical advances in protein expression and 3D labeling facilitated this task. The 3D structure of the DHPR complex consists of a main body with five irregular corners around its perimeter encompassing the transmembrane alpha 1s subunit besides the intracellular beta subunit, an extended extracellular alpha 2 subunit, and a bulky intracellular II‐III loop. The structural definition attained at 19 Å resolution enabled docking of the atomic coordinates of structural homologs of the alpha1s and beta subunits. These structural features, together with their relative location with respect to the RyR1, are discussed in the context of the functional data.

  8. Telerobotics and 3-d TV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Able, E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of telerobotic techniques that can be used in the nuclear industry. The approach has been to apply available equipment, modify available equipment, or design and build anew. The authors have successfully built an input controller which can be used with standard industrial robots, converting them into telerobots. A clean room industrial robot has been re-engineered into an advanced telerobot engineered for the nuclear industry, using a knowledge of radiation tolerance design principles and collaboration with the manufacturer. A powerful hydraulic manipulator has been built to respond to a need for more heavy duty devices for in-cell handling. A variety of easy to use 3-D TV systems has been developed

  9. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... viewing usually relieves the discomfort. More on computer use and your eyes . Children and 3-D Technology Following the lead of Nintendo, several 3-D ... Your Glaucoma Risk Factors? Jan 18, 2017 New Technology Helps the Legally Blind Be More Independent Oct 31, 2016 ... Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About ...

  10. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sections Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes? Leer en Español: ¿Son Malas para los Ojos ... if any, effect the technology has on your eyes. Is 3-D technology healthy for your or ...

  11. Integrating 3D Visualization and GIS in Planning Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Li

    2010-01-01

    Most GIS-related planning practices and education are currently limited to two-dimensional mapping and analysis although 3D GIS is a powerful tool to study the complex urban environment in its full spatial extent. This paper reviews current GIS and 3D visualization uses and development in planning practice and education. Current literature…

  12. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... video games will damage the eyes or visual system. Some people complain of headaches or motion sickness when viewing 3-D, ... on the short- and/or long-term effects of 3-D digital products on eye and visual development, health, or function in children, nor are there persuasive, ...

  13. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Contacts Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español ... Jul. 09, 2013 With the popularity of 3-D movies, it's natural to wonder what, if any, effect the technology has on your eyes. Is 3-D technology ...

  14. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... video games will damage the eyes or visual system. Some people complain of headaches or motion sickness when viewing 3-D, ... damage in children with healthy eyes. The development of normal 3-D vision ... and natural environments, and this development is largely complete by age ...

  15. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Sections Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes? Leer en Español: ¿ ... computer use and your eyes . Children and 3-D Technology Following the lead of Nintendo, several 3- ...

  16. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... viewing usually relieves the discomfort. More on computer use and your eyes . Children and 3-D Technology Following the lead of Nintendo, several 3-D ... 04, 2017 Poll: Do You Know Your Glaucoma Risk Factors? Jan 18, 2017 New Technology Helps the Legally Blind Be More Independent Oct ...

  17. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 3-D technology healthy for your or your children's eyes? Although there are no long-term studies, ophthalmologists say there is no reason to be concerned that 3-D movies, TV or video games will damage the eyes or visual system. Some ...

  18. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the techniques used to create the 3-D effect can confuse or overload the brain, causing some people discomfort even if they have normal vision. Taking a break from viewing usually relieves the discomfort. More on computer use and your eyes . Children and 3-D ...

  19. Embedding complex objects with 3d printing

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-10-12

    A CMOS technology-compatible fabrication process for flexible CMOS electronics embedded during additive manufacturing (i.e. 3D printing). A method for such a process may include printing a first portion of a 3D structure; pausing the step of printing the 3D structure to embed the flexible silicon substrate; placing the flexible silicon substrate in a cavity of the first portion of the 3D structure to embed the flexible silicon substrate in the 3D structure; and resuming the step of printing the 3D structure to form the second portion of the 3D structure.

  20. Supernova Remnant in 3-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through. The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave. This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron. High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these structures, but their orientation and

  1. INTERACTIVE 3D LANDSCAPES ON LINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Fanini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes challenges identified while developing browser embedded 3D landscape rendering applications, our current approach and work-flow and how recent development in browser technologies could affect. All the data, even if processed by optimization and decimation tools, result in very huge databases that require paging, streaming and Level-of-Detail techniques to be implemented to allow remote web based real time fruition. Our approach has been to select an open source scene-graph based visual simulation library with sufficient performance and flexibility and adapt it to the web by providing a browser plug-in. Within the current Montegrotto VR Project, content produced with new pipelines has been integrated. The whole Montegrotto Town has been generated procedurally by CityEngine. We used this procedural approach, based on algorithms and procedures because it is particularly functional to create extensive and credible urban reconstructions. To create the archaeological sites we used optimized mesh acquired with laser scanning and photogrammetry techniques whereas to realize the 3D reconstructions of the main historical buildings we adopted computer-graphic software like blender and 3ds Max. At the final stage, semi-automatic tools have been developed and used up to prepare and clusterise 3D models and scene graph routes for web publishing. Vegetation generators have also been used with the goal of populating the virtual scene to enhance the user perceived realism during the navigation experience. After the description of 3D modelling and optimization techniques, the paper will focus and discuss its results and expectations.

  2. Anti-3D Weapon Model Detection for Safe 3D Printing Based on Convolutional Neural Networks and D2 Shape Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giao N. Pham

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available With the development of 3D printing, weapons are easily printed without any restriction from the production managers. Therefore, anti-3D weapon model detection is necessary issue in safe 3D printing to prevent the printing of 3D weapon models. In this paper, we would like to propose an anti-3D weapon model detection algorithm to prevent the printing of anti-3D weapon models for safe 3D printing based on the D2 shape distribution and an improved convolutional neural networks (CNNs. The purpose of the proposed algorithm is to detect anti-3D weapon models when they are used in 3D printing. The D2 shape distribution is computed from random points on the surface of a 3D weapon model and their geometric features in order to construct a D2 vector. The D2 vector is then trained by improved CNNs. The CNNs are used to detect anti-3D weapon models for safe 3D printing by training D2 vectors which have been constructed from the D2 shape distribution of 3D weapon models. Experiments with 3D weapon models proved that the D2 shape distribution of 3D weapon models in the same class is the same. Training and testing results also verified that the accuracy of the proposed algorithm is higher than the conventional works. The proposed algorithm is applied in a small application, and it could detect anti-3D weapon models for safe 3D printing.

  3. Natural fibre composites for 3D Printing

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, Kapil

    2015-01-01

    3D printing has been common option for prototyping. Not all the materials are suitable for 3D printing. Various studies have been done and still many are ongoing regarding the suitability of the materials for 3D printing. This thesis work discloses the possibility of 3D printing of certain polymer composite materials. The main objective of this thesis work was to study the possibility for 3D printing the polymer composite material composed of natural fibre composite and various different ...

  4. Proses Produksi Pembuatan Tekstur Material pada Desain 3d Karakter Menggunakan Perangkat Lunak Maxon 3D Bodypaint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardiyan Ardiyan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Digital production proses using integrated image editor software, which has own drawing tools function, makes easier producing textures material that applied in 3D model. The feature of image editor combined with 3D Editor Software makes the easier adjustment of 3D model needs when we see the visible improvement, so the software utilization will be more efficient. In the discussion, this study is done by making the production of 3D model, that is the 3D Character that has material texturing from utilizing the available image editor software features, so the alternative production by using the integrated image editor is possibly to be done. The discussion can be utilized as an insight into the manufacture of technical design in determining the design workflow of 3D models. Utilization of software take one example of software Maxon Cinema 4D version 14, which is used as a reference as software that integrates image processing therein. 

  5. 3-D discrete analytical ridgelet transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbert, David; Carré, Philippe; Andres, Eric

    2006-12-01

    In this paper, we propose an implementation of the 3-D Ridgelet transform: the 3-D discrete analytical Ridgelet transform (3-D DART). This transform uses the Fourier strategy for the computation of the associated 3-D discrete Radon transform. The innovative step is the definition of a discrete 3-D transform with the discrete analytical geometry theory by the construction of 3-D discrete analytical lines in the Fourier domain. We propose two types of 3-D discrete lines: 3-D discrete radial lines going through the origin defined from their orthogonal projections and 3-D planes covered with 2-D discrete line segments. These discrete analytical lines have a parameter called arithmetical thickness, allowing us to define a 3-D DART adapted to a specific application. Indeed, the 3-D DART representation is not orthogonal, It is associated with a flexible redundancy factor. The 3-D DART has a very simple forward/inverse algorithm that provides an exact reconstruction without any iterative method. In order to illustrate the potentiality of this new discrete transform, we apply the 3-D DART and its extension to the Local-DART (with smooth windowing) to the denoising of 3-D image and color video. These experimental results show that the simple thresholding of the 3-D DART coefficients is efficient.

  6. Design and development of a 3D cadastral prototype based on the LADM and 3D topology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ying, S.; Guo, R.; Li, L.; Van Oosterom, P.J.M.; Ledoux, H.; Stoter, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the design and development of a prototype 3D Cadastral system will be presented. The key aspects of this system are that the model is based on Land Administration Domain Model (LADM) and that the spatial profile is based on a full 3D topological structure. The prototype development

  7. ORMGEN3D, 3-D Crack Geometry FEM Mesh Generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, B.R.; Bryson, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: ORMGEN3D is a finite element mesh generator for computational fracture mechanics analysis. The program automatically generates a three-dimensional finite element model for six different crack geometries. These geometries include flat plates with straight or curved surface cracks and cylinders with part-through cracks on the outer or inner surface. Mathematical or user-defined crack shapes may be considered. The curved cracks may be semicircular, semi-elliptical, or user-defined. A cladding option is available that allows for either an embedded or penetrating crack in the clad material. 2 - Method of solution: In general, one eighth or one-quarter of the structure is modelled depending on the configuration or option selected. The program generates a core of special wedge or collapsed prism elements at the crack front to introduce the appropriate stress singularity at the crack tip. The remainder of the structure is modelled with conventional 20-node iso-parametric brick elements. Element group I of the finite element model consists of an inner core of special crack tip elements surrounding the crack front enclosed by a single layer of conventional brick elements. Eight element divisions are used in a plane orthogonal to the crack front, while the number of element divisions along the arc length of the crack front is user-specified. The remaining conventional brick elements of the model constitute element group II. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maxima of 5,500 nodes, 4 layers of clad elements

  8. Some debatable problems of stratigraphic classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladenkov, Yury

    2014-05-01

    Russian geologists perform large-scale geological mapping in Russia and abroad. Therefore we urge unification of legends of geological maps compiled in different countries. It seems important to continuously organize discussions on problems of stratigraphic classification. 1. The stratigraphic schools (conventionally called "European" and "American") define "stratigraphy" in different ways. The former prefers "single" stratigraphy that uses data proved by many methods. The latter divides stratigraphy into several independent stratigraphers (litho-, bio-, magneto- and others). Russian geologists classify stratigraphic units into general (chronostratigraphic) and special (in accordance with a method applied). 2. There exist different interpretations of chronostratigraphy. Some stratigraphers suppose that a chronostratigraphic unit corresponds to rock strata formed during a certain time interval (it is somewhat formalistic because a length of interval is frequently unspecified). Russian specialists emphasize the historical-geological background of chronostratigraphic units. Every stratigraphic unit (global and regional) reflects a stage of geological evolution of biosphere and stratisphere. 3. In the view of Russian stratigraphers, the main stratigraphic units may have different extent: a) global (stage), b) regional (regional stage,local zone), and c) local (suite). There is no such hierarchy in the ISG. 4. Russian specialists think that local "lithostratigraphic" units (formations) which may have diachronous boundaries are not chronostratigraphic ones in strict sense (actually they are lithological bodies). In this case "lithostratigraphy" can be considered as "prostratigraphy" and employed in initial studies of sequences. Therefore, a suite is a main local unit of the Russian Code and differs from a formation, although it is somewhat similar. It does not mean that lithostratigraphy is unnecessary. Usage of marker horizons, members and other bodies is of great help

  9. 3D DNA Crystals and Nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J. Paukstelis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available DNA’s molecular recognition properties have made it one of the most widely used biomacromolecular construction materials. The programmed assembly of DNA oligonucleotides has been used to create complex 2D and 3D self-assembled architectures and to guide the assembly of other molecules. The origins of DNA nanotechnology are rooted in the goal of assembling DNA molecules into designed periodic arrays, i.e., crystals. Here, we highlight several DNA crystal structures, the progress made in designing DNA crystals, and look at the current prospects and future directions of DNA crystals in nanotechnology.

  10. Single Camera Calibration in 3D Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caius SULIMAN

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Camera calibration is a necessary step in 3D vision in order to extract metric information from 2D images. A camera is considered to be calibrated when the parameters of the camera are known (i.e. principal distance, lens distorsion, focal length etc.. In this paper we deal with a single camera calibration method and with the help of this method we try to find the intrinsic and extrinsic camera parameters. The method was implemented with succes in the programming and simulation environment Matlab.

  11. 3D IMAGING USING COHERENT SYNCHROTRON RADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Cloetens

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Three dimensional imaging is becoming a standard tool for medical, scientific and industrial applications. The use of modem synchrotron radiation sources for monochromatic beam micro-tomography provides several new features. Along with enhanced signal-to-noise ratio and improved spatial resolution, these include the possibility of quantitative measurements, the easy incorporation of special sample environment devices for in-situ experiments, and a simple implementation of phase imaging. These 3D approaches overcome some of the limitations of 2D measurements. They require new tools for image analysis.

  12. An Effective 3D Ear Acquisition System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahui Liu

    Full Text Available The human ear is a new feature in biometrics that has several merits over the more common face, fingerprint and iris biometrics. It can be easily captured from a distance without a fully cooperative subject. Also, the ear has a relatively stable structure that does not change much with the age and facial expressions. In this paper, we present a novel method of 3D ear acquisition system by using triangulation imaging principle, and the experiment results show that this design is efficient and can be used for ear recognition.

  13. 3D printing in orthognathic surgery − A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu-Hsia Lin

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available With the recent advances in three-dimensional (3D imaging, computer-assisted surgical planning and simulation are now regularly used for analysis of craniofacial structures and improved prediction of surgical outcomes in orthognathic surgery. A variety of patient-specific surgical guides and devices have been designed and manufactured using 3D printing technology, which rapidly gained widespread popularity to improve the outcomes. The article presents an overview of 3D printing technology for state-of-the-art application in orthognathic surgery and discusses the impacts on treatment feasibility and patient outcome. The current available literature regarding the use of 3D printing methods in orthognathic surgery including 3D computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing, rapid prototyping, additive manufacturing, 3D printing, 3D printed models, surgical occlusal splints, custom-made guides, templates and fixation plates is reviewed. A Medline, PubMed, ProQuest and ScienceDirect search was performed to find relevant articles over the past 10 years. A total of 318 articles were found, out of which 69 were publications addressing the topic of this study. An additional 9 hand-searched articles were added. From the review, we can conclude that the use of 3D printing methods in orthognathic surgery provide the benefit of optimal functional and aesthetic results, patient satisfaction, and precise translation of the treatment plan. Keywords: Orthognathic surgery, 3D printing, Computer-aided design, Computer-aided manufacturing, Rapid prototyping, Additive manufacturing

  14. Dynamic Frames Based Generation of 3D Scenes and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijel Radošević

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern graphic/programming tools like Unity enables the possibility of creating 3D scenes as well as making 3D scene based program applications, including full physical model, motion, sounds, lightning effects etc. This paper deals with the usage of dynamic frames based generator in the automatic generation of 3D scene and related source code. The suggested model enables the possibility to specify features of the 3D scene in a form of textual specification, as well as exporting such features from a 3D tool. This approach enables higher level of code generation flexibility and the reusability of the main code and scene artifacts in a form of textual templates. An example of the generated application is presented and discussed.

  15. Streamlined, Inexpensive 3D Printing of the Brain and Skull.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason S Naftulin

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging technologies such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI and Computed Tomography (CT collect three-dimensional data (3D that is typically viewed on two-dimensional (2D screens. Actual 3D models, however, allow interaction with real objects such as implantable electrode grids, potentially improving patient specific neurosurgical planning and personalized clinical education. Desktop 3D printers can now produce relatively inexpensive, good quality prints. We describe our process for reliably generating life-sized 3D brain prints from MRIs and 3D skull prints from CTs. We have integrated a standardized, primarily open-source process for 3D printing brains and skulls. We describe how to convert clinical neuroimaging Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM images to stereolithography (STL files, a common 3D object file format that can be sent to 3D printing services. We additionally share how to convert these STL files to machine instruction gcode files, for reliable in-house printing on desktop, open-source 3D printers. We have successfully printed over 19 patient brain hemispheres from 7 patients on two different open-source desktop 3D printers. Each brain hemisphere costs approximately $3-4 in consumable plastic filament as described, and the total process takes 14-17 hours, almost all of which is unsupervised (preprocessing = 4-6 hr; printing = 9-11 hr, post-processing = <30 min. Printing a matching portion of a skull costs $1-5 in consumable plastic filament and takes less than 14 hr, in total. We have developed a streamlined, cost-effective process for 3D printing brain and skull models. We surveyed healthcare providers and patients who confirmed that rapid-prototype patient specific 3D models may help interdisciplinary surgical planning and patient education. The methods we describe can be applied for other clinical, research, and educational purposes.

