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Sample records for fuirena repens cyperaceae

  1. NOTES ON MALAYSIAN CYPERACEAE

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    J. H. KERN

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This is the first paper of a series, in which preparatory to a moreomprehensive treatment for "Flora Malesiana," some noteworthy Malayian Cyperaceae will be dealt with. It is based on the material of this family in the Herbaria at Bogor (BO, Leiden (L, and Singapore (S. My sincere thanks are extended to the Directors of these institutions for giving me the opportunity to study their rich collections. In 1935—36 Kiikenthal's excellent monograph on the genus Cyperusn Engler's "Pflanzenreich" appeared. Unfortunately that author revised only a few specimens of the herbaria already mentioned, so that the basis or the distribution of the genus in Malaysia, as given in his invaluable work, compares unfavourably with that of the species of other regions. Kiikenthal's delimitation of the genus is readily accepted; in general his arrangement of the species is also followed, although I cannot agree with Kiikenthal's assertion that his system should be in close accordance withhe genetic development of the genus.On the whole only the synonymy important for the Malaysian regions given below. For a more complete account the reader is referred to Kiikenthal's monograph, in which of course the literature of merely regional interest could not always be fully considered. The accompanying plates are part of a series, drawn under my supervision by two of the draughtsmen of Herbarium Bogoriense, Sukirnoand Md. Anwar.

  2. Chromosome reduction in Eleocharis maculosa (Cyperaceae).

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    da Silva, C R M; González-Elizondo, M S; Laforga Vanzela, A L

    2008-01-01

    Chromosome numbers in Cyperaceae lower than the typical basic number x = 5 have been described for only three species: Rhynchospora tenuis (n = 2), Fimbristylis umbellaris (n = 3) and Eleocharis subarticulata (n = 3). Eleocharis maculosa is recorded here as the fourth species of Cyperaceae that has a chromosome number lower than 2n = 10, with 2n = 8, 7 and 6. The karyotype differentiation in E. maculosa was studied using conventional staining (mitosis and meiosis), FISH with 45S and 5S rDNA and telomere probes. The results allow us to determine which chromosomes of the chromosome race with 2n = 10 fused to form the remaining reduced numbers, as well as to understand how the symploidy and translocation mechanisms were important in karyotype differentiation and the formation of chromosome races in Eleocharis. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. The genus Schoenoxiphium (Cyperaceae. A preliminary account

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    I. Kukkonen

    1983-11-01

    Full Text Available The genus Schoenoxiphium of the tribe Cariceae of Cyperaceae is conservatively accepted as being restricted to the African continent and Madagascar. The special features of the inflorescence structure are described. The following species are provisionally recognized: S. basutorum Turrill, S. distinctum Kukkonen, S. ecklonii Nees, S.  filiforme Kükenthal, S. gracile Chermezon, S. lanceum (Thunberg Kukenthal, S. lehmannii (Nees Steudel, S.  madagascariense Chermezon, S. perdensum Kukkonen, S. rufum Nees, S. schweickerdtii Merxmiiller & Podlech, and  S. sparteum (Wahlenberg Kukenthal. A key to the species is provided and their distribution is roughly outlined. The morphological variation within the species suggests separation of taxa below specific level, or perhaps even at species level, but this will require more detailed information about the ecology, distribution and the cytology.

  4. Controle químico de Panicum repens e Paspalum repens Chemical control of Panicum repens and Paspalum repens

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    C.A. Carbonari

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Panicum repens e Paspalum repens são espécies infestantes de ambientes úmidos e alagados, freqüentes em margens de lagos, reservatórios, canais de irrigação e drenagem. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência de diferentes herbicidas no controle dessas duas espécies. O experimento foi conduzido no Núcleo de Pesquisas Avançadas em Matologia, do Departamento de Produção Vegetal, pertencente à Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas/UNESP, campus de Botucatu-SP. As plantas foram cultivadas em caixas d'água e as pulverizações foram realizadas utilizando-se um pulverizador costal pressurizado a CO2. Os tratamentos testados foram: glyphosate a 2.400, 3.360 e 4.320 g e.a. ha-1 + Aterbane 0,5% v/v, glyphosate a 2.400, 3.360 e 4.320 g e.a. ha-1 + Silwet 0.1% v/v, imazapyr a 750 e 1.500 g e.a. ha-1 e diquat a 400 e 800 g i.a. ha-1 (em aplicações seqüenciais de 200+200 g i.a. ha-1 e 400+400 g i.a. ha-1, além de uma testemunha sem aplicação de herbicidas. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Avaliações visuais de controle foram realizadas, sendo a massa seca das plantas determinada ao final do estudo. O herbicida glyphosate na dose de 4.320 g e.a. ha-1, independentemente do adjuvante utilizado, assim como na dose de 3.360 g e.a. ha-1 com Aterbane, proporcionou bom controle de Panicum repens e, em todas as doses e adjuvantes testados, promoveu controle excelente de Paspalum repens. O herbicida imazapyr, independentemente da dose testada, apresentou resultados insatisfatórios no controle das plantas de Panicum repens, porém promoveu um excelente controle de Paspalum repens; o herbicida diquat, apesar das duas aplicações e independentemente da dose utilizada, mostrou-se ineficiente para controle das duas espécies.Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the susceptibility of Panicum repens and Paspalum repens Bergius to different herbicides applied in

  5. Dirofilaria repens transmission in southeastern Finland

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    Risto Pietikäinen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The spread of vector-borne diseases to new regions has become a global threat due to climate change, increasing traffic, and movement of people and animals. Dirofilaria repens, the canine subcutaneous filarioid nematode, has expanded its distribution range northward during the last decades. The northernmost European locations, where the parasite life-cycle has been confirmed, are Estonia and the Novgorod Region in Russia. Results Herein, we describe an autochthonous D. repens infection in a Finnish woman. We also present two cases of D. repens infection in imported dogs indicating the life-cycle in the Russian Vyborg and St Petersburg areas, close to the Finnish border. Conclusions The most obvious limiting factor of the northern distribution of D. repens is the summer temperature, due to the temperature-dependent development of larvae in vectors. With continuing climate change, further spread of D. repens in Fennoscandia can be expected.

  6. Isolation of Nuclear Microsatellite Markers for Cyperus fuscus (Cyperaceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Böckelmann, J.; Wieser, D.; Tremetsberger, K.; Šumberová, Kateřina; Bernhardt, K.-G.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 11 (2015), s. 1-6 ISSN 2168-0450 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Cyperaceae * micrisatellites * wetlands Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.911, year: 2015

  7. Two new records of Bolboschoenus (Cyperaceae) from Iran

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Amini Rad, M.; Hroudová, Zdenka

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2007), s. 57-62 ISSN 1029-788X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6005905 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Bolboschoenus * Cyperaceae * Iran Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  8. Occurrence and evolutionary inferences about Kranz anatomy in Cyperaceae (Poales

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    SHIRLEY MARTINS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cyperaceae is an angiosperm family with the greatest diversity of species with Kranz anatomy. Four different types of Kranz anatomy (chlorocyperoid, eleocharoid, fimbristyloid and rhynchosporoid have been described for this angiosperm family, and the occurrence and structural characteristics of these types are important to trace evolutionary hypotheses. The purpose of this study was to examine the available data on Cyperaceae Kranz anatomy, emphasizing taxonomy, geographic distribution, habitat and anatomy, to infer the potential origin of the Kranz anatomy in this family. The results showed that the four types of Kranz anatomy (associated with C4 photosynthesis in Cyperaceae emerged numerous times in unrelated phylogenetic groups. However, the convergence of these anatomical types, except rhynchosporoid, was observed in certain groups. Thus, the diverse origin of these species might result from different environmental pressures that promote photorespiration. Greater variation in occurrence of Kranz anatomy and anatomical types was observed inEleocharis, whose emergence of the C4 pathway was recent compared with other genera in the family, and the species of this genus are located in aquatic environments.

  9. Telogen effluvium treated with Serenoa repens supplement

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    Michele Pezza

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Telogen effluvium is a non-scarring form of hair loss. Clinically, the disease is characterized by hair loss where more than normalamounts of hair fall out; it usually affects the whole scalp in a widespread manner. When hair loss is very pronounced and persists fora long time, alopecia becomes clinically evident. It is not associated to subjective symptoms. In this paper, the authors describe theclinical case of a 67-year old patient suffering from telogen effluvium, treated with a supplement containing amino acids (L-cystineand L-methionine, vitamin E, iron and extract of Serenoa repens.

  10. Scleria neesii Kunth var. gadchiroliensis (Cyperaceae, a New Variety from Central India

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    Milind M. Sardesai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A new variety of Scleria P. J. Bergius (Cyperaceae S. neesii Kunth var. gadchiroliensis from Central India is described here with description, line-drawing, photographic illustration and notes. It resembles with S. neesii Kunth var. neesii in overall morphology but differs in having milky white nuts covered with ribbon like hairs on distinct stalk.

  11. Natural hybridization in tropical spikerushes of Eleocharis subgenus Limnochloa (Cyperaceae): Evidence from morphology and DNA markers

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    Košnar, J.; Košnar, Ji.; Macek, Petr; Herbstová, Miroslava; Rejmánková, E.; Stech, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 7 (2010), s. 1229-1240 ISSN 0002-9122 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516; CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : Belize * Cyperaceae * DNA markers * hybridization Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology; EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology (BU-J) Impact factor: 3.052, year: 2010

  12. Taxonomy and phylogenetic position of Fimbristylis fusiformis, a new species of Cyperaceae from Thailand

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    Wangwasit, K.; Muasya, A.M.; Chantaranothai, P.; Simpson, D.A.

    2017-01-01

    Fimbristylis fusiformis, an unusual new species of Cyperaceae from Thailand, is described and illustrated. This taxon has a single terminal spikelet per culm with a semi-distichous glume arrangement, bisexual flowers that lack perianth parts, and pistil with persistent style whose base is slightly

  13. Growth of Aspergillus repens in Flue-Cured Tobacco 1

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    Welty, Ronald E.; Nelson, Larry A.

    1971-01-01

    In laboratory tests, flue-cured tobacco inoculated with Aspergillus repens was stored at 75, 80, 85, 87, and 95% relative humidity at 20 and 30 C. Samples were taken weekly for 4 weeks and evaluated for mold growth (colony count) and moisture content (MC). The weekly rate of fungus increase was slower at 20 C than at 30 C. Tobacco at 20 C with MC between 25 to 30% supported a slight to moderate increase in A. repens after 3 weeks of storage. However, tobacco at the same MC stored at 30 C was subject to rapid invasion by the fungus in as few as 1 to 2 weeks. Tobacco with MC above 30% stored at either 20 or 30 C became moldy in about 1 week. A mold index is proposed for evaluating populations of A. repens in tobacco. PMID:16349905

  14. Growth of Aspergillus repens in Flue-Cured Tobacco.

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    Welty, R E; Nelson, L A

    1971-05-01

    In laboratory tests, flue-cured tobacco inoculated with Aspergillus repens was stored at 75, 80, 85, 87, and 95% relative humidity at 20 and 30 C. Samples were taken weekly for 4 weeks and evaluated for mold growth (colony count) and moisture content (MC). The weekly rate of fungus increase was slower at 20 C than at 30 C. Tobacco at 20 C with MC between 25 to 30% supported a slight to moderate increase in A. repens after 3 weeks of storage. However, tobacco at the same MC stored at 30 C was subject to rapid invasion by the fungus in as few as 1 to 2 weeks. Tobacco with MC above 30% stored at either 20 or 30 C became moldy in about 1 week. A mold index is proposed for evaluating populations of A. repens in tobacco.

  15. Human Dirofilaria repens Infection in Romania: A Case Report

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    Ioana Popescu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Human dirofilariasis is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by the filarial nematodes of dogs Dirofilaria repens and Dirofilaria immitis. Depending on the species involved, human infections usually manifest as one cutaneous or visceral larva migrans that forms a painless nodule in the later course of disease. Dirofilariae are endemic in the Mediterranean, particularly in Italy. They are considered as emerging pathogens currently increasing their geographical range. We present one of the few known cases of human dirofilariasis caused by D. repens in Romania. The patient developed unusual and severe clinical manifestations that mimicked pathological conditions like cellulitis or deep venous thrombosis.

  16. Serenoa repens (saw palmetto): a systematic review of adverse events.

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    Agbabiaka, Taofikat B; Pittler, Max H; Wider, Barbara; Ernst, Edzard

    2009-01-01

    Serenoa repens (W. Bartram) Small, also known as saw palmetto, is one of the most widely used herbal preparations for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Although a number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and systematic reviews of the efficacy of S. repens for the treatment of LUTS and BPH have been published, no systematic review on its drug interactions or adverse events currently exists. This review assesses all available human safety data of S. repens monopreparations. Systematic literature searches were conducted from date of inception to February 2008 in five electronic databases; reference lists and our departmental files were checked for further relevant publications. Information was requested from spontaneous reporting schemes of the WHO and national safety bodies. Twenty-four manufacturers/distributors of S. repens preparations and four herbalist organizations were contacted for additional information. No language restrictions were imposed. Only reports of adverse events in humans from monopreparations of S. repens were included. Data from all articles, regardless of study design, reporting adverse events or interactions were independently extracted by the first author and validated by the second. Forty articles (26 randomized controlled trials, 4 non-randomized controlled trials, 6 uncontrolled trials and 4 case reports/series) were included. They suggest that adverse events associated with the use of S. repens are mild and similar to those with placebo. The most frequently reported adverse events are abdominal pain, diarrhoea, nausea, fatigue, headache, decreased libido and rhinitis. More serious adverse events such as death and cerebral haemorrhage are reported in isolated case reports and data from spontaneous reporting schemes, but causality is questionable. No drug interactions were reported. Currently available data suggest that S. repens is well tolerated by most users and is not

  17. Isolation of an Antioxidative Substance Produced by Aspergillus repens.

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    Yagi, R; Doi, M

    1999-01-01

    The acidic fraction of an extract of the culture liquid of Aspergillus repens MA0197 showed strong antioxidative activity when tested by the ferric thiocyanate and TBA methods. Chromatographic purification of this acidic fraction gave an active substance identified as Neoechinulin A. This compound showed higher antioxidative activity than α-tocopherol and could be expected to act as an antioxidant in Katsuobushi.

  18. Maxillary sinusitis from Microascus cinereus and Aspergillus repens.

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    Aznar, C; de Bievre, C; Guiguen, C

    1989-02-01

    Microascus was associated with Aspergillus repens in a left maxillary sinus. Tissue contained septale filaments of two types, conidia, ostiolate perithecia containing ascospores corresponding to Microascus cinereus which was identified by culture. The abundance of sexual fructifications in the tissue indicates that pathogenicity is due to Microascus cinereus.

  19. Discrimination analysis of ononis repens and ononis spinosa of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Discrimination analysis of ononis repens and ononis spinosa of the British Isles. CE Stephens. Abstract. No Abstract. Journal of the Ghana Association Vol. 2 (3) 1999: pp.88-94. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jgsa.v2i3.17997.

  20. Mycorrhizal symbioses of Salix repens : diversity and functional significance

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    Heijden, van der E.W.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis investigates the significance of different mycorrhizal fungi, belonging to different functional types (arbuscular mycorrhiza-AM and ectomycorrhiza-EcM), in Salix repens . A comparison between above-ground and below-ground observations on ectomycorrhizal

  1. In vivo hypotensive effect and in vitro inhibitory activity of some Cyperaceae species

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    Monica Lacerda Lopes Martins

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1820, French naturalist August Saint Hillaire, during a visit in Espírito Santo (ES, a state in southeastern Brazil, reported a popular use of Cyperaceae species as antidote to snake bites. The plant may even have a hypotensive effect, though it was never properly researched. The in vitro inhibitory of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE activity of eigth ethanolic extracts of Cyperaceae was evaluated by colorimetric assay. Total phenolic and flavonoids were determined using colorimetric assay. The hypotensive effect of the active specie (Rhychonospora exaltata, ERE and the in vivo ACE assay was measured in vivo using male Wistar Kyoto (ERE, 0.01-100mg/kg, with acetylcholine (ACh as positive control (5 µg/kg, i.v.. The evaluation of ACE in vivo inhibitory effect was performed comparing the mean arterial pressure before and after ERE (10 mg/kg in animals which received injection of angiotensin I (ANG I; 0,03, 03 and 300 µg/kg, i.v.. Captopril (30 mg/kg was used as positive control. Bulbostylis capillaris (86.89 ± 15.20% and ERE (74.89 ± 11.95%, ERE were considered active in the in vitro ACE inhibition assay, at 100 µg/mL concentration. ACh lead to a hypotensive effect before and after ERE's curve (-40±5% and -41±3%. ERE showed a dose-dependent hypotensive effect and a in vivo ACE inhibitory effect. Cyperaceae species showed an inhibitory activity of ACE, in vitro, as well as high content of total phenolic and flavonoids. ERE exhibited an inhibitory effect on both in vitro and in vivo ACE. The selection of species used in popular medicine as antidotes, along with the in vitro assay of ACE inhibition, might be a biomonitoring method for the screening of new medicinal plants with hypotensive properties.

  2. Polyol concentrations in Aspergillus repens grown under salt stress.

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    Kelavkar, U P; Chhatpar, H S

    1993-09-01

    Na(+), K(+) and the ratio of Na(+)/K(+) were higher in cells of the halotolerant Aspergillus repens grown with 2 M NaCl than without NaCl. The osmolytes, proline, glycerol, betaine and glutamate, did not affect the Na(+)/K(+) ratio, nor the polyol content of cells under any conditions. The concentrations of polyols, consisting of glycerol, arabitol, erythritol and mannitol, changed markedly during growth, indicating that they have a crucial role in osmotic adaptation.

  3. Diuretic activity of ethanolic extract of Panicum repens L. roots and rhizomes.

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    Hozaien, Hoda E; El-Tantawy, Walid Hamdy; Temraz, Abeer; El-Gindi, Omayma D; Taha, Kamilia F

    2018-02-08

    The diuretic activity of ethanolic extract of Panicum repens was investigated in rats. A single oral dose of 500 mg/kg of P. repens extract were given to rats, after 24 h, urine volume, its sodium and potassium concentrations were estimated. Treatment with P. repens extract caused a significant increase in tested parameters as compared to their corresponding controls, p < 0.05.

  4. Molecular phylogenetics of the genus Costularia (Schoeneae, Cyperaceae) reveals multiple distinct evolutionary lineages.

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    Larridon, Isabel; Bauters, Kenneth; Semmouri, Ilias; Viljoen, Jan-Adriaan; Prychid, Christina J; Muasya, A Muthama; Bruhl, Jeremy J; Wilson, Karen L; Senterre, Bruno; Goetghebeur, Paul

    2018-04-19

    We investigated the monophyly of Costularia (25 species), a genus of tribe Schoeneae (Cyperaceae) that illustrates a remarkable distribution pattern from southeastern Africa, over Madagascar, the Mascarenes and Seychelles, to Malesia and New Caledonia. A further species, Tetraria borneensis, has been suggested to belong to Costularia. Relationships and divergence times were inferred using an existing four marker phylogeny of Cyperaceae tribe Schoeneae expanded with newly generated sequence data mainly for Costularia s.l. species. Phylogenetic reconstruction was executed using Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood approaches. Divergence times were estimated using a relaxed molecular clock model, calibrated with fossil data. Based on our results, Tetraria borneensis is not related to the species of Costularia. Costularia s.l. is composed of four distinct evolutionary lineages. Two lineages, one including the type species, are part of the Oreobolus clade, i.e. a much reduced genus Costularia restricted to southeastern Africa, Madagascar, the Mascarenes and Seychelles, and a small endemic genus from New Caledonia for which a new genus Chamaedendron is erected based on Costularia subgenus Chamaedendron. The other two lineages are part of the Tricostularia clade, i.e. a separate single-species lineage from the Seychelles for which a new genus (Xyroschoenus) is described, and Costularia subgenus Lophoschoenus. For the latter, more research is needed to test whether they are congeneric with the species placed in the reticulate-sheathed Tetraria clade. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Eurotium (Aspergillus) repens metabolites and their biological activity.

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    Podojil, M; Sedmera, P; Vokoun, J; Betina, V; Baráthová, H; Duracková, Z; Horáková, K; Nemec, P

    1978-01-01

    Eurotium repens mycelium cultivated under static conditions was used to isolate and identify metabolities--echinulin, physcion, erythroglaucin, flavoglaucin and asperentin; the filtrate of the culture yielded asperentin 8-methylether. The broadest biological activity spectrum was displayed by asperentin which had antibacterial and antifungal effects and, at a concentration of 86 microgram/ml, caused 50% mor7 tality in Artemia saline larvae. The highest cytotoxicity towards HeLa cells was found in physcion which caused 50% growth inhibition at a concentration of 0.1 microgram/ml.

  6. Se enhanced phytoremediation of diesel in soil by Trifolium repens.

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    Xi, Ying; Song, Yizhi; Johnson, David M; Li, Meng; Liu, Huigang; Huang, Yingping

    2018-06-15

    A pot-culture experiment was conducted to assess the effects of selenium (Se) (0.5 mg kg -1 ) on Trifolium repens exposed to various levels of diesel (0, 15, 20, 25 g kg -1 ) for 30 days and 60 days. Exposure to diesel for 60 day led to concentration-dependent decreases in root morphogenesis, chlorophyll content and CAT activity, and to dose-dependent increases in MDA content and SOD activity. The residual diesel concentration in soil increased and the removal efficiency decreased with soil diesel concentration. The chlorophyll content and residual diesel concentration after were slightly higher at 30 days than at 60days. Application of Se to soil increased Trifolium repens tolerance to diesel and significantly increased the phytoremediation effect at 60 days, with a removal rate of 36 ± 8%, compared to 28 ± 7% in the control. These results contribute to the ongoing effort to develop an effective phytoremediation system for soils highly contaminated by diesel. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterization of oils from Duranta repens leaf and seed

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    Agomuo Emmanuel

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the chemical composition of unpopular sources of edible oils has become paramount to supplement the usage of widely known vegetable oils. In this study, the gas chromatographic quantification of fatty acids and phytochemicals was carried out, and the physicochemical and micronutrient composition of Duranta repens leaf and seed oil were evaluated using standard methods. The leaf oils contained significantly higher (p  oleic > myristic > stearic > capric > linoleic > lauric > palmitoleic for the seed oil, while for the leaf oil linoleic > palmitoleic > oleic > stearic > palmitic > myristic > capric > lauric > myristoleic. The major phytochemical constituents of the seed oils were catechin (68.12 ug/ml, saponin (44.03 ug/ml, rutin (32.89 ug/ml, linamarin (22.66 ug/ml and tannins (19.62 ug/ml, while kaempherol (84.05 ug/ml, rutin (62.26 ug/ml and saponins (45.63 ug/ml were mostly predominant in the leaf oil. Spartein, anthocyanins and phytates were among the least phytochemicals in composition, for both samples. These chemical properties evaluated, suggest that Duranta repens seed oil is more suitable for industrial and therapeutic purposes.

  8. A RUMINATE EMBRYO IN BLEPHARIS REPENS (VAHL. ROTH. (ACANTHACEAE

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    Nitin M. LABHANE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of morphology of embryo is very significant considering the fact that the embryo represents the important step in the determination of the viability of the seed. Ruminate endosperm has been reported in about 58 families of angiosperms. The rumination caused by the activity of the seed coat or by the endosperm itself is quite recurrent in angiosperm. Ruminate endosperm due to seed coat is reported from the family Acanthaceae in Andrographis paniculata. The rumination of endosperm is also considered as phylogenetically important. Rumination of endosperm is very common, however very little is known about rumination in embryo. The present papers reports the de novo development of ruminate embryo in Blepharis repens. The development of ruminate embryo is seen as an adaptation to ensure proper aeration and optimum germination for survival of the species.

  9. First insights into the evolutionary history of the Davallia repens complex

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    Chen, C.-W.; Ngan, L.T.; Hidayat, A.; Evangelista, L.; Nooteboom, H.P.; Chiou, W.-L.

    2014-01-01

    Davallia repens and its close relatives have been identified as a species complex in this study because of the existence of continuously morphological variation. To decipher its evolutionary history, integrated methodologies were applied in this study including morphology, cytology, reproductive

  10. Antioxidative potential of Duranta repens (linn.) fruits against H 2 O 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of Duranta repens fruits were investigated on H2O2 induced oxidative cell death to evaluate its antioxidative potential in vitro. HEK293T cells were treated with different concentrations [0-1000 ìg/ ml] of ethanol extract (E-Ex) and methanol extract (M-Ex) of D. repens for 24h, and then treated with 100 ìM H2O2 for ...

  11. Treatment of male androgenetic alopecia with topical products containing Serenoa repens extract.

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    Wessagowit, Vesarat; Tangjaturonrusamee, Chinmanat; Kootiratrakarn, Tanawatt; Bunnag, Thareena; Pimonrat, Tanatya; Muangdang, Nattaporn; Pichai, Pitchayasak

    2016-08-01

    Male androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is a common hair problem. Serenoa repens extract has been shown to inhibit both types of 5-α reductase and, when taken orally, has been shown to increase hair growth in AGA patients. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of topical products containing S. repens extract for the treatment of male AGA. This was a pilot, prospective, open, within-subject comparison limited to 24 weeks using no placebo controls. In all, 50 male volunteers aged between 20 and 50 years received topical S. repens products for 24 weeks. The primary end-point was a hair count in an area of 2.54 cm(2) at week 24. Secondary end-points included hair restoration, investigators' photographic assessment, patients' evaluation and discovering adverse events. The average hair count and terminal hair count increased at weeks 12 and 24 compared to baseline. Some of these positive results levelled off at week 24, presumably because the concentrated topical product containing S. repens extract was stopped after 4 weeks. The patients were satisfied with the products and the side-effects were limited. The topical application of S. repens extract could be an alternative treatment in male pattern baldness in male patients who do not want or cannot tolerate the side-effects of standard medications, but the use of a concentrated S. repens product beyond 4 weeks may be necessary for sustained efficacy. © 2015 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  12. Produção de mudas de Duranta repens L. pelo processo de estaquia Seedlings production ofduranta Duranta repens L. using cuttings process

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    Genilda Canuto Amaral

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Devido a fácil adaptação ao clima, solo e por ter um potencial ornamental, a Duranta repens L. é muito utilizada no Brasil. Contudo, objetivou-se avaliar a produção de mudas de D. repens L. pelo processo de estaquia com fornecimento exógeno de AIB em diferentes estações do ano. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro concentrações de AIB (0, 1000, 3000 e 5000 mg kg-1, três tipos de estacas (herbáceas, semilenhosas e lenhosas e duas épocas do ano (chuvosa e seca. Realizaram-se as avaliações do número de estacas com raízes, sobrevivência das estacas, número de brotações por estaca, comprimento médio da maior raiz e massa seca da parte aérea e da raiz. A dose indicada para propagação de D. repens é de 3000 mg kg-1AIB. As estacas herbáceas e semilenhosas são as mais indicadas e a época chuvosa é mais propícia para produção de mudas de D. repens.Due to easy adaptation to climate, soil and ornamental potential, Duranta repens L. is widely used in Brazil. The study evaluated the production of seedlings of D. repens L. using cutting process with the supply of exogenous IBA in different seasons. The experimental design was completely randomized, with four concentrations of IBA (0, 1000, 3000 e 5000 mg kg-1, three types of cuttings (softwood, semi-hardwood and hardwood and two seasons (wet and dry. We assessed the number of rooted cuttings, survival cuttings, number of shoots per cutting, average length of the longest root and dry mass of shoots and roots. The best dose for propagation of D. repens was 3000 mg kg-1 IBA. The softwood and semi-hardwood cuttings were the most suitable and the rainy season the more favorable for D. repens seedling production.

  13. Cryptic Species Due to Hybridization: A Combined Approach to Describe a New Species (Carex: Cyperaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguilla, Enrique; Escudero, Marcial

    2016-01-01

    Disappearance of diagnostic morphological characters due to hybridization is considered to be one of the causes of the complex taxonomy of the species-rich (ca. 2000 described species) genus Carex (Cyperaceae). Carex furva s.l. belongs to section Glareosae. It is an endemic species from the high mountains of the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal). Previous studies suggested the existence of two different, cryptic taxa within C. furva s.l. Intermediate morphologies found in the southern Iberian Peninsula precluded the description of a new taxa. We aimed to determine whether C. furva s.l. should be split into two different species based on the combination of morphological and molecular data. We sampled ten populations across its full range and performed a morphological study based on measurements on herbarium specimens and silica-dried inflorescences. Both morphological and phylogenetic data support the existence of two different species within C. furva s.l. Nevertheless, intermediate morphologies and sterile specimens were found in one of the southern populations (Sierra Nevada) of C. furva s.l., suggesting the presence of hybrid populations in areas where both supposed species coexist. Hybridization between these two putative species has blurred morphological and genetic limits among them in this hybrid zone. We have proved the utility of combining molecular and morphological data to discover a new cryptic species in a scenario of hybridization. We now recognize a new species, C. lucennoiberica, endemic to the Iberian Peninsula (Sierra Nevada, Central system and Cantabrian Mountains). On the other hand, C. furva s.s. is distributed only in Sierra Nevada, where it may be threatened by hybridization with C. lucennoiberica. The restricted distribution of both species and their specific habitat requirements are the main limiting factors for their conservation.

  14. Hepatotoxicity potential of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Y N; Devkota, A K; Sneeden, D C; Singh, K K; Halaweish, F

    2007-02-01

    Saw palmetto (Serenoa repens L.) is an herbal drug used to treat symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). There has been a report that a preparation containing this herb has caused cholestatic hepatitis in one person and some indications exist that it may have the potential to produce liver toxicity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of saw palmetto on rat liver function by measuring its effects on several enzymes and formation of malondialdehyde (MDA), a byproduct of lipid peroxidation. A significant increase in these parameters is considered an indication of liver toxicity. Thirty-six rats were divided into 6 groups of 6 animals each. They were treated for 2 or 4 weeks with a placebo or saw palmetto at doses of 9.14 or 22.86 mg/kg/body wt./day; that is, 2 x and 5 x the maximum recommended daily human dosages. After 2 or 4 weeks, the animals were sacrificed and blood was collected to prepare serum for enzyme assays, which were performed using commercially available kits. A portion of the liver was removed, and a homogenate prepared for the lipid peroxidation assay. Results showed no significant difference in animal body weight, enzyme activity, or MDA formation at either time or dosage level, as compared to controls. The data indicate that at the doses and time periods tested, saw palmetto did not produce any significant effect on the normal biological markers of liver toxicity.

  15. Morphophysiological and chemical aspects of torpedograss (Panicum repens L., Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Meredith Scheffer-Basso

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated some of the morphophysiological and bromatological aspects of torpedograss (Panicum repens L. through the quantification of accumulation, allocation and chemical composition of dry matter (DM during spring-summer. Four destructive harvests of aerial and underground parts were carried out on 23 October 2003, 3 December 2003, 22 January 2004 and 20 February 2004, corresponding to 31, 73, 123 and 152 days after the start of the spring. In these harvests, the DM accumulation was respectively 1,650; 4,470; 10,900 and 14,540 kg/ha in the aerial part, with leaf percentages between 45% (first harvest and 35% (last harvest. The crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF changed between the first and the last harvest, from 9.9 to 7% (CP, 63.9% to 70.3% (FDN, and 37% to 40.8% (FDA, in samples composed by leaves, culms, inflorescences and stolons. The DM allocation to rhizomes (Rh, roots (R, leaves (L, culms+stolons (C and inflorescences (I changed, between the first and the last harvest, from 42 to 19% (Rh, 10 to 7% (R, 22 to 27% (L, 25 to 44% (C, and 0 to 2% (I.

  16. Androgen-independent effects of Serenoa repens extract (Prostasan®) on prostatic epithelial cell proliferation and inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iglesias-Gato, Diego; Carsten, Tober; Vesterlund, Mattias

    2012-01-01

    Extracts from Serenoa repens are widely used for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and traditionally for prostatitis. In the present study we evaluated the biological effects of Serenoa repens extract (Prostasan®) on prostate cells beyond its known antiandrogenic actions. Prosta...

  17. Human Ocular Infection with Dirofilaria repens (Railliet and Henry, 1911) in an Area Endemic for Canine Dirofilariasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otranto, Domenico; Brianti, Emanuele; Gaglio, Gabriella; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Azzaro, Salvatore; Giannetto, Salvatore

    2011-01-01

    Dirofilaria repens, which is usually found in canine subcutaneous tissues, is the main causative agent of human dirofilariasis in the Old Word. However, a relationship between animal and human cases of dirofilariasis caused by D. repens in a given area has never been demonstrated. The uneven distribution of D. repens in provinces in Sicily, Italy represented the foundation for this study. We report a human case of ocular infection with D. repens from Trapani Province, where canine dirofilariasis is endemic. The nematode was morphologically and molecularly identified and surgical removal of the parasite was documented. The relationship between the prevalence of D. repens in dogs and the occurrence of human cases of ocular dirofilariasis is discussed on the basis of a review of the historical literature. PMID:21633041

  18. Dirofilaria in Humans, Dogs, and Vectors in Austria (1978-2014)-From Imported Pathogens to the Endemicity of Dirofilaria repens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Auer, Herbert; Leschnik, Michael; Silbermayr, Katja; Duscher, Georg; Joachim, Anja

    2016-05-01

    Dirofilaria repens and D. immitis are filarioid helminths with domestic and wild canids as main hosts and mosquitoes as vectors. Both species are known to cause zoonotic diseases, primarily pulmonary (D. immitis), ocular (D. repens), and subcutaneous (D. repens) dirofilariosis. Both D. immitis and D. repens are known as invasive species, and their distribution seems associated with climate change. Until very recently, both species were known to be nonendemic in Austria. Metadata on introduced and possibly autochthonous cases of infection with Dirofilaria sp. in dogs and humans in Austria are analysed, together with analyses of mosquito populations from Austria in ongoing studies. In Austria, most cases of Dirofilaria sp. in humans (30 cases of D. repens-six ocular and 24 subcutaneous) and dogs (approximately 50 cases-both D. immitis and D. repens) were most likely imported. However, occasionally infections with D. repens were discussed to be autochthonous (one human case and seven in dogs). The introduction of D. repens to Austria was confirmed very recently, as the parasite was detected in Burgenland (eastern Austria) for the first time in mosquito vectors during a surveillance program. For D. immitis, this could not be confirmed yet, but data from Germany suggest that the successful establishment of this nematode species in Austria is a credible scenario for the near future. The first findings of D. repens in mosquito vectors indicate that D. repens presumably invaded in eastern Austria. Climate analyses from central Europe indicate that D. immitis also has the capacity to establish itself in the lowland regions of Austria, given that both canid and culicid hosts are present.

  19. Optical Analysis of Reduction Products of 2-Methylcyclohexanone by Aspergillus repens MA0197.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, H; Doi, M; Shuto, Y; Kinoshita, Y

    1996-01-01

    The products of reduction of 2-methylcyclohexanone by Aspergillus repens MA0197 were analyzed quantitatively by GC after conversion to corresponding diastereoisomeric ( -)-menthyl carbonate derivatives. Although the contents varied considerably with time, the predominant production of S-alcohol was observed, that is, Prelog's rule was obeyed.

  20. A First Human Case of Ocular Dirofilariosis due to Dirofilaria repens in Northeastern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argy, Nicolas; Sabou, Marcela; Billing, Alain; Hermsdorff, Christian; Candolfi, Ermanno; Abou-Bacar, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    We report the first case of ocular dirofilariasis to be diagnosed in northeast France (Alsace region), in a man who presented with a suborbital mass after a journey to Senegal. Microscopic examination of the surgical specimen identified Dirofilaria repens. PMID:21461355

  1. A First Human Case of Ocular Dirofilariosis due to Dirofilaria repens in Northeastern France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Argy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the first case of ocular dirofilariasis to be diagnosed in northeast France (Alsace region, in a man who presented with a suborbital mass after a journey to Senegal. Microscopic examination of the surgical specimen identified Dirofilaria repens.

  2. Dirofilaria repens: emergence of autochthonous human infections in the Czech Republic (case reports)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějů, J.; Chanová, M.; Modrý, David; Mitková, B.; Hrazdilová, K.; Žampachová, V.; Kolářová, L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 16, APR 19 (2016), č. článku 171. ISSN 1471-2334 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Dirofilaria repens * Human dirofilariasis * Emerging disease * Autochthonous diseases in Czech Republic Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.768, year: 2016

  3. Zoonotic Dirofilaria repens (Nematoda: Filarioidea) in Aedes vexans mosquitoes, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rudolf, Ivo; Šebesta, Oldřich; Mendel, Jan; Betášová, Lenka; Bocková, E.; Jedličková, Petra; Venclíková, Kristýna; Blažejová, Hana; Šikutová, Silvie; Hubálek, Zdeněk

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 12 (2014), s. 4663-4667 ISSN 0932-0113 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 261504 - EDENEXT Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Aedes vexans * Mosquito vectors * Dirofilaria repens * Dogs * Zoonotic dirofilariosis * Setaria spp. Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.098, year: 2014

  4. Dirofilaria immitis and D. repens show circadian co-periodicity in naturally co-infected dogs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ionică, A.M.; Matei, I.A.; D'Amico, G.; Bel, L.; Dumitrache, M.O.; Modrý, David; Mihalca, A. D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 10, FEB 28 (2017), č. článku 116. ISSN 1756-3305 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : periodicity * microfilariae * co-infection * Dirofilaria immitis * Dirofilaria repens Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine OBOR OECD: Veterinary science Impact factor: 3.080, year: 2016

  5. Subcutaneous dirofilariosis (Dirofilaria repens: an infection spreading throughout the old world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Genchi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two main Dirofilaria species infect dogs: D. immitis and D. repens. While D. immitis has a worldwide distribution, D. repens is currently found only in Europe, Asia, and Africa. Adult D. repens are located in subcutaneous tissues of natural hosts where they survive for long periods of time. First-stage larvae, microfilariae, circulate in the peripheral bloodstream, where they are taken up by the mosquito intermediate hosts. Infected mosquitoes then transmit infective third-stage (L3 larvae to new hosts through the blood meal. In dogs, most infections are asymptomatic, although cutaneous disorders such as pruritus, dermal swelling, subcutaneous nodules, and ocular conjunctivitis can be observed. Currently, two factors have increased the concerns about this parasitic infection 1 its spread throughout the European countries and to other continents and its prevalence in dog populations, where in some cases it has overcome D. immitis; and 2 its zoonotic potential, which is much greater than that of D. immitis. Results Different hypotheses can be put forward to explain these concerns. First, climate change has allowed more favorable conditions for survival of culicid vectors. Second, accidental hosts such as humans may have a less efficient immune reaction against a parasite that is located in subcutaneous tissues, and thus less exposed to the host’s immune response than, for instance, D. immitis. Furthermore, the absence of clinical signs in the majority of canine infections and the difficulty in diagnosing the infection, due to the lack of serologic tests and thus the reliance on the identification of microfilariae and differentiation from D. immitis to confirm the presence of the parasite, favor the further spread of this species. Finally, among the macrocyclic lactones currently used to prevent heartworm infection, only moxidectin has been found to be fully effective against the infective larvae transmitted by mosquitoes and

  6. First record of the alien pest Rhaponticum repens (Compositae in the Iberian Peninsula

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    Martínez-Flores, F.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available First record of the alien pest Rhaponticum repens (Compositae in the Iberian Peninsula.- Rhaponticum repens is reported for the first time for the flora of the Iberian Peninsula. The species is native from Central Asia and has become invasive in Argentina, Canada, Europe and the USA. It was detected for the first time in abandoned fields from Vilablareix, near the city of Girona (Catalonia, Spain and in the valley of the Vinalopó in Alicante (Valencia, Spain, where it was collected as early as in 1959 but misdentified. Molecular data, based on nrDNA region ITS, suggest that the reported populations may be closely related to plants from the United States. Due to the extremely noxious character of the species and the possible relationship of Spanish plants with the invasive American populations, some kind of monitoring is recommended.Rhaponticum repens (Compositae, una nueva planta alóctona para la Península Ibérica.- Se cita por primera vez la especie Rhaponticum repens para la flora de la Península Ibérica. Rhaponticum repens es una especie nativa de Asia central que actúa como invasora en diversos países como Argentina, Canadá o los Estados Unidos. Se ha encontrado por primera vez en campos de cultivo abandonados en el pueblo de Vilablareix, cerca de la ciudad de Girona (Cataluña, España y en el valle del Vinalopó (Valencia, España, donde fue recolectada y mal identificada en 1959. Los datos moleculares, obtenidos a partir de la región ITS del nrDNA, sugieren que estas poblaciones podrían estar relacionadas con plantas invasoras de Estados Unidos. Debido al carácter extremadamente invasor de la especie, y a su posible origen secundario a partir de las poblaciones norteamericanas, se recomienda el seguimiento de estas poblaciones.

  7. Developmental anatomy of Cyperus laxus (non-Nranz and Fimbristylis dichotoma (Kranz (Cyperaceae, Poales and tissue continuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHIRLEY MARTINS

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Cyperaceae species are present in different ecosystems and constitute the herbaceous extract. Of the approximately 5,500 species of the family; a third has Kranz anatomy, representing an important characteristic of the taxonomy and phylogeny of the group. In Cyperus laxus L. (non-Kranz and Fimbristylis dichotoma Vahl (Kranz, development begins with germination that is marked by the emergence of the coleoptiles, followed by the primary root, which is ephemeral. The rhizome originates from the mesocotyl and it promotes the vascular connection between the roots, leaves and scapes. The continuity of the tissues is evidenced by the presence of an endodermis and pericycle in all vegetative organs. Leaves and scapes differ between the two species by the arrangement of mesophyll cells, which is regular in Cyperus laxus (non-Kranz and arranged radially in Fimbristylis dichotoma (Kranz. Also differ in the number of bundles sheaths: two in Cyperus laxus (non-Kranz and three in Fimbristylis dichotoma (Kranz. The outer bundle sheath in both species constitutes the endodermis, and the inner sheath in Cyperus laxus and the middle and inner sheaths in Fimbristylis dichotoma constitute the pericycle.As espécies de Cyperaceae estão presentes em diferentes ecossistemas e constituem o extrato herbáceo. Das aproximadamente 5,500 espécies da família, um terço possui anatomia Kranz, representando uma importante característica da taxonomia e filogenia do grupo. Em Cyperus laxus L. (não Kranz e Fimbristylis dichotoma Vahl (Kranz, o desenvolvimento começa com a germinação que é marcada pela emergência do coleóptilo, seguido da raiz primária, que é efêmera. O rizoma se origina do mesocótilo e promove a conexão vascular entre raízes, folhas e escapos. A continuidade dos tecidos é evidenciada pela presença de endoderme e periciclo em todos os órgãos vegetativos. Folhas e escapos diferem entre as duas espécies estudadas no arranjo das células do

  8. Sodium chloride stress induced morphological and ultrastructural changes in Aspergillus repens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelavkar, U; Rao, K S; Ghhatpar, H S

    1993-06-01

    Halotolerant fungus, A. repens, showed a considerable difference in its growth rate, morphology, ultrastructural and molecular composition under NaCl stress as compared to control i.e. non-stressed condition. Light microscopic observations revealed significant differences in their mycelial thickness, their branching and septa. Transmission electron microscopic observations of both the conditions depicted significant differences in the qualitative and quantitative changes in mitochondria. Frequent pinocytotic vesiculation (vacuoles) of plasma membrane was observed in fungus under stress but no such vesiculation in control. The multivesiculate structures observed under stress with their origin from the cell membranes and subsequent release into vacuoles have not been reported in fungi under normal physiological conditions. The observations on pinocytosis are discussed in relation to ion compartmentation and salt tolerance in A. repens.

  9. [A case of human dirofilariasis (D. repens) of the spermatic cord].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fini, M; Perrone, A; Vagliani, G; Andreini, C; Salvi, G; Misuriello, G; Di Silverio, A

    1992-01-01

    A 52 year old man, living in the province of Trapani (Sicily), presented with right hydrocele and slight orchialgia. The patient underwent epididymectomy and resection of T. vaginalis. The "tunica" was involved by a granulomatous process, containing a parasite of genus Dirofilaria (D. repens). Dirofilaria repens is a filarial nematode. Dogs, foxes and cats are the definitive hosts and principal reservoirs of the parasite. In humans the parasite dies before reaching sexual maturity and the result is an inconspicuous granulomatous reaction in the subcutaneous tissue. S. Pampiglione et al. (Cattedra di Parassitologia Veterinaria dell'Università di Bologna-Italy) reported from 1971 more than 30 cases of human Dirofilariasis in Italy, suggesting that the parasite is able to migrate from the inoculation site to other districts (lung, eye etc.). The case is exceptional for the localization of the parasite (never reported) and can contribute to a better knowledge of the disease.

  10. Dirofilaria repens eyepiece: a case in Calabria and diagnostic indications concerning dirofilariosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Mancuso

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Dirofilaria repens is a nematode that affects dogs and other carnivores such as cats, wolves, foxes, which are final hosts. It is carried to the men by mosquitos (Anopheles, Culex and Aedes and, particularly, by Aedes albopictus. It causes in the humans the formation of subcutaneous nodules and, at ocular conjunctiva level, the formation of cysts. Its diagnosis is made by methods of Molecular Biology because the identification based only on the morphology is very difficult. In the mounth of November 2012, comes to the first aid of Cetraro Hospital a old woman with a conjunctival cyst to right eye which causes pain, itch and lachrymation. From this cyst, is extracted a worm, identified as Dirofilaria repens. This diagnosis is confirmed by investigations of Molecular Biology discharged in the Superior Institute of Health of Rome.

  11. Trifolium pratense and T. repens (Leguminosae: Edible Flower Extracts as Functional Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Tundis

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Trifolium pratense (red clover and T. repens (white clover edible flowers were investigated for their chemical profile and health properties. The total phenols and flavonoids contents were evaluated. Quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin, rutin, and myricetin were used as markers and quantified by HPLC. The antioxidant effects were investigated by using different in vitro assays. Moreover, α-amylase, α-glucosidase and lipase inhibitory activities were evaluated. T. repens flowers extract showed a good radical scavenging activity in both DPPH and ABTS tests with IC50 values of 10.3 and 21.4 μg/mL, respectively. White clover extract demonstrated promising α-amylase and lipase inhibitory activities with IC50 values of 25.0 and 1.3 μg/mL, respectively. The obtained results support the use of Trifolium flowers as healthy food ingredients.

  12. Phytochemical screening, antiglycation and antioxidant activities of whole plant of Boerhavia repens L. from Cholistan, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazneen, Fariha; Sheikh, Munir A; Jameel, Amir; Rahman, Ziaur

    2016-05-01

    Present study was aimed to explore a traditionally used indigenous medicinal plant Boerhavia repens (Nyctaginaceae family) of the Cholistan desert, Pakistan. Crude aqueous and methanolic extracts of the whole plant were investigated in vitro for preliminary phytochemical screening, antioxidant and antiglycation activities. Antioxidant activities were determined by total phenolic contents, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. For antiglycation activities browning production was noted and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) technique was used to determine glycation level. Boerhavia repens expressed considerable amounts of phytochemicals. Extract yield was found to be 4.59%-7.85% g/100g of dry matter with total phenolics ranging from 47.9- 190.77mg/GAE per g for aqueous and methanol extract respectively. Strong inhibitory effect was exhibited by methanolic extract in linoleic acid per oxidation system (86.11%, EC50=0.99mg/mL) and DPPH assay (88.65%, EC50=212.33μg/ml). In term of browning maximum inhibition (81.50%) was exhibited by methanolic extract at 37°C at third week of incubation. Both extracts expressed significant (P>0.05) and comparable inhibition of glycation level. In conclusion, Boerhavia repens showed promising antioxidant and antiglycation activities validating its therapeutic potential.

  13. Mitigation of salt stress in white clover (Trifolium repens) by Azospirillum brasilense and its inoculation effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Muhammad; Bilal, Muhammad; Hassani, Danial; Iqbal, Hafiz M N; Wang, Hang; Huang, Danfeng

    2017-12-01

    Salinity is one of the increasingly serious environmental problems worldwide for cultivating agricultural crops. The present study was aimed to ascertain the potential of beneficial soil bacterium Azospirillum brasilense to alleviate saline stress in Trifolium repens. Experimental plants (white clover) were grown from seeds and inoculated with or without A. brasilense bacterial strain supplemented with 0, 40, 80, or 120 mM NaCl into soil. The growth attributes including, shoot heights, root lengths, fresh and dry weights, leaf area and chlorophyll content were significantly enhanced in T. repens plants grown in A. brasilense inoculated soil than un-inoculated controls, particularly under elevated salinity conditions (40, 80 and 120 mM NaCl). Malondialdehyde content of leaf was recorded to be declined under saline conditions. Moreover, the K + /Na + ratio was also improved in bacterium-inoculated plants, since A. brasilense significantly reduced the root and shoot Na + level under high salty environment. Results revealed that soil inoculation with A. brasilense could significantly promote T. repens growth under both non-saline and saline environments, and this study might be extended to other vegetables and crops for the germination and growth enhancement.

  14. Morphological response to competition for light in the clonal Trifolium repens (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittebiere, Anne-Kristel; Renaud, Nolwenn; Clément, Bernard; Mony, Cendrine

    2012-04-01

    Plant communities in temperate zones are dominated by clonal plants that can plastically modify their growth characteristics in response to competition. Given that plants compete with one another, and the implications this has for species coexistence, we conducted a study to assess how clonal species morphologically respond to competition for light depending on its intensity and heterogeneity, which are determined by the competitor species. We assessed the morphological response to competition for light of the clonal species Trifolium repens L. by measuring its growth performance, and vertical and horizontal growth traits. We used five competitive environments, i.e., one without competitor and four differing by their competitor species creating different conditions of competition intensity and heterogeneity. The morphological response of Trifolium repens to competition for light depended on the competitor identity. Competition intensity and heterogeneity, determined by competitor identity, had an interactive effect on most traits. The increase in petiole elongation and specific leaf area due to increased competition intensity was observed only at low to intermediate competition heterogeneity. Competition heterogeneity promoted the elongation of clone connections allowing space exploration. Our results demonstrated that the intensity and heterogeneity of competition, which depended on competitor identity, are of primary importance in determining the plastic response of Trifolium repens. This emphasizes that it is important to consider the fine-scale spatial distribution of individuals when studying their interactions within plant communities.

  15. Evidence of genetic differentiation and karyotype evolution of the sedges Cyperus ligularis L. and C. odoratus L. (Cyperaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geyner Alves dos Santos Cruz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The taxonomy of Cyperaceae is complex, with genera like Cyperus harboring species complexes. We analyzed the genetic similarity between Cyperus ligularis L. and C. odoratus L. based on DNA fingerprinting and cytogenetics. Significative genetic differentiation (G ST = 0.363 and low gene flow (N m = 0.877 indicated a clear genetic distinction between the two species. Moreover, the clustering analysis showed two distinct genetic groups, suggesting a lack of evidence for hybridization. The phenogram revealed two different lineages, and although all individuals of C. odoratus were collected from plots close to each other, they possessed greater genetic diversity than that observed among individuals of C. ligularis, which were sampled over a wider geographic range. Variation in chromosome number within the two species exhibited the opposite pattern, indicating greater karyotype stability in C. odoratus with 2n = 72 and 2n = 76, while the diploid number for C. ligularis varied from 2n = 66 to 88. The lower genetic variation in C. ligularis may be a result of the founder effect associated with seed dispersion and clonal reproduction. Field observations and analysis of reproductive biology should enrich the understanding of the genetic structure of the investigated populations and their role in successional processes.

  16. Dynamics of chromosome number and genome size variation in a cytogenetically variable sedge (Carex scoparia var. scoparia, Cyperaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kyong-Sook; Weber, Jaime A; Hipp, Andrew L

    2011-01-01

    High intraspecific cytogenetic variation in the sedge genus Carex (Cyperaceae) is hypothesized to be due to the "diffuse" or non-localized centromeres, which facilitate chromosome fission and fusion. If chromosome number changes are dominated by fission and fusion, then chromosome evolution will result primarily in changes in the potential for recombination among populations. Chromosome duplications, on the other hand, entail consequent opportunities for divergent evolution of paralogs. In this study, we evaluate whether genome size and chromosome number covary within species. We used flow cytometry to estimate genome sizes in Carex scoparia var. scoparia, sampling 99 plants (23 populations) in the Chicago region, and we used meiotic chromosome observations to document chromosome numbers and chromosome pairing relations. Chromosome numbers range from 2n = 62 to 2n = 68, and nuclear DNA 1C content from 0.342 to 0.361 pg DNA. Regressions of DNA content on chromosome number are nonsignificant for data analyzed by individual or population, and a regression model that excludes slope is favored over a model in which chromosome number predicts genome size. Chromosome rearrangements within cytogenetically variable Carex species are more likely a consequence of fission and fusion than of duplication and deletion. Moreover, neither genome size nor chromosome number is spatially autocorrelated, which suggests the potential for rapid chromosome evolution by fission and fusion at a relatively fine geographic scale (<350 km). These findings have important implications for ecological restoration and speciation within the largest angiosperm genus of the temperate zone.

  17. Development of Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens in Aedes japonicus and Aedes geniculatus

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    Cornelia Silaghi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mosquito-borne filarial nematodes Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens primarily affect dogs but also cats, causing heartworm disease or subcutaneous dirofilariosis, respectively, and both may also cause zoonotic diseases in humans. Several mosquito species have been reported as competent vectors for these nematodes, but no data are available for the invasive mosquito species Aedes japonicus (Theobald, 1901. The objective of this study was to describe the development of both D. immitis and D. repens under standardised experimental laboratory conditions in mosquitoes. Methods For this purpose, both a laboratory strain and field-collected individuals of the invasive mosquito species Ae. japonicus and, for comparative purposes, a laboratory strain of Aedes geniculatus, a rare indigenous species sharing habitats with Ae. japonicus, and of the tropical species Aedes aegypti were used. Anticoagulated microfilariaemic blood was fed at a density of 3000 mf/ml to mosquitoes with a hemotek system. Blood-fed mosquitoes were incubated at 27 °C and 85% relative humidity, and specimens were dissected under the microscope at pre-set time points to observe developmental stages of both Dirofilaria species. Additionally, real-time PCRs were carried out in some microscopically negative samples to determine the infection rates. Results In field-collected Ae. japonicus infectious L3 larvae of both D. immitis and D. repens developed, rendering this mosquito species an efficient vector for both filarial species. Additionally, Ae. geniculatus was shown to be an equally efficient vector for both filarial species. Aedes japonicus mosquitoes from a laboratory colony were refractory to D. immitis but susceptible to D. repens, whereas Ae. aegypti was refractory to both filarial species. Conclusions To our knowledge, Aedes japonicus was for the first time shown to be an efficient vector for both D. immitis and D. repens, indicating that this

  18. Anatomia de espécies anfíbias de Cyperaceae de lagoas do semi-árido, BA, Brasil Anatomy of amphibious Cyperaceae species from lakes in the semi-arid region of Bahia State, Brazil

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    Kelly Regina Batista Leite

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a anatomia de raízes, rizomas, folhas e escapos de Cyperus odoratus L., Oxycaryum cubense (Poep. & Kunth Lye e Pycreus macrostachyos (Lam. Raynal (Cyperaceae-Poales de lagoas do semi-árido da Bahia visando caracterizar anatomicamente as espécies e levantar estruturas adaptativas à forma de vida anfíbia. As espécies apresentam raízes com epiderme unisseriada, córtex com exoderme e lacunas de ar. Os rizomas apresentam feixes vasculares anfivasais ou colaterais no cilindro vascular. As folhas apresentam epiderme unisseriada, com células de parede periclinal externa mais espessada que a interna, estômatos somente na face abaxial, parênquima clorofiliano alternado com lacunas de ar e feixes vasculares colaterais. Os escapos apresentam epiderme unisseriada, feixes de fibras distribuídos perifericamente alternados com parênquima clorofiliano, lacunas de ar e feixes vasculares colaterais. Oxycaryum cubense difere de Cyperus odoratus e Pycreus macrostachyos por apresentar raízes com pêlos longos, rizomas e estolões com feixes vasculares colaterais, folhas com bordo agudo, e ausência de estrutura Kranz nas folhas e escapos. Características anatômicas como: lacunas de ar observadas principalmente nas raízes, células buliformes na face adaxial da epiderme foliar, hipoderme, reduzido número de elementos xilemáticos e pouca lignificação nas paredes celulares dos tecidos nos diferentes órgãos estudados são consideradas importantes na adaptação dessas plantas anfíbias às lagoas temporárias do semi-árido da Bahia.We examined the anatomy of roots, rhizomes, leaves, and scapes of Cyperus odoratus L., Oxycaryum cubense (Poep. & Kunth Lye, and Pycreus macrostachyos (Lam. Raynal (Cyperaceae-Poales from temporary lakes in the semi-arid region of Bahia in order to characterize the anatomy and examine structural adaptations to amphibious lifestyle. All species had roots with uniseriate epidermal cells, cortex with exoderm

  19. Effectiveness on urinary symptoms and erectile function of Prostamev Plus® vs only extract Serenoa repens

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    Raffaele Marzano

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Prostatic inflammation is widespread in the male population. Two groups of 50 patients each with symptoms of prostatic inflammation and ecocolorDoppler indicative of prostatitis were identified. Both groups were further subdivided into two subgroups (respectively A1, A2, B1, and B2. Group A1 underwent therapy with oral levofloxacin 500 mg daily for 10 days plus co-treatment with oral Serenoa repens (320 mg plus Bromeline plus Nettle (Prostamev Plus® daily for two months; Group A2 with oral levofloxacin 500 mg daily for 10 days plus oral Serenoa repens extract 320 mg/day for two months; Group B1 specific antibiotic treatment for 10 days (included levofloxacin if sensitive plus co-treatment with oral Serenoa repens (320 mg plus Bromeline plus Nettle (Prostamev Plus® daily for two months; Group B2 with specific antibiotic treatment for 10 days plus Serenoa repens 320 mg/day for two months. The groups treated with Prostamev Plus® in comparison to the groups treated with Serenoa repens extract (saw palmetto achieved better improvements of both IPSS score, urinary flow and sexual life.

  20. The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and root interaction on the competition between Trifolium repens and Lolium perenne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Haiyan; Gao, Tao; Hu, Jian; Yang, Gaowen

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the factors that alter competitive interactions and coexistence between plants is a key issue in ecological research. A pot experiment was conducted to test the effects of root interaction and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) inoculation on the interspecies competition between Trifolium repens and Lolium perenne under different proportions of mixed sowing by the combination treatment of two levels of AMF inoculation (inoculation and non-inoculation) and two levels of root interaction (root interaction and non-root interaction). Overall, the aboveground and belowground biomass of T. repens and L. perenne were not altered by AMF inoculation across planting ratios, probably because the fertile soil reduced the positive effect of AMF on plant growth. Both inter- and intraspecies root interaction significantly decreased the aboveground biomass of T. repens , but tended to increase the aboveground biomass of L. perenne across planting ratios, and thus peaked at the 4:4 polyculture. These results showed that T. repens competed poorly with L. perenne because of inter and intraspecies root interaction. Our results indicate that interspecies root interaction regulates the competitive ability of grass L. perenne and legume T. repens in mixtures and further makes great contribution for overyielding. Furthermore, AMF may not be involved in plant-plant interaction in fertile condition.

  1. The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and root interaction on the competition between Trifolium repens and Lolium perenne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Ren

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the factors that alter competitive interactions and coexistence between plants is a key issue in ecological research. A pot experiment was conducted to test the effects of root interaction and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF inoculation on the interspecies competition between Trifolium repens and Lolium perenne under different proportions of mixed sowing by the combination treatment of two levels of AMF inoculation (inoculation and non-inoculation and two levels of root interaction (root interaction and non-root interaction. Overall, the aboveground and belowground biomass of T. repens and L. perenne were not altered by AMF inoculation across planting ratios, probably because the fertile soil reduced the positive effect of AMF on plant growth. Both inter- and intraspecies root interaction significantly decreased the aboveground biomass of T. repens, but tended to increase the aboveground biomass of L. perenne across planting ratios, and thus peaked at the 4:4 polyculture. These results showed that T. repens competed poorly with L. perenne because of inter and intraspecies root interaction. Our results indicate that interspecies root interaction regulates the competitive ability of grass L. perenne and legume T. repens in mixtures and further makes great contribution for overyielding. Furthermore, AMF may not be involved in plant–plant interaction in fertile condition.

  2. Hybrid Origins of Carex rostrata var. borealis and C. stenolepis, Two Problematic Taxa in Carex Section Vesicariae (Cyperaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    M Pedersen, A Tiril; Nowak, Michael D; Brysting, Anne K; Elven, Reidar; Bjorå, Charlotte S

    2016-01-01

    Hybridization is frequent in the large and ecologically significant genus Carex (Cyperaceae). In four important sections of the northern regions (Ceratocystis, Glareosae, Phacocystis and Vesicariae), the frequent occurrence of hybrids often renders the identification of "pure" species and hybrids difficult. In this study we address the origins and taxonomic rank of two taxa of section Vesicariae: Carex rostrata var. borealis and C. stenolepis. The origin and taxonomic status of C. stenolepis has been the subject of substantial debate over the years, whereas C. rostrata var. borealis has received very little attention in the years since its first description in the 19th century. By performing an extensive sampling of relevant taxa from a broad distribution range, and analyzing data from fifteen microsatellite loci developed specifically for our study together with pollen stainability measures, we resolve the hybrid origins of C. rostrata var. borealis and C. stenolepis and provide new insights into this taxonomically challenging group of sedges. Our results are in accordance with previous findings suggesting that C. stenolepis is a hybrid between C. vesicaria and C. saxatilis. They are also in accordance with a previous proposition that C. rostrata var. borealis is a hybrid between C. rostrata and C. rotundata, and furthermore suggest that both hybrids are the result of multiple, recent (i.e., postglacial) hybridization events. We found little evidence for successful sexual reproduction within C. rostrata var. borealis and C. stenolepis, but conclude that the common and recurrent, largely predictable occurrence of these taxa justifies accepting both hybrids as hybrid species with binomial names. There are, however, complications as to types and priority names, and we therefore choose to address these problems in a separate paper.