  16. Crowdsourcing Based 3d Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, A.; Barsi, A.; Molnar, B.; Lovas, T.

    2016-06-01

    Web-based photo albums that support organizing and viewing the users' images are widely used. These services provide a convenient solution for storing, editing and sharing images. In many cases, the users attach geotags to the images in order to enable using them e.g. in location based applications on social networks. Our paper discusses a procedure that collects open access images from a site frequently visited by tourists. Geotagged pictures showing the image of a sight or tourist attraction are selected and processed in photogrammetric processing software that produces the 3D model of the captured object. For the particular investigation we selected three attractions in Budapest. To assess the geometrical accuracy, we used laser scanner and DSLR as well as smart phone photography to derive reference values to enable verifying the spatial model obtained from the web-album images. The investigation shows how detailed and accurate models could be derived applying photogrammetric processing software, simply by using images of the community, without visiting the site.

  17. 3D Space Shift from CityGML LoD3-Based Multiple Building Elements to a 3D Volumetric Object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Ying

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In contrast with photorealistic visualizations, urban landscape applications, and building information system (BIM, 3D volumetric presentations highlight specific calculations and applications of 3D building elements for 3D city planning and 3D cadastres. Knowing the precise volumetric quantities and the 3D boundary locations of 3D building spaces is a vital index which must remain constant during data processing because the values are related to space occupation, tenure, taxes, and valuation. To meet these requirements, this paper presents a five-step algorithm for performing a 3D building space shift. This algorithm is used to convert multiple building elements into a single 3D volumetric building object while maintaining the precise volume of the 3D space and without changing the 3D locations or displacing the building boundaries. As examples, this study used input data and building elements based on City Geography Markup Language (CityGML LoD3 models. This paper presents a method for 3D urban space and 3D property management with the goal of constructing a 3D volumetric object for an integral building using CityGML objects, by fusing the geometries of various building elements. The resulting objects possess true 3D geometry that can be represented by solid geometry and saved to a CityGML file for effective use in 3D urban planning and 3D cadastres.

  18. Vrste i tehnike 3D modeliranja

    OpenAIRE

    Bernik, Andrija

    2010-01-01

    Proces stvaranja 3D stvarnih ili imaginarnih objekata naziva se 3D modeliranje. Razvoj računalne tehnologije omogućuje korisniku odabir raznih metoda i tehnika kako bi se postigla optimalna učinkovitost. Odabir je vezan za klasično 3D modeliranje ili 3D skeniranje pomoću specijaliziranih programskih i sklopovskih rješenja. 3D tehnikama modeliranja korisnik može izraditi 3D model na nekoliko načina: koristi poligone, krivulje ili hibrid dviju spomenutih tehnika pod nazivom subdivizijsko modeli...

  19. Kuvaus 3D-tulostamisesta hammastekniikassa

    OpenAIRE

    Munne, Mauri; Mustonen, Tuomas; Vähäjylkkä, Jaakko

    2013-01-01

    3D-tulostaminen kehittyy nopeasti ja yleistyy koko ajan. Tulostimien tarkkuuksien kehittyessä 3D-tulostus on ottamassa myös jalansijaa hammastekniikan alalta. Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena on kuvata 3D-tulostamisen tilaa hammastekniikassa. 3D-tulostaminen on Suomessa vielä melko harvinaista, joten opinnäytetyön tavoitteena on koota yhteen kaikki mahdollinen tieto liittyen 3D-tulostamiseen hammastekniikassa. Tavoitteena on myös 3D-tulostimen testaaminen käytännössä aina suun skannaami...

  20. NIF Ignition Target 3D Point Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, O; Marinak, M; Milovich, J; Callahan, D

    2008-11-05

    We have developed an input file for running 3D NIF hohlraums that is optimized such that it can be run in 1-2 days on parallel computers. We have incorporated increasing levels of automation into the 3D input file: (1) Configuration controlled input files; (2) Common file for 2D and 3D, different types of capsules (symcap, etc.); and (3) Can obtain target dimensions, laser pulse, and diagnostics settings automatically from NIF Campaign Management Tool. Using 3D Hydra calculations to investigate different problems: (1) Intrinsic 3D asymmetry; (2) Tolerance to nonideal 3D effects (e.g. laser power balance, pointing errors); and (3) Synthetic diagnostics.

  1. Magma emplacement in 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorczyk, W.; Vogt, K.

    2017-12-01

    Magma intrusion is a major material transfer process in Earth's continental crust. Yet, the mechanical behavior of the intruding magma and its host are a matter of debate. In this study, we present a series of numerical thermo-mechanical experiments on mafic magma emplacement in 3D.In our model, we place the magmatic source region (40 km diameter) at the base of the mantle lithosphere and connect it to the crust by a 3 km wide channel, which may have evolved at early stages of magmatism during rapid ascent of hot magmatic fluids/melts. Our results demonstrate continental crustal response due to magma intrusion. We observe change in intrusion geometries between dikes, cone-sheets, sills, plutons, ponds, funnels, finger-shaped and stock-like intrusions as well as injection time. The rheology and temperature of the host-rock are the main controlling factors in the transition between these different modes of intrusion. Viscous deformation in the warm and deep crust favours host rock displacement and magma pools along the crust-mantle boundary forming deep-seated plutons or magma ponds in the lower to middle-crust. Brittle deformation in the cool and shallow crust induces cone-shaped fractures in the host rock and enables emplacement of finger- or stock-like intrusions at shallow or intermediate depth. A combination of viscous and brittle deformation forms funnel-shaped intrusions in the middle-crust. Low-density source magma results in T-shaped intrusions in cross-section with magma sheets at the surface.

  2. Pliocene paleoenvironment evolution as interpreted from 3D-seismic data in the southern North Sea, Dutch offshore sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhlmann, G.; Wong, T.E.

    2008-01-01

    A high-resolution 3D-seismic survey from the Dutch offshore sector has been interpreted and subsequently correlated with existing regional seismo-stratigraphic concepts derived from conventional 2D-seismic data sets. The interpreted 13 seismic units have been related to a newly established

  3. 3D Virtual Dig: a 3D Application for Teaching Fieldwork in Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Di Giuseppantonio Di Franco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Archaeology is a material, embodied discipline; communicating this experience is critical to student success. In the context of lower-division archaeology courses, the present study examines the efficacy of 3D virtual and 2D archaeological representations of digs. This presentation aims to show a 3D application created to teach the archaeological excavation process to freshmen students. An archaeological environment was virtually re-created in 3D, and inserted in a virtual reality software application that allows users to work with the reconstructed excavation area. The software was tested in class for teaching the basics of archaeological fieldwork. The application interface is user-friendly and especially easy for 21st century students. The study employed a pre-survey, post-test, and post-survey design, used to understand the students' previous familiarity with archaeology, and test their awareness after the use of the application. Their level of knowledge was then compared with that of those students who had accessed written material only. This case-study demonstrates how a digital approach to laboratory work can positively affect student learning. Increased abilities to complete ill-defined problems (characteristic of the high-order thinking in the field, can, in fact, be demonstrated. 3D Virtual reconstruction serves, then, as an important bridge from traditional coursework to fieldwork.

  4. APPLICATION OF 3D MODELING IN 3D PRINTING FOR THE LOWER JAW RECONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Yu. Dikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: improvement of functional and aesthetic results of microsurgery reconstructions of the lower jaw due to the use of the methodology of 3D modeling and 3D printing. Application of this methodology has been demonstrated on the example of treatment of 4 patients with locally distributed tumors of the mouth cavity, who underwent excision of the tumor with simultaneous reconstruction of the lower jaw with revascularized fibular graft.Before, one patient has already undergo segmental resection of the lower jaw with the defect replacement with the avascular ileac graft and a reconstruction plate. Then, a relapse of the disease and lysis of the graft has developed with him. Modeling of the graft according to the shape of the lower jaw was performed by making osteotomies of the bone part of the graft using three-dimensional virtual models created by computed tomography data. Then these 3D models were printed with a 3D printer of plastic with the scale of 1:1 with the fused deposition modeling (FDM technology and were used during the surgery in the course of modeling of the graft. Sterilizing of the plastic model was performed in the formalin chamber.This methodology allowed more specific reconstruction of the resected fragment of the lower jaw and get better functional and aesthetic results and prepare patients to further dental rehabilitation. Advantages of this methodology are the possibility of simultaneous performance of stages of reconstruction and resection and shortening of the time of surgery.

  5. Competencia Digital: Uso y manejo de modelos 3D tridimensionales digitales e impresos en 3D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Saorín

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available El uso y manejo de modelos tridimensionales digitales no está concebido dentro de la competencia digital de los currículos de secundaria y Bachillerato. Sin embargo muchos autores relacionan la competencia digital con el manejo de modelos 3D, el modelado 3D y entornos virtuales tridimensionales (Realidad aumentada, virtual,…. En este artículo se presenta un recurso educativo para facilitar el acceso a contenidos didácticos de carácter tridimensional digital y tangible. Determinadas materias precisan de la comprensión e interpretación de conceptos volumétricos: los recursos didácticos innovadores para la edición, visualización e impresión 3D ofrecen una alternativa a las representaciones 2D en los procesos de enseñanza y aprendizaje. En este artículo se describe la creación de un catálogo escultórico que contempla versiones digitales y tangibles de modelos tridimensionales de las esculturas a través de tecnologías innovadoras de bajo coste como la visualización e impresión 3D. La prueba piloto desarrollada con 15 alumnos de bachillerato recoge una alta valoración de los participantes sobre las tecnologías empleadas.

  6. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the lead of Nintendo, several 3-D device companies have issued warnings about children's use of their ... they use their eyes in day-to-day social and natural environments, and this development is largely ...

  7. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Patients and Public Technicians and Nurses Senior Ophthalmologists Young ... can be caused by 3-D digital products. However, children (or adults) who have these vision disorders may be more ...

  8. 3d-METAL COMPLEXES WITH BARBITURIC ACID DERIVATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Koksharova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The various aspects of the 3d-metal complexes with barbiturates and uric acid chemistry such as composition, structure, physicochemical properties, possible fields of application – have been illustrated in this review

  9. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ophthalmologists say there is no reason to be concerned that 3-D movies, TV or video games will damage the eyes or visual system. Some people complain of headaches or motion sickness when viewing ...

  10. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

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    Full Text Available ... Eye Health A-Z Symptoms Glasses & Contacts Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Sections Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your ...

  11. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

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    Full Text Available ... viewer has a problem with focusing or depth perception. Also, the techniques used to create the 3- ... or other conditions that persistently inhibit focusing, depth perception or normal 3-D vision, would have difficulty ...

  12. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

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    Full Text Available ... Nintendo, several 3-D device companies have issued warnings about children's use of their new products. The original Nintendo warning, in late 2010, urged parents to prevent children ...

  13. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

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    Full Text Available ... 3-D digital images. Find an Ophthalmologist Advanced Search Ask an Ophthalmologist Browse Answers Free Newsletter Get ophthalmologist-reviewed tips and information about eye health and preserving your vision. Privacy ...

  14. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

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    Full Text Available ... function in children, nor are there persuasive, conclusive theories on how 3-D digital products could cause ... Required * First Name: * Last Name: Member ID: * Phone Number: * Email: * Enter code: * Message: Thank you Your feedback ...

  15. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

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    Full Text Available ... from viewing usually relieves the discomfort. More on computer use and your eyes . Children and 3-D ... Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For ...

  16. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

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    Full Text Available ... normal 3-D vision in children is stimulated as they use their eyes in day-to-day ... years. However, children who have eye conditions such as amblyopia (an imbalance in visual strength between the ...

  17. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

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    Full Text Available ... years from prolonged viewing of the device's digital images, in order to avoid possible damage to visual ... or tired eyes or cannot clearly see the images when using 3-D digital products, this may ...

  18. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

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    Full Text Available ... issued warnings about children's use of their new products. The original Nintendo warning, in late 2010, urged ... see the images when using 3-D digital products, this may indicate a vision or eye disorder. ...

  19. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

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    Full Text Available ... be concerned that 3-D movies, TV or video games will damage the eyes or visual system. Some ... Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For ...

  20. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

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    Full Text Available ... the lead of Nintendo, several 3-D device companies have issued warnings about children's use of their new products. The original Nintendo warning, in late 2010, urged parents to prevent children under age 6 years from ...

  1. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

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    Full Text Available ... Subspecialties & More Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology Ophthalmology ... a break from viewing usually relieves the discomfort. More on computer use and your eyes . Children and 3-D ...

  2. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

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    Full Text Available ... movies, it's natural to wonder what, if any, effect the technology has on your eyes. Is 3- ... the techniques used to create the 3-D effect can confuse or overload the brain, causing some ...

  3. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

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    Full Text Available ... long-term studies, ophthalmologists say there is no reason to be concerned that 3-D movies, TV ... 2017 Poll: Do You Know Your Glaucoma Risk Factors? Jan 18, 2017 New Technology Helps the Legally ...

  4. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

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    Full Text Available ... 6 years from prolonged viewing of the device's digital images, in order to avoid possible damage to ... clearly see the images when using 3-D digital products, this may indicate a vision or eye ...

  5. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

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    Full Text Available ... system. Some people complain of headaches or motion sickness when viewing 3-D, which may indicate that ... D digital products on eye and visual development, health, or function in children, nor are there persuasive, ...

  6. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

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    Full Text Available ... in order to avoid possible damage to visual development. Should parents be concerned? If a healthy child ... 3-D digital products on eye and visual development, health, or function in children, nor are there ...

  7. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

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    Full Text Available ... Subspecialties & More Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology Ophthalmology ... no reason to be concerned that 3-D movies, TV or video games will damage the eyes or visual system. Some people complain of headaches or motion sickness ...

  8. Will 3D printers manufacture your meals?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bommel, K.J.C. van

    2013-01-01

    These days, 3D printers are laying down plastics, metals, resins, and other materials in whatever configurations creative people can dream up. But when the next 3D printing revolution comes, you'll be able to eat it.

  9. Eesti 3D jaoks kitsas / Virge Haavasalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Haavasalu, Virge

    2009-01-01

    Produktsioonifirma Digitaalne Sputnik: Kaur ja Kaspar Kallas tegelevad filmide produtseerimise ning 3D digitaalkaamerate tootearendusega (Silicon Imaging LLC). Vendade Kallaste 3D-kaamerast. Kommenteerib Eesti Filmi Sihtasutuse direktor Marge Liiske

  10. In Depth: Interactive Copyright Education for 3D Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Thomas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The growth of makerspaces and 3D services in libraries means new opportunities to utilize library expertise, partnerships, and exemptions to inform patrons about copyright in creative environments. Wide access to 3D printing, trademarks, and patents are relevant topics, but this paper only focuses on copyright. Little to no literature has been produced about how to educate makers about copyright for 3D objects. This paper will present a framework to encourage creators of 3D objects to analyze and interpret copyright information for their own purposes. It also discusses the process of designing and embedding learning tools into the database for SHAPES, a project for inter-library loans of 3D renderings. NOTE: New information about the methods and progress of this project has been added since the Kraemer Copyright Conference.

  11. 3D-Printed Biopolymers for Tissue Engineering Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 3D printing technology has recently gained substantial interest for potential applications in tissue engineering due to the ability of making a three-dimensional object of virtually any shape from a digital model. 3D-printed biopolymers, which combine the 3D printing technology and biopolymers, have shown great potential in tissue engineering applications and are receiving significant attention, which has resulted in the development of numerous research programs regarding the material systems which are available for 3D printing. This review focuses on recent advances in the development of biopolymer materials, including natural biopolymer-based materials and synthetic biopolymer-based materials prepared using 3D printing technology, and some future challenges and applications of this technology are discussed.

  12. Design and 3D Printing of Scaffolds and Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia An

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A growing number of three-dimensional (3D-printing processes have been applied to tissue engineering. This paper presents a state-of-the-art study of 3D-printing technologies for tissue-engineering applications, with particular focus on the development of a computer-aided scaffold design system; the direct 3D printing of functionally graded scaffolds; the modeling of selective laser sintering (SLS and fused deposition modeling (FDM processes; the indirect additive manufacturing of scaffolds, with both micro and macro features; the development of a bioreactor; and 3D/4D bioprinting. Technological limitations will be discussed so as to highlight the possibility of future improvements for new 3D-printing methodologies for tissue engineering.

  13. FILMING UNDERWATER IN 3D RESPECTING STEREOGRAPHIC RULES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rinaldi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available After an experimental phase of many years, 3D filming is now effective and successful. Improvements are still possible, but the film industry achieved memorable success on 3D movie’s box offices due to the overall quality of its products. Special environments such as space ("Gravity" and the underwater realm look perfect to be reproduced in 3D. "Filming in space" was possible in "Gravity" using special effects and computer graphic. The underwater realm is still difficult to be handled. Underwater filming in 3D was not that easy and effective as filming in 2D, since not long ago. After almost 3 years of research, a French, Austrian and Italian team realized a perfect tool to film underwater, in 3D, without any constrains. This allows filmmakers to bring the audience deep inside an environment where they most probably will never have the chance to be.