  3. Development of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) fruit and extract standard reference materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schantz, Michele M; Bedner, Mary; Long, Stephen E; Molloy, John L; Murphy, Karen E; Porter, Barbara J; Putzbach, Karsten; Rimmer, Catherine A; Sander, Lane C; Sharpless, Katherine E; Thomas, Jeanice B; Wise, Stephen A; Wood, Laura J; Yen, James H; Yarita, Takashi; NguyenPho, Agnes; Sorenson, Wendy R; Betz, Joseph M

    2008-10-01

    As part of a collaboration with the National Institutes of Health's Office of Dietary Supplements and the Food and Drug Administration's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, the National Institute of Standards and Technology has developed two standard reference materials (SRMs) representing different forms of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens), SRM 3250 Serenoa repens fruit and SRM 3251 Serenoa repens extract. Both of these SRMs have been characterized for their fatty acid and phytosterol content. The fatty acid concentration values are based on results from gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis while the sterol concentration values are based on results from GC-FID and liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry analysis. In addition, SRM 3250 has been characterized for lead content, and SRM 3251 has been characterized for the content of beta-carotene and tocopherols. SRM 3250 (fruit) has certified concentration values for three phytosterols, 14 fatty acids as triglycerides, and lead along with reference concentration values for four fatty acids as triglycerides and 16 free fatty acids. SRM 3251 (extract) has certified concentration values for three phytosterols, 17 fatty acids as triglycerides, beta-carotene, and gamma-tocopherol along with reference concentration values for three fatty acids as triglycerides, 17 fatty acids as free fatty acids, beta-carotene isomers, and delta-tocopherol and information values for two phytosterols. These SRMs will complement other reference materials currently available with concentrations for similar analytes and are part of a series of SRMs being developed for dietary supplements.

  4. Literature as a source for history The case of the Repen Ripangi (1886

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    Willem van der Molen

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Teks sejarah berbeda dengan teks sastra. Teks sejarah menceritakan apa yangbenar-benar terjadi di masa lalu sementara teks sastra tidaklah demikian.Oleh karena itu, sejarawan sering menghindari penggunaan teks sastra dalampenelitian mereka. Saya berargumen bahwa teks sastra dapat menambahkandimensi lain pada wawasan sejarah, yang tidak ditemukan dalam dokumensejarah. Analisis puisi Jawa berjudul Repen Ripangi dari abad kesembilan belasmenunjukkan bahwa teks ini, selain memberikan laporan yang sangat menariktentang pendamaian ideologis seorang reformis muslim, juga membuka jalanbagi penulisnya dalam menyuarakan kritiknya terhadap kekuasaan kolonialBelanda.

  5. Evaluation of health state and growth of Gypsophila paniculata L. and Gypsophila repens L. groving in soil in variable fertilization

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    Maria Warner

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of NPK fertilization on plant growth and roots yield of Gypsophila paniculata and Gypsophila repens was investigated. The nutrients were applied in different proportions. The health state of Gypsophila was also analyzed. The pathogens isolated from plants showing the diseases symptoms represented eight species: Alternaria dianthicola Neergaard; Fusarium avenaceum (Fr. Sacc.; Fusarium culmorum (W. G.Smith Sacc.; F.equiseti (Cola Sacc.; F.oxysporum Schlecht., Snyder et Hansen; F.sambucinum Fuck; Phytophthora sp. de Bary; Rhizoctonia solani K. Fusarium oxysporum and other species of fungi were isolated from Gypsophila paniculata, whilst from Gypsophila repens only Fusarium oxysporum was obtained.

  6. Combining mechanical rhizome removal and cover crops for Elytrigia repens control in organic barley systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melander, B; Nørremark, M; Kristensen, E F

    2013-01-01

    of vegetative propagules located within the plough layer to allow for quick re-establishment of a plant cover. A field experiment comparing the effects of conventional practices (stubble cultivation) with different combinations of rotary cultivation (One, Two or four passes) and cover crops (none vs. rye......-vetch-mustard mixture) on Elytrigia repens rhizome removal, shoot growth and suppression of a subsequent barley crop was examined in two growing seasons. Four passes with a modified rotary cultivator, where each pass was followed by rhizome removal, reduced E. repens shoot growth in barley by 84% and 97%. In general...

  7. Dirofilaria in Humans, Dogs, and Vectors in Austria (1978–2014)—From Imported Pathogens to the Endemicity of Dirofilaria repens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Auer, Herbert; Leschnik, Michael; Silbermayr, Katja; Duscher, Georg; Joachim, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Background Dirofilaria repens and D. immitis are filarioid helminths with domestic and wild canids as main hosts and mosquitoes as vectors. Both species are known to cause zoonotic diseases, primarily pulmonary (D. immitis), ocular (D. repens), and subcutaneous (D. repens) dirofilariosis. Both D. immitis and D. repens are known as invasive species, and their distribution seems associated with climate change. Until very recently, both species were known to be nonendemic in Austria. Methodology and Principal Findings Metadata on introduced and possibly autochthonous cases of infection with Dirofilaria sp. in dogs and humans in Austria are analysed, together with analyses of mosquito populations from Austria in ongoing studies. In Austria, most cases of Dirofilaria sp. in humans (30 cases of D. repens—six ocular and 24 subcutaneous) and dogs (approximately 50 cases—both D. immitis and D. repens) were most likely imported. However, occasionally infections with D. repens were discussed to be autochthonous (one human case and seven in dogs). The introduction of D. repens to Austria was confirmed very recently, as the parasite was detected in Burgenland (eastern Austria) for the first time in mosquito vectors during a surveillance program. For D. immitis, this could not be confirmed yet, but data from Germany suggest that the successful establishment of this nematode species in Austria is a credible scenario for the near future. Conclusions The first findings of D. repens in mosquito vectors indicate that D. repens presumably invaded in eastern Austria. Climate analyses from central Europe indicate that D. immitis also has the capacity to establish itself in the lowland regions of Austria, given that both canid and culicid hosts are present. PMID:27196049

  8. Badania mieszańców w rodzaju Trifolium L. IV. Cytogenetyka mieszańca Trifolium repens L. × T. isthomocarpum Brot. [Investigations on hybrids of the genus Trifolium L. P. IV. Cytogenetics of the cross T. repens L. × T. isthomocarpum Brot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kazimierski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Interspecific F1 hybrid between Trifolium repens (2n = 32 and T. isthomocarpum (2n = 16 was obtained. The hybrid is sterile and its disturbed meiotic divisions are described. It is suggested from cytogenetic evidence that one of the genomes of T. repens is similar to the genome of T. isthomacarpum.

  9. Relations of enzymes inAspergillus repens grown under sodium chloride stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelavkar, U P; Chhatpar, H S

    1993-09-01

    Aspergillus repens, a salt-pan isolate, was halotolerant. When grown for 72 h (log phase) and 144 h (beginning of stationary phase) in a medium containing 2M sodium chloride, the activities of invertase, malate dehydrogenase (MDH), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) were found to have increased. Control cultures grown in a medium devoid of 2M NaCl failed to show such changes. The activities of MDH, G6PDH, and GDH increased with rising concentrations of Na(+) (as NaCl) when added up to 100MM in vitro. At higher concentrations they decreased. Changes in kinetic constants, Km and Vmax of these enzymes, as well as their de novo synthesis, were found to be some of the responses to NaCl stress-mediated changes.

  10. Variable response of three Trifolium repens ecotypes to soil flooding by seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Anissia C; Colmer, Timothy D; Cawthray, Greg R; Hanley, Mick E

    2014-08-01

    Despite concerns about the impact of rising sea levels and storm surge events on coastal ecosystems, there is remarkably little information on the response of terrestrial coastal plant species to seawater inundation. The aim of this study was to elucidate responses of a glycophyte (white clover, Trifolium repens) to short-duration soil flooding by seawater and recovery following leaching of salts. Using plants cultivated from parent ecotypes collected from a natural soil salinity gradient, the impact of short-duration seawater soil flooding (8 or 24 h) on short-term changes in leaf salt ion and organic solute concentrations was examined, together with longer term impacts on plant growth (stolon elongation) and flowering. There was substantial Cl(-) and Na(+) accumulation in leaves, especially for plants subjected to 24 h soil flooding with seawater, but no consistent variation linked to parent plant provenance. Proline and sucrose concentrations also increased in plants following seawater flooding of the soil. Plant growth and flowering were reduced by longer soil immersion times (seawater flooding followed by drainage and freshwater inputs), but plants originating from more saline soil responded less negatively than those from lower salinity soil. The accumulation of proline and sucrose indicates a potential for solute accumulation as a response to the osmotic imbalance caused by salt ions, while variation in growth and flowering responses between ecotypes points to a natural adaptive capacity for tolerance of short-duration seawater soil flooding in T. repens. Consequently, it is suggested that selection for tolerant ecotypes is possible should the predicted increase in frequency of storm surge flooding events occur. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Antioxidant defense gene analysis in Brassica oleracea and Trifolium repens exposed to Cd and/or Pb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, F; Dumez, S; Brulle, F; Lemière, S; Platel, A; Nesslany, F; Cuny, D; Deram, A; Vandenbulcke, F

    2016-02-01

    This study focused on the expression analysis of antioxidant defense genes in Brassica oleracea and in Trifolium repens. Plants were exposed for 3, 10, and 56 days in microcosms to a field-collected suburban soil spiked by low concentrations of cadmium and/or lead. In both species, metal accumulations and expression levels of genes encoding proteins involved and/or related to antioxidant defense systems (glutathione transferases, peroxidases, catalases, metallothioneins) were quantified in leaves in order to better understand the detoxification processes involved following exposure to metals. It appeared that strongest gene expression variations in T. repens were observed when plants are exposed to Cd (metallothionein and ascorbate peroxidase upregulations) whereas strongest variations in B. oleracea were observed in case of Cd/Pb co-exposures (metallothionein, glutathione transferase, and peroxidase upregulations). Results also suggest that there is a benefit to use complementary species in order to better apprehend the biological effects in ecotoxicology.

  12. In vitro antioxidant assessment and a rapid HPTLC bioautographic method for the detection of anticholinesterase inhibitory activity of Geophila repens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Umesh Chandra Dash; Atish Kumar Sahoo

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:Geophila repens (L.) I.M.Johnst.(Rubiaceae),a small,creeping,perennial herb,is claimed to have memory-enhancing property.The goal of this study was to assess its antioxidant and anticholinesterase activity and conduct a rapid bioautographic enzyme assay for screening acetylcholinesterase (ACHE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibition of G.repens extracts.METHODS:Antioxidant activity of G.repens extracts was assessed by performing 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH),nitric oxide (NO),superoxide (SOD),hydroxyl (OH) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) assays.Anticholinesterase activity was investigated by quantifying the AChE and BChE inhibitory activities of chloroform (CGR),ethyl acetate (EGR) and methanol (MGR) extract fractions from G.repens leaves.A rapid high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) bioautographic method for the detection of AChE and BChE inhibition was performed.RESULTS:Among all extract fractions,EGR exhibited the highest half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) in DPPH,SOD,NO,OH and TAC assays,with IC50 of (38.33 ± 3.21),(45.14 ± 1.78),(59.81 ± 1.32),(39.45 ± 0.79) and (43.76 ± 0.81) μg/mL respectively.EGR displayed competitive,reversible inhibition of AChE and BChE activities with IC50 of (68.63 ± 0.45) and (59.45 ± 0.45) μg/mL,respectively.Total phenolic and flavonoids contents of EGR were found to be 360.42 mg gallic acid equivalents and 257.31 mg quercetin equivalents per gram of extract.Phytoconstituents of the EGR extract that were inhibitors of cholinesterase produced white spots on the yellow background of HPTLC plates in the bioautographic test.CONCLUSION:The results of this study revealed that phenols and flavonoids could be responsible for the antioxidant,anticholinesterase activities of G.repens.

  13. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Methanol Extract of Cissus repens in Mice

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    Ching-Wen Chang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate possible analgesic and anti-inflammatory mechanisms of the CRMeOH. Analgesic effect was evaluated in two models including acetic acid-induced writhing response and formalin-induced paw licking. The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated by λ-carrageenan-induced mouse paw edema and histopathologic analyses. The results showed that CRMeOH (500 mg/kg decreased writhing response in the acetic acid assay and licking time in the formalin test. CRMeOH (100 and 500 mg/kg significantly decreased edema paw volume at 4th to 5th hours after λ-carrageenan had been injected. Histopathologically, CRMeOH abated the level of tissue destruction and swelling of the edema paws. These results were indicated that anti-inflammatory mechanism of CRMeOH may be due to declined levels of NO and MDA in the edema paw through increasing the activities of SOD, GPx, and GRd in the liver. Additionally, CRMeOH also decreased IL-1β, IL-6, NFκB, TNF-α, COX-2, and iNOS levels. The contents of two active ingredients, ursolic acid and lupeol, were quantitatively determined. This paper demonstrated possible mechanisms for the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of CRMeOH and provided evidence for the classical treatment of Cissus repens in inflammatory diseases.

  14. Study on the phenolic constituents of the flowers and leaves of Trifolium repens L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kicel, Agnieszka; Wolbiś, Maria

    2012-11-01

    The flowers and leaves of Trifolium repens L. (Fabaceae) were subjected to phytochemical investigation in order to identify their major chemical constituents and to evaluate in vitro antioxidant activity of the isolated compounds against DPPH˙. A total of 12 flavonoids, pterocarpan and methyl caffeate were isolated, then characterised by UV, MS, NMR spectroscopy and identified as quercetin and kaempferol 3-O-(6″-α-rhamnopyranosyl-2″-β-xylopyranosyl)-β-galactopyranosides (1, 2), kaempferol 3-O-(2″,6″-α-dirhamnopyranosyl)-β-galactopyranoside, mauritianin (3), quercetin and kaempferol 3-O-(2″-β-xylopyranosyl)-β-galactopyranosides (4, 5), kaempferol and quercetin 3-O-β-(6″-O-acetyl)-galactopyranosides (6, 7), trifolin (8), hyperoside (9), myricetin 3-O-β-galactopyranoside (10), quercetin (11), ononin (12), medicarpin 3-O-β-glucopyranoside (13) and methyl caffeate (14). Mauritianin, ononin, pterocarpan and methyl caffeate have been reported in this plant for the first time. The compounds 4, 7, 9, 10, and 11 were tested for their antioxidant effect against DPPH˙. All studied compounds were found to have potent activity, but the most effective in the test were compounds 9, 10 and 11 (EC(50) values in the range 7.51-9.52 µM).

  15. Molecular evolution of the Li/li chemical defence polymorphism in white clover (Trifolium repens L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, K M; Sutherland, B L; Small, L L

    2007-10-01

    White clover (Trifolium repens) is naturally polymorphic for cyanogenesis (hydrogen cyanide release following tissue damage). The ecological factors favouring cyanogenic and acyanogenic plants have been examined in numerous studies over the last half century, making this one of the best-documented examples of an adaptive polymorphism in plants. White clover cyanogenesis is controlled by two, independently segregating Mendelian genes: Ac/ac controls the presence/absence of cyanogenic glucosides; and Li/li controls the presence/absence of their hydrolysing enzyme, linamarase. In this study, we examine the molecular evolution and population genetics of Li as it relates to the cyanogenesis polymorphism. We report here that Li exists as a single-copy gene in plants possessing linamarase activity, and that the absence of enzyme activity in li/li plants is correlated with the absence of much or all of the gene from the white clover genome. Consistent with this finding, we confirm by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction that Li gene expression is absent in plants lacking enzyme activity. In a molecular population genetic analysis of Li and three unlinked genes using a worldwide sample of clover plants, we find an absence of nucleotide variation and statistically significant deviations from neutrality at Li; these findings are consistent with recent positive directional selection at this cyanogenesis locus.

  16. Cut from the same cloth: The convergent evolution of dwarf morphotypes of the Carex flava group (Cyperaceae) in Circum-Mediterranean mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez-Benítez, Carmen; Fernández-Mazuecos, Mario; Martín-Bravo, Santiago

    2017-01-01

    Plants growing in high-mountain environments may share common morphological features through convergent evolution resulting from an adaptative response to similar ecological conditions. The Carex flava species complex (sect. Ceratocystis, Cyperaceae) includes four dwarf morphotypes from Circum-Mediterranean mountains whose taxonomic status has remained obscure due to their apparent morphological resemblance. In this study we investigate whether these dwarf mountain morphotypes result from convergent evolution or common ancestry, and whether there are ecological differences promoting differentiation between the dwarf morphotypes and their taxonomically related large, well-developed counterparts. We used phylogenetic analyses of nrDNA (ITS) and ptDNA (rps16 and 5’trnK) sequences, ancestral state reconstruction, multivariate analyses of macro- and micromorphological data, and species distribution modeling. Dwarf morphotype populations were found to belong to three different genetic lineages, and several morphotype shifts from well-developed to dwarf were suggested by ancestral state reconstructions. Distribution modeling supported differences in climatic niche at regional scale between the large forms, mainly from lowland, and the dwarf mountain morphotypes. Our results suggest that dwarf mountain morphotypes within this sedge group are small forms of different lineages that have recurrently adapted to mountain habitats through convergent evolution. PMID:29281689

  17. Elucidating the affinities and habitat of ancient, widespread Cyperaceae: Volkeria messelensis gen. et sp. nov., a fossil mapanioid sedge from the Eocene of Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Selena Y; Collinson, Margaret E; Simpson, David A; Rudall, Paula J; Marone, Federica; Stampanoni, Marco

    2009-08-01

    The sedges (family Cyperaceae) are an economically and ecologically important monocot group dating back at least to the Paleocene. While modern genera are mostly unknown before the Oligocene, several extinct taxa are recognized as the earliest sedges. Their affinities have been unclear until now, because they are found as isolated, often abraded fruits or endocarps. Exceptionally preserved sedge fossils from the Middle Eocene of Messel, Germany yield more characters for identification. Fossil cyperacean infructescences with in situ pollen are recognized for the first time and show features of the early-divergent mapanioid sedges. Pollen resembles that of tribe Hypolytreae. Comparisons with extant taxa suggest the closest affinities with Hypolytrum and Mapania. However, the Messel fossils represent a distinct taxon, Volkeria messelensis gen. et sp. nov. Without the additional characters of infructescence and pollen, the Messel fruits would have been placed in the extinct genus Caricoidea, a typical Eocene sedge that was widespread across Eurasia. Similarities of fruit structure suggest that Caricoidea was also a mapanioid sedge. Mapanioid sedges are found today in tropical wet forests and swamps, a distribution suggesting that early sedges occupied a similar habitat, unlike many modern sedges, and were not precursors to open grassland vegetation.

  18. Salinity gradient in the Manamo River, a dammed distributary of the Orinoco Delta, and its influence on the presence of Eichhornia crassipes and Paspalum repens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivares, E.; Colonnello, G.

    2000-01-01

    We describe a saline gradient established by the damming of the Manamo River, a former freshwater environment, in the Orinoco Delta and the influence of this gradient on the distribution of Eichhornia crassipes Solms (water hyacinth), and Paspalum repens Berg, The two most abundant aquatic macrophytes. The present work demonstrates, on the basis of measurements of leaf osmolality and ion concentrations, that salinity is acting in the dammed river as a regulator of the studied species E. Crassipes is a potential weed which was originally controlled by the hydrodynamics of waters in the Orinoco River. Plants and river water were sampled in ten sites, three of them with high salinity. The osmolality as well as relative proportions of the main soluble ions explain the relative tolerance to salinity of E. Crassipes in comparison with P. Repens. In sites where both species were present, the K+/Na+ ratio in the leaf sap was higher in the E. Crassipes than in P. repens (authors)

  19. Survival of Ranunculus repens L. (creeping buttercup) in an amphibious habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, D E; Waldren, S

    2003-01-01

    The turlough form of Ranunculus repens is subjected to several months' complete inundation with hard groundwater. Experimental flooding to the level of the soil surface had no effect on turlough or ruderal populations relative to drained controls. Experimental submergence resulted in direct tissue death of the ruderal population but did not affect the turlough population relative to drained controls. There was no detectable difference in the proportion of aerenchyma in drained, flooded and submerged roots of plants from either population. The proportion of aerenchyma increased with root age in the ruderal population. Up to twice the proportion of aerenchyma occurred in the lower third of the root in the turlough population relative to the middle and upper thirds. Submergence in artificially hardened tap water increased the amount of tissue death in the ruderal population, whereas it appeared to enhance the growth of plants from the turlough population relative to that of plants submerged in tap water. Only the ruderal population demonstrated a depth accommodation response in submerged conditions. Root concentrations of ethanol-soluble carbohydrates were up to three times higher in a field- collected turlough population during winter and autumn months than those in a ruderal population. Low levels of ethanol-insoluble carbohydrates were present in the turlough population but were absent from the ruderal population. Starch concentrations fluctuated greatly in the turlough population and were generally higher than those in the ruderal population. These results, together with those from previous investigations, suggest that the turlough population survives prolonged submergence by maintaining low levels of submerged photosynthesis, which may circulate oxygen within the plant tissues, and by utilizing storage carbohydrates for maintenance respiration. Copyright 2003 Annals of Botany Company

  20. Hypoglycemic activity of polysaccharide fractions containing ß-glucans from extracts of Rhynchelytrum repens (Willd. C.E. Hubb., Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C.C.F.F. De Paula

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available ß-Glucans are soluble fibers with physiological functions, such as interference with absorption of sugars and reduction of serum lipid levels. The objective of the present study was to analyze the distribution of ß-glucans in different tissues of the African grass species Rhynchelytrum repens and also to evaluate their hypoglycemic activity. Leaf blades, sheaths, stems, and young leaves of R. repens were submitted to extraction with 4 M KOH. Analysis of the fractions revealed the presence of arabinose, glucose, xylose, and traces of rhamnose and galactose. The presence of ß-glucan in these fractions was confirmed by hydrolyzing the polymers with endo-ß-glucanase from Bacillus subtilis, followed by HPLC analysis of the characteristic oligosaccharides produced. The 4 M KOH fractions from different tissues were subjected to gel permeation chromatography on Sepharose 4B, with separation of polysaccharides with different degrees of polymerization, the highest molecular mass (above 2000 kDa being found in young leaves. The molecular mass of the leaf blade polymers was similar (250 kDa to that of maize coleoptile ß-glucan used for comparison. The 4 M KOH fraction injected into rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes showed hypoglycemic activity, reducing blood sugar to normal levels for approximately 24 h. This performance was better than that obtained with pure ß-glucan from barley, which decreased blood sugar levels for about 4 h. These results suggest that the activity of ß-glucans from R. repens is responsible for the use of this plant extract as a hypoglycemic drug in folk medicine.

  1. Influencia de la pendiente del terreno en la persistencia de Trifolium repens Ladino en pastizales de monte en Galicia

    OpenAIRE

    de Zulueta y Artaloytia, Julián

    2011-01-01

    R E S U M E NEnsayo comparativo de la diferencia de persistencia que presenta Trifolium repens Ladino cuando se siembra en laderas de pendiente 12 por 100 o menor del 4 por 100 en pastizales de monte con suelo arenoso y período de sequía estival. Estas condiciones de suelo y clima concurren, más o menos, en el polígono que tiene como vértices: Corcubión, Negreira, La Entrada, Cercedo y toda la zona al sur de esta localidad en la provincia de Pontevedra, exceptuando las altitudes superiores a ...

  2. Kunitz Proteinase Inhibitors Limit Water Stress Responses in White Clover (Trifolium repens L.) Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Afsana; Leung, Susanna; Nikmatullah, Aluh; Dijkwel, Paul P; McManus, Michael T

    2017-01-01

    The response of plants to water deficiency or drought is a complex process, the perception of which is triggered at the molecular level before any visible morphological responses are detected. It was found that different groups of plant proteinase inhibitors (PIs) are induced and play an active role during abiotic stress conditions such as drought. Our previous work with the white clover ( Trifolium repens L.) Kunitz Proteinase Inhibitor ( Tr-KPI ) gene family showed that Tr-KPIs are differentially regulated to ontogenetic and biotic stress associated cues and that, at least some members of this gene family may be required to maintain cellular homeostasis. Altered cellular homeostasis may also affect abiotic stress responses and therefore, we aimed to understand if distinct Tr-PKI members function during drought stress. First, the expression level of three Tr-KPI genes, Tr-KPI1 , Tr-KPI2 , and Tr-KPI5 , was measured in two cultivars and one white clover ecotype with differing capacity to tolerate drought. The expression of Tr-KPI1 and Tr-KPI5 increased in response to water deficiency and this was exaggerated when the plants were treated with a previous period of water deficiency. In contrast, proline accumulation and increased expression of Tr-NCED1 , a gene encoding a protein involved in ABA biosynthesis, was delayed in plants that experienced a previous drought period. RNAi knock-down of Tr-KPI1 and Tr-KPI5 resulted in increased proline accumulation in leaf tissue of plants grown under both well-watered and water-deficit conditions. In addition, increased expression of genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis was found. The data suggests that Tr-KPIs , particularly Tr-KPI5 , have an explicit function during water limitation. The results also imply that the Tr-KPI family has different in planta proteinase targets and that the functions of this protein family are not solely restricted to one of storage proteins or in response to biotic stress.

  3. Presence of Trifolium repens promotes complementarity of water use and N facilitation in diverse grass mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline eHernandez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Legume species promote productivity and increase the digestibility of herbage in grasslands. Considerable experimental data also indicate that communities with legumes produce more above-ground biomass than is expected from monocultures. While it has been attributed to N facilitation, evidence to identify the mechanisms involved is still lacking and the role of complementarity in soil water acquisition by vertical root differentiation remains unclear. We used a 20-month mesocosm experiment to investigate the effects of species richness (single species, two- and five-species mixtures and functional diversity (presence of the legume Trifolium repens on a set of traits related to light, N and water use and measured at community level. We found a positive effect of Trifolium presence and abundance on biomass production and complementarity effects in the two-species mixtures from the second year. In addition the community traits related to water and N acquisition and use (leaf area, N, water-use efficiency and deep root growth were higher in the presence of Trifolium. With a multiple regression approach, we showed that the traits related to water acquisition and use were with N the main determinants of biomass production and complementarity effects in diverse mixtures. At shallow soil layers, lower root mass of Trifolium and higher soil moisture should increase soil water availability for the associated grass species. Conversely at deep soil layer, higher root growth and lower soil moisture mirror soil resource use increase of mixtures. Altogether, these results highlight N facilitation but almost soil vertical differentiation and thus complementarity for water acquisition and use in mixtures with Trifolium. Contrary to grass-Trifolium mixtures, no significant over-yielding was measured for grass mixtures even those having complementary traits (short and shallow vs tall and deep. Thus, vertical complementarity for soil resources uptake in mixtures

  4. Presence of Trifolium repens Promotes Complementarity of Water Use and N Facilitation in Diverse Grass Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Pauline; Picon-Cochard, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Legume species promote productivity and increase the digestibility of herbage in grasslands. Considerable experimental data also indicate that communities with legumes produce more above-ground biomass than is expected from monocultures. While it has been attributed to N facilitation, evidence to identify the mechanisms involved is still lacking and the role of complementarity in soil water acquisition by vertical root differentiation remains unclear. We used a 20-months mesocosm experiment to investigate the effects of species richness (single species, two- and five-species mixtures) and functional diversity (presence of the legume Trifolium repens) on a set of traits related to light, N and water use and measured at community level. We found a positive effect of Trifolium presence and abundance on biomass production and complementarity effects in the two-species mixtures from the second year. In addition the community traits related to water and N acquisition and use (leaf area, N, water-use efficiency, and deep root growth) were higher in the presence of Trifolium. With a multiple regression approach, we showed that the traits related to water acquisition and use were with N the main determinants of biomass production and complementarity effects in diverse mixtures. At shallow soil layers, lower root mass of Trifolium and higher soil moisture should increase soil water availability for the associated grass species. Conversely at deep soil layer, higher root growth and lower soil moisture mirror soil resource use increase of mixtures. Altogether, these results highlight N facilitation but almost soil vertical differentiation and thus complementarity for water acquisition and use in mixtures with Trifolium. Contrary to grass-Trifolium mixtures, no significant over-yielding was measured for grass mixtures even those having complementary traits (short and shallow vs. tall and deep). Thus, vertical complementarity for soil resources uptake in mixtures was not only

  5. Does white clover (Trifolium repens abundance in temperate pastures determine Sitona obsoletus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae larval populations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Richard McNeill

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To determine if host plant abundance determined the size of clover root weevil (CRW Sitona obsoletus larval populations, a study was conducted over four years in plots sown in ryegrass (Lolium perenne (cv. Nui sown at either 6 or 30 kg/ha and white clover (Trifolium repens sown at a uniform rate of 8 kg/ha. This provided a range of % white clover content to investigate CRW population establishment and impacts on white clover survival. Larval sampling was carried out in spring (October when larval densities are near their spring peak at Lincoln (Canterbury, New Zealand with % clover measured in autumn (April and spring (September of each year. Overall, mean larval densities measured in spring 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015 were 310, 38, 59 and 31 larvae m-2, respectively. There was a significant decline in larval populations between 2012 and 2013, but spring populations were relatively uniform thereafter. The mean % white clover measured in autumns of 2012 to 2015 was 17, 10, 3 and 11%, respectively. In comparison, mean spring % white clover from 2012 to 2015, averaged c. 5% each year. Analysis relating spring (October larval populations to % white clover measured in each plot in autumn (April found the 2012 larval population to be statistically significantly larger in the ryegrass 6 kg/ha plots than 30 kg/ha plots. Thereafter, sowing rate had no significant effect on larval populations. From 2013 to 2015, spring larval populations had a negative relationship with the previous autumn % white clover with the relationship highly significant for the 2014 data. When CRW larval populations in spring 2013 to 2015 were predicted from the 2013 to 2015 autumn % white clover, respectively, based on their positive relationship in 2012, the predicted densities were substantially larger than those observed. Conversely, when 2015 spring larval data and % clover was regressed against 2012-2014 larval populations, observed densities tended to be higher than predicted

  6. Does the addition of Serenoa repens to tamsulosin improve its therapeutical efficacy in benign prostatic hyperplasia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argirović Aleksandar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. It has been observed that a large number of patients with low urinary tract symptoms due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (LUTS/BPH has been treated with a combination of tamsulosin (TAM + Serenoa repens (SR (TAM + SR. The aim of this study was to compare a combination TAM + SR with TAM and SR alone, to see if there was any difference in efficacy and tolerance of each in patients with LUTS/BPH. Methods. In this prospective study patients had to have prostate volume (PV 3, a maximal flow rate (Qmax of 5-15 mL/s, with post voiding residual volume (PVR < 150 mL and serum prostatic antigen (PSA < 4 ng/mL. TAM (0.4 mg was administered once a day, SR (320 mg daily or SR (320 mg + TAM (0.4 mg daily for a median period of 6 months. Results. A total of 297 patients were recruited, whereas 265 patients were fully available: 87 into the group TAM, 97 into the group SR and 81 into the group TAM + SR. There was no statistically significant difference between the treatment groups in the sense of demographic and other baseline parameters. No difference was found among the 3 treatment groups, neither in the major endpoint of the study in the sense of a change between baseline and final evaluation in total IPSS, obstructive and irritative subscores, improvement of QoLs, increase in Qmax, nor for the second endpoint including diminution of PV, PSA and PVR. During the treatment period 20 (23% of the patients managed with TAM and 17 (21% with TAM + SR had drug-treated with related adverse reactions. No adverse effect was detected in the group SR. Conclusion. Treatment of BPH by both SR and TAM seems to be efficacious alone. None of them had superiority over another and, additionally, a combined therapy (TAM + SR does not provide extra benefits. Furthermore, SR is a well-tolerated agent that can be used alternatively in the treatment of LUTS/BPH.

  7. Rooting depth and root depth distribution of Trifolium repens × T. uniflorum interspecific hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, S N; Hofmann, R W; Williams, W M; van Koten, C

    2016-05-20

    Traits related to root depth distribution were examined in Trifolium repens × T. uniflorum backcross 1 (BC 1 ) hybrids to determine whether root characteristics of white clover could be improved by interspecific hybridization. Two white clover cultivars, two T. uniflorum accessions and two BC 1 populations were grown in 1 -m deep tubes of sand culture. Maximum rooting depth and root mass distribution were measured at four harvests over time, and root distribution data were fitted with a regression model to provide measures of root system shape. Morphological traits were measured at two depths at harvest 3. Root system shape of the hybrids was more similar to T. uniflorum than to white clover. The hybrids and T. uniflorum had a higher rate of decrease in root mass with depth than white clover, which would result in higher proportions of root mass in the upper profile. Percentage total root mass at 100-200 mm depth was higher for T. uniflorum than white clover, and for Crusader BC 1 than 'Crusader'. Roots of the hybrids and T. uniflorum also penetrated deeper than those of white clover. T. uniflorum had thicker roots at 50-100 mm deep than the other entries, and more of its fine root mass at 400-500 mm. The hybrids and white clover had more of their fine root mass higher in the profile. Consequently, T. uniflorum had a higher root length density at 400-500 mm than most entries, and a smaller decrease in root length density with depth. These results demonstrate that rooting characteristics of white clover can be altered by hybridization with T. uniflorum, potentially improving water and nutrient acquisition and drought resistance. Root traits of T. uniflorum are likely to be adaptations to soil moisture and fertility in its natural environment. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Kunitz Proteinase Inhibitors Limit Water Stress Responses in White Clover (Trifolium repens L. Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsana Islam

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The response of plants to water deficiency or drought is a complex process, the perception of which is triggered at the molecular level before any visible morphological responses are detected. It was found that different groups of plant proteinase inhibitors (PIs are induced and play an active role during abiotic stress conditions such as drought. Our previous work with the white clover (Trifolium repens L. Kunitz Proteinase Inhibitor (Tr-KPI gene family showed that Tr-KPIs are differentially regulated to ontogenetic and biotic stress associated cues and that, at least some members of this gene family may be required to maintain cellular homeostasis. Altered cellular homeostasis may also affect abiotic stress responses and therefore, we aimed to understand if distinct Tr-PKI members function during drought stress. First, the expression level of three Tr-KPI genes, Tr-KPI1, Tr-KPI2, and Tr-KPI5, was measured in two cultivars and one white clover ecotype with differing capacity to tolerate drought. The expression of Tr-KPI1 and Tr-KPI5 increased in response to water deficiency and this was exaggerated when the plants were treated with a previous period of water deficiency. In contrast, proline accumulation and increased expression of Tr-NCED1, a gene encoding a protein involved in ABA biosynthesis, was delayed in plants that experienced a previous drought period. RNAi knock-down of Tr-KPI1 and Tr-KPI5 resulted in increased proline accumulation in leaf tissue of plants grown under both well-watered and water-deficit conditions. In addition, increased expression of genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis was found. The data suggests that Tr-KPIs, particularly Tr-KPI5, have an explicit function during water limitation. The results also imply that the Tr-KPI family has different in planta proteinase targets and that the functions of this protein family are not solely restricted to one of storage proteins or in response to biotic stress.

  9. Does White Clover (Trifolium repens) Abundance in Temperate Pastures Determine Sitona obsoletus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Larval Populations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Mark R; van Koten, Chikako; Cave, Vanessa M; Chapman, David; Hodgson, Hamish

    2016-01-01

    To determine if host plant abundance determined the size of clover root weevil (CRW) Sitona obsoletus larval populations, a study was conducted over 4 years in plots sown in ryegrass ( Lolium perenne ) (cv. Nui) sown at either 6 or 30 kg/ha and white clover ( Trifolium repens ) sown at a uniform rate of 8 kg/ha. This provided a range of % white clover content to investigate CRW population establishment and impacts on white clover survival. Larval sampling was carried out in spring (October) when larval densities are near their spring peak at Lincoln (Canterbury, New Zealand) with % clover measured in autumn (April) and spring (September) of each year. Overall, mean larval densities measured in spring 2012-2015 were 310, 38, 59, and 31 larvae m -2 , respectively. There was a significant decline in larval populations between 2012 and 2013, but spring populations were relatively uniform thereafter. The mean % white clover measured in autumns of 2012 to 2015 was 17, 10, 3, and 11%, respectively. In comparison, mean spring % white clover from 2012 to 2015, averaged c. 5% each year. Analysis relating spring (October) larval populations to % white clover measured in each plot in autumn (April) found the 2012 larval population to be statistically significantly larger in the ryegrass 6 kg/ha plots than 30 kg/ha plots. Thereafter, sowing rate had no significant effect on larval populations. From 2013 to 2015, spring larval populations had a negative relationship with the previous autumn % white clover with the relationship highly significant for the 2014 data. When CRW larval populations in spring 2013 to 2015 were predicted from the 2013 to 2015 autumn % white clover, respectively, based on their positive relationship in 2012, the predicted densities were substantially larger than those observed. Conversely, when 2015 spring larval data and % clover was regressed against 2012-2014 larval populations, observed densities tended to be higher than predicted, but the numbers

  10. Lipid Nanocarriers for Oral Delivery of Serenoa repens CO2 Extract: A Study of Microemulsion and Self-Microemulsifying Drug Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guccione, Clizia; Bergonzi, Maria Camilla; Awada, Khaled M; Piazzini, Vieri; Bilia, Anna Rita

    2018-07-01

    The aim of this study was the development and characterization of lipid nanocarriers using food grade components for oral delivery of Serenoa repens CO 2 extract, namely microemulsions (MEs) and self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDSs) to improve the oral absorption. A commercial blend (CB) containing 320 of S. repens CO 2 extract plus the aqueous soluble extracts of nettle root and pineapple stem was formulated in two MEs and two SMEDDSs. The optimized ME loaded with the CB (CBM2) had a very low content of water (only 17.3%). The drug delivery systems were characterized by dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a diode-array detector analyses in order to evaluate the size, the homogeneity, the morphology, and the encapsulation efficiency. β -carotene was selected as marker for the quantitative HPLC analysis. Additionally, physical and chemical stabilities were acceptable during 3 wk at 4 °C. Stability of these nanocarriers in simulated stomach and intestinal conditions was proved. Finally, the improvement of oral absorption of S. repens was studied in vitro using parallel artificial membrane permeability assay. An enhancement of oral permeation was found in both CBM2 and CBS2 nanoformulations comparing with the CB and S. repens CO 2 extract. The best performance was obtained by the CBM2 nanoformulation (~ 17%) predicting a 30 - 70% passive oral human absorption in vivo . Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Mycorrhizal associations as Salix repens L. communities in succession of dune ecosystems II Mycorrhizal dynamics and interactions of ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, van der E.W.; Vosatka, M.

    2000-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (EcM) and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) associations of Salix repens were studied at 16 sites in different successional stages of dune ecosystems (calcareous-acidic, dry-wet) in the Netherlands. High EcM colonization, low AM colonization, and lack of differences between habitats

  12. The prevalence of Dirofilaria repens in cats, healthy dogs and dogs with concurrent babesiosis in an expansion zone in central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajer, Anna; Rodo, Anna; Mierzejewska, Ewa J; Tołkacz, Katarzyna; Welc-Faleciak, Renata

    2016-09-05

    Dirofilaria repens is a mosquito-transmitted, filarial nematode parasitizing dogs, cats and other carnivores. Recently, this parasite has spread in central Europe, including Poland. The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of D. repens in cats and dogs in different regions of the country and to investigate the occurrence and consequences of co-infection with another fast-spreading vector-borne parasite, Babesia canis. In the period 2013-2015, 147 blood samples from cats from central Poland and 257 blood samples from dogs from central, northern, southern and western Poland were collected. Prevalence of D. repens was determined by amplification and sequencing of the 12S rDNA gene fragment. Among dogs, 94 samples originated from clinically healthy dogs from central Poland (Masovia) and 58 samples originated from dogs that were infected with B. canis. Prevalence of D. repens was compared between these two groups of dogs. For the first time D. repens was identified in a cat from central Europe (0.7 % [95 % CL: 0-4.1 %]). The DNA of the filarial endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia was detected in two cats (1.4 % [95 % CL: 0-5.5 %]). In dogs, the parasite was detected only in samples from central Poland (Masovia) (local prevalence = 38 % [95 % CL: 25.9-51.8 %]). Prevalence of D. repens was significantly higher in dogs with babesiosis (90 % [95 % CL: 81.6-94.5 %]). Co-infections of D. repens and B. canis were confirmed by sequencing in 30 dogs with babesiosis, but no co-infections were identified in healthy dogs from Masovia. Statistical analyses of blood parameters revealed that dogs with co-infections suffered more severe anemia and thrombocytopenia, but presented milder changes in biochemical parameters (i.e. less elevated concentration of alkaline phosphatase [ALP] and serum urea) suggesting lower risk of hepatic or renal failure in comparison to dogs infected only with B. canis. These findings are important due to the spread of

  13. Microfilaricidal efficacy of a single administration of Advocate(®) (Bayer Animal Health) in dogs naturally infected with Dirofilaria immitis or Dirofilaria repens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frangipane di Regalbono, Antonio; Di Cesare, Angela; Traversa, Donato; Simonato, Giulia; Poser, Helen; Danesi, Patrizia; Furnari, Carmelo; Russi, Ilaria; Raele, Donato Antonio; Crisi, Paolo; Pampurini, Fabrizio; Pietrobelli, Mario

    2016-08-15

    The present study evaluated the microfilaricidal efficacy of a single application of the spot-on containing imidacloprid 10%/moxidectin 2.5% (Advocate(®), Bayer Animal Health) in dogs naturally infected either by Dirofilaria immitis or Dirofilaria repens. Dogs living in north-eastern and central-southern Italy, endemic for D. immitis and D. repens respectively, were randomly screened. Sixteen animals, eight infected with D. immitis and eight with D. repens, and fulfilling inclusion criteria were enrolled. Dogs infected with D. immitis received an adulticide treatment prior to the study and Advocate(®) 3 weeks after. The animals were divided in blocks of two (1:1, T1:T2) animals each, where Day 0 (D0) had an interval of 15days to compare T2 vs. T1 dogs during the first fortnight of examination (i.e. T2 dogs acted as control animals at each examination). At baseline (Days -15 and 0 for T2 and T1 dogs, respectively) the animals had a range of microfilaraemia of 180-99.700mff/ml (D. immitis) and 60-750 mff/ml (D. repens). All animals received a topical administration of Advocate(®) at D0 and were examined for microfilariae with microscopic and molecular tests at D15, D30, D60 and D90. All animals scored negative for mff at the first control post-treatment and throughout the study, with the exception of two D. immitis- infected animals that had a 2 mff/ml count at D15, and then become negative from Day 30 onwards. No adverse events were observed. The present study demonstrates the safety and the high microfilaricidal efficacy (99.97% and 100% for D. immitis and D. repens, respectively) of a single dose of moxidectin contained in Advocate(®) in naturally infected dogs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Combined use of isotopic fingerprint and metabolomics analysis for the authentication of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perini, Matteo; Paolini, Mauro; Camin, Federica; Appendino, Giovanni; Vitulo, Francesca; De Combarieu, Eric; Sardone, Nicola; Martinelli, Ernesto Marco; Pace, Roberto

    2018-04-22

    Saw palmetto (Serenoa repens, SP) is the most expensive oil source of the pharmaceutical and healthfood market, and its high cost and recurrent shortages have spurred the development of designer blends of fatty acids to mimic its phytochemical profile and fraudulently comply with the current authentication assays. To detect this adulteration, the combined use of isotopic fingerprint and omic analysis has been investigated, using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to handle the complex databases generated by these techniques and to identify the possible source of the adulterants. Surprisingly, the presence of fatty acids of animal origin turned out to be widespread in commercial samples of saw palmetto oil. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Potential for the development of tolerance by Aspergillus amstelodami, A. repens and A. ruber after repeated exposure to potassium sorbate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viñas, I; Morlans, I; Sanchis, V

    1990-01-01

    Three strains of A. amstelodami, A. repens and A. ruber were exposed to various levels of potassium sorbate, and the MICs were determined. Selected strains of the molds were then repeatedly exposed to subinhibitory levels of the compound to determine whether increased tolerance might develop. The MIC of sorbate (pH 5.5 or 6.5) for 3 species of Aspergillus was 0.07%. Increasing levels of sorbate resulted in increasing growth suppression of the molds. The 3 Aspergillus species were tested for increased tolerance to potassium sorbate, and none was found. They developed a slight increase in tolerance dependent upon pH and the mold strain by subculturing at low levels of sorbate.

  16. Influence of quantity and lability of sediment organic matter on the biomass of two isoetids, Littorella uniflora and Echinodorus repens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pulido Pérez, Cristina; Lucassen, E.C.H.E.; Pedersen, Ole

    2011-01-01

    of the experiment, plants were harvested and their biomass, tissue nutrient concentration and (for L. uniflora) uprooting force were measured. 3. For both species, all plants survived and showed no signs of stress on all types of sediment. The biomass of E. repens increased as the fraction of organic matter...... was increased (from 6 to 39% of organic content, depending upon sediment type). However, in some of the sediment types, a higher fraction of organic matter led to a decline in biomass. The biomass of L. uniflora was less responsive to organic content and was decreased significantly only when the least labile......P>1. Despite real improvement in the water quality of many previously eutrophic lakes, the recovery of submerged vegetation has been poor. This lack of recovery is possibly caused by the accumulation of organic matter on the top layer of the sediment, which is produced under eutrophic conditions...

  17. Experimental evidence for the ancestry of allotetraploid Trifolium repens and creation of synthetic forms with value for plant breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Warren M

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background White clover (Trifolium repens is a ubiquitous weed of the temperate world that through use of improved cultivars has also become the most important legume of grazed pastures world-wide. It has long been suspected to be allotetraploid, but the diploid ancestral species have remained elusive. Putative diploid ancestors were indicated by DNA sequence phylogeny to be T. pallescens and T. occidentale. Here, we use further DNA evidence as well as a combination of molecular cytogenetics (FISH and GISH and experimental hybridization to test the hypothesis that white clover originated as a hybrid between T. pallescens and T. occidentale. Results T. pallescens plants were identified with chloroplast trnL intron DNA sequences identical to those of white clover. Similarly, T. occidentale plants with nuclear ITS sequences identical to white clover were also identified. Reciprocal GISH experiments, alternately using labeled genomic DNA probes from each of the putative ancestral species on the same white clover cells, showed that half of the chromosomes hybridized with each probe. F1 hybrids were generated by embryo rescue and these showed strong interspecific chromosome pairing and produced a significant frequency of unreduced gametes, indicating the likely mode of polyploidization. The F1 hybrids are inter-fertile with white clover and function as synthetic white clovers, a valuable new resource for the re-incorporation of ancestral genomes into modern white clover for future plant breeding. Conclusions Evidence from DNA sequence analyses, molecular cytogenetics, interspecific hybridization and breeding experiments supports the hypothesis that a diploid alpine species (T. pallescens hybridized with a diploid coastal species (T. occidentale to generate tetraploid T. repens. The coming together of these two narrowly adapted species (one alpine and the other maritime, along with allotetraploidy, has led to a transgressive hybrid with a

  18. Experimental evidence for the ancestry of allotetraploid Trifolium repens and creation of synthetic forms with value for plant breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Warren M; Ellison, Nicholas W; Ansari, Helal A; Verry, Isabelle M; Hussain, S Wajid

    2012-04-24

    White clover (Trifolium repens) is a ubiquitous weed of the temperate world that through use of improved cultivars has also become the most important legume of grazed pastures world-wide. It has long been suspected to be allotetraploid, but the diploid ancestral species have remained elusive. Putative diploid ancestors were indicated by DNA sequence phylogeny to be T. pallescens and T. occidentale. Here, we use further DNA evidence as well as a combination of molecular cytogenetics (FISH and GISH) and experimental hybridization to test the hypothesis that white clover originated as a hybrid between T. pallescens and T. occidentale. T. pallescens plants were identified with chloroplast trnL intron DNA sequences identical to those of white clover. Similarly, T. occidentale plants with nuclear ITS sequences identical to white clover were also identified. Reciprocal GISH experiments, alternately using labeled genomic DNA probes from each of the putative ancestral species on the same white clover cells, showed that half of the chromosomes hybridized with each probe. F1 hybrids were generated by embryo rescue and these showed strong interspecific chromosome pairing and produced a significant frequency of unreduced gametes, indicating the likely mode of polyploidization. The F1 hybrids are inter-fertile with white clover and function as synthetic white clovers, a valuable new resource for the re-incorporation of ancestral genomes into modern white clover for future plant breeding. Evidence from DNA sequence analyses, molecular cytogenetics, interspecific hybridization and breeding experiments supports the hypothesis that a diploid alpine species (T. pallescens) hybridized with a diploid coastal species (T. occidentale) to generate tetraploid T. repens. The coming together of these two narrowly adapted species (one alpine and the other maritime), along with allotetraploidy, has led to a transgressive hybrid with a broad adaptive range.

  19. Genotypic and Phenotypic Diversity Does Not Affect Productivity and Drought Response in Competitive Stands of Trifolium repens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Heidrun; During, Heinjo J; Bruine de Bruin, Fabienne; Vermeulen, Peter J; Anten, Niels P R

    2016-01-01

    Clonal plants can form dense canopies in which plants of different genetic origin are competing for the uptake of essential resources. The competitive relationships among these clones are likely to be affected by extreme environmental conditions, such as prolonged drought spells, which are predicted to occur more frequently due to global climate change. This, in turn, may alter characteristics of the ecological system and its associated functioning. We hypothesized that the relative success of individual clones will depend on the size of the ramets as ramets with larger leaves and longer petioles (large ramets) were predicted to have a competitive advantage in terms of increased light interception over smaller-sized ramets. Under drier conditions the relative performances of genotypes were expected to change leading to a change in genotype ranking. We also hypothesized that increased genotypic and phenotypic diversity will increase stand performance and resistance to drought. These hypotheses and the mechanisms responsible for shifts in competitive relationships were investigated by subjecting genotypes of the important pasture legume Trifolium repens to competition with either genetically identical clones, genetically different but similarly sized clones, or genetically as well as morphologically different clones under well-watered and dry conditions. Competitive relationships were affected by ramet size with large genotypes outperforming small genotypes in diverse stands in terms of biomass production. However, large genotypes also produced relatively fewer ramets than small genotypes and could not benefit in terms of clonal reproduction from competing with smaller genotypes, indicating that evolutionary shifts in genotype composition will depend on whether ramet size or ramet number is under selection. In contrast to our hypotheses, diversity did not increase stand performance under different selection regimes and genotype ranking was hardly affected by soil

  20. Gene Capture from Across the Grass Family in the Allohexaploid Elymus repens (L.) Gould (Poaceae, Triticeae) as Evidenced by ITS, GBSSI, and Molecular Cytogenetics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mahelka, Václav; Kopecký, David

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 6 (2010), s. 1370-1390 ISSN 0737-4038 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP206/09/P312; GA ČR GA206/09/1126 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516; CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Elymus repens * hybridization * Triticeae Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 5.510, year: 2010

  1. Genotypic and phenotypic diversity does not affect productivity and drought response in competitive stands of Trifolium repens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidrun eHuber

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Clonal plants can form dense canopies in which plants of different genetic origin are competing for the uptake of essential resources. The competitive relationships among these clones are likely to be affected by extreme environmental conditions, such as prolonged drought spells, which are predicted to occur more frequently due to global climate change. This, in turn, may alter characteristics of the ecological system and its associated functioning.We hypothesized that the relative success of individual clones will depend on the size of the ramets as ramets with larger leaves and longer petioles (large ramets were predicted to have a competitive advantage in terms of increased light interception over smaller-sized ramets. Under drier conditions the relative performances of genotypes were expected to change leading to a change in genotype ranking. We also hypothesized that increased genotypic and phenotypic diversity will increase stand performance and resistance to drought. These hypotheses and the mechanisms responsible for shifts in competitive relationships were investigated by subjecting genotypes of the important pasture legume Trifolium repens to competition with either genetically identical clones, genetically different but similarly sized clones, or genetically as well as morphologically different clones under well-watered and dry conditions.Competitive relationships were affected by ramet size with large genotypes outperforming small genotypes in diverse stands in terms of biomass production. However, large genotypes also produced relatively fewer ramets than small genotypes and could not benefit in terms of clonal reproduction from competing with smaller genotypes, indicating that evolutionary shifts in genotype composition will depend on whether ramet size or ramet number is under selection. In contrast to our hypotheses, diversity did not increase stand performance under different selection regimes and genotype ranking was hardly

  2. Clave para la determinación de malezas ciperáceas asociadas con el cultivo del arroz en Colombia Key for identification of cyperaceae weds associated with rice fields in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuentes Cilia Leonor

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Las ciperáceas constituyen, después de las gramíneas, el segundo grupo más importante de plantas adventicias asociadas
    con la producción de arroz en Colombia. Se ha podido
    observar diferencias en la respuesta a los herbicidas entre las
    especies de ciperáceas, de ahí la necesidad de reconocer las
    diferentes especies de esta familia que infestan los arrozales
    de Colombia. Se realizó una intensiva colecta botánica de estas
    especies en las principales zonas arroceras de Colombia:
    Tolima, Huila, Meta, Córdoba, Cesar, Santander y Valle del
    Cauca. Un total de 25 especies pertenecientes a nueve géneros,
    fueron reconocidas. Se elaboraron claves para la separación
    de géneros y especies.Cyperaceae constitute after the gramineous the second most
    important weed group associated with rice production in Colombia. There are sorne differences in herbicide response among cyperaceae species, therefore there is a need to recognize the different species ofthis family that infest Colombian rice fields. An intensive botanical collection of these species was done in the main rice production areas ofColombia: Tolima, Huila, Meta, Córdoba, Cesar, Santander and Valle del Cauca. A total of 25 species belonging to nine genus were identified. Keys were made to separate genera and species.

  3. Pharmacological characterization and chemical fractionation of a liposterolic extract of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens): effects on rat prostate contractility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Thiam; Eise, Nicole T; Simpson, Jamie S; Ventura, Sabatino

    2014-03-14

    Saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) was first used medicinally by native American Indians to treat urological disorders. Nowadays, saw palmetto extracts are widely used in Europe and North America to treat the urinary symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia even though its mechanisms of action are poorly understood. This study aimed to characterize the bioactive constituents of a lipid extract of saw palmetto that are able to affect contractility of the rat prostate gland. The mechanism of action will also be investigated. A commercially available lipid extract of saw palmetto was subjected to fractionation using normal phase column chromatography. Composition of fractions was assessed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS). Contractile activities of these fractions were evaluated pharmacologically using isolated preparations of rat prostate gland and compared to the activity of the crude extract. Saw palmetto extract inhibited contractions of the rat prostate gland which were consistent with smooth muscle relaxant activity. Only the ethyl acetate fraction resulting from chromatography inhibited contractions of isolated rat prostates similarly to the inhibition produced by the crude lipid extract. Comparison with authentic samples and analysis of NMR data revealed that this bioactivity was due to the fatty acid components present in the ethyl acetate fraction. Bioassay using various pharmacological tools identified multiple contractile mechanisms which were affected by the bioactive constituents. A fatty acid component of saw palmetto extract causes inhibition of prostatic smooth muscle contractions via a non-specific mechanism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Aspartic protease from Aspergillus (Eurotium) repens strain MK82 is involved in the hydrolysis and decolourisation of dried bonito (Katsuobushi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Kenji; Matsubara, Sayaka; Umeda, Mayo; Tachibanac, Shusaku; Doi, Mikiharu; Takenaka, Shinji

    2013-04-01

    Katsuobushi is a dried, smoked and fermented bonito used in Japanese cuisine. During the fermentation process with several Aspergillus species, the colour of Katsuobushi gradually changes from a dark reddish-brown derived from haem proteins to pale pink. The change in colour gives Katsuobushi a higher ranking and price. This study aimed to elucidate the mechanism of decolourisation of Katsuobushi. A decolourising factor from the culture supernatant of Aspergillus (Eurotium) repens strain MK82 was purified to homogeneity. The purification was monitored by measuring the decolourising activity using equine myoglobin and bovine haemoglobin as substrates. It was found that the decolourising factor had protease activity towards myoglobin and haemoglobin. Complete inhibition of the enzyme by the inhibitor pepstatin A and the internal amino acid sequence classified the protein as an aspartic protease. The enzyme limitedly hydrolysed myoglobin between 1-Met and 2-Gly, 43-Lys and 44-Phe, and 70-Leu and 71-Thr. The purified enzyme decolourised blood of Katsuwonus pelamis (bonito) and a slice of dried bonito. It is proposed that aspartic protease plays a role in the decolourisation of Katsuobushi by the hydrolysis of haem proteins that allows the released haem to aggregate in the dried bonito. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts of Duranta repens on the germination and early growth of Lactuca sativa and Lycopersicum esculentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junior Borella

    2010-04-01

    effect by one plant on another through production of chemical compounds released into the environment. In this work, the effects of aqueous extracts of Duranta repens fresh, dried leaves and fruit on the germination and early growth of lettuce and tomato were investigated. Aqueous extracts at concentrations of 1%, 2% and 4% (w/v were prepared and characterized as to pH and osmotic potential. Phytochemical analysis of leaves and fruits was also carried out. Germination parameters consisted of the percentage of germination (PG, speed of germination (VG and speed of germination index (IVG. Initial growth was evaluated through length (root and shoot and mass (fresh, dried and water content. Extracts of fresh and dry leaves altered the tomato PG and lettuce and tomato VG and IVG. All extracts affected the root length of the lettuce and tomato, as well as the length of the shoots and mass (dry and fresh of the lettuce. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of saponins and flavonoids. The action of the extracts was disassociated from any effect of osmotic potential and pH, indicating allelopathic activity.

  6. Allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts of Duranta repens on the germination and early growth of Lactuca sativa and Lycopersicum esculentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Maria Tur

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Allelopathy can be efined as any stimulatory or inhibitory effect by one plant on another through production of chemical compounds released into the environment. In this work, the effects of aqueous extracts of Duranta repens fresh, dried leaves and fruit on the germination and early growth of lettuce and tomato were investigated. Aqueous extracts at concentrations of 1%, 2% and 4% (w/v were prepared and characterized as to pH and osmotic potential. Phytochemical analysis of leaves and fruits was also carried out. Germination parameters consisted of the percentage of germination (PG, speed of germination (VG and speed of germination index (IVG. Initial growth was evaluated through length (root and shoot and mass (fresh, dried and water content. Extracts of fresh and dry leaves altered the tomato PG and leaf lettuce and tomato VG and IVG. All extracts affected the root length of the lettuce and tomato, as well as the length of the shoots and mass (dry and fresh of the lettuce. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of saponins and flavonoids. The action of the extracts was disassociated from any effect of osmotic potential and pH, indicating allelopathic activity.

  7. Efecto antibacteriano del extracto etanólico del botoncillo (ACMELLA REPENS sobre Porphyromona gingivalis: Estudio in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Lizbeth Chamorro Benalcázar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar el efecto antibacteriano del extracto etanólico de Botoncillo (Acmella repens en diferentes concentraciones sobre la cepa de Porphyromona gingivalis. Materiales y metodos: En el presente estudio experimental, fueron utilizadas 24 cajas Petri con agar sangre, se inoculó P. gingivalis, y se colocaron discos con diferentes concentraciones del extracto etanólico de Botoncillo (25%, 50% y 100%, como sustancias control Clorhexidina al 0,12% y suero fisiológico. A los 7 días de incubación se midieron con una regla milimetrada los halos de inhibición formados alrededor de los respectivos discos. Resultados: el extracto de Botoncillo al 100% mostró diferencias significativas en comparación con la concentración del 25% y 50% (0 < 0.05. Al comparar el extracto de Botoncillo al 100% con la Clorhexidina 0,12% se observó valores de inhibición más altos para Clorhexidina 0,12%. Conclusión: El extracto etanólico de Botoncillo presentó un efecto antibacteriano sobre P. gingivalis.

  8. Invertebrate fauna associated with Torpedograss, Panicum repens (Cyperales: Poaceae), in Lake Okeechobee, Florida, and prospects for biological control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuda, J.P.; Dunford, J.C.; Leavengood, J.M. Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Torpedograss, Panicum repens L., is an adventive, rhizomatous grass species that has become an invasive weed of terrestrial, wetland, and aquatic environments in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. Until recently, strategies for controlling torpedograss in the USA have focused almost exclusively on mechanical and chemical methods, either alone or in combination, with varied results. A survey of the arthropods and nematodes currently associated with the plant in Lake Okeechobee, Florida, was conducted as part of a feasibility study to determine whether torpedograss is an appropriate target for a classical biological control program. Overall, approximately 4,000 arthropods and 400 nematode specimens were collected. Sweep, clipped vegetation, and soil core samples were dominated by representatives of the arthropod orders Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera, and Acari. Lesion nematodes of the genus Pratylenchus were commonly associated with the roots of torpedograss. None of the organisms collected were torpedograss specialists. Although classical biological control of torpedograss is feasible based on the extent of the infestation, economic losses, resistance to conventional controls, and the report of a potentially host specific natural enemy in India, the botanical position of this grass weed will require a formal risk assessment before proceeding with a classical biological control program. (author) [es

  9. Nitric oxide contributes to minerals absorption, proton pumps and hormone equilibrium under cadmium excess in Trifolium repens L. plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiliang; Yang, Rongjie; Pan, Yuanzhi; Ma, Mingdong; Pan, Jiang; Zhao, Yan; Cheng, Qingsu; Wu, Mengxi; Wang, Maohua; Zhang, Lin

    2015-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a stress-signaling molecule in plants that mediates a wide range of physiological processes and responses to metal toxicity. In this work, various NO modulators (NO donor: SNP; NO scavenger: cPTIO; NO synthase inhibitor: l-NAME; and SNP analogs: sodium nitrite/nitrate and sodium ferrocyanide) were investigated to determine the role of NO in Trifolium repens L. plants exposed to Cd. Cd (100μM) markedly reduced biomass, NO production and chlorophyll (Chl a, Chl b and total Chl) concentration but stimulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Cd accumulation in plants. SNP (50μM) substantially attenuated growth inhibition, reduced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malonyldialdehyde (MDA) levels, stimulated ROS-scavenging enzymes/agents, and mitigated the H(+)-ATPase inhibition in proton pumps. Interestingly, SNP considerably up-regulated the levels of jasmonic acid (JA) and proline in plant tissues but down-regulated the levels of ethylene (ET) in both shoots and roots and the level of salicylic acid (SA) in roots only, which might be related to the elevated NO synthesis. Additionally, SNP (25-200μM) regulated mineral absorption and, particularly at 50μM, significantly enhanced the uptake of shoot magnesium (Mg) and copper (Cu) and of root calcium (Ca), Mg and iron (Fe). Nevertheless, the effects of SNP on plant growth were reversed by cPTIO and l-NAME, suggesting that the protective effect of SNP might be associated with NO synthesis in vivo. Moreover, SNP analogs did not display roles similar to that of SNP. These results indicated that NO depleted Cd toxicity by eliminating oxidative damage, enhancing minerals absorption, regulating proton pumps, and maintaining hormone equilibrium. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Lipido-sterolic extract of Serenoa repens (LSESr, Permixon) treatment affects human prostate cancer cell membrane organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrangeli, E; Lenti, L; Buchetti, B; Chinzari, P; Sale, P; Salvatori, L; Ravenna, L; Lococo, E; Morgante, E; Russo, A; Frati, L; Di Silverio, F; Russo, M A

    2009-04-01

    The molecular mechanism by which the lipido-sterolic extract of Serenoa repens (LSESr, Permixon) affects prostate cells remains to be fully elucidated. In androgen-independent PC3 prostate cancer cells, the LSESr-induced effects on proliferation and apoptosis were evaluated by counting cells and using a FACScan cytofluorimeter. PC3 cells were stained with JC-1 dye to detect mitochondrial membrane potential. Cell membrane lipid composition was evaluated by thin layer chromatography and gas chromatographic analysis. Akt phosphorylation was analyzed by Western blotting and cellular ultrastructure through electron microscopy. LSESr (12.5 and 25 microg/ml) administration exerted a biphasic action by both inhibiting proliferation and stimulating apoptosis. After 1 h, it caused a marked reduction in the mitochondrial potential, decreased cholesterol content and modified phospholipid composition. A decrease in phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) level was coupled with reduced Akt phosphorylation. After 24 h, all of these effects were restored to pre-treatment conditions; however, the saturated (SFA)/unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) ratio increased, mainly due to a significant decrease in omega 6 content. The reduction in cholesterol content could be responsible for both membrane raft disruption and redistribution of signaling complexes, allowing for a decrease of PIP2 levels, reduction of Akt phosphorylation and apoptosis induction. The decrease in omega 6 content appears to be responsible for the prolonged and more consistent increase in the apoptosis rate and inhibition of proliferation observed after 2-3 days of LSESr treatment. In conclusion, LSESr administration results in complex changes in cell membrane organization and fluidity of prostate cancer cells that have progressed to hormone-independent status. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Gene capture from across the grass family in the allohexaploid Elymus repens (L.) Gould (Poaceae, Triticeae) as evidenced by ITS, GBSSI, and molecular cytogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahelka, Václav; Kopecký, David

    2010-06-01

    Four accessions of hexaploid Elymus repens from its native Central European distribution area were analyzed using sequencing of multicopy (internal transcribed spacer, ITS) and single-copy (granule-bound starch synthase I, GBSSI) DNA in concert with genomic and fluorescent in situ hybridization (GISH and FISH) to disentangle its allopolyploid origin. Despite extensive ITS homogenization, nrDNA in E. repens allowed us to identify at least four distinct lineages. Apart from Pseudoroegneria and Hordeum, representing the major genome constituents, the presence of further unexpected alien genetic material, originating from species outside the Triticeae and close to Panicum (Paniceae) and Bromus (Bromeae), was revealed. GBSSI sequences provided information complementary to the ITS. Apart from Pseudoroegneria and Hordeum, two additional gene variants from within the Triticeae were discovered: One was Taeniatherum-like, but the other did not have a close relationship with any of the diploids sampled. GISH results were largely congruent with the sequence-based markers. GISH clearly confirmed Pseudoroegneria and Hordeum as major genome constituents and further showed the presence of a small chromosome segment corresponding to Panicum. It resided in the Hordeum subgenome and probably represents an old acquisition of a Hordeum progenitor. Spotty hybridization signals across all chromosomes after GISH with Taeniatherum and Bromus probes suggested that gene acquisition from these species is more likely due to common ancestry of the grasses or early introgression than to recent hybridization or allopolyploid origin of E. repens. Physical mapping of rDNA loci using FISH revealed that all rDNA loci except one minor were located on Pseudoroegneria-derived chromosomes, which suggests the loss of all Hordeum-derived loci but one. Because homogenization mechanisms seem to operate effectively among Pseudoroegneria-like copies in this species, incomplete ITS homogenization in our samples

  12. Isolation by distance and isolation by environment contribute to population differentiation in Protea repens (Proteaceae L.), a widespread South African species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prunier, Rachel; Akman, Melis; Kremer, Colin T; Aitken, Nicola; Chuah, Aaron; Borevitz, Justin; Holsinger, Kent E

    2017-05-01

    The Cape Floristic Region (CFR) of South Africa is renowned for its botanical diversity, but the evolutionary origins of this diversity remain controversial. Both neutral and adaptive processes have been implicated in driving diversification, but population-level studies of plants in the CFR are rare. Here, we investigate the limits to gene flow and potential environmental drivers of selection in Protea repens L. (Proteaceae L.), a widespread CFR species. We sampled 19 populations across the range of P. repens and used genotyping by sequencing to identify 2066 polymorphic loci in 663 individuals. We used a Bayesian F ST outlier analysis to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) marking genomic regions that may be under selection; we used those SNPs to identify potential drivers of selection and excluded them from analyses of gene flow and genetic structure. A pattern of isolation by distance suggested limited gene flow between nearby populations. The populations of P. repens fell naturally into two or three groupings, which corresponded to an east-west split. Differences in rainfall seasonality contributed to diversification in highly divergent loci, as do barriers to gene flow that have been identified in other species. The strong pattern of isolation by distance is in contrast to the findings in the only other widespread species in the CFR that has been similarly studied, while the effects of rainfall seasonality are consistent with well-known patterns. Assessing the generality of these results will require investigations of other CFR species. © 2017 Prunier et al. Published by the Botanical Society of America. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY-NC).

  13. Effet d'un deficit hydrique sur le trefle blanc (Trifolium repens L.). I. Role d'un apport de potassium

    OpenAIRE

    Shamsun-Noor, L.; Robin, Christophe; Guckert, Armand

    1990-01-01

    Le comportement du trèfle blanc (Trifolium repens L cv Crau) est étudié en situation de contrainte hydrique et après réhydratation en liaison avec la fertilisation potassique. Le déficit en eau occasionne une décroissance progressive importante du potentiel hydrique des feuilles et une fermeture rapide des stomates. Ces manifestations sont accompagnées d’une chute de l’activité photosynthétique et de la fixation symbiotique de l’azote. En présence de potassium, la diminution de l’activité...

  14. Heat treatment and false-positive heartworm antigen testing in ex vivo parasites and dogs naturally infected by Dirofilaria repens and Angiostrongylus vasorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Venco

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heartworm antigen testing is considered sensitive and specific. Currently available tests are reported as detecting a glycoprotein found predominantly in the reproductive tract of the female worm and can reach specificity close to 100%. Main concerns regard sensitivity in the case of light infections, the presence of immature females or cases of all-male infections. Research and development have been aimed at increasing sensitivity. Recently, heat treatment of serum prior to antigen testing has been shown to result in an increase in positive antigen test results, presumably due to disruption of natural antigen–antibody complexes. Cross-reactions in dogs with both natural and experimental infections with Angiostrongylus vasorum and Spirocerca lupi have been reported, but cross-reactions with other helminths have not been extensively studied. In order to evaluate potential cross-reactivity with other canine and feline parasites, two studies were performed. Study 1: Live adults of Dirofilaria immitis, Dirofilaria repens, Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati, Dipylidium caninum, Taenia taeniaeformis and Mesocestoides spp. larvae were washed and incubated in tubes with saline solution. All worms were alive at the time of removal from the saline. Saline solutions containing excretory/secretory antigens were then tested for heartworm with six different, commercially available antigen tests. All results were evaluated blind by three of the authors. Study 2: Sera from dogs with natural infections by A. vasorum or D. repens, living in areas free of heartworm disease, were tested with the same tests before and after heat treatment (103 °C for 10 min. Results Results suggest that antigens detected by currently available tests are not specific for D. immitis. They may give positive results through detection of different parasites’ antigens that are normally not released into the bloodstream or released in a low amount and/or bound to

  15. Comparison of tamsulosin plus serenoa repens with tamsulosin in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia in Korean men: 1-year randomized open label study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Young Woo; Lim, Song Won; Kim, Jung Hoon; Ahn, Seung Hyun; Choi, Jae Duck

    2015-01-01

    In Korea, increasing attention has recently been given to the use of phytotherapeutic agents to alleviate the symptoms of BPH. Serenoa repens has been shown to have an equivalent efficacy to Finasteride or Tamsulosin in the treatment of BPH in previous studies. The present study was designed to compare the efficacy and safety of Serenoa repens plus tamsulosin with tamsulosin only over 12 months in men with LUTS secondary to BPH. One hundred forty men with symptomatic BPH (IPSS≥10) were recruited in our hospital for a 12-month, open-label, randomized trial. Patients were randomly assigned to either tamsulosin 0.2 mg/day plus Serenoa repens 320 mg/day (n=60) or tamsulosin 0.2 mg/day only (n=60). Prostate volume and PSA were measured at baseline and at end-point, whereas total IPSS, and its storage and voiding subscores, LUTS-related QoL, Qmax, and PVR were evaluated at baseline and later every 6 months. Total 103 patients were finally available: 50 in the TAM+SR group and 53 in the TAM group. At 12 months, total IPSS decreased by 5.8 with TAM+SR and 5.5 with TAM (p=0.693); the storage symptoms improved significantly more with TAM+SR (-1.7 vs. -0.8 with TAM, p=0.024). This benefit with regard to storage symptom in the TAM+SR group lasts at 12 months (-1.9 vs. -0.9, p=0.024). The changes of voiding subscore, LUTS-related QoL, Qmax, PVR, PSA, and prostate volume showed no significant differences between the TAM+SR and TAM groups. During the treatment period, 8 patients (16.9%) with TAM and 10 (20%) with TAM+SR had drug-related adverse reactions, which included ejaculatory disorders, postural hypotension, dizziness, headache, gastro-intestinal disorders, rhinitis, fatigue and asthenia. The combination treatment of Serenoa repens and tamsulosin was shown to be more effective than tamsulosin monotherapy in reducing storage symptoms in BPH patients after 6 months and up to 12 months of treatment. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Fungal Planet description sheets: 558–624

    OpenAIRE

    Crous, P.W.; Wingfield, M.J.; Burgess, T.I.; Hardy, G.E.St.J.; Barber, P.A.; Alvarado, P.; Barnes, C.W.; Buchanan, P.K.; Heykoop, M.; Moreno, G.; Thangavel, R.; van der Spuy, S.; Barili, A.; Barrett, S.; Cacciola, S.O.

    2017-01-01

    Novel species of fungi described in this study include those from various countries as follows: Australia: Banksiophoma australiensis (incl. Banksiophoma gen. nov.) on Banksia coccinea, Davidiellomyces australiensis (incl. Davidiellomyces gen. nov.) on Cyperaceae, Didymocyrtis banksiae on Banksia sessilis var. cygnorum, Disculoides calophyllae on Corymbia calophylla, Harknessia banksiae on Banksia sessilis, Harknessia banksiae-repens on Banksia repens, Harknessia banksiigena on Banksia sessil...

  17. Serenoa repens extract additionally to quinolones in the treatment of chronic bacterial prostatitis. The preliminary results of a long term observational study

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    Konstantinos Stamatiou

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic prostatitis displays a variety of symptoms (mainly local pain exhibiting variability in origin and intensity. The purpose of this article is to briefly present the preliminary results of our study examining the role of phytotherapeutic agents in the treatment of chronic prostatitis patients. Materials and methods: The study included in total fifty-six consecutive patients who visited the outpatient department. Subjects were randomized into two groups. Subjects in the first group (28 patients received prulifloxacin 600 mg for 15 days, while subjects in the second group (28 patients received prulifloxacin 600 mg for 15 days and Serenoa repens extract for 8 weeks. The response was tested using laboratory and clinical criteria. Results: We found statistically significant differences between the two groups regarding pain regression and no statistically significant regarding bacterial eradication. Moreover however while sexual dysfunction improvement was equally achieved in both groups, improvement of urinary symptoms was more evident in the 2nd group especially after the completion of the antibiotic treatment. Conclusions: Serenoa repens extract for 8 weeks seems to improve prostatitis related pain. Further randomized, placebo-controlled studies are needed to substantiate safer conclusions.

  18. Vector-borne parasitic infections in dogs in the Baltic and Nordic countries: A questionnaire study to veterinarians on canine babesiosis and infections with Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiškina, Valentina; Jokelainen, Pikka

    2017-09-15

    Canine vector-borne diseases have been spreading northwards in Europe, and canine babesiosis and infections with Dirofilaria immitis (heartworm) and Dirofilaria repens have been diagnosed also in the Baltic and the Nordic countries. We used an online questionnaire to survey how large a proportion of veterinarians in the Baltic (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania) and the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden) saw canine babesiosis cases and dogs infected with D. immitis and D. repens in 2016. In addition, questions regarding transmission, zoonotic potential, clinical signs, and treatment of the infections were asked. The questionnaire was completed by 122 veterinarians. In 2016, 23% of them had seen at least one case of canine babesiosis, 15% at least one dog with D. immitis infection, and 9% at least one dog with D. repens infection. A veterinarian working in the Baltic countries had 12.2 times higher odds to have seen a canine babesiosis case and 9.3 times higher odds to have seen a dog with D. repens infection than a veterinarian working in the Nordic countries did. While 48% of the veterinarians knew that canine babesiosis is not considered a zoonosis, 26% knew that D. immitis is zoonotic and 34% knew that D. repens is zoonotic. The results suggested that autochthonous cases of the three vector-borne parasitic infections were seen by veterinarians in the Baltic countries, whereas most cases seen by veterinarians in the Nordic countries appeared to be imported. A substantial proportion of the veterinarians did not know whether the parasites are zoonotic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Heavy metal tolerance in Agropyron repens (L. P. Bauv. populations from the Legnica copper smelter area, Lower Silesia

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    Teresa Brej

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The copper smelter "Legnica" is one of the oldest plants in Lower Silesia. Among the few weed species spontaneously migrating to the area around the emitter there is couch grass (Agropyron repens (L. P. Bauv.. The purpose of this study was to analyse whether the local couch grass populations, growing at various distances from the smelter, differ in tolerance to heavy metals occurring in this area. The populations were tested for tolerance to five metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni using the root elongation method. The highest tolerance to Pb developed in two populations localized nearest the smelter. Similarly, all populations of couch grass from the vicinity of the smelter show a high tolerance to copper, particularly the plants from the most contaminated site. The IT for the latter population is almost 1509r, even at the highest dose of Cu. For Zn a nearing IT as for Cu was obtained. Comparing the shape of IT curves for Cd, special emphasis is put on the fact that a fixed tolerance to cadmium occurs only in the population localized closest to the emitter. The analysis of Ni-tolerance curves, of which the content in local soil is minimal, does not confirm the thesis on possibility of development of co-tolerance in the surveyed populations. It appeared that stress conditions existing near the smelter do not inhibit seed production in couch grass, but prevent a successful course of their germination on polluted soil. The improvement of soil even by 50% (addition of unpolluted soil does not improve the poor process of germination in couch grass growing nearest to the smelter. Of importance is the fact that the highest number of seeds germinated on their own, polluted soil. The need of metals' content for plant germination in populations most distant from the smelter is evidenced by an almost 30% reduction of germination ability of local seeds after addition of unpolluted soil. Another significant observation was the fact that, in spite of a poor

  20. Seasonal and annual variations of metal uptake, bioaccumulation, and toxicity in Trifolium repens and Lolium perenne growing in a heavy metal-contaminated field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidar, Géraldine; Pruvot, Christelle; Garçon, Guillaume; Verdin, Anthony; Shirali, Pirouz; Douay, Francis

    2009-01-01

    The reclamation of nonferrous metal-polluted soil by phytoremediation requires an overall and permanent plant cover. To select the most suitable plant species, it is necessary to study metal effects on plants over the time, thereby checking that metals remain stored in root systems and not transferred to aerial parts. In this purpose, the seasonal and annual variations of metal bioaccumulation, transfer, and phytotoxicity in Trifolium repens and Lolium perenne grown in a Cd-, Pb-, and Zn-contaminated soil were also studied. The experimental site was located near a closed smelter. In spring 2004, two areas were sown with T. repens and L. perenne, respectively. Thereafter, the samplings of plant roots and shoots and surrounding soils were realized in autumn 2004 and spring and autumn 2005. The soil agronomic characteristics, the Cd, Pb, and Zn concentrations in the surrounded soils and plant organs, as well as the oxidative alterations (superoxide dismutase [SOD], malondialdehyde [MDA], and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine [8-OHdG]) in plant organs were carried out. Whatever the sampling period, metal concentrations in soils and plants were higher than background values. Contrary to the soils, the fluctuations of metal concentrations were observed in plant organs over the time. Bioaccumulation and transfer factors confirmed that metals were preferentially accumulated in the roots as follows: Cd>Zn>Pb, and their transfer to shoots was limited. Foliar metal deposition was also observed. The results showed that there were seasonal and annual variations of metal accumulation in the two studied plant species. These variations differed according to the organs and followed nearly the same pattern for the two species. Oxidative alterations were observed in plant organs with regard to SOD antioxidant activities, MDA, and 8-OHdG concentrations. These alterations vary according to the temporal variations of metal concentrations. Metal concentrations in surrounded soils and plant

  1. Effect of Mycorrhizal Fungi and Trifluralin Herbicide on Emergence, Growth and Root Colonization of Clover (Trifolium repens L.

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    Hassan Shahgholi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Herbicides, despite of their control of weeds, have the potential to affect sensitive crops in rotation and also beneficial non-targeted soil microbes including vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM fungi (6. AM fungi can increase the growth of crops through increasing uptake of phosphorus and insoluble micronutrients, and indirectly by improving soil quality parameters (30. However, several authors have reported different effects of herbicides on VAM symbiosis, which ranges from no adverse effects to slightly or highly toxic effects (6. Pesticides have also been reported to stimulate colonization of plant roots by AM fungi (27. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the interaction effects of mycorrhizal fungi and Trifluralin herbicide on the growth and root colonization of clover. Materials and Methods: A factorial experiment was arranged in randomized complete block design with three replicates at the College of Agricultural, University of Shahrood during 2012. Treatments were included three levels of mycorrhiza inoculation, M1: non mycorrhiza (control, M2: Glommus mosseae and M3: Glommus intraradices and herbicide treatments were included four levels of Trifluralin(T1: 0, T2: 1000, T3: 1500 and T4: 2000 ml ha-1. In mycorrhizal treatments, 20 g inoculums were thoroughly mixed with soil. Seeds of clover (Trifolium repens L. were sown in the pots maintained near the field in order to provide normal environmental conditions. Seedlings were thinned to two plants per pot at three leaf stages. At the time of harvesting, the emergence and growth characteristics of clover and root colonization was also registered. Statistical analyses of data were performed with statistical software MSTATC. Significant differences between means refer to the probability level of 0.05 calculated by LSD test. Results and Discussion: The results showed that emergence, uniformity (EU values decreased and time to 10% (D10 and 90% (D90 of

  2. Serenoa repens associated with selenium and lycopene extract and bromelain and methylsulfonylmethane extract are able to improve the efficacy of levofloxacin in chronic bacterial prostatitis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Cai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To date, the management of patients with chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP is not satisfactory, especially in terms of symptoms relief. Here, we evaluated the efficacy and the safety of a combination of serenoa repens, selenium and lycopene extract + bromelain and methylsulfonylmethane extract associated with levofloxacin in patients with CBP. Materials and methods: All patients with clinical and instrumental diagnosis of CBP, admitted to a single Urological Institution from March to June 2015 were enrolled in this phase III study. All enrolled patients were randomized into two groups: Group A received levofloxacin 500 mg o.d. for 14 days associated with lycopene and methylsulfonylmethane; Group B received levofloxacin (500 mg o.d. for 14 days only. Clinical and microbiological analyses were carried out at the time of admission (T0 and during the followups at 1 month (T1 and 6 months (T2 from the end of the treatment. NIH Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (CPSI, International Prostatic Symptom Score (IPSS and Quality of Well-Being (QoL questionnaires were used. The main outcome measures were the rate of microbiological cure and the improvement in questionnaire results from baseline at the end of the follow-ups period. Results: Forty patients were enrolled in Group A and 39 in Group B. During the follow-up (T1, we recorded a significant changes in terms of NIH-CPSI and IPSS in Group A (mean difference: 17.6 ± 2.65; 12.2 ± 2.33; p < 0.01; p < 0.05, respectively and versus Group B at the intergroup analysis (mean difference: -9 ± 1.82; -8.33 ± 1.71; p < 0.05; p < 0.05, respectively. No differences were reported in terms of microbiological findings between the two groups. At the second follow-up visit (T2, questionnaire results demonstrated statistically significant differences between groups (p < 0.001. One patient in Group A (2.5% and 7 patients (17.9% in Group B showed a symptomatic and microbiological recurrence (p = 0

  3. [Associating Serenoa repens, Urtica dioica and Pinus pinaster. Safety and efficacy in the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms. Prospective study on 320 patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavone, C; Abbadessa, D; Tarantino, M L; Oxenius, I; Laganà, A; Lupo, A; Rinella, M

    2010-01-01

    Serenoa repens (saw palmetto) has been employed for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) for several years. Its mechanism of action is believed to be due to antiandrogenic, antiproliferative and antinflammatory properties. An association of Serenoa with the nettle "Urtica dioica" showing antiproliferative activity and the pine "Pinus pinaster" derivative, showing antinflammatory action, has been proposed in recent years. Such an action is hoped to act not only by reducing LUTS but also by preventing the development of prostate cancer. During the years 2007 and 2008, 320 patients suffering from LUTS were treated with an association of Serenoa repens 320 mg, Urtica dioica 120 mg and Pinus pinaster 5 mg, named IPBTRE. This treatment was administered to all patients for a minimal duration of 30 days to a maximum of a year, either alone or in association with antibiotics or alpha-blockers, if needed. Outcome analysis was based on evaluation of symptoms, prostate volume and maximum flow rate (Qmax). From a careful analysis of the data collected in our database, the following observations can be made: ages varied between 19 and 78 years. The patients were affected by BPH in 46% of cases, chronic prostatitis syndrome in 43%, chronic genital-pelvic pain in 7% and other conditions in 4%, the absolute numbers being 147, 138, 22 and 7 patients, respectively. No untoward side effect was reported in any case. Variations in symptom score could be fully evaluated only in 80 of 320 patients (25%), of whom 68 (85%) reported a significant benefit, with special reference to an improvement of pain, urgency, strangury and nocturia. Data on variations in prostate volume, as measured by digital rectal examination, were available in 84 (26.5%) patients. No significant change was observed. Qmax after treatment was measured in 83 (26%) patients. It did not show significant changes from the initial values. The association tested in our study appeared to be safe and well

  4. Analysis of Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids in Selected Algae and Cyanobacteria by Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatography and a Novel MAA from the Red Alga Catenella repens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Hartmann

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs, a group of small secondary metabolites found in algae, cyanobacteria, lichens and fungi, have become ecologically and pharmacologically relevant because of their pronounced UV-absorbing and photo-protective potential. Their analytical characterization is generally achieved by reversed phase HPLC and the compounds are often quantified based on molar extinction coefficients. As an alternative approach, in our study a fully validated hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC method is presented. It enables the precise quantification of several analytes with adequate retention times in a single run, and can be coupled directly to MS. Excellent linear correlation coefficients (R2 > 0.9991 were obtained, with limit of detection (LOD values ranging from 0.16 to 0.43 µg/mL. Furthermore, the assay was found to be accurate (recovery rates from 89.8% to 104.1% and precise (intra-day precision: 5.6%, inter-day precision ≤6.6%. Several algae were assayed for their content of known MAAs like porphyra-334, shinorine, and palythine. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS data indicated a novel compound in some of them, which could be isolated from the marine species Catenella repens and structurally elucidated by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR as (E-3-hydroxy-2-((5-hydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl-2-methoxy-3-((2-sulfoethylaminocyclohex-2-en-1-ylideneamino propanoic acid, a novel MAA called catenelline.

  5. Arbuscular mycorrhiza enhanced arsenic resistance of both white clover (Trifolium repens Linn.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) plants in an arsenic-contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Yan; Zhu Yongguan; Smith, F. Andrew; Wang Youshan; Chen Baodong

    2008-01-01

    In a compartmented cultivation system, white clover (Trifolium repens Linn.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), with their roots freely intermingled, or separated by 37 μm nylon mesh or plastic board, were grown together in an arsenic (As) contaminated soil. The influence of AM inoculation on plant growth, As uptake, phosphorus (P) nutrition, and plant competitions were investigated. Results showed that both plant species highly depended on mycorrhizas for surviving the As contamination. Mycorrhizal inoculation substantially improved plant P nutrition, and in contrast markedly decreased root to shoot As translocation and shoot As concentrations. It also showed that mycorrhizas affected the competition between the two co-existing plant species, preferentially benefiting the clover plants in term of nutrient acquisition and biomass production. Based on the present study, the role of AM fungi in plant adaptation to As contamination, and their potential use for ecological restoration of As contaminated soils are discussed. - Both white clover and ryegrass highly depend on the mycorrhizal associations for surviving heavy arsenic contamination

  6. Effect of Water Extract Originated from Different Part of Russian Knapweed (Acroptilon repens L. on Growth of Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza PIRZAD

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate probable allelopathic effect of water extract originated from different parts of russian knapweed (Acroptilon repens L. on growth of purslane (Portulaca oleracea L., a factorial experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block design with three replications at greenhouse condition in 2011. Treatments were water extract concentrations (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 percent obtained from different part of russian knapweed (aerial part, flower and root. Results showed the significant effect of extract type on seedling length, and extract concentration on shoot length, root length and seedling length. Interaction effect between extract type and concentration on the ratio of root/shoot length, seedling fresh weight, seedling dry weight and germination percentage was significant, too. Means comparison indicated that the longest root (3.55 cm, shoot (4.65 cm and seedling (8.20 cm were obtained from control treatment, reducing with higher concentration of extract. The longest shoot (6.95 cm belonged to extract originated from russian knapweed flowers. The highest ratio of root/shoot length (0.73, seedling fresh weight (0.61g and seedling dry weight (0.044 g belonged to control treatment. In general, increasing of extract concentration caused in reduction of germination and seedling traits. Meanwhile, extracts of aerial part had more sever reducing effect than root and flower extracts.

  7. Analysis of Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids in Selected Algae and Cyanobacteria by Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatography and a Novel MAA from the Red Alga Catenella repens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Anja; Becker, Kathrin; Karsten, Ulf; Remias, Daniel; Ganzera, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs), a group of small secondary metabolites found in algae, cyanobacteria, lichens and fungi, have become ecologically and pharmacologically relevant because of their pronounced UV-absorbing and photo-protective potential. Their analytical characterization is generally achieved by reversed phase HPLC and the compounds are often quantified based on molar extinction coefficients. As an alternative approach, in our study a fully validated hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) method is presented. It enables the precise quantification of several analytes with adequate retention times in a single run, and can be coupled directly to MS. Excellent linear correlation coefficients (R2 > 0.9991) were obtained, with limit of detection (LOD) values ranging from 0.16 to 0.43 µg/mL. Furthermore, the assay was found to be accurate (recovery rates from 89.8% to 104.1%) and precise (intra-day precision: 5.6%, inter-day precision ≤6.6%). Several algae were assayed for their content of known MAAs like porphyra-334, shinorine, and palythine. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) data indicated a novel compound in some of them, which could be isolated from the marine species Catenella repens and structurally elucidated by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) as (E)-3-hydroxy-2-((5-hydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-methoxy-3-((2-sulfoethyl)amino)cyclohex-2-en-1-ylidene)amino) propanoic acid, a novel MAA called catenelline. PMID:26473886

  8. Influence of fly ash aided phytostabilisation of Pb, Cd and Zn highly contaminated soils on Lolium perenne and Trifolium repens metal transfer and physiological stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopareva-Pohu, Alena; Verdin, Anthony; Garcon, Guillaume; Lounes-Hadj Sahraoui, Anissa; Pourrut, Bertrand; Debiane, Djouher; Waterlot, Christophe; Laruelle, Frederic

    2011-01-01

    Due to anthropogenic activities, large extends of soils are highly contaminated by Metal Trace Element (MTE). Aided phytostabilisation aims to establish a vegetation cover in order to promote in situ immobilisation of trace elements by combining the use of metal-tolerant plants and inexpensive mineral or organic soil amendments. Eight years after Coal Fly Ash (CFA) soil amendment, MTE bioavailability and uptake by two plants, Lolium perenne and Trifolium repens, were evaluated, as some biological markers reflecting physiological stress. Results showed that the two plant species under study were suitable to reduce the mobility and the availability of these elements. Moreover, the plant growth was better on CFA amended MTE-contaminated soils, and the plant sensitivity to MTE-induced physiological stress, as studied through photosynthetic pigment contents and oxidative damage was lower or similar. In conclusion, these results supported the usefulness of aided phytostabilisation of MTE-highly contaminated soils. - Highlights: → Aided phytostabilisation aims to establish a vegetation cover in order to promote immobilisation of MTE. → 8 years after the soil amendments, a pot culture study was carried out in greenhouse conditions. → MTE bioavailability and uptake by the two plants was drastically decreased with amendments. → Our results support the usefulness of aided phytostabilisation of MTE-highly contaminated soils. → CFA addition contributed to the reduction of the MTE mobility and availability for the plants. - Efficiency of Coal Fly Ash amendment for phytostabilisation of Pb, Cd and Zn in MTE-highly contaminated soils.

  9. Arbuscular mycorrhiza enhanced arsenic resistance of both white clover (Trifolium repens Linn.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) plants in an arsenic-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong Yan; Zhu Yongguan [Department of Soil Environmental Science, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China); Smith, F. Andrew [Soil and Land Systems, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Waite Campus, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Wang Youshan [Institute of Plant Nutrition and Resources, Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry, Beijing 100089 (China); Chen Baodong [Department of Soil Environmental Science, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China)], E-mail: bdchen@rcees.ac.cn

    2008-09-15

    In a compartmented cultivation system, white clover (Trifolium repens Linn.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), with their roots freely intermingled, or separated by 37 {mu}m nylon mesh or plastic board, were grown together in an arsenic (As) contaminated soil. The influence of AM inoculation on plant growth, As uptake, phosphorus (P) nutrition, and plant competitions were investigated. Results showed that both plant species highly depended on mycorrhizas for surviving the As contamination. Mycorrhizal inoculation substantially improved plant P nutrition, and in contrast markedly decreased root to shoot As translocation and shoot As concentrations. It also showed that mycorrhizas affected the competition between the two co-existing plant species, preferentially benefiting the clover plants in term of nutrient acquisition and biomass production. Based on the present study, the role of AM fungi in plant adaptation to As contamination, and their potential use for ecological restoration of As contaminated soils are discussed. - Both white clover and ryegrass highly depend on the mycorrhizal associations for surviving heavy arsenic contamination.

  10. Seasonal dynamics in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal colonization and spore numbers in the rhizosphere of dactylis glomerata l. and trifolium repens L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xin, G.; Ye, S.; Wang, Y.; Wu, E.; Sugawara, K.

    2012-01-01

    The seasonal dynamics in the colonization of the rhizosphere of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) and white clover (Trifolium repens L.) pastures by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and the production of spores in an artifical Japanese grassland was investigated over 12 months (between December 2001 and December 2002). The results showed that the AM fungal colonization fluctuated seasonally in the rhizosphere of both pastures. The total AM fungal colonization of the two pastures decreased during winter, then increased from March to June as the pastures grew, but slightly decreased again in July and August, and again followed an increase in September. There was significant difference of the colonization by arbuscules and vesicles between the two pastures ( p <0.05). Besides, the vesicular colonization of orchardgrass was higher than that of white clover, but the opposite trend was observed for arbuscular colonization. Similarly, the numbers of AM fungal spores in the pastures varied throughout the year, decreasing from spring to summer, then slowly increasing in late summer, reaching peak levels in winter. There is significant correlation between the frequency of spores in the rhizosphere soil and both soil temperature and pH. (author)

  11. Reestablishment of Pycreus section Tuberculati (Cyperaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reynders, M.; Goetghebeur, P.

    2010-01-01

    Pycreus sect. Tuberculati was created by Chermezon to contain a single species with derived nutlets: P. divulsus, a Malagasy endemic. Kükenthal transferred this species to his new section Muricati. However, a detailed study of the nutlet epidermis shows P. divulsus is not closely related to the

  12. Florae Malesianae Precursores XXXII. Some new Cyperaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kern, J.H.

    1963-01-01

    Herba perennis, rhizomate lignoso, adscendente. Culmus erectus, radicibus crassis teretibus 2—3 mm diam. sustensus, dense foliatus, c. 50 cm altus. Folia linearia, rigida, opaca, glaucescentia, basin conduplicatam versus straminea, apice sensim in flagellum triquetrum scaberrimum angustata, usque ad

  13. Multiple doses of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) did not alter cytochrome P450 2D6 and 3A4 activity in normal volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, John S; Donovan, Jennifer L; Devane, C Lindsay; Taylor, Robin M; Ruan, Ying; Wang, Jun-Sheng; Chavin, Kenneth D

    2003-12-01

    Saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) is the most commonly used herbal preparation in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. The objective of this study was to determine whether a characterized saw palmetto product affects the activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 or 3A4 in healthy volunteers (6 men and 6 women). The probe substrates dextromethorphan (CYP2D6 activity) and alprazolam (CYP3A4 activity) were administered orally at baseline and again after exposure to saw palmetto (320-mg capsule once daily) for 14 days. Dextromethorphan metabolic ratios and alprazolam pharmacokinetics were determined at baseline and after saw palmetto treatment. The mean ratio of dextromethorphan to its metabolite was 0.038 +/- 0.044 at baseline and 0.048 +/- 0.080 after 14 days of saw palmetto administration (P =.704, not significant [NS]), indicating a lack of effect on CYP2D6 activity. The area under the plasma alprazolam concentration versus time curve was 476 +/- 178 h. ng. mL(-1) at baseline and 479 +/- 125 h. ng. mL(-1) after saw palmetto treatment (P =.923, NS), indicating a lack of effect on CYP3A4 activity. The elimination half-life of alprazolam was 11.4 +/- 3.1 hours at baseline and 11.6 +/- 2.7 hours after saw palmetto treatment (P =.770, NS), also indicating a lack of effect on CYP3A4 activity. Our results indicate that extracts of saw palmetto at generally recommended doses are unlikely to alter the disposition of coadministered medications primarily dependent on the CYP2D6 or CYP3A4 pathways for elimination. These conclusions must be weighed in the context of the study's limited assessments and regarded as only the initial investigation into the drug interaction potential of saw palmetto.

  14. Inhibition of the DHT-induced PSA secretion by Verbascum xanthophoeniceum and Serenoa repens extracts in human LNCaP prostate epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcoccia, D; Georgiev, M I; Alipieva, K I; Lorenzetti, S

    2014-08-08

    Verbascum xanthophoeniceum is a mullein plant, typical of Balkan region and some parts of Turkey, traditionally used as phytotherapeutic agent due to its anti-inflammatory properties. It is rich in phenylethanoid and iridoid metabolites whose anti-inflammatory properties are under characterization. The role of Verbascum xanthophoeniceum crude methanolic extract and its isolated phenylethanoid glycoside verbascoside have been evaluated, in comparison to a saw palmetto extract, on a human in vitro model of androgen-regulated prostate epithelium, the LNCaP cell line. Cytotoxicity and DHT-induced free and total PSA secretion have been thoroughly studied. We have found that similar to saw palmetto, Verbascum xanthophoeniceum extract and its isolated phenylethanoid glycoside verbascoside have no cytotoxicity in human LNCaP prostate epithelial cells, whereas an inhibitory effect on the DHT-induced free and total PSA secretion, a recognized anti-androgen like activity, has been shown in case of both Verbascum xanthophoeniceum extract and pure verbascoside. Furthermore, in the absence of the endogenous androgen DHT, an androgen-like activity in Verbascum xanthophoeniceum is detectable as it is for saw palmetto, suggesting that a mixed androgen-antiandrogen activity is present. For the first time, Serenoa repens and Verbascum xanthophoeniceum extracts have shown an absence of cytotoxicity and an inhibitory effect on DHT-induced PSA secretion in an in vitro model of human prostate epithelium, whereas the phenylethanoid glycoside verbascoside appeared to explain only part of the Verbascum xanthophoeniceum inhibitory activity on PSA secretion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Mercury and flooding cycles in the Tapajos river basin, Brazilian Amazon: The role of periphyton of a floating macrophyte (Paspalum repens)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho-Souza, Sergio A.; Guimaraes, Jean R.D.; Miranda, Marcio R.; Poirier, Hugo; Mauro, Jane B.N.; Lucotte, Marc; Mergler, Donna

    2011-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) increases mercury (Hg) toxicity and is biomagnified in the trophic chain contaminating riverine Amazon populations. Freshwater macrophyte roots are a main site of Hg methylation in different Brazilian environments. Paspalum repens periphyton was sampled in four floodplain lakes during the dry, rainy and wet seasons for measurement of total Hg (THg), MeHg, Hg methylation potentials, %C, %N, δ 13 C, δ 15 N and bacterial heterotrophic production as 3 H-leucine incorporation rate. THg concentration varied from 67 to 198 ng/g and the potential of Me 203 Hg formation was expressive (1-23%) showing that periphyton is an important matrix both in the accumulation of Hg and in MeHg production. The concentration of MeHg varied from 1 to 6 ng/g DW and was positively correlated with Me 203 Hg formation. Though methylmercury formation is mainly a bacterial process, no significant correlation was observed between the methylation potentials and bacterial production. The multiple regressions analyses suggested a negative correlation between THg and %C and %N and between methylation potential and δ 13 C. The discriminant analysis showed a significant difference in periphyton δ 15 N, δ 13 C and THg between seasons, where the rainy season presented higher δ 15 N and the wet period lighter δ 13 C, lower THg values and higher Me 203 Hg formation. This exploratory study indicates that the flooding cycle could influence the periphyton composition, mercury accumulation and methylmercury production. - Research highlights: → During rainy season mercury (Hg 2+ ) is carried out from terrestrial to aquatic systems by runoff. → Macrophyte roots accumulates Hg 2+ from suspended particulate matter (SPM). → Hg methylation increases during the wet season. → Flooded forest is a source of labile organic carbon and bioavailable Hg. → Macrophytes decompose during the dry season and made up terrestrial soil.

  16. Air quality biomonitoring: assessment of air pollution genotoxicity in the Province of Novara (North Italy) by using Trifolium repens L. and molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piraino, F; Aina, R; Palin, L; Prato, N; Sgorbati, S; Santagostino, A; Citterio, S

    2006-12-15

    Mixed air pollutants are considered a major cause of DNA damage in living species. In this study Trifolium repens L. cv Regal was used as a bioindicator to assess the genotoxicity of air stressors in the Italian province of Novara. Two on-site biomonitoring experiments were performed during the spring and autumn of 2004. Test plants were exposed at 19 monitoring sites distributed homogeneously throughout the province, and each experiment lasted for a period of 6 weeks. Genotoxicity was evaluated with Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) molecular markers. The results show the predominantly rural central-west region of the Novara Province to have the worst air quality with regard to genotoxicity. Analyses of geomorphology, land use and climatic factors suggest that the compromised air quality in the region could be attributed to wind strength and direction, transporting pollution from vehicular traffic on the A4 highway and from the urban/industrialized centres of Novara and Vercelli. Plant growth, changes in plant photochemical efficiency and the presence of ozone related leaf injuries were also measured to better interpret the results of genotoxicity. Statistical analyses show that although climatic factors such as light intensity and temperature influence plant growth, they do not contribute to atmospheric stressor-induced DNA damage. Further analyses indicated that, as expected, a mixture of genotoxic and non-genotoxic pollutants coexist in the Novara Province troposphere, and that the elevated ozone concentrations experienced during the study may have contributed to the DNA damage in the tested plants by enhancing genotoxicity via interaction with other air stressors.

  17. Serenoa repens extracts promote hair regeneration and repair of hair loss mouse models by activating TGF-β and mitochondrial signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, H-L; Gao, Y-H; Yang, J-Q; Li, J-B; Gao, J

    2018-06-01

    Plenty of plant extracts have been used for treating hair loss. This study aims to investigate the effects of liposterolic extracts of Serenoa repens (LSESr) on hair cell growth and regeneration of hair, and clarify the associated mechanisms. Human keratinocyte cells (HACAT) were cultured, incubated with dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and treated with LSESr. Cell viability was examined by using 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H- tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Hair loss C57BL/6 mouse model was established by inducing with DHT. Hair growth, density, and thickness were evaluated. Back skin samples were collected and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) assay. B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2 associated protein X (Bax), cleaved caspase 3 and transforming growth factor β2 (TGF-β2) were examined using Western blot assay. LSESr treatment significantly increased HACAT cell viabilities compared to DHT-only treated cells (p<0.05). LSESr treatment post injection of DHT significantly converted skin color from pink to gray and increased hair density, weight and thickness compared to DHT-only treated mice (p<0.05). LSESr treatment significantly triggered follicle growth and decreased inflammatory response. LSESr treatment significantly decreased TGF-β2 and cleaved caspase 3 expression of hair loss mouse models compared to that of DHT treated mice (p<0.05). LSESr treatment significantly enhanced Bcl-2 expression and reduced Bax expression compared to that of DHT treated mice (p<0.05). Meanwhile, effects of LSESr were substantial even achieving to the potential of finasteride. LSESr promoted the hair regeneration and repair of hair loss mouse models by activating TGF-β signaling and mitochondrial signaling pathway.

  18. Knock-down of transcript abundance of a family of Kunitz proteinase inhibitor genes in white clover (Trifolium repens) reveals a redundancy and diversity of gene function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Afsana; Leung, Susanna; Burgess, Elisabeth P J; Laing, William A; Richardson, Kim A; Hofmann, Rainer W; Dijkwel, Paul P; McManus, Michael T

    2015-12-01

    The transcriptional regulation of four phylogenetically distinct members of a family of Kunitz proteinase inhibitor (KPI) genes isolated from white clover (Trifolium repens; designated Tr-KPI1, Tr-KPI2, Tr-KPI4 and Tr-KPI5) has been investigated to determine their wider functional role. The four genes displayed differential transcription during seed germination, and in different tissues of the mature plant, and transcription was also ontogenetically regulated. Heterologous over-expression of Tr-KPI1, Tr-KPI2, Tr-KPI4 and Tr-KPI5 in Nicotiana tabacum retarded larval growth of the herbivore Spodoptera litura, and an increase in the transcription of the pathogenesis-related genes PR1 and PR4 was observed in the Tr-KPI1 and Tr-KPI4 over-expressing lines. RNA interference (RNAi) knock-down lines in white clover displayed significantly altered vegetative growth phenotypes with inhibition of shoot growth and a stimulation of root growth, while knock-down of Tr-KPI1, Tr-KPI2 and Tr-KPI5 transcript abundance also retarded larval growth of S. litura. Examination of these RNAi lines revealed constitutive stress-associated phenotypes as well as altered transcription of cellular signalling genes. These results reveal a functional redundancy across members of the KPI gene family. Further, the regulation of transcription of at least one member of the family, Tr-KPI2, may occupy a central role in the maintenance of a cellular homeostasis. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. Field clinical study evaluating the efficacy and safety of an oral formulation containing milbemycin oxime/praziquantel (Milbemax®, Novartis Animal Health) in the chemoprevention of the zoonotic canine infection by Dirofilaria repens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cesare, Angela; Braun, Gabriele; Di Giulio, Emanuela; Paoletti, Barbara; Aquilino, Vincenzo; Bartolini, Roberto; La Torre, Francesco; Meloni, Silvana; Drake, Jason; Pandolfi, Federico; Avolio, Stefania; Traversa, Donato

    2014-07-29

    Dirofilaria repens is the causative agent of subcutaneous dirofilariosis of dogs, other animals and humans. This nematode is transmitted by mosquitoes of Aedes, Anopheles and Culex genera. In dogs, the parasite may cause subclinical infection or cutaneous signs. Recently, D. repens has emerged and spread in different geographical areas, with an increase of cases in dogs and humans. Chemoprevention in dogs in endemic areas is the most reliable approach for controlling this infection. This paper describes a randomized, blocked and multicentric clinical field study investigating the efficacy of an oral, chewable formulation containing milbemycin oxime/praziquantel (Milbemax®, Novartis Animal Health) in the chemoprevention of subcutaneous dirofilariosis in dogs. This study was conducted in endemic areas of Italy. A total of 249 dogs, at two sites, negative for D. repens, were allocated into two groups (i.e. Treated -T1 vs Untreated-T2) with a ratio of 1:1, and subjected to clinical visits and blood sampling once monthly until the end of the study. All blood samples were microscopically and genetically examined. Animals belonging to T1 group received a minimum target dose of 0.5 mg/kg bodyweight of milbemycin oxime and 5 mg/kg of praziquantel in commercial tablets (Milbemax®) according body weight once every 4 weeks. Animals of group T2 were not treated with Milbemax® but received, when necessary, specific parasiticide treatments. The study duration was 336 ± 2 days for each dog. A total of 219 dogs completed the study (i.e. 111 in T1 and 108 in T2), while 30 dogs (i.e. 13 in T1, 17 in T2) were withdrawn for a variety of reasons unrelated to administration of Milbemax®. The percentages of animals not showing microfilariae of D. repens were 100% (111 animals) in T1 and 94.7% (108 animals out of 114) in group T2. Milbemax® was shown to be safe in treated dogs. The results of this study confirm that the monthly use of Milbemax® in dogs is effective and safe for the

  20. Efeito de diferentes sistemas de pastejo sobre o desempenho de suínos mantidos em pastagem de trevo-branco (Trifolium repens L. Effect of different grazing systems on the performance of pigs, in growing and finishing phases, kept on white clover (Trifolium repens L. pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denyse Maria Galvão Leite

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito dos sistemas de pastejo contínuo, alternado e rotativo sobre as características de desempenho de suínos (consumo de ração, ganho de peso, conversão alimentar e espessura de toucinho nas fases de crescimento e terminação mantidos em pastagem de trevo-branco (Trifolium repens L.. Foram realizadas também avaliações da disponibilidade e composição química da pastagem. Trinta e seis suínos machos foram distribuídos em um delineamento de blocos casualizados, com três tratamentos e três repetições, e doze foram mantidos em sistema de confinamento. Não foi observada influência significativa dos sistemas de pastejo sobre as características de desempenho dos animais e a disponibilidade de forragem. Entretanto, houve diferença significativa na composição química da pastagem entre os sistemas de pastejo estudados. Os suínos em sistemas de pastejo contínuo, alternado e rotativo consumiram de 13,41 a 15,92% a menos de ração e apresentaram menores ganhos de peso e espessura de toucinho que aqueles criados em confinamento. Não foram registradas diferenças significativas na conversão alimentar entre os suínos mantidos em confinamento e em pastagem.This trial was carried out to determine the effect of continuous, alternated or rotational grazing systems on the performance of pigs (feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion and backfat thickness, in the growing and finishing phases, as well as the forage availability and chemical composition of a white clover pasture (Trifolium repens L.. Thirty-six castrated pigs were allotted to a randomized complete-block experimental design with three treatments and three replications. Twelve feedlot pigs were kept on a rearing system. No significant differences were found between grazing systems on parameters of animal performance and forage on offer. However, significant differences were observed on the pasture chemical composition

  1. Mercury and flooding cycles in the Tapajos river basin, Brazilian Amazon: The role of periphyton of a floating macrophyte (Paspalum repens)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho-Souza, Sergio A., E-mail: sacs@biof.ufrj.br [Lab. Tracadores Wolfgang C. Pfeiffer, SL 049, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho/UFRJ, Bloco G, Centro de Ciencias e Saude, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 21949-902 (Brazil); Guimaraes, Jean R.D.; Miranda, Marcio R. [Lab. Tracadores Wolfgang C. Pfeiffer, SL 049, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho/UFRJ, Bloco G, Centro de Ciencias e Saude, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 21949-902 (Brazil); Poirier, Hugo [Chaire de Reserche en Environment, Universite du Quebec a Montreal (UQaM), CP 8888, Montreal, H3C 3P8 (Canada); Mauro, Jane B.N. [Lab. Tracadores Wolfgang C. Pfeiffer, SL 049, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho/UFRJ, Bloco G, Centro de Ciencias e Saude, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 21949-902 (Brazil); Lucotte, Marc [Chaire de Reserche en Environment, Universite du Quebec a Montreal (UQaM), CP 8888, Montreal, H3C 3P8 (Canada); Mergler, Donna [CINBIOSE, UQaM, CP 8888, succ. Centre-ville, Montreal, H3C 3P8 (Canada)

    2011-06-15

    Methylmercury (MeHg) increases mercury (Hg) toxicity and is biomagnified in the trophic chain contaminating riverine Amazon populations. Freshwater macrophyte roots are a main site of Hg methylation in different Brazilian environments. Paspalum repens periphyton was sampled in four floodplain lakes during the dry, rainy and wet seasons for measurement of total Hg (THg), MeHg, Hg methylation potentials, %C, %N, {delta}{sup 13}C, {delta}{sup 15}N and bacterial heterotrophic production as {sup 3}H-leucine incorporation rate. THg concentration varied from 67 to 198 ng/g and the potential of Me{sup 203}Hg formation was expressive (1-23%) showing that periphyton is an important matrix both in the accumulation of Hg and in MeHg production. The concentration of MeHg varied from 1 to 6 ng/g DW and was positively correlated with Me{sup 203}Hg formation. Though methylmercury formation is mainly a bacterial process, no significant correlation was observed between the methylation potentials and bacterial production. The multiple regressions analyses suggested a negative correlation between THg and %C and %N and between methylation potential and {delta}{sup 13}C. The discriminant analysis showed a significant difference in periphyton {delta}{sup 15}N, {delta}{sup 13}C and THg between seasons, where the rainy season presented higher {delta}{sup 15}N and the wet period lighter {delta}{sup 13}C, lower THg values and higher Me{sup 203}Hg formation. This exploratory study indicates that the flooding cycle could influence the periphyton composition, mercury accumulation and methylmercury production. - Research highlights: {yields} During rainy season mercury (Hg{sup 2+}) is carried out from terrestrial to aquatic systems by runoff. {yields} Macrophyte roots accumulates Hg{sup 2+} from suspended particulate matter (SPM). {yields} Hg methylation increases during the wet season. {yields} Flooded forest is a source of labile organic carbon and bioavailable Hg. {yields} Macrophytes

  2. Observational study: daily treatment with a new compound “tradamixina” plus serenoa repens for two months improved the lower urinary tract symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are associated with great emotional costs to individuals and substantial economic costs to society. This study seeks to evaluate the effect of a new natural compound “Tradamixina plus Serenoa Repens” in order to improve lower urinary tract symptoms. Methods 100 patients (≥45years) who had had LUTS/BPH for >6 mo at screening and with IPSS -The international Prostate symptom scores- ≥13 and maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax) ≥4 to ≤15 ml/s. were recruited. The compound “Tradamixina plus Serenoa Repens” (80 mg of Alga Ecklonia Bicyclis, 100 mg of Tribulus Terrestris and 100 mg of D-Glucosamine and N-Acetyl-D-Glucosamine plus 320 mg of Serenoa Repens) was administered daily for 2 months. At visit and after 60 days of treatment patients were evaluated by means of detailed medical urological history, clinical examination, laboratory investigations (total PSA), and instrumental examination like urolfowmetry. Efficacy measures included IPSS-International Prostate Sympto, BPH Impact Index (BII), Quality-of-Life (QoL) Index. Measures were assessed at baseline and end point (12 wk or end of therapy) and also at screening, 1 and 4 wk for IPSS, and 4 wk for BII. Statistical significance was interpreted only if the results of the preceding analysis were significant at the 0.05 level. Results After 2 months of treatment the change from baseline to week 12 relative to “Tradamixina plus Seronea Repens” in total IPSS and Qol was statistically significant. Differences from baseline in BII were statistically significant for “Tradamixina plus Seronea Repens” above all differences in BII were also significant at 4 wk (LSmean ± SE: -0.8 ± 0.2). In the distribution of subjects over the PGI-I and CGI-I response categories were significant for”Tradamixina plus Seronea Repens” (PGI-I: p = 0.001; CGI-I). We also observed a decrease of total PSA. Conclusion The daily treatment with a new compound “Tradamixina plus

  3. Transcription of Biotic Stress Associated Genes in White Clover (Trifolium repens L.) Differs in Response to Cyst and Root-Knot Nematode Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Afsana; Mercer, Chris F; Leung, Susanna; Dijkwel, Paul P; McManus, Michael T

    2015-01-01

    The transcription of four members of the Kunitz proteinase inhibitor (KPI) gene family of white clover (Trifolium repens L.), designated as Tr-KPI1, Tr-KPI2, Tr-KPI4 and Tr-KPI5, was investigated at both local infection (roots) and systemic (leaf tissue) sites in white clover in response to infection with the clover root knot nematode (CRKN) Meloidogyne trifoliophila and the clover cyst nematode (CCN) Heterodera trifolii. Invasion by the CRKN resulted in a significant decrease in transcript abundance of Tr-KPI4 locally at both 4 days post-infection (dpi) and at 8 dpi, and an increase in transcription of Tr-KPI1 systemically at 8 dpi. In contrast, an increase in transcript abundance of all four Tr-KPI genes locally at 4 and 8 dpi, and an increase of Tr-KPI1, Tr-KPI2, and Tr-KPI5 at 8 dpi systemically was observed in response to infection with the CCN. Challenge of a resistant (R) genotype and a susceptible (S) genotype of white clover with the CCN revealed a significant increase in transcript abundance of all four Tr-KPI genes locally in the R genotype, while an increase in abundance of only Tr-KPI1, Tr-KPI2, and Tr-KPI5 was observed in the S genotype, and only at 4 dpi. The transcript abundance of a member of the1-AMINOCYCLOPROPANE-1-CARBOXYLATE (ACC) SYNTHASE gene family from white clover (Tr-ACS1) was significantly down-regulated locally in response to CRKN infection at 4 and 8 dpi and at 4 dpi, systemically, while abundance increased locally and systemically at 8 dpi in response to CCN challenge. Conversely, the abundance of the jasmonic acid (JA) signalling gene, CORONATINE-INSENSITIVE PROTEIN 1 from white clover (Tr-COI1) increased significantly at 8 dpi locally in response to CRKN infection, but decreased at 8 dpi in response to CCN infection. The significance of this differential regulation of transcription is discussed with respect to differences in infection strategy of the two nematode species.

  4. Serenoa repens, lycopene and selenium versus tamsulosin for the treatment of LUTS/BPH. An Italian multicenter double-blinded randomized study between single or combination therapy (PROCOMB trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgia, Giuseppe; Russo, Giorgio I; Voce, Salvatore; Palmieri, Fabiano; Gentile, Marcello; Giannantoni, Antonella; Blefari, Franco; Carini, Marco; Minervini, Andrea; Ginepri, Andrea; Salvia, Giuseppe; Vespasiani, Giuseppe; Santelli, Giorgio; Cimino, Sebastiano; Allegro, Rosalinda; Collura, Zaira; Fragalà, Eugenia; Arnone, Salvatore; Pareo, Rosaria M

    2014-11-01

    Phytotherapy has been used to treat patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). We evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of combination therapy between Serenoa Repens (SeR), Lycopene (Ly), and Selenium (Se) + tamsulosin versus single therapies. PROCOMB trial (ISRCTN78639965) was a randomized double-blinded, double-dummy multicenter study of 225 patients between 55 and 80 years old, PSA ≤ 4 ng/ml, IPSS ≥12, prostate volume ≤60 cc, Qmax ≤15 ml/sec, postvoid residual urine (PVR) tamsulosin 0.4 mg), group C (SeR-Se-Ly + tamsulosin 0.4 mg). The primary endpoints of the study were the reduction of IPSS, PVR, and increase of Qmax in group C versus monotherapy groups. The decrease for combination therapy was significantly greater versus group A (P tamsulosin therapy is more effective than single therapies in improving IPSS and increasing Qmax in patients with LUTS. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Typification of three names in the Bolboschoenus maritimus group (Cyperaceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marhold, K.; Ducháček, M.; Hroudová, Zdenka

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 36, - (2006), s. 103-113 ISSN 0511-9618 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6005905; GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : taxonomy * nomenclature * Scirpus Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  6. Mapania sapuaniana (Cyperaceae), a new sedge species from Sarawak

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shabdin, Z.; Culham, A.; Simpson, D.A.; Meekiong, K.

    2013-01-01

    Mapania sapuaniana, a spectacular new sedge species from Lanjak Entimau, Sarawak, is described and illustrated. It is closely related to M. richardsii and M. borneensis but differs in having broad leaves with a distinct pseudopetiole, reddish purple or maroon coloration on the underside of the leaf

  7. Effects of D-004, a lipid extract of the fruit of the Cuban royal palm (Roystonea regia) or the lipidosterolic extract of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) on the sexual activity in male rats: A controlled, experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Lilia C; Mas, Rosa; Fernández, Julio; Mendoza, Sarahí; Gámez, Rafael; Pardo, Balia

    2008-02-01

    The etiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is not completely understood, but hormonal changes in aging men seem to be pivotal. Dihydrotestosterone, a potent, active metabolite of testosterone, is formed by the enzymatic action of prostate 5α-reductase and causes cell growth and hyperplasia. Consistent with this action, male sexual dysfunction has been clinically documented to be among the drug-related adverse events associated with 5α-reductase inhibitors. The lipidosterolic extract of saw palmetto (LESP) fruit (Serenoa repens) has been used to treat BPH. D-004, a lipid extract of Roystonea regia Royal palm fruit, has been found to prevent prostatic hyperplasia induced by testoste-rone in rodents and to competitively inhibit prostate 5α-reductase activity in vitro. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of D-004 and LESP, administered as single or repeated doses, on the sexual activity in male rats. This controlled, experimental study was conducted at the Pharmacology Department, Centre of Natural Products, National Centre for Scientific Research, Havana City, Cuba. Adult male Wistar rats weighing 250 to 300 g were randomized into 5 groups: 2 groups treated orally with D-004 (400 and 800 mg/kg); 2 groups treated orally with LESP (400 and 800 mg/kg); and 1 control group orally administered a water vehicle. Sexual activity behavior (the number of mounts and intromissions, mount latency, and intromission latency) was assessed during 2 observation periods: 90 minutes after the initial dose and at the end of the 30-day treatment. Latency was defined as time elapsed between the first mount and intromission. A total of 50 rats (mean [SD] age, 10 [3] weeks; mean [SD] weight, 295 [10] g) were included in the experiment. There were no significant difterences in the mean number of mounts, intromissions, mount latency, or intromission latency in the groups treated with single or repeated doses of D-004 or LESP (400 and 800 mg/kg) compared with the

  8. Efficacy and safety of a hexanic extract of Serenoa repens (Permixon® ) for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (LUTS/BPH): Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela-Navarrete, Remigio; Alcaraz, Antonio; Rodríguez-Antolín, Alfredo; Miñana López, Bernardino; Fernández-Gómez, Jesús M; Angulo, Javier C; Castro Díaz, David; Romero-Otero, Javier; Brenes, Francisco J; Carballido, Joaquín; Molero García, José M; Fernández-Pro Ledesma, Antonio; Cózar Olmos, José Manuel; Manasanch Dalmau, José; Subirana Cachinero, Isaac; Herdman, Michael; Ficarra, Vincenzo

    2018-04-25

    To comprehensively evaluate the efficacy and safety of the hexanic extract of Serenoa repens (HESr, Permixon), at a dose of 320 mg daily, as monotherapy for the treatment of LUTS/BPH. Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized and observational studies in patients with LUTS/BPH identified through searches in Medline, Web of Knowledge [ISI], Scopus, the Cochrane Library, and bibliographic references up to March 2017. Articles studying S. repens extracts other than Permixon were excluded. Data was collected on IPSS score, peak urinary flow (Qmax), nocturia, quality of life, prostate volume, sexual function, and adverse drug reactions (ADR). Data obtained from randomized controlled trials (RCT) and observational studies (OS) were analysed jointly and separately using a random effects model. A sub-group analysis was performed of studies which included patients on longer-term treatment (≥one year). Data from 27 studies (15 RCTs and 12 OS) were included for meta-analysis (total N=5,800). Compared with placebo, the HESr was associated with 0.64 (95% CI -0.98 to -0.31) fewer voids per night (p=0.0001) and an additional mean increase in Qmax of 2.75 mL/s (95% CI 0.57 to 4.93; p=0.01). When compared with alpha-blockers, the HESr showed similar improvements on IPSS (WMD 0.57; 95%CI, -0.27 to 1.42; p=0.18) and a comparable increase in Qmax to tamsulosin (WMD -0.02; 95%CI, -0.71 to 0.66; p=0.95). Efficacy assessed using the IPSS was similar after 6 months of treatment between the HESr and 5ARIs. Analysis of all available published data for the HESr showed a mean improvement in IPSS score from baseline of -5.73 points (95% CI -6.91 to -4.54; pBPH. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Genetic variation of white clover ( Trifolium repens L.) collections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) to investigate the genetic relationships among white clover germplasms of China, and four commercial cultivars were included for a comparison. The results revealed that the populations showed diverse morphological traits, RAPD and SSR patterns.