  14. 3D-Printed Millimeter Wave Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-14

    demonstrates the resolution of the printer with a 10 micron nozzle. Figure 2: Measured loss tangent of SEBS and SBS samples. 3D - Printed Millimeter... 3D printing of styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) and styrene ethylene/butylene-styrene (SEBS) is used to demonstrate the feasibility of 3D - printed ...Additionally, a dielectric lens is printed which improves the antenna gain of an open-ended WR-28 waveguide from 7 to 8.5 dBi. Keywords: 3D printing

  15. Digital Dentistry — 3D Printing Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Zaharia Cristian; Gabor Alin-Gabriel; Gavrilovici Andrei; Stan Adrian Tudor; Idorasi Laura; Sinescu Cosmin; Negruțiu Meda-Lavinia

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is an additive manufacturing method in which a 3D item is formed by laying down successive layers of material. 3D printers are machines that produce representations of objects either planned with a CAD program or scanned with a 3D scanner. Printing is a method for replicating text and pictures, typically with ink on paper. We can print different dental pieces using different methods such as selective laser sintering (SLS), stereolithography, fused deposition mo...

  16. Detectors in 3D available for assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Re, Valerio

    2014-01-01

    This deliverable reports on 3D devices resulting from the vertical integration of pixel sensors and readout electronics. After 3D integration steps such as etching of through-silicon vias and backside metallization of readout integrated circuits, ASICs and sensors are interconnected to form a 3D pixel detector. Various 3D detectors have been devised in AIDA WP3 and their status and performance is assessed here.

  17. 3D-Printing for Analytical Ultracentrifugation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhiksha Desai

    Full Text Available Analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC is a classical technique of physical biochemistry providing information on size, shape, and interactions of macromolecules from the analysis of their migration in centrifugal fields while free in solution. A key mechanical element in AUC is the centerpiece, a component of the sample cell assembly that is mounted between the optical windows to allow imaging and to seal the sample solution column against high vacuum while exposed to gravitational forces in excess of 300,000 g. For sedimentation velocity it needs to be precisely sector-shaped to allow unimpeded radial macromolecular migration. During the history of AUC a great variety of centerpiece designs have been developed for different types of experiments. Here, we report that centerpieces can now be readily fabricated by 3D printing at low cost, from a variety of materials, and with customized designs. The new centerpieces can exhibit sufficient mechanical stability to withstand the gravitational forces at the highest rotor speeds and be sufficiently precise for sedimentation equilibrium and sedimentation velocity experiments. Sedimentation velocity experiments with bovine serum albumin as a reference molecule in 3D printed centerpieces with standard double-sector design result in sedimentation boundaries virtually indistinguishable from those in commercial double-sector epoxy centerpieces, with sedimentation coefficients well within the range of published values. The statistical error of the measurement is slightly above that obtained with commercial epoxy, but still below 1%. Facilitated by modern open-source design and fabrication paradigms, we believe 3D printed centerpieces and AUC accessories can spawn a variety of improvements in AUC experimental design, efficiency and resource allocation.

  18. 3D modelling for multipurpose cadastre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abduhl Rahman, A.; Van Oosterom, P.J.M.; Hua, T.C.; Sharkawi, K.H.; Duncan, E.E.; Azri, N.; Hassan, M.I.

    2012-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) modelling of cadastral objects (such as legal spaces around buildings, around utility networks and other spaces) is one of the important aspects for a multipurpose cadastre (MPC). This paper describes the 3D modelling of the objects for MPC and its usage to the knowledge of 3D

  19. Expanding Geometry Understanding with 3D Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Jill A.; Cochran, Zane; Laney, Kendra; Dean, Mandi

    2016-01-01

    With the rise of personal desktop 3D printing, a wide spectrum of educational opportunities has become available for educators to leverage this technology in their classrooms. Until recently, the ability to create physical 3D models was well beyond the scope, skill, and budget of many schools. However, since desktop 3D printers have become readily…

  20. 3D Characterization of Recrystallization Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yubin; Godfrey, Andrew William; MacDonald, A. Nicole

    2016-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) volume containing a recrystallizing grain and a deformed matrix in a partially recrystallized pure aluminum was characterized using the 3D electron backscattering diffraction technique. The 3D shape of a recrystallizing boundary, separating the recrystallizing grain...... on the formation of protrusions/retrusions....

  1. 3D-Printable Antimicrobial Composite Resins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yue, Jun; Zhao, Pei; Gerasimov, Jennifer Y.; van de Lagemaat, Marieke; Grotenhuis, Arjen; Rustema-Abbing, Minie; van der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J.; Herrmann, Andreas; Ren, Yijin

    2015-01-01

    3D printing is seen as a game-changing manufacturing process in many domains, including general medicine and dentistry, but the integration of more complex functions into 3D-printed materials remains lacking. Here, it is expanded on the repertoire of 3D-printable materials to include antimicrobial

  2. 3D mass digitization: a milestone for archeological documentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Santos

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the heritage field, the demand for fast and efficient 3D digitization technologies for historic remains is increasing. Besides, 3D digitization has proved to be a promising approach to enable precise reconstructions of objects. Yet, unlike the digital acquisition of cultural goods in 2D widely used today, 3D digitization often still requires a significant investment of time and money. To make it more widely available to heritage institutions, the Competence Center for Cultural Heritage Digitization at the Fraunhofer Institute for Computer Graphics Research IGD has developed CultLab3D, the world’s first 3D mass digitization facility for collections of three-dimensional objects. CultLab3D is specifically designed to automate the entire 3D digitization process thus allowing to scan and archive objects on a large-scale. Moreover, scanning and lighting technologies are combined to capture the exact geometry, texture, and optical material properties of artefacts to produce highly accurate photo-realistic representations. The unique setup allows to shorten the time needed for digitization to several minutes per artefact instead of hours, as required by conventional 3D scanning methods.

  3. Volumetric 3D Display System with Static Screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Current display technology has relied on flat, 2D screens that cannot truly convey the third dimension of visual information: depth. In contrast to conventional visualization that is primarily based on 2D flat screens, the volumetric 3D display possesses a true 3D display volume, and places physically each 3D voxel in displayed 3D images at the true 3D (x,y,z) spatial position. Each voxel, analogous to a pixel in a 2D image, emits light from that position to form a real 3D image in the eyes of the viewers. Such true volumetric 3D display technology provides both physiological (accommodation, convergence, binocular disparity, and motion parallax) and psychological (image size, linear perspective, shading, brightness, etc.) depth cues to human visual systems to help in the perception of 3D objects. In a volumetric 3D display, viewers can watch the displayed 3D images from a completely 360 view without using any special eyewear. The volumetric 3D display techniques may lead to a quantum leap in information display technology and can dramatically change the ways humans interact with computers, which can lead to significant improvements in the efficiency of learning and knowledge management processes. Within a block of glass, a large amount of tiny dots of voxels are created by using a recently available machining technique called laser subsurface engraving (LSE). The LSE is able to produce tiny physical crack points (as small as 0.05 mm in diameter) at any (x,y,z) location within the cube of transparent material. The crack dots, when illuminated by a light source, scatter the light around and form visible voxels within the 3D volume. The locations of these tiny voxels are strategically determined such that each can be illuminated by a light ray from a high-resolution digital mirror device (DMD) light engine. The distribution of these voxels occupies the full display volume within the static 3D glass screen. This design eliminates any moving screen seen in previous

  4. 3D Seismic Imaging using Marchenko Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomas, A.; Curtis, A.

    2017-12-01

    Marchenko methods are novel, data driven techniques that allow seismic wavefields from sources and receivers on the Earth's surface to be redatumed to construct wavefields with sources in the subsurface - including complex multiply-reflected waves, and without the need for a complex reference model. In turn, this allows subsurface images to be constructed at any such subsurface redatuming points (image or virtual receiver points). Such images are then free of artefacts from multiply-scattered waves that usually contaminate migrated seismic images. Marchenko algorithms require as input the same information as standard migration methods: the full reflection response from sources and receivers at the Earth's surface, and an estimate of the first arriving wave between the chosen image point and the surface. The latter can be calculated using a smooth velocity model estimated using standard methods. The algorithm iteratively calculates a signal that focuses at the image point to create a virtual source at that point, and this can be used to retrieve the signal between the virtual source and the surface. A feature of these methods is that the retrieved signals are naturally decomposed into up- and down-going components. That is, we obtain both the signal that initially propagated upwards from the virtual source and arrived at the surface, separated from the signal that initially propagated downwards. Figure (a) shows a 3D subsurface model with a variable density but a constant velocity (3000m/s). Along the surface of this model (z=0) in both the x and y directions are co-located sources and receivers at 20-meter intervals. The redatumed signal in figure (b) has been calculated using Marchenko methods from a virtual source (1200m, 500m and 400m) to the surface. For comparison the true solution is given in figure (c), and shows a good match when compared to figure (b). While these 2D redatuming and imaging methods are still in their infancy having first been developed in

  5. 3D Printed Dry EEG Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sammy Krachunov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Electroencephalography (EEG is a procedure that records brain activity in a non-invasive manner. The cost and size of EEG devices has decreased in recent years, facilitating a growing interest in wearable EEG that can be used out-of-the-lab for a wide range of applications, from epilepsy diagnosis, to stroke rehabilitation, to Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI. A major obstacle for these emerging applications is the wet electrodes, which are used as part of the EEG setup. These electrodes are attached to the human scalp using a conductive gel, which can be uncomfortable to the subject, causes skin irritation, and some gels have poor long-term stability. A solution to this problem is to use dry electrodes, which do not require conductive gel, but tend to have a higher noise floor. This paper presents a novel methodology for the design and manufacture of such dry electrodes. We manufacture the electrodes using low cost desktop 3D printers and off-the-shelf components for the first time. This allows quick and inexpensive electrode manufacturing and opens the possibility of creating electrodes that are customized for each individual user. Our 3D printed electrodes are compared against standard wet electrodes, and the performance of the proposed electrodes is suitable for BCI applications, despite the presence of additional noise.

  6. Platform for Distributed 3D Gaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jurgelionis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Video games are typically executed on Windows platforms with DirectX API and require high performance CPUs and graphics hardware. For pervasive gaming in various environments like at home, hotels, or internet cafes, it is beneficial to run games also on mobile devices and modest performance CE devices avoiding the necessity of placing a noisy workstation in the living room or costly computers/consoles in each room of a hotel. This paper presents a new cross-platform approach for distributed 3D gaming in wired/wireless local networks. We introduce the novel system architecture and protocols used to transfer the game graphics data across the network to end devices. Simultaneous execution of video games on a central server and a novel streaming approach of the 3D graphics output to multiple end devices enable the access of games on low cost set top boxes and handheld devices that natively lack the power of executing a game with high-quality graphical output.

  7. View-based 3-D object retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Content-based 3-D object retrieval has attracted extensive attention recently and has applications in a variety of fields, such as, computer-aided design, tele-medicine,mobile multimedia, virtual reality, and entertainment. The development of efficient and effective content-based 3-D object retrieval techniques has enabled the use of fast 3-D reconstruction and model design. Recent technical progress, such as the development of camera technologies, has made it possible to capture the views of 3-D objects. As a result, view-based 3-D object retrieval has become an essential but challenging res

  8. Wafer level 3-D ICs process technology

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Chuan Seng; Reif, L Rafael

    2009-01-01

    This book focuses on foundry-based process technology that enables the fabrication of 3-D ICs. The core of the book discusses the technology platform for pre-packaging wafer lever 3-D ICs. However, this book does not include a detailed discussion of 3-D ICs design and 3-D packaging. This is an edited book based on chapters contributed by various experts in the field of wafer-level 3-D ICs process technology. They are from academia, research labs and industry.

  9. 3D Printing of Fluid Flow Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Taira, Kunihiko; Sun, Yiyang; Canuto, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    We discuss the use of 3D printing to physically visualize (materialize) fluid flow structures. Such 3D models can serve as a refreshing hands-on means to gain deeper physical insights into the formation of complex coherent structures in fluid flows. In this short paper, we present a general procedure for taking 3D flow field data and producing a file format that can be supplied to a 3D printer, with two examples of 3D printed flow structures. A sample code to perform this process is also prov...

  10. The Esri 3D city information model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitz, T; Schubiger-Banz, S

    2014-01-01

    With residential and commercial space becoming increasingly scarce, cities are going vertical. Managing the urban environments in 3D is an increasingly important and complex undertaking. To help solving this problem, Esri has released the ArcGIS for 3D Cities solution. The ArcGIS for 3D Cities solution provides the information model, tools and apps for creating, analyzing and maintaining a 3D city using the ArcGIS platform. This paper presents an overview of the 3D City Information Model and some sample use cases

  11. Case study: Beauty and the Beast 3D: benefits of 3D viewing for 2D to 3D conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handy Turner, Tara

    2010-02-01

    From the earliest stages of the Beauty and the Beast 3D conversion project, the advantages of accurate desk-side 3D viewing was evident. While designing and testing the 2D to 3D conversion process, the engineering team at Walt Disney Animation Studios proposed a 3D viewing configuration that not only allowed artists to "compose" stereoscopic 3D but also improved efficiency by allowing artists to instantly detect which image features were essential to the stereoscopic appeal of a shot and which features had minimal or even negative impact. At a time when few commercial 3D monitors were available and few software packages provided 3D desk-side output, the team designed their own prototype devices and collaborated with vendors to create a "3D composing" workstation. This paper outlines the display technologies explored, final choices made for Beauty and the Beast 3D, wish-lists for future development and a few rules of thumb for composing compelling 2D to 3D conversions.

  12. 3D vadose zone modeling using geostatistical inferences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knutson, C.F.; Lee, C.B.

    1991-01-01

    In developing a 3D model of the 600 ft thick interbedded basalt and sediment complex that constitutes the vadose zone at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) geostatistical data were captured for 12--15 parameters (e.g. permeability, porosity, saturation, etc. and flow height, flow width, flow internal zonation, etc.). This two scale data set was generated from studies of subsurface core and geophysical log suites at RWMC and from surface outcrop exposures located at the Box Canyon of the Big Lost River and from Hell's Half Acre lava field all located in the general RWMC area. Based on these currently available data, it is possible to build a 3D stochastic model that utilizes: cumulative distribution functions obtained from the geostatistical data; backstripping and rebuilding of stratigraphic units; an ''expert'' system that incorporates rules based on expert geologic analysis and experimentally derived geostatistics for providing: (a) a structural and isopach map of each layer, (b) a realization of the flow geometry of each basalt flow unit, and (c) a realization of the internal flow parameters (eg permeability, porosity, and saturation) for each flow. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  13. RELAP5-3D User Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riemke, Richard Allan

    2002-09-01

    The Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program with 3D capability1 (RELAP5-3D) is a reactor system analysis code that has been developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). The 3D capability in RELAP5-3D includes 3D hydrodynamics2 and 3D neutron kinetics3,4. Assessment, verification, and validation of the 3D capability in RELAP5-3D is discussed in the literature5,6,7,8,9,10. Additional assessment, verification, and validation of the 3D capability of RELAP5-3D will be presented in other papers in this users seminar. As with any software, user problems occur. User problems usually fall into the categories of input processing failure, code execution failure, restart/renodalization failure, unphysical result, and installation. This presentation will discuss some of the more generic user problems that have been reported on RELAP5-3D as well as their resolution.

  14. Should Society Encourage The Development Of 3D Printing Particularly 3D Bioprinting Of Tissues And Organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slaviana Pavlovich

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available My aim is to discover moral and ethical sides of 3D printing which is a new technology and paradoxically a new phenomenon of the twenty-first century. Particularly 3D bioprinted organs and tissues is a controversial issue because this technological advancement may be viewed by society as a servant or it can even potentially become its master. For example in the health care system doctors may change their attitude to patients by using 3D bioprinted organs and tissues whenever it is needed also taking away responsibility from patients. Thus there can be great social and psychological consequences from 3D bioprinting in a long term. Furthermore Pete Basiliere an analyst in a worlds leading information technology research company suggests that 3D printing can also bring economic consequences resulting in the loss of at least 100 billion in intellectual property theft per year by 2018 globally. By analysing the economic psychological and social impact of the 3D printing technologies I want to research whether anyone is going be responsible for the 3D printing production and who is going to give a right to 3D bioprint.

  15. The coupled code system TORT-TD/ATTICA3D for 3-D transient analysis of pebble-bed HTGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seubert, A.; Sureda, A.; Lapins, J.; Buck, M.; Laurien, E.; Bader, J.; EnBW Kernkraft GmbH, Philippsburg

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the time-dependent 3-D discrete-ordinates based coupled code system TORT-TD/ATTICA3D and its application to HTGR of pebble bed type. TORT-TD/ATTICA3D is represented by a single executable and adapts the so-called internal coupling approach. Three-dimensional distributions of temperatures from ATTICA3D and power density from TORT-TD are efficiently exchanged by direct memory access of array elements via interface routines. Applications of TORT-TD/ATTICA3D to three transients based on the PBMR-400 benchmark (total and partial control rod withdrawal and cold helium ingress) and the full power steady state of the HTR-10 are presented. For the partial control rod withdrawal, 3-D effects of local neutron flux redistributions are clearly identified. The results are very promising and demonstrate that the coupled code system TORT-TD/ATTICA3D may represent a key component in a future comprehensive 3-D code system for HTGR of pebble bed type. (orig.)

  16. 3D tomography of cells in micro-channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quint, S.; Christ, A. F.; Guckenberger, A.; Himbert, S.; Kaestner, L.; Gekle, S.; Wagner, C.