  10. Dirofilaria repens microfilariae in Aedes vexans mosquitoes in Slovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bocková, E.; Rudolf, Ivo; Kočišová, A.; Betášová, Lenka; Venclíková, Kristýna; Mendel, Jan; Hubálek, Zdeněk

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 10 (2013), s. 3465-3470 ISSN 0932-0113 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Dirofilaria * mosquitoes * Aedes vexans Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.327, year: 2013

  11. Genetic variation of white clover (Trifolium repens L.) collections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-05-24

    May 24, 2010 ... incompatibility mechanism of disomic inheritance (Thomas,. 1987). In essence ..... Badr A, Sayed-Ahmed H, El-Shanshouri A, Watson LE (2002). Ancestors of white ... Caradus JR, Woodfield DR (1997). World checklist of ... within a natural population of white clover (Trifolium repense L). J. Ecol. 73: 615-624 ...

  12. Het cyanophore karakter van witte klaver (Trifolium repens L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waal, de D.

    1942-01-01

    The positive correlation found in New Zealand between quality of white clover and its hydrocyanic acid content, could not be confirmed for Dutch white clover in the Netherlands. HCN occurred bound to an incompletely identified glucoside. As Weevers and Treub et al. found the glucoside and HCN

  13. Geographic range and morphological and chromosomal variability of Carex molestiformis (Cyperaceae) east of the Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carex molestiformis (frightful sedge), described in 1997 as an endemic to the Ozark and Ouachita Mountain regions, is newly collected from Georgia, Mississippi, and Ohio. Herbarium records have also confirmed this species from North Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia bringing the overall range of...

  14. Distribución y ecología de Vesicarex collumanthus Steyermark (Cyperaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine M. Cleef

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde la descripción original de Vesicarex collumanthus por Steyermark (1951, genero nuevo encontrado en el Paramo de Tama en la parte venezolana de la Cordillera Oriental, no se conoee publicaciones posteriores sobre esta diminuta Ciperacea, Vesicarex es un genero monotipico de los páramos del trópico andino. Fitogeogrilficamente, Vesicarex pertenece al elemento endémico O "Paramo element" de la flora vascular paramuna (Cleef, 1979. Aunque la plantica es bastante inconspicua, hoy día disponemos de suficientes colecciones y observaciones de campo, para la siguiente presentación de datos de distribución y ecología. La forma de vida y aspectos fonológicos, anatómicos y sistemáticos de Vesicarex son tratados por el Dr. Luis Eduardo Mora-Osejo, en artículo separado que aparece publicado en esta primera entrega de "Acta Biológica Colombiana".

  15. Taxonomic revision of the tropical African group of Carex subsect. Elatae (sect. Spirostachyae, Cyperaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escudero, Marcial

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The tropical African monophyletic group of Carex subsect. Elatae (sect. Spirostachyae is distributed in continental tropical Africa, Madagascar, the Mascarene archipelago, and Bioko Island (32 km off the coast of West Africa, in the Gulf of Guinea. The first monographic treatment of this Carex group, as well as of the tribe Cariceae, was published by Kükenthal (as sect. Elatae Kük.. Recently, the first molecular (nrDNA, cpDNA phylogeny of Carex sect. Elatae has been published, which also included the species of sect. Spirostachyae. In the resulting consensus trees, most species of sect. Elatae were embedded within core Spirostachyae and so this section was joined with sect. Spirostachyae as subsect. Elatae. Within subsect. Elatae, several groups were described, one of which was termed the “tropical African group”. Here we present a taxonomic revision of this group, based on more than 280 vouchers from 29 herbaria as well as in field trips in Tropical Africa. In the revision, we recognise 12 species (16 taxa within the tropical African group, and so have somewhat modified our previous view, in which 10 species, 12 taxa were listed. One new species from Tanzania is included in this treatment, C. uluguruensis Luceño & M. Escudero. Several combinations are made, C. cyrtosaccus is treated as a synonym of C. vallis-rosetto and, finally, the binomial C. greenwayi has been recognised.Las especies de la subsección Elatae (sección Spirostachyae del género Carex que se distribuyen por África tropical continental, Madagascar, el archipiélago de las Mascareñas y la isla de Bioko (a 32 km del litoral de África occidental, en el golfo de Guinea forman un grupo monofilético. El primer tratamiento taxonómico de este grupo de cárices, así como de la tribu Cariceae en su conjunto, fue elaborado por Kükenthal (sección Elatae Kük.; recientemente, se ha publicado el primer estudio de filogenia molecular (nrDNA, cpDNA de los táxones de este grupo, junto con la inmensa mayoría de las restantes especies que Kükenthal incluyó en las secciones Elatae y Spirostachyae. Salvo escasas excepciones, los táxones incluidos se agruparon en un clado (“core Spirostachyae” que contiene las especies de las dos secciones antes aludidas. En congruencia con estos resultados, la sección Elatae fue incluida en la sección Spirostachyae como susbsección Elatae. Dentro de dicha subsección se observaron varios clados; uno de ellos, el denominado “grupo de África tropical”, es el objeto del presente trabajo, en el que presentamos una revisión taxonómica basada en el estudio de más de 280 pliegos conservados en 29 herbarios, así como en trabajos de campo llevados a cabo en África tropical. Como resultado del análisis de dichos materiales hemos realizado una profunda reorganización taxonómica, fruto de la cual admitimos 12 especies (16 táxones dentro del grupo de África tropical. Se describe además una nueva especie del NE de Tanzania, C. uluguruensis Luceño & M. Escudero. Asimismo, se llevan a cabo varias combinaciones nomenclaturales, el nombre de C. cyrtosaccus es considerado sinónimo de C. vallis-rosetto, y se reconoce el binomio C. grennwayi.

  16. O gênero Eleocharis R. Br. (Cyperaceae no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

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    Ilsi Iob Boldrin

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O estudo taxonômico do gênero Eleocharis R. Br. para o Rio Grande do Sul foi desenvolvido através dos métodos tradicionais em taxonomia. Os dados foram obtidos através da bibliografia, revisão de herbários regionais e coleta de exemplares a campo. O gênero está representado no Rio Grande do Sul por 27 espécies: Eleocharis acutangula (Roxb. Schult., E. bonariensis Nees, E. contracta Maury, E. dunensis Kük., E. elegans (Kunth Roem. & Schult., E. filiculmis Kunth, E. flavescens (Poir. Urb., E. geniculata (L. Roem. & Schult., E. interstincta (Vahl Roem. & Schult., E. laeviglumis R. Trevis. & Boldrini, E. loefgreniana Boeck., E. maculosa (Vahl Roem. & Schult., E. minima Kunth var. minima, E. montana (Kunth Roem. & Schult., E. montevidensis Kunth, E. nudipes (Kunth Palla, E. obtusetrigona (Lindl. & Nees Steud., E. parodii Barros, E. quinquangularis Boeck., E. rabenii Boeck., E. radicans (Poir. Kunth, E. sellowiana Kunth, E. squamigera Svenson, E. subarticulata (Nees Boeck., E. viridans Kük. ex Osten, Eleocharis sp.1 e Eleocharis sp.2. O trabalho apresenta descrições, ilustrações, dados sobre distribuição geográfica, habitat e períodos de floração e frutificação das espécies, além de uma chave dicotômica para diferenciá-las.

  17. Investigating the Phytochemicals and Antimicrobial Properties of Three Sedge (Cyperaceae Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiwalade Adeyemi ADENIYI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the medicinal value of notorious sedge weeds, three species:Cyperus esculentus, Cyperus rotundus and Mariscus alternifolius were investigated for their phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial properties. Preliminary qualitative phytochemical constituents and in vitro antimicrobial activities were evaluated against four fungi species: Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium chrysogenum and Candida albicans, and three bacteria species: Escherichia coli,Salmonella typhi and Staphylococcus aureus. Two solvents, water and ethanol, were used to produce the extracts and were screened for their antimicrobial activity. Antimicrobial activity evaluation of the extracts against pathogens was carried out at 100 mg/ml concentration by Disc Diffusion method for fungi, Disc Diffusion and Agar Well Diffusion methods for bacteria. Observed activities were related to standard antibiotics, antifungal and antibacterial, which served as controls. Phytochemically, the plant extracts showed the presence of carbohydrates, flavonoids, ketose sugars, steroids, reducing sugars and tannins. The ethanolic extract of C. rotundus exhibited the highest activity against A. niger, E. coli and S. aureus. No extract was active against C. albicans. From these findings, it was concluded that C. rotundus is a potential source of bioactive compounds for new drugs upon isolation and purification for treating infections caused by these pathogens.

  18. Radiation and repeated transoceanic dispersal of Schoeneae (Cyperaceae) through the southern hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viljoen, Jan-Adriaan; Muasya, A Muthama; Barrett, Russell L; Bruhl, Jeremy J; Gibbs, Adele K; Slingsby, Jasper A; Wilson, Karen L; Verboom, G Anthony

    2013-12-01

    The broad austral distribution of Schoeneae is almost certainly a product of long-distance dispersal. Owing to the inadequacies of existing phylogenetic data and a lack of rigorous biogeographic analysis, relationships within the tribe remain poorly resolved and its pattern of radiation and dispersal uncertain. We employed an expanded sampling of taxa and markers and a rigorous analytic approach to address these limitations. We evaluated the roles of geography and ecology in stimulating the initial radiation of the group and its subsequent dispersal across the southern hemisphere. A dated tree was reconstructed using reversible-jump Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) with a polytomy prior and molecular dating, applied to data from two nuclear and three cpDNA regions. Ancestral areas and habitats were inferred using dispersal-extinction-cladogenesis models. Schoeneae originated in Australia in the Paleocene. The existence of a "hard" polytomy at the base of the clade reflects the rapid divergence of six principal lineages ca. 50 Ma, within Australia. From this ancestral area, Schoeneae have traversed the austral oceans with remarkable frequency, a total of 29 distinct dispersal events being reported here. Dispersal rates between landmasses are not explicable in terms of the geographical distances separating them. Transoceanic dispersal generally involved habitat stasis. Although the role of dispersal in explaining global distribution patterns is now widely accepted, the apparent ease with which such dispersal may occur has perhaps been under-appreciated. In Schoeneae, transoceanic dispersal has been remarkably frequent, with ecological opportunity, rather than geography, being most important in dictating dispersal patterns.

  19. Carex flava agg. (section Ceratocystis, Cyperaceae in Poland: taxonomy, morphological variation, and soil conditions

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    Więcław Helena

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sedges of Carex flava agg., typical of moist or wet habitats, are difficult to classify because of a lack of clear-cut morphological differences between them and the existence of numerous hybrids. This monograph presents results of research conducted in 2007-2012 in various parts of Poland. The plant material consisted of 1852 living specimens of Carex flava agg., collected from 80 localities, and dried specimens from 26 herbaria and from 7 private collections. The analysis involved 45 morphological characters (34 quantitative and 11 qualitative and 9 soil parameters. Univariate, bivariate, and multivariate statistical methods were used to process the data. The results confirm the taxonomic classification dividing the C. flava group into 4 species: C. flava s.s., C. lepidocarpa, C. demissa, and C. viridula. This classification is based on (i a high observed level of morphological separation of these taxa, resulting mostly from differences in generative characters, i.e. length of the utricle and its beak, and percentage ratio of beak length to total utricle length; (ii integrity of the taxa at the sites where they coexist, although some intermediate forms resulting from hybridization are also present; (iii habitat preferences of the taxa, especially the preference of C. lepidocarpa for calcareous sites and of C. demissa for slightly acidic soils. Thus in Poland the analysed taxa are morphologically well-defined and show clear ecological preferences. Continuous variation of morphological characters was observed among specimens of C. viridula, so it is not justifiable to distinguish its subspecies (sometimes classified even as separate species, described previously in literature. Consequently, the 2 subgroups of C. viridula were treated as local variants (i.e. varieties: var. viridula and var. pulchella, considering their different habitat requirements. Additionally, 5 hybrids were distinguished within C. flava agg.: C. ×alsatica [= C. demissa × C. flava], C. ×ruedtii [= C. flava × C. lepidocarpa], C. ×schatzii [= C. lepidocarpa × C. viridula], C. ×subviridula [= C. flava × C. viridula], and C. demissa × C. viridula; as well as 2 hybrids with C. hostiana as one of the parents: C. ×fulva [= C. demissa × C. hostiana] and C. ×leutzii [= C. hostiana × C. lepidocarpa].

  20. Catálogo florístico y claves de identificación de las ciperáceas de los Estados de Paraíba y Pernambuco (nordeste de Brasil

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    Luceño, Modesto

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work presents the results of our studies of the family Cyperaceae in the northeastern Brazilian States of Pernambuco and Paraiba. The introduction includes a historical synopsis of previous work and summarizes the main types of vegetation found in the región. Keys for identification of the 22 genera and 127 species which comprise the catalogue are included. The species are enumerated for each genus, along with synonyms which have been employed in the región, material examined, frequency, habitat, general geographic distribution, and taxonomic observations where appropriate. More than half of the species are new records for Pernambuco and Paraiba. Two species are reported as new to science. Fuirena lainzii Luceño & M. Alves (1996 and Scleria pernambucana Luceño & M. Alves (1997. Two species are first reports from the American continent, Pycreus pumilus (L. Nees and P. pelophilus (Ridley C.B. Clarke, and two are first repoits for Brazil, Kyllinga nemoralis (J.R. Forster & G. Forster Dandy ex Hutchinson & Daziel and Scleria mexicana (Liebm. Boeck. Six genera and 10 species are new citations for the northeastem región of Brazil. A lectotype for Cyperus grossianus T.M. Ped. is chosen. Additionally, new localities are given for regional endemisms considered for be rare; other findings represent disjunctions of considerable biogeographical importance.En el presente trabajo se exponen los resultados de las investigaciones que hemos llevado a cabo, sobre la familia de las Ciperáceas, en los Estados brasileños de Pemambuco y Paraíba. En la introducción se presenta una sinopsis histórica de los trabajos anteriores y se resumen las principales formaciones vegetales. Se ofrecen claves para la identificación de los 22 géneros y las 136 especies que componen el catálogo. Tras las claves de cada género se enumeran las diversas especies del mismo, junto con los sinónimos que han sido empleados en la región, materiales examinados

  1. Anatomia e ultra-estrutura foliar de Cyperus maritimus Poir. (Cyperaceae: estratégias adaptativas ao ambiente de dunas litorâneas Leaf anatomy and ultrastructure of Cyperus maritimus Poir. (Cyperaceae: adaptive strategies for coastal dune environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Martins

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisados aspectos anatômicos e ultra-estruturais foliares de Cyperus maritimus Poir. visando identificar caracteres adaptativos ao ambiente de dunas litorâneas. Para isto, indivíduos ocorrentes nas dunas da Praia de Pipa, Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil, tiveram as folhas submetidas a diferentes análises: microscopia de luz, eletrônica de varredura e de transmissão. Em vista frontal, a epiderme possui tricomas unicelulares, corpos de sílica, cutícula estriada e depósitos de cera. Em secção transversal, a epiderme é unisseriada com parede periclinal externa espessa. Os estômatos são paracíticos, podendo o ostíolo estar obstruído por cera. Abaixo da face adaxial observa-se o parênquima aqüífero. Os feixes vasculares ocorrem em múltiplas fileiras, sendo as periféricas compostas por feixes de diâmetro menor que os feixes da fileira central. Foram observados caracteres relacionados à síndrome Kranz do tipo clorociperóide. Aspectos ultra-estruturais, como cloroplastos presentes na bainha do feixe, esses sem grana evidentes, entre outras características, reforçam a possível ocorrência da via C4 nesta espécie. É a primeira citação para o gênero Cyperus de cloroplasto nas celulas do tecido vascular. Neste trabalho foi possível observar vários caracteres importantes para plantas submetidas a estresse hídrico e salino, como: cera, células epidérmicas com parede periclinal externa espessada, parênquima aqüífero e síndrome Kranz.Anatomical and ultrastructural aspects of Cyperus maritimus Poir. were analyzed with the aim of identifying adaptive features for the dune environment. Collections were made at Pipa beach, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Leaves were submitted to different analyses: light microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. In frontal view, the epidermis has unicellular trichomes, silica bodies, a striate cuticle and wax deposits. In transverse section, the epidermis is uniseriate with thickened outer periclinal walls. The stomata are paracitic and the pore sometimes obstructed by wax. Under the adaxial epidermis, there are several layers of aqueous parenchyma. The vascular bundles occur in multiple rows, the peripheral row having bundles with narrower diameters than the central row. Characters related to Kranz syndrome of the chlorocyperoid type were observed. Ultrastructural features support a possible C4 pathway in this species. This work is the first citation of chloroplasts in the cells of the vascular system for the genus. In this study, it was possible to observe several important features of plants submitted to water and salt stress, such as: wax, thickened outer periclinal walls of the epidermal cells, aqueous parenchyma and Kranz syndrome.

  2. The east-west-north colonization history of the Mediterranean and Europe by the coastal plant Carex extensa (Cyperaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escudero, M.; Vargas, P.; Arens, P.; Ouborg, N.J.; Luceno, M.

    2010-01-01

    Coastal plants are ideal models for studying the colonization routes of species because of the simple linear distributions of these species. Carex extensa occurs mainly in salt marshes along the Mediterranean and European coasts. Variation in cpDNA sequences, amplified fragment length polymorphisms

  3. Effect of clone size on submergence tolerance and post-submergence growth recovery in Carex brevicuspis (Cyperaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengmiao Deng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Clonal plants are prevalent in wetlands and play important roles in maintaining the functions of the ecosystem. In the present study, we determined the effect of clone sizes (R1, R2, and R3 comprising 1, 3, and 5clumping ramets on the tolerance of Carex brevicuspis growing under 30-cm-deep water to three different periods (one, two, and three months of submergence and its growth recovery one month after de-submergence. Our results showed that the relative growth rate (RGR of C. brevicuspis significantly declined with increasing submergence time, and was higher in R3 and R5 than in R1 plants under both submergence and post-submergence conditions. The concentration of water-soluble carbohydrates (WSCs was highest in R3, intermediate in R5, and the lowest in R1 plants during the first two months of submergence, indicating an optimal trade-off between energy investment and vegetative growth (i.e., buds and ramets production in C. brevicuspis. WSCs were significantly reduced with increasing submergence time, while the starch content was significantly reduced only during the third month of submergence, implying that WSCs were a direct energy source for C. brevicuspis during submergence. The number of buds was higher in R5 than in R3 and R1 plants after two and three months of submergence, which directly resulted in a significantly higher post-submergence ramet production in R5 plants. These results indicated that plants with relatively larger clone sizes display better tolerance to submergence stress and post-submergence growth recovery. Therefore, we speculate that the large clone size in C brevicuspis might be an effective adaptive mechanism to survive under submergence stress in floodplain wetlands.

  4. Toward an accurate taxonomic interpretation of Carex fossil fruits (Cyperaceae): a case study in section Phacocystis in the Western Palearctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Mejías, Pedro; Martinetto, Edoardo

    2013-08-01

    Despite growing interest in the systematics and evolution of the hyperdiverse genus Carex, few studies have focused on its evolution using an absolute time framework. This is partly due to the limited knowledge of the fossil record. However, Carex fruits are not rare in certain sediments. We analyzed carpological features of modern materials from Carex sect. Phacocystis to characterize the fossil record taxonomically. We studied 374 achenes from modern materials (18 extant species), as well as representatives from related groups, to establish the main traits within and among species. We also studied 99 achenes from sediments of living populations to assess their modification process after decay. Additionally, we characterized 145 fossil achenes from 10 different locations (from 4-0.02 mya), whose taxonomic assignment we discuss. Five main characters were identified for establishing morphological groups of species (epidermis morphology, achene-utricle attachment, achene base, style robustness, and pericarp section). Eleven additional characters allowed the discrimination at species level of most of the taxa. Fossil samples were assigned to two extant species and one unknown, possibly extinct species. The analysis of fruit characters allows the distinction of groups, even up to species level. Carpology is revealed as an accurate tool in Carex paleotaxonomy, which could allow the characterization of Carex fossil fruits and assign them to subgeneric or sectional categories, or to certain species. Our conclusions could be crucial for including a temporal framework in the study of the evolution of Carex.

  5. NET ABOVEGROUND PRIMARY PRODUCTION AND BIOMASS DYNAMICS OF SCHOENOPLECTUS CALIFORNICUS (CYPERACEAE MARSHES GROWING UNDER DIFFERENT HYDROLOGICAL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Pratolongo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron diferentes atributos funcionales de 2 pajonales de Schoenoplectus californicus (C. A. Mey Sójak que son muy similares en su estructura y especie dominante, pero aparecen en los extremos opuestos a lo largo de un gradiente de influencia fluvial-mareal en el Bajo Delta del río Paraná. Los resultados mostraron una productividad primaria neta aérea (PPNA significativamente más alta en el pajonal afectado directamente por la marea (1999.41 ± 211.97 g m-2 año-1. En el sitio aguas arriba, menos proclive a la inundación por mareas, S. californicus tuvo una menor PPNA (1299.17 ± 179.48 g m-2 año-1 y el sistema mostró una mayor capacidad para retener la biomasa producida dentro del pajonal, con cantidades significativamente mayores de biomasa muerta en pie (1316.00 ± 336.01 vs. 112.40 ± 55.05 g m-2 y mayores contenidos de materia orgánica en el suelo (16.20 ± 0.12 % vs. 0.70 ± 0.08 %. Los resultados obtenidos en este trabajo sugieren que los flujos superficiales de alta energía pueden cambiar el funcionamiento de estos pajonales, de un sistema estable acumulador de materia orgánica a un pajonal de rápido crecimiento, con altas tasas de acumulación de sedimentos minerales.

  6. Morphology of the achene in species of the genus Scleria P. Berg (Cyperaceae) present in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinoza Morales, Lindsay Patricia

    2014-01-01

    The morphological characteristics and external morphology of the fruits from species of Scleria present in Costa Rica are analyzed and described, using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. A taxonomic key is elaborated to allow easy identification and differentiation of distinct species. A dichotomous key is made with the help of Delta-key program to distinguish 21 species of Scleria, taking into consideration the morphology of the achene. A dendrogram is performed with the species of Scleria using only the morphological characters of its achenes, through the statistical program Past 2.12 Paleontological Statistic. 15 achenes were analyzed by species obtained from specimens of the herbarium of the Universidad de Costa Rica, Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad, Herbario Nacional and Organizacion para Estudios Tropicales. Digital photographs were taken of the full view of achene, the detail of the surface and inferior of fruit. The hypogynium and the cupola have been the morphological structures most important of Scleria in the country [es

  7. Stress-induced memory alters growth of clonal offspring of white clover (Trifolium repens)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    González, Alejandra Pilar Rendina; Chrtek, Jindřich; Dobrev, Petre; Dumalasová, Veronika; Fehrer, Judith; Mráz, Patrik; Latzel, Vít

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 103, č. 9 (2016), s. 1567-1574 ISSN 0002-9122 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-06802S Institutional support: RVO:67985939 ; RVO:61389030 Keywords : asexual reproduction * DNA methylation * epigenetic variation Subject RIV: EF - Botanics; EF - Botanics (UEB-Q) Impact factor: 3.050, year: 2016

  8. Fate in Soil of Flavonoids Released from White Clover (Trifolium repens L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Sandra C. K.; Pedersen, Hans A.; Spliid, Niels H.

    2012-01-01

    the presence in soil of bioactive secondary metabolites from clover has received limited attention. In this paper we examine for the first time the release of flavonoids both from field-grown white clover and from soil-incorporated white clover plants of flavonoids, as analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The dominant...... flavonoid aglycones were formononetin, medicarpin, and kaempferol. Soil-incorporated white clover plants generated high concentrations of the glycosides kaempferol-Rha-Xyl-Gal and quercetin-Xyl-Gal. Substantial amounts of kaempferol persisted in the soil for days while the other compounds were degraded...

  9. Response to flooding intensity in Elytrigia repens, E. intermedia (Poaceae: Triticeae) and their hybrid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mahelka, Václav

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 46, - (2006), s. 82-90 ISSN 0043-1737 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/05/0778; GA ČR GD206/03/H137; GA MZe QC1362 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : phenotypic plasticity * flooding * weed Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.705, year: 2006

  10. Air-propelled abrasive grit can damage the perennial weed, quackgrass, Elytrigia repens (L.) Nevski

    Science.gov (United States)

    New techniques are needed to control quackgrass in organic crops. With greater than or equal to 2 applications of abrasive air-propelled (800 kPa) corncob grit to 15 cm tall quackgrass tillers, regrowth was minimal at 5 weeks after treatment. Abrasive grits may be effective tools to help manage pere...

  11. Subconjunctival Dirofilaria repens Infestation: A Light and Scanning Electron Microscopy Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melsom, Henrik A; Kurtzhals, Jørgen A L; Qvortrup, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    injection, proptosis and diplopia. The patient underwent incisional extraction of a nine cm long worm, which was analysed histologically. Results: The worm was structureless, greyish-white in colour and measuring nine cm in length and 0.5 mm in diameter. Histopathological examination of the worm showed...

  12. Elytrigia repens population dynamics under different management schemes in organic cropping systems on coarse sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ilse A.; Melander, Bo; Askegaard, Margrethe

    2014-01-01

    -year crop rotations including various cash crops and grass-clover leys; two rotations running during the first two courses with the one replaced with another rotation during the last course. The rotations were combined with four combinations of the treatments; with and without animal manure (‘without...

  13. Antileishmanial activity of 12-methoxycarnosic acid from Salvia repens Burch. ex Benth. (Lamiaceae)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mokoka, TA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available .5 ml/min, and the injection volume was 35 µl (350 µg extract in DMSO). Thirty-five one-92 minute fractions were collected in 96 deep well plates during the run (Screenmates 96 well, 93 Matrix Technology, Hudson, USA) and dried in a GeneVac EZ-2 Plus...) at two different concentrations (5 µg/ml) and (0.8 102 6 µg/ml) against L. donovani amastigotes (MHOM/ET/67/L82) in 96-well microtiter plate. The 103 plate was read in a spectramax Gemini XS microplate fluorometer (Molecular Devices 104 Cooperation...

  14. Consideraciones sobre la morfología, anatomía y posición sistemática de Vesicarex Steyermark (Cyperaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Mora-Osejo

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available En los páramos ocurren con relativa frecuencia angiospermas de porte arrosetado cespitoso. Entre tales se cuenta la diminuta ciperácea Vesicarex collumanthus Steyerm, descrita por Julian Steyermark (1951,63 como especie típica y hasta la fecha única del genero Vesicarex, propuesto por este mismo autor. Recientemente V. collumanthus se ha registrado en varias localidades, colombianas: Sierra Nevada del Cocuy: Grubb, Curry & Fernandez-Paraz No. 339 (COL,US; Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta: Cuatrecasas & Romero-Castaileda No. 24571 (COL, US; Cleef No. 24.571 (COL, U; Sierra Nevada del Cocuy, Cleff Nos. 5611,8875 ICOL,U.

  15. A new species in the indigenous New Zealand soft scale insect genus Kalasiris Henderson & Hodgson (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccomorpha: Coccidae) on Gahnia setifolia (Cyperaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Chris J; Gunawardana, D N; Richmond, J E

    2016-03-14

    The genus Kalasiris Henderson & Hodgson (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccomorpha: Coccidae) is currently only known from New Zealand. The adult female and pupa of a new species, K. martini Hodgson & Richmond are described and illustrated below and the possible taxonomic relationships of the genus to other New Zealand genera are discussed.

  16. The Roles of Sphagnum and Cyperaceae in the Methane Cycle of an Ombrotrophic Bog Revealed by the Carbon Isotope Ratios of Leaf Waxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isles, P. D.; Nichols, J. E.; Peteet, D. M.; Kenna, T. C.

    2011-12-01

    Methane is a strong greenhouse gas, and the role of the terrestrial carbon cycle in the concentrations of atmospheric methane is poorly understood. What is clear, is that northern peatlands are a significant source of methane to the atmosphere. A recent discovery, and a topic of much scrutiny, has been the relationship between Sphagnum in peatlands and symbiotic methanotrophic bacteria. These bacteria oxidize methane produced at depth in peatlands before it is released to the atmosphere, contributing 13C-depleted CO2 to Sphagnum photosynthate. We seek to better understand the fate of methane produced in peatlands at depth, and the relationship between methane release from peatland surfaces and parameters such as temperature, moisture, and vegetation type. We compare carbon isotope ratios of leaf wax n-alkanes from sphagnum and vascular plants and major element chemistry at three different microhabitats, hummock, hollow, and sedge tussock, in Mer Bleue an ombrotrophic peatland near Ottowa, Ontario, Canada. We use these compound-specific carbon isotope measurements to constrain the amount of methane-derived CO2 incorporated by Sphagnum. We also compare our multiannually resolved down-core measurements to data from long-term monitoring of climate parameters and methane flux from the same microhabitats to ground-truth our sedimentary signature of methane with instrumental measurements.

  17. A regional approach to plant DNA barcoding provides high species resolution of sedges (Carex and Kobresia, Cyperaceae) in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerc-Blain, Jessica L E; Starr, Julian R; Bull, Roger D; Saarela, Jeffery M

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on barcoding sedges (Carex) suggested that basic searches within a global barcoding database would probably not resolve more than 60% of the world's some 2000 species. In this study, we take an alternative approach and explore the performance of plant DNA barcoding in the Carex lineage from an explicitly regional perspective. We characterize the utility of a subset of the proposed protein-coding and noncoding plastid barcoding regions (matK, rpoB, rpoC1, rbcL, atpF-atpH, psbK-psbI) for distinguishing species of Carex and Kobresia in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, a clearly defined eco-geographical region representing 1% of the Earth's landmass. Our results show that matK resolves the greatest number of species of any single-locus (95%), and when combined in a two-locus barcode, it provides 100% species resolution in all but one combination (matK + atpFH) during unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean averages (UPGMA) analyses. Noncoding regions were equally or more variable than matK, but as single markers they resolve substantially fewer taxa than matK alone. When difficulties with sequencing and alignment due to microstructural variation in noncoding regions are also considered, our results support other studies in suggesting that protein-coding regions are more practical as barcoding markers. Plastid DNA barcodes are an effective identification tool for species of Carex and Kobresia in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, a region where the number of co-existing closely related species is limited. We suggest that if a regional approach to plant DNA barcoding was applied on a global scale, it could provide a solution to the generally poor species resolution seen in previous barcoding studies. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Allopatric speciation despite historical gene flow: Divergence and hybridization in Carex furva and C. lucennoiberica (Cyperaceae) inferred from plastid and nuclear RAD-seq data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguilla, Enrique; Escudero, Marcial; Hipp, Andrew L; Luceño, Modesto

    2017-10-01

    Gene flow among incipient species can act as a creative or destructive force in the speciation process, generating variation on which natural selection can act while, potentially, undermining population divergence. The flowering plant genus Carex exhibits a rapid and relatively recent radiation with many species limits still unclear. This is the case with the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal)-endemic C. lucennoiberica, which lay unrecognized within Carex furva until its recent description as a new species. In this study, we test how these species were impacted by interspecific gene flow during speciation. We sampled the full range of distribution of C. furva (15 individuals sampled) and C. lucennoiberica (88 individuals), sequenced two cpDNA regions (atpI-atpH, psbA-trnH) and performed genomic sequencing of 45,100 SNPs using restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq). We utilized a set of partitioned D-statistic tests and demographic analyses to study the degree and direction of introgression. Additionally, we modelled species distributions to reconstruct changes in range distribution during glacial and interglacial periods. Plastid, nuclear and morphological data strongly support divergence between species with subsequent gene flow. Combined with species distribution modelling, these data support a scenario of allopatry leading to species divergence, followed by secondary contact and gene flow due to long-distance dispersal and/or range expansions and contractions in response to Quaternary glacial cycles. We conclude that this is a case of allopatric speciation despite historical secondary contacts, which could have temporally influenced the speciation process, contributing to the knowledge of forces that are driving or counteracting speciation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Phylogenetic relatedness limits co-occurrence at fine spatial scales: evidence from the schoenoid sedges (Cyperaceae: Schoeneae) of the Cape Floristic Region, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slingsby, Jasper A; Verboom, G Anthony

    2006-07-01

    Species co-occurrence at fine spatial scales is expected to be nonrandom with respect to phylogeny because of the joint effects of evolutionary (trait convergence and conservatism) and ecological (competitive exclusion and habitat filtering) processes. We use data from 11 existing vegetation surveys to test whether co-occurrence in schoenoid sedge assemblages in the Cape Floristic Region shows significant phylogenetic structuring and to examine whether this changes with the phylogenetic scale of the analysis. We provide evidence for phylogenetic overdispersion in an alliance of closely related species (the reticulate-sheathed Tetraria clade) using both quantile regression analysis and a comparison between the mean observed and expected phylogenetic distances between co-occurring species. Similar patterns are not evident when the analyses are performed at a broader phylogenetic scale. Examination of six functional traits suggests a general pattern of trait conservatism within the reticulate-sheathed Tetraria clade, suggesting a potential role for interspecific competition in structuring co-occurrence within this group. We suggest that phylogenetic overdispersion of communities may be common throughout many of the Cape lineages, since interspecific interactions are likely intensified in lineages with large numbers of species restricted to a small geographic area, and we discuss the potential implications for patterns of diversity in the Cape.

  20. A contribuição da anatomia foliar para a taxonomia das espécies de Cyperus L. subg. Cyperus (Cyperaceae ocorrentes no sul do Brasil Contribution of leaf anatomy to the taxonomy Cyperus L. subg. Cyperus (Cyperaceae species from southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Marisa Hefler

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi analisada a anatomia foliar de 15 táxons de Cyperus subg. Cyperus ocorrentes na Região Sul do Brasil, na busca de caracteres anatômicos auxiliares para a sua identificação. Todos os táxons analisados possuem clorênquima radiado em torno dos feixes vasculares, anatomia Kranz do tipo Clorociperóide e cavidades aeríferas com diafragma de células estreladas. Os caracteres que mostraram maior valor diagnóstico foram a forma da lâmina foliar em secção transversal, a distribuição e estratificação da hipoderme e das células buliformes, o grau de desenvolvimento das cavidades aeríferas, e a distribuição dos feixes vasculares. Os resultados permitiram separar algumas espécies com morfologia externa semelhante, porém, não foram conclusivos para a definição de todos os complexos específicos e infra-específicos observados. Por outro lado, reforçaram a proposição de sinonímias já indicadas por dados da morfologia externa e da micromorfologia da superfície do fruto obtidos em estudos anteriores. É discutida a importância diagnóstica dos caracteres analisados e fornecida uma tabela comparativa entre os táxons.The leaf anatomy of 15 taxa of Cyperus subg. Cyperus from Southern Brazil was analyzed aiming to find anatomic characteristics useful for identification. All the taxa studied have radiate chlorenchyma around the vascular bundles, Kranz anatomy of the Chlorocyperoid type and air cavities with starred cells in the diaphragms. The most important diagnostic characters are leaf-blade shape in cross section, arrangement and stratification of hypoderm and bulliform cells, degree of air-cavity development, and vascular-bundle arrangement. The results were useful to separate some exomorphologically similar species but were not conclusive for the definition of all specific or infra-specific complexes observed. On the other hand, the results reinforced the proposition of synonymies indicated by previous exomorphological analyses and micromorphological data of the fruit surface. The diagnostic value of the analyzed data is discussed and a comparative table is provided.

  1. Variation in leaf anatomy within the Elytrigia intermedia – E. ×mucronata – E. repens (Poaceae) hybrid complex

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paštová, Ladislava

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 2 (2017), s. 187-198 ISSN 1310-7771 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : hybrid * leaf blade selection * micromorphology Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany

  2. Saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) in men with lower urinary tract symptoms: effects on urodynamic parameters and voiding symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, G S; Zagaja, G P; Bales, G T; Chodak, G W; Contreras, B A

    1998-06-01

    To assess the effects of saw palmetto on voiding symptoms and urodynamic parameters in men with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) presumed secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Fifty men with previously untreated LUTS and a minimum International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) of 10 or greater were treated with a commercially available form of saw palmetto (160 mg twice per day) for 6 months. The initial evaluation included measurement of peak urinary flow rate, postvoid residual urine volume, pressure-flow study, and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level. Patients completed an IPSS, serum PSA was determined, and flow rate was measured every 2 months during the course of the study. A urodynamic evaluation was repeated at the completion of the 6-month trial. The mean IPSS (+/-SD) improved from 19.5+/-5.5 to 12.5+/-7.0 (P saw palmetto for 2 months. An improvement in symptom score of 50% or greater after treatment with saw palmetto for 2, 4, and 6 months was noted in 21% (10 of 48), 30% (14 of 47), and 46% (21 of 46) of patients, respectively. There was no significant change in peak urinary flow rate, postvoid residual urine volume, or detrusor pressure at peak flow among patients completing the study. No significant change in mean serum PSA level was noted. Saw palmetto is a well-tolerated agent that may significantly improve lower urinary tract symptoms in men with BPH. However, we were unable to demonstrate any significant improvement in objective measures of bladder outlet obstruction. Placebo-controlled trials of saw palmetto are needed to evaluate the true effectiveness of this compound.

  3. Towards an optimal sampling strategy for assessing genetic variation within and among white clover (Trifolium repens L. cultivars using AFLP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosro Mehdi Khanlou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cost reduction in plant breeding and conservation programs depends largely on correctly defining the minimal sample size required for the trustworthy assessment of intra- and inter-cultivar genetic variation. White clover, an important pasture legume, was chosen for studying this aspect. In clonal plants, such as the aforementioned, an appropriate sampling scheme eliminates the redundant analysis of identical genotypes. The aim was to define an optimal sampling strategy, i.e., the minimum sample size and appropriate sampling scheme for white clover cultivars, by using AFLP data (283 loci from three popular types. A grid-based sampling scheme, with an interplant distance of at least 40 cm, was sufficient to avoid any excess in replicates. Simulations revealed that the number of samples substantially influenced genetic diversity parameters. When using less than 15 per cultivar, the expected heterozygosity (He and Shannon diversity index (I were greatly underestimated, whereas with 20, more than 95% of total intra-cultivar genetic variation was covered. Based on AMOVA, a 20-cultivar sample was apparently sufficient to accurately quantify individual genetic structuring. The recommended sampling strategy facilitates the efficient characterization of diversity in white clover, for both conservation and exploitation.

  4. Saprobic microfungi under Lolium perenne and Trifolium repens at different fertilization intensities and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řezáčová, Veronika; Blum, H.; Hršelová, Hana; Gamper, H.; Gryndler, Milan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 11, - (2005), s. 224-230 ISSN 1354-1013 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/00/1276; GA ČR GA526/03/0188; GA ČR GD206/03/H137 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : carbon cycle * elevated CO2 * concentration Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.075, year: 2005

  5. The role of transgenerational effects in adaptation of clonal offspring of white clover (Trifolium repens) to drought and herbivory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    González, Alejandra Pilar Rendina; Dumalasová, Veronika; Rosenthal, J.; Skuhrovec, J.; Latzel, Vít

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 3 (2017), s. 345-361 ISSN 0269-7653 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-06802S Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : jasmonic acid * epigenetics * plant behaviour Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 1.818, year: 2016

  6. A survey of the invertebrates feeding on living clover roots (Trifolium repens L.) using 32P as a radiotracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baylis, J.P.; Cherrett, J.M.; Ford, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    Clover roots were labelled in the field with 32 P and the radioactive soil fauna were detected by autoradiography. The animals which consumed labelled clover roots were, in order of importance, earthworms (Aporrectodea longa, A. caliginosa and Lumbricus rubellus), weevil larvae, dipteran larvae (Bibio marci) and a few Collembola (family: Entomobryidae). (author)

  7. Structural variations among monocot emergent and amphibious species from lakes of the semi-arid region of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KRB Leite

    Full Text Available Temporary lakes are common in the semi-arid region of the State of Bahia and form water mirrors in the rainy season. In this period, various vegetal species appear having different life forms adapted to the seasonality conditions of the rainfall regime. This work surveyed the adaptive anatomical structures of some emergent and amphibious monocot species occurring in these lakes. We studied the anatomy of roots, rhizomes, leaves and scapes of Cyperus odoratus, Oxycaryum cubense, Pycreus macrostachyos (Cyperaceae - amphibious species; and of Echinodorus grandiflorus (Alismataceae, Eichhornia paniculata (Pontederiaceae and Habenaria repens (Orchidaceae - emergent species. The anatomical features of the dermal, fundamental and vascular systems confirming the tendency of the adaptive convergence of these plants to temporary lacustrine the environment include: single layered epidermal cells with a thin cuticle layer in the aerial organs; the presence of air canals in all the organs; few or no supporting tissues; and less numerous conducting elements and thinner cell walls in the xylem. The reduction of the supporting tissues, the number of stomata, which can even be absent, and the number of conducting elements and the degree of cell wall lignification in the xylem of the emergent species is more accentuated than that of the amphibious species. The pattern of distribution of aerenchyma in the roots of the studied species was considered important to distinguish between amphibious and emergent life forms.

  8. Structural variations among monocot emergent and amphibious species from lakes of the semi-arid region of Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, K R B; França, F; Scatena, V I

    2012-02-01

    Temporary lakes are common in the semi-arid region of the State of Bahia and form water mirrors in the rainy season. In this period, various vegetal species appear having different life forms adapted to the seasonality conditions of the rainfall regime. This work surveyed the adaptive anatomical structures of some emergent and amphibious monocot species occurring in these lakes. We studied the anatomy of roots, rhizomes, leaves and scapes of Cyperus odoratus, Oxycaryum cubense, Pycreus macrostachyos (Cyperaceae) - amphibious species; and of Echinodorus grandiflorus (Alismataceae), Eichhornia paniculata (Pontederiaceae) and Habenaria repens (Orchidaceae) - emergent species. The anatomical features of the dermal, fundamental and vascular systems confirming the tendency of the adaptive convergence of these plants to temporary lacustrine the environment include: single layered epidermal cells with a thin cuticle layer in the aerial organs; the presence of air canals in all the organs; few or no supporting tissues; and less numerous conducting elements and thinner cell walls in the xylem. The reduction of the supporting tissues, the number of stomata, which can even be absent, and the number of conducting elements and the degree of cell wall lignification in the xylem of the emergent species is more accentuated than that of the amphibious species. The pattern of distribution of aerenchyma in the roots of the studied species was considered important to distinguish between amphibious and emergent life forms.

  9. INvENTAIRE FLORISTIqUE ET EFFET DE LA DENSITÉ DE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KyllingaerectaSchum. var. flabelliformis (Cyperaceae). +. +. +. 92. Kyllingapumila Michaux (Cyperaceae). +. +. +. 93. Lantana camara L. (verbenaceae). +. -. -. 94. Leptoderrisfasciculata(Benth.) Dunn. (Fabaceae). -. +. -. 95. Lindernia diffusa (L.) Wettst. (Scrophulariaceae). +. -. -. 96. Ludwigiaabyssinica A. Rich. (Onagraceae).

  10. Efectos de extractos acuosos de la maleza Cyperus rotundus L. (Cyperaceae sobre la germinación de semillas y crecimiento de plántulas de maíz ( Zea mays L. cv. Pioneer 3031

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Laynez Garsaball

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available La investigación tuvo por fi nalidad determinar los efectos de extractos acuosos del follaje de Cyperus rotundus L. sobre la germinación de semillas y el crecimiento de plántulas de maíz ( Zea mays L. cv. Pioneer 3031. Un primer extracto al 15% p/v fue preparado con el follaje de plantas mays L. cv . Pioneer 3031. Un primer extracto al 15% p/v fue preparado con el follaje de plantas mays de C. rotundus de 15 días, se dejó reposar por 48 h y luego se obtuvo por dilución extractos al 0; 2,0; 4,0 y 6,0% p/v evaluándoseles pH y conductividad eléctrica (S.cm -1 . Para la siembra se utilizaron bandejas cubiertas con una doble capa de papel absorbente sobre la que se colocó 20 semillas/bandeja, tapadas con dos hojas más de papel y regadas tres veces al día con los extrac- tos foliares. El tratamiento control recibió agua corriente. El diseño estadístico fue bloques al azar con cuatro concentraciones de extracto y cinco repeticiones. A los 12 días después de la siembra se determinaron los diferentes parámetros de germinación y crecimiento. Se práctico un análisis de varianza y regresión para los parámetros estudiados. El pH disminuyó y la CE incrementó al aumentar la concentración del extracto. La germinación, altura de las plántulas, longitud de las radículas, peso seco del vástago y relación peso seco del vástago/peso seco de la radícula dismi- nuyeron proporcionalmente al aumento de la concentración de extracto, contrariamente, el peso seco de la radícula incrementó. La relación altura de la plántula/longitud de la radícula no presentó diferencias signifi cativas en las fuentes de variación.

  11. Avaliação da atividade tóxica em Artemia salina e Biomphalaria glabrata de extratos de quatro espécies do gênero Eleocharis (Cyperaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L.T.G. Ruiz

    Full Text Available O gênero Eleocharis R. Br. compreende cerca de 200 espécies, ocorrendo em ambientes úmidos tais como brejos e margens de rios e lagos. Procurando novos agentes moluscicidas, os extratos de Eleocharis acutangula (Roxb. Schult., Eleocharis interstincta (Vahl Roem. & Schult., Eleocharis maculosa (Vahl Roem. & Schult. e Eleocharis sellowiana Kunth foram testados para atividade moluscicida, contra caramujos adultos e desovas, e toxicidade (ensaio de letalidade com Artemia salina. O extrato hexânico de Eleocharis acutangula (parte subterrânea fresca foi ativo contra Artemia salina (CL50 = 476,00 mg/mL, enquanto os demais extratos apresentaram CL50 >> 10³ mg/mL, sugerindo baixa toxicidade. O extrato hidro-etanólico de Eleocharis sellowiana (parte subterrânea fresca foi ativo contra desovas de Biomphalaria glabrata (CL50 = 24,27 mg/mL mas inativo contra indivíduos adultos. Os demais extratos testados não apresentaram atividade moluscicida.

  12. Diversity and aggregation patterns of plant species in a grass community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Li

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Both composition and aggregation patterns of species in a community are the outcome of community self-organizing. In this paper we conducted analysis on species diversity and aggregation patterns of plant species in a grass community, Zhuhai, China. According to the sampling survey, in total of 47 plant species, belonging to 16 families, were found. Compositae had 10 species (21.3%, seconded by Gramineae (9 species, 19.1%, Leguminosae (6 species, 12.8%, Cyperaceae (4 species, 8.5%, and Malvaceae (3 species, 6.4%. The results revealed that the means of aggregation indices Iδ, I and m*/m were 21.71, 15.71 and 19.89 respectively and thus individuals of most of plant species strongly followed aggregative distribution. Iwao analysis indicated that both individuals of all species and clumps of all individuals of all species followed aggregative distribution. Taylor's power law indicated that individuals of all species followed aggregative distribution and aggregation intensity strengthened as the increase of mean density. We held that the strong aggregation intensity of a species has been resulted from the strong adaptation ability to the environment, the strong interspecific competition ability and the earlier establishment of the species. Fitting goodness of the mean, I, Iδ, m*/m with probability distributions demonstrated that the mean (density, I, Iδ, and m*/m over all species followed Weibull distribution rather than normal distribution. Lophatherum gracile, Paederia scandens (Lour. Merr., Eleusine indica, and Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart. Griseb. were mostly aggregative, and Oxalis sp., Eleocharis plantagineiformis, Vernonia cinerea (L. Less., and Sapium sebiferum (L. Roxb, were mostly uniform in the spatial distribution. Importance values (IV showed that Cynodon dactylon was the most important species, seconded by Desmodium triflorum (L. DC., Cajanus scarabaeoides (L. Benth., Paspalum scrobiculatum L., and Rhynchelytrum repens. Oxalis

  13. Application of Aspergillus niger-treated agrowaste residue and Glomus mosseae for improving growth and nutrition of Trifolium repens in a Cd-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, A; Vassilev, N; Barea, J M; Azcón, R

    2005-04-06

    The microbial transformation of sugar beet (SB) agrowaste with or without rock-phosphate (RP) has utility for the improvement of plant growth in a Cd (5 microg g-1) artificially contaminated soil, particularly when the soil is co-inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus mosseae isolated from a Cd-polluted area. Under such Cd-polluted conditions, the limited growth, mineral nutrition, symbiotic developments (nodulation and AM-colonization) and soil enzymatic activities were stimulated using SB or SB+RP as soil amendments and G. mosseae as inoculant. G. mosseae enhanced plant establishment in a higher extent in amended soil; it is probably due to the interactive effect increasing the potential fertility of such compounds and its ability for decreasing Cd transfer from soil to plant. The amount of Cd transferred from soil solution to biomass of AM-colonized plants ranged from 0.09 microg Cd g-1 (in SB+RP-amended soil) to 0.6 microg Cd g-1 (in non-amended soil). Nodule formation was more sensitive to Cd than AM-colonization, and both symbioses were stimulated in amended soils. Not only AM-colonization but also amendments were critical for plant growth and nutrition in Cd-polluted soil. The high effectiveness of AM inoculum increasing nutrients and decreasing Cd in amended soil indicated the positive interaction of these treatments in increasing plant tolerance to Cd contamination.

  14. Diversity of Penicillium section Citrina within the fynbos biome of South Africa, including a new species from a Protea repens infructescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visagie, Cobus M; Seifert, Keith A; Houbraken, Jos; Samson, Robert A; Jacobs, Karin

    2014-01-01

    During a survey of the fynbos biome in the Western Cape of South Africa, 61 Penicillium species were isolated and nine belong to Penicillium section Citrina. Based on morphology and multigene phylogenies, section Citrina species were identified as P. cairnsense, P. citrinum, P. pancosmium, P. pasqualense, P. sanguifluum, P. sizovae, P. sumatrense and P. ubiquetum. One of the species displayed unique phenotypic characters and DNA sequences and is described here as P. sucrivorum. Multigene phylogenies consistently resolved the new species in a clade with P. aurantiacobrunneum, P. cairnsense, P. miczynksii, P. neomiczynskii and P. quebecense. However, ITS, β-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences are unique for P. sucrivorum and growth rates on various media, the ability to grow at 30 C, a positive Ehrlich reaction and the absence of sclerotia on all media examined, distinguish P. sucrivorum from all of its close relatives. © 2014 by The Mycological Society of America.

  15. Environmental Impact Research Program: White Clover (Trifolium repens). Section 7.3.5, US Army Corps of Engineers Wildlife Resources Management Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    types where they are common (Kohn and Mooty 1971). Rumen analyses of white-tailed deer in Montana showed that forbs comprised 80% of summer samples...frequency of occurrence in deer rumens collected from January through March in the Northern Black Hills. Bluegrass- white clover meadows are also...CAUTIONS AND LIMITATIONS White clover, like most legumes, occasionally causes bloat in animals, particularly cattle and sheep that have overfilled

  16. The Tr-cp 14 cysteine protease in white clover (Trifolium repens) is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum and is associated with programmed cell death during development of tracheary elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulisch, Maria; Asp, Torben; Krupinska, Karin

    2013-01-01

    family of cysteine proteases with homology to XCP1 and XCP2 from Arabidopsis thaliana and p48h-17 from Zinnia elegans, which previously have been reported to be associated with tracheary element differentiation. The proform as well as the processed form of the protein was detected in petioles, flowers....... Immunogold studies suggest that the protease prior to the burst of the vacuole was associated to the ER cisternae. After disruption of the tonoplast, it was found in the cytoplasm, and, in later stages, associated with disintegrating material dispersed throughout the cell....

  17. Productividad y análisis económico de una pastura consociada de Trifolium Repens l. y Dactylis Glomerata l. ante diferentes condiciones de transmisividad lumínica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Camila Alvarez Oyarzo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de aportar información referida al rendimiento de una pastura, que creció bajo distintos niveles de sombra se realizó un ensayo comparativo de rendimiento, en el que se evaluó la productividad de materia seca y su distribución durante la temporada de crecimiento. Además se realizó un análisis económico de la práctica de siembra y de la confección de reservas forrajeras, utilizando datos del ensayo e información local referida al rendimiento de cultivos y empleo de maquinarias agrícola. El ensayo comparativo de rendimiento se instaló en el sudoeste de Santa Cruz y consistió en un diseño en bloques completos aleatorizados. En el análisis económico se calcularon los indicadores, margen bruto, rendimiento de indiferencia, retorno por peso invertido, valor actual neto y tasa interna de retorno. Se demostró que el máximo rendimiento se obtuvo con un 50% de cobertura en pasturas mixtas, la productividad se concentró hacia el primer corte. El análisis económico indica que la siembra de pasturas y confección de reservas forrajeras es una actividad con rentabilidad positiva, mayor que algunas opciones financieras que ofrece el mercado en la región.

  18. Chemical constituents of Cyperus rotundus L. and their inhibitory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in the genus Cyperus of the family Cyperaceae, which is pungent, slightly ... African Health Sciences Vol 16 Issue 4, December, 2016. 1000 ... L. purchased was identified by Teach- er Fang ..... Evaluation of Bcl-2 and Bax protein expressions.

  19. Fungal Planet description sheets: 558-624

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crous, P.W.; Wingfield, M.J.; Burgess, T.I.; Hardy, G.E.St.J.; Barber, P.A.; Alvarado, P.; Barnes, C.W.; Buchanan, P.K.; Heykoop, M.; Moreno, G.; Thangavel, R.; van der Spuy, S.; Barili, A.; Barrett, S.; Cacciola, S.O.; Cano-Lira, J.F.; Crane, C.; Decock, C.; Gibertoni, T.B.; Guarro, J.; Guevara-Suarez, M.; Hubka, V.; Kolarik, M.; Lira, C.R.S.; Ordonez, M.E.; Padamsee, M.; Ryvarden, L.; Soares, A.M.; Stchigel, A.M.; Sutton, D.A.; Vizzini, A.; Weir, B.S.; Acharya, K.; Aloi, F.; Baseia, I.G.; Blanchette, R.A.; Bordallo, J.J.; Bratek, Z.; Butler, T.; Cano-Canals, J.; Carlavilla, J.R.; Chander, J.; Cheewangkoon, R.; Cruz, R.H.S.F.; da Silva, M.; Dutta, A.K.; Ercole, E.; Escobio, V.; Esteve-Raventos, F.; Flores, J.A.; Gene, J.; Gois, J.S.; Haines, L.; Held, B.W.; Horta Jung, M.; Hosaka, K.; Jung, T.; Jurjevic, Z.; Kautman, V.; Kautmanova, I.; Kiyashko, A.A.; Kozanek, M.; Kubatova, A.; Lafourcade, M.; La Spada, F.; Latha, K.P.D.; Madrid, H.; Malysheva, E.F.; Manimohan, P.; Manjon, J.L.; Martin, M.P.; Mata, M.; Merenyi, Z.; Morte, A.; Nagy, I.; Normand, A.-C.; Paloi, S.; Pattison, N.; Pawlowska, J.; Pereira, O.L.; Petterson, M.E.; Picillo, B.; Raj, K.N.A.; Roberts, A.; Rodriguez, A.; Rodriguez-Campo, F.J.; Romanski, M.; Ruszkiewicz-Michalska, M.; Scanu, B.; Schena, L.; Semelbauer, M.; Sharma, R.; Shouche, Y.S.; Silva, V.; Staniaszek-Kik, M.; Stielow, J.B.; Tapia, C.; Taylor, P.W.J.; Toome-Heller, M.; Vabeikhokhei, J.M.C.; van Diepeningen, A.D.; Van Hoa, N.; Van Tri, M.; Wiederhold, N.P.; Wrzosek, M.; Zothanzama, J.; Groenewald, J.Z.

    2017-01-01

    Novel species of fungi described in this study include those from various countries as follows: Australia: Banksiophoma australiensis (incl. Banksiophoma gen. nov.) on Banksia coccinea, Davidiellomyces australiensis (incl. Davidiellomyces gen. nov.) on Cyperaceae, Didymocyrtis banksiae on Banksia

  20. Fungal Planet description sheets: 558–624

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crous, P.W.; Wingfield, M.J.; Burgess, T.I.; Hardy, G.E.St.J.; Barber, P.A.; Alvarado, P.; Barnes, C.W.; Buchanan, P.K.; Heykoop, M.; Moreno, G.; Vabeikhokhei, J.M.C.; Diepeningen, van A.D.; Hoa, van N.; Tri, van M.; Wiederhold, N.P.; Wrzosek, M.; Zothanzama, J.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Thangavel, R.; Spuy, van der S.; Barili, A.; Barrett, S.; Cacciola, S.O.; Cano-Lira, J.F.; Crane, C.; Decock, C.; Gibertoni, T.B.; Guarro, J.; Guevara-Suarez, M.; Hubka, V.; Kolarík, M.; Lira, C.R.S.; Ordoñez, M.E.; Padamsee, M.; Ryvarden, L.; Soares, A.M.; Stchigel, A.M.; Sutton, D.A.; Vizzini, A.; Weir, B.S.; Acharya, K.; Aloi, F.; Baseia, I.G.; Blanchette, R.A.; Bordallo, J.J.; Bratek, Z.; Butler, T.; Cano-Canals, J.; Carlavilla, J.R.; Chander, J.; Cheewangkoon, R.; Cruz, R.H.S.F.; Silva, da M.; Dutta, A.K.; Ercole, E.; Escobio, V.; Esteve-Raventós, F.; Flores, F.A.; Gené, J.; Góis, J.S.; Haines, L.; Held, B.W.; Horta Jung, M.; Hosaka, K.; Jung, J.; Jurjević, Ž.; Kautman, V.; Kautmanova, I.; Kiyashko, A.A.; Kozanek, M.; Kubátová, A.; Lafourcade, M.; Spada, La F.; Latha, K.P.D.; Madrid, H.; Malysheva, E.F.; Manimohan, P.; Manjón, J.L.; Martín, M.P.; Mata, M.; Merényi, Z.; Morte, A.; Nagy, I.; Normand, A.-C.; Paloi, S.; Pattison, N.; Pawłowska, J.; Pereira, O.L.; Petterson, M.E.; Picillo, B.; Raj, K.N.A.; Roberts, A.; Rodríguez, A.; Rodríguez-Campo, F.J.; Romański, M.; Ruszkiewicz-Michalska, M.; Scanu, B.; Schena, L.; Semelbauer, M.; Sharma, R.; Shouche, Y.S.; Silva, V.; Staniaszek-Kik, M.; Stielow, J.B.; Tapia, C.; Taylor, P.W.J.; Toome-Heller, M.

    2017-01-01

    Novel species of fungi described in this study include those from various countries as follows: Australia: Banksiophoma australiensis (incl. Banksiophoma gen. nov.) on Banksia coccinea, Davidiellomyces australiensis (incl. Davidiellomyces gen. nov.) on Cyperaceae, Didymocyrtis banksiae on Banksia

  1. 75 FR 74678 - Medicine Bow-Routt National Forests and Thunder Basin National Grassland; Colorado and Wyoming...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... Carduus acanthoides......... 4 0 Purple loosestrife Lythrum salicaria 4 0 Quackgrass Elymus repens 4 0..., endangered, or sensitive species and their habitats. Economics, effectiveness, and potential impacts of...

  2. Unique antimicrobial spectrum of ophiobolin K produced by Aspergillus ustus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohsomboon, Natthapat; Kanzaki, Hiroshi; Nitoda, Teruhiko

    2018-03-01

    A co-cultivation study of two fungal strains showed that Aspergillus ustus could inhibit Aspergillus repens growth. The bioactive compound responsible for the observed activity was purified and identified as a sesterterpene, ophiobolin K. Ophiobolin K exhibited marked inhibition against both fungi and bacteria, especially A. repens, A. glaucus and gram-positive bacteria including Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Micrococcus luteus.

  3. The Response of Arabidopsis to Co-cultivation with Clover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Hans; Kudsk, Per; Fiehn, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    in terms of several metabolite groups including amino acids, phenolics, carbohydrates and lipids. 87 A. thaliana and 53 T. repens metabolites were significantly affected. In A. thaliana 34 metabolites increased relative to the control upon co-cultivation while 54 decreased; in T. repens 20 increased while...

  4. Pascagoula Harbor, Mississippi, Feasibility Report on Improvement of the Federal Deep-Draft Navigation Channel. Volume 1. Main Report and Environmental Impact Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    cerifera) and stands of Cogongrass, locally known as ’Jap Grass’ ( Imperata cylindrica) and torpedo grass (Panicum repens). The lower southeastern-most...dominated by wax myrtle and sea myrtle with stands of Cogongrass, locally known as ’Jap Grass’ ( Imperata cylindrica) and torpedo grass (Panicum repens

  5. Toxicity to Chicks of Aspergillus and Penicillium Species Isolated from Moldy Pecans 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doupnik, Ben; Bell, D. K.

    1971-01-01

    Isolates of Aspergillus chevalieri, A. flavus, A. ochraceus, A. repens, and Penicillium funiculosum and complexes of P. citrinum-P. implicatum isolated from moldy pecan meats were toxic to chicks. PMID:5564681

  6. A new Peperomia, collected by the Suriname expedition 1948/1949

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuncker, T.G.

    1957-01-01

    Herba parva delicata subcaespitosa repens, caule pergracili sat conferte piloso, pilis erectis; foliis alternis vel supremis oppositis elliptico-obovatis, apice rotundatis, basi acutis vel subobtusis, supra crispo-pubescentibus subtus glabris vel dissite pubescentibus ciliolatis palmatim

  7. Knowledge and prevalence of use of saw palmetto and other herbal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S. Persaud

    2017-06-12

    Jun 12, 2017 ... men with prostate cancer or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and who were part of our outpatient clinics. ... plasia (BPH) and prostate cancer, of which saw palmetto (serenoa repens) may be the most .... receptor signaling.

  8. Weed populations and their buried seeds in rice fields of the MUDA area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail Sahid; Noor Faezah Zainuddin; Ho Nai Kin

    2002-01-01

    A total of 25 weed species belonging to 15 families were found in rice fields near Kampung Tandop, in the Muda Irrigation Scheme, Kedah, Malaysia. The dominant weeds in dry-seeded rice were Utricularia aurea Lour., Fimbristylis miliacea (L.) vahl., Echinochloa crusgalli (L.) Beauv., Monochoria vaginalis (Burm. Q Presl. and Najas graminea (Del.) Redl. In wet-seeded rice, the dominant species were N. graminea, Lemna minor L., Sphenoclea zeylanica Gaertn., U. aured, and Sagittaria guayanensis H. B. K., while in volunteer seedling rice fields, the dominant species were Echinochloa colonum (L.) Link., Fimbristylis alboviridis C. B. Clarke, E miliacea, Cyperus babakan Steud. and Fuirena umbellata Rottb. Dry-seeded rice fields contained the highest number of weed seeds (930 910/m 2 in the top 15 cm of soil); volunteer seedling rice fields contained 793.162/m 2 and wet-seeded rice fields 712 228/m 2 . In general, the seed numbers declined with increasing soil depth. At 1015 cm depth, seeds of U aurea and S. zeylanica were the most abundant in dry and wet-seeded rice fields, whilst seeds of Scirpusjuncoides Roxb. and E miliacea were most abundant in volunteer seedling fields. (Author)

  9. Notes on the Bolboschoenus species in Austria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hroudová, Zdenka; Marhold, K.; Jarolímová, Vlasta

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 4, - (2006), s. 51-73 ISSN 1681-5947 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6005905; GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Bolboschoenus * Cyperaceae * distribution Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  10. Ajikah et al (11).cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    Faculty of Science, Senate Building and New Hall respectively. A total of 3,495 palynomorphs belonging to about 22 families were recovered in all. The Poaceae family dominates representing 13.67 % of the total palynomorph count, followed by Cyperaceae (12.72 %) Euphorbiaceae (5.34 %) Mimosaceae (8.89 %), Fern.

  11. New floristic records in the Balkans: 6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biel, Burkhard; Tan, Kit

    2007-01-01

    ), Cyperaceae (21-23, 52-56, 137), Ericaceae (90), Fabaceae (1, 10, 11, 37, 38, 66, 67, 91-93, 139), Gentianaceae (12, 13), Geraniaceae (94, 95, 120), Hydrophyllaceae (96), Hypericaceae (121), Iridaceae (106-108, 130), Juncaceae (24, 25), Lamiaceae (47, 81, 97, 98), Liliaceae (26, 27, 72, 109, 131), Lythraceae...

  12. New floristic records in the Balkans: 9

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biel, Burkhard; Tan, Kit

    2008-01-01

    ), Corylaceae (26), Cuscutaceae (27), Cyperaceae (36-39; 60, 61), Euphorbiaceae (2-7, 28, 29, 88), Fabaceae (1, 8, 63-68, 71, 89-92), Fagaceae (93), Gentianaceae (78), Geraniaceae (79), Globulariaceae (94), Hypericaceae (95, 96), Iridaceae (81), Juncaceae (40, 41), Lamiaceae (97, 98), Liliaceae s.l. (42, 43, 82...

  13. New floristic records in the Balkans: 4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    ), Boraginaceae (6, 7), Brassicaceae (8, 9, 43-49, 70), Campanulaceae (10, 11, 98), Caryophyllaceae (12- (6, 7), (8, 9, 43-49, 70), (10, 11, 98), (12- 14, 50, 71, 72), Chenopodiaceae (15), Crassulaceae (61, 91), Cyperaceae (22, 23), Dryopteridaceae (59), Fabaceae (62, 73-75, 92, 99), Geraniaceae (63), Lamiaceae...

  14. 1023-IJBCS-Article-Dr Yonli Djibril

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR GATSING

    x x x x x. Schizachyrium sanguineum Alton x. Schoenepheldia gracilis Kunth. x x. Setaria pallide-fusca Stapf et C.E.. Hubbard. x x x. Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench x x. Sporobolus festivus Hochst. x x x x. Sporobolus pyramidalis P. Beauv. x. Zea mays L. x x. Plantes hôtes de la famille des. Cyperacea. Bulbostylis barbata ...

  15. African armyworm outbreaks : why do they occur after drought?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, J.A.M.

    1993-01-01

    The African armyworm, Spodoptera exempta (Walker) (Lepidoptera; Noctuidae), feeds almost exclusively on plants of the families Gramineae and Cyperaceae. It is a severe pest of crops, including maize, sorghum and millet, especially on the eastern side of the African

  16. Centromeric and non-centromeric satellite DNA organisation differs in holocentric Rhynchospora species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ribeiro, T.; Marques, A.; Novák, Petr; Schubert, V.; Vanzela, A.L.L.; Macas, Jiří; Houben, A.; Pedrosa-Harand, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 126, September 19 (2017), s. 325-335 ISSN 0009-5915 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP501/12/G090 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Chromocentre * Cyperaceae * Heterochromatin * Holocentric chromosome Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Genetics and heredity (medical genetics to be 3) Impact factor: 4.414, year: 2016

  17. Ergot species of the Claviceps purpurea group from South Africa

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Van Der Linde, E.J.; Pešicová, Kamila; Pažoutová, Sylvie; Stodůlková, Eva; Flieger, Miroslav; Kolařík, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 8 (2016), s. 917-930 ISSN 1878-6146 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00788S; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Alkaloids * Cyperaceae * Phylogeny Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.184, year: 2016

  18. Inventory of Rare of Endangered Vascular Plants Occurring in the Floodplain of the Mississippi River between Cairo, Illinois, and St. Paul, Minnesota, and in the Floodplain of the Illinois River between Grafton, Illinois, and Chicago,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    counties). ramily Cyperaceae Cyperus iria L. Illinois (Alexander). Family Ranunculaceae Ranunculus sardous Crantz. Illinois (Jackson, Union). Family ...adventive floodplain species is appended. P1 r 4 Sagittaria calycina Engelm. Arrowhead Family Alismataceae Status: Not rare nor endangered. This usually...spongia (Bosc) Steud. Frogbit Family Hydrocharitaceae Status: Rare (Illinois). This is a Coastal Plain species which ranges from Texas to Florida and

  19. Development of Cladium mariscus (L. Pohl. fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Marek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ovule and ovary development was investigated with the aim to establish from what is the scleroid cover of the Cladium mariscus fruit derived. It was proved, that like in other members of the Cyperaceae family, it derives from the ovary.

  20. Évaluation de la diversité floristique en herbacées des savanes de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, 37 species, 33 kinds and 10 families were identified in the savannah of Hyparrhenia diplandra (Hack.) Stapf and 27 species, 22 kinds and 8 families in the savannah of Loudetia simplex (Nees) CE Hubbard. Overall, the richest families in species were Poaceae, Fabaceae and the Cyperaceae. The Shannon diversity ...

  1. Comments on the variation of spike morphology in selected species of Elytrigia and Elymus (Triticeae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romuald Kosina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure of spikes of Elytrigia repens, E. intermedia and Elymus caninus was investigated. The number of spikelets per spike reveals the weakest correlations with other characters of the spike. The same concerns some character ratios. The correlations provide information about the segmented structure (metamers of the spike. There is a great difference between matrices of correlation coefficients for E. repens and E. intermedia related to the development and structure of spike. Characters important for the description of the spike were chosen - in five-character set these are among others: length of glume awn in median spikelet, length of lemma awn in the first floret of the median spikelet, number of spikelets per spike. Length of lemma awn and mean length of the rachis segment were recognized as the best discriminants for species. Ordination of forms along axes of canonical variates does not indicate the subunits within E. repens. Intermediate forms between E. repens and Elymus caninus have not been found. Between E. repens and E. intermedia there exists some proximity. Heteromorphic individuals were described by means of cluster analysis. They prove the mobility of the genome in ramets of a single genet.

  2. The floristic changes on excluded from agricultural production field after single Roundup spraying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Jabłoński

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of experiment conducting on the field, weedy by Agropyron repens (L. P. B. was established what is the degree of elimination of Agropyron repens plants from experimental plots by single Roundup spraying. The changes of the species composition on the fields with different clover-grass mixtures or with Phacelia tanacaetifolia Benth. were studied as well. The stand tables have been made in the first year of the conducting experiment, to determination the density of weeds, after different agricultural practices. It has been found the great elimination of Agropyron repens (L. P. B. plants after Roundup spraying and the great density of Echinochloa crus-galli (L. P. B. plants. It has been found the great density of Chenopodium album L. at VII treatment and Galinsoga parviflora Cav. at III, V, VII and VIII treatments as well (Table I.

  3. Biosystematics of Aedes (Neomelaniconion)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-01

    short section (3 to 4 cm long) of dried tule stem ( cirpus species, family Cyperaceae), a small piece (5 to 15 cm-) of dried bigleaf maple leaf ( Acer ...not a suitable substitute for the bigleaf maple leaves because they turned the water acid, and Norway maple ( Acer platanoides) leaves were not usable...Indonesia (Amboina, Celebes, Java, Kabaena, Sumatra, Sumba, Timor), Malaysia (peninsular and Sabah), Republic of the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand and

  4. Flora vascular de açudes de uma região do semi-árido da Bahia, Brasil Pond vascular flora in the semi-arid region of Bahia State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio França

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram selecionados seis açudes que margeiam a Estrada do Feijão (BA 052, nos municípios de Feira de Santana e Angüera, entre as coordenadas 39º30'-39º00'W e 12º00'-12º30'S. Com a finalidade de se conhecer a flora vascular dos mesmos, esses tipos de plantas foram coletadas de agosto/1996 a dezembro/1997. Registraram-se 121 espécies distribuídas em 46 famílias. As famílias mais representativas foram: Cyperaceae, com 18 espécies (14,9%, Poaceae, com 13 (10,7%, Asteraceae, com 10 (8,3%, Scrophulariaceae e Fabaceae, com 6 (5,0%. As espécies que ocorreram em todos os açudes foram Pistia stratiotes L. (Araceae, Echinochloa colona (L. Link (Poaceae, Nymphaea ampla (Salisb. DC. (Nymphaeaceae e Oxycarium cubense (Poepp. & Kunth. Lye (Cyperaceae.Six ponds were studied between August/1996 and December/1997 at the edge of State Highway BA 052, in the municipalities of Feira de Santana and Angüera, 39º30'-39º00'W and 12º00'-12º30'S.With the aim to know their vascular flora, one hundred and twenty-one species of vascular plants were collected, representing 46 families. The most frequent families were: Cyperaceae with 18 species (14.9%, Poaceae with 13 (10.7%, Asteraceae with 10 (8.3%, Scrophulariaceae and Fabaceae with 6 (5.0%. The species which were recorded in all lakes were: Pistia stratiotes L. (Araceae, Echinochloa colona (L. Link (Poaceae, Nymphaea ampla (Salisb. DC. (Nymphaeaceae and Oxycarium cubense (Poepp. & Kunth. Lye (Cyperaceae.

  5. CARACTERISATION PHYSICO-CHIMIQUE ET POTENTIALITES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    Le pois sucré (Cyperus esculentus L. Cyperaceae) présente des potentialités insuffisamment exploitées sur le plan nutritionnel. Afin de contribuer à la connaissance de ce produit, une enquête a été menée auprès d'une frange de la population d'Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire). Des analyses physiques et chimiques ont été.

  6. Engineering and Environmental Study of DDT Contamination of Huntsville Spring Branch, Indian Creek and Adjacent Lands and Waters, Wheeler Reservoir, Alabama. Revision,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    pauciflora FAMILY ALABAMA STATUS^ FEDERAL STATUS? Liliacear E3 NL Araliaceae E NL Resaceae E NL Cyperaceae T NL Liliaceae T NL Brassicaceae T NL...Berberidaceae SSC NL Fabaceae SSC NL Oxalidaceae SSC NL Ranunculaceae SSC NL Ranunculaceae SSC NL Scrophulariaceae SSC NL Valerianaceae SSC NL 1...dispersing into small groups of nuclear families to exploit the uplands. Later, during the Woodland period, the River settlement zone continued to be the

  7. Canine Dirofilaria infections in two uninvestigated areas of Serbia: epidemiological and genetic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasić, Aleksandar; Tasić-Otašević, Suzana; Gabrielli, Simona; Miladinović-Tasić, Nataša; Ignjatović, Aleksandra; Dorđević, Jovana; Dimitrijević, Sanda; Cancrini, Gabriella

    2012-12-01

    In 2009 canine filarial infections were investigated in two northern areas of Serbia (Pančevo and Veliko Gradište), applying morphometry, biochemical staining, and immunological kit to detect Dirofilaria immitis antigens, and two home-made ELISAs to detect antibodies to D. repens and D. immitis somatic/metabolic polyproteins. Moreover, molecular tools were applied to analyze the phylogenetic relationships of the isolates. The microfilariae detected in 21/122 dogs (17.2%) were identified as D. repens (n=21) and D. immitis (n=2). D. immitis antigens were found in another 13 animals with occult infection. All of the 15 heartworm-positive dogs also had antibodies to this parasite, which were detected in another 13 subjects, indicating an overall D. immitis seroprevalence rate of 22.9%. Serology for D. repens revealed evidence of antibodies in 42.6% of the dogs, but was negative for 4 microfilaremic dogs. As for the two different areas, the prevalence of microfilariae and/or D. immitis antigens, mainly due to D. repens microfilaremic animals, was not significantly higher in Veliko Gradište (33.3%) than in Pančevo (22%). However, serology showed a different epidemiological picture. Heartworm infection occurred more often in both areas, and antibodies to dirofilarial nematodes were detected in 72.9% of dogs living in Pančevo, a rate higher than in those living in Veliko Gradište (57.1%). No risk factors for infection were found, confirming the uselessness of prophylactic drugs against D. repens, and suggesting the presence in these areas of sunrise- or sunset-biting mosquitoes as important vectors. The results indicate the need for both appropriate entomological studies and further research on the intra-species variability shown by D. repens.

  8. Response of Saw Palmetto to Three Herbicides During the First Growing Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.L. Michael

    1980-01-01

    Trimec 881 and 823 (mixture of 2,4-D; MCPP and dicamba in 2:1:0.l and 1:1:0.25 ratio respectively) and trichlopyr ester were evaluated for effectiveness against saw palmetto, Serenoa repens (Bartram) Small, when they were applied at three rates in April, June, and August. Herbicides were most effective with April applicatiorr, least effective in...

  9. Response of Saw Palmetto to Three Herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.L. Michael; D.G. Neary

    1985-01-01

    Saw palmetto [Serona repens (Bartram) Small] can be controlled with herbicides. Garion® 4E1/2 and Brush Killer® 800 were evaluated for effectiveness againest saw palmetto when they were applied at three rates in April, June, and August. Oust® was tested at three rates in April only. Herbicides were not effective with April...

  10. Effect of moulding on the changes in chemical composition of tabacco leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Krystyna Florczak

    2014-01-01

    The process of moulding caused by the fungi: Aspergillus repens (Cda.) De Bart, Aspergillus flavus Link, Aspergillus ochraceus Wilhelm, Penicillium expansum (Link) Thom, VPenicillium commune Thom and Penicillum spinulosum Tom influenced the decrease in soluble carbohydrate content with the simulataneous increase in the percentage of specific protein. It had an effect on the deterioration of technological and taste values of raw tabacco.

  11. Khan et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2013) 10(3):436 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJTCAM

    The effects of Duranta repens fruits were investigated on H2O2 induced .... Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and then post-hoc comparison (LSD test) by using ..... brain. J. Physiol. Pharmacol., 56: 23-36. 27. Shahat, A.A., Nazif, N.M., ...

  12. Host status of barley to Puccinia coronata from couch grass and P. striiformis from wheat and brome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niks, R.E.; Heyzen, van S.; Szabo, L.J.; Alemu, S.K.

    2013-01-01

    The pathogenicity and identity was studied of a field sample (PcE) of crown rust fungus Puccinia coronata collected in Hungary on wild couch grass (Elymus repens) and of a field sample (Psb) of stripe rust (P. striiformis) collected in the Netherlands on California brome (Bromus carinatus). We

  13. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ser.) var. glabellum and Trifolium repens (L.) cv. Ladino to lime and fertilizer. Abstract. ISSN: 1022-0119. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

  14. varlUS and M .

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reduction in mean annual temperature (Meester 1963). However, Myosorex is grouped with the crocidurines on account of its unpigmented teeth and continuous articular facets on the mandibular condyle (Repenning 1967). Baxter, Goulden & Meester (1979) have shown that subfamilial differences in metabolic rates of ...

  15. An interesting new Bulbophyllum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, J.J.

    1935-01-01

    Bulbophyllum (sect. Cirrhopetalum) Jacobsonii J. J. S. n. sp. — Rhizoma repens, teres. Pseudobulbi remoti, oblique ovoidei, manifesto quadranguli cum lateribus concavis, 1.8 cm longi, 0.75 et 0.95 cm diam., 1-folii. Folium lanceolatum, apice recurvulum, basi brevissime

  16. Radioactive elements found in plants contaminated by radioactive rain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanidazawa, M; Ishihara, T

    1954-01-01

    Ashes obtained from contaminated trifolium repens, astragalus sinicus, and rumex japonicus were studied. The precipitate obtained by treating the acidic solution of the ash with H/sub 2/S followed by Fe/sup + +/ in the presence of NH/sub 3/ and NH/sub 4/Cl contained Y, Sr, and the rare earth elements.

  17. Host status of barley to Puccinia coronata from couch grass and P. striiformis from wheat and brome

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pathogenicity and identity of a field sample (PcE) of crown rust fungus Puccinia coronata collected in Hungary on wild couch grass (Elytrigia repens) and of a field sample (Psb) of stripe rust (P. striiformis) collected in the Netherlands on California brome (Bromus carinatus) was studied. We fo...

  18. Effect of seed mixture composition and management on competitiveness of herbs in temporary grasslands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Tine Bloch; Søegaard, Karen; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and white clover (Trifolium repens), 2) cutting frequency, and 3) slurry application. The experiment was carried out over three years. The herb mixture contained salad burnet (Sanguisorba minor), fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum), chicory (Cichcorium intybus), caraway...

  19. Induced DNA damage measured by the Comet assay in 10 weed species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gichner, Tomáš; Mühlfeldová, Zdeňka

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 4 (2002), s. 509-516 ISSN 0006-3134 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA521/02/0400 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : Arabidopsis thaliana * Agropyron repens * Bellis perennis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.583, year: 2002

  20. Toxic and feeding deterrent effects of native aquatic macrophytes on exotic grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Joseph E; Beckmen, Kimberlee B; Johnson, Julie K; Cope, Rhian B; Lawmaster, Todd; Beasley, Val R

    2002-08-01

    Declines of amphibians have been attributed to many factors including habitat degradation. The introduction of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) as a biological agent for aquatic plant control in ponds and lakes managed narrowly for human recreation has likely contributed to amphibian declines through massive plant removal and associated habitat simplification and thus degradation. This research examined the interactions among grass carp and three Midwestern aquatic plants (Jussiaea repens, Ranunculus longirostris, and R. flabellaris) that may be of value in rehabilitation of habitats needed by amphibians. The feeding preference study found that C. idella avoided eating both J. repens and R. longirostris. Ranunculus species studied to date contain a vesicant toxin called ranunculin that is released upon mastication. The study that compared the effects of R. flabellaris, J. repens and a control food administered by tube feeding to C. idella found significant lesions only in the mucosal epithelium of the individuals exposed to R.flabellaris. The avoidance by C. idella of J. repens and R. longirostris in the feeding preference study, and the significant toxicity of R. flabellaris demonstrated by the dosing study, indicate these plants warrant further examination as to their potential effectiveness in aquatic amphibian habitat rehabilitation.

  1. Modelling interactions in grass-clover mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nassiri Mahallati, M.

    1998-01-01

    The study described in this thesis focuses on a quantitative understanding of the complex interactions in binary mixtures of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and white clover (Trifolium repens L.) under cutting. The first part of the study describes the dynamics of growth, production

  2. Biomass and leaf-level gas exchange characteristics of three African savanna C4 grass species under optimum growth conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mantlana, K.B.; Veenendaal, E.M.; Arneth, A.; Grispen, V.; Bonyongo, C.M.; Heitkönig, I.M.A.; Lloyd, J.

    2009-01-01

    C4 savanna grass species, Digitaria eriantha, Eragrostis lehmanniana and Panicum repens, were grown under optimum growth conditions with the aim of characterizing their above- and below-ground biomass allocation and the response of their gas exchange to changes in light intensity, CO2 concentration

  3. Seasonal and inter-annual photosynthetic response of representative C4 species to soil water content and leaf nitrogen concentration across a tropical seasonal floodplain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mantlana, K.B.; Arneth, A.; Veenendaal, E.M.; Wohland, P.; Wolski, P.; Kolle, O.; Lloyd, J.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the seasonal and inter-annual variation of leaf-level photosynthetic characteristics of three C4 perennial species, Cyperus articulatus, Panicum repens and Imperata cylindrica, and their response to environmental variables, to determine comparative physiological responses of plants

  4. Role of golden jackals (Canis aureus) as natural reservoirs of Dirofilaria spp. in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionică, Angela Monica; Matei, Ioana Adriana; D'Amico, Gianluca; Daskalaki, Aikaterini Alexandra; Juránková, Jana; Ionescu, Dan Traian; Mihalca, Andrei Daniel; Modrý, David; Gherman, Călin Mircea

    2016-04-28

    Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens are mosquito-transmitted zoonotic nematodes, causing heartworm disease and skin lesions, respectively, in carnivores. In Europe, the domestic dog is apparently the main definitive host, but patent infections occur also in other species of carnivores. The rapid spread of the golden jackals (Canis aureus) throughout Europe opens a question of involvement of this species in the sylvatic cycle of pathogens in the colonised territories, including Dirofilaria spp. Between January 2014 and May 2015, 54 golden jackals from 18 localities in Romania were examined by full necropsy for the presence of adult filarioid nematodes and blood samples from all animals were screened for the presence of microfilariae of D. immitis, D. repens and Acanthocheilonema reconditum by multiplex PCR DNA amplification. Nematodes morphologically identified as D. immitis were found in 18.52% of the animals, originating from the southern part of Romania. No D. repens or A. reconditum were found at necropsy. The molecular prevalence in blood samples from the same animals was 9.26% for D. immitis and 1.85% for D. repens. All samples were negative by PCR for A. reconditum. The relatively high prevalence of Dirofilaria spp. infections in golden jackals from Romania together with the increasing density of the jackal populations highlight their potential role in the transmission of these zoonotic parasites and in the maintenance of natural disease foci.

  5. Nieuwe vondsten van zeldzame planten in 1999 en 2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijden, van der Ruud; Holverda, Wout J.; Slikke, van der Wout J.

    2001-01-01

    The best news is the discovery of a new inland locality of Apium repens, an endangered species included in both the Habitat Directive and the Berne Convention. The List has a striking number of new records of rare ferns: Asplenium adiantum-nigrum, A. septentrionalis, Botrychium lunaria, Ceterach

  6. Molecular cloning of a novel GSK3/shaggy-like gene from Triticum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The deduced amino acid sequence showed a high homology with shaggy-like kinases from Triticum aestivum, Zea mays, Trifolium repens, Nicotine tabacum, Medicago sativa and Arabidopsis thaliana; therefore, the gene was named TmGSK1 (Triticum monococcum Glycogen Synthase Kinase 1,GenBank Accession No.

  7. Prognoses of plant community changes in the territories not used for agriculture after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timofeev, S.F.; Podolyak, A.G.; Avseenko, S.V.; Sapegin, L.M.; Dayneko, N.M.

    1997-01-01

    Science-research in the zones of eviction in the Bragin district of the Gomel region confirms interdependence between development of plants' communities and such factors as type of soil, kind of agricultural field, the term of nonuse. The study of vegetation change on the former fields, represented by turf-podsol soil, indicates that plant community has by now been formed on it, in which out of 100% projection cover prevail Artemisia absinthium L., - 40%, Artemisia campestris L. -20%, Artemisia vulgaris L. -5%, Elytrigia repens (L.) Nevski - 30%. On lower lots, represented by turf-podsol swampy soil, prevail Elytrigia repens - 60%, Artemisia absinthium -20%, Erigeron canadensis - 10%. So, on the unused arable land the tendency to form communities of Elytrigia repens is observed. In 10-15 years there may be a community here, consisting of bunch-grasses an densely turfed grasses. On the haymaking and pasture meadows, sowing plants are replaced by rhizome bunch-grasses (Poa pratensis L.) rhizome (Elytrigia repens) and diverse grasses (Artemisia absinthium, Achillea millefolium, Erigeron canadensis and others). On sowing meadows, situated on peat-swamp soil, Urtica dioica L. took root. It formed powerful herbage with 80-90% projection cover, which prevents the renewing of grasses. Only after gradual decrease of Urtica dioica there will appear different grasses, as well as rhisome grasses. In future this land can be used for haymaking. It is impossible to use this kind of soil without herbicides in large quantity, which may create additional problems of ecological character

  8. Spring foraging resources and the behaviour of pollinating insects in fixed dune ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoife T. O'Rourke

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In temperate climates, foraging resources for pollinating insects are especially important in early spring when animals emerge from hibernation and initiate annual life cycles. One habitat, protected under EU law, which provides resources for a range of pollinating insects, but has received little research attention, is fixed (grey dunes. Fixed dunes often contain creeping willow (Salix repens, Salicaceae, which may be an important early season resource for obligate flower visitors. We examined the springtime activity of flower visitors in fixed dune ecosystems in relation to sugar concentration and composition in nectar, composition of essential amino acids in pollen, and floral abundance. We also investigated whether the presence or absence of S. repens influenced the abundance and species richness of three obligate flower visiting guilds (solitary bees, bumblebees and hoverflies in eight sites along the eastern and southern coasts of Ireland. Higher insect visitation rates were observed to species whose nectar contained greater concentrations of glucose and fructose. Solitary bee visitation rates were related to % Essential Amino Acid (EAA in pollen and floral species richness. Ulex europeaus, and S. repens were the most abundant flowering species, but visitation rates were not related to floral abundance. Higher abundances of bumblebees and hoverflies were discovered at sites where S. repens was present. This study raises further questions about the nutritional requirements and preferences of obligate flower visitors in fixed dune ecosystems in spring time.

  9. Xenomonitoring of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae for the Presence of Filarioid Helminths in Eastern Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Susanne Übleis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Information on mosquito-borne filarioid helminths in Austria is scarce, but recent discoveries of Dirofilaria repens indicate autochthonous distribution of this parasite in Eastern Austria. In the current xenomonitoring study, more than 48,000 mosquitoes were collected in Eastern Austria between 2013 and 2015, using different sampling techniques and storage conditions, and were analysed in pools with molecular tools for the presence of filarioid helminth DNA. Overall, DNA of D. repens, Setaria tundra, and two unknown filarioid helminths were documented in twenty mosquito pools within the mitochondrial cox1 gene (barcode region. These results indicate that S. tundra, with roe deer as definite hosts, is common in Eastern Austria, with most occurrences in floodplain mosquitoes (e.g., Aedes vexans. Moreover, DNA of D. repens was found in an Anopheles plumbeus mosquito close to the Slovakian border, indicating that D. repens is endemic in low prevalence in Eastern Austria. This study shows that xenomonitoring is an adequate tool to analyse the presence of filarioid helminths, but results are influenced by mosquito sampling techniques, storage conditions, and molecular protocols.

  10. Leaching of dissolved organic and inorganic nitrogen from legume-based grasslands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusliene, Gedrime; Eriksen, Jørgen; Rasmussen, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Leaching of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) is a considerable loss pathway in grassland soils. We investigated the white clover (Trifolium repens) contribution to N transport and temporal N dynamics under a pure stand of white clover and white clover...

  11. On the stability of mixed grasslands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulte, R.P.O.

    2001-01-01

    Recent years have seen a renewed interest in the use of white clover (Trifolium repens) in grasslands, as a more sustainable alternative to fertiliser nitrogen inputs. However, mixtures of grasses and white clover have frequently been associated with unstable and hence unreliable herbage

  12. Species of Concern (SOC) on Department of Defense Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-07-15

    ARISTIDA STRICTA; DRY, UPLAND FLAT, FILTERED LIGHT; WITH BAPTISIA CINEREA, VIOLA PEDATA, DALEA PINNATA.* SUBPOP A=PINE/SCRUB OAK SANDHILL; FEW SCATTERED...DIOSPYROS VIRG., GAYLUSSACIA DUMOSA, EPIGAEA REPENS, ANDROPOGON SP., BAPTISIA TINCT., TEPHROSIA VIRG., VACCINIUM CRASS., LESPEDEZA SP., DALEA PINNATA...ADENOCAULON BICOLOR , PHACELIA NEMORALIS, CAREX HENDERSONII. CIRSIUM VULGARE COMMON WHERE DISTURBED.* Cedar-hemlock forest on lower slopes of logged

  13. Environmental Assessment Addressing the Emerald Breeze Resort, Santa Rosa Island, Fort Walton Beach, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-11

    Road construction and maintenance activities have introduced and spread cogon grass (Imperata cylindrical) and torpedo grass (Panicum repens) to...Chinese tallow, or popcorn tree (Triadica sebifera), cogon grass , Japanese climbing fern (Lygodium japonicum), Chinese privet/hedge (Ligustrum sinense...stormwater wetlands, wildlife habitat swales, grassed filter strips)  Runoff pretreatment practices (e.g., catch basins, in-line storage, manufactured

  14. Growth of bermudagrass with white clover or nitrogen fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    White clover (Trifolium repens) var ‘Durana’ was oversown into established bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) in 2009. Soil analysis indicated potassium (K) was low and potash at 112 and 336 kg/ha was added as main plots. Nitrogen as ammonium nitrate or an ammonium sulfate/urea blend was added as 0, 34...

  15. Nieuwe vondsten van zeldzame planten in 2001 en 2002

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holverda, Wout; Moorsel, van René C.M.J.; Slikke , van der Wout

    2003-01-01

    Two new localities of Luronium natans and a new locality of Apium repens is good news from a European perspective. Potamogeton filiformis is a new indigenous species, which has been recorded from the island of Texel. Valerianella rimosa has been rediscovered. As in previous years, the number of new

  16. Relationships between Nitrate and Oxygen Supply in Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation by White Clover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minchin, F. R.; Ines Minguez, M.; Sheedy, J. E.

    1986-01-01

    Exposure of mature, nodulated plants of white clover (Trifolium repens) cv. Blanca to 330 mg dm−3 NO3-N for 8 d caused nitrogenase activity per plant to decrease by 80%. Total nodulated root respiration was not significantly affected but analysis of its components showed an 81% decrease in nitrog...

  17. Seasonal variation in the biochemical composition of red seaweed

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The biochemical composition of red seaweeds,Catenella repens was investigated in this present study along with subsequent analysis of relevant physico-chemical variables.In this study, the relationship between the nutritive components of this species and the ambient environmental parameters was established.

  18. Nieuwe vondsten van zeldzame planten in 2003 en 2004

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijden, van der Ruud; Holverda, Wout J.

    2006-01-01

    Vanuit Europees gezichtspunt was de ontdekking van twee nieuwe vindplaatsen van Apium repens en drie van Liparis loeselii belangrijk nieuws. De ontdekking van Gagea minima was verbazend. Na meer dan een eeuw kon de melding van Peucedanum officinale bevestigd worden door zijn herontdekking. Nieuw is

  19. A Negative Finding from a Single Center Study Led to Re-Design of a Large-Scale Clinical Trial of Phytotherapy for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: the CAMUS study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeannette Y.; Andriole, Gerald; Avins, Andrew; Crawford, E. David; Foster, Harris; Kaplan, Steven; Kreder, Karl; Kusek, John W.; McCullough, Andrew; McVary, Kevin; Meleth, Sreelatha; Naslund, Michael; Nickel, J. Curtis; Nyberg, Leroy M.; Roehrborn, Claus; Williams, O. Dale; Barry, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), a common condition among older men, confers its morbidity through potentially bothersome lower urinary tract symptoms. Treatments for BPH include drugs such as alpha adrenergic receptor blockers and 5-alpha reductase inhibitors, minimally invasive therapies that use heat to damage or destroy prostate tissue, and surgery including transurethral resection of the prostate. Complementary and alternative medicines are gaining popularity in the U.S. Two phytotherapies commonly used for BPH are extracts of the fruit of Serenoa repens, the Saw palmetto dwarf palm that grows in the Southeastern U.S., and extracts of the bark of Pygeum africanum, the African plum tree. Purpose The objective of the Complementary and Alternative Medicines for Urological Symptoms (CAMUS) clinical trial is to determine if phytotherapy is superior to placebo in the treatment of BPH. Methods CAMUS was originally designed as a 3300-participant, four-arm trial of Serenoa repens, Pygeum africanum, an alpha adrenergic blocking drug, and placebo with time to clinical progression of BPH, a measure of long-term efficacy, as the primary endpoint. Before enrollment started, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single institution clinical trial showed that Serenoa repens at the usual dose did not demonstrate any benefit over placebo with respect to symptom relief at one year. Consequently, the focus of CAMUS shifted from evaluating long-term efficacy to determining if any short-term (6-18 month) symptom relief could be achieved with increasing doses of Serenoa repens, the phytotherapy most commonly used in the U.S. for BPH. Results Results are anticipated in 2011. Conclusions Trial design occurs in an environment of continually evolving information. In this case, emerging results from another trial suggested that a study of long-term efficacy was premature, and that an effective dose and preparation of Serenoa repens had to be established before

  20. Vector-borne pathogens in dogs and red foxes from the federal state of Brandenburg, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liesner, Jana M; Krücken, Jürgen; Schaper, Roland; Pachnicke, Stefan; Kohn, Barbara; Müller, Elisabeth; Schulze, Christoph; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg

    2016-07-15

    Dirofilaria repens is endemic in eastern and southern European regions but was recently found in Germany in dogs, mosquitoes and one human patient. Since some of the positive dog and mosquito samples were collected in Brandenburg, it was aimed to systematically assess the prevalence of D. repens and other canine vector-borne pathogens in Brandenburg. Dog owners also received a questionnaire and were asked to provide more information about the dogs including travel history. In total, 1023 dog blood samples as well as 195 fox spleen and 179 fox blood samples were collected. DNA was analysed by PCR for the presence of filariae, piroplasms, anaplasmataceae and Rickettsia spp. Filariae were detected in six dogs (0.6%), two were positive for DNA from D. repens, two from Dirofilaria immitis and two from Acanthocheilonema reconditum. One of the D. repens positive dogs originated from an animal shelter in Brandenburg, but the origin of the other one remained unknown. Interestingly, both D. repens ITS-1 sequences showed 100% identity to a D. repens sample obtained from a Japanese woman that travelled in Europe and were 97% identical to a newly proposed species Dirofilaria sp. 'hongkongensis' described from Hong Kong. However, identity to other D. repens sequences from Thailand was considerably lower (81%). Identity of 12S rRNA and cytochrome oxidase I to D. repens samples from southern Europe was 99%. Due to the low number of Dirofilaria spp. positive dogs and since the origin of these was unknown, endemic occurrence of Dirofilaria in Brandenburg could not be confirmed. Anaplasma phagocytophilum was found in 15 dogs (1.5%), Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis in three dogs (0.3%) and E. canis in one dog (0.1%), which was co-infected with D. repens. Rickettsia spp. were detected in 8 dogs (0.8%), seven were Rickettsia raoultii and one was Rickettsia felis. To the author's knowledge, R. raoultii DNA was detected for the first time in dogs in Germany in this study and Candidatus

  1. Meristematic activity of the Endodermis and the Pericycle in the primary thickening in monocotyledons: considerations on the "PTM"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanuza L. de Menezes

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new interpretation for primary thickening in monocotyledons. The anatomy of the vegetative organs of the following species was examined: Cephalostemon riedelianus (Rapataceae, Cyperus papyrus (Cyperaceae, Lagenocarpus rigidus, L. junciformis (Cyperaceae, Echinodorus paniculatus (Alismataceae and Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae. The endodermis with meristematic activity was observed in the root of all the species, in the stem of Cyperus, Cephalostemum and Lagenocarpus rigidus, and in the leaf trace of Cyperus and leaf of Echinodorus. Considering the continuity of tissues through the root, stem and leaf, the authors conclude that in the stem the pericycle remains active throughout the life of the plant as the generator of the vascular tissue. The "Primary Thickening Meristem" is in fact the pericycle plus the endodermis and its derivatives (or only the pericycle. Close to the stem apex, the assemblage of seems to be a unique meristem, giving rise to the inner cortex and vascular tissues.A proposta deste trabalho é mostrar uma nova interpretação do meristema de espessamento primário em monocotiledôneas. Anatomia dos órgãos vegetativos das seguintes espécies foi examinada: Cephalostemon riedelianus (Rapataceae, Cyperus papyrus (Cyperaceae, Lagenocarpus rigidus, L. Junciformis (Cyperaceae, Echinodorus paniculatus (Alismataceae and Zingiberofficinale (Zingiberaceae. A atividade meristemática da endoderme foi observada nas raizes de todas as espécies, no caule de Cyperus, Cephalostemum e Lagenocarpus rigidus, e no traço foliar de Cyperus e folha de Echinodorus. Considerando a continuidade dos tecidos através da raiz, caule e folha, as autoras concluem que no caule o periciclo permanece ativo durante a vida da planta, como um gerador de tecidos vasculares. O "Meristema de Espessamento Primário" é o periciclo em fase meristemática, juntamente com a endoderme e suas derivadas (ou apenas o periciclo. Próximo ao

  2. Study of Plant Species Composition of Grasslands in Mugla Village Region (Western Rhodopes, South Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plamen S. Stoyanov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study presents data on the diversity of grass species in the region of the village of Mugla (the Western Rhodopes. One hundred forty-one species of higher plants belonging to 40families were registered. (Apiaceae, Aspleniaceae, Asteraceae, Boraginaceae, Brassicaceae,Campanulaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Cistaceae, Cyperaceae, Dipsacaceae, Equisetaceae, Ericaceae,Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Gentianaceae, Geraniaceae, Gesneriaceae, Hypericaceae, Juncaceae,Lamiaceae, Lemnaceae, Liliaceae, Linaceae, Menyanthaceae, Oleacea, Onagraceae, Orchidaceae,Parnassiaceae, Plantaginaceae, Plumbaginaceae, Poaceae, Polygalaceae, Primulaceae,Ranunculaceae, Rosaceae, Rubiaceae, Saxifragaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Valerianaceae andViolaceae. Their conservation status was presented, as well as medicinal plants.

  3. Vascular Plants of the Chimbote Wetlands, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Arana, César; Salinas, Letty

    2013-01-01

    Los humedales de Chimbote (09°05’51"S; 78°32’52"O) presentan una flora vascular compuesta por 41 especies en 18 familias. El 61% magnoliópsidas y el 39% liliópsidas. Las familias con mayor número de especies fueron Poaceae, Cyperaceae y Asteraceae. Las formas de crecimiento dominantes fueron las hierbas (85%) seguidas de arbustos (10%). En comparación con los humedales costeros de Lima, en Chimbote se presenta mayor riqueza de especies que en Medio Mundo (16 especies) y El Paraíso (25), aunqu...

  4. DNA Taxonomy - the Riddle of Oxychloë (Juncaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Kim Anker; Cilieborg, Malene Skovsted; Drábková, Lenka

    2005-01-01

    is fatal, but if no voucher exists, bad sequences and bad taxonomy may be forever linked. Previous phylogenetic analyses of rbcL sequences have indicated that the small, south hemisphere, genus Oxychloë (Juncaceae) surprisingly either is embedded within or is a sister group to the Cyperaceae....... This is not in accordance with traditional or current morphological data. By studying five new accessions, representing four species of Oxychloë, and re-examining the two vouchers of O. andina that were used in previous phylogenies, it has been possible to show that these two sequences are erroneous. One is a chimeric...

  5. Plant tolerance to diesel minimizes its impact on soil microbial characteristics during rhizoremediation of diesel-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrutia, O.; Garbisu, C.; Epelde, L.; Sampedro, M.C.; Goicolea, M.A.; Becerril, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Soil contamination due to petroleum-derived products is an important environmental problem. We assessed the impacts of diesel oil on plants (Trifolium repens and Lolium perenne) and soil microbial community characteristics within the context of the rhizoremediation of contaminated soils. For this purpose, a diesel fuel spill on a grassland soil was simulated under pot conditions at a dose of 12,000 mg diesel kg -1 DW soil. Thirty days after diesel addition, T. repens (white clover) and L. perenne (perennial ryegrass) were sown in the pots and grown under greenhouse conditions (temperature 25/18 o C day/night, relative humidity 60/80% day/night and a photosynthetic photon flux density of 400 μmol photon m -2 s -1 ) for 5 months. A parallel set of unplanted pots was also included. Concentrations of n-alkanes in soil were determined as an indicator of diesel degradation. Seedling germination, plant growth, maximal photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (F v /F m ), pigment composition and lipophylic antioxidant content were determined to assess the impacts of diesel on the studied plants. Soil microbial community characteristics, such as enzyme and community-level physiological profiles, were also determined and used to calculate the soil quality index (SQI). The presence of plants had a stimulatory effect on soil microbial activity. L. perenne was far more tolerant to diesel contamination than T. repens. Diesel contamination affected soil microbial characteristics, although its impact was less pronounced in the rhizosphere of L. perenne. Rhizoremediation with T. repens and L. perenne resulted in a similar reduction of total n-alkanes concentration. However, values of the soil microbial parameters and the SQI showed that the more tolerant species (L. perenne) was able to better maintain its rhizosphere characteristics when growing in diesel-contaminated soil, suggesting a better soil health. We concluded that plant tolerance is of crucial importance for the

  6. [Phytopathogenic bacteria of couch-grass in the crops of wheat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakovleva, L M; Patyka, V F; Gvozdiak, R I; Shcherbina, T N

    2009-01-01

    Bacterialdiseases of weeds in the crops of wheat on the fields of Kyiv and Vinnytsya regions of Ukraine Elytrigia repens (L.) Nevski Agropyrum repens L. were revealed. The following symptoms of bacterial affections: the leaves wither, oval or hatched necrotic spots on green leaves, necroses on the stalks, empty-ears, partial blackening of the ear axes, awns, caryopsises, scales, water-soaked or dark brown with violet shade spots on the rhizomes were found. During the vegetation period bacteria were isolated from the affected plants which caused pathological process in the couch-grass and wheat. The pathogenic bacteria were identified as Pseudomonas syringae, P. viridiflava, Pseudomonas sp., Erwinia carotovora pv. carotovora, Pantoea agglomerans, the part of yellow-pigmentary isolates were not identified. Some Psyringae were isolated from the rhizomes during winterthawing. The paper is presented in Ukrainian.

  7. Chlorine inactivation of fungal spores on cereal grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, S; Pardoel, D; Harun, A; Treloar, T

    1997-04-01

    Although 0.4% chlorine for 2 min has been recommended for surface disinfection of food samples before direct plating for fungal enumeration, this procedure may not be adequate for highly contaminated products. The effectiveness of a range of chlorine solutions was investigated using barley samples artificially contaminated with four different concentrations of Aspergillus flavus. A. niger, A. ochraceus, Eurotium repens, Penicillium brevicompactum P. chrysogenum and Cladosporium cladosporioides. At initial contamination levels greater than 10(4)/g, 0.4% chlorine did not inactivate sufficient spores to produce less than 20% contamination. Of the test fungi, ascospores of E. repens were the most resistant to chlorine inactivation, whereas the conidia of C. cladosporioides were the most sensitive. Rinsing the samples with 70% ethanol improved the effectiveness of the recommended surface disinfection procedure. However, some ethanol appears to permeate into the grains and may inactivate sensitive internal fungi, although a minimal effect only was observed on wheat infected with Alternaria.

  8. Purification and properties of extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) antigens produced by different mould species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notermans, S; Wieten, G; Engel, H W; Rombouts, F M; Hoogerhout, P; van Boom, J H

    1987-02-01

    Extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) antigens produced by different mould species were purified and partially characterized. Purification included (NH4)2SO4 treatment, Sepharose CL-4B column chromatography and Con A-sepharose chromatography. The EPS of Penicillium digitatum, Mucor racemosus and Cladosporium cladosporioides showed high antigenic capacities. Immunologically the EPS were partially genus-specific, but cross-reactivity was observed. The EPS antigens produced by species of Penicillium, Aspergillus repens and Geotrichum candidum lost their immunological activity upon heating (100 degrees C) at pH 1.8, while the EPS antigen of M. racemosus, Rhizopus oligosporus and C. cladosporioides were stable under the same conditions. The dominant monosaccharides present in the EPS antigen were mannose, galactose and glucose. The EPS obtained from cultures of M. racemosus and R. oligosporus also contained rhamnose. In the EPS produced by Penicillium spp. and A. repens the galactose residues were determined to be immunodominant.

  9. Fe, Cr, Ni, Cu, Mg, Al, Ti, and S contents in plants and soil of heaps of nickel smelting works

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banasova, V; Hajduk, J

    1977-01-01

    The writers established the Fe, Ce, Cr, Ni, Ca, Mg, Al, Ti and S contents in the neopedon of heaps piling up from processing of nickel ore as well as in the plants: Cardaria draba, Salsola cali, Agropyrum repens, Bromus erectus, Calamagrostis epigeios, Cynodon dactylon and Matricaria inodora, growing on such heaps. Ca, Mg and S contents were found to be higher in dicotyledons and Fe, Al, Ti, Ni and Cr contents higher in monocotyledons. The analyzed dicotyledons appeared to be concentrators of Ca and S. Highest Fe, Al, Ti, Ni and Cr contents were found in individuals of the species Agropyrum repens. The neopedon as well as the plants had extraordinarily high Cr concentrations. The species Salsola cali has been found to possess an unusually higher affinity to the dump substrate after processing of nickel ore and to be a concentrator of Mg. 16 references, 1 table.

  10. Genetic diversity of Dirofilaria spp. isolated from subcutaneous and ocular lesions of human patients in Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Alice; Peix, Álvaro; Pavlikovskaya, Tamara; Sagach, Olga; Nikolaenko, Svetlana; Chizh, Nina; Kartashev, Vladimir; Simón, Fernando; Siles-Lucas, Mar

    2015-02-01

    This short communication describes the phylogenetic analysis of 48 Dirofilaria worms isolated from human patients in Ukraine. 102 cases were both of subcutaneous (47; 46.1%) and ocular (54; 52.9%) locations. Worms from 44 patients (15 subcutaneous and 29 ocular) were subjected to DNA extraction and amplification of a specific fragment of the 12S rRNA subunit, and sequences were used for phylogenetic analysis. Results showed that 13.8% of the ocular cases analyzed at molecular level were caused by Dirofilaria immitis. Very few cases of ocular human dirofilariosis due to D. immitis have been described in the literature to date, majority of them attributed to Dirofilaria repens. Our results show that ocular dirofilariosis cannot be excluded in areas of low endemicity for D. repens were D. immitis is also present. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Fungicidal effect of 15 disinfectants against 25 fungal contaminants commonly found in bread and cheese manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundgaard-Nielsen, K; Nielsen, P V

    1996-03-01

    Resistance of 19 mold and 6 yeast species to 15 commercial disinfectants was investigated by using a suspension method in which the fungicidal effect and germination time were determined at 20 degrees C. Disinfectants containing 0.5% dodecyldiethylentriaminacetic acid, 10 g of chloramine-T per 1, 2.0% formaldehyde, 0.1% potassium hydroxide, 3.0% hydrogen peroxide, or 0.3% peracetic acid were ineffective as fungicides. The fungicidal effect of quaternary ammonium compounds and chlorine compounds showed great variability between species and among the six isolates of Penicillium roqueforti var. roqueforti tested. The isolates of P roqueforti var. carneum, P. discolor, Aspergillus versicolor, and Eurotium repens examined were resistant to different quaternary ammonium compounds. Conidia and vegetative cells were killed by alcohols, whereas ascospores were resistant. Resistance of ascospores to 70% ethanol increased with age. Both P. roqueforti var. roqueforti and E. repens showed great variability of resistance within isolates of each species.

  12. Sugar composition, total nitrogen and accumulation of C-14 assimilates in floral nectaries of Protea species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowling, R.M.; Mitchell, D.T.

    1981-01-01

    Sugar composition of nectar of six species of Protea was analysed by gas-liquid chromatography and consisted of sucrose, fructose and glucose in varying proportions. Total nitrogen content of nectar of P. repens and P. neriifolia was very low. Evidence is presented that nectar produced by inflorescences (e.g. P. repens and P. neriifolia) which are bird-pollinated are dominated by fructose and glucose whereas nectar of putatively rodent-pollinated inflorescences (e.g. P. tenax, P. humiflora and P. denticulata) contain mixtures of sucrose, fructose and glucose. By exposing leaves of flowering shoots of P. neriifolia to 14 CO 2 , studies revealed that bracts accumulate C- 14 assimilates and translocation of compounds from the leaves to the floral nectaries was not affected by night and day incubation periods [af

  13. Producción, evaluación y caracterización microbiológica de un biofertilizante artesanal para la fijación de nitrógeno en especies vegetales forrajeras.

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes Villegas, María Isabel

    2016-01-01

    The increased production of grasslands in Ecuador has necessitated the use of chemical fertilizers, as in the case of commercial urea, which has caused impacts on agricultural land. As an alternative to this chemical fertilizer , developed , tested and characterized a craft biofertilizer made from roots of alfalfa ( Medicago sativa) , White Clover ( Trifolium repens ) and rye grass ( Lolium perenne), which has diazotrophic microbiological activity of bacterial species such...

  14. Edible flowers - antioxidant activity and impact on cell viability

    OpenAIRE

    Kuceková, Zdenka; Mlček, Jiří; Humpolíček, Petr; Rop, Otakar

    2013-01-01

    The phenolic compound composition, antioxidant activity and impact on cell viability of edible flower extracts of Allium schoenoprasum; Bellis perennis; Cichorium intybus; Rumex acetosa; Salvia pratensis; Sambucus nigra; Taraxacum officinale; Tragopogon pratensis; Trifolium repens and Viola arvensis was examined for the first time. Total phenolic content of the flowers of these plants fell between 11.72 and 42.74 mg of tannin equivalents/kg of dry matter. Antioxidant activity ranged from 35.5...

  15. Preclinical and clinical investigations as an approach to rational phytotherapy in prostate diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Weisskopf, Marianne

    2004-01-01

    Phytotherapeuticals have gained widespread usage in the treatment of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Among these phytotherapeutics, the most popular and extensively studied are extracts of the dried ripe fruit of Serenoa repens (SRE). The commercially available hydroethanolic (96%) SRE, Me180, is already used as a medical treatment of symptomatic BPH. However, this extract was so far neither investigated in vitro nor in vivo. The other extracts tested herein, de...

  16. Antioxidant responses of Annelids, Brassicaceae and Fabaceae to pollutants: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, F; Brulle, F; Dumez, S; Lemiere, S; Platel, A; Nesslany, F; Cuny, D; Deram, A; Vandenbulcke, F

    2015-04-01

    Pollutants, such as Metal Trace Elements (MTEs) and organic compounds (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides), can impact DNA structure of living organisms and thus generate damage. For instance, cadmium is a well-known genotoxic and mechanisms explaining its clastogenicity are mainly indirect: inhibition of DNA repair mechanisms and/or induction of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). Animal or vegetal cells use antioxidant defense systems to protect themselves against ROS produced during oxidative stress. Because tolerance of organisms depends, at least partially, on their ability to cope with ROS, the mechanisms of production and management of ROS were investigated a lot in Ecotoxicology as markers of biotic and abiotic stress. This was mainly done through the measurement of enzyme activities The present Review focuses on 3 test species living in close contact with soil that are often used in soil ecotoxicology: the worm Eisenia fetida, and two plant species, Trifolium repens (white clover) and Brassica oleracea (cabbage). E. fetida is a soil-dwelling organism commonly used for biomonitoring. T. repens is a symbiotic plant species which forms root nodule with soil bacteria, while B. oleracea is a non-symbiotic plant. In literature, some oxidative stress enzyme activities have already been measured in those species but such analyses do not allow distinction between individual enzyme involvements in oxidative stress. Gene expression studies would allow this distinction at the transcriptomic level. A literature review and a data search in molecular database were carried out on the basis of keywords in Scopus, in PubMed and in Genbank™ for each species. Molecular data regarding E. fetida were already available in databases, but a lack of data regarding oxidative stress related genes was observed for T. repens and B. oleracea. By exploiting the conservation observed between species and using molecular biology techniques, we partially cloned missing candidates

  17. Final Environmental Assessment for Upgrading the Military Operations in Urban Terrain (MOUT) Target Arrays at Avon Park Air Force Range, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    beyrichiana), saw palmetto (Serenoa repens), and the low-growing oak (Quercus minima) being dominant in the ground cover. Other dominant species...resistant shrubs, such as palmetto and runner oak, occupy slightly higher ground. The South MOUT occupies slightly higher ground than the surrounding...project area. Their locations are shown on the attached map. The burrows tended to be located on slightly elevated mounds with palmetto cover

  18. Effects of saw palmetto extracts on prostate gland function in the rat

    OpenAIRE

    Chua, Thiam

    2017-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia is associated with many urinary symptoms that can severely diminish quality of life and can lead to complications including urinary tract infections and obstructive nephropathy. The cause behind BPH is not well understood. Extracts of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) are amongst the most widely used medicinal herbal preparations, used almost exclusively to alleviate urinary symptoms related to BPH. Given that little is known about the beneficial physiological role of...

  19. Inhibitory Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria against Moulds Associated with Spoilage of Bakery Products

    OpenAIRE

    I. A. Adesina; A. O. Ojokoh; D. J. Arotupin

    2017-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the potentiality of LAB strains isolated from different fermented products to inhibit moulds associated with spoilage of bakery products. Methodology: Lactic acid bacterial (LAB) strains obtained from fermented products (“burukutu”, “pito”, yoghurt, and “iru”) were screened for antifungal activity against moulds (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus repens and Penicillium sp.) isolated from spoilt bakery products. Inhibitory activities of the lactic acid...

  20. Effect of moulding on the changes in chemical composition of tabacco leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Florczak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The process of moulding caused by the fungi: Aspergillus repens (Cda. De Bart, Aspergillus flavus Link, Aspergillus ochraceus Wilhelm, Penicillium expansum (Link Thom, VPenicillium commune Thom and Penicillum spinulosum Tom influenced the decrease in soluble carbohydrate content with the simulataneous increase in the percentage of specific protein. It had an effect on the deterioration of technological and taste values of raw tabacco.

  1. Chemical constituents of selected Sudanese medicinal and aromatic plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burham, B.O.

    2007-11-01

    Sudanese medicinal and aromatic plants (Alternanthra repens, Ambrosia maritima, Citrus paradisi, Croton zambesicus, Lepidium sativum, Morettia phillaena, Nauclea latifolia, Plectranthus barbatus, Pluchea dioscorides, and Sphaeranthus suaveolens) were analyzed for their chemical composition, mineral contents and secondary constituents. The concentration of manganese, copper, iron, nickel, lead, zinc and potassium in plant samples was performed using x-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The trace elements found in the smallest amount of the investigated plant species are lead, nickel and copper, while high concentration was detected for potassium, iron and manganese. Mn was accumulated with high level in Alternanthra repens species. Potassium was abundant in S. suaveolens and Ambrosia maritima. The values of concentration obtained for all studied elements were compared with published values of reference material, trace elements in Hay (powder) by International Atomic Energy Agency. Phyto chemical analysis of investigated plants was performed for constituents: Flavonoids, saponins, tannins, alkaloids, amino acids and sugars. The methanolic extracts of P.barbatus, C.paradisi, A.repens, N.latifolia, L. sativum and C. zambesicus are found to contain alkaloids. Results of TLC analysis were shown as R f values for saponins, bitter principles, essential oils, flavonoids and alkaloids. Quantification of flavonoids and tannins showed that flavonoid content was highest in case of Alternanthera repens and Sphaeranthus suavertens, whereas the highest tannin content was in case of Nauclea latifolia and Sphaearanthus suavertens. The results suggest that the user of traditional Sudanese crude drugs should be warned of potential danger of heavy metal poisoning because their concentrations seem to be higher than maximum values allowed by health agencies in several countries. This study has provided some biochemical basis for the ethno medical use of extracts from different candidate

  2. A comparison of stable caesium uptake by six grass species of contrasting growth strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willey, N.J.; Martin, M.H.

    1997-01-01

    Six plants in the family Gramineae were used to investigate the relationship between Cs uptake, nutrient regime and plant growth strategy sensu Grime (1979: Plant Growth Strategies and Vegetation Processes, John Wiley). The roots of 66 day old Elymus repens (L.) Gould., Bromus sterilis L., Agrostis stolonifera L., Anthoxanthum odoratum L., Festuca ovina L. and Nardus stricta L. plants grown in acid-washed sand at high and low nutrient levels were exposed to a 96 h pulse of stable Cs at 0.05 mM, 0.15 mM, 0.3 mM, 1.0 mM and 3.0 mM concentrations. Different nutrient regimes induced large differences in dry wt in E. repens, B. sterilis and A. stolonifera plants but only small differences in N. stricta and F. ovina plants. At high nutrient concentrations, A. stolonifera, A. odoratum, F. ovina and N. stricta shoots showed significantly greater increases in internal Cs concentration with rising external Cs concentrations than did E. repens and B. sterilis shoots. The relationship between increases in shoot and external Cs concentrations was statistically indistinguishable between species in plants grown at the low nutrient concentration. These patterns of Cs uptake ensured that with long-term high K concentrations the more competitive plants (E. repens and B. sterilis) accumulated higher concentrations of Cs from low external concentrations than did non-competitive plants or competitive plants grown at low nutrient levels. It is suggested that the relationship between plant growth strategy sensu Grime (1979) and Cs accumulation patterns may help to explain the different concentrations to which species accumulate radiocaesium from the soil. (author)

  3. Post Gliphosate treatments establishment of some grasses

    OpenAIRE

    Ioan ROTAR; Mariana RUSU; Fl. PRICA

    1997-01-01

    The sward dominated by Festuca rubra/Agrostis tenuis was treated to reduce the Nardus component and others weed by spraying with Gliphosate. Treatments were applied in the autumn of 1993. In the spring of 1994 a mixture of Phleum pratense, Fesuca rubra, Dactylis glomerata, Trifolium repens and Lotus corniculatus was oversown. Establishment of each species and botanical composition of the pasture were measured over the next three years. Nardus and weed was largely replaced by Phleum/Festuca mi...

  4. The role of local environment and geographical distance in determining community composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi at the landscape scale

    OpenAIRE

    Hazard, Christina; Gosling, Paul; van der Gast, Christopher J; Mitchell, Derek T; Doohan, Fiona M; Bending, Gary D

    2012-01-01

    Arbuscular fungi have a major role in directing the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems yet little is known about their biogeographical distribution. The Baas-Becking hypothesis (‘everything is everywhere, but, the environment selects') was tested by investigating the distribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) at the landscape scale and the influence of environmental factors and geographical distance in determining community composition. AMF communities in Trifolium repens and Loliu...

  5. Filarioid infections in wild carnivores: a multispecies survey in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionică, Angela Monica; Matei, Ioana Adriana; D'Amico, Gianluca; Ababii, Jana; Daskalaki, Aikaterini Alexandra; Sándor, Attila D; Enache, Dorin Valter; Gherman, Călin Mircea; Mihalca, Andrei Daniel

    2017-07-13

    Filarioids are vector-borne parasitic nematodes of vertebrates. In Europe, eight species of filarioids, including zoonotic species, have been reported mainly in domestic dogs, and occasionally in wild carnivores. In Romania, infections with Dirofilaria spp. and Acanthocheilonema reconditum are endemic in domestic dogs. Despite the abundant populations of wild carnivores in the country, their role in the epidemiology of filarioid parasites remains largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to assess the host range, prevalence and distribution of filarioid infections in wild carnivores present in Romania. Between May 2014 and February 2016, 432 spleen samples originating from 14 species of wild carnivores have been tested for the presence of DNA of three species of filarioids (D. immitis, D. repens and A. reconditum). Overall 14 samples (3.24%) were molecularly positive. The most prevalent species was D. immitis (1.62%), accounting for 50% (n = 7) of the positive animals. The prevalence of D. repens was 1.39%, while that of A. reconditum was 0.23%. No co-infections were detected. Dirofilaria immitis DNA was detected in five golden jackals, Canis aureus (7.58%), one red fox, Vulpes vulpes (0.33%), and one wildcat, Felis silvestris (10%). The presence of D. repens DNA was detected in two red foxes (0.66%), two golden jackals (3.03%), one grey wolf (7.14%), and one least weasel, Mustela nivalis (33.33%). Acanthocheilonema reconditum DNA was found only in one red fox (0.33%). The present study provides molecular evidence of filarial infections in wild carnivore species in Romania, suggesting their potential epidemiological role and reports a new host species for D. repens.

  6. Effect of powdered spice treatments on mycelial growth, sporulation and production of aflatoxins by toxigenic fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Chalfoun,Sára Maria; Pereira,Marcelo Cláudio; Resende,Mario Lúcio V.; Angélico,Caroline Lima; Silva,Rozane Aparecida da

    2004-01-01

    The effect of ten powdered spice plants was evaluated at the concentration of 1, 2, 3 and 4% to observe the mycelial growth and sporulation of Aspergillus niger and Eurotium repens. The spices were added to the culture media PDA and CYA20S. Clove completely inhibited the mycelial growth of the tested fungi. The other spices: cinnamon, garlic, thyme, mint, anis, oregano and onion were, in a decreasing order, promising antifungals. Bay leaf and basil did not show a pronounced fungistatic effect...