    2017-09-01

    We combine confocal imaging, microfluidics, and image analysis to record 3D-images of cells in flow. This enables us to recover the full 3D representation of several hundred living cells per minute. Whereas 3D confocal imaging has thus far been limited to steady specimens, we overcome this restriction and present a method to access the 3D shape of moving objects. The key of our principle is a tilted arrangement of the micro-channel with respect to the focal plane of the microscope. This forces cells to traverse the focal plane in an inclined manner. As a consequence, individual layers of passing cells are recorded, which can then be assembled to obtain the volumetric representation. The full 3D information allows for a detailed comparison with theoretical and numerical predictions unfeasible with, e.g., 2D imaging. Our technique is exemplified by studying flowing red blood cells in a micro-channel reflecting the conditions prevailing in the microvasculature. We observe two very different types of shapes: "croissants" and "slippers." Additionally, we perform 3D numerical simulations of our experiment to confirm the observations. Since 3D confocal imaging of cells in flow has not yet been realized, we see high potential in the field of flow cytometry where cell classification thus far mostly relies on 1D scattering and fluorescence signals.

  17. CLOUD BASED WEB 3D GIS TAIWAN PLATFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.-F. Tsai

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the status of the web 3D GIS platform, which has been developed in the National Applied Research Laboratories. The purpose is to develop a global earth observation 3D GIS platform for applications to disaster monitoring and assessment in Taiwan. For quick response to preliminary and detailed assessment after a natural disaster occurs, the web 3D GIS platform is useful to access, transfer, integrate, display and analyze the multi-scale huge data following the international OGC standard. The framework of cloud service for data warehousing management and efficiency enhancement using VMWare is illustrated in this article.

  18. Dalle applicazioni professionali al 3D per tutti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Santarsiero

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available From professional applications to 3D for everyone The applications of 3D technology are constantly maturing and so are the solutions designed to satisfy the needs of various professionals. The development of extremely user oriented solutions, which encouraged the use of 3D technology by a wide range of users, have evolved alongside a market in which final user skills are fundamental. The origins of this trend are particularly evident in the massive diffusion of geospatial web applications.

  19. Modelling reinforced concrete structures in DYNA3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadhouse, B.J.; Neilson, A.J.

    1987-10-01

    A material model for reinforced concrete has been implemented in the transient structural dynamics code DYNA3D. This paper outlines the constitutive material model, and presents comparisons of DYNA3D calculations and experiments on impulsively loaded panels, covering the full range of panel damage states from light cracking through to panel collapse or perforation. The results are presented using the post-processor code TAURUS, which has also been modified to provide mesh diagrams with superimposed crack patterns from the DYNA3D predictions. (author)

  20. Parallel Processor for 3D Recovery from Optical Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Hugo Barron-Zambrano

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available 3D recovery from motion has received a major effort in computer vision systems in the recent years. The main problem lies in the number of operations and memory accesses to be performed by the majority of the existing techniques when translated to hardware or software implementations. This paper proposes a parallel processor for 3D recovery from optical flow. Its main feature is the maximum reuse of data and the low number of clock cycles to calculate the optical flow, along with the precision with which 3D recovery is achieved. The results of the proposed architecture as well as those from processor synthesis are presented.

  1. Conceptual Configuration of Pharmaceutical Plants in 3D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladeby, Klaes Rohde; Larsen, Bent Dalgaard; Gjøl, Mikkel

    2007-01-01

    In the conceptual design phase of pharmaceutical plants as much as 80%-90% of the total cost of a project is committed. It is therefore essential that the chosen concept is viable. Configuration and 3D models can help validate the decisions made in the conceptual design process. Designing 3D models...... is a complex task and requires skilled users. We demonstrate that a simple 2D/3D configuration tool can support conceptualizing of pharmaceutical plants. Present paper reports on preliminary results from a full scale implementation project at a Danish engineering company....

  2. 3D Survey and instability’s analysis of Romena parish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Bertocci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Romanesque parish church San Pietro a Romena is located in the municipal district of Pratovecchio, in the Casentino valley. It was built, due to a inscription chiselled on a capital, in 1152 d.C. probably wanted byMatilde di Canossa, who has promoted the construction of a lot of churches in this area. We don’t have many informations about the first church, probably destroyed by an earthquake, event that frequently has hit the valley. We based our research on what the DM 01/2008 requests, so our analysis was made following some steps of knowledge: firstly an accurated research in the archive of the Fiesole diocese, to suppose how the buildinghas evolved during the ages, then a 3D laser scanner survey. Thanks to the accurate point cluod we could draw our sections of the church, integrating the material analysis, the orthophotos and the degradation analysis. In parallel has been developed the stratigraphic analysisof the building, which is useful to understand how it has been costructed and how it has grown, so that a coherent restoration project can be efficiently designed.

  3. Asymmetries in perception of 3D orientation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan C Dobbins

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Visual scene interpretation depends on assumptions based on the statistical regularities of the world. People have some preference for seeing ambiguously oriented objects (Necker cubes as if tilted down or viewed from above. This bias is a near certainty in the first instant (approximately 1 s of viewing and declines over the course of many seconds. In addition, we found that there is modulation of perceived orientation that varies with position--for example objects on the left are more likely to be interpreted as viewed from the right. Therefore there is both a viewed-from-above prior and a scene position-dependent modulation of perceived 3-D orientation. These results are consistent with the idea that ambiguously oriented objects are initially assigned an orientation consistent with our experience of an asymmetric world in which objects most probably sit on surfaces below eye level.

  4. Adaptive regridding in 3D reflection tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vesnaver

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available 3D reflection tomography allows the macro-model of complex geological structures to be reconstructed. In the usual approach, the spatial distribution of the velocity field is discretized by regular grids. This choice simplifies the development of the related software, but introduces two serious drawbacks: various domains of the model may be poorly covered, and a relevant mismatch between the grid and a complex velocity field may occur. So the tomographic inversion becomes unstable, unreliable and necessarily blurred. In this paper we introduce an algorithm to adapt the grid to the available ray paths and to the velocity field in sequence: so we get irregular grids with a locally variable resolution. We can guide the grid fitting procedure interactively, if we are going to introduce some geological a priori information; otherwise, we define a fully automatic approach, which exploits the Delauny triangles and Voronoi polygons.

  5. 3D Reconstruction of NMR Images by LabVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter IZAK

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the experiment of 3D reconstruction NMR images via virtual instrumentation - LabVIEW. The main idea is based on marching cubes algorithm and image processing implemented by module of Vision assistant. The two dimensional images shot by the magnetic resonance device provide information about the surface properties of human body. There is implemented algorithm which can be used for 3D reconstruction of magnetic resonance images in biomedical application.

  6. Special Issue: 3D Printing for Biomedical Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee Kai Chua

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D printing has a long history of applications in biomedical engineering. The development and expansion of traditional biomedical applications are being advanced and enriched by new printing technologies. New biomedical applications such as bioprinting are highly attractive and trendy. This Special Issue aims to provide readers with a glimpse of the recent profile of 3D printing in biomedical research.

  7. Creating 3D gelatin phantoms for experimental evaluation in biomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stein Nils

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe and evaluate a setup to create gelatin phantoms by robotic 3D printing. Key aspects are the large workspace, reproducibility and resolution of the created phantoms. Given its soft tissue nature, the gelatin is kept fluid during inside the system and we present parameters for additive printing of homogeneous, solid objects. The results indicate that 3D printing of gelatin can be an alternative for quickly creating larger soft tissue phantoms without the need for casting a mold.

  8. Modeling 3D Objects for Navigation Purposes Using Laser Scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezary Specht

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the creation of 3d models and their applications in navigation. It contains a review of available methods and geometric data sources, focusing mostly on terrestrial laser scanning. It presents detailed description, from field survey to numerical elaboration, how to construct accurate model of a typical few storey building as a hypothetical reference in complex building navigation. Hence, the paper presents fields where 3d models are being used and their potential new applications.

  9. ACTUAL PERFORMANCE 3D RESTRICTIONS OF INVENTOR 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GOANȚĂ Adrian Mihai

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The work ranges between papers that leave detailed documentation based on the analysis of current performance 3D constraints, the Autodesk Inventor 2015 and draws a number of conclusions in general about this latest software. Basically, the author, after a presentation of the current situation and trends and future aided design, makes an analysis of how 3D constraint of the three-dimensional assemblies. Also some of the innovations introduced by this version are highlighted.

  10. Novel Biomaterials Used in Medical 3D Printing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthik Tappa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The success of an implant depends on the type of biomaterial used for its fabrication. An ideal implant material should be biocompatible, inert, mechanically durable, and easily moldable. The ability to build patient specific implants incorporated with bioactive drugs, cells, and proteins has made 3D printing technology revolutionary in medical and pharmaceutical fields. A vast variety of biomaterials are currently being used in medical 3D printing, including metals, ceramics, polymers, and composites. With continuous research and progress in biomaterials used in 3D printing, there has been a rapid growth in applications of 3D printing in manufacturing customized implants, prostheses, drug delivery devices, and 3D scaffolds for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The current review focuses on the novel biomaterials used in variety of 3D printing technologies for clinical applications. Most common types of medical 3D printing technologies, including fused deposition modeling, extrusion based bioprinting, inkjet, and polyjet printing techniques, their clinical applications, different types of biomaterials currently used by researchers, and key limitations are discussed in detail.

  11. Analysis of User Requirements in Interactive 3D Video Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyue Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent development of three dimensional (3D display technologies has resulted in a proliferation of 3D video production and broadcasting, attracting a lot of research into capture, compression and delivery of stereoscopic content. However, the predominant design practice of interactions with 3D video content has failed to address its differences and possibilities in comparison to the existing 2D video interactions. This paper presents a study of user requirements related to interaction with the stereoscopic 3D video. The study suggests that the change of view, zoom in/out, dynamic video browsing, and textual information are the most relevant interactions with stereoscopic 3D video. In addition, we identified a strong demand for object selection that resulted in a follow-up study of user preferences in 3D selection using virtual-hand and ray-casting metaphors. These results indicate that interaction modality affects users’ decision of object selection in terms of chosen location in 3D, while user attitudes do not have significant impact. Furthermore, the ray-casting-based interaction modality using Wiimote can outperform the volume-based interaction modality using mouse and keyboard for object positioning accuracy.

  12. Ontology of a scene based on Java 3D architecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén González Crespo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article seeks to make an approach to the class hierarchy of a scene built with the architecture Java 3D, to develop an ontology of a scene as from the semantic essential components for the semantic structuring of the Web3D. Java was selected because the language recommended by the W3C Consortium for the Development of the Web3D oriented applications as from X3D standard is Xj3D which compositionof their Schemas is based the architecture of Java3D In first instance identifies the domain and scope of the ontology, defining classes and subclasses that comprise from Java3D architecture and the essential elements of a scene, as its point of origin, the field of rotation, translation The limitation of the scene and the definition of shaders, then define the slots that are declared in RDF as a framework for describing the properties of the classes established from identifying thedomain and range of each class, then develops composition of the OWL ontology on SWOOP Finally, be perform instantiations of the ontology building for a Iconosphere object as from class expressions defined.

  13. 3D DIGITAL CADASTRE JOURNEY IN VICTORIA, AUSTRALIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Shojaei

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Land development processes today have an increasing demand to access three-dimensional (3D spatial information. Complex land development may need to have a 3D model and require some functions which are only possible using 3D data. Accordingly, the Intergovernmental Committee on Surveying and Mapping (ICSM, as a national body in Australia provides leadership, coordination and standards for surveying, mapping and national datasets has developed the Cadastre 2034 strategy in 2014. This strategy has a vision to develop a cadastral system that enables people to readily and confidently identify the location and extent of all rights, restrictions and responsibilities related to land and real property. In 2014, the land authority in the state of Victoria, Australia, namely Land Use Victoria (LUV, has entered the challenging area of designing and implementing a 3D digital cadastre focused on providing more efficient and effective services to the land and property industry. LUV has been following the ICSM 2034 strategy which requires developing various policies, standards, infrastructures, and tools. Over the past three years, LUV has mainly focused on investigating the technical aspect of a 3D digital cadastre. This paper provides an overview of the 3D digital cadastre investigation progress in Victoria and discusses the challenges that the team faced during this journey. It also addresses the future path to develop an integrated 3D digital cadastre in Victoria.

  14. Front instabilities and invasiveness of simulated 3D avascular tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikodem J Poplawski

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available We use the Glazier-Graner-Hogeweg model to simulate three-dimensional (3D, single-phenotype, avascular tumors growing in an homogeneous tissue matrix (TM supplying a single limiting nutrient. We study the effects of two parameters on tumor morphology: a diffusion-limitation parameter defined as the ratio of the tumor-substrate consumption rate to the substrate-transport rate, and the tumor-TM surface tension. This initial model omits necrosis and oxidative/hypoxic metabolism effects, which can further influence tumor morphology, but our simplified model still shows significant parameter dependencies. The diffusion-limitation parameter determines whether the growing solid tumor develops a smooth (noninvasive or fingered (invasive interface, as in our earlier two-dimensional (2D simulations. The sensitivity of 3D tumor morphology to tumor-TM surface tension increases with the size of the diffusion-limitation parameter, as in 2D. The 3D results are unexpectedly close to those in 2D. Our results therefore may justify using simpler 2D simulations of tumor growth, instead of more realistic but more computationally expensive 3D simulations. While geometrical artifacts mean that 2D sections of connected 3D tumors may be disconnected, the morphologies of 3D simulated tumors nevertheless correlate with the morphologies of their 2D sections, especially for low-surface-tension tumors, allowing the use of 2D sections to partially reconstruct medically-important 3D-tumor structures.

  15. Implementing a 3D printing service in a biomedical library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verma Walker, MLIS

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D printing is opening new opportunities in biomedicine by enabling creative problem solving, faster prototyping of ideas, advances in tissue engineering, and customized patient solutions. The National Institutes of Health (NIH Library purchased a Makerbot Replicator 2 3D printer to give scientists a chance to try out this technology. To launch the service, the library offered training, conducted a survey on service model preferences, and tracked usage and class attendance. 3D printing was very popular, with new lab equipment prototypes being the most common model type. Most survey respondents indicated they would use the service again and be willing to pay for models. There was high interest in training for 3D modeling, which has a steep learning curve. 3D printers also require significant care and repairs. NIH scientists are using 3D printing to improve their research, and it is opening new avenues for problem solving in labs. Several scientists found the 3D printer so helpful they bought one for their labs. Having a printer in a central and open location like a library can help scientists, doctors, and students learn how to use this technology in their work.

  16. VR versus LF: towards the limitation-free 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, Tibor; Kara, Peter A.

    2017-06-01

    The evolution of 3D technologies shows a cyclical learning curve with a series of hypes and dead ends, with mistakes and consequences. 3D images contain significantly more information than the corresponding 2D ones. 3D display systems should be built on more pixels, or higher speed components. For true 3D, this factor is in the order of 100x, which is a real technological challenge. If not fulfilled, the capabilities of 3D systems will be compromised: headgears will be needed, or the viewers should be positioned or tracked, single-user devices, lack of parallax, missing cues, etc. The temptation is always there: why to provide all the information, just what the person absorbs that moment (subjective or objective visualization). Virtual Reality (VR) glasses have been around for more than two decades. With the latest technical improvements, VR became the next hype. 3D immersion was added as a new phenomenon; however, VR represents an isolated experience, and still requires headgears and a controlled environment. Augmented Reality (AR) in this sense is different. Will the VR/AR hype with the headgears be a dead end? While VR headsets may sell better than smart glasses or 3D TV glasses, also consider that using the technology may require a set of behavioral changes that the majority of people do not want to make. Displays and technologies that restrict viewers, or cause any discomfort will not be accepted on the long term. The newer wave of 3D is forecasted to 2018-2020, answering the need for unaided, limitation-free 3D experience. Light Field (LF) systems represent the next-generation in 3D. The HoloVizio system, having a capacity in the order of 100x, offers natural, restrictions-free 3D experience on a full field of view, enabling collaborative use for an unlimited number of viewers, even in a wider, immersive space. As a scalable technology, the display range goes from monitor-style units, through automotive 3D HUDs, screen-less solutions, up to cinema systems

  17. Image based 3D city modeling : Comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Singh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available 3D city model is a digital representation of the Earth’s surface and it’s related objects such as building, tree, vegetation, and some manmade feature belonging to urban area. The demand of 3D city modeling is increasing rapidly for various engineering and non-engineering applications. Generally four main image based approaches were used for virtual 3D city models generation. In first approach, researchers were used Sketch based modeling, second method is Procedural grammar based modeling, third approach is Close range photogrammetry based modeling and fourth approach is mainly based on Computer Vision techniques. SketchUp, CityEngine, Photomodeler and Agisoft Photoscan are the main softwares to represent these approaches respectively. These softwares have different approaches & methods suitable for image based 3D city modeling. Literature study shows that till date, there is no complete such type of comparative study available to create complete 3D city model by using images. This paper gives a comparative assessment of these four image based 3D modeling approaches. This comparative study is mainly based on data acquisition methods, data processing techniques and output 3D model products. For this research work, study area is the campus of civil engineering department, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (India. This 3D campus acts as a prototype for city. This study also explains various governing parameters, factors and work experiences. This research work also gives a brief introduction, strengths and weakness of these four image based techniques. Some personal comment is also given as what can do or what can’t do from these softwares. At the last, this study shows; it concluded that, each and every software has some advantages and limitations. Choice of software depends on user requirements of 3D project. For normal visualization project, SketchUp software is a good option. For 3D documentation record, Photomodeler gives good

  18. Identification of the transition arrays 3d74s-3d74p in Br X and 3d64s-3d64p in Br XI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, X.T.; Jupen, C.; Bengtsson, P.; Engstroem, L.; Westerlind, M.; Martinson, I.