  7. Chemical constituents of selected Sudanese medicinal and aromatic plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burham, B O [Atomic Energy Researches Coordination Council, Sudan Academy of Sciences, Khartoum (Sudan)

    2007-11-15

    Sudanese medicinal and aromatic plants (Alternanthra repens, Ambrosia maritima, Citrus paradisi, Croton zambesicus, Lepidium sativum, Morettia phillaena, Nauclea latifolia, Plectranthus barbatus, Pluchea dioscorides, and Sphaeranthus suaveolens) were analyzed for their chemical composition, mineral contents and secondary constituents. The concentration of manganese, copper, iron, nickel, lead, zinc and potassium in plant samples was performed using x-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The trace elements found in the smallest amount of the investigated plant species are lead, nickel and copper, while high concentration was detected for potassium, iron and manganese. Mn was accumulated with high level in Alternanthra repens species. Potassium was abundant in S. suaveolens and Ambrosia maritima. The values of concentration obtained for all studied elements were compared with published values of reference material, trace elements in Hay (powder) by International Atomic Energy Agency. Phyto chemical analysis of investigated plants was performed for constituents: Flavonoids, saponins, tannins, alkaloids, amino acids and sugars. The methanolic extracts of P.barbatus, C.paradisi, A.repens, N.latifolia, L. sativum and C. zambesicus are found to contain alkaloids. Results of TLC analysis were shown as R{sub f} values for saponins, bitter principles, essential oils, flavonoids and alkaloids. Quantification of flavonoids and tannins showed that flavonoid content was highest in case of Alternanthera repens and Sphaeranthus suavertens, whereas the highest tannin content was in case of Nauclea latifolia and Sphaearanthus suavertens. The results suggest that the user of traditional Sudanese crude drugs should be warned of potential danger of heavy metal poisoning because their concentrations seem to be higher than maximum values allowed by health agencies in several countries. This study has provided some biochemical basis for the ethno medical use of extracts from different candidate

  8. Efeito de tratamentos com condimentos em pó sobre o crescimento micelial, esporulação e produção de aflatoxinas por fungos toxigênicos

    OpenAIRE

    Chalfoun, Sára Maria; Pereira, Marcelo Cláudio; Resende, Mario Lúcio V.; Angélico, Caroline Lima; Silva, Rozane Aparecida da

    2004-01-01

    The effect of ten powdered spice plants was evaluated at the concentration of 1, 2, 3 and 4% to observe the mycelial growth and sporulation of Aspergillus niger and Eurotium repens. The spices were added to the culture media PDA and CYA20S. Clove completely inhibited the mycelial growth of the tested fungi. The other spices: cinnamon, garlic, thyme, mint, anis, oregano and onion were, in a decreasing order, promising antifungals. Bay leaf and basil did not show a pronounced fungistatic effect...

  9. Final Environmental Assessment for the Deactivation/Facility Disposition of Atlas Space Launch Complex (SLC-36) at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    canopy, which is constantly pruned and shaped by windborne salt spray. Coastal strand forms a dense thicket of shrubs, usually dominated by live...oak (Quercus virginiana ), buckthorn (Bumelia [Sideroxylon] tenax), sea grape (Coccoloba uvifera), wax myrtle, and saw palmetto (Serenoa repens...Station #4. Coastal oak scrub consists of dense, salt- pruned thickets of live oak, sand live oak, myrtle oak, and buckthorn, sometimes densely

  10. Study of Potential and Real Seed Producing Capacity in Some Romanian Varieties of Legumes and Perennial Gramineae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neculai Dragomir

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the potential and real seed producing capacity in some Romanian varieties of legumes and perennial gramineae: Trifolium repens, Lotus corniculatus, Lolium perenne, Festuca pratensis, Festuca arundinacea and Dactylis glomerata. To calculate the potential production, we performed determinations and analyses on each variety, regarding floral apparatus’ morphological and anatomic structure (number of inflorescences, number of flowers, number of ovules/ovary, and the real production was determined „in situ”.

  11. An Invasive Clonal Plant Benefits from Clonal Integration More than a Co-Occurring Native Plant in Nutrient-Patchy and Competitive Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Wenhua; Fan, Shufeng; Yu, Dan; Xie, Dong; Liu, Chunhua

    2014-01-01

    Many notorious invasive plants are clonal, however, little is known about the different roles of clonal integration effects between invasive and native plants. Here, we hypothesize that clonal integration affect growth, photosynthetic performance, biomass allocation and thus competitive ability of invasive and native clonal plants, and invasive clonal plants benefit from clonal integration more than co-occurring native plants in heterogeneous habitats. To test these hypotheses, two stoloniferous clonal plants, Alternanthera philoxeroides (invasive), Jussiaea repens (native) were studied in China. The apical parts of both species were grown either with or without neighboring vegetation and the basal parts without competitors were in nutrient- rich or -poor habitats, with stolon connections were either severed or kept intact. Competition significantly reduced growth and photosynthetic performance of the apical ramets in both species, but not the biomass of neighboring vegetation. Without competition, clonal integration greatly improved the growth and photosynthetic performance of both species, especially when the basal parts were in nutrient-rich habitats. When grown with neighboring vegetation, growth of J. repens and photosynthetic performance of both species were significantly enhanced by clonal integration with the basal parts in both nutrient-rich and -poor habitats, while growth and relative neighbor effect (RNE) of A. philoxeroides were greatly improved by clonal integration only when the basal parts were in nutrient-rich habitats. Moreover, clonal integration increased A. philoxeroides's biomass allocation to roots without competition, but decreased it with competition, especially when the basal ramets were in nutrient-rich sections. Effects of clonal integration on biomass allocation of J. repens was similar to that of A. philoxeroides but with less significance. These results supported our hypothesis that invasive clonal plants A. philoxeroides benefits

  12. Plantas invasoras da cultura do feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. no Estado de Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Pedro Laca-Buendia

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Nas áreas de cultura do feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L., no Estado de Minas Gerais, foram coletadas e identificadas 222 espécies de plantas invasoras (= plantas daninhas, pertencentes a 35 famílias botânias, representando 118 gêneros, sendo que as famílias Compositae, Leguminosae, Gramineae, Malvaceae, Convolvulaceae, Rubiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Amaranthaceae, Cyperaceae e Solanaceae, são as mais importantes em relação à cultura. As plantas coletadas, devidamente etiquetadas e identificadas, foram anexadas no PAMG (Herbário da Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte - (MG..A survey in the cultivation area of bean in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, resulted in the determination of 222 weeds species, of 118 genera belonging to 35 families presenting a greater number of species areas: Compositae, Leguminosae, Gramineae, Malvaceae, Convolvulaceae, Rubiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Amaranthaceae, Cyperaceae and Solanaceae, with 33, 30, 25, 21, 12, 10. 10, 10, 9. 8 species respectively.

  13. La vegetación azonal paramunade la Cordillera Oriental colombiana: síntesis fitosociológica preliminar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Humberto Pinto Zárate

    2006-01-01

    las familias Asteraceae (siete, Poaceae (seis, Cyperaceae (cinco y Scrophulariaceae (cuatro; los géneros con mayor número de morfoespecies en este tipo de vegetación son Isoetes (ocho, Juncus (siete y Eleocharis (cinco. Las familias con mayor representación de géneros en la vegetación terrestre son Asteraceae y Poaceae (25 y 15 respectivamente, seguidas por Scrophulariaceae (nueve y Cyperaceae (siete; los géneros más ricos en morfoespecies son Carex (12, Campylopus, Hypericum, Monticalia y Lachemilla (cada una con 11 morfoespecies. Especies como Crassula venezuelensis, Werneria pygmaea, Plantago rigida,  alamagrostis ligulata, Puya santosii, Blechnum loxense, Aragoa abietina, Chusquea tessellata y varias de los géneros Eleocharis, Isoetes, Carex y Sphagnum cobran gran importancia en el proceso sucesional entre comunidades acuáticas y etapas iniciales de colmatación hasta las fases avanzadas de terrización, transicionales a tipos propios de vegetación zonal.

  14. Floristic and phytosociological analysis of palm swamps in the central part of the Brazilian savanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isa Lucia de Morais Resende

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the floristics and phytosociology of three palm swamps in the municipality of Bela Vista de Goiás, located in the state of Goiás, Brazil, in the central part of the Brazilian savanna (Cerrado. The floristic surveys were conducted monthly from May 2008 to April 2009, and 310 species were recorded (seven bryophytes, 15 ferns and 288 angiosperms. Bryophytes belonged to five genera and five families; ferns belonged to nine genera and nine families; and angiosperms belonged to 134 genera and 45 families. The angiosperm families with the highest species richness were Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Asteraceae, Eriocaulaceae, Xyridaceae, Lentibulariaceae, Melastomataceae, Rubiaceae and Fabaceae. The palm swamps were divided into three zones of increasing humidity: edge, middle and core. The number of species was higher in the middle than at the edge and the core. The families with the highest cover values were Cyperaceae, Melastomataceae, Arecaceae and Poaceae. Although the palm swamps had been disturbed to varying degrees, those disturbances did not affect the flora in the middle or the core. Floristic similarity was high between these two zones within a given palm swamp and low between the edges of different palm swamps.

  15. A late Holocene record of arid events from the Cuzco region, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chepstow-Lusty, Alex; Frogley, Michael R.; Bauer, Brian S.; Bush, Mark. B.; Tupayachi Herrera, Alfredo

    2003-09-01

    The small recently infilled lake basin of Marcacocha (13°13S, 72°12W, 3355 m) in the Cuzco region of Peru has a morphology and location that renders it extremely sensitive to environmental change. A record of vegetation, human impact and climatic change during the past 4200 yr has been obtained from a highly organic core taken from the centre of the basin. Sustained arid episodes that affected the Peruvian Andes may be detectable using the proxy indicator of sedge (Cyperaceae) pollen abundances. As the lake-level was lowered during sustained drier conditions, the local catchment was colonised by Cyperaceae, whereas during lake floods, they retreated or were submerged and pollen production was correspondingly reduced. Drier episodes during prehistoric times occurred around 900 bc, 500 bc, ad 100 and ad 550, with a longer dry episode occurring from ad 900 to 1800. Evidence from the independently derived Quelccaya ice-core record and the archaeological chronology for the Cuzco region appears to support the climatic inferences derived from the sedge data. Many of these aridity episodes appear to correspond with important cultural changes in the Cuzco region and elsewhere in the Central Andes. Copyright

  16. Plant species from coal mine overburden dumping site in Satui, South Kalimantan, Indonesia

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    Vivi Novianti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Coal mine overburden (OB materials were nutrient-poor, loosely adhered particles of shale, stones, boulders, and cobbles, also contained elevated concentration of trace metals. This condition cause OB substrate did not support plants growth. However, there were certain species that able to grow on overburden dumping site. This investigation sought to identify plants species that presence on coal mine overburden. The research was conducted on opencast coal mine OB dumping site in Satui, South Kalimantan. Vegetation sampling was carried out on six different ages of coal mine OB dumps (7, 10, 11, 42, 59 and 64 month using line transect. Species identification used information from local people, AMDAL report of PT Arutmin Indonesia-Satui mine project, and website. There were 123 plant species, consisted of 79 herbs (Cyperaceae, Poaceae and Asteraceae, 10 lianes, bryophyte, 9 ferns, 10 shrubs, and 14 trees. A number of Poaceae, i.e., Paspalumconjugatum, Paspalumdilatatum, and Echinochloacolona generally present among the stones, boulders, and cobbles. While Cyperaceae such as Fimbristylis miliaceae, Cyperus javanicus, Rhyncospora corymbosa and Scleria sumatrensis most often foundinand around thebasin/pond with its smooth and humid substrate characteristics. Certain species of shrubs and trees present on the 7 month OB dumping site. They wereChromolaena odorata, Clibadium surinamense, Melastoma malabathricum, Trema micrantha, and Solanum torvum (Shrubs, Ochroma pyramidale and Homalanthus populifolius (trees. This plant species could be used for accelerating primary succession purpose on coal mine overburden dumping site. Nevertheless, species selection was needed to avoid planting invasive species.

  17. [Allelopathic effects of invasive weed Solidago canadensis on native plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Lingxiao; Chen, Xin; Tang, Jianjun

    2005-12-01

    With growth chamber method, this paper studied the allelopathic potential of invasive weed Solidago canadensis on native plant species. Different concentration S. canadensis root and rhizome extracts were examined, and the test plants were Trifolium repens, Trifolium pretense, Medicago lupulina, Lolium perenne, Suaeda glauca, Plantago virginica, Kummerowia stipulacea, Festuca arundinacea, Ageratum conyzoides, Portulaca oleracea, and Amaranthus spinosus. The results showed that the allelopathic inhibitory effect of the extracts from both S. canadensis root and rhizome was enhanced with increasing concentration, and rhizome extracts had a higher effect than root extracts. At the lowest concentration (1:60), root extract had little effect on the seed germination and seedling growth of T. repens, but rhizome extract could inhibit the germination of all test plants though the inhibitory effect varied with different species. The inhibition was the greatest for grass, followed by forb and legume. 1:60 (m:m) rhizome extract had similar effects on seed germination and radicel growth, but for outgrowth, the extract could inhibit Kummerowia stipulacea, Amaranthus spinosus and Festuca arundinacea, had no significant impact on Lolium perenne, Plantago virginica, Ageratum conyzoides, Portulaca oleracea and Amaranthus spinosus, and stimulated Trifolium repens, Trifolium pretense and Medicago lupulina.

  18. Fungi Isolated from Flue-cured Tobacco at Time of Sale and After Storage1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, R. E.; Lucas, G. B.

    1969-01-01

    The fungi isolated from 100 samples of flue-cured tobacco from 12 markets in 2 tobacco belts comprised 11 genera, including 10 species of Aspergillus. The mean percentage per sample isolated from 62 samples of tobacco from Middle Belt markets was Alternaria, 40.6%; Aspergillus niger, 47.8%; Aspergillus repens, 38.0%; and Penicillium, 25.8%. The mean percentage per sample isolated from 38 samples of tobacco from Old Belt markets was Alternaria, 74.0%; Penicillium, 52.5%; Aspergillus repens, 38.0%; and Aspergillus ruber, 36.2%. Damaged (74 samples) and nondamaged (26 samples) stored tobacco yielded species of six genera of fungi, including eight species of Aspergillus. Species of Aspergillus and Penicillium were commonly isolated from both damaged and nondamaged tobacco, whereas species of Alternaria, Cladosporium, Fusarium, and Rhizopus were isoalted more frequently from nondamaged tobacco. The fungi that occurred in the highest population in damaged tobacco were Aspergillus repens, A. niger, A. ruber, and Penicillium species. PMID:16349841

  19. Studies on the metabolism of five model drugs by fungi colonizing cadavers using LC-ESI-MS/MS and GC-MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ramírez, Jorge A; Voigt, Kerstin; Peters, Frank T

    2012-09-01

    It is well-known that cadavers may be colonized by microorganisms, but there is limited information if or to what extent these microbes are capable of metabolizing drugs or poisons, changing the concentrations and metabolic pattern of such compounds in postmortem samples. The aim of the present study was to develop a fungal biotransformation system as an in vitro model to investigate potential postmortem metabolism by fungi. Five model drugs (amitriptyline, metoprolol, mirtazapine, promethazine, and zolpidem) were each incubated with five model fungi known to colonize cadavers (Absidia repens, Aspergillus repens, Aspergillus terreus, Gliocladium viride, and Mortierella polycephala) and with Cunninghamella elegans (positive control). Incubations were performed in Sabouraud medium at 25 °C for 5 days. After centrifugation, a part of the supernatants was analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with product ion scanning. Another part was analyzed by full scan gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after extraction and derivatization. All model drugs were metabolized by the control fungus resulting in two (metoprolol) to ten (amitriptyline) metabolites. Of the model fungi, only Abs. repens and M. polycephala metabolized the model drugs: amitriptyline was metabolized to six and five, metoprolol to two and two, mirtazapine to five and three, promethazine to six and nine, and zolpidem to three and four metabolites, respectively. The main metabolic reactions were demethylation, oxidation, and hydroxylation. The presented in vitro model is applicable to studying drug metabolism by fungi colonizing cadavers.

  20. Fungi Isolated from Flue-cured Tobacco at Time of Sale and After Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, R E; Lucas, G B

    1969-03-01

    The fungi isolated from 100 samples of flue-cured tobacco from 12 markets in 2 tobacco belts comprised 11 genera, including 10 species of Aspergillus. The mean percentage per sample isolated from 62 samples of tobacco from Middle Belt markets was Alternaria, 40.6%; Aspergillus niger, 47.8%; Aspergillus repens, 38.0%; and Penicillium, 25.8%. The mean percentage per sample isolated from 38 samples of tobacco from Old Belt markets was Alternaria, 74.0%; Penicillium, 52.5%; Aspergillus repens, 38.0%; and Aspergillus ruber, 36.2%. Damaged (74 samples) and nondamaged (26 samples) stored tobacco yielded species of six genera of fungi, including eight species of Aspergillus. Species of Aspergillus and Penicillium were commonly isolated from both damaged and nondamaged tobacco, whereas species of Alternaria, Cladosporium, Fusarium, and Rhizopus were isoalted more frequently from nondamaged tobacco. The fungi that occurred in the highest population in damaged tobacco were Aspergillus repens, A. niger, A. ruber, and Penicillium species.

  1. Human and Animal Dirofilariasis: the Emergence of a Zoonotic Mosaic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siles-Lucas, Mar; Morchón, Rodrigo; González-Miguel, Javier; Mellado, Isabel; Carretón, Elena; Montoya-Alonso, Jose Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Dirofilariasis represents a zoonotic mosaic, which includes two main filarial species (Dirofilaria immitis and D. repens) that have adapted to canine, feline, and human hosts with distinct biological and clinical implications. At the same time, both D. immitis and D. repens are themselves hosts to symbiotic bacteria of the genus Wolbachia, the study of which has resulted in a profound shift in the understanding of filarial biology, the mechanisms of the pathologies that they produce in their hosts, and issues related to dirofilariasis treatment. Moreover, because dirofilariasis is a vector-borne transmitted disease, their distribution and infection rates have undergone significant modifications influenced by global climate change. Despite advances in our knowledge of D. immitis and D. repens and the pathologies that they inflict on different hosts, there are still many unknown aspects of dirofilariasis. This review is focused on human and animal dirofilariasis, including the basic morphology, biology, protein composition, and metabolism of Dirofilaria species; the climate and human behavioral factors that influence distribution dynamics; the disease pathology; the host-parasite relationship; the mechanisms involved in parasite survival; the immune response and pathogenesis; and the clinical management of human and animal infections. PMID:22763636

  2. Reclamation of acidic colliery spoil. III. Problems associated with the use of high rates of limestone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costigan, P A [Univ. of Liverpool, England; Bradshaw, A D; Gemmell, R P

    1982-04-01

    Growth of Trifolium repens in acidic colliery spoil was suppressed by more than 90% when agricultural ground calcitic limestone was applied at above 5 t ha/sup -1/ whereas Lolium perenne was unaffected at rates up to 100 t ha/sup -1/. The inhibitory effect of ground limestone on T. repens was reduced by high phosphorus fertilization and disappeared within 34 weeks of treatment.There was some evidence that high liming caused an imbalance of the Ca/Mg ratio in freshly limed spoil, contribution to growth inhibition. Growth of L. perene was improved and the inhibitory effect on T. repens was alleviated by substituting magnesian limestone (dolomite) for calcitic limestone. Phosphate adsorption of spoil was similar after low and very high limestone applications but increased by 100% after liming at 25 t ha/sup -1/ to pH 5.1.It is suggested that phosphate adsorption at pH 5.1 is caused by freshly precipitated amorphous aluminium hydroxide. The practical implications of the results are discussed.

  3. Seeds integrate biological information about conspecific and allospecific neighbours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamawo, Akira; Mukai, Hiromi

    2017-06-28

    Numerous organisms integrate information from multiple sources and express adaptive behaviours, but how they do so at different developmental stages remains to be identified. Seeds, which are the embryonic stage of plants, need to make decisions about the timing of emergence in response to environmental cues related to survival. We investigated the timing of emergence of Plantago asiatica (Plantaginaceae) seed while manipulating the presence of Trifolium repens seed and the relatedness of neighbouring P. asiatica seed. The relatedness of neighbouring P. asiatica seed and the presence of seeds of T. repens did not on their own influence the timing of P. asiatica emergence. However, when encountering a T. repens seed, a P. asiatica seed emerged faster in the presence of a sibling seed than in the presence of a non-sibling seed. Water extracts of seeds gave the same result. We show that P. asiatica seeds integrate information about the relatedness of neighbouring P. asiatica seeds and the presence of seeds of a different species via water-soluble chemicals and adjust their emergence behaviour in response. These findings suggest the presence of kin-dependent interspecific interactions. © 2017 The Author(s).

  4. Caracterización florística de ambientes de la cuenca baja del Río Cucurital, afluente del Río Caroní, Estado Bolívar, Guayana Venezolana Floristic charaterization of enviroments of the lower Cucurital river basin, affluent of Caroní river, Bolívar State, Venezuelan Guayana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyda Rodríguez

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Como una contribución al conocimiento florístico de la cuenca del Río Caroní se realizaron colecciones botánicas en varios ambientes de la cuenca baja del Río Cucurital, que incluyen formaciones boscosas, tanto en penillanura como ribereñas, morichales, sabanas, arbustales y ambientes perturbados; en los bosques se hicieron colecciones en parcelas de 0,1 ha y fuera de ellas. De manera general, las familias con mayor cantidad de especies fueron Melastomataceae (46, Rubiaceae (33, Euphorbiaceae (23, Cyperaceae (19, Myrtaceae (18, Fabaceae (18, Clusiaceae (15, Arecaceae (15, Caesalpiniaceae (14, Chrysobalanaceae (14, Lauraceae (14, Poaceae (13 y Burseraceae (12, siendo las más representativas de la cuenca baja. Los géneros con mayor cantidad de especies fueron Miconia (17, Psychotria (13, Ocotea (10, Myrcia (8, Protium (7, Licania (7 y Rhynchospora (7. Melastomataceae y Rubiaceae predominaron en todos los ambientes con excepción de la sabana; Lauraceae, Burseraceae, Arecaceae, Chrysobalanaceae y Euphorbiaceae fueron las de mayor importancia en los bosques, y Myrtaceae y Cyperaceae en los bosques ribereños, esta última junto con las Poaceae predominaron en morichal y sabana. Se encontraron 19 especies restringidas a la Guayana venezolana, de las cuales 12 se conocen sólo del estado Bolívar, evidenciando que las condiciones ecológicas, topográficas y edáficas determinan la presencia de elementos florísticos particulares. Las actividades humanas son escasas, lo que se ha reflejado en poca alteración de las comunidades vegetales y en el mantenimiento del carácter prístino de los ambientes. Los escasos ambientes intervenidos han sido colonizados por especies herbáceas y arbustivas típicas de la región.As a contribution to the floristic knowledge of the Caroní river basin, botanical collections were made in several environments of the lower Cucurital river basin, including forests, riverine forests, palm swamp forests (morichal

  5. Valoración nutricional y emisión de gases de algunos recursos forrajeros del trópico de altura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Apráez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la producción de gases (metano, AGVs en algunos forrajes herbáceos, arbóreos y arbustivos de la región lechera del municipio de Pasto, en altitudes comprendidas entre 2600 a 3200 m.s.n.m. Para ello, se tomaron veinte muestras de praderas, entre monocultivo y mezcla, y de otras plantas que utilizan como alimento del ganado, entre los que se destacan: Holcus lanatus L., Dactylis glomerata L., Trifolium pratense L., Trifolium repens L., Pennisetum clandestinum, Lolium sp, Taraxacum officinale, Rumex crispus L., Phalaris sp, Plantago major L., Avena sativa L. y Smallanthus pyramidalis. Estas plantas fueron incubadas con heces bovinas frescas, los gases generados por esta fermentación se cuantificó utilizando un transductor de presión conectado a un lector digital. Las mediciones se realizaron a las 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 y 72 horas del proceso. La validación estadística se realizó mediante un modelo de medidas repetidas las medias fueron ajustadas y comparadas según la prueba de Tukey - Kramer. La pradera en mezcla de H. lanatus, Lolium sp., P. clandestinum, y T. repens presentó la mayor producción de gas metano con 560 ml/ Kg MS, y el ensilaje de A. sativa, la menor con 30 ml/Kg MS. La mayor degradabilidad de materia seca (DMO se observó en A. sativa con 62,84%, y la menor en la mezcla de Lolium sp., T. repens con 29,79%. La mayor DMO se dio en la mezcla de P. clandestinum, H. lanatus y T. repens, con 91,34%, y en P. major con 82,50%. Los valores más altos de ácido propiónico se observaron en P. major, en Lolium sp., y en la mezcla de H. lanatus, Lolium sp., P. clandestinum, y T. repens con 920, 860, 860 ml/L respectivamente.

  6. Estado de la diversidad de la flora vascular de los Pantanos de Villa (Lima - Perú

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    Dámaso W. Ramirez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados del estudio de la flora vascular de los Pantanos de Villa realizadas en el 2007 y se analiza los cambios florísticos en los últimos años. Se registraron 47 especies silvestres comprendidas en 43 géneros y 27 familias. Las familias con mayor numero de especies fueron Poaceae (7, Cyperaceae (4 y Asteraceae (4. Se reportan 7 especies silvestres como nuevos registros para el humedal: Alternanthera pubiflora, Alternanthera halimifolia, Limnobium laevigatum, Colocasia esculenta, Rumex obtusifolius, Elodea potamogeton, Plantago major. Se encontraron 11 especies cultivadas en el ecosistema. En comparación con estudios anteriores, los resultados muestran una disminución en la riqueza florística, principalmente de las especies acuáticas. El análisis de similitud con anteriores estudios indica un cambio en la composición de la flora en el tiempo.

  7. Pervasive survival of expressed mitochondrial rps14 pseudogenes in grasses and their relatives for 80 million years following three functional transfers to the nucleus

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    Palmer Jeffrey D

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many mitochondrial genes, especially ribosomal protein genes, have been frequently transferred as functional entities to the nucleus during plant evolution, often by an RNA-mediated process. A notable case of transfer involves the rps14 gene of three grasses (rice, maize, and wheat, which has been relocated to the intron of the nuclear sdh2 gene and which is expressed and targeted to the mitochondrion via alternative splicing and usage of the sdh2 targeting peptide. Although this transfer occurred at least 50 million years ago, i.e., in a common ancestor of these three grasses, it is striking that expressed, nearly intact pseudogenes of rps14 are retained in the mitochondrial genomes of both rice and wheat. To determine how ancient this transfer is, the extent to which mitochondrial rps14 has been retained and is expressed in grasses, and whether other transfers of rps14 have occurred in grasses and their relatives, we investigated the structure, expression, and phylogeny of mitochondrial and nuclear rps14 genes from 32 additional genera of grasses and from 9 other members of the Poales. Results Filter hybridization experiments showed that rps14 sequences are present in the mitochondrial genomes of all examined Poales except for members of the grass subfamily Panicoideae (to which maize belongs. However, PCR amplification and sequencing revealed that the mitochondrial rps14 genes of all examined grasses (Poaceae, Cyperaceae, and Joinvilleaceae are pseudogenes, with all those from the Poaceae sharing two 4-NT frameshift deletions and all those from the Cyperaceae sharing a 5-NT insertion (only one member of the Joinvilleaceae was examined. cDNA analysis showed that all mitochondrial pseudogenes examined (from all three families are transcribed, that most are RNA edited, and that surprisingly many of the edits are reverse (U→C edits. Putatively nuclear copies of rps14 were isolated from one to several members of each of these

  8. Chemical investigation of Cyperus distans L. and inhibitory activity of scabequinone in seed germination and seedling growth bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhena, Karyme S S; Guilhon, Giselle Maria Skelding Pinheiro; Zoghbi, Maria das Graças B; Santos, Lourivaldo Silva; Souza Filho, Antonio Pedro Silva

    2014-01-01

    Chemical investigation of the rhizomes of Cyperus distans (Cyperaceae) led to the identification of α-ciperone, cyperotundone and scabequinone, besides other common constituents. Complete assignment of the (13)C NMR data of scabequinone is being published for the first time. The inhibitory effects of C. distans extracts and scabequinone on the seed germination and seedling growth of Mimosa pudica, Senna obtusifolia and Pueraria phaseoloides were evaluated. Seed germination inhibition bioassay revealed that S. obtusifolia (52-53%) was more sensitive to the hexane and the methanol extracts at 1% than M. pudica (0-10%). Scabequinone at 250 mg L⁻¹ displayed seed germination inhibitions more than 50% and radicle growth reduction of more than 35% of the test species S. obtusifolia and P. phaseoloides, while the hypocotyl growth of M. pudica was significantly affected (>50%) by the quinone at the same concentration. These results demonstrate that scabequinone contributes to the overall inhibitory activities of C. distans.

  9. Floristic composition of the riparian forest in the lower Gramame river, Paraíba, Brazil

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    Hermes de Oliveira Machado Filho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Riparian forest has a key ecological and economic significance to productive chains associated with it. This study aimed to conduct a floristic survey of riparian forest stretches in the Gramame river, state of Paraíba, Brazilian Northeast region, and analyze the floristic similarity with Brazilian riparian vegetation fragments. We found 136 species belonging to 106 genera and 43 families. The most representative families were: Fabaceae (19 spp., Cyperaceae (16 spp., and Rubiaceae (11 spp.. The predominant habit was herbaceous and the best represented biological spectrum was camephyte. Regarding the geographic distribution, there was a predominance of widely distributed species associated with the Neotropical province. The distribution patterns have shown a low similarity between areas, and largely distributed species stand out. Similarity analysis pointed out that the area was floristically related to other two coastal areas in the Brazilian Northeast and Southeast regions. Only species typically related to estuarine environments might explain the floristic connections detected.

  10. Chromosomal mutation by fission neutrons and X-rays in higher plants. A review on results of the joint research program utilizing Kinki University reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonezawa, Yoshihiko

    2010-01-01

    We have studied the efficiency of fission neutrons from the nuclear reactor of Kinki University (UTR-KINKI) and X-rays to chromosomes of higher plants for over 20 years. In this review, we described the development of bio-dosimeter using hyper-sensibility of germinating onion roots for irradiation, the analysis of chromosome structure in Haplopappus gracilis (Asteraceae), with the special reference of latent centromeres and survived telomeres throughout chromosomal evolution, the experimental studies on the induction of chromosomal rearrangement in Zebrina pendula (Commelinaceae), the behavior of chromosome fragments with non-localized centromeres in Carex and Eleocharis (Cyperaceae), and the possibility as a bio-dosimeter of pollen mother cells of Tradescantia paludosa (Commelinaceae) for the detection of low-dose radiation. (author)

  11. A checklist of the flora of Shanjan protected area, East Azerbaijan Province, NW Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibalani, Ghassem Habibi; Taheri, Elnaz

    2013-01-01

    The flora of protected Shanjan rangeland in Shabestar district, Azerbaijan Province, NW Iran was studied using a 1 m × 1 m quadrate in spring and summer 2011. The climate of this area is cold and dry. In this area 94 plant species belonging to 25 families were identified as constituting the major part of the vegetation. The families in the area are Amaryllidaceae, Boraginaceae, Campanulaceae, Caryophllaceae, Cistaceae, Compositea, Cruciferae, Cyperaceae, Dipesaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Geraniaceae, Hypericaceae, Linaceae, Melvaceae, Orobachaceae, Papaveraceae, Paronychiaceae, Plantaginaceae, Polygolaceae, Ranunculaceae, Resedaceae, Rubiaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Solanaceae and Valerianacea. Floristic composition is Irano-Turanian elements. Detailed analysis showed that Biennial plants were 3.19%, Annual 41.49% and Perennial 55.32%.

  12. Angiosperms, Hydrophytes of five ephemeral lakes of Thiruvallur District, Tamil Nadu, India

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    Udayakumar, M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to document the Angiosperm diversity of five ephemeral lakes of ThiruvallurDistrict of Tamil Nadu South India. Qualitative floristic surveys were carried out during 2005-2007. Herbarium specimenswith voucher number, taxonomical and ecological information were deposited to the herbarium, Pachaiyappa’s College(PCH Chennai, Tamilnadu. Forty five species of hydrophytes belonging to 21 families and 34 genera were documented.Most speciose families were Poaceae with 5 species followed by Polygalaceae and Nymphaeaceae (4 Cyperaceae,Hydrocharitaceae, Najadaceae, and Scrophulariaceae (3 species each. Mean depth of all five lakes shrinking gradually dueto severe anthropogenic pressure. Conservation of wetlands is the need of the hour to protect the biota as well as quality ofdrinking water.

  13. A palaeoenvironmental record of natural and human change from the Auckland Isthmus, New Zealand, during the Late Holocene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horrocks, M.; Deng, Y.; Nichol, S.L.; Shane, P.A.; Ogden, J.

    2002-01-01

    A multi-proxy analysis of a sediment core from Waiatarua, Auckland Isthmus, adds to an environmental history from the local wetland spanning the Late Glacial to modern times. Several distal tephra were recorded in the core: 8.5 ka Rotoma (reworked), 6.1 ka Tuhua (primary and reworked), most likely the 1.8 ka Taupo (the latter is previously unreported for the Auckland Isthmus), and one unidentified, possibly 665 yr BP Kaharoa. Pollen and diatom analyses of the core show that during the period c. 6000-c. 4800 yr BP, the site was a lake fringed with Cyperaceae/Leptospermum swamp. The lake became progressively shallower after c. 4800 yr BP, probably due to hydroseral infilling. Surrounding the lake was forest dominated by Dacrydium, Prumnopitys, Metrosideros, and Nestegis. Transition to the Polynesian era appears unclear because the site probably endured a hiatus due to destruction of peat by burning in European times. (author). 39 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  14. ANGIOSPERMAS DE LOS ARBUSTALES XERÓFILOS UBICADOS EN LOS ALREDEDORES DEL COMPLEJO LAGUNAR BOCARIPO-CHACOPATA, PENÍNSULA DE ARAYA, ESTADO SUCRE, VENEZUELA | ANGIOSPERMAE OF A XEROPHYTIC SHRUBLAND LOCATED AROUND BOCARIPO-CHACOPATA LAGOON COMPLEX, ARAYA PENINSULA, SUCRE STATE, VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Bello Pulido

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available As a contribution to the floristic knowledge of xeric zones of the country, a list of angiospermae species is presented that are found forming part of a xerophytic shrubland, located around the Bocaripo-Chacopata lagoon complex, in Araya Peninsula, Sucre state. A total of 56 families was identified which comprised 142 genus, 180 species and 3 intraspecific taxa. The most dominant families regarding to the species number were: Fabaceae (24 spp., Poaceae (15 spp., Cactaceae (10 spp., Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae (9 spp. c/u, Malvaceae (8 spp., Convolvulaceae (7 spp., Cyperaceae, Amaranthaceae (6 spp. c/u, Portulacaceae and Bromeliaceae (5 spp. c/u. Among the most important genera, were: Senna (4 spp., Capparis, Cyperus, Opuntia, Sida and Tillandsia (3 spp. c/u. The more common biotype was herbaceous vegetation, followed by shrubs, trees, climber, epiphytes and hemiparasites. The list includes two endemic species and 8 other included in the Red Book of the Flora of Venezuela.

  15. EKSPLORASI DAN PRODUKTIFITAS PADANG PENGGEMBALAAN DI KECAMATAN PAMONA TIMUR KABUPATEN POSO SULAWESI TENGAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.D.M.H. Karti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pasture in District of East Pamona, Poso Regency has potential as forage for livestock.. This study was conducted in two villages (Didiri and Kelei to explore of plant species as feed and productivity calculation such as botanical composition and carrying capacities. Type of grasses that grow are Sporobolus sp, Paspalum sp, Paspalum cartilagineum, Axonopus compresus, Euleusine indica. Type of legumes that grow are Stylosanthes guianensis, Desmodium sp, Centrocema pubescens, Callyandra callothyrsus, Leucaena leucocephala. Types of weeds have started to grow in several locations within the region, such as Melastoma, Mimosa pudica, Imperata cylindrica, Cromolena odorata, Cyperacea, and Lamtana camara. Botanical composition (% in Kelei for grass, legumes, weeds (84.76: 6.75: 8:49 and Didiri for grass, legumes, weeds (95.34: 0:51: 4.15. Carrying Capacities in Kelei and Didiri was 0.96 ± 0:23 and 1:12 ± 0:29 ST / ha.

  16. The genesis of the Nissi peatland (northwestern Greece) as an example of peat and lignite deposit formation in Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christianis, K. (University of Patras, Patras (Greece). Dept of Geology)

    1994-07-01

    The Nissi Fen is located in a 12 km[sup 2] intramontane basin in northwestern Greece. Since the last glacial, limnotelmatic and pure telmatic conditions, controlled mainly by karstic springs and partly by surface waters, favoured peat formation in the basin, resulting in the accumulation of a peat deposit up to 15 m thick. The present fen occupies a large area of almost 9 km[sup 2]. Flora cover comprises mainly Cyperaceae ([ital Cladium mariscus] and [ital Carex] species), while [ital Phragmites australis] extend along the banks of a river flowing through the basin, as well as around a lake in the southern part of the fen. These species also contributed to the peat formation. The Nissi peatland shows many genetic similarities to the Philippi peat deposit, Eastern Macedonia, and may be considered as a recent analogue to the lignite deposits in the basins of Ptolemais, Western Macedonia and Megalopolis, the Peloponnese. 36 refs., 5 figs.

  17. Macrófitas aquáticas de ilhas flutuantes (baceiros nas sub-regiões do Abobral e Miranda, Pantanal, MS, Brasil Aquatic macrophytes of floating mats (" baceiros" in the Abobral and Miranda Pantanal Wetlands, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Otávio Pivari

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A associação entre as formas biológicas flutuante e epífita, relacionadas a macrófitas aquáticas, constitui o que se chama genericamente de ilha flutuante. Esta denominação é aplicada ao estabelecimento de uma ou mais epífitas sobre indivíduos vivos de espécies flutuantes, como sinônimo de camalotal ou, ainda, para se referir à vegetação flutuante que se desenvolve sobre um solo orgânico em decomposição (histossolo. Realizou-se o levantamento das espécies presentes em cinco baceiros nas sub-regiões pantaneiras do Abobral e Miranda e o estabelecimento das similaridades florísticas entre estes, a fim de evidenciar aspectos da dinâmica sucessional de ilhas flutuantes. Foram encontradas 66 espécies de macrófitas aquáticas epífitas, distribuídas em 27 famílias, sendo Cyperaceae e Poaceae as mais representativas. O número de espécies por baceiro variou de 7 a 39, sendo os táxons comuns a todos esses Ludwigia leptocarpa (Nutt. H. Hara e Oxycaryum cubense (Poepp. & Kunth Palla, ao nível específico, e Asteraceae, Cyperaceae, Onagraceae, Poaceae e Polygonaceae, com relação às famílias. Outras formas biológicas, além da epífita, foram encontradas associadas aos baceiros, ou ainda, se mostraram adaptadas às condições do histossolo, podendo ser consideradas " epífitas casuais" . Baceiros em estágios sucessionais mais próximos apresentam maior similaridade florística e, no geral, quanto mais avançada a sucessão natural, maior a riqueza específica.The association between floating and epiphytic biological forms, regarding aquatic macrophytes, creates what are called floating mats. This concept refers to the establishment of one or more epiphytes on live individuals of floating species, as a synonym of " camalotal," or applied to floating vegetation that grows on organic soil in decomposition (histosol. A checklist of species was made of five floating mats in the Abobral and Miranda Pantanal Wetlands and

  18. Magnoliophyta species of restinga, state of Pernambuco, Brazil.

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    Zickel, C. S.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Restinga vegetation occurs along the entire coast of Brazil. The 187 km of coastline of the state ofPernambuco demonstrates a diversity of habitats, such as beaches, dunes, and restingas. The present study sought toelaborate a checklist of the phanerogamic species found there. The species listed were compiled from surveysundertaken between 1951 and 2007, as well as from herbaria collections in that state. A total of 477 species distributedamong 303 genera and 95 families were encountered. The families with the greatest numbers of species were Poaceae(39 species, Fabaceae (34, Cyperaceae (26, Euphorbiaceae (25, Myrtaceae (24, Rubiaceae (20, Caesalpiniaceae(17, Mimosaceae (16, Asteraceae (14, Orchidaceae (14, Bromeliaceae (9, Boraginaceae (8, Malvaceae (8,Solanaceae (8, and Annonaceae, Araceae, Chrysobalanaceae, Malpighiaceae, and Melastomataceae (7 each.Approximately 60 % of the species were common to other restinga areas in northeastern Brazil, and 39.3 % wererestricted to the coast of Pernambuco.

  19. Paleofloristic and paleofaunistic analysis of Dudváh River oxbow and implication for Late Holocene paleoenvironmental development of the Žitný ostrov Island (SW Slovakia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pišút, Peter; Břízová, Eva; Čejka, Tomáš; Pipík, Radovan

    2010-12-01

    Žitný ostrov, the largest island of the Danube River (SW Slovakia) gained its present shape in the Neoholocene period. As a result of increased flood and geomorphological Danube river activity dated to 1378-1528 AD, the Lower Dudváh River was abandoned and its alluvium became a part of the Žitný ostrov. Study of a Dudváh terrestrialized paleomeander by means of pollen and macrofossil analysis provides new information about the paleoenvironments of the Danubian Plain. The meander under study was cut-off during the Sub-Boreal period when the land was mostly covered by oak-dominated mixed forest with a notable high frequency of Fagus and Abies. In low-lying depressions, Alnus glutinosa formed typical alder carrs. The largest decline of the mixed forest occurred during the Sub-Atlantic period. Until the mid-19th century the region was strongly influenced by shallow groundwater and periodical floods, as reflected by pollen of aquatics and marsh species. Amongst non-arboreal taxa, pollen of Cyperaceae, Brassicaceae/Cuscuta, Poaceae and Apiaceae prevailed. Local successional changes started with i) stage of abandoned oxbow still with influx of moving water, poor in both macrophytes and molluscs, ii) shallow eutrophic oxbow lake with slowly flowing or stagnant water overgrown with aquatics (Ranunculus subgen. Batrachium, Potamogeton sp., Ceratophyllum demersum etc.) and abundant molluscs, iii) an open marsh dominated by Cyperaceae (mainly Carex riparia) with Atriplex prostrata, supporting diverse molluscan and Ostracod fauna. Present-day habitat is a result of landscape changes, which have been associated with draining, intensified agriculture, ruderalisation and spread of invasive species.

  20. Source areas and long-range transport of pollen from continental land to Tenerife (Canary Islands).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, Rebeca; Belmonte, Jordina; Avila, Anna; Alarcón, Marta; Cuevas, Emilio; Alonso-Pérez, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    The Canary Islands, due to their geographical position, constitute an adequate site for the study of long-range pollen transport from the surrounding land masses. In this study, we analyzed airborne pollen counts at two sites: Santa Cruz de Tenerife (SCO), at sea level corresponding to the marine boundary layer (MBL), and Izaña at 2,367 m.a.s.l. corresponding to the free troposphere (FT), for the years 2006 and 2007. We used three approaches to describe pollen transport: (1) a classification of provenances with an ANOVA test to describe pollen count differences between sectors; (2) a study of special events of high pollen concentrations, taking into consideration the corresponding meteorological synoptic pattern responsible for transport and back trajectories; and (3) a source-receptor model applied to a selection of the pollen taxa to show pollen source areas. Our results indicate several extra-regional pollen transport episodes to Tenerife. The main provenances were: (1) the Mediterranean region, especially the southern Iberian Peninsula and Morocco, through the trade winds in the MBL. These episodes were characterized by the presence of pollen from trees (Casuarina, Olea, Quercus perennial and deciduous types) mixed with pollen from herbs (Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae and Poaceae wild type). (2) The Saharan sector, through transport at the MBL level carrying pollen principally from herbs (Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae, Cyperaceae and Poaceae wild type) and, in one case, Casuarina pollen, uplifted to the free troposphere. And (3) the Sahel, characterized by low pollen concentrations of Arecaceae, Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae, Cyperaceae and Poaceae wild type in sporadic episodes. This research shows that sporadic events of long-range pollen transport need to be taken into consideration in Tenerife as possible responsible agents in respiratory allergy episodes. In particular, it is estimated that 89-97% of annual counts of the highly allergenous Olea

  1. INVENTORY OF THE INVASIVE ALIE N PLANT SPECIES IN INDONESIA

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    SRI S UDARMIYATI T JITROSOEDIRDJO

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An inventory of the alien plant species in Indone sia based on the existing references and herbarium specimens concluded that 1936 alien plant species ar e found in Indonesia which belong to 187 families. Field studies should be done to get the complete figur es of alien plant species in Indonesia. Based on the existing figures of the plant species, the invasive alien plant species can be iden tified, followed by studies on the assessment of losses, biology, management and their possible utilizations. Alien plant species are imported to Indonesia for cultivation, collection of the botanical garden, as experimental plants or other curiosities. Aside from plants purposely imported, there are also introduced plant propagules conta-minating imported agricultural products. These alien plant species can be beneficial or have a potential of being invasive. The alien cultivated species consisted of 67% of the total number. More than half of the cultivated plants are ornamental plants. Some of th e species are naturalized or escaped from cultivation and become wild and invasive. Some other natura lized species, adapted well without any problems of invasion. There are 339 species or 17% of the species r ecorded as weeds. The highest record of weeds is found in the family of Poaceae (57 species, follo wed by Asteraceae (53 species and Cyperaceae (35 species. There are 6 families having more than 10 species of weeds: Amaranthaceae, Asteraceae, Cyperaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Poaceae, and Rubiaceae. Three families have more than 100 species: Asteraceae 162 species, Poaceae 120 species, and Papillionaceae 103 species. Five species of aquatic and 20 species of terrestrial plants considered as important alien plant species in Indonesia were identified and some of their distributions noted

  2. Plantas daninhas de uma pastagem cultivada de baixa produtividade no Nordeste Paraense Weeds of pasture low yielded areas of northeastern in the Pará State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo E. B. Mascarenhas

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente existem 23 milhões de hectares de pastagens cultivadas em área originalmente sob floresta na Amazônia. Desse total, em torno de cinco milhões de hectares encontram-se com baixa produtividade ou em vias de degradação, infestados de plantas daninhas. Com o objetivo de identificar as plantas daninhas que ocorrem em área de pastagem de baixa produtividade em Terra Alta, PA ( 0º 58” S e 47º 52” W. Gr. , foram efetuados levantamentos botânicos qualitativos, pelo método visual e coleta de todas as espécies presentes na área. Foram registradas 34 famílias, representadas por 118 espécies, destacando-se as famílias Leguminosae, Gramineae, Malvaceae, Myrtaceae, Cyperaceae e Asteraceae com 21, 16, 8, 7, 6 e 6 espécies, respectivamente. As plantas daninhas consideradas mais importantes foram: Borreira verticillata, Rolandra argentea, Desmodium canum, Davilla rugosa, Vismia guianensis e Imperata brasiliensis.Presently there are 23 million hectares of cultivated pasture in forest ecosystem of the Amazon Region. From that area, 5 million hectares are low yield or in some stage of degradation and invaded by weeds. Aiming to identify the weed species that occur in degraded pastures of Terra Alta, state of Pará (0º 58” S e 47º 52” W. Gr. , a botanical survey was carried out, colleting samples of all weed species presents in the area. Thirty-four families were recorded represented by 118 species, being Leguminosae, Gramineae, Malvaceae, Myrtaceae, Cyperaceae and Asteraceae the most important families with 21, 16, 8, 7, 6 and 6 species respectively. The most important weed species were: Borreira verticillata, Rolandra argentea, Desmodium canum, Davilla rugosa, Vismia guianensis e Imperata brasiliensis.

  3. Source areas and long-range transport of pollen from continental land to Tenerife (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, Rebeca; Belmonte, Jordina; Avila, Anna; Alarcón, Marta; Cuevas, Emilio; Alonso-Pérez, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    The Canary Islands, due to their geographical position, constitute an adequate site for the study of long-range pollen transport from the surrounding land masses. In this study, we analyzed airborne pollen counts at two sites: Santa Cruz de Tenerife (SCO), at sea level corresponding to the marine boundary layer (MBL), and Izaña at 2,367 m.a.s.l. corresponding to the free troposphere (FT), for the years 2006 and 2007. We used three approaches to describe pollen transport: (1) a classification of provenances with an ANOVA test to describe pollen count differences between sectors; (2) a study of special events of high pollen concentrations, taking into consideration the corresponding meteorological synoptic pattern responsible for transport and back trajectories; and (3) a source-receptor model applied to a selection of the pollen taxa to show pollen source areas. Our results indicate several extra-regional pollen transport episodes to Tenerife. The main provenances were: (1) the Mediterranean region, especially the southern Iberian Peninsula and Morocco, through the trade winds in the MBL. These episodes were characterized by the presence of pollen from trees ( Casuarina, Olea, Quercus perennial and deciduous types) mixed with pollen from herbs ( Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae and Poaceae wild type). (2) The Saharan sector, through transport at the MBL level carrying pollen principally from herbs (Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae, Cyperaceae and Poaceae wild type) and, in one case, Casuarina pollen, uplifted to the free troposphere. And (3) the Sahel, characterized by low pollen concentrations of Arecaceae, Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae, Cyperaceae and Poaceae wild type in sporadic episodes. This research shows that sporadic events of long-range pollen transport need to be taken into consideration in Tenerife as possible responsible agents in respiratory allergy episodes. In particular, it is estimated that 89-97% of annual counts of the highly allergenous Olea

  4. Fungal diversity of rice straw for meju fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Ho; Kim, Seon-Hwa; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Lee, Jong-Kyu; Hong, Seung-Beom

    2013-12-01

    Rice straw is closely associated with meju fermentation and it is generally known that the rice straw provides meju with many kinds of microorganisms. In order to elucidate the origin of meju fungi, the fungal diversity of rice straw was examined. Rice straw was collected from 12 Jang factories where meju are produced, and were incubated under nine different conditions by altering the media (MEA, DRBC, and DG18), and temperature (15°C, 25°C, and 35°C). In total, 937 strains were isolated and identified as belonging to 39 genera and 103 species. Among these, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Eurotium, Fusarium, and Penicillium were the dominant genera. Fusarium asiaticum (56.3%), Cladosporium cladosporioides (48.6%), Aspergillus tubingensis (37.5%), A. oryzae (31.9%), Eurotium repens (27.1%), and E. chevalieri (25.0%) were frequently isolated from the rice straw obtained from many factories. Twelve genera and 40 species of fungi that were isolated in the rice straw in this study were also isolated from meju. Specifically, A. oryzae, C. cladosporioides, E. chevalieri, E. repens, F. asiaticum, and Penicillium polonicum (11.8%), which are abundant species in meju, were also isolated frequently from rice straw. C. cladosporioides, F. asiaticum, and P. polonicum, which are abundant in the low temperature fermentation process of meju fermentation, were frequently isolated from rice straw incubated at 15°C and 25°C, whereas A. oryzae, E. repens, and E. chevalieri, which are abundant in the high temperature fermentation process of meju fermentation, were frequently isolated from rice straw incubated at 25°C and 35°C. This suggests that the mycobiota of rice straw has a large influence in the mycobiota of meju. The influence of fungi on the rice straw as feed and silage for livestock, and as plant pathogens for rice, are discussed as well.

  5. Quantifying Effect of Lactic, Acetic, and Propionic Acids on Growth of Molds Isolated from Spoiled Bakery Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnas, Stéphane; Gauvry, Emilie; Onno, Bernard; Membré, Jeanne-Marie

    2015-09-01

    The combined effect of undissociated lactic acid (0 to 180 mmol/liter), acetic acid (0 to 60 mmol/liter), and propionic acid (0 to 12 mmol/liter) on growth of the molds Aspergillus niger, Penicillium corylophilum, and Eurotium repens was quantified at pH 3.8 and 25°C on malt extract agar acid medium. The impact of these acids on lag time for growth (λ) was quantified through a gamma model based on the MIC. The impact of these acids on radial growth rate (μ) was analyzed statistically through polynomial regression. Concerning λ, propionic acid exhibited a stronger inhibitory effect (MIC of 8 to 20 mmol/liter depending on the mold species) than did acetic acid (MIC of 23 to 72 mmol/liter). The lactic acid effect was null on E. repens and inhibitory on A. niger and P. corylophilum. These results were validated using independent sets of data for the three acids at pH 3.8 but for only acetic and propionic acids at pH 4.5. Concerning μ, the effect of acetic and propionic acids was slightly inhibitory for A. niger and P. corylophilum but was not significant for E. repens. In contrast, lactic acid promoted radial growth of all three molds. The gamma terms developed here for these acids will be incorporated in a predictive model for temperature, water activity, and acid. More generally, results for μ and λ will be used to identify and evaluate solutions for controlling bakery product spoilage.

  6. Occurrence of Rhynchosporium secalis (Oud. J.J. Davis on spring barley and winter rye in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiho Mäkelä

    1974-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out on Rhynchosprium secalis (Oud. J. J. Davis occurring on spring barley, winter rye and couch grass (Agropyron repens (L. PB in Finland. The results were obtained from samples of barley (c. 860 samples and rye (c. 200 samples gathered in fields during the growing season throughout the country in 1971 1973. The samples (c. 170 samples of Agropyron repens were collected in fields and the borders of fields. The fungi of all the samples were examined by microscope and cultures and inocolation tests were used as well. Rhynchosporium secalis was observed to occur commonly on spring barley throughout the country from Helsinki to Lapland. The fungus was observed in about 30 per cent of the fields and in below 60 percent of the localities examined. Leaf blotch was commoner on six rowed barley than on two-rowed barley. The fungus sometimes attacked a field in great profusion. R. secalis was observed in below 50 per cent of the winter rye samples and in below 70 per cent of the localities examined. The fungus occurred commonly in the southern part of Finland and was found also in Lapland (Inari, 69° N, 27°E. Spores of the fungus were most abundant in the leaves of rye in spring and in early summer. R. secalis was observed rather scarce (in over 10 per cent of fields and in over 25 per cent of the localities examined on Agropyron repens throughout the country. A high degree of host specialisation has been found within the species R. secalis. Two isolates from spring barley and from winter rye were pathogenic to their original host only.

  7. EMERGENCIA Y SOBREVIVENCIA DEL ZACATE ROSADO EN DIFERENTES SUELOS Y PATRONES DE HUMEDAD-SEQUÍA

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    Martha Balandrán Valladares

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Las plantas invasoras afectan la función y composición de los ecosistemas nativos. La gramínea zacate rosado [Melinis repens (Willd. Zizka] es una especie invasora introducida que ha ido incrementando su presencia en el estado de Chihuahua, México. Para determinar su posible propagación se evaluó en invernadero, la emergencia y sobrevivencia de M. repens en suelos provenientes de cuatro áreas con diferente tipo de vegetación y patrones de humedad-sequía (bajo, pobre, medio y alto más comunes durante el verano en Chihuahua. Los tipos de vegetación fueron matorral, pastizal mediano, pastizal halófito con suelo aluvial profundo y bosque con suelo coluvial. Los datos fueron analizados como categóricos y se realizó la comparación de medias mediante una prueba de proporciones en distribuciones normales. La semilla germinó en los suelos provenientes de las cuatro áreas con diferentes tipos de vegetación y patrones de humedad-sequía. La mayor emergencia, 92%, se presentó en el suelo aluvial profundo de pastizal mediano con una secuencia de humedad-sequía de 120 mm que representa una precipitación de 12 días al año (P < 0.0008. Las plantas sobrevivieron de 12 a 24 días sin riego, pero no a los 36 días. El pasto M. repens es capaz de germinar en cualquier suelo proveniente de las cuatro áreas con diferentes tipos de vegetación estudiados y la poca o abundante humedad no representa un impedimento para su emergencia.

  8. Current surveys on the prevalence and distribution of Dirofilaria spp. and Acanthocheilonema reconditum infections in dogs in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionică, Angela Monica; Matei, Ioana Adriana; Mircean, Viorica; Dumitrache, Mirabela Oana; D'Amico, Gianluca; Győrke, Adriana; Pantchev, Nikola; Annoscia, Giada; Albrechtová, Kateřina; Otranto, Domenico; Modrý, David; Mihalca, Andrei Daniel

    2015-03-01

    During the last decades, Dirofilaria spp. infection in European dogs has rapidly spread from historically endemic areas towards eastern and northeastern countries, but little or no information is available from these geographical regions. The present study provides a picture of filarial infections in dogs from Romania and compares two tests for the diagnosis of Dirofilaria immitis. From July 2010 to March 2011, blood samples were collected from 390 dogs from nine counties of Romania and serological SNAP tests were performed for the detection of D. immitis antigen. The remaining blood clots were subsequently used for DNA extraction followed by multiplex PCR for assessing filarioid species diversity (i.e. D. immitis, Dirofilaria repens and Acanthocheilonema reconditum). Based on molecular detection, an overall prevalence of 6.92 % (n = 27; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 4.70-10.03 %) for D. repens, 6.15 % (n = 24; 95 % CI 4.07-9.14 %) for D. immitis and 2.05 % (n = 8; 95 % CI 0.96-4.16 %) for A. reconditum was recorded, with significant variations according to sampling areas. Coinfections of D. immitis and D. repens were recorded in 23.91 % (n = 11) positive dogs. A slightly higher prevalence for D. immitis was detected at the SNAP test (n = 28, 7.17 %; 95 % CI 4.91-10.33 %), but this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.66). However, only 53.57 % (n = 15) of antigen-positive dogs were confirmed by PCR, while other dogs (n = 9) PCR positive for D. immitis were negative at the serology. The present study shows that Dirofilaria species are endemic in the southern and southeastern areas of Romania, This article also provides, for the first time, an epidemiological picture of the distribution of A. reconditum in Romania.

  9. Selenium concentration in compartments of aquatic ecosystems in Central Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinochet, H.; Gregori, I. de; Cavieres, M.F. [Catholic University of Valparaiso, Valparaiso (Chile). Chemical Institute

    2002-07-01

    A study was conducted during 1995-96 to evaluate Se concentration in water, sediment, and plants from aquatic ecosystems of central Chile, an area particularly affected by mining activities. Samples were collected from Panquehue, Chagres, and Ocoa along the Acongua River (presumably receives discharges from a copper refinery and a copper mine). Samples were also collected from one site on the Puchuncavi Stream (directly contaminated by both a coal power plant and a copper refinery). In addition, samples were also collected from one site on the Limache Stream (an urban area with no Se-contaminating sources). The sediment and plant samples collected in Puchuncavi had higher Se levels, which were statistically different to the concentration in samples from other sites. Sediments from Puchuncavi and Ocoa had the highest levels of Se (520 plus or minus 46 and 440 plus or minus 10 {mu} g/kg, respectively) while the plant (Jussiaea repens (Ludwigia repens)) collected in Puchuncavi had an Se concentration 6.5 times higher than the sample collected in Panquehue (116 plus or minus 154 and 182 plus or minus 54 {mu} g/kg, respectively). Puchuncavi water had more acidic pH than water from the other sites thus decreasing Se solubility. Se concentrations in sediment and water collected in Chagres were lower than the concentration determined in sediment and water from either Ocoa or Panquehue. Plant/water and plant/sediment accumulation factors and a sediment/water distribution factor were similar for all sampling sites, except Puchuncavi (accumulation and distribution factors are higher than at the other sites). Hydrocotyle ranunculoides had practically the same plant/sediment accumulation factor at all sites while the accumulation factor for J. repens varied according to site. The samples collected in the Limache stream had Se at equal or even higher concentration than the other samples collected from presumably contaminated sites (except Puchuncavi). 19 refs.

  10. Botanical medicines for the urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnell, Eric

    2002-11-01

    Four important categories of urologic herbs, their history, and modern scientific investigations regarding them are reviewed. Botanical diuretics are discussed with a focus on Solidago spp (goldenrod) herb, Levisticum officinale (lovage) root, Petroselinum crispus (parsley) fruit, and Urtica dioica (stinging nettle) herb. Urinary antiseptic and anti-adhesion herbs, particularly Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (uva-uri) leaf, Juniperus spp (juniper) leaf, and Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry) fruit are reviewed. The antinephrotoxic botanicals Rheum palmatum (Chinese rhubarb) root and Lespedeza capitata (round-head lespedeza) herb are surveyed, followed by herbs for symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia, most notably Serenoa repens (saw palmetto) fruit, Urtica dioica root, and Prunus africana (pygeum) bark.

  11. Fungal growth and the presence of sterigmatocystin in hard cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northolt, M D; van Egmond, H P; Soentoro, P; Deijll, E

    1980-01-01

    Molds isolated from visibly molded cheeses in shops, households, and warehouses have been identified. Mold flora of cheeses in shops and households consisted mainly of Penicillium verrucosum var. cyclopium. On cheeses ripening in warehouses, Penicillium verrucosum var. cyclopium, Aspergillus versicolor, Aspergillus repens, and Enicillium verrucosum var. verrucosum were the dominant mold species. Cheese ripening in warehouses and molded with A. versicolor were examined for sterigmatocystin. Nine of 39 cheese samples contained sterigmatocystin in the surface layer in concentrations ranging from 5 to 600 micrograms/kg.

  12. Fungi of the house dust in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, R R; el-Gindy, A A

    1990-01-01

    30 species belonging to 18 genera were isolated from floor dust of 30 homes in Riyadh. Out of them 16 species and 10 genera were isolated from dust of air conditioners of the same homes. The most common genera in floor dust were Aspergillus, Penicillium and Cladosporium. Aspergillus repens, A. amstelodami, A. versicolor, A. fumigatus, Penicillium purpurogenum, P. crustosum, Cladosporium cladosporoides and C. herbarum were frequently isolated. The most abundant genera in air conditioner dust were Aspergillus and Penicillium. Aspergillus fumigatus, A. ochraceus, A. terreus, Penicillium oxalicium and P. crustosum were most frequent species.

  13. In vitro antiplasmodial activity of medicinal plants native to or naturalised in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Clarkson, C

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Leucas martinicensis (L.) R.Br. BP01204 Whole plant DCM/MeOH (1:1) 0.813.3 Water 0.7 > 100 Ocimum americanum L. var. americanum BP01210 Whole plant DCM/MeOH (1:1) 0.14.2 Water 0.8 > 100 Salvia repens Burch. ex Benth. BP00998 Whole plant DCM/MeOH (1:1) 1... al., 1997) and Ocimum americanum L. var. ameri- canum (Lamiaceae) (Vieira et al., 2003), there are no reports on their antiplasmodial activity. Several representatives Table 2 Native or naturalised South African plants with high antiplasmodial...

  14. Radioactive contamination of plants in Japan covered with rainout from H-bomb detonations in March-May 1954 at Bikini Atoll, Marshall Island. Part II. Radioactive elements of contaminated plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yatazawa, M

    1955-01-01

    Following a fallout estimated at 0.2 microcurie/l, Trifolium repens, Astragalus sinicus, and Rumex japonicus were harvested and analyzed for radioactivity. Most of the radioactivity (2300 to 4700 counts/min/50 g plant ash) was associated with oxalate precipitate. A small amount of activity in the Zn group is attributed to /sup 65/Zn produced by reaction /sup 64/Zn (n,..gamma..) from Zn employed in the mechanical parts of the bomb. Sr-Ba radioactivity was 0.1 that of the rare earth group. Distribution of the radioactive elements was nearly the same as that found on the No. 5 Fukuryu-Maru.

  15. Avaliação de óleos essenciais de condimentos sobre o desenvolvimento micelial de fungos associados a produtos de panificação Evaluation of condiments essential oils on micelial growth of fungi associated to bread-making products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sára Maria Chalfoun de Souza

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito "in vitro" de óleos essenciais dos condimentos alho (Allium sativum L., canela (Cinnamomum burnannil Meissn, cravo-da-índia (Caryophillus aromaticus L. e tomilho (Thymus vulgaris L., que foram adicionados aos meios de cultura (BDA E CYA20S. Os óleos foram extraídos pela técnica de arraste a vapor e testados nas concentrações de 500; 1000; 1500 e 2000 mg/mL, exceto o cravo, que foi testado nas concentrações de 200; 400; 600 e 800 mg/mL. Como culturas-teste, foram utilizados os fungos Rhizopus sp.; Penicillium spp.; Eurotium repens e Aspergillus niger, isolados de pães envelhecidos. O óleo essencial da canela inibiu completamente o desenvolvimento dos fungos testados. Os óleos de tomilho e alho tiveram o mesmo efeito nas concentrações mais altas. O cravo inibiu o desenvolvimento dos fungos Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus sp. e Eurotium repens com a concentração de 600 mg/mL e do fungo Penicillium spp. com a de 800 mg/mL.The objective of this work was to evaluate the "in vitro" effect of essential oils of garlic (Allium sativum L., cinnamon (Cinnmomum burnannil Meissn, clove (Caryophillus aromaticus L. and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L. condiments that were added to culture media (PDA and CYA 20S. The essential oils were extracted by utilizing the vapor "dragging" technique and tested in the concentrations of 500; 1000; 1500 and 2000 mg/mL, exept clove, which was tested in concentrations of 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg/mL. The fungi Rhizopus sp., Penicillium spp., Eurotium repens and Aspergillus niger, isolated of breads discarded for consumption. The cinnamon essential oil inhibited completely the tested fungi development. The thyme and garlic oils presented a pronounced effect at the higher concentrations. The essencial oil of clove inhibited the growth of Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus sp. and Eurotium repens at concetrations above 600 mg/mL and of Penicillium above 800 mg/mL.

  16. Honeybees tolerate cyanogenic glucosides from clover nectar and flowers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lecocq, Antoine; Green, Amelia Ann; Pinheiro de Castro, Érika Cristina

    2018-01-01

    Honeybees (Apis mellifera) pollinate flowers and collect nectar from many important crops. White clover (Trifolium repens) is widely grown as a temperate forage crop, and requires honeybee pollination for seed set. In this study, using a quantitative LC-MS (Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry...... indicates that plant secondary metabolites found in nectar may protect pollinators from disease or predators. In a laboratory survival study with chronic feeding of secondary metabolites, we show that honeybees can ingest the cyanogenic glucosides linamarin and amygdalin at naturally occurring...

  17. Ocular dirofilariasis in Dubai, UAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal Mamta

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A rare occurrence of ocular subconjunctival dirofilariasis in a 53-year-old healthy Indian male working in Dubai, UAE presenting with an acute red eye is reported. Surgical excision under topical anesthesia was carried out uneventfully in the outpatient clinic. The live worm removed from the subconjunctival space was identified as Dirofilaria repens on the basis of microscopic examination and histopathology. Surgical excision of subconjunctival dirofilariasis is safe in an outpatient setting and curative precluding the need for further systemic antihelminthics.

  18. The influence of phosphorus deficiency on growth and nitrogen fixation of white clover plants

    OpenAIRE

    Høgh-Jensen, Dr Henning; Schjoerring, Dr Jan K.; Soussana, Dr Jean-Francois

    2002-01-01

    The effects of P deficiency on growth, N2‐fixation and photosynthesis in white clover (Trifolium repens L.) plants were investigated using three contrasting relative addition rates of P, or following abrupt withdrawal of the P supply. Responses to a constant below‐optimum P supply rate consisted of a decline in N2‐fixation per unit root weight and a small reduction in the efficiency with which electrons were allocated to the reduction of N2 in nodules. Abrupt removal of P arrested nodule grow...

  19. [Dirofilariasis in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, V A; Romashova, M F

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents data on the prevalence of dirofilariasis in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea during 5 years from 1999 to 2003. The nematode Dirofilaria repens is a causative agent of the disease. Sporadic cases of helminthiasis are annually registered in some urban and rural areas on the plain of the peninsula. The disease is absent on the foothills and Black sea coast of the southern and eastern parts of Crimea. The localization of the parasite is typical of this helminthiasis. Dirofilariasis in Crimea may be regarded as a transmissible helminthiasis with natural focal trends.

  20. Phytomining Perspectives in Rehabilitation of Mining and Industrial Areas of South Ural

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeeva, S. S.; Ulrikh, D. V.; Timofeev, S. S.

    2017-05-01

    The ability of midland hawthorn (Crataegus laevigata (Poir)), common barberry (Berberis vulgaris), red elder (Sambucus racemosa), cinnamon rose (Rosa cinnamomea L.), couch grass (Elytrigia repens), crested wheat grass (Agropyron cristatum), meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis) and meadow grass (Poa pratensis) for phytoextraction of heavy metals from technogenic soil is proved in the article. The possibility of effective phytoextraction with the use of hawthorn and elder is shown. Maximum accumulation of zinc takes place in the surface mass of couch grass and meadow fescue. In regard to the conditions of South Ural, planting of elder and hawthorn with seeding of couch grass and meadow fescue is recommended for phytomining purposes.

  1. Erythema gyratum repense like eruption in bullous pemphigoid: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojat Eftekhari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bullous pemphigoid (BP is an autoimmune disease characterized by presence of bullous eruption on the trunk and extremities especially flexural aspects of the limbs. This disease usually occurs in the elderly. The initial presentation of BP is variable. An urticarial or erythematous rash may precede the appearance of the blister formation and can be associated with itch or pruritus. We presented 87 year old bedridden man diagnosed with BP who initially presented with erythema gyratum repens like eruption before blister formation. This case report discusses the presentation of figurate erythema in non-bullous phase of BP for clinicians.

  2. Evaluation for dinitrogen fixation of alfalfa in field based on δ15N value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Yunyin; Chen Ming; Zhang Xizhong

    1992-12-01

    The dinitrogen fixation rate of alfalfa was estimated grown in pot and field experiments. β values (isotope fraction factor) of 7 cultivars of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and white clover (Trifolium repens L.) grown in N-free liquid culture medium were examined. Variations in the δ 15 N values of varieties of alfalfa at growing seasons and forage grasses grown under various conditions were measured. %Ndfa of alfalfa was estimated using the natural 15 N abundance method, 15 N isotope dilution method and total N difference, and their accuracy was compared

  3. Effect of simplified tillage and mineral fertilization on weed infestation of potato growing on loess soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Bujak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper effect of limitation of postharvest measure to single cultivating or disking of soil and mineral fertilization level on number, air-dry matter and botanical composition of weeds in the potato-field is presented. Simplifield postharvest measure was increasing insignificantly and more intensive fertilization was limiting the weed infestation of potato-field. Decteasing of weeds number increasing fertilization was ststistically significant. Dominating species of weeds in the potato-field were Capsella bursa-pastoris, Poa annua, Viola arvensis, Chenopodium album, Elymus repens i Equisetum arvense.

  4. Estimating legume N-2 fixation in grass-clover mixtures of a grazed organic cropping system using two N-15 methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, F.P.; Jensen, E.S.

    2000-01-01

    The input of Nitrogen (N) through symbiotic N-2 fixation (SNF) in grass-clover mixtures was determined in an organic cropping. system for grazing during 3 years. The mixture of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and white clover (Trifolium repens L.) was established by undersowing in spring...... barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and maintained subsequently for two production years. Dinitrogen fixation was determined using the N-15 isotope dilution techniques and two labelling procedures. Using either pre-labelling of the soil with immobilisation of the N-15 by addition of a carbon source before...

  5. Dinitrogen fixation in white clover grown in pure stand and mixture with ryegrass estimated by the immobilized 15N isotope dilution method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, F.V.; Jensen, E.S.; Schjørring, J.K.

    1999-01-01

    Dinitrogen fixation in white clover (Trifolium repens L.) grown in pure stand and mixture with perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) was determined in the field using N-15 isotope dilution and harvest of the shoots. The apparent transfer of clover N to perennial ryegrass was simultaneously...... assessed. The soil was labelled either by immobilizing N-15 in organic matter prior to establishment of the sward or by using the conventional labelling procedure in which N-15 fertilizer is added after sward establishment. Immobilization of N-15 in the soil organic matter has not previously been used...

  6. Complementary effects of red clover inclusion in ryegrass-white clover swards for grazing and cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jørgen; Askegaard, Margrethe; Søegaard, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Increasing plant species diversity in grasslands may improve productivity and stability of yields. In a field experiment, we investigated the herbage dry-matter (DM) yield and crude protein content of two-species swards of perennial ryegrass–white clover (Lolium perenne L.–Trifolium repens L...... clover in sown swards are discussed. These may include higher nitrogen-use efficiency in ruminants, increased soil fertility and improved sward flexibility to cope with changing managements. The findings also suggest positive yield effects of alternating between cutting and grazing within the season...

  7. Nitrogen transfer from forage legumes to nine neighbouring plants in a multi-species grassland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirhofer-Walzl, Karin; Rasmussen, Jim; Jensen, Henning Høgh

    2012-01-01

    Legumes play a crucial role in nitrogen supply to grass-legume mixtures for ruminant fodder. To quantify N transfer from legumes to neighbouring plants in multi-species grasslands we established a grass-legume-herb mixture on a loamy-sandy site in Denmark. White clover (Trifolium repens L.), red...... amounts of N from legumes than dicotyledonous plants which generally have taproots. Slurry application mainly increased N transfer from legumes to grasses. During the growing season the three legumes transferred approximately 40 kg N ha-1 to neighbouring plants. Below-ground N transfer from legumes...

  8. Vegetable recovery of paramo ecosystems, on substrates of the limestone mining exploitation, Palacio Mines. Guasca (Cundinamarca)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canchon, Alba Constanza; Rincon Rodriguez, Ricardo

    1999-01-01

    The project was based on the evaluation in the described area, of the survival, vigor and covering of the plantation of five species selected through the study carried out by Figueredo (1993) and the investigation of micorrizas carried out in the mine, by Zequera (1994) The selected species were: chusquea tesellata (chusque), spread by stakes; clear Cortaderia (cortadera), spread by stolons; lachemilla orbiculata (folder), for grass; Ageratina baccharoides (Chilco) for stakes and Calamagrostis efusa (moor straw) for stolons. Parallelly the invasion of Taraxacum officinale was evaluated (Dienteleon) and Tripholium repens (Clover) on the grass planted of the folder specie

  9. [Chemical and biological evaluation of the effect of plant extracts against Plasmodium berghei].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, O; Barrios, M; Chinchilla, M; Guerrero, O

    1996-08-01

    Extracts from thirteen species of plants were evaluated by "in vivo" antimalarial test against plasmodium berghei effects. Significant activities were observed in the ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts, elaborated of Cedrela tonduzii leaves, Trichilia havanensis and Trichilia americana barks, Neurolaena lobata and Gliricidia sepium leaves and Duranta repens fruits. Compounds identified include flavanoids, coumarins, mellilotic acid and iridoids which some kind of biodynamic activity has previously been reported. The flavone quercetin 1 purified from C. tonduzii gave strong antimalarial activity, however, its respective glucosides (quercetin 3-glucoside 2 y robinine 7) showed little significant activity.

  10. Enantiostylous types of Cassiinae species (Fabaceae-Caesalpinioideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, N M; Cotarelli, V M; Souza, D P; Novo, R R; Siqueira Filho, J A; Oliveira, P E; Castro, C C

    2015-05-01

    Species of the subtribe Cassiinae present a wide diversity of floral types. Until recently it was considered that this diversity did not extend to their reproductive mechanisms. However, studies have recorded some variations in the enantiostylous pattern in this plant group. This study aims to investigate the morphological and functional variations of enantiostyly in species of the subtribe Cassiinae. Additionally, it proposes the recognition of enantiostylous types (ET) based on pollen deposition and capture mode. Morphological data were collected in fresh and fixed (alcohol 70%) buds and flowers, and also using photos and rehydrated material from herbarium sheets, for a total of 59 species. The parameters used to establish the ETs were pollination type, nature of pollen deposition on the pollinator body, deposition type, number of petals involved in pollen deposition, and pollen pathway. Morpho-functional features allowed the recognition of seven enantiostylous types (Flexuosa, Cana, Macranthera, Martiana, Amiciella, Repens and Ramosa) that present several levels of complexity. The type Ramosa was the most common and the Cana type was the least common. The types Repens, Martiana and Flexuosa do not have reciprocal pollen deposition, thus species with these types may be considered atypical. The groups resulting from similarity analysis partially coincide with the clades proposed in phylogenetic studies of Cassiinae. The recognition of functional ETs is important for understanding the evolution of reproductive strategies of Cassiinae species, and indicates an interesting line of investigation of enantiostyly in other plant groups. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  11. Mycotoxin producing potential of some isolates of Aspergillus flavus and Eurotium groups from meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Kady, I; el-Maraghy, S; Zohri, A N

    1994-09-01

    All strains (92) of A. flavus group proved to be positive for production of aflatoxin (45 to 1200 micrograms/50 ml medium) on potato dextrose liquid medium, while 59 strains only proved to be positive (35-310 micrograms/50 ml) on 15% NaCl potato-dextrose liquid medium. Most of the strains tested of A. flavus, A. flavus var. columnaris and A. oryzae produced aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 & G2. All positive strains of A. tamarii produced aflatoxins G1 & G2 while the tested isolate of A. zonatus produced aflatoxins B1 & G1. Of 95 strains tested of Eurotium, aflatoxins B1 & G1 were produced by one strain of each of E. chevalieri var. intermedium, E. repens and E. rubrum. Gliotoxin was detected in the extract of two strains of E. chevalieri and one strain of each of E. chevalieri var. intermedium and E. pseudoglaucum on the salt-free medium, and two strains of each of E. chevalieri, E. chevalieri var. intermedium and one of E. pseudoglaucum on 15% NaCl medium. Sterigmatocystin was produced by some strains of E. chevalieri, E. chevalieri var. intermedium, E. amstelodami, E. pseudoglaucum and E. rubrum on the two experimental media. One strain only of E. repens produced ochratoxin A while citrinin was detected in the extract of one strain of E. pseudoglaucum.

  12. Analyses of fungal community by Illumina MiSeq platforms and characterization of Eurotium species on Liupao tea, a distinctive post-fermented tea from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yan; Wei, BaoYao; Teng, JianWen; Huang, Li; Xia, Ning

    2017-09-01

    Liupao tea is a distinctive Chinese dark tea obtained by indigenous tea fermentation facilitated by the symbiotic association of bacteria and fungi. The composition of fungal community in 4 Liupao tea samples stored for several years under natural microbial fermentation was evaluated by MiSeq sequencing. Taxonomic analysis revealed 3 phyla, 6 families, 8 genera. The genera Eurotium and Aspergillus were dominant fungi in almost all the samples. A total of 85 strains found in 41 other tea samples were species of Eurotium. amstelodami, Eurotium. niveoglaucum, Eurotium. repens, Eurotium. rubrum, Eurotium. tonophilum and Eurotium. cristatum by culture-dependent method. Of these species, E. repens, E. rubrum and E. tonophilum have not been previously associated with Liupao tea. This report is the first to reveal fungal flora composition using Illumina-based sequencing and provide useful information for relevant studies on the isolation of Eurotium species in Liupao tea. The predominant molds are Eurotium species, and the comparison of fungal diversity in dark teas is worth considering. The taxonomic analysis of the microbial community would also aid the further study of functional genes and metabolic pathways of Liupao tea fermentation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Effects of N2-O2 and CO2-O2 tensions on growth of fungi isolated from damaged flue-cured tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H; Lucas, G B

    1970-02-01

    Ten fungi, Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, A. ochraceus, A. ruber, A. repens, A. amstelodami, Alternaria tenuis, Penicillium brevi-compactum, Cladosporium herbarum, and Chaetomium dolicotrichum, were isolated from moldy flue-cured tobacco and grown in various mixtures of N(2)-O(2) or CO(2)-O(2). A 1 to 5% concentration of O(2) in an N(2) atmosphere caused the greatest change in growth of the nine species, and a 10 to 20% concentration of O(2) for A. flavus. All species, except A. amstelodami and A. ruber, grew faster in air than in mixtures containing 10% O(2). High O(2) concentrations generally inhibited furrow production in the mycelial mats. In an atmosphere of 5 to 40% O(2) in the N(2) atmosphere, furrows formed in mycelial mats between 5 and 40% O(2) in the species except for A. ruber, A. repens, and A. amstelodami, which produced none in any concentration. As O(2) decreased below 20%, spore production was progressively decreased, colony color faded to white, and cleistothecia formation was suppressed. In CO(2)-O(2) mixtures radial growth of all species increased with each quantitative decrease of CO(2). All species except A. niger grew faster in air than in 10% CO(2). In contrast to N(2)-O(2) mixtures, the fungi formed furrows, sporulation and cleistothecial formation were suppressed, and colony color changed to white in higher O(2) concentrations.

  14. Mycoflora of soybeans used for meju fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Ho; Kim, Seon-Hwa; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Lee, Jong-Kyu; Hong, Seung-Beom

    2013-06-01

    Diverse fungi are present in Korean traditional meju and they are known to play an important role in fermented soybean products. To determine the origin of the fungi in meju, we examined the mycoflora of soybeans from 10 traditional meju factories. The samples were untreated or treated with sodium hypochlorite, and placed on malt extract agar (MEA), dichloran 18% glycerol agar (DG18), and dichloran rose bengal chloramphenicol agar (DRBC) medium. A total of 794 fungal strains were isolated and they were identified as 41 genera and 86 species. From sodium hypochlorite untreated soybeans, the genera, Cladosporium (55%), Eurotium (51%), Fusarium (33%), Penicillium (22%), and Aspergillus (exclusion of Eurotium) (20%), were mainly isolated, and Eurotium herbariorum (22%), Eurotium repens (18%), Cladosporium tenuissimum (18%), F. fujikuroi (18%), Aspergillus oryzae/flavus (7%), and Penicillium steckii (6%) were the predominant species. In case of sodium hypochlorite-treated soybeans, Eurotium (31%) and Cladosporium (5%) were frequently isolated, but Aspergillus (excluding Eurotium), Penicillium and Fusarium which were frequently isolated from untreated soybeans, were rarely isolated. Eurotium herbariorum (21%), Eurotium repens (8%), and Cladosporium tenuissimum (3%) were the predominant species. Of the 41 genera and 86 species isolated from soybeans, 13 genera and 33 species were also found in meju. These results suggest that the fungi on soybeans may influence the mycoflora of meju.

  15. [Collagenolytic activity in several species of deuteromycetes under various storage conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakovleva, M B; Khoang, T L; Nikitina, Z K

    2006-01-01

    The ability of deuteromycetes of the genera Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Botrytis to retain collagenolytic activity was studied after both 2 and 10 years of storage on a Czapek medium under a layer of mineral oil at 4 degrees C, as well as in silica gel granules at 20 and -60 degrees C. The enzymatic activity of several species, including Botrytis terrestris, Penicillium janthinellum, Penicillium chrysogenum, and Penicillium citrinum, was retained under both conditions of storage. Aspergillus repens retained enzymatic activity only if stored under a layer of mineral oil. The viability of conidia and the collagenolytic activity of Botrytis terrestris, P. janthinellum, P. chrysogenum, and Penicillium citrinum, maintained on silica gel for 10 years, depended on the storage temperature. The viability of the test strains improved after storage on a silica gel at -60 degrees C. A strain of Aspergillus repens lost its ability to dissolve collagen at various storage temperatures on the silica gel. The index of lysis for three strains of Penicillium deuteromycetes (Penicillium janthinellum, Penicillium chrysogenum, and Penicillium citrinum) increased after a 10-year storage on silica gel at -60 degrees C.

  16. Effects of N2-O2 and CO2-O2 Tensions on Growth of Fungi Isolated from Damaged Flue-Cured Tobacco 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H.; Lucas, G. B.

    1970-01-01

    Ten fungi, Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, A. ochraceus, A. ruber, A. repens, A. amstelodami, Alternaria tenuis, Penicillium brevi-compactum, Cladosporium herbarum, and Chaetomium dolicotrichum, were isolated from moldy flue-cured tobacco and grown in various mixtures of N2-O2 or CO2-O2. A 1 to 5% concentration of O2 in an N2 atmosphere caused the greatest change in growth of the nine species, and a 10 to 20% concentration of O2 for A. flavus. All species, except A. amstelodami and A. ruber, grew faster in air than in mixtures containing 10% O2. High O2 concentrations generally inhibited furrow production in the mycelial mats. In an atmosphere of 5 to 40% O2 in the N2 atmosphere, furrows formed in mycelial mats between 5 and 40% O2 in the species except for A. ruber, A. repens, and A. amstelodami, which produced none in any concentration. As O2 decreased below 20%, spore production was progressively decreased, colony color faded to white, and cleistothecia formation was suppressed. In CO2-O2 mixtures radial growth of all species increased with each quantitative decrease of CO2. All species except A. niger grew faster in air than in 10% CO2. In contrast to N2-O2 mixtures, the fungi formed furrows, sporulation and cleistothecial formation were suppressed, and colony color changed to white in higher O2 concentrations. PMID:5461786

  17. A high-resolution method for the localization of proanthocyanidins in plant tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panter Stephen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Histochemical staining of plant tissues with 4-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (DMACA or vanillin-HCl is widely used to characterize spatial patterns of proanthocyanidin accumulation in plant tissues. These methods are limited in their ability to allow high-resolution imaging of proanthocyanidin deposits. Results Tissue embedding techniques were used in combination with DMACA staining to analyze the accumulation of proanthocyanidins in Lotus corniculatus (L. and Trifolium repens (L. tissues. Embedding of plant tissues in LR White or paraffin matrices, with or without DMACA staining, preserved the physical integrity of the plant tissues, allowing high-resolution imaging that facilitated cell-specific localization of proanthocyanidins. A brown coloration was seen in proanthocyanidin-producing cells when plant tissues were embedded without DMACA staining and this was likely to have been due to non-enzymatic oxidation of proanthocyanidins and the formation of colored semiquinones and quinones. Conclusions This paper presents a simple, high-resolution method for analysis of proanthocyanidin accumulation in organs, tissues and cells of two plant species with different patterns of proanthocyanidin accumulation, namely Lotus corniculatus (birdsfoot trefoil and Trifolium repens (white clover. This technique was used to characterize cell type-specific patterns of proanthocyanidin accumulation in white clover flowers at different stages of development.

  18. Antiherbivore defenses alter natural selection on plant reproductive traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ken A; Johnson, Marc T J

    2016-04-01

    While many studies demonstrate that herbivores alter selection on plant reproductive traits, little is known about whether antiherbivore defenses affect selection on these traits. We hypothesized that antiherbivore defenses could alter selection on reproductive traits by altering trait expression through allocation trade-offs, or by altering interactions with mutualists and/or antagonists. To test our hypothesis, we used white clover, Trifolium repens, which has a Mendelian polymorphism for the production of hydrogen cyanide-a potent antiherbivore defense. We conducted a common garden experiment with 185 clonal families of T. repens that included cyanogenic and acyanogenic genotypes. We quantified resistance to herbivores, and selection on six floral traits and phenology via male and female fitness. Cyanogenesis reduced herbivory but did not alter the expression of reproductive traits through allocation trade-offs. However, the presence of cyanogenic defenses altered natural selection on petal morphology and the number of flowers within inflorescences via female fitness. Herbivory influenced selection on flowers and phenology via female fitness independently of cyanogenesis. Our results demonstrate that both herbivory and antiherbivore defenses alter natural selection on plant reproductive traits. We discuss the significance of these results for understanding how antiherbivore defenses interact with herbivores and pollinators to shape floral evolution. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  19. Effect of silage botanical composition on ruminal biohydrogenation and transfer of fatty acids to milk in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler, S A; Jensen, Søren Krogh; Thuen, E

    2013-01-01

    -EDTA, and the indigestible neutral detergent fiber fraction as indigestible markers. The composition of FA was analyzed in feed, omasal digesta, and milk. Compared with ORG-LG, ORG-SG had a higher herbage proportion of red clover (0.36 vs. 0.01) and lower proportions of timothy (0.42 vs. 0.18), smooth meadowgrass (Poa...... pratensis L.), meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Huds.), white clover (Trifolium repens L.), dandelion (Taraxacum spp.), and creeping buttercup (Ranunculus repens L.). The silages were well preserved. The concentration of neutral detergent fiber was higher and the concentration of Kjeldahl-N was lower...... with the grass-based silages, ORG-SG and ORG-LG resulted in higher omasal flows of C18:1 trans FA and higher milk fat proportions of C18:1 trans FA and C18:2 cis-9,trans-11. Apparent recovery of C18:3n-3 in milk was higher for ORG-SG (61 g/kg) than for ORG-LG (33 g/kg), CON-PR (34 g/kg), and CON-TI (38 g...

  20. Cultivation of the culinary-medicinal Lung Oyster mushroom, Pleurotus pulmonarius (Fr.) Quél. (Agaricomycetideae) on grass plants in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zeng-Chin; Wu, Kuan-Jzen; Wang, Jinn-Chyi; Lin, Chorng-Horng; Wu, Chiu-Yeh

    2011-01-01

    Cultivation of the culinary-medicinal Lung Oyster mushroom, Pleurotus pulmonarius, on the stalks of three grass plants, i.e., Panicum repens, Pennisetum purpureum, and Zea mays were investigated. The effects of various combinatorial substrates on mushroom mycelial growth and yield calculated as biological efficiency (BE) were determined. Among 9 experimental substrates, the most suitable substrate for mycelial growth was 45ZMS:45S, followed by 45PRS:45S; their mycelial growth rates were obviously quicker than that of the control substrate. The BEs of all the experimental substrates respectively containing P. repens stalk, P. purpureum stalk and Z. mays stalk were higher than that of the control (39.55%) during the 2.5 months of cultivation period. The best substrate in terms of BE was 60ZMS:30S (58.33%), followed by 45PRS:45S (57.16%), 45ZMS:45S (49.86%), and 30ZMS:60S (47.20%). Based on the BE of the tested substrates, Z mays stalk appeared to be the best alternative material for the production of P. pulmonarius.

  1. Profitability of Two Shepherding Systems for Production of Ovine Meat

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    Daniel Fernando González Mendoza

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In Güican (Boyacá, sheep production occupies one of the main items on the economy of the region, despite of being one of the largest, most relevant andimportant business, studies have not been developed to establish that is an efficient and sustainable business. For this reason a research was carried out in theFinca Ronces Güican, where two systems of grazing were temporarily implemented, an extensive traditional and rotational grazing. Forage present in thegrazing area were: Molasses grass (Melinis minutiflora, Kidney weed (Dichondra repens and Dutch clover (Trifolium repens L; 24 creoles sheep were used persystem, selected according to age and sex, achieving uniformity in both groups used. The study was developed for 4 months in order to assess weight gain andprofitability, by assessing and weighing the animals every 15 days. These data were recorded and once the trial period finished, comparisons were made todetermine the effectiveness of each system. It was found that there is a significant difference between the two systems in terms of weight gain. In this way, in theconventional extensive system, sheep had a mean weight gain of 35.47 g / day, while in the rotational system the average profit was 124.24 g / day, so it wasconcluded that the rotational system is more profitable, since it has a return on capital of 8% over the traditional extensive system.

  2. Influence of changes in crop cultivation areas on pollen contents of honey (Research Note

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    A.-L. VARIS

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Pollen counts were done on honey collected by a Finnish honey corporation in late summer 1997 from the entire beekeeping area of Finland. The most common pollen type was Brassicaceae pollen, which was represented by 60% of the grains counted. It was followed by Salix spp. (10%, Trifolium repens + T. hybridum (10% and T. pratense + T. medium (6.5% species. Pollen grains of Phacelia spp, Filipendula ulmaria, Apiaceae, Sorbus aucuparia, Malus domestica, and Rubus idaeus were also numerous. These pollen types constituted 96% of all the pollen examined. These results and those of the earlier pollen counts in Finland were compared with the cultivation areas of the most important nectariferous crops. In the 1930s white clover was the most important honey source in Finland and its pollen was very dominant in honey. Since the 1950s oilseed crops have been grown in increasing rates and pure timothy-meadow fescue pastures and hay stands with heavy N applications have decreased the share of Trifolium species. The proportion of Brassicaceae pollen has continuously increased with the increase of the growing area of turnip rape Brassica rapa ssp. oleifera and rape, B. napus ssp. oleifera. At the same time the proportion of T. repens + T. hybridum pollen has decreased so that their mutual relationships are now reversed compared to the beginning of the 1960s. Changes in land use were thus very clearly to be seen in the pollen content of honey.;

  3. Non-interventional (observational study of application of the tamsulosin (Proflosin® in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia in routine clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. G. Spivak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of therapy of benign prostatic hyperplasia has not lost its relevance today due to the high prevalence rate of this pathologyamong the male population. The article provides the results of non-interventional (observational study of application of the tamsulosin(Proflosin® drug or combined therapy with tamsulosin (Proflosin® + Serenoa repens (Prostamol® Uno of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia in routine clinical practice. 1,000 practicing urology experts from 100 cities and towns of Russia took part in the study as well as 23 492 patients with the established diagnosis of benign prostatic hyperplasia, which were prescribed with tamsulosin (Proflosin® monotherapy or combined therapy with tamsulosin (Proflosin® + Serenoa repens (Prostamol® Uno in conditions of outpatient clinical practice. As a result of the study, improvement of the life standard and subjective symptoms were stated with patients with the absence of significant side effects directly associated with intake of the drug studies.

  4. The role of local environment and geographical distance in determining community composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi at the landscape scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazard, Christina; Gosling, Paul; van der Gast, Christopher J; Mitchell, Derek T; Doohan, Fiona M; Bending, Gary D

    2013-03-01

    Arbuscular fungi have a major role in directing the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems yet little is known about their biogeographical distribution. The Baas-Becking hypothesis ('everything is everywhere, but, the environment selects') was tested by investigating the distribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) at the landscape scale and the influence of environmental factors and geographical distance in determining community composition. AMF communities in Trifolium repens and Lolium perenne roots were assessed in 40 geographically dispersed sites in Ireland representing different land uses and soil types. Field sampling and laboratory bioassays were used, with AMF communities characterised using 18S rRNA terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Landscape-scale distribution of AMF was driven by the local environment. AMF community composition was influenced by abiotic variables (pH, rainfall and soil type), but not land use or geographical distance. Trifolium repens and L. perenne supported contrasting communities of AMF, and the communities colonising each plant species were consistent across pasture habitats and over distance. Furthermore, L. perenne AMF communities grouped by soil type within pasture habitats. This is the largest and most comprehensive study that has investigated the landscape-scale distribution of AMF. Our findings support the Baas-Becking hypothesis at the landscape scale and demonstrate the strong influence the local environment has on determining AMF community composition.

  5. Pollen sources in the Bojanów forest complex identified on honeybee pollen load by microscopic analysis

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    Ernest Stawiarz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine sources of pollen for the honeybee in the Bojanów forest complex, Nowa Dęba Forest District (southeastern Poland. Sampling of pollen loads from bees extended from the beginning of May until the end of September 2016 and was carried out at 7-day intervals using pollen traps mounted at the entrance of beehives. A total of 73 pollen load samples were collected from the study area. Fifty-nine taxa from 31 plant families were identified in the analyzed material. From 4 to 21 taxa (average 9.5 were recorded in one sample. The pollen of Brassicaceae (“others”, Taraxacum type, Solidago type, and Rumex had the highest frequency in the pollen loads examined. Apart from these four taxa, pollen grains of Rubus type, Poaceae (“others”, Calluna, Fagopyrum, Trifolium repens s. l., Phacelia, Aster type, Melampyrum, Quercus, Cornus, and Veronica were recorded in the dominant pollen group. The forest habitat taxa that provided pollen rewards to honeybees in the Bojanów forest complex were the following: Rubus, Calluna, Prunus, Tilia, Frangula alnus, Pinus, Quercus, Cornus, Robinia pseudoacacia, Salix, and Vaccinium. Apart from forest vegetation, the species from meadows and wastelands adjacent to this forest complex, represented by Taraxacum, Rumex, Plantago, Poaceae, Trifolium repens, and Solidago, proved to be an important source of pollen. The study indicates that forest communities are a valuable source of pollen for pollinating insects from early spring through to late fall.

  6. [Effects of simulated nitrogen deposition on weeds growth and nitrogen uptake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qiqing; Tang, Jianjun; Chen, Xin; Chen, Jing; Yang, Ruyi; Hu, S

    2005-05-01

    In this paper, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the responses of different functional groups weeds to simulated nitrogen deposition (4.0 g N.m(-2).yr(-1)). Native weed species Poa annua, Lolium perenne, Avena fatua, Medicago lupulina, Trifolium repens, Plantago virginica, Veronica didyma, Echinochloa crusgalli var. mitis, Eleusine indica and Amaranthus spinosus in orchard ecosystem were used test materials, and their above-and underground biomass and nitrogen uptake were measured. The results showed that under simulated N deposition, the total biomass, shoot biomass and root biomass of all weed species tended increase, while the total biomass was differed for different functional groups of weeds. The biomass of C4 grass, legumes and C3 grass was significantly increased under N deposition, while that of C3 and C4 forbs was not significantly impacted. The root/shoot biomass ratio of Avena fatua and Plantago virginica was enhanced by N deposition, but that of Poa annu, Lolium perenne, Medicago lupulina, Trifolium repens and Amarathus spinosus was not impacted significantly. N deposition had no significant effect on plant N concentration, but significantly enhanced the N uptake of all test weed species except Amarathus spinosus, Poa annua and Veronica didyma. was suggested that the further increase of N deposition might speed up the changes of the community structure weed species due to their different responses to N deposition.

  7. Caso para diagnóstico Case for diagnosis

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    Vanessa Martins Ferreira de Albuquerque

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se caso de erythema gyratum repens em paciente do sexo masculino, de 40 anos, com eritema disseminado, pruriginoso, bizarro, figurado, com fina descamação nas bordas. Na primeira consulta, os exames laboratoriais e a radiografia do tórax foram normais. Durante acompanhamento clínico foi diagnosticado câncer de pulmão por tomografia computadorizada de tórax, tendo a imuno-histoquímica da biópsia da linfonodomegalia inguinal confirmado o pulmão como sítio primário.A case of erythema gyratum repens is described in a 40-year-old man with a generalized, bizarre, figurated and pruritic erythema with fine scaling borders. Laboratorial exams and radiography of the thorax were normal in the first visit. A tomographic study of the thorax showed a lobulated pulmonary nodule and the immunohistochemistry on the biopsy of an inguinal lymph node confirmed the lung cancer as the primary site of the neoplasia.

  8. CEBADO DE MANATÍES (TRICHECHUS MANATUS EN VIDA LIBRE SEGÚN EXPERIMENTOS DE PREFERENCIA COMO BASE PARA LA CAPTURA MEDIANTE LA TÉCNICA DE ENCIERRO-TRAMPA, PARQUE NACIONAL TORTUGUERO, LIMÓN COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Gómez Lépiz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the preference of the manatees for some food resources, which constitute their diet in the region. The preference of the herbivore is typically shown through the "cafeteria feeding trials" technique: the animals are left to choose freely among the plants available for them. In order to evaluate the preference of the manatees through this technique, plants normally consumed by the manatee were offered (Paspalum repens, Urochloa mutica, Hydrocotyle ranunculoides y Eichhornia crassipes in the study area, next to other vegetables normally consumed by humans, which are usually offered at a Zoo as part of their diet. Of all the plants offered, the grass P. repens was the preferred plant, which was successfully used to evaluate the preliminary structure lock up-trap where the manatees entered. The preference for this plant could be attributed to characteristics that were not evaluated for this study, such as palatability, microelements, and/or texture.

  9. Species Diversity and Botanical Composition of Permanent Grassland as a Response to Different Grazing Management Practices

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    Marie Štýbnarová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different levels of grazing utilization (two, three and four grazing cycles per year and mineral fertilization (nil-fertilization; N100P30K60 on the botanical composition of permanent grasslands were studied in the locality of Rapotín (Czech Republic, 332 m a.s.l. from 2003–2010. The vegetation of the experimental pasture was classified as Cynosurion. It was found that moderate treatment (three grazing cycles per year without mineral fertilization showed the highest value of diversity index (DI = 6.08, and maximum dominance of legumes (Dmax = 9.1%, particularly Trifolium repens. The highest dominance of grasses (Dmax = 77.7%, mainly Dactylis glomerata and Elytrigia repens, was achieved with the fertilized treatment utilized in two grazing cycles per year. Based on RDA results, tested management treatments explained 26% of species composition variability, where effect of number of grazing cycles per year was five-times higher than effect of fertilization. We recommend grassland utilization in three grazing cycles per year as the most suitable way from the objective of both species diversity and botanical composition of pastures in similar site conditions. Pasture fertilization should be more controlled by careful consideration of individual pasture goals, actual nutrient status of the soil and possible environmental risks.

  10. Non-interventional (observational study of application of the tamsulosin (Proflosin® in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia in routine clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. G. Spivak

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The problem of therapy of benign prostatic hyperplasia has not lost its relevance today due to the high prevalence rate of this pathologyamong the male population. The article provides the results of non-interventional (observational study of application of the tamsulosin(Proflosin® drug or combined therapy with tamsulosin (Proflosin® + Serenoa repens (Prostamol® Uno of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia in routine clinical practice. 1,000 practicing urology experts from 100 cities and towns of Russia took part in the study as well as 23 492 patients with the established diagnosis of benign prostatic hyperplasia, which were prescribed with tamsulosin (Proflosin® monotherapy or combined therapy with tamsulosin (Proflosin® + Serenoa repens (Prostamol® Uno in conditions of outpatient clinical practice. As a result of the study, improvement of the life standard and subjective symptoms were stated with patients with the absence of significant side effects directly associated with intake of the drug studies.

  11. New xenophytes from La Palma (Canary Islands, Spain, with emphasis on naturalized and (potentially invasive species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Otto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Many years of field work in La Palma (western Canary Islands yielded a number of interesting new records of non-native vascular plants. Amaranthus blitoides, A. deflexus, Aptenia cordifolia, Argemone ochroleuca, Begonia schmidtiana, Capsella rubella, Cardamine hamiltonii, Centratherum punctatum, Cerastium fontanum subsp. vulgare, Chasmanthe floribunda (widely confused with C. aethiopica and Crocosmia xcrocosmiiflora in Macaronesia, Chenopodium probstii, Commelina latifolia var. latifolia, Dichondra micrantha, Dysphania anthelmintica, Epilobium ciliatum, Erigeron sumatrensis, Erodium neuradifolium, Eucalyptus globulus, Euphorbia hypericifolia, E. maculata, Gamochaeta antillana, Geranium pyrenaicum, Hedychium coronarium, Hypochaeris radicata, Kalanchoe daigremontiana, K. delagoensis, K. xhoughtonii, Kickxia commutata subsp. graeca, K. spuria subsp. integrifolia, Lactuca viminea subsp. ramosissima, Landoltia punctata, Malvastrum coromandelianum subsp. capitatospicatum, Oenothera jamesii, Orobanche nana, Oxalis latifolia, Papaver hybridum, P. setigerum, Pilea microphylla, Podranea ricasoliana, Polygonum arenastrum, Portulaca granulatostellulata, P. nicaraguensis, P. nitida, P. papillatostellulata, Rumex crispus subsp. crispus, R. pulcher subsp. pulcher, R. xpratensis, Sechium edule, Sida spinosa var. angustifolia, Silene nocturna, Solanum abutiloides, S. alatum, S. decipiens, Sonchus tenerrimus, Spergularia marina, Stellaria pallida, Tragopogon porrifolius subsp. australis, Tribulus terrestris and Trifolium repens subsp. repens are naturalized or (potentially invasive xenophytes, reported for the first time from either the Canary Islands or from La Palma. 37 additional, presumably ephemeral taxa are reported for the first time from the Canary Islands, whereas 56 ephemeral taxa are new for La Palma..

  12. Accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from creosote-contaminated soil in selected plants and the oligochaete worm Enchytraeus crypticus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ann-Sofie Allard; Marianne Malmberg; Alasdair H. Neilson; Mikael Remberger [IVL, Stockholm (Sweden). Swedish Environmental Research Institute

    2005-07-01

    The accumulation of PAHs from a creosote-contaminated soil was examined in laboratory experiments using English ryegrass (Lolium perenne), white clover (Trifolium repens) and radish (Raphanus sativus), and the oligochaete worm Enchytraeus crypticus. Toxicity to the plants and the worms was assessed, and a soil sample mixed with calcined sand was used for accumulation experiments to avoid interference from toxicity in the soil. Accumulation of potentially carcinogenic PAHs varied among the plants, and there was a linear relation between concentrations of PAHs in the soil and in the plants. Correlations between values of the biota-soil accumulation factors and octanol-water partition coefficients, or water solubility varied among the plants and were rather weak, so that lipophilic character or water solubility of the PAHs alone cannot explain PAH accumulation. Accumulation of carcinogenic PAHs from the soil, in the presence of the other PAHs was greatest for Trifolium repens. PAHs were accumulated in the oligochaete worm (Enchytraeus crypticus), and biota-soil accumulation factors exceeded those for the plants. It is suggested that site-specific evaluation of contaminated sites should include not only chemical analysis and evaluation of toxicity but also accumulation of contaminants into biota such as plants and worms.

  13. Weed flora in organically grown spring cereals in Finland

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    J. SALONEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The weed flora in organically grown spring cereals was investigated in southern and central Finland in 1997-1999 with the primary purpose of determining the species composition and the level of weed infestation. Altogether 165 fields were surveyed in the middle of the growing season. A total of 126 weed species were found, of which 42 exceeded the frequency level of 10%. The most frequent weed species were Chenopodium album, Stellaria media, Galeopsis spp. and Viola arvensis. Elymus repens was the most frequent grass species. The average density of weeds was 469 plants m-2 (median 395, and the air-dry biomass was 678 kg ha-1 (median 567 which accounted for 17% of the total biomass of the crop stand. Infestation by Chenopodium album and the perennial species Elymus repens, Cirsium arvense and Sonchus arvensis is of major concern. Weed control strategies should include direct control measures to overcome weed problems related to the conversion period from conventional to organic growing.

  14. The main weed species and their control in oilseed crops in Finland

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    J. SALONEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey of weeds in spring-sown oilseed crops (Brassica rapa ssp. oleifera and Brassica napus ssp. oleifera was conducted in southern and central Finland during 2007–2009, representing the first such extensive investigation in the country. The occurrence of the most abundant weed species in oilseeds was surveyed in 429 fields. In the fields with moderate or high weed infestation, 1–6 harmful weed species were recorded by visual observation according to their biomass production. About 40 weed species were recorded, the most predominant being Chenopodium album, Galeopsis spp., Galium spurium, Sonchus arvensis and Tripleurospermum inodorum. Elymus repens was the only major grass weed. Chemical weed control of broad-leaved weeds had been practised in 53% of the fields, resulting in relatively good control. In addition, both selective graminicides and glyphosate were used to control E. repens. Mechanical weed control was not practised in any field. The crop yield level was about 300 kg ha-1 higher in the fields with low weed infestation compared with in the highly infested fields. New promising options to replace the banned herbicide trifluralin are available. Thus, the most harmful weeds, such as C. album, which interferes with the production of high-quality oil for human consumption, can still be effectively controlled.;

  15. Genetic diversity of the forage peanut in the Jequitinhonha, São Francisco, and Paranã River valleys of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azêvedo, H S F S; Sousa, A C B; Martins, K; Oliveira, J C; Yomura, R B T; Silva, L M; Valls, J F M; Assis, G M L; Campos, T

    2016-09-09

    Arachis pintoi and A. repens are legumes with a high forage value that are used to feed ruminants in consortium systems. Not only do they increase the persistence and quality of pastures, they are also used for ornamental and green cover. The objective of this study was to analyze microsatellite markers in order to access the genetic diversity of 65 forage peanut germplasm accessions in the section Caulorrhizae of the genus Arachis in the Jequitinhonha, São Francisco and Paranã River valleys of Brazil. Fifty-seven accessions of A. pintoi and eight of A. repens were analyzed using 17 microsatellites, and the observed heterozygosity (H O ), expected heterozygosity (H E ), number of alleles per locus, discriminatory power, and polymorphism information content were all estimated. Ten loci (58.8%) were polymorphic, and 125 alleles were found in total. The H E ranged from 0.30 to 0.94, and H O values ranged from 0.03 to 0.88. By using Bayesian analysis, the accessions were genetically differentiated into three gene pools. Neither the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean nor a neighbor-joining analysis clustered samples into species, origin, or collection area. These results reveal a very weak genetic structure that does not form defined clusters, and that there is a high degree of similarity between the two species.

  16. Floristica da restinga de Camburi, Vitória, ES The flora of Camburi restinga, Vitória, Espírito Santo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oberdan José Pereira

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho consistiu no levantamento florístico e classificação da vegetação de restinga em Camburi, Vitória, ES. Foram realizadas coletas mensais na área de estudo, que totalizaram 211 espécies distribuídas em 70 famílias, sendo Fabaceae (19 espécies, Myrtaceae (14, Euphorbiaceae (10, Rubiaceae (10, Cyperaceae (9, Sapindaceae (7 e Lauraceae (7 as mais importantes quanto ao número de espécies. A região apresenta remanescentes das comunidades mata seca, aberta de Ericaceae e brejo herbáceo, além de áreas degradadas com espécies pioneiras. A maioria das espécies possui ampla distribuição pela costa brasileira, no entanto, outros padrões foram encontrados. Erythroxylum tênue Plowman, Ocotea nutans (Nees Mez, Miconia brevipes Benth., Prescottia plantaginea Lindl., Pseudolaelia vellozicola (Hoehne Porto & Brade e Coccocypselum hirsutum Bartl. ex DC. são citadas pela primeira vez para as restingas do Espírito Santo.The flora of the Camburi restinga in the municipality of Vitoria, Espírito Santo State, Brazil, was surveyed and vegetation types were classified. Monthly visits to the area resulted in a list of 211 species from 70 plant families of which the most important, according to species richness, were Fabaceae (19, Myrtaceae (14, Euphorbiaceae (10, Rubiaceae (10, Cyperaceae (9, Sapindaceae (7 and Lauraceae (7. This coastal plain still supports remnant patches of dry restinga forest, open Ericaceae scrub and sedge marsh, as well as disturbed areas dominated by pioneer species. Most of the species are widely distributed along the Brazilian coast other patterns, however, being found. Erythmxylum tenue Plowman, Ocotea nutans (Nees Mez, Miconia brevipes Benth., Prescottia pilntaginea Lindl., Pseudolaelia vellozicola (Hoehne Porto & Brade and Coccocypselum hirsutum Bartl. ex DC. are reported for the first time in the restingas of Espírito Santo.

  17. Levantamento florístico e fitofisionomia da lagoa Figueira e seu entorno, planície alagável do alto rio Paraná, Porto Rico, Estado do Paraná, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i1.2091 Floristic survey and phytophysiognomy of the Figueira pond in the upper Paraná River floodplain, in Porto Rico, state of Paraná, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i1.2091

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Conceição de Souza

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizada uma caracterização botânica da lagoa Figueira (planície alagável do alto rio Paraná, Porto Rico, Estado do Paraná, Brasil, a 22o45’36’’S e 53ol5’56’’W, empregando-se levantamentos florísticos e perfis fitofisionômicos em diferentes períodos fluviométricos, além de uma carta batimétrica e análise do solo. O levantamento florístico resultou no reconhecimento de 36 famílias, 75 gêneros e 89 espécies. As famílias de maior riqueza específica foram Poaceae (14 espécies, seguida por Cyperaceae e Euphorbiaceae (oito cada. O porte predominante pertenceu ao herbáceo (79,78% das espécies e, quanto à forma biológica, houve predominância das terrestres (50,56% e das anfíbias (37,08%. A fitofisionomia, com predominância de herbáceas, apresenta diferenciações entre as margens e ao longo da lagoa, havendo uma considerável diminuição da cobertura vegetal no período de águas altas. Essa lagoa foi considerada um corpo de água raso, com solo tipo argilosoA botanical characterization of the Figueira pond (Upper Paraná River floodplain, in Porto Rico, State of Paraná, Brazil, at 22o45’36’’ S and 53ol5’56’’ W has been carried out using floristic surveys and phytophysiognomic profiles, in different water periods, together with a bathymetric chart and a soil analysis. The floristic survey resulted in 36 families, 75 genera and 89 species. The families with more specific richness were Poaceae (14 species, followed by Cyperaceae and Euphorbiaceae (eight each. The highest habit incidence belonged to the herbaceous (79,78% of the species and, concerning the biological form, there was predominance of the terrestrial (50,56% and amphibious ones (37,08%. The phytophysiognomy, with predominance of herbaceous, shows differentiation between the banks and along the pond, with a considerable decrease of the vegetal covering in the high water periods. This pond was considered a shallow body of water, with

  18. Checklist das macrófitas aquáticas do Pantanal, Brasil Checklist of the aquatic macrophytes of the Pantanal, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vali Joana Pott

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available O Pantanal, por ser alagável, é ambiente favorável ao desenvolvimento de muitas plantas aquáticas. Para atender demandas de levantamentos florísticos regionais, fez-se a listagem das macrófitas aquáticas do Pantanal, com base em coletas depositadas nos Herbários CPAP (EMBRAPA, COR (Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, CH (Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso e K (Kew. Até o momento, foram levantadas 242 espécies, distribuídas em 106 gêneros e 54 famílias. As famílias mais numerosas são Poaceae (22 espécies, Cyperaceae(17, Leguminosae e Scrophulariaceae(14, Alismataceae e Onagraceae(13, Pontederiaceae(11, Lentibulariaceae(10, Characeae(9, emnaceae, Malvaceae e Nymphaeaceae(8. A maioria das demais famílias apresentam uma ou duas espécies cada. Quanto à forma biológica, 39% são plantas emergentes, 28% anfíbias, 11,5% flutuantes fixas, 8% flutuantes livres, 8% submersas fixas, 3,8% submersas livres e 1,7% epífítas. Os principais gêneros em número de espécies são Nymphaea, Utricularia, Echinodorus, Ludwigia, Polygonum, Aeschynomene, Cyperus, Eleocharis e Bacopa.The Pantanal, being a wetland, is a favorable environment for the development of many aquatic plants. This list of aquatic macrophytes of the Pantanal was made based on field collections, deposited at Herbarium CPAP (EMBRAPA, COR (Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, CH (Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso and K (Kew, to support regional floristic surveys. Until present, 242 species were listed, distributed within 106 genera and 54 families. The most numerous families were Poaceae (22 species Cyperaceae(17, Leguminosae and Scrophulariaceae(14, Alismataceae and Onagraceae(13, Pontederiaceae (11, Lentibulariaceae(10, Characeae(9, Lemnaceae, Malvaceae andNymphaeaceae(8. The majority of other families has one or two species each. The life form spectrum includes 39% emergent plants, 28% amphibious, 11,5% rooted floating, 8% free floating, 8% rooted submerged

  19. Lower Pliocene Fast and Repetitive Vegetation Changes In Southwestern Romania As A Response To Milankovitch Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, S.-M.; Suc, J.-P.; Loutre, M. F.

    High-resolution pollen analyses on the lignite-clay Lupoaia section (from 4.9 to 4.3 Ma) in southwestern Romania provide an accurate record of the Lower Pliocene veg- etation changes in the Danube paleodelta environment close to the Carpathians. Many major fluctuations concern thermophilous trees vs. altitudinal trees (chiefly in agree- ment with lignite-clay alternations) and have been referred to changes in temperature. Thanks to a reliable magnetostratigraphic calibration of the section, such changes are to be linked to eccentricity cycles, that provides a more precise chronologic control to the section (Popescu, in press). In addition, regular secondary fluctuations occur which oppose swamp trees (such as most of the Taxodiaceae) to marsh herbs (such as Cyperaceae). They evoke the present-day landscape of the Mississippi delta where swamp forests (constituted by Taxodium distichum mainly) are in competition with herbaceous marshes (made of Cyperaceae such as Mariscus jamaicensis in addition to some Cyrillaceae and Myrica). The latest require significantly more water than the swamps (Roberts, 1986). These plant environments cause two kinds of lignite deposition that have been also identified in the Lupoaia section (Ticleanu and Dia- conita, 1997). According to the chronologic frame previously defined, it is possible to evidence a precession forcing for these alternations. Minima in precession probably caused increasing rainfall over the region and expansion of marshes. So, it is sug- gested that during Lower Pliocene the West Asian monsoon influenced climate of the northeastern Mediterranean region. References. Popescu, S.-M., in press. Repetitive changes in Lower Pliocene vegetation revealed by high-resolution pollen analysis: revised cyclostratigraphy of Southwest- ern Romania. Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol. Roberts, H.H., 1986. Selected depositional en- vironments of the Mississippi River deltaic plain. Geol. Sc. America Centennial Field Guide-Southeastern Section

  20. Vascular flora of the Upper Paraná River floodplain Flora vascular da planície de inundação do Alto Rio Paraná

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    MC. Souza

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to update the floristic inventory found in the Upper Paraná River floodplain. Floristic surveys were performed from February 2000 through March 2008, as part of the Brazilian Long-Term Ecological Research Program (PELD/CNPq -Site 6. The material collected was identified from 774 species, 442 genera, and 116 families. The ten families with high species richness were Leguminosae, Poaceae, Rubiaceae, Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Myrtaceae, Cyperaceae, Solanaceae, Sapindaceae, and Orchidaceae, which contributed to 46.1% of the total number of species. Genera with high richness were Solanum, Cyperus, Panicum, Eugenia, Tillandsia, Serjania, Casearia, and Polygonum, which together contributed to 10.2% of the total number of species. These data, combined with information published in 1997, recorded 955 species, 575 genera, and 128 families. These organisms were from several riparian environments and were distributed as herbs, shrubs, trees, climbers and epiphytes. Panicum maximum, Pennisetum purpureum, Ricinus communis, and Urochloa decumbens are considered weeds due to the wide distributions determined for these species. The results presented herein suggest the need to further investigate the control of these potential weed species.Com o objetivo de ampliar os conhecimentos sobre a flora da planície de inundação do Alto Rio Paraná, foram conduzidos inventários florísticos no período de fevereiro de 2000 a março de 2008, incluídos no Programa Brasileiro de Pesquisas Ecológicas de Longa Duração (PELD/CNPq - Sítio 6. O material coletado foi identificado em 774 espécies, 442 gêneros e 116 famílias. As dez famílias de maior riqueza de espécies foram Leguminosae, Poaceae, Rubiaceae, Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Myrtaceae, Cyperaceae, Solanaceae, Sapindaceae e Orchidaceae, que juntas reuniram 46,1% do total do número de espécies. Os gêneros com maior riqueza de espécies foram Solanum, Cyperus, Panicum, Eugenia

  1. Aspectos florísticos da vegetação de restinga no litoral de Pernambuco Floristics aspects of restinga vegetation in the coast of Pernambuco - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia Sacramento

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available As zonas costeiras acolhem quadros de alta riqueza e relevância ecológica que as qualificam como importante ecossistema para conservação. O objetivo deste estudo foi listar as espécies que compõem a restinga da praia do Paiva e descrever a sua fisionomia. A área de restinga compreende 147 ha, situa-se no Município do Cabo de Santo Agostinho, PE, sob as coordenadas 08º07'30"S e 35º00'55"W. As coletas florísticas foram realizadas durante 28 meses, em todos os estratos. O solo foi classificado como Neossolo Quartzarênico; foram determinadas duas fisionomias: a floresta não-inundável e o fruticeto aberto não-inundável. Foram listadas 124 espécies, distribuídas em 103 gêneros e 55 famílias. As famílias com maior número de espécies foram Myrtaceae, com 11 espécies, Cyperaceae (10, Fabaceae (8, Euphorbiaceae (7, Rubiaceae (6 e Asteraceae (5. As espécies Anacardium occidentale, Tapirira guianensis, Chamaecrista ramosa, Protium heptaphyllum, Byrsonima sericea, Myrcia rotundifolia e Marlierea schotti são encontradas na maioria das restingas do Nordeste. No entanto, devido à incipiência dos estudos na Região não foram verificadas espécies endêmicas.The high biodiversity and richness of the coastal zone make it an important ecosystem to be preserved. The aim of this study is to list the species composition of the restinga area (147 ha. of Paiva beach, in Cabo de Santo Agostinho-Pernambuco (08º07'30"S and 35º00'55"W and describe the physiognomies. Floristic survey was carried out for 28 months for all strata. The soil was classified as Quartzarenic Neosoil and two physiognomies were determined: unflooded forest and unflooded open shrubby vegetation. One hundred-twenty-four species were recorded, distributed in 103 genera and 55 families. The families with the highest number of species were: Myrtaceae (11, Cyperaceae (10, Fabaceae (8, Euphorbiaceae (7, Rubiaceae (6 and Asteraceae (5. Anacardium occidentale, Byrsonima sericea

  2. Amendoins silvestres para uso ornamental.

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    Renato Ferraz de Arruda Veiga

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Algumas espécies silvestres de amendoim (Arachis spp. gênero Arachis L. (Fabaceae, vêm sendo utilizadas como forração em jardins no Brasil, porém todas com pouca variabilidade já que a distribuição do germoplasma é feita sempre pelos mesmos acessos4. Por outro lado, inúmeras coletas têm sido realizadas, particularmente pela Embrapa Recursos Genéticos e Biotecnologia (Cenargen, disponibilizando acessos até então inacessíveis à pesquisa científica. Em virtude dessa nova disponibilidade e igualmente de híbridos resultantes de pesquisas do Cenargen, organizou-se este trabalho. Foram objeto desta pesquisa cinco espécies: A. glabrata Benth., A. helodes Mart. ex Krapov.& Rigoni, A. pintoi‘Krapov.& W.C.Gregory, A. repens Handro e A. kempff-mercadoi Krapov.,W.C.Gregory & C.E.Simpson, e seis híbridos originados dos paternais: A. appressipila Krapov.&W.C.Gregory, A. paraguariensis Chodat & Hassl., A. pintoi, A. repens e A. vallsi Krapov.& W.C.Gregoryi. O experimento foi desenvolvido no período dos anos agrícolas de 1998 a 2000, na Fazenda Santa Elisa do Instituto Agronômico (IAC, em Campinas (SP, anotando-se o número de flores por planta, a velocidade de desenvolvimento, a capacidade de cobertura do solo, aspectos ornamentais como exuberância das flores e folíolos, coloração e, ainda, sanidade e vigor dos acessos. Os híbridos apresentaram um bom comportamento, porém com ciclo anual, ao passo que os acessos de Arachis kempffmercadoi, A.helodes, A. repens e A. glabrata mostraram-se mais recomendáveis para o uso em jardins por serem perenes. Todos os acessos ficam mais bonitos no verão em razão do período de floração e graças ao verde de sua massa foliar.

  3. Relationship between concentration of rare earth elements in soil and their distribution in plants growing near a frequented road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mleczek, Patrycja; Borowiak, Klaudia; Budka, Anna; Niedzielski, Przemysław

    2018-06-05

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are a group of elements whose concentration in numerous environmental matrices continues to increase; therefore, the use of biological methods for their removal from soil would seem to be a safe and reasonable approach. The aim of this study was to estimate the phytoextraction efficiency and distribution of light and heavy (LREEs and HREEs) rare earth elements by three herbaceous plant species: Artemisia vulgaris L., Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg. and Trifolium repens L., growing at a distance of 1, 10, and 25 m from the edge of a frequented road in Poland. The concentration of REEs in soil and plants was highly correlated (r > 0.9300), which indicates the high potential of the studied plant species to phytoextraction of these elements. The largest proportion of REEs was from the group of LREEs, whereas HREEs comprised only an inconsiderable portion of the REEs group. The dominant elements in the group of LREEs were Nd and Ce, while Er was dominant in the HREEs group. Differences in the amounts of these elements influenced the total concentration of LREEs, HREEs, and finally REEs and their quantities which decreased with distance from the road. According to the Friedman rank sum test, significant differences in REEs concentration, mainly between A. vulgaris L., and T. repens L. were observed for plants growing at all three distances from the road. The same relation between A. vulgaris L. and T. officinale was observed. The efficiency of LREEs and REEs phytoextraction in the whole biomass of plants growing at all distances from the road was A. vulgaris L. > T. officinale L. > T. repens L. For HREEs, the same relationship was recorded only for plants growing at the distance 1 m from the road. Bioconcentration factor (BCF) values for LREEs and HREEs were respectively higher and lower than 1 for all studied plant species regardless of the distance from the road. The studied herbaceous plant species were able to effectively phytoextract

  4. Pre-transport factors affecting the welfare of cattle during road transport for slaughter – a review

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    Veronika Šímová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In terms of animal welfare, transport per se is very important in the course of the transportation process and transport duration is considered as one of the determining factors, however, the phase that precedes the actual transport is also of great importance (and often even more important as to stress induction. This pre-transport phase includes many aspects, such as on-farm handling, rearing conditions, assembly of animals, classifying, weighing, repenning in a new environment, re-grouping, mixing with unfamiliar animals, and handling at loading, which is regarded as the most significant factor affecting animal welfare. Therefore, the present work focuses on the factors that play a role during this phase. Those factors are naturally interconnected and their adverse consecutive effects on animal welfare can hardly be separated.