    1991-01-01

    We report a beam-foil study of multiply ionized bromine in the region 400-1300A, performed with 6 and 8 MeV Br ions from a tandem accelerator. At these energies transitions belonging to Fe-like Br X and Mn-like Br XI are expected to be prominent. We have identified 31 lines as 3d 7 4s-3d 7 4p transitions in Br X, from which 16 levels of the previously unknown 3d 7 4s configuration could be established. We have also added 6 new 3d 7 4p levels to the 99 previously known. For Br XI we have classified 9 lines as 3d 6 4s-3d 6 4p combinations. The line identifications have been corroborated by isoelectronic comparisons and theoretical calculations using the superposition-of-configurations technique. (orig.)

  19. 3D Systems” ‘Stuck in the Middle’ of the 3D Printer Boom?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Hoffmann (Alan)

    2014-01-01

    textabstract3D Systems, the pioneer of 3D printing, predicted a future where "kids from 8 to 80" could design and print their ideas at home. By 2013, 9 years after the creation of the first working 3D printer, there were more than 30 major 3D printing companies competing for market share. 3DS and

  20. Annular dynamics of memo3D annuloplasty ring evaluated by 3D transesophageal echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Hiroyuki; Toda, Koichi; Miyagawa, Shigeru; Yoshikawa, Yasushi; Fukushima, Satsuki; Yoshioka, Daisuke; Sawa, Yoshiki

    2018-04-01

    We assessed the mitral annular motion after mitral valve repair with the Sorin Memo 3D® (Sorin Group Italia S.r.L., Saluggia, Italy), which is a unique complete semirigid annuloplasty ring intended to restore the systolic profile of the mitral annulus while adapting to the physiologic dynamism of the annulus, using transesophageal real-time three-dimensional echocardiography. 17 patients (12 male; mean age 60.4 ± 14.9 years) who underwent mitral annuloplasty using the Memo 3D ring were investigated. Mitral annular motion was assessed using QLAB®version8 allowing for a full evaluation of the mitral annulus dynamics. The mitral annular dimensions were measured throughout the cardiac cycle using 4D MV assessment2® while saddle shape was assessed through sequential measurements by RealView®. Saddle shape configuration of the mitral annulus and posterior and anterior leaflet motion could be observed during systole and diastole. The mitral annular area changed during the cardiac cycle by 5.7 ± 1.8%.The circumference length and diameter also changed throughout the cardiac cycle. The annular height was significantly higher in mid-systole than in mid-diastole (p 3D ring maintained a physiological saddle-shape configuration throughout the cardiac cycle. Real-time three-dimensional echocardiography analysis confirmed the motion and flexibility of the Memo 3D ring upon implantation.

  1. A FAST METHOD FOR MEASURING THE SIMILARITY BETWEEN 3D MODEL AND 3D POINT CLOUD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a fast method for measuring the partial Similarity between 3D Model and 3D point Cloud (SimMC. It is crucial to measure SimMC for many point cloud-related applications such as 3D object retrieval and inverse procedural modelling. In our proposed method, the surface area of model and the Distance from Model to point Cloud (DistMC are exploited as measurements to calculate SimMC. Here, DistMC is defined as the weighted distance of the distances between points sampled from model and point cloud. Similarly, Distance from point Cloud to Model (DistCM is defined as the average distance of the distances between points in point cloud and model. In order to reduce huge computational burdens brought by calculation of DistCM in some traditional methods, we define SimMC as the ratio of weighted surface area of model to DistMC. Compared to those traditional SimMC measuring methods that are only able to measure global similarity, our method is capable of measuring partial similarity by employing distance-weighted strategy. Moreover, our method is able to be faster than other partial similarity assessment methods. We demonstrate the superiority of our method both on synthetic data and laser scanning data.

  2. 3D Scientific Visualization with Blender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Brian R.

    2015-03-01

    This is the first book written on using Blender (an open source visualization suite widely used in the entertainment and gaming industries) for scientific visualization. It is a practical and interesting introduction to Blender for understanding key parts of 3D rendering and animation that pertain to the sciences via step-by-step guided tutorials. 3D Scientific Visualization with Blender takes you through an understanding of 3D graphics and modelling for different visualization scenarios in the physical sciences.

  3. Remote Collaborative 3D Printing - Process Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    COLLABORATIVE 3D PRINTING - PROCESS INVESTIGATION Cody M. Reese, PE CAD MODEL PRINT MODEL PRINT PREVIEW PRINTED PART AERIAL VIRTUAL This...REMOTE COLLABORATIVE 3D PRINTING - PROCESS INVESTIGATION 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Cody M. Reese...release; distribution is unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The Remote Collaborative 3D Printing project is a collaboration between

  4. Microfabricating 3D Structures by Laser Origami

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    10.1117/2.1201111.003952 Microfabricating 3D structures by laser origami Alberto Piqué, Scott Mathews, Andrew Birnbaum, and Nicholas Charipar A new...folding known as origami allows the transformation of flat patterns into 3D shapes. A similar approach can be used to generate 3D structures com... geometries . The overarching challenge is to move away from traditional planar semiconductor photolitho- graphic techniques, which severely limit the type of

  5. 3D Scientific Visualization with Blender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Brian R.

    2015-03-01

    This is the first book written on using Blender for scientific visualization. It is a practical and interesting introduction to Blender for understanding key parts of 3D rendering and animation that pertain to the sciences via step-by-step guided tutorials. 3D Scientific Visualization with Blender takes you through an understanding of 3D graphics and modelling for different visualization scenarios in the physical sciences.

  6. 3D images and expert system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Jun-ichi

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an expert system called 3D-IMPRESS for supporting applications of three dimensional (3D) image processing. This system can automatically construct a 3D image processing procedure based on a pictorial example of the goal given by a user. In the paper, to evaluate the performance of the system, it was applied to construction of procedures for extracting specific component figures from practical chest X-ray CT images. (author)

  7. Applications of Open Source 3-D Printing on Small Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua M. Pearce

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that low-cost open-source 3-D printers can reduce costs by enabling distributed manufacturing of substitutes for both specialty equipment and conventional mass-manufactured products. The rate of 3-D printable designs under open licenses is growing exponentially and there arealready hundreds of designs applicable to small-scale organic farming. It has also been hypothesized that this technology could assist sustainable development in rural communities that rely on small-scale organic agriculture. To gauge the present utility of open-source 3-D printers in this organic farm context both in the developed and developing world, this paper reviews the current open-source designs available and evaluates the ability of low-cost 3-D printers to be effective at reducing the economic costs of farming.This study limits the evaluation of open-source 3-D printers to only the most-developed fused filament fabrication of the bioplastic polylactic acid (PLA. PLA is a strong biodegradable and recyclable thermoplastic appropriate for a range of representative products, which are grouped into five categories of prints: handtools, food processing, animal management, water management and hydroponics. The advantages and shortcomings of applying 3-D printing to each technology are evaluated. The results show a general izabletechnical viability and economic benefit to adopting open-source 3-D printing for any of the technologies, although the individual economic impact is highly dependent on needs and frequency of use on a specific farm. Capital costs of a 3-D printer may be saved from on-farm printing of a single advanced analytical instrument in a day or replacing hundreds of inexpensive products over a year. In order for the full potential of open-source 3-D printing to be realized to assist organic farm economic resiliency and self-sufficiency, future work is outlined in five core areas: designs of 3-D printable objects, 3-D printing

  8. Perspectives on Materials Science in 3D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Jensen, Dorte

    2012-01-01

    Materials characterization in 3D has opened a new era in materials science, which is discussed in this paper. The original motivations and visions behind the development of one of the new 3D techniques, namely the three dimensional x-ray diffraction (3DXRD) method, are presented and the route...... to its implementation is described. The present status of materials science in 3D is illustrated by examples related to recrystallization. Finally, challenges and suggestions for the future success for 3D Materials Science relating to hardware evolution, data analysis, data exchange and modeling...

  9. Getting started in 3D with Maya

    CERN Document Server

    Watkins, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Deliver professional-level 3D content in no time with this comprehensive guide to 3D animation with Maya. With over 12 years of training experience, plus several award winning students under his belt, author Adam Watkins is the ideal mentor to get you up to speed with 3D in Maya. Using a structured and pragmatic approach Getting Started in 3D with Maya begins with basic theory of fundamental techniques, then builds on this knowledge using practical examples and projects to put your new skills to the test. Prepared so that you can learn in an organic fashion, each chapter builds on the know

  10. Illustrating Mathematics using 3D Printers

    OpenAIRE

    Knill, Oliver; Slavkovsky, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    3D printing technology can help to visualize proofs in mathematics. In this document we aim to illustrate how 3D printing can help to visualize concepts and mathematical proofs. As already known to educators in ancient Greece, models allow to bring mathematics closer to the public. The new 3D printing technology makes the realization of such tools more accessible than ever. This is an updated version of a paper included in book Low-Cost 3D Printing for science, education and Sustainable Devel...

  11. A 3d game in python

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Minghui

    2014-01-01

    3D game has widely been accepted and loved by many game players. More and more different kinds of 3D games were developed to feed people’s needs. The most common programming language for development of 3D game is C++ nowadays. Python is a high-level scripting language. It is simple and clear. The concise syntax could speed up the development cycle. This project was to develop a 3D game using only Python. The game is about how a cat lives in the street. In order to live, the player need...

  12. Dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Kent; Ordway, Nathaniel; Diallo, Dalanda; Tillapaugh-Fay, Gwen; Aslan, Can

    2014-03-01

    3D printer applications in the biomedical sciences and medical imaging are expanding and will have an increasing impact on the practice of medicine. Orthopedic and reconstructive surgery has been an obvious area for development of 3D printer applications as the segmentation of bony anatomy to generate printable models is relatively straightforward. There are important issues that should be addressed when using 3D printed models for applications that may affect patient care; in particular the dimensional accuracy of the printed parts needs to be high to avoid poor decisions being made prior to surgery or therapeutic procedures. In this work, the dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebral bodies derived from CT data for a cadaver spine is compared with direct measurements on the ex-vivo vertebra and with measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra using commercial 3D image processing software. The vertebra was printed on a consumer grade 3D printer using an additive print process using PLA (polylactic acid) filament. Measurements were made for 15 different anatomic features of the vertebral body, including vertebral body height, endplate width and depth, pedicle height and width, and spinal canal width and depth, among others. It is shown that for the segmentation and printing process used, the results of measurements made on the 3D printed vertebral body are substantially the same as those produced by direct measurement on the vertebra and measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra.

  13. ANIMASI IKLAN 3D SAFETY DRIVING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusron Aulia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah membuat sebuah aplikasi video iklan bertemakan tentang keamanan mengemudi sebagai media edukasi kepada masyarakat tentang pentingnya  keamanan  dalam  mengemudi.  Begitu  pentingnya  keamanan  mengemudi, maka  menjadi  pengemudi  aman  menjadi  keharusan  bagi setiap  anggota  masyarakat. Metode pengumpulan data yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah observasi, dokumentasi dan studi pustaka. Untuk pengembangan sistem multimedia dilakukan berdasarkan tiga tahapan yaitu: Pra Produksi, Produksi, dan Pasca Produksi. Hasil dari penelitian   ini   berupa   aplikasi   video   iklan   animasi   3D   bertemakan   keamanan mengemudi. Aplikasi yang dihasilkan berekstensi .mpeg untuk CD/DVD, .mkv untuk diputar di computer, dan .mp4 yang diunggah di internet. Selain fungsi iklan animasi ini sebagai penyampaian pesan dan memotivasi masyarakat untuk lebih disiplin, tertib dan aman dalam mengemudi, dan juga sebagai penginspirasi untuk lebih mengembangkan animasi karya asli Indonesia Kata kunci : animasi, iklan, 3D, safety, driving.The purpose of this research  is to create  an  application  video on driving safety themed advertising  as a medium to educate people about the importance of safety in driving. Once the importance of driving safety, becomes a safe driver is a must for every member of the community. Data collection methods used in this study is the observation, documentation and literature.  For the development of multimedia systems is done based on three stages: Pre-Production,  Production,  and Post Production.  The results of this research  is  the  application  of 3D  animation  video ads  themed  driving  safety. The resulting application extension .Mpeg to CD / DVD .Mkv to be played on the computer, and .Mp4 uploaded on the internet. In addition to the function of these animated ads as delivering  a  message  and  motivate people to be more disciplined

  14. Simulation analysis of turbine blade in 3D printing aquarium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Dyi-Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available 3D printing of the flexibility is the most admirable place, no matter when or where, as long as the machine can make the abstract design of finished products or difficult to process the finished product printed out as a sample. And in the product design, through the 3D print out the entity, to more specific observation of the advantages and disadvantages of finished products, which shorten the time of many creative research and development, but also relatively reduce the defective factors. As in recent years, 3D printing technology is progressing, material adhesion, precision and parts of the degree of cooperation has increased, coupled with many parts taking into account the cost, production and other issues, and then let a lot of light load small parts or special parts choose to use 3D to print the finished product to replace. This study focuses on the plastic turbine blades that drive water in the aquarium, but the 3D printing is done by stacking. However, the general stress analysis software can set the material to analyze the deformation results of the force, nor the 3D to analyze the software. Therefore, this study first analyzes the deformation of turbine blade by software, and then verifies the situation of 3D printing turbine blade, and then compares the actual results of software analysis and 3D printing. The results can provide the future of 3D product consider the strength factor. The study found that the spiral blade design allows the force points to be dispersed to avoid hard focus.

  15. Objective and subjective quality assessment of geometry compression of reconstructed 3D humans in a 3D virtual room

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekuria, Rufael; Cesar, Pablo; Doumanis, Ioannis; Frisiello, Antonella

    2015-09-01

    Compression of 3D object based video is relevant for 3D Immersive applications. Nevertheless, the perceptual aspects of the degradation introduced by codecs for meshes and point clouds are not well understood. In this paper we evaluate the subjective and objective degradations introduced by such codecs in a state of art 3D immersive virtual room. In the 3D immersive virtual room, users are captured with multiple cameras, and their surfaces are reconstructed as photorealistic colored/textured 3D meshes or point clouds. To test the perceptual effect of compression and transmission, we render degraded versions with different frame rates in different contexts (near/far) in the scene. A quantitative subjective study with 16 users shows that negligible distortion of decoded surfaces compared to the original reconstructions can be achieved in the 3D virtual room. In addition, a qualitative task based analysis in a full prototype field trial shows increased presence, emotion, user and state recognition of the reconstructed 3D Human representation compared to animated computer avatars.

  16. A QUALITY ASSESSMENT METHOD FOR 3D ROAD POLYGON OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Gao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available With the development of the economy, the fast and accurate extraction of the city road is significant for GIS data collection and update, remote sensing images interpretation, mapping and spatial database updating etc. 3D GIS has attracted more and more attentions from academics, industries and governments with the increase of requirements for interoperability and integration of different sources of data. The quality of 3D geographic objects is very important for spatial analysis and decision-making. This paper presents a method for the quality assessment of the 3D road polygon objects which is created by integrating 2D Road Polygon data with LiDAR point cloud and other height information such as Spot Height data in Hong Kong Island. The quality of the created 3D road polygon data set is evaluated by the vertical accuracy, geometric and attribute accuracy, connectivity error, undulation error and completeness error and the final results are presented.

  17. 3D PRINTERS – NEW POSSIBILITIES IN EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Szulżyk-Cieplak

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years a significant growth of three-dimensional printing has been noticed. Although 3D printers have been around for about 30 years, they were very expensive, that is why they were available in the industry only in the majority . In recent years, prices of 3D printers have fallen more than tenfold, owing to the fact they are used not only in large enterprises but also in all kinds of educational institutions, small businesses or in do-it-yourself men’s houses. They are, inter alia, used to construct physical models, so much needed in education. Nowadays, one of the most popular 3D printing technologies is FDM (Fused Deposition Modeling. Relatively low prices of printers in this technology make them available for almost everyone. The paper discusses the technology of rapid prototyping, with particular emphasis on the use of 3D printing and appropriately matched printer to designed laboratory stand.

  18. 3D Bioprinting Technologies for Hard Tissue and Organ Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hard tissues and organs, including the bones, teeth and cartilage, are the most extensively exploited and rapidly developed areas in regenerative medicine field. One prominent character of hard tissues and organs is that their extracellular matrices mineralize to withstand weight and pressure. Over the last two decades, a wide variety of 3D printing technologies have been adapted to hard tissue and organ engineering. These 3D printing technologies have been defined as 3D bioprinting. Especially for hard organ regeneration, a series of new theories, strategies and protocols have been proposed. Some of the technologies have been applied in medical therapies with some successes. Each of the technologies has pros and cons in hard tissue and organ engineering. In this review, we summarize the advantages and disadvantages of the historical available innovative 3D bioprinting technologies for used as special tools for hard tissue and organ engineering.

  19. Animation of 3D Model of Human Head

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Michalcin

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the new algorithm of animation of 3D model of the human head in combination with its global motion. The designed algorithm is very fast and with low calculation requirements, because it does not need the synthesis of the input videosequence for estimation of the animation parameters as well as the parameters of global motion. The used 3D model Candide generates different expressions using its animation units which are controlled by the animation parameters. These ones are estimated on the basis of optical flow without the need of extracting of the feature points in the frames of the input videosequence because they are given by the selected vertices of the animation units of the calibrated 3D model Candide. The established multiple iterations inside the designed animation algorithm of 3D model of the human head between two successive frames significantly improved its accuracy above all for the large motion.

  20. Critical bifurcation surfaces of 3D discrete dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Sonis

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the analytical representation of bifurcations of each 3D discrete dynamics depending on the set of bifurcation parameters. The procedure of bifurcation analysis proposed in this paper represents the 3D elaboration and specification of the general algorithm of the n-dimensional linear bifurcation analysis proposed by the author earlier. It is proven that 3D domain of asymptotic stability (attraction of the fixed point for a given 3D discrete dynamics is bounded by three critical bifurcation surfaces: the divergence, flip and flutter surfaces. The analytical construction of these surfaces is achieved with the help of classical Routh–Hurvitz conditions of asymptotic stability. As an application the adjustment process proposed by T. Puu for the Cournot oligopoly model is considered in detail.

  1. 3D NAND Flash Based on Planar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Silvagni

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the transition from 2D NAND to 3D NAND is first addressed, and the various 3D NAND architectures are compared. The article carries out a comparison of 3D NAND architectures that are based on a “punch-and-plug” process—with gate-all-around (GAA cell devices—against architectures that are based on planar cell devices. The differences and similarities between the two classes of architectures are highlighted. The differences between architectures using floating-gate (FG and charge-trap (CT devices are also considered. Although the current production of 3D NAND is based on GAA cell devices, it is suggested that architectures with planar cell devices could also be viable for mass production.

  2. Overview of fast algorithm in 3D dynamic holographic display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juan; Jia, Jia; Pan, Yijie; Wang, Yongtian

    2013-08-01

    3D dynamic holographic display is one of the most attractive techniques for achieving real 3D vision with full depth cue without any extra devices. However, huge 3D information and data should be preceded and be computed in real time for generating the hologram in 3D dynamic holographic display, and it is a challenge even for the most advanced computer. Many fast algorithms are proposed for speeding the calculation and reducing the memory usage, such as:look-up table (LUT), compressed look-up table (C-LUT), split look-up table (S-LUT), and novel look-up table (N-LUT) based on the point-based method, and full analytical polygon-based methods, one-step polygon-based method based on the polygon-based method. In this presentation, we overview various fast algorithms based on the point-based method and the polygon-based method, and focus on the fast algorithm with low memory usage, the C-LUT, and one-step polygon-based method by the 2D Fourier analysis of the 3D affine transformation. The numerical simulations and the optical experiments are presented, and several other algorithms are compared. The results show that the C-LUT algorithm and the one-step polygon-based method are efficient methods for saving calculation time. It is believed that those methods could be used in the real-time 3D holographic display in future.

  3. 3D-printed patient-specific applications in orthopedics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong KC

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Kwok Chuen Wong Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong Abstract: With advances in both medical imaging and computer programming, two-dimensional axial images can be processed into other reformatted views (sagittal and coronal and three-dimensional (3D virtual models that represent a patients’ own anatomy. This processed digital information can be analyzed in detail by orthopedic surgeons to perform patient-specific orthopedic procedures. The use of 3D printing is rising and has become more prevalent in medical applications over the last decade as surgeons and researchers are increasingly utilizing the technology’s flexibility in manufacturing objects. 3D printing is a type of manufacturing process in which materials such as plastic or metal are deposited in layers to create a 3D object from a digital model. This additive manufacturing method has the advantage of fabricating objects with complex freeform geometry, which is impossible using traditional subtractive manufacturing methods. Specifically in surgical applications, the 3D printing techniques can not only generate models that give a better understanding of the complex anatomy and pathology of the patients and aid in education and surgical training, but can also produce patient-specific surgical guides or even custom implants that are tailor-made to the surgical requirements. As the clinical workflow of the 3D printing technology continues to evolve, orthopedic surgeons should embrace the latest knowledge of the technology and incorporate it into their clinical practice for patient-specific orthopedic applications. This paper is written to help orthopedic surgeons stay up-to-date on the emerging 3D technology, starting from the acquisition of clinical imaging to 3D printing for patient-specific applications in orthopedics. It 1 presents the necessary steps to prepare the medical images that are

  4. Towards sustainable and clean 3D Geoinformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoter, J.E.; Ledoux, H.; Zlatanova, S.; Biljecki, F.; Kolbe, T.H.; Bill, R.; Donaubauer, A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarises the on going research activities of the 3D Geoinformation Group at the Delft University of Technology. The main challenge underpinning the research of this group is providing clean and appropriate 3D data about our environment in order to serve a wide variety of applications.

  5. Pattern recognition: invariants in 3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proriol, J.

    1992-01-01

    In e + e - events, the jets have a spherical 3D symmetry. A set of invariants are defined for 3D objects with a spherical symmetry. These new invariants are used to tag the number of jets in e + e - events. (K.A.) 3 refs

  6. 3D Printing: What Are the Hazards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Susan A

    2018-03-01

    As the popularity of three-dimensional (3D) printers increases, more research will be conducted to evaluate the benefits and risks of this technology. Occupational health professionals should stay abreast of new recommendations to protect workers from exposure to 3D printer emissions.

  7. Illustrating the disassembly of 3D models

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Jianwei; Yan, Dongming; Li, Er; Dong, Weiming; Wonka, Peter; Zhang, Xiaopeng

    2013-01-01

    We present a framework for the automatic disassembly of 3D man-made models and the illustration of the disassembly process. Given an assembled 3D model, we first analyze the individual parts using sharp edge loops and extract the contact faces

  8. 3D, or Not to Be?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, Keith

    2012-01-01

    It may be too soon for students to be showing up for class with popcorn and gummy bears, but technology similar to that behind the 3D blockbuster movie "Avatar" is slowly finding its way into college classrooms. 3D classroom projectors are taking students on fantastic voyages inside the human body, to the ruins of ancient Greece--even to faraway…

  9. Embedding complex objects with 3d printing

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa; Diaz, Cordero Marlon Steven

    2017-01-01

    A CMOS technology-compatible fabrication process for flexible CMOS electronics embedded during additive manufacturing (i.e. 3D printing). A method for such a process may include printing a first portion of a 3D structure; pausing the step

  10. 3D Printing of Molecular Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Adam; Olson, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Physical molecular models have played a valuable role in our understanding of the invisible nano-scale world. We discuss 3D printing and its use in producing models of the molecules of life. Complex biomolecular models, produced from 3D printed parts, can demonstrate characteristics of molecular structure and function, such as viral self-assembly,…

  11. 3D printing of functional structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.

    The technology colloquial known as ‘3D printing’ has developed in such diversity in printing technologies and application fields that meanwhile it seems anything is possible. However, clearly the ideal 3D Printer, with high resolution, multi-material capability, fast printing, etc. is yet to be

  12. 3D Printing. What's the Harm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Tyler S.; Roy, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Health concerns from 3D printing were first documented by Stephens, Azimi, Orch, and Ramos (2013), who found that commercially available 3D printers were producing hazardous levels of ultrafine particles (UFPs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) when plastic materials were melted through the extruder. UFPs are particles less than 100 nanometers…

  13. 3D Printed Block Copolymer Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalfani, Vincent F.; Turner, C. Heath; Rupar, Paul A.; Jenkins, Alexander H.; Bara, Jason E.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of 3D printing has dramatically advanced the availability of tangible molecular and extended solid models. Interestingly, there are few nanostructure models available both commercially and through other do-it-yourself approaches such as 3D printing. This is unfortunate given the importance of nanotechnology in science today. In this…

  14. 3D-printed cereal foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, M.; Bommel, K. van; Renzetti, S.

    2017-01-01

    Additive manufacturing, also known as 3D printing, is an up-and-coming production technology based on layer-by-layer deposition of material to reproduce a computer-generated 3D design. Additive manufacturing is a collective term used for a variety of technologies, such as fused deposition modeling

  15. A Framework for 3d Printing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilkington, Alan; Frandsen, Thomas; Kapetaniou, Chrystalla

    3D printing technologies and processes offer such a radical range of options for firms that we currently lack a structured way of recording possible impact and recommending actions for managers. The changes arising from 3d printing includes more than just new options for product design, but also...

  16. The 3D-city model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgren, Steen; Rüdiger, Bjarne; Tournay, Bruno

    2001-01-01

    We have worked with the construction and use of 3D city models for about ten years. This work has given us valuable experience concerning model methodology. In addition to this collection of knowledge, our perception of the concept of city models has changed radically. In order to explain...... of 3D city models....

  17. 3D Programmable Micro Self Assembly

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bohringer, Karl F; Parviz, Babak A; Klavins, Eric

    2005-01-01

    .... We have developed a "self assembly tool box" consisting of a range of methods for micro-scale self-assembly in 2D and 3D We have shown physical demonstrations of simple 3D self-assemblies which lead...

  18. Wow! 3D Content Awakens the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Dan

    2010-01-01

    From her first encounter with stereoscopic 3D technology designed for classroom instruction, Megan Timme, principal at Hamilton Park Pacesetter Magnet School in Dallas, sensed it could be transformative. Last spring, when she began pilot-testing 3D content in her third-, fourth- and fifth-grade classrooms, Timme wasn't disappointed. Students…

  19. Immersive 3D Geovisualization in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigate how immersive 3D geovisualization can be used in higher education. Based on MacEachren and Kraak's geovisualization cube, we examine the usage of immersive 3D geovisualization and its usefulness in a research-based learning module on flood risk, called GEOSimulator. Results of a survey among participating students…

  20. Inclined nanoimprinting lithography for 3D nanopatterning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhan; Bucknall, David G; Allen, Mark G

    2011-01-01

    We report a non-conventional shear-force-driven nanofabrication approach, inclined nanoimprint lithography (INIL), for producing 3D nanostructures of varying heights on planar substrates in a single imprinting step. Such 3D nanostructures are fabricated by exploiting polymer anisotropic dewetting where the degree of anisotropy can be controlled by the magnitude of the inclination angle. The feature size is reduced from micron scale of the template to a resultant nanoscale pattern. The underlying INIL mechanism is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. The results indicate that the shear force generated at a non-zero inclination angle induced by the INIL apparatus essentially leads to asymmetry in the polymer flow direction ultimately resulting in 3D nanopatterns with different heights. INIL removes the requirements in conventional nanolithography of either utilizing 3D templates or using multiple lithographic steps. This technique enables various 3D nanoscale devices including angle-resolved photonic and plasmonic crystals to be fabricated.

  1. 3D-grafiikka ja pelimoottorit

    OpenAIRE

    Sillanpää, Otto

    2014-01-01

    Tässä opinnäytetyössä tutkitaan miten 3D-mallit saadaan sellaiseen muotoon, että ne olisivat käytettävissä eri pelimoottoreissa. Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena on selvittää, miten luodaan 3D-malleja pelimoottoreihin, sekä miten 3D-mallinnusohjelmat ja pelimoottorit eroavat toisistaan, kun käsitellään 3D-malleja. Tässä työssä pelimoottoreina toimivat Valven Source sekä Epic Gamesin Unreal Engine 3. 3D-mallinnusohjelmista käytössä olivat Autodeskin 3ds Max 2014 ja Blender Foundationin Blender 2.7...

  2. BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazerson, Samuel

    2014-04-14

    With the advent of applied 3D fi elds in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous velocity reduction, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database [1]. Benchmark calculations are presented to validate the collisionless particle orbits, neutral beam injection model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields.

  3. Fabrication of 3D Silicon Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok, A.; Hansen, T.E.; Hansen, T.A.; Lietaer, N.; Summanwar, A.; /SINTEF, Oslo; Kenney, C.; Hasi, J.; /SLAC; Da Via, C.; /Manchester U.; Parker, S.I.; /Hawaii U.

    2012-06-06

    Silicon sensors with a three-dimensional (3-D) architecture, in which the n and p electrodes penetrate through the entire substrate, have many advantages over planar silicon sensors including radiation hardness, fast time response, active edge and dual readout capabilities. The fabrication of 3D sensors is however rather complex. In recent years, there have been worldwide activities on 3D fabrication. SINTEF in collaboration with Stanford Nanofabrication Facility have successfully fabricated the original (single sided double column type) 3D detectors in two prototype runs and the third run is now on-going. This paper reports the status of this fabrication work and the resulted yield. The work of other groups such as the development of double sided 3D detectors is also briefly reported.

  4. Maintaining and troubleshooting your 3D printer

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining and Troubleshooting Your 3D Printer by Charles Bell is your guide to keeping your 3D printer running through preventive maintenance, repair, and diagnosing and solving problems in 3D printing. If you've bought or built a 3D printer such as a MakerBot only to be confounded by jagged edges, corner lift, top layers that aren't solid, or any of a myriad of other problems that plague 3D printer enthusiasts, then here is the book to help you get past all that and recapture the joy of creative fabrication. The book also includes valuable tips for builders and those who want to modify the

  5. The psychology of the 3D experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicke, Sophie H.; Ellis, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    With 3D televisions expected to reach 50% home saturation as early as 2016, understanding the psychological mechanisms underlying the user response to 3D technology is critical for content providers, educators and academics. Unfortunately, research examining the effects of 3D technology has not kept pace with the technology's rapid adoption, resulting in large-scale use of a technology about which very little is actually known. Recognizing this need for new research, we conducted a series of studies measuring and comparing many of the variables and processes underlying both 2D and 3D media experiences. In our first study, we found narratives within primetime dramas had the power to shift viewer attitudes in both 2D and 3D settings. However, we found no difference in persuasive power between 2D and 3D content. We contend this lack of effect was the result of poor conversion quality and the unique demands of 3D production. In our second study, we found 3D technology significantly increased enjoyment when viewing sports content, yet offered no added enjoyment when viewing a movie trailer. The enhanced enjoyment of the sports content was shown to be the result of heightened emotional arousal and attention in the 3D condition. We believe the lack of effect found for the movie trailer may be genre-related. In our final study, we found 3D technology significantly enhanced enjoyment of two video games from different genres. The added enjoyment was found to be the result of an increased sense of presence.

  6. 3D Visualization Development of SIUE Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nellutla, Shravya

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has progressed from the traditional map-making to the modern technology where the information can be created, edited, managed and analyzed. Like any other models, maps are simplified representations of real world. Hence visualization plays an essential role in the applications of GIS. The use of sophisticated visualization tools and methods, especially three dimensional (3D) modeling, has been rising considerably due to the advancement of technology. There are currently many off-the-shelf technologies available in the market to build 3D GIS models. One of the objectives of this research was to examine the available ArcGIS and its extensions for 3D modeling and visualization and use them to depict a real world scenario. Furthermore, with the advent of the web, a platform for accessing and sharing spatial information on the Internet, it is possible to generate interactive online maps. Integrating Internet capacity with GIS functionality redefines the process of sharing and processing the spatial information. Enabling a 3D map online requires off-the-shelf GIS software, 3D model builders, web server, web applications and client server technologies. Such environments are either complicated or expensive because of the amount of hardware and software involved. Therefore, the second objective of this research was to investigate and develop simpler yet cost-effective 3D modeling approach that uses available ArcGIS suite products and the free 3D computer graphics software for designing 3D world scenes. Both ArcGIS Explorer and ArcGIS Online will be used to demonstrate the way of sharing and distributing 3D geographic information on the Internet. A case study of the development of 3D campus for the Southern Illinois University Edwardsville is demonstrated.

  7. Pathways for Learning from 3D Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, L. Mark; Rab, Saira S.; Rosen, Larry D.; Vasquez, Ludivina; Cheever, Nancy A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out if 3D stereoscopic presentation of information in a movie format changes a viewer's experience of the movie content. Four possible pathways from 3D presentation to memory and learning were considered: a direct connection based on cognitive neuroscience research; a connection through "immersion" in that 3D presentations could provide additional sensorial cues (e.g., depth cues) that lead to a higher sense of being surrounded by the stimulus; a connection through general interest such that 3D presentation increases a viewer’s interest that leads to greater attention paid to the stimulus (e.g., "involvement"); and a connection through discomfort, with the 3D goggles causing discomfort that interferes with involvement and thus with memory. The memories of 396 participants who viewed two-dimensional (2D) or 3D movies at movie theaters in Southern California were tested. Within three days of viewing a movie, participants filled out an online anonymous questionnaire that queried them about their movie content memories, subjective movie-going experiences (including emotional reactions and "presence") and demographic backgrounds. The responses to the questionnaire were subjected to path analyses in which several different links between 3D presentation to memory (and other variables) were explored. The results showed there were no effects of 3D presentation, either directly or indirectly, upon memory. However, the largest effects of 3D presentation were on emotions and immersion, with 3D presentation leading to reduced positive emotions, increased negative emotions and lowered immersion, compared to 2D presentations. PMID:28078331

  8. A NOVEL APPROACH FOR 3D NEIGHBOURHOOD ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Emamgholian

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Population growth and lack of land in urban areas have caused massive developments such as high rises and underground infrastructures. Land authorities in the international context recognizes 3D cadastres as a solution to efficiently manage these developments in complex cities. Although a 2D cadastre does not efficiently register these developments, it is currently being used in many jurisdictions for registering land and property information. Limitations in analysis and presentation are considered as examples of such limitations. 3D neighbourhood analysis by automatically finding 3D spaces has become an issue of major interest in recent years. Whereas the neighbourhood analysis has been in the focus of research, the idea of 3D neighbourhood analysis has rarely been addressed in 3 dimensional information systems (3D GIS analysis. In this paper, a novel approach for 3D neighbourhood analysis has been proposed by recording spatial and descriptive information of the apartment units and easements. This approach uses the coordinates of the subject apartment unit to find the neighbour spaces. By considering a buffer around the edges of the unit, neighbour spaces are accurately detected. This method was implemented in ESRI ArcScene and three case studies were defined to test the efficiency of this approach. The results show that spaces are accurately detected in various complex scenarios. This approach can also be applied for other applications such as property management and disaster management in order to find the affected apartments around a defined space.

  9. Progress towards 3D black hole merger simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, E.

    2001-01-01

    I review recent progress in 3D numerical relativity, focused on simulations involving black holes evolved with singularity avoiding slicings, but also touching on recent results in advanced techniques like black hole excision. After a long series of axisymmetric and perturbative studies of distorted black holes and black hole collisions, similar studies were carried out with full 3D codes. The results showed that such black hole simulations can be carried out extremely accurately, although instabilities plague the simulation at uncomfortably early times. However, new formulations of Einstein's equations allow much more stable 3D evolutions than ever before, enabling the first studies of 3D gravitational collapse to a black hole. With these new formulations, for example, it has been possible to perform the first detailed simulations of 3D grazing collisions of black holes with unequal mass, spin, and with orbital angular momentum. I discuss the 3D black hole physics that can now be studied, and prospects for the future, which look increasingly bright due to recent progress in formulations, black hole excision, new gauge conditions, and larger computers. Simulations may soon be able to provide information about the final plunge of two black holes, of relevance for gravitational wave astronomy. (author)

  10. AUTOMATIC TEXTURE MAPPING OF ARCHITECTURAL AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL 3D MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. Kersten

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Today, detailed, complete and exact 3D models with photo-realistic textures are increasingly demanded for numerous applications in architecture and archaeology. Manual texture mapping of 3D models by digital photographs with software packages, such as Maxon Cinema 4D, Autodesk 3Ds Max or Maya, still requires a complex and time-consuming workflow. So, procedures for automatic texture mapping of 3D models are in demand. In this paper two automatic procedures are presented. The first procedure generates 3D surface models with textures by web services, while the second procedure textures already existing 3D models with the software tmapper. The program tmapper is based on the Multi Layer 3D image (ML3DImage algorithm and developed in the programming language C++. The studies showing that the visibility analysis using the ML3DImage algorithm is not sufficient to obtain acceptable results of automatic texture mapping. To overcome the visibility problem the Point Cloud Painter algorithm in combination with the Z-buffer-procedure will be applied in the future.

  11. From medical imaging data to 3D printed anatomical models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thore M Bücking

    Full Text Available Anatomical models are important training and teaching tools in the clinical environment and are routinely used in medical imaging research. Advances in segmentation algorithms and increased availability of three-dimensional (3D printers have made it possible to create cost-efficient patient-specific models without expert knowledge. We introduce a general workflow that can be used to convert volumetric medical imaging data (as generated by Computer Tomography (CT to 3D printed physical models. This process is broken up into three steps: image segmentation, mesh refinement and 3D printing. To lower the barrier to entry and provide the best options when aiming to 3D print an anatomical model from medical images, we provide an overview of relevant free and open-source image segmentation tools as well as 3D printing technologies. We demonstrate the utility of this streamlined workflow by creating models of ribs, liver, and lung using a Fused Deposition Modelling 3D printer.

  12. 3-D Imaging Systems for Agricultural Applications—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Vázquez-Arellano

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency increase of resources through automation of agriculture requires more information about the production process, as well as process and machinery status. Sensors are necessary for monitoring the status and condition of production by recognizing the surrounding structures such as objects, field structures, natural or artificial markers, and obstacles. Currently, three dimensional (3-D sensors are economically affordable and technologically advanced to a great extent, so a breakthrough is already possible if enough research projects are commercialized. The aim of this review paper is to investigate the state-of-the-art of 3-D vision systems in agriculture, and the role and value that only 3-D data can have to provide information about environmental structures based on the recent progress in optical 3-D sensors. The structure of this research consists of an overview of the different optical 3-D vision techniques, based on the basic principles. Afterwards, their application in agriculture are reviewed. The main focus lays on vehicle navigation, and crop and animal husbandry. The depth dimension brought by 3-D sensors provides key information that greatly facilitates the implementation of automation and robotics in agriculture.

  13. METRIC EVALUATION PIPELINE FOR 3D MODELING OF URBAN SCENES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bosch

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Publicly available benchmark data and metric evaluation approaches have been instrumental in enabling research to advance state of the art methods for remote sensing applications in urban 3D modeling. Most publicly available benchmark datasets have consisted of high resolution airborne imagery and lidar suitable for 3D modeling on a relatively modest scale. To enable research in larger scale 3D mapping, we have recently released a public benchmark dataset with multi-view commercial satellite imagery and metrics to compare 3D point clouds with lidar ground truth. We now define a more complete metric evaluation pipeline developed as publicly available open source software to assess semantically labeled 3D models of complex urban scenes derived from multi-view commercial satellite imagery. Evaluation metrics in our pipeline include horizontal and vertical accuracy and completeness, volumetric completeness and correctness, perceptual quality, and model simplicity. Sources of ground truth include airborne lidar and overhead imagery, and we demonstrate a semi-automated process for producing accurate ground truth shape files to characterize building footprints. We validate our current metric evaluation pipeline using 3D models produced using open source multi-view stereo methods. Data and software is made publicly available to enable further research and planned benchmarking activities.

  14. 3D Printing and Digital Rock Physics for Geomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, M. J.; Yoon, H.; Dewers, T. A.

    2015-12-01

    Imaging techniques for the analysis of porous structures have revolutionized our ability to quantitatively characterize geomaterials. Digital representations of rock from CT images and physics modeling based on these pore structures provide the opportunity to further advance our quantitative understanding of fluid flow, geomechanics, and geochemistry, and the emergence of coupled behaviors. Additive manufacturing, commonly known as 3D printing, has revolutionized production of custom parts with complex internal geometries. For the geosciences, recent advances in 3D printing technology may be co-opted to print reproducible porous structures derived from CT-imaging of actual rocks for experimental testing. The use of 3D printed microstructure allows us to surmount typical problems associated with sample-to-sample heterogeneity that plague rock physics testing and to test material response independent from pore-structure variability. Together, imaging, digital rocks and 3D printing potentially enables a new workflow for understanding coupled geophysical processes in a real, but well-defined setting circumventing typical issues associated with reproducibility, enabling full characterization and thus connection of physical phenomena to structure. In this talk we will discuss the possibilities that these technologies can bring to geosciences and present early experiences with coupled multiscale experimental and numerical analysis using 3D printed fractured rock specimens. In particular, we discuss the processes of selection and printing of transparent fractured specimens based on 3D reconstruction of micro-fractured rock to study fluid flow characterization and manipulation. Micro-particle image velocimetry is used to directly visualize 3D single and multiphase flow velocity in 3D fracture networks. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U

  15. Characteristics and Classification of Topological Spatial Relations in 3-D Cadasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Fu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The application of a 3-D topology to cadasters is becoming increasingly important as 3-D cadasters continue to develop and cadastral data applications increase. This study discusses spatial topological relations related to 3-D cadasters, the geometric objects used in 3-D cadastral spatial modelling, and the characteristics of the spatial data. The characteristics of the topological relations for a 3-D cadaster are summarized, and a classification method is proposed. Research on the classification of topological spatial relations in 3-D cadasters provides guidance for the analysis and computation of the topological spatial relations, changing of cadastral parcels, and topological consistency in cadastral spatial data.

  16. THE USE OF 3D SCANNING AND RAPID PROTOTYPING IN MEDICAL ENGINEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian CIOBANU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available New cost effective scanning and modeling techniques are used today to process data acquisition and3D reconstruction in order to fabricate prostheses and orthoses by 3D printing. Paper approaches two scanningand 3D modeling techniques used in order to fabricate orthoses and prostheses. In this study, an artificialprosthetic ear was produced through 3D printing using two scanning techniques: structured light scanningtechnique and single camera stereo photogrammetric scanning technique. The processing phases are describedand discussed from data acquisition to 3D printing. The surface scanning and 3D reconstruction techniques willcontinue to increase the accessibility of prostheses and orthoses, making them more cost-effective and morecomfortable.

  17. 3D Laser Scanner for Underwater Manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomer, Albert; Ridao, Pere; Youakim, Dina; Ribas, David; Forest, Josep; Petillot, Yvan

    2018-04-04

    Nowadays, research in autonomous underwater manipulation has demonstrated simple applications like picking an object from the sea floor, turning a valve or plugging and unplugging a connector. These are fairly simple tasks compared with those already demonstrated by the mobile robotics community, which include, among others, safe arm motion within areas populated with a priori unknown obstacles or the recognition and location of objects based on their 3D model to grasp them. Kinect-like 3D sensors have contributed significantly to the advance of mobile manipulation providing 3D sensing capabilities in real-time at low cost. Unfortunately, the underwater robotics community is lacking a 3D sensor with similar capabilities to provide rich 3D information of the work space. In this paper, we present a new underwater 3D laser scanner and demonstrate its capabilities for underwater manipulation. In order to use this sensor in conjunction with manipulators, a calibration method to find the relative position between the manipulator and the 3D laser scanner is presented. Then, two different advanced underwater manipulation tasks beyond the state of the art are demonstrated using two different manipulation systems. First, an eight Degrees of Freedom (DoF) fixed-base manipulator system is used to demonstrate arm motion within a work space populated with a priori unknown fixed obstacles. Next, an eight DoF free floating Underwater Vehicle-Manipulator System (UVMS) is used to autonomously grasp an object from the bottom of a water tank.

  18. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A.; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K.; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J.; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B.; Grant, Gerald T.

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article. ©RSNA, 2015 PMID:26562233

  19. 3D bioprinting of tissues and organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Sean V; Atala, Anthony

    2014-08-01

    Additive manufacturing, otherwise known as three-dimensional (3D) printing, is driving major innovations in many areas, such as engineering, manufacturing, art, education and medicine. Recent advances have enabled 3D printing of biocompatible materials, cells and supporting components into complex 3D functional living tissues. 3D bioprinting is being applied to regenerative medicine to address the need for tissues and organs suitable for transplantation. Compared with non-biological printing, 3D bioprinting involves additional complexities, such as the choice of materials, cell types, growth and differentiation factors, and technical challenges related to the sensitivities of living cells and the construction of tissues. Addressing these complexities requires the integration of technologies from the fields of engineering, biomaterials science, cell biology, physics and medicine. 3D bioprinting has already been used for the generation and transplantation of several tissues, including multilayered skin, bone, vascular grafts, tracheal splints, heart tissue and cartilaginous structures. Other applications include developing high-throughput 3D-bioprinted tissue models for research, drug discovery and toxicology.

  20. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B; Grant, Gerald T; Rybicki, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article. (©)RSNA, 2015.

  1. 3D geological modeling of the transboundary Berzdorf-Radomierzyce basin in Upper Lusatia (Germany/Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woloszyn, Iwona; Merkel, Broder; Stanek, Klaus

    2017-07-01

    The management of natural resources has to follow the principles of sustainable development. Therefore, before starting new mining activities, it should be checked, whether existing deposits have been completely exploited. In this study, a three-dimensional (3D) cross-border geologic model was created to generalize the existing data of the Neogene Berzdorf-Radomierzyce basin, located in Upper Lusatia on the Polish-German border south of the city of Görlitz-Zgorzelec. The model based on boreholes and cross sections of abandoned and planned lignite fields was extended to the Bernstadt and Neisse-Ręczyn Graben, an important tectonic structure at the southern rim of the basin. The partly detailed stratigraphy of Neogene sequences was combined to five stratigraphic units, considering the lithological variations and the main tectonic structures. The model was used to check the ability of a further utilization of the Bernstadt and Neisse-Ręczyn Graben, containing lignite deposits. Moreover, it will serve as a basis for the construction of a 3D cross-border groundwater model, to investigate the groundwater flow and transport in the Miocene and Quaternary aquifer systems. The large amount of data and compatibility with other software favored the application of the 3D geo-modeling software Paradigm GOCAD. The results demonstrate a very good fit between model and real geological boundaries. This is particularly evident by matching the modeled surfaces to the implemented geological cross sections. The created model can be used for planning of full-scale mining operations in the eastern part of the basin (Radomierzyce).

  2. Extra Dimensions: 3D in PDF Documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, Norman A

    2012-01-01

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) and the ISO PRC file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. Until recently, Adobe's Acrobat software was also capable of incorporating 3D content into PDF files from a variety of 3D file formats, including proprietary CAD formats. However, this functionality is no longer available in Acrobat X, having been spun off to a separate company. Incorporating 3D content now requires the additional purchase of a separate plug-in. In this talk we present alternatives based on open source libraries which allow the programmatic creation of 3D content in PDF format. While not providing the same level of access to CAD files as the commercial software, it does provide physicists with an alternative path to incorporate 3D content into PDF files from such disparate applications as detector geometries from Geant4, 3D data sets, mathematical surfaces or tesselated volumes.

  3. Advanced 3D Printers for Cellular Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-30

    06-2016 1-Aug-2014 31-Dec-2015 Final Report: Advanced 3D printers for Cellular Solids The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are...2211 3d printing, cellular solids REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) ARO 8...Papers published in non peer-reviewed journals: Final Report: Advanced 3D printers for Cellular Solids Report Title Final Report for DURIP grant W911NF

  4. Pharmacophore definition and 3D searches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, T; Wolber, G

    2004-12-01

    The most common pharmacophore building concepts based on either 3D structure of the target or ligand information are discussed together with the application of such models as queries for 3D database search. An overview of the key techniques available on the market is given and differences with respect to algorithms used and performance obtained are highlighted. Pharmacophore modelling and 3D database search are shown to be successful tools for enriching screening experiments aimed at the discovery of novel bio-active compounds.: © 2004 Elsevier Ltd . All rights reserved.

  5. 3D radiative transfer in stellar atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, M

    2008-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) radiative transfer in stellar atmospheres is reviewed with special emphasis on the atmospheres of cool stars and applications. A short review of methods in 3D radiative transfer shows that mature methods exist, both for taking into account radiation as an energy transport mechanism in 3D (magneto-) hydrodynamical simulations of stellar atmospheres and for the diagnostic problem of calculating the emergent spectrum in more detail from such models, both assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and in non-LTE. Such methods have been implemented in several codes, and examples of applications are given.

  6. Nonperturbative summation over 3D discrete topologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freidel, Laurent; Louapre, David

    2003-01-01

    The group field theories realizing the sum over all triangulations of all topologies of 3D discrete gravity amplitudes are known to be nonuniquely Borel summable. We modify these models to construct a new group field theory which is proved to be uniquely Borel summable, defining in an unambiguous way a nonperturbative sum over topologies in the context of 3D dynamical triangulations and spin foam models. Moreover, we give some arguments to support the fact that, despite our modification, this new model is similar to the original one, and therefore could be taken as a definition of the sum over topologies of 3D quantum gravity amplitudes

  7. 3D background aerodynamics using CFD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, N.N.

    2002-11-01

    3D rotor computations for the Greek Geovilogiki (GEO) 44 meter rotor equipped with 19 meters blades are performed. The lift and drag polars are extracted at five spanvise locations r/R= (.37, .55, .71, .82, .93) based on identification of stagnation points between 2D and 3D computations. The inner most sections shows clear evidence of 3D radial pumping, with increased lift compared to 2D values. In contrast to earlier investigated airfoils a very limited impact on the drag values are observed. (au)

  8. 3D Printing the ATLAS' barrel toroid

    CERN Document Server

    Goncalves, Tiago Barreiro

    2016-01-01

    The present report summarizes my work as part of the Summer Student Programme 2016 in the CERN IR-ECO-TSP department (International Relations – Education, Communication & Outreach – Teacher and Student Programmes). Particularly, I worked closely with the S’Cool LAB team on a science education project. This project included the 3D designing, 3D printing, and assembling of a model of the ATLAS’ barrel toroid. A detailed description of the project' development is presented and a short manual on how to use 3D printing software and hardware is attached.

  9. [3D planning in maxillofacial surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoarau, R; Zweifel, D; Lanthemann, E; Zrounba, H; Broome, M

    2014-10-01

    The development of new technologies such as three-dimensional (3D) planning has changed the everyday practice in maxillofacial surgery. Rapid prototyping associated with the 3D planning has also enabled the creation of patient specific surgical tools, such as cutting guides. As with all new technologies, uses, practicalities, cost effectiveness and especially benefits for the patients have to be carefully evaluated. In this paper, several examples of 3D planning that have been used in our institution are presented. The advantages such as the accuracy of the reconstructive surgery and decreased operating time, as well as the difficulties have also been addressed.

  10. Participation and 3D Visualization Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mullins, Michael; Jensen, Mikkel Holm; Henriksen, Sune

    2004-01-01

    With a departure point in a workshop held at the VR Media Lab at Aalborg University , this paper deals with aspects of public participation and the use of 3D visualisation tools. The workshop grew from a desire to involve a broad collaboration between the many actors in the city through using new...... perceptions of architectural representation in urban design where 3D visualisation techniques are used. It is the authors? general finding that, while 3D visualisation media have the potential to increase understanding of virtual space for the lay public, as well as for professionals, the lay public require...

  11. 3D Bio-Printing Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xianbin

    2018-01-01

    Ultimate goal of tissue engineering is to replace pathological or necrotic body tissue or organ by artificial tissue or organ and tissue engineering is a very promising research field. 3D bio-printing is a kind of emerging technologies and a branch of tissue engineering. It has made significant progress in the past decade. 3D bio-printing can realize tissue and organ construction in vitro and has wide application in basic research and pharmacy. This paper is to make an analysis and review on 3D bio-printing from the perspectives of bioink, printing technology and technology application.

  12. 3D printed magnetic polymer composite transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollig, Lindsey M.; Hilpisch, Peter J.; Mowry, Greg S.; Nelson-Cheeseman, Brittany B.

    2017-11-01

    The possibility of 3D printing a transformer core using fused deposition modeling methods is explored. With the use of additive manufacturing, ideal transformer core geometries can be achieved in order to produce a more efficient transformer. In this work, different 3D printed settings and toroidal geometries are tested using a custom integrated magnetic circuit capable of measuring the hysteresis loop of a transformer. These different properties are then characterized, and it was determined the most effective 3D printed transformer core requires a high fill factor along with a high concentration of magnetic particulate.

  13. An Improved Version of TOPAZ 3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnykh, Anatoly

    2003-01-01

    An improved version of the TOPAZ 3D gun code is presented as a powerful tool for beam optics simulation. In contrast to the previous version of TOPAZ 3D, the geometry of the device under test is introduced into TOPAZ 3D directly from a CAD program, such as Solid Edge or AutoCAD. In order to have this new feature, an interface was developed, using the GiD software package as a meshing code. The article describes this method with two models to illustrate the results

  14. 3D face modeling, analysis and recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Daoudi, Mohamed; Veltkamp, Remco

    2013-01-01

    3D Face Modeling, Analysis and Recognition presents methodologies for analyzing shapes of facial surfaces, develops computational tools for analyzing 3D face data, and illustrates them using state-of-the-art applications. The methodologies chosen are based on efficient representations, metrics, comparisons, and classifications of features that are especially relevant in the context of 3D measurements of human faces. These frameworks have a long-term utility in face analysis, taking into account the anticipated improvements in data collection, data storage, processing speeds, and application s

  15. 3D background aerodynamics using CFD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Niels N.

    2002-01-01

    3D rotor computations for the Greek Geovilogiki (GEO) 44 meter rotor equipped with 19 meters blades are performed. The lift and drag polars are extracted at five spanvise locations r/R= (.37, .55, .71, .82, .93) based on identification of stagnationpoints between 2D and 3D computations. The inner...... most sections shows clear evidence of 3D radial pumping, with increased lift compared to 2D values. In contrast to earlier investigated airfoils a very limited impact on the drag values are observed....

  16. FUN3D Manual: 13.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; hide

    2018-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 13.3, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  17. FUN3D Manual: 12.8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; hide

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.8, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  18. FUN3D Manual: 13.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; hide

    2017-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 13.1, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  19. FUN3D Manual: 13.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; hide

    2017-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 13.2, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  20. FUN3D Manual: 12.9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; hide

    2016-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.9, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  1. FUN3D Manual: 13.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bill; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; hide

    2016-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 13.0, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  2. FUN3D Manual: 12.7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; hide

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.7, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  3. Determination of the 3d34d and 3d35s configurations of Fe V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azarov, V.I.

    2001-01-01

    The analysis of the spectrum of four times ionized iron, Fe V, has led to the determination of the 3d 3 4d and 3d 3 5s configurations. From 975 classified lines in the region 645-1190 A we have established 123 of 168 theoretically possible 3d 3 4d levels and 26 of 38 possible 3d 3 5s levels. The estimated accuracy of values of energy levels of these two configurations is about 0.7 cm -1 and 1.0 cm -1 , respectively. The level structure of the system of the 3d 4 , 3d 3 4s, 3d 3 4d and 3d 3 5s configurations has been theoretically interpreted and the energy parameters have been determined by a least squares fit to the observed levels. A comparison of parameters in Cr III and Fe V ions is given. (orig.)

  4. 3D object-oriented image analysis in 3D geophysical modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fadel, I.; van der Meijde, M.; Kerle, N.

    2015-01-01

    Non-uniqueness of satellite gravity interpretation has traditionally been reduced by using a priori information from seismic tomography models. This reduction in the non-uniqueness has been based on velocity-density conversion formulas or user interpretation of the 3D subsurface structures (objects......) based on the seismic tomography models and then forward modelling these objects. However, this form of object-based approach has been done without a standardized methodology on how to extract the subsurface structures from the 3D models. In this research, a 3D object-oriented image analysis (3D OOA......) approach was implemented to extract the 3D subsurface structures from geophysical data. The approach was applied on a 3D shear wave seismic tomography model of the central part of the East African Rift System. Subsequently, the extracted 3D objects from the tomography model were reconstructed in the 3D...

  5. 3D mechanical stratigraphy of a deformed multi-layer: Linking sedimentary architecture and strain partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawood, Adam J.; Bond, Clare E.

    2018-01-01

    Stratigraphic influence on structural style and strain distribution in deformed sedimentary sequences is well established, in models of 2D mechanical stratigraphy. In this study we attempt to refine existing models of stratigraphic-structure interaction by examining outcrop scale 3D variations in sedimentary architecture and the effects on subsequent deformation. At Monkstone Point, Pembrokeshire, SW Wales, digital mapping and virtual scanline data from a high resolution virtual outcrop have been combined with field observations, sedimentary logs and thin section analysis. Results show that significant variation in strain partitioning is controlled by changes, at a scale of tens of metres, in sedimentary architecture within Upper Carboniferous fluvio-deltaic deposits. Coupled vs uncoupled deformation of the sequence is defined by the composition and lateral continuity of mechanical units and unit interfaces. Where the sedimentary sequence is characterized by gradational changes in composition and grain size, we find that deformation structures are best characterized by patterns of distributed strain. In contrast, distinct compositional changes vertically and in laterally equivalent deposits results in highly partitioned deformation and strain. The mechanical stratigraphy of the study area is inherently 3D in nature, due to lateral and vertical compositional variability. Consideration should be given to 3D variations in mechanical stratigraphy, such as those outlined here, when predicting subsurface deformation in multi-layers.

  6. 3D dictionary learning based iterative cone beam CT reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ti Bai

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This work is to develop a 3D dictionary learning based cone beam CT (CBCT reconstruction algorithm on graphic processing units (GPU to improve the quality of sparse-view CBCT reconstruction with high efficiency. Methods: A 3D dictionary containing 256 small volumes (atoms of 3 × 3 × 3 was trained from a large number of blocks extracted from a high quality volume image. On the basis, we utilized cholesky decomposition based orthogonal matching pursuit algorithm to find the sparse representation of each block. To accelerate the time-consuming sparse coding in the 3D case, we implemented the sparse coding in a parallel fashion by taking advantage of the tremendous computational power of GPU. Conjugate gradient least square algorithm was adopted to minimize the data fidelity term. Evaluations are performed based on a head-neck patient case. FDK reconstruction with full dataset of 364 projections is used as the reference. We compared the proposed 3D dictionary learning based method with tight frame (TF by performing reconstructions on a subset data of 121 projections. Results: Compared to TF based CBCT reconstruction that shows good overall performance, our experiments indicated that 3D dictionary learning based CBCT reconstruction is able to recover finer structures, remove more streaking artifacts and also induce less blocky artifacts. Conclusion: 3D dictionary learning based CBCT reconstruction algorithm is able to sense the structural information while suppress the noise, and hence to achieve high quality reconstruction under the case of sparse view. The GPU realization of the whole algorithm offers a significant efficiency enhancement, making this algorithm more feasible for potential clinical application.-------------------------------Cite this article as: Bai T, Yan H, Shi F, Jia X, Lou Y, Xu Q, Jiang S, Mou X. 3D dictionary learning based iterative cone beam CT reconstruction. Int J Cancer Ther Oncol 2014; 2(2:020240. DOI: 10

  7. 3-D GaAs radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meikle, A.R.; Bates, R.L.; Ledingham, K.; Marsh, J.H.; Mathieson, K.; O'Shea, V.; Smith, K.M.

    2002-01-01

    A novel type of GaAs radiation detector featuring a 3-D array of electrodes that penetrate through the detector bulk is described. The development of the technology to fabricate such a detector is presented along with electrical and radiation source tests. Simulations of the electrical characteristics are given for detectors of various dimensions. Laser drilling, wet chemical etching and metal evaporation were used to create a cell array of nine electrodes, each with a diameter of 60 μm and a pitch of 210 μm. Electrical measurements showed I-V characteristics with low leakage currents and high breakdown voltages. The forward and reverse I-V measurements showed asymmetrical characteristics, which are not seen in planar diodes. Spectra were obtained using alpha particle illumination. A charge collection efficiency of 50% and a S/N ratio of 3 : 1 were obtained. Simulations using the MEDICI software package were performed on cells with various dimensions and were comparable with experimental results. Simulations of a nine-electrode cell with 10 μm electrodes with a 25 μm pitch were also performed. The I-V characteristics again showed a high breakdown voltage with a low leakage current but also showed a full depletion voltage of just 8 V

  8. 3D characterisation of RCF crack networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahlström Johan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Rolling contact fatigue (RCF damage is becoming more frequent with increased traffic and loading conditions in the railway industry. Defects which are characterized by a two-lobe darkened surface and a V-shaped surface-breaking crack are often so-called squats. The origination and propagation of squats in railway rails is the topic of many recent studies; the associated crack networks develop with complicated geometry near the surface of rails that is difficult to characterise using most non-destructive methods. The cracks can be examined with repeated metallographic sectioning, but the process is time-consuming and destructive. In order to reduce time, as well as information and material loss, high-resolution and high-energy X-ray imaging of railway rails was done in the current study. Combining the exposures from a range of angles using image analysis, a 3D representation of the complex crack network is achieved. The latter was complemented with metallographic sectioning to determine the accuracy of prediction of the geometrical reconstruction.

  9. Enhancing Nuclear Training with 3D Visualization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagnon, V.; Gagnon, B.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: While the nuclear power industry is trying to reinforce its safety and regain public support post-Fukushima, it is also faced with a very real challenge that affects its day-to-day activities: a rapidly aging workforce. Statistics show that close to 40% of the current nuclear power industry workforce will retire within the next five years. For newcomer countries, the challenge is even greater, having to develop a completely new workforce. The workforce replacement effort introduces nuclear newcomers of a new generation with different backgrounds and affinities. Major lifestyle differences between the two generations of workers result, amongst other things, in different learning habits and needs for this new breed of learners. Interactivity, high visual content and quick access to information are now necessary to achieve a high level of retention. To enhance existing training programmes or to support the establishment of new training programmes for newcomer countries, L-3 MAPPS has devised learning tools to enhance these training programmes focused on the “Practice-by-Doing” principle. L-3 MAPPS has coupled 3D computer visualization with high-fidelity simulation to bring real-time, simulation-driven animated components and systems allowing immersive and participatory, individual or classroom learning. (author

  10. Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope: Overview of scientific and technical program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, R.B.; Collett, T.S.; Boswell, R.; Anderson, B.J.; Digert, S.A.; Pospisil, G.; Baker, R.; Weeks, M.

    2011-01-01

    The Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well was drilled within the Alaska North Slope (ANS) Milne Point Unit (MPU) from February 3 to 19, 2007. The well was conducted as part of a Cooperative Research Agreement (CRA) project co-sponsored since 2001 by BP Exploration (Alaska), Inc. (BPXA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to help determine whether ANS gas hydrate can become a technically and commercially viable gas resource. Early in the effort, regional reservoir characterization and reservoir simulation modeling studies indicated that up to 0.34 trillion cubic meters (tcm; 12 trillion cubic feet, tcf) gas may be technically recoverable from 0.92 tcm (33 tcf) gas-in-place within the Eileen gas hydrate accumulation near industry infrastructure within ANS MPU, Prudhoe Bay Unit (PBU), and Kuparuk River Unit (KRU) areas. To further constrain these estimates and to enable the selection of a test site for further data acquisition, the USGS reprocessed and interpreted MPU 3D seismic data provided by BPXA to delineate 14 prospects containing significant highly-saturated gas hydrate-bearing sand reservoirs. The "Mount Elbert" site was selected to drill a stratigraphic test well to acquire a full suite of wireline log, core, and formation pressure test data. Drilling results and data interpretation confirmed pre-drill predictions and thus increased confidence in both the prospect interpretation methods and in the wider ANS gas hydrate resource estimates. The interpreted data from the Mount Elbert well provide insight into and reduce uncertainty of key gas hydrate-bearing reservoir properties, enable further refinement and validation of the numerical simulation of the production potential of both MPU and broader ANS gas hydrate resources, and help determine viability of potential field sites for future extended term production testing. Drilling and data acquisition operations demonstrated that gas hydrate

  11. Do-It-Yourself: 3D Models of Hydrogenic Orbitals through 3D Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Kaitlyn M.; de Cataldo, Riccardo; Fogarty, Keir H.

    2016-01-01

    Introductory chemistry students often have difficulty visualizing the 3-dimensional shapes of the hydrogenic electron orbitals without the aid of physical 3D models. Unfortunately, commercially available models can be quite expensive. 3D printing offers a solution for producing models of hydrogenic orbitals. 3D printing technology is widely…

  12. 3D-modeling and 3D-printing explorations on Japanese tea ceremony utensils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levy, P.D.; Yamada, Shigeru

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we inquire aesthetical aspects of the Japanese tea ceremony, described as the aesthetics in the imperfection, based on novel fabrication technologies: 3D-modeling and 3D-printing. To do so, 3D-printed utensils (chashaku and chasen) were iteratively designed for the ceremony and were

  13. 3D laser imaging for ODOT interstate network at true 1-mm resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    With the development of 3D laser imaging technology, the latest iteration of : PaveVision3D Ultra can obtain true 1mm resolution 3D data at full-lane coverage in all : three directions at highway speed up to 60MPH. This project provides rapid survey ...

  14. File list: Pol.ALL.10.Polr3d.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.ALL.10.Polr3d.AllCell mm9 RNA polymerase Polr3d All cell types SRX373040,SRX301...04147 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.ALL.10.Polr3d.AllCell.bed ...

  15. File list: Pol.ALL.05.Polr3d.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.ALL.05.Polr3d.AllCell mm9 RNA polymerase Polr3d All cell types SRX373040,SRX373...04148 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.ALL.05.Polr3d.AllCell.bed ...

  16. Complexity and distortion analysis on methods for unrolling 3D to 2D fingerprints

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mlambo, CS

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available and studies involve the application of three-dimensional (3D) fingerprint systems, where the details of the finger are captured using 3D technologies and the captured 3D fingerprints are converted into two-dimensional (2D) fingerprints. This paper presents a...

  17. Designing Biomaterials for 3D Printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guvendiren, Murat; Molde, Joseph; Soares, Rosane M D; Kohn, Joachim

    2016-10-10

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is becoming an increasingly common technique to fabricate scaffolds and devices for tissue engineering applications. This is due to the potential of 3D printing to provide patient-specific designs, high structural complexity, rapid on-demand fabrication at a low-cost. One of the major bottlenecks that limits the widespread acceptance of 3D printing in biomanufacturing is the lack of diversity in "biomaterial inks". Printability of a biomaterial is determined by the printing technique. Although a wide range of biomaterial inks including polymers, ceramics, hydrogels and composites have been developed, the field is still struggling with processing of these materials into self-supporting devices with tunable mechanics, degradation, and bioactivity. This review aims to highlight the past and recent advances in biomaterial ink development and design considerations moving forward. A brief overview of 3D printing technologies focusing on ink design parameters is also included.

  18. Tissue and Organ 3D Bioprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Zengmin; Jin, Sha; Ye, Kaiming

    2018-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting enables the creation of tissue constructs with heterogeneous compositions and complex architectures. It was initially used for preparing scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. It has recently been adopted to create living tissues, such as cartilage, skin, and heart valve. To facilitate vascularization, hollow channels have been created in the hydrogels by 3D bioprinting. This review discusses the state of the art of the technology, along with a broad range of biomaterials used for 3D bioprinting. It provides an update on recent developments in bioprinting and its applications. 3D bioprinting has profound impacts on biomedical research and industry. It offers a new way to industrialize tissue biofabrication. It has great potential for regenerating tissues and organs to overcome the shortage of organ transplantation.

  19. Mobile 3D Viewer Supporting RFID System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J J; Yang, S W; Choi, Y [Chungang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    As hardware capabilities of mobile devices are being rapidly enhanced, applications based upon mobile devices are also being developed in wider areas. In this paper, a prototype mobile 3D viewer with the object identification through RFID system is presented. To visualize 3D engineering data such as CAD data, we need a process to compute triangulated data from boundary based surface like B-rep solid or trimmed surfaces. Since existing rendering engines on mobile devices do not provide triangulation capability, mobile 3D programs have focused only on an efficient handling with pre-tessellated geometry. We have developed a light and fast triangulation process based on constrained Delaunay triangulation suitable for mobile devices in the previous research. This triangulation software is used as a core for the mobile 3D viewer on a PDA with RFID system that may have potentially wide applications in many areas.

  20. Nonlaser-based 3D surface imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Shin-yee; Johnson, R.K.; Sherwood, R.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    3D surface imaging refers to methods that generate a 3D surface representation of objects of a scene under viewing. Laser-based 3D surface imaging systems are commonly used in manufacturing, robotics and biomedical research. Although laser-based systems provide satisfactory solutions for most applications, there are situations where non laser-based approaches are preferred. The issues that make alternative methods sometimes more attractive are: (1) real-time data capturing, (2) eye-safety, (3) portability, and (4) work distance. The focus of this presentation is on generating a 3D surface from multiple 2D projected images using CCD cameras, without a laser light source. Two methods are presented: stereo vision and depth-from-focus. Their applications are described.