  5. Specific activity isolation and determination of radioactive Estrogenic Substances in White Clover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pupiales T, G.; Mejia M, G.

    1986-01-01

    Due to high number of leguminous that exhibit estrogenic activity, subterranean clover between others, which causes infertility in sheep that eat it. It has been considered that white clover (Trifolium repens, variety Ladino, is an specie of low estrogenic activity, however at Bogota City (Colombia) it has high estrogenic activity and may cause reduction in the dairy cattle fertility. Research done in the IAN (today Ingeominas) over this clover variety, showed that the radioactivity substances presents in the white clover have high activity for stradiol, affecting organs from mouse females; Isoflavonoids from vegetables have an anabolism and utero tropic action; estrogenic activity of clover leaves, was exponentially proportional to the amount of ultraviolet radioactivity, falling upon plants during leaves development stage

  6. Evaluación de la distribución poblacional del Acaro Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval en clavel (Dianthus caryophyllus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luna Segura Diego Marino

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available Some important ecological topics about Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval. (Acari: Tetranychidae pest management was studied in a comercial crop of carnation Dianthus caryophyllus L. in greenhouse in Suba - Cundinamarca. Population of mites was evaluated on 3 thirds and 9 ages of plants during rainy and dry season. 34.8334.61% were found on the up third and 27.84% were found on the lower third of plants. Mite population reached equilibrium state, de life cycle was 37.19C% for egg;
    20.50% for larva; 24.37% ninfal stages and 17.54% for adults. Trifolium repens L.; Stellaris media (L. Cyrill; Pos annua L.; Veronica persica Poir; Holcus lanatus L. and
    Oxslis corniculata L. were found as secondary hosts for T. cinneberinus during this studv, In laboratory conditions, 300C and 85 ± 5% R.H., the life cycle of Tetrsnychuscinnabarinus
    (Boisduval. on Triototium repens L. Was shorter than the life cycle on carnation (Disnthus csryopbvtlu. L..El trabajo se desarrolló bajo condiciones de cultivo comercial (Municipio de Suba, Cundinamarca, abordó interrogantes
    de interés específico para el manejo de ácaros en clavel, como son principalmente: dinámica de población y efecto
    del ciclo de vida. Bajo invernadero, se evaluó la distribución vertical de poblaciones teniendo en cuenta: tres estratos, nueve edades de planta y dos épocas (lluviosa y seca; además se buscaron hospedantes secundarios del ácaro. Las mayores poblaciones de arañita se presentaron en plantas de 19, 20 y 21 meses de edad, con un 34.83% del total. Al tener en cuenta distribución vertical se observó que el estrato medio contiene la mayor población, el 37.55% y la menor, el
    estrato inferior con el 27.84%. Al comparar los diferentes estados del ciclo de vida del ácaro se pudo ver la condición de equilibrio estable de su poblaci

  7. DNA barcode authentication of saw palmetto herbal dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Damon P; Jeanson, Marc L

    2013-12-17

    Herbal dietary supplements made from saw palmetto (Serenoa repens; Arecaceae) fruit are commonly consumed to ameliorate benign prostate hyperplasia. A novel DNA mini-barcode assay to accurately identify [specificity = 1.00 (95% confidence interval = 0.74-1.00); sensitivity = 1.00 (95% confidence interval = 0.66-1.00); n = 31] saw palmetto dietary supplements was designed from a DNA barcode reference library created for this purpose. The mini-barcodes were used to estimate the frequency of mislabeled saw palmetto herbal dietary supplements on the market in the United States of America. Of the 37 supplements examined, amplifiable DNA could be extracted from 34 (92%). Mini-barcode analysis of these supplements demonstrated that 29 (85%) contain saw palmetto and that 2 (6%) supplements contain related species that cannot be legally sold as herbal dietary supplements in the United States of America. The identity of 3 (9%) supplements could not be conclusively determined.

  8. Development of liquid chromatographic methods for the determination of phytosterols in Standard Reference Materials containing saw palmetto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedner, Mary; Schantz, Michele M; Sander, Lane C; Sharpless, Katherine E

    2008-05-23

    Liquid chromatographic (LC) methods using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization/mass spectrometric (APCI-MS) detection were developed for the separation and analysis of the phytosterols campesterol, cycloartenol, lupenone, lupeol, beta-sitosterol, and stigmasterol. Brassicasterol and cholesterol were also included for investigation as internal standards. The methods were used to identify and quantify the phytosterols in each of two Serenoa repens (saw palmetto) Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Values obtained by LC-MS were compared to those obtained using the more traditional approach of gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. This is the first reported use of LC-MS to determine phytosterols in saw palmetto dietary supplement materials.

  9. Mycoflora and mycotoxin production in oilseed cakes during farm storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanier, Caroline; Heutte, Natacha; Richard, Estelle; Bouchart, Valerie; Lebailly, Pierre; Garon, David

    2009-02-25

    Agricultural activities involve the use of oilseed cakes as a source of proteins for livestock. Because the storage of oilseed cakes could induce the development of molds and the production of mycotoxins, a survey was conducted during the 5 months of farm storage. Mycoflora was studied by microscopic examinations, and the presence of Aspergillus fumigatus was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. A multimycotoxin method was developed to quantify seven mycotoxins (aflatoxin B(1), alternariol, fumonisin B(1), gliotoxin, ochratoxin A, T-2 toxin, and zearalenone) in oilseed cakes by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Among 34 fungal species identified, A. fumigatus and Aspergillus repens were observed during 5 and 4 months, respectively. Gliotoxin, an immunosuppressive mycotoxin, was quantified in oilseed cakes up to 45 microg/kg, which was associated with the presence of toxigenic isolates of A. fumigatus.

  10. Pyroglyphid mites, xerophilic fungi and allergenic activity in dust from hospital mattresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    v d Lustgraaf, B; Jorde, W

    1977-12-01

    Dust from mattresses of different composition and age was analysed for mites, xerophilic fungi and allergenic activity. The mites of the genus Demodex were the most abundant (58.2 per cent). Also pyroglyphid mites occurred commonly (36.6 per cent). Pyroglyphid mites were present in small numbers (mean: 1 specimen/0.2 g of dust) in 12 out of the 17 older polyester-foam mattresses. The 11 cotton-horsechair mattresses and the newly used polyester-foam mattresses (three tested) were without them. The dust from the cotton-horsehair mattresses had a significantly higher allergenic activity than from those of polyester-foam. Xerophilic fungi were isolated in three out of 31 mattresses. The species isolated belonged to the genus Aspergillus and Eurotium. E. repens occurred most frequently. Disinfection of mattresses was suggested to have a negative influence on the occurrence of mites and fungi.

  11. Influence of temperature on growth rate and lag phase of fungi isolated from Argentine corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, H H; Resnik, S L; Vaamonde, G

    1988-03-01

    The influence of temperature on the growth of nine strains of fungi belonging to the genera Eurotium, Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium has been investigated for the temperature range 15-35 degrees C. The lag phase and the growth rate were evaluated by using a laboratory medium. The maximum growth rate for E. repens, A. wentii and P. chrysogenum was observed at about 25 degrees C, for P. citrinum near 30 degrees C and for F. semitectum and F. moniliforme between 20 and 25 degrees C. The growth rate of A. niger, A. flavus and A. parasiticus increased with increasing temperatures in the range studied. For all strains studied it appeared that the higher the growth rate the lower the lag phase was.

  12. Ecological relationships between xerophilic fungi and house-dust mites (Acarida: Pyroglyphidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustgraaf, B V D

    1978-01-01

    At. 75 and 80% relative humidity (RH), on a wheat germ flake medium, Aspergillus penicilloides grew abundantly and suppressed the population growth of Dermatophagoides pteronyssiunus. At 71% RH, A. penicilloides grew moderately and was only antagonistic to D. pteronyssinus when the fungus was previously incubated on the medium.On a human dander medium and on mattress dust, A. penicilloides grew moderately at 71% and 75% RH and stimulated the development of D. pteronyssinus populations. Also a moderate growth of Eurotium repens on human dander positively influenced D. pteronyssinus. Wallemia sebi and Penicillium brevicompactum grew slightly or did not grow at all at 75% RH. No effect was observed on D. pteronyssinus.It appears that xerophilic fungi may stimulate, and occasionally may reduce, the growth of house-dust mite populations in the natural environment.

  13. Fungi isolated from flue-cured tobacco sold in Southeast United States, 1968-1970.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, R E

    1972-09-01

    Flue-cured tobacco leaves, from low- and middle-stalk positions, offered for sale in each of two markets, within each of five tobacco types, were evaluated for moisture content (MC) and filamentous fungi during August through October in 1968, 1969, and 1970. Alternaria alternata, Penicillium cyclopium, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus repens, and Aspergillus flavus were most frequently isolated from cultured tissue. Other filamentous fungi that grew from the tissue included species from four genera of field fungi and seven species of storage fungi. Although the MC ranged from 11.0 to 22.5%, it averaged 16.4, 16.8, and 15.9% for samples taken in 1968, 1969, and 1970, respectively. Average populations of fungi per sample over the three years ranged from 0 to 1,528,500 colonies/g of tobacco.

  14. Fungi from interior organs of free-living small mammals in Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubálek, Z; Rosický, B; Otcenásek, M

    1980-01-01

    A total of 308 fungi was isolated from interior organs (lungs, spleen, liver) of 529 small mammals belonging to 21 species, 7 families and 3 orders (Insectivora, Chiroptera, Rodentia), some of these being potentially pathogenic to vertebrates (e.g. Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, Geotrichum candidum, Mucor pusillus, Rhizopus arrhizus). In one vole (Microtus arvalis) captured in South Moravia, adiaspiromycosis (Emmonsia crescens) was demonstrated. Comparison of mycoflora of hair and that of interior organs of wild small mammals revealed that out of the total number of isolates the following fungi were represented in a higher proportion from visceral organs than from the hair: Aspergillus (A. amstelodami, A. flavus, A. repens), Aureobasidium (A. pullulans), Candida, Cladosporium (C. herbarum), Cryptococcus, Fusarium, Gliocladium (G. deliquescens), Helminthosporium, Kloeckera, Mucor (M. fragilis, M. hiemalis, M. pusillus), Paecilomyces marquandii, Penicillium (P. purpurogenum), Phoma, Rhizopus arrhizus, Scopulariopsis (S. candida, S. koningii) and Torulopsis.

  15. Toxigenic aspergilli and penicillia isolated from aged, cured meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, M T; Ayres, J C; Koehler, P E

    1974-12-01

    Eighty-nine cultures of Aspergillus and 54 cultures of Penicillium isolated from aged, cured meats were tested for toxicity to chicken embryos. Two of 22 isolates of A. ruber, 5 of 28 A. repens, 2 of 12 A. sydowi, 1 of 12 A. restrictus, 2 of 7 A. amstelodami, 1 of 2 A. chevalieri, and an A. fumigatus isolate exhibited toxicity. Similarly, 2 of 15 isolates of P. expansum, 1 of 3 P. notatum, 1 of 2 P. brevi-compactum, and 1 of 8 Penicillium spp. were found to be the most toxic. Among these fungi, the chloroform extract from the growth of an A. sydowi isolate showed the greatest toxicity. There was no direct or indirect evidence that aged, cured meats contain toxic metabolites.

  16. Selection of sourdough lactobacilli with antifungal activity for use as biopreservatives in bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, Cristiana; Zannini, Emanuele; Aquilanti, Lucia; Silvestri, Gloria; Fierro, Olga; Picariello, Gianluca; Clementi, Francesca

    2012-08-08

    Two hundred and sixteen LAB cultures from sourdoughs and dough for bread and panettone production were screened for in vitro antifungal properties against three indicator cultures ascribed to Aspergillus japonicus , Eurotium repens , and Penicillium roseopurpureum , isolated from bakery environment and moldy panettone. Nineteen preselected isolates were subjected to minimum inhibitory concentration determination against the indicator cultures. Sourdoughs prepared with the two most promising strains, identified as Lactobacillus rossiae LD108 and Lactobacillus paralimentarius PB127, were characterized. The sourdough extracts were subjected to HPLC analysis coupled with a microtiter plate bioassay against A. japonicus to identify the active fractions. MALDI-TOF MS analysis revealed the occurrence of a series of peptides corresponding to wheat α-gliadin proteolysis fragments in the active fraction from L. rossiae LD108 sourdough. The ability to prevent mold growth on bread was demonstrated for both strains, whereas L. rossiae LD108 also inhibited mold growth on panettone.

  17. Toxic micromycetes in grain raw material during its processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugauskas, Albinas; Raila, Algirdas; Railiene, Marija; Raudoniene, Vita

    2006-01-01

    In 2003-2005 micromycetes were isolated and identified from wheat, barley, rye, buckwheat grain brought into mills or from processing enterprises. Contamination of the produced flour with micromycete propagules (cfu g(-1)), changes in micromycete diversity and abundance in the course of flour storage, preparation and baking of bread, production of groats or other food products and fodder were determined. Most attention was given to widely distributed micromycetes, known producers of toxins: Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus candidus, A. clavatus, A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. oryzae, A. (=Eurotium) repens, Fusarium culmorum, F. equiseti, F. graminearum, F. moniliforme, F. oxysporum, F. poae, F. sporotrichioides, Penicillium brevicompactum, P. chrysogenum, P. cyclopium, P. daleae, P. expansum, P. funiculosum, P. roqueforti, P. urticae, P. verruculosum, P. viridicatum, Phoma exiqua, Rhizomucor pusillus, Rhizopus stolonifer, Trichothecium roseum. Abilities of these micromycetes to produce secondary toxic metabolites were determined as well as possible hazard caused to people consuming the contaminated products.

  18. Effects of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae on growth and metal uptake by four plant species in copper mine tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, B.D.; Zhu, Y.-G.; Duan, J.; Xiao, X.Y.; Smith, S.E.

    2007-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the potential role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in encouraging revegetation of copper (Cu) mine tailings. Two native plant species, Coreopsis drummondii and Pteris vittata, together with a turf grass, Lolium perenne and a leguminous plant Trifolium repens associated with and without AMF Glomus mosseae were grown in Cu mine tailings to assess mycorrhizal effects on plant growth, mineral nutrition and metal uptake. Results indicated that symbiotic associations were successfully established between G. mosseae and all plants tested, and mycorrhizal colonization markedly increased plant dry matter yield except for L. perenne. The beneficial impacts of mycorrhizal colonization on plant growth could be largely explained by both improved P nutrition and decreased shoot Cu, As and Cd concentrations. The experiment provided evidence for the potential use of local plant species in combination with AMF for ecological restoration of metalliferous mine tailings. - This study demonstrated that AM associations can encourage plant survival in Cu mine tailings

  19. Radioactive nuclides in sewage sludges and problems associated with their utilisation or dumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, P.; Brunner, P.; Tiefenbrunner, F.; Dierich, M.P.

    1990-01-01

    In a sewage plant with radioactively contaminated sewage an accumulation of radionuclides was found in the sewage sludge. The specific activities are in inverse proportion to the water content of the sewage sludge, the dehydrated sewage sludge having the highest specific activities. The retained radionuclides seem to be firmly accumulated in the sludge. Nevertheless, they are in a form which can be utilised by plants. This was demonstrated in experiments with Trifolium Repens and Secale Cereale where the rate of absorption was 15-33% (in Ci/kg dry weight per plant: nCi/kg dry weight soil x 100). Thus there are problems associated with using radioactively contaminated sewage sludge as a fertiliser. In further experiments to extract radioactive nuclides from ashed sewage sludge it was shown that acidifying the aqueous phase results in an increase in the level of radioactivity in the eluated fractions. (author)

  20. Radionuclides in sewage sludge and problems of use and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, P.; Tiefenbrunner, F.; Dierich, M.P.; Brunner, P.

    1987-01-01

    In a sewage plant with radioactive contaminated sewage an accumulation of radionuclide in the sewage sludge was to be found. The specific activities are in inverse proportion to the water content of the sewage sludge, the dehydrated sewage sludge shows the highest specific activities. These enriched radionuclides seem to be absorbed from the sludge. Yet they can be utilized by plants. This was demonstrated in experiments with Trifolium repens and Secale cereale, where the rate of absorption amounted 15-33% (inCi/kg dry weight plant:nCi/kg dry weight soil X 100) (transfer factors). This is why fertilization with radioactive contaminated sewage sludge seems to cause problems. In further experiments an extraction of radionuclides from ashed sewage sludge was shown. By acidifying the mobile phasis an increase in radioactivity in the eluated fractions was achieved. (orig./HP) [de

  1. Trichomes morphology in petals of some Acanthaceae species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Amirul Aiman Ahmad Juhari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary taxonomic study was carried out on seven Acanthaceae species namely as Andrographis paniculata, Pseuderanthemum graciliflorum, P. carruthersii,  Asystasia gangetica ssp. micrantha, Ruellia repens, Justicia comata and J. betonica. The study was undertaken to    investigate the morphology of trichomes present on the surfaces of flower petal. The variations found in this study are in their types and density. Based on observation, two forms of trichomes are present in all species studies which are glandular and non-glandular trichomes. There are seven types of trichomes found in this study. Trichomes types are shown to have systematic significance that can be used to differentiate and identify certain Acanthaceae species studied. 

  2. Helminthic infections mimicking malignancy: a review of published case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilsczek, Florian H

    2010-08-04

    Infectious diseases, including infections with helminths, can initially present similarly to malignancies. The goal of the article is to review reports of helminthic infections that are initially diagnosed as malignancy. The database PubMed was searched for English language references published as of July 2009. The following published case reports and case series, mainly from Asia and Africa, were identified: Nematodes: 8 publications (1 patient with Angiostrongylus cantonensis, 2 Stronglyloides stercoralis, 1 Toxocara species, 1 Dioctophyma renale, 1 Ascaris species, 1 Gnathostoma spinigerum, 1 Dirofilaria repens); Trematodes: 7 publications (46 patients with Schistosoma species, 2 Fasciola hepatica, 1 Paragonimus westermani); Cestodes: 6 publications (10 patients with Echinococcus species, 1 Sparganum mansoni). To avoid unnecessary investigations and treatment, physicians should be aware when diagnosing patients from Asia or Africa that a large number of helminthic infections can present similar to malignancies.

  3. Use of sediment CO2 by submersed rooted plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Anders; Borum, Jens

    2009-01-01

    freshwater plants with different morphology and growth characteristics (Lobelia dortmanna, Lilaeopsis macloviana, Ludwigia repens, Vallisneria americana and Hydrocotyle verticillata) are able to support photosynthesis supplied by uptake of CO2 from the sediment. Methods: Gross photosynthesis was measured......Background and Aims: Submersed plants have different strategies to overcome inorganic carbon limitation. It is generally assumed that only small rosette species (isoetids) are able to utilize the high sediment CO2 availability. The present study examined to what extent five species of submersed......, the shoot to root ratio on an areal basis was the single factor best explaining variability in the importance of sediment CO2. For Ludwigia, diffusion barriers limited uptake or transport from roots to stems and transport from stems to leaves. Conclusions: Submersed plants other than isoetids can utilize...

  4. Studies on anatomical characters indicating C3 and C4 photosynthetic metabolism in the genus Boerhavia L. (Nyctaginaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulwakeel Ayokun-nun Ajao

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The C3 and C4 photosynthetic pathways in dicotyledons were investigated with the four species of Boerhavia occurring in Nigeria using light microscopy. The study is not yet well reported on dicotyledons as done for monocotyledons. The features cross-examined were stomata index, stomata size, inter-stomatal distance, stomatal density, interveinal distance, intercellular air spaces, leaf thickness, mesophyll thickness, Kranz tissue, one cell distant count criterion, maximum lateral cell count criterion, vein density and vein distance. Based on these features, these species (B. erecta, B. coccinea and B. repens were grouped into C4 while B. diffusa was grouped as a C3 plant. In particular, interveinal distance less than 166µm and maximum lateral count ranging 2 to 6 will help in grouping C4 dicotyledons species while those that were greater than these values are useful in grouping C3 and plants.

  5. Nitrogen fertilization of grass/clover swards under cutting or grazing by dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søegaard, Karen

    2009-01-01

    farms over a period of three years. Nitrogen was applied at four rates (0, 75, 150, and 225 kg N year-1) with cutting or grazing regime in Year 1 and Year 2, after establishment. A spring-only application of 150 kg N was compared with four applications during the season, which was the fertilization...... affected. The results indicate different possibilities for strategic fertilization both at farm and field level, and in swards with a high clover content it demonstrates how the clover content can be used as a buffer both for maximizing the N-response and for manipulating the production profile.......Intensively managed perennial ryegrass/white clover (Lolium perenne L. and Trifolium repens L.) swards receive relatively high levels of fertilizer N, and high N surpluses can subsequently be found. The N-fertilization effects on growth, yield, and herbage quality were therefore examined on three...

  6. Isolation of microorganisms from red pepper powder and their radiosensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, E H; Kim, Y B; Lee, S R [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Seoul (Republic of Korea)

    1977-01-01

    From samples of red pepper powder sold in Korea were isolated and identified 13 species of molds (Aspergillus amsteodami, Asp. chevalieri, Asp. clavatus, Asp. Flavus, Asp. janus var. effusus, Asp. oryzae, Asp. oryzae var. brevis, Asp. repens, Asp. sydowi, Asp. thomii, Asp. tubingensis, Penicillium thomii, Scopulariopsis brevicaulis) and 5 species of bacteria (Bacillus pumilus, Bac. subtilis, Micrococus luteus, M. varians, Staphylococcus aureus). Radiosensitivity of these microorganisms was examined to give D/sub 10/ values of 14-41 krad for molds, 11-24 krad for bacterial vegetative cells and 190-250 krad for bacterial spores. The red pepper powder was contaminated with 2-3x10/sup 2/ mold counts/g and 3-6x10/sup 7/ bacterial counts/g, which would be sufficiently destroyed by irradiating 200 krad r-rays.

  7. AN APPLICATION OF CLOSE-UP PHOTOGRAMMETRY IN VITICULTURE

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    M. G. D'Urso

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Within the context of Geomatic-based Agriculture an application of close-up photogrammetry is illustrated with reference to precision farming. The application has been carried out in a particularly attractive archaeological site and concerns some viticulture species produced in situ by following a farming technique dated about two thousand years. Specifically we illustrate and comment the photogrammetric close-range acquisitions, carried out both outdoor and indoor, aimed at producing a digital botanic atlas that can adequately replace the traditional ones drawn by hand. High precision geometric measurements of vineyard leaves and grapes, are suitable indices of their growth rate and an objective estimate of the relevant repening degree.

  8. Ecological physiological characteristic of some species of natural vegetation in the Poles'e State Radiation Ecological Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravchenko, V.A.; Gaponenko, V.I.; Matsko, V.P.; Grushevskaya, O.M.; Bondar', Yu.I.; Evsievich, K.M.; Akadehmiya Navuk Belarusi, Minsk

    1996-01-01

    Influence of radiation on important ecological and physiological characteristics of Pinus silvestris L., Phleum pratense L. and Dactylis glomerata L. growing on territory of the Poles'e State Radiation Ecological Reservation has been investigated in 1992-1994. Significant changes in species and quantitative formation of natural vegetation growing on territory contaminated by the Chernobyl accident release were not observed. Positive correlation between the content of protein in needles of Pinus silvestris L., leaves of Agropyron repens L. and specific radioactivity of photosystem was established. Positive correlation between specific radioactivity of overground photosystem and quantity of nucleic acids (DNA+RNA) is leaves of Dactylis glomerata was found. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  9. Use of Cellulases to Predict in vivo Digestible Organic Matter (D value in Pasture Silages Uso de Celulasas para Predecir el Contenido de Materia Orgánica Digestible (Valor D in vivo, en Ensilajes de Praderas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Barchiesi-Ferrari

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In pasture-based dairy herds where silage is a widely adopted supplement, optimized feeding requires reliable estimations of nutritional quality of this conserved forage. Metabolizable energy, an important nutritional fraction, can be predicted from digestibility-related traits, such as the digestible organic matter contained in the dry matter (D-value. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prediction of D-value and dry matter digestibility (DMD of grass silages made from four different pastures and maturity stages, using the pepsin-cellulase method. Fungal cellulase was used, applying different enzyme concentrations, incubation times and types of final wash. The silages were prepared from permanent pasture (Dactylis glomerata L., Lolium perenne L., Bromus catharticus Vahl var. catharticus, Trifolium repens L. and Holcus lanatus L., rotation pasture (Lolium multiflorum Lam. cv. Tama, oats (Avena sativa L., and mixed pasture (L. perenne-T. repens. These were harvested at three different physiological stages (vegetative, ear emergence and dough grain. The treatment using an incubation time of 24 h, a cellulase concentration of 6.25 g L-1 and final wash with water (Treatment 3 presented the best prediction capacity of the in vivo D-value (R² = 0.78 and in vivo DMD (R² = 0.71. In vivo D-value prediction improved (R² = 0.8 when a chemical determination (crude fibre, gross energy, neutral detergent fibre, total ash or acid detergent fibre was included in addition (multiple regression to D-value obtained with cellulases (Treatment 3. Results of DMD obtained with cellulases show good precision, but underestimate in vivo values, and are closer to those obtained with ruminal fluid. Suitable equations could be used to improve accuracy.En sistemas lecheros pastoriles que utilizan ensilaje como suplemento, se requiere conocer el valor nutricional de éste para optimizar la alimentación del ganado. La energía metabolizable, importante fracci

  10. Pepsin-Cellulase Digestibility of Pasture Silages: Effects of Pasture Type, Maturity Stage, and Variations in the Enzymatic Method Digestibilidad mediante Pepsina-Celulasa de Ensilajes de Pradera: Efectos del Tipo de Pradera, Estado de Madurez y Variaciones en el Método Enzimático

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Barchiesi-Ferrari

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic in vitro digestibility has been studied as a method to predict energy values of forages for ruminants, although results have been affected by type of forage and methodological details of the technique. This work was performed to evaluate the effects of cellulase concentration (0.75, 1.0 and 6.25 g L-1, incubation time (24 or 48 h and type of final washing of the residue (water or acetone on the in vitro digestibility of the dry matter (DMD, organic matter (OMD and content of digestible organic matter in the DM (D value of silages made at three maturity stages from three types of pastures: a permanent pasture (Dactylis glomerata, Lolium perenne, Bromus catharticus Vahl var. catharticus, Trifolium repens and Holcus lanatus; b Italian ryegrass ley (Lolium multiflorum Lam. cv. Tama; c oats (Avena sativa L. and d mixed pasture (L. perenne-T. repens. Regression equations among cellulase results and in vitro values obtained with rumen fluid were also developed. Higher enzyme concentration, longer incubation time and final washing with acetone, resulted in a significant (P La digestibilidad enzimática in vitro ha sido estudiada para predecir el valor energético de forrajes para rumiantes, aunque el tipo de forraje y los detalles metodológicos han afectado los resultados obtenidos. Este trabajo pretende evaluar los efectos de la concentración de celulasa (0,75; 1,0 y 6,25 g L-1, tiempo de incubación (24 o 48 h y tipo de lavado final (agua o acetona del residuo, sobre la digestibilidad in vitro de la materia seca (DMD, materia orgánica (OMD y el contenido de materia orgánica digestible en la materia seca, o valor D (D value de ensilajes hechos con tres estados de madurez, de diferentes praderas: a pradera permanente (Dactylis glomerata, Lolium perenne, Bromus catharticus Vahl var. catharticus, Trifolium repens y Holcus lanatus; b ballica Italiana (Lolium multiflorum Lam. cv. Tama; c avena (Avena sativa L.; y d pradera mixta (L. perenne

  11. The peculiarities of 137Cs accumulation by plants of meadow phytocenosis and content of photosynthetic pigments and protein in the plant leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaponenko, V.; Kravchenko, V.; Matsko, V.

    1994-01-01

    In connection with the Chernobyl accident the problem of resistance of different plant systems, including photosynthesis, in conditions of increased background radiation and radioactive soil contamination was investigated. The dynamics of pigments and proteins in the leaves of meadow phytocenosis at different contamination levels of Polesski State was studied. The reverse correlation was discovered between the coefficients of radionuclide accumulation by plants and the specific radioactivity of soil. A prevailing decrease in concentration of chlorophyll 'b' as compared to chlorophyll 'a' was discovered as well as a decrease in both green pigments as compared to carotenoids at the end of vegetation. At the lowest specific 137 Cs radioactivity in fresh leaf tissues of Agropyron repens L. the content of pigments in leaves was biggest. A positive correlation between specific radioactivity of overground phytomass (Bq/kg) and protein concentration in leaves was revealed. An analogous relationship has appeared too for one year old and two year old needles of Pinus Silvestris L. (author)

  12. The potential of plant viruses to promote genotypic diversity via genotype x environment interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Mölken, Tamara; Stuefer, Josef F.

    2011-01-01

    † Background and Aims Genotype by environment (G × E) interactions are important for the long-term persistence of plant species in heterogeneous environments. It has often been suggested that disease is a key factor for the maintenance of genotypic diversity in plant populations. However, empirical...... and the G × E interactions were examined with respect to genotypespecific plant responses to WClMV infection. Thus, the environment is defined as the presence or absence of the virus. † Key Results WClMV had a negative effect on plant performance as shown by a decrease in biomass and number of ramets...... evidence for this contention is scarce. Here virus infection is proposed as a possible candidate for maintaining genotypic diversity in their host plants. † Methods The effects of White clover mosaic virus (WClMV) on the performance and development of different Trifolium repens genotypes were analysed...

  13. Composition and abundance of fishes in the interface between open water and macrophyte banks, and the dynamics of this interface during morning and evening twilight, in lake Catalão, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor David da Costa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the composition and abundance of the fishes that move between macrophyte banks and open water during the morning twilight (CM and afternoon twilight (CV. The collections were made using gillnets, along banks of Paspalum repens, at Catalão lake, in Amazonas, Brazil. A total of 222 individuals and 37 species were collected. Of these, 130 individuals were collected during the CM and 92 during the CV; 80 individuals were leaving during the CM and 40 individuals were leaving during the CV. Auchenipterus nuchalis, Pellona castelnaeana, Triportheus angulatus and T. albus were the most common and concentrated species collected in the CM and Pimelodus blochii was the most common species collected in the CV.

  14. Weather-induced variability of cesium 137 content in overground part of automorphic soil plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliashevich, H.V.

    2000-01-01

    Daily variability of specific cesium 137 content in plants (12 species) from 30-km zone of Chernobyl NPP in summer time under the influence of climatic factors is shown. The rise of residual solar radiation (exceeding 2 MJ/m 2 in a day) and average diurnal temperature over 10 - 15 degrees centigrade (for different species) induced decrease in activity of overground phyto mass while precipitation takes opposite effect. A threshold and non-threshold type of cesium 137 accumulation in plants was recorded at higher daily fall-out. Critical sum of diurnal precipitation for the latter case in 5 species (Agropyron repens (L.) P.B., Bromus inermis Leyss., Origanum vulgare L., Festuca arundinacea Shreb., Acer plata noides L.) is in the range of 20 - 25 mm

  15. Dermatologic symptoms associated with gastrointestinal neoplasia

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    Beata Młynarczyk-Bonikowska

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal tumors are among the most common neoplastic causes of death worldwide. Presence of characteristic skin lesions can allow faster diagnosis and therapy and this way can increase the probability of a cure. In the paper we present the most important paraneoplastic syndromes that can coexist with gastrointestinal malignancy including colon, gastric, esophagus and pancreatic cancers. We take into account genetic syndromes such as Cowden syndrome, familial atypical multiple mole melanoma syndrome (FAMMM (melanoma/pancreatic cancer, Clarke Howel-Evans, Peutz-Jeghers, Muir-Torre, Gardner syndromes and acquired syndromes such as acantosis nigricans maligna, tripe palms, Leser-Trelat, Bazex, hypertrichosis languinosa, erythema gyratum repens , carcinoid and glucagonoma syndrome. We also include cutaneous metastases and coexistence of neoplasia in some cases of dermatomyositis.

  16. Researches regarding glyphosate effectiveness on the degree of weed control in grape plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica NEGREA

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper was determined the control degree of weeds in grape plantation, Burgund variety, when is using chemical treatments with herbicides and agro-technique measures. Herbicide used was Roundup 3 l/ha and 4l/ha (glyphosate isopropyl amine salt 360 g/l applied in 4 experimental variants. It was determined the weed presence degree, the type of weeds destroyed and the degree of their participation. Predominant weed species in studied grape plantation, were: Agropyron repens (20.15%, Geranium dissectum (17.91%, Capsella bursa pastoris (15.67% and Avena fatua (13.43%. Ephemeral weeds Veronica hederifolia and Stellaria media had a participation rate of 8.96%. Perennial weeds represented 40.30% while annual weeds are 59.70% . The herbicide Roundup provides most effective control in a dose of 3 or 4 l/ha, combined with mechanical weeding + 1 manual weeding, control rates being over 90%.

  17. Kazusa Marker DataBase: a database for genomics, genetics, and molecular breeding in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasawa, Kenta; Isobe, Sachiko; Tabata, Satoshi; Hirakawa, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    In order to provide useful genomic information for agronomical plants, we have established a database, the Kazusa Marker DataBase (http://marker.kazusa.or.jp). This database includes information on DNA markers, e.g., SSR and SNP markers, genetic linkage maps, and physical maps, that were developed at the Kazusa DNA Research Institute. Keyword searches for the markers, sequence data used for marker development, and experimental conditions are also available through this database. Currently, 10 plant species have been targeted: tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), pepper (Capsicum annuum), strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa), radish (Raphanus sativus), Lotus japonicus, soybean (Glycine max), peanut (Arachis hypogaea), red clover (Trifolium pratense), white clover (Trifolium repens), and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis). In addition, the number of plant species registered in this database will be increased as our research progresses. The Kazusa Marker DataBase will be a useful tool for both basic and applied sciences, such as genomics, genetics, and molecular breeding in crops. PMID:25320561

  18. Medium-term response of microbial community to rhizodeposits of white clover and ryegrass and tracing of active processes induced by 13C and 15N labelled exudates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusliene, Gedrime; Rasmussen, Jim; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2014-01-01

    and actinomycetes was unaffected by plant species, but pool of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria was greater under white clover at the 10 percent significance level. In the short term, microorganisms more actively utilised fresh exudates (13C-labelled) of ryegrass than of white clover. We expected ryegrass...... microbial groups in soil under white clover (Trifolium repens L.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) following leaf-labelling with 13C-bicarbonate and 15N-urea. In this way microbial N and 15N and the composition of PLFAs reflect the medium-term (two months) response of microorganisms to rhizodeposits......, whereas the 13C-label of the PLFAs reflects the short-term (one week) utilisation of root exudates following labelling of shoots. In the medium term, microbial biomass N and 15N were greater under the ryegrass, whereas total PLFA was higher under white clover. The relative abundance of fungi...

  19. Fatty acid composition, fat soluble vitamin concentrations and oxidative stability in bovine milk produced on two pastures with different botanical composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler, S A; Dahl, A V; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2013-01-01

    to oxidation. Two groups of 8 multiparous Norwegian Red dairy cows [mean (standard deviation); 599 (45.1) kg body weight, 73 (15.0) d in milk, 29.9 (2.90) kg milk/d at experiment start] grazed either a short-term pasture (SP) or a long-term pasture (LP). Both pastures were organically managed, meaning......Previous research has shown that grazing pastures compared to feeding preserved forages has large impact on milk fatty acid (FA) composition, but differences between grazing red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) or white clover (Trifolium repens L.) are small, whereas the herbage proportions...... of dicotyledon botanical families is positively correlated with the milk-fat proportions of total polyunsaturated FA when grazing pastures in the Alps. The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of botanically different pastures on bovine milk composition and milk susceptibility...

  20. Modelling Gene Flow between Fields of White Clover with Honeybees as Pollen Vectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løjtnant, Christina; Boelt, Birte; Clausen, Sabine Karin

    2012-01-01

    The portion-dilution model is a parametric restatement of the conventional view of animal pollination; it predicts the level of pollinator-mediated gene dispersal. In this study, the model was applied to white clover (Trifolium repens) and its most frequent pollinator, the honeybee (Apis mellifera......). One of the three parameters in the portion-dilution model is the mean number of flowers a pollinator visits in one foraging bout. An alternative method to estimate this parameter was developed that was not depending on pollinator hive-seeking behaviour. The new estimation method, based on nectar......% with an estimated 95% percentile of 70%. The results show that the European Union threshold limit of 0.9% GM admixture for food and feed will likely be exceeded at times and especially organic farmers that do not accept GM admixture and often have clover and clover–grass fields might face challenges with admixture...

  1. New Species of Orchids (Orchidaceae in the Flora of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid V. AVERYANOV

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes results of joint efforts of professional botanists and orchid enthusiasts on studies of Vietnamese native orchids during years 2013–2016. It provides new original data about the discovery of 1 genus (Grammatophyllum Blume and 29 orchid species new for the flora of Vietnam. Valid name, main synonyms, data on type, ecology, phenology, estimated IUCN Red List status, distribution, studied specimens, as well as brief taxonomic and biological notes are provided for each species and varieties. Eight species (Bidupia khangii, Bulbophyllum striatulum, B. tipula, Cleisostoma dorsisacculatum, Cymbidium repens, Dendrobium congianum, Flickingeria xanthocheila, Podochilus rotundipetala and two varieties (Phreatia densiflora var. vietnamensis, P. formosana var. continentalis are described as new for science. One combination (Bulbophyllum bicolor var. funingense is proposed. An illustrated annotated list of all studied species and varieties is arranged in alphabetical order. Including present data, the known orchid flora of Vietnam comprises currently at least 1210 documented species from 172 genera.

  2. Oral dirofilariasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahija Janardhanan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Filariasis affecting animals can rarely cause infections in human beings through the accidental bite of potential vectors. The resulting infection in man, known as zoonotic filariasis occur worldwide. Human dirofilariasis, the most common zoonotic filariasis, is caused by the filarial worm belonging to the genus Dirofilaria. Dirofilarial worms, which are recognized as pathogenic in man can cause nodular lesions in the lung, subcutaneous tissue, peritoneal cavity or eyes. Oral dirofilariasis is extremely rare and only a few cases have been documented. We report an interesting case of dirofilariasis due to Dirofilaria repens involving buccal mucosa in a patient who presented with a facial swelling. The clinical features, diagnostic issues and treatment aspects are discussed. This paper stresses the importance of considering dirofilariasis as differential diagnosis for subcutaneous swelling of the face, especially in areas where it is endemic.

  3. Oral dirofilariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janardhanan, Mahija; Rakesh, S; Savithri, Vindhya

    2014-01-01

    Filariasis affecting animals can rarely cause infections in human beings through the accidental bite of potential vectors. The resulting infection in man, known as zoonotic filariasis occur worldwide. Human dirofilariasis, the most common zoonotic filariasis, is caused by the filarial worm belonging to the genus Dirofilaria. Dirofilarial worms, which are recognized as pathogenic in man can cause nodular lesions in the lung, subcutaneous tissue, peritoneal cavity or eyes. Oral dirofilariasis is extremely rare and only a few cases have been documented. We report an interesting case of dirofilariasis due to Dirofilaria repens involving buccal mucosa in a patient who presented with a facial swelling. The clinical features, diagnostic issues and treatment aspects are discussed. This paper stresses the importance of considering dirofilariasis as differential diagnosis for subcutaneous swelling of the face, especially in areas where it is endemic.

  4. Does introduction of clover in an agricultural grassland affect the food base and functional diversity of Collembola?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Annibale, Alessandra; Sechi, Valentina; Larsen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    plots with either perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), whiteclover (Trifolium repens L.) or a mixture of both in a Danish agricultural grassland 6 and 14 months after establishing the leys (September and May, respectively). Diet preferences were investigated via stable isotope analyses (SIA...... in the white clover than ryegrass plots. Changes in taxa specific density and traits distribution as a response to the C:N ratio of plant material, suggest that plant material quality was the main factor affecting the collembolan community,especially when comparing the two sampling occasions. Functional...... richness decreased under conditions of low quality material. In contrast to our hypothesis, population densities did not increase under mixture treatment and functional richness decreased. Our results suggest that habitat changes, via different plant composition, can affect some functional groups, having...

  5. STUDY ON POLLEN VIABILITY AS BIOINDICATOR OF AIR QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina ŞTEFLEA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to estimate the relationship between pollen viability and atmospheric pollution (in polluted and non-polluted conditions. The study was carried out in the city of Timisoara. Two areas, with different intensity of road traffic (very high and absent but all characterized by the presence of the same plant species, were selected. The pollen of herbaceous spontaneous species, arboreal species and a shrub species was used (Robinia pseudacacia, Aesculus x carnea, Catalpa bignonioides, Albizzia julibrissin, Rosa canina, Sambucus nigra, Malva neglecta, Ranunculus acer, Trifolium repens, Cichorium intybus. The pollen of these species was treated with TTC (2, 3, 5 Tryphenil-Tetrazolium-Chloride staining solution and viability was then estimated by light microscopy. The results of the mean pollen viability percentage of the examined species are reported. Pollen viability of herbaceous plants is significantly different between the two environments.

  6. Dependence of the legume seeds vigour on their maturity and method of harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Grzesiuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several methods were used to study 'the vigour and viability of legume seeds (Pisum sativum L. cv. Hamil, Piston arvense L. cv. Mazurska and Lupinus luteus L. cv. Tomik harvested at three main stages of seed repening (green, wax and full. The seeds were tested immediately after harvest (series A and after two weeks of storage in pods (series B. It was found that: 1 the vigour of ripening legume seeds increases with maturation; 2 post-harvest storage in pods increases the degree of ripeness and. consequently. vigour; 3 seeds attain full vigour later than full viability; 4 seed leachate conductivity method gives erroneous results in assessing the vigour of immature seeds: 5 full vigour of maturing seeds of various degrees of ripeness can be determined by simultaneous application of both biological (eg. seedling growth analysis, VI and biochemical (e.g. total dehydrogenase activity methods.

  7. Legume Seed Production Meeting Market Requirements and Economic Impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Julier, Bernadette; Karagić, Đura

    2015-01-01

    The seed is the carrier of the genetic improvements brought about by modern plant breeding, and seed production is carried out in accordance with certification systems to guarantee consistent high quality. In forage legumes, breeding efforts are primarily related to the vegetative development...... of the plant, although the commercial success of an agronomically superior cultivar is dependent on a reliable supply of competitively priced seed. In seed production of the three most important forage legumes, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), white clover (Trifolium repens L.), and red clover (Trifolium pratense......-pollinated forage legumes it is further highly influenced by environmental conditions and crop management factors. Further investigations into the use of plant growth regulators and an improved understanding of the interaction between pollinators and the seed crop might improve future seed yields. There is likely...

  8. Effect of forage type, harvesting time and exogenous enzyme application on degradation characteristics measured using in vitro technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moharrery, Ali; Hvelplund, Torben; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2009-01-01

    Five forage species cut at different harvest times were studied for their degradation characteristics using in vitro digestibility technique. The forage species were two grasses and three legumes growing in two seasons (spring growth and second re-growth). Grass and legume forages were harvested...... at three harvesting times being early (E), middle (M) and late (L), both during the spring growth and the second re-growth. The grasses included perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne), and festulolium (XFestulolium), and the legumes included white clover (Trifolium repens), red clover (Trifolium pratense......) and neutral detergent fibre (aNDFom) degradation profiles were fitted to an exponential equation. The fractional rate of degradation (c) of DM or aNDFom did vary among the forage species and was highest for the legumes. The potential degradability ranged from 580 to 870 g/kg for DM and from 380 to 900 g...

  9. The Occurrence, Biosynthesis, and Molecular Structure of Proanthocyanidins and Their Effects on Legume Forage Protein Precipitation, Digestion and Absorption in the Ruminant Digestive Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjan Jonker

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Forages grown in temperate regions, such as alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. and white clover (Trefolium repens L., typically have a high nutritional value when fed to ruminants. Their high protein content and degradation rate result, however, in poor utilization of protein from the forage resulting in excessive excretion of nitrogen into the environment by the animal. Proanthocyanindins (also known as condensed tannins found in some forage legumes such as birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L., bind to dietary protein and can improve protein utilization in the animal. This review will focus on (1 the occurrence of proanthocyanidins; (2 biosynthesis and structure of proanthocyanidins; (3 effects of proanthocyanidins on protein metabolism; (4 protein precipitating capacity of proanthocyanidins and their effects on true intestinal protein adsorption by ruminants; and (5 effect on animal health, animal performance and environmental emissions.

  10. Los Pteridófitos de un bosque subandino en el municipio de Albán, Cundinamarca (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Amparo Triana Moreno

    2004-07-01

    Selaginella y Huperzia con tres. De las especies encontradas Blechnum divergens, Blechnum lherminieri, Diplazium ambiguum, Elaphoglossum piloselloides, Huperzia amentacea, Hypolepis repens, Polybotrya caudata, Pteris altissima, Thelypteris grandis y Trichomanes reptans son nuevos registros para Cundinamarca. La mayoría de las especies (46% son exclusivamente terrestres y dentro de éstas las más abundantes son Asplenium flabellulatum en el bosque, Equisetum bogotense, Thelypteris rudis y Pityrogramma ebenea en el borde de las quebradas y Thelypteris rudis y Pteridium arachnoideum en los pastizales. En cuanto a las epífitas (20% la más común es  Loxoscaphe theciferum y solo Polybotrya caudata es hemiepífita.

  11. Remarkable, overlooked and new microfungi in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ale-Agha, N; Feige, G B; Linke, K

    2001-01-01

    During our investigations of the micro flora in NRW in the years of 1999 and 2000 we were able to collect and identify some new and rare species of micro fungi as parasites and saprophytes on wild and ornamental plants. Some of them are new for Germany: Podosphaera xanthii on Coreopsis verticillata; Cercospora traversiana on Trigonella foenum-graecum; Passalora dubia on Atriplex hortensis; Ophiobolus cirsii on Carduus spec.; Periconia britannica on Polemonium coeruleum; Ascochyta leptospora on Agropyron repens; Apomelasmia urticae on Urtica dioica; Cryptodiaporthe salicina on Salix caprea; Dasyscyphus nidulus on Anemone hupehensis; Rhopographus filicinus on Pteridium aquilinum; Sillia ferruginea on Corylus avellana; Sirococcus spiraeae on Spiraea spec. and Forsythia x intermedia. Examples of these findings are in the Herbarium ESS (Mycotheca Parva, Slg. Feige/Ale-Agha).

  12. Study of methylation sites and factors in contaminated aquatic systems in the Amazon using an optimized radiochemical technique. Highlights and achievements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davee Guimaraes, Jean Remy

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Highlights and achievements: We confirmed that high methylation potentials (up to 22%) are found in roots of Paspalum repens and other floating macrophyte species such as Eichhomia crassipes and Ludwigia helmynthoryza during both phases of the hydrological cycle, with a tendency for higher values in the wet season, confirming findings of previous studies, and a strong intra and interlake variation. Hg methylation in macrophyte roots is carried out mainly in the root-associated periphyton a complex and variable assemblage of benthic microalgae, fungi, bacteria and organic and inorganic detritus. However, no significant correlation was found in the first campaign between Hg methylation in samples of Paspalum sp. roots and the amount of periphyton in these samples. We also verified that total plankton and phytoplankton are sites of a low 203 Hg; Basic infrastructure problems caused partial loss of samples in one of the campaigns. (author)

  13. « Comme des esclaves », ou les avatars de l’esclavage métaphorique

    OpenAIRE

    Morice, Alain

    2005-01-01

    Génériquement nommées, selon les institutions et les auteurs, « travail forcé » ou « esclavage (moderne) », voire « traite des êtres humains », certaines formes contemporaines de sujétion continuent d’être qualifiées en référence aux formes historiques de l’esclavage grec, africain et américain. Correspondant à une définition extensive et morphologique, l’esclavage métaphorique ainsi repensé range pêle-mêle un ensemble hétéroclite de rapports d’oppression et de mise au travail basés sur la co...

  14. Composição e abundância de peixes da interface entre as águas abertas e bancos de macrófitas e sua dinâmica nos períodos de crepúsculos matutino e vespertino, no lago Catalão, Amazonas, Brasil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor David da Costa

    2011-05-01

    O presente trabalho objetivou verificar a composição e abundância de peixes que realizam movimentos entre os bancos de macrófitas e as águas abertas durante os períodos dos crepúsculos matutino (CM e vespertino (CV. As coletas foram realizadas no lago do Catalão, Amazonas, Brasil, com malhadeiras adjacentes a bancos de Paspalum repens. Foram coletados um total de 222 indivíduos e 37 espécies. 130 indivíduos no CM e 92 no CV, 80 indivíduos foram encontrados saindo no CM e 40 na direção de saída no CV. Auchenipterus nuchalis, Pellona castelnaeana, Triportheus angulatus e T. albus foram as espécies mais capturadas e concentradas no CM, sendo espécie Pimelodus blochii a mais abundantes no CV.

  15. Isolation of microorganisms from red pepper powder and their radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, E.H.; Kim, Y.B.; Lee, S.R.

    1977-01-01

    From samples of red pepper powder sold in Korea were isolated and identified 13 species of molds (Aspergillus amsteodami, Asp. chevalieri, Asp. clavatus, Asp. Flavus, Asp. janus var. effusus, Asp. oryzae, Asp. oryzae var. brevis, Asp. repens, Asp. sydowi, Asp. thomii, Asp. tubingensis, Penicillium thomii, Scopulariopsis brevicaulis) and 5 species of bacteria (Bacillus pumilus, Bac. subtilis, Micrococus luteus, M. varians, Staphylococcus aureus). Radiosensitivity of these microorganisms was examined to give D 10 values of 14-41 krad for molds, 11-24 krad for bacterial vegetative cells and 190-250 krad for bacterial spores. The red pepper powder was contaminated with 2-3x10 2 mold counts/g and 3-6x10 7 bacterial counts/g, which would be sufficiently destroyed by irradiating 200 krad r-rays. (Author)

  16. Allelopatic potential of weeds under the minimalization of soil treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail A. Mazirov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The content of water-dispersible phenol substances in rhizosphere both of annual and perennial species of weeds (Cirsium arvense, Sonchus arvensis increases under soil treatment minimalization. The higher content of phenol substances of researched weeds is defined in rhizosphere of Common Couch (Agropyrum repens. The absence of intensive anthropogenic treatment of plowing layer which accumulates the significant mass of weed’s roots in the cause of much more higher allelopathic potential of some species’ of weeds. The high level of saturation by weeds in agrophytocoenosis under non-tillage soil treatment is defines the competitiveness between certain sepsis’ of weeds, especially, at the beginning of the vegetation. In this case, increasing the secretion of phenol substances is one of the physiological screenings of such competitiveness.

  17. Flowers visited by honey bee in southern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markku Käpylä

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available A list of nectar and pollen sources of honeybee (Apis mellifera L. in southern Finland based on 44 500 flower records is presented. Only the common wild and cultivated species are included, 139 species altogether. The flowering times are shown with an accuracy of two weeks. The most important food sources during spring (April—May are Salix spp., and Tussilago farfara: during early summer (late May and June Salix spp., Taraxacum officinale, Acer platanoides, Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Barbarea vulgaris, Ribes spp., Malus domestica, Sorbus aucuparia, and Geranium sylvaticum; during mid-summer Trifolium repens, T. hybridum, Rubus idaeus, Tilia cordata, Epilobium angustifolium, and Cirsium arvense; during late summer and early autumn Calluna vulgaris, Arctium tomentosum, Sonchus arvensis and Leontodon autumnalis.

  18. Diferenciação de espécies daninhas aquáticas pela análise multivariada de caracteres estruturais foliares Differentiation of aquatic weeds by multivariate analysis of foliar structural characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Costa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Algumas espécies de plantas aquáticas têm-se tornado problemáticas em reservatórios hidrelétricos no Brasil, devido a sua grande capacidade de reprodução. O objetivo destes trabalho foi diferenciar Brachiaria mutica, Brachiaria subquadripara, Panicum repens, Eichhornia crassipes, Heteranthera reniformis, Typha ubulata e Enhydra anagallis, utilizando-se 19 caracteres estruturais quantitativos do limbo foliar, que se relacionassem com a penetração e translocação de herbicidas. Amostras do terço médio do limbo foram fixadas em FAA 50, cortadas transversalmente em micrótomo com 8 mm de espessura e coradas com azul-de-toluidina. Foram quantificados (% os seguintes caracteres estruturais da nervura central (NC e da região internervural (IN: epidermes adaxial e abaxial, feixe vascular, bainha do feixe vascular, esclerênquima, parênquima e lacunas do aerênquima, além da espessura da folha, do número de estômatos e do número de tricomas nas faces adaxial e abaxial. Os 19 caracteres estruturais foram submetidos à Análise de Agrupamento e Análise de Componentes Principais. Houve a formação de três grupos principais: grupo 1 B. mutica, B. subquadripara e P. repens (Poaceae; grupo 2 E. crassipes e H. reniformis (Pontederiaceae e E. anagallis (Asteraceae; e grupo 3 apenas T. subulata (Typhaceae. Os caracteres com maior poder discriminatório foram: porcentagem de epiderme adaxial (IN; porcentagem de epiderme abaxial; feixe vascular; bainha do feixe vascular; esclerênquima e lacunas do aerênquima (NC e IN; espessura da folha e número de estômatos das faces adaxial e abaxial. Concluiu-se que os caracteres estruturais quantitativos permitiram diferenciar essas espécies daninhas aquáticas em fase vegetativa.Some aquatic plant species have caused great damage to hydroelectric power dams in Brazil, due to their great capacity of reproduction. Nineteen quantitative structural characters of leaf blades were used to differentiate

  19. Effects of species diversity on seasonal variation in herbage yield and nutritive value of seven binary grass-legume mixtures and pure grass under cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elgersma, Anjo; Søegaard, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Intensively managed sown temperate grasslands are generally of low species diversity, although swards based on grass-legume mixtures may have superior productivity and herbage quality than grass-only swards. We conducted a cutting experiment over two years to test the effect of species composition...... and diversity on herbage yield, contents of N, neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD). Perennial ryegrass (PR, Lolium perenne) was sown alone and with each of four forage legumes: red clover (RC, Trifolium pratense), lucerne (LU, Medicago sativa), birdsfoot trefoil (BT......, Lotus corniculatus) and white clover (WC, Trifolium repens); WC was also sown with hybrid ryegrass (HR, Lolium × boucheanum), meadow fescue (MF, Festuca pratensis) and timothy (TI, Phleum pratense). Herbage productivity was lowest in pure PR followed by PR/BT, and highest in PR/RC; this mixture had...

  20. Genetic diversity analysis in the section Caulorrhizae (genus Arachis using microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío A. Palmieri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Diversity in 26 microsatellite loci from section Caulorrhizae germplasm was evaluated by using 33 accessions of A. pintoi Krapov. & W.C. Gregory and ten accessions of Arachis repens Handro. Twenty loci proved to be polymorphic and a total of 196 alleles were detected with an average of 9.8 alleles per locus. The variability found in those loci was greater than the variability found using morphological characters, seed storage proteins and RAPD markers previously used in this germplasm. The high potential of these markers to detect species-specific alleles and discriminate among accessions was demonstrated. The set of microsatellite primer pairs developed by our group for A. pintoi are useful molecular tools for evaluating Section Caulorrhizae germplasm, as well as that of species belonging to other Arachis sections.

  1. Genetic diversity analysis in the section Caulorrhizae (genus Arachis) using microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Darío A; Bechara, Marcelo D; Curi, Rogério A; Monteiro, Jomar P; Valente, Sérgio E S; Gimenes, Marcos A; Lopes, Catalina R

    2010-01-01

    Diversity in 26 microsatellite loci from section Caulorrhizae germplasm was evaluated by using 33 accessions of A. pintoi Krapov. & W.C. Gregory and ten accessions of Arachis repens Handro. Twenty loci proved to be polymorphic and a total of 196 alleles were detected with an average of 9.8 alleles per locus. The variability found in those loci was greater than the variability found using morphological characters, seed storage proteins and RAPD markers previously used in this germplasm. The high potential of these markers to detect species-specific alleles and discriminate among accessions was demonstrated. The set of microsatellite primer pairs developed by our group for A. pintoi are useful molecular tools for evaluating Section Caulorrhizae germplasm, as well as that of species belonging to other Arachis sections.

  2. Produção de híbridos de amendoim forrageiro por meio de hibridação artificial Production of forage peanut hybrids through artificial hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilda Augusta Peres Oliveira

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi a obtenção de híbridos de amendoim forrageiro por meio da hibridação artificial. O experimento foi realizado na Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Recursos Genéticos e Biotecnologia, durante a época de florescimento dos acessos de Arachis pintoi Krap. & W. C. Gregory e de A. repens Handro. Cerca de 700 polinizações produziram 27 segmentos de frutos, com taxas de fecundação que variaram entre 1,1 e 12,9%, considerando-se todas as combinações híbridas. Os híbridos intra-específicos de A. pintoi produziram sementes F2, e os interespecíficos não produziram semente. A técnica de hibridação utilizada nas espécies forrageiras necessitou de ajustes, devido a diferenças observadas em relação ao amendoim cultivado, entre elas o hábito de crescimento.The purpose of this work was to obtain forage peanut hybrids through artificial hybridization. The experiment was conducted in a screenhouse at Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Recursos Genéticos e Biotecnologia during the flowering period of Arachis pintoi Krap. & W. C. Gregory and A. repens Handro accessions. About 700 pollinations produced 27 fruit segments and the fertilization rates ranged from 1.1 to 12.9% for all cross combinations. The intraspecific hybrids produced F2 seeds, which did not occur to the interspecific hybrids. To effect the hybridization technique, adjustments were necessary to forage Arachis species, in relation to cultivated peanut, since differences in the growth habit were verified.

  3. Chronic bacterial prostatitis: efficacy of short-lasting antibiotic therapy with prulifloxacin (Unidrox®) in association with saw palmetto extract, lactobacillus sporogens and arbutin (Lactorepens®).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busetto, Gian Maria; Giovannone, Riccardo; Ferro, Matteo; Tricarico, Stefano; Del Giudice, Francesco; Matei, Deliu Victor; De Cobelli, Ottavio; Gentile, Vincenzo; De Berardinis, Ettore

    2014-07-19

    Bacterial prostatitis (BP) is a common condition accounting responsible for about 5-10% of all prostatitis cases; chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) classified as type II, are less common but is a condition that significantly hampers the quality of life, (QoL) because not only is it a physical condition but also a psychological distress. Commonly patients are treated with antibiotics alone, and in particular fluoroquinolones are suggested by the European Urology guidelines. This approach, although recommended, may not be enough. Thus, a multimodal approach to the prolonged antibiotic therapy may be helpful. 210 patients affected by chronic bacterial prostatitis were enrolled in the study. All patients were positive to Meares-Stamey test and symptoms duration was > 3 months. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of a long lasting therapy with a fluoroquinolone in association with a nutraceutical supplement (prulifloxacin 600 mg for 21 days and an association of Serenoa repens 320 mg, Lactobacillus Sporogens 200 mg, Arbutin 100 mg for 30 days). Patients were randomized in two groups (A and B) receiving respectively antibiotic alone and an association of antibiotic plus supplement. Biological recurrence at 2 months in Group A was observed in 21 patients (27.6%) and in Group B in 6 patients (7.8%). Uropathogens found at the first follow-up were for the majority Gram - (E. coli and Enterobacter spp.). A statistically significant difference was found at the time of the follow-up between Group A and B in the NIH-CPSI questionnaire score, symptoms evidence and serum PSA. Broad band, short-lasting antibiotic therapy in association with a nutritional supplement (serenoa repens, lactobacillus sporogens and arbutin) show better control and recurrence rate on patients affected by chronic bacterial prostatitits in comparison with antibiotic treatment alone. NCT02130713. Date of trial Registration: 30/04/2014.

  4. Modeling growth of three bakery product spoilage molds as a function of water activity, temperature and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnas, Stéphane; Onno, Bernard; Membré, Jeanne-Marie

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of water activity, pH and storage temperature on the growth of Eurotium repens, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium corylophilum, isolated from spoiled bakery products. Moreover, the behaviors of these three mold species were compared to assess whether a general modeling framework may be set and re-used in future research on bakery spoilage molds. The mold growth was modeled by building two distinct Gamma-type secondary models: one on the lag time for growth and another one on the radial growth rate. A set of 428 experimental growth curves was generated. The effect of temperature (15-35 °C), water activity (0.80-0.98) and pH (3-7) was assessed. Results showed that it was not possible to apply the same set of secondary model equations to the three mold species given that the growth rate varied significantly with the factors pH and water activity. In contrast, the temperature effect on both growth rate and lag time of the three mold species was described by the same equation. The equation structure and model parameter values of the Gamma models were also compared per mold species to assess whether a relationship between lag time and growth rate existed. There was no correlation between the two growth responses for E. repens, but a slight one for A. niger and P. corylophilum. These findings will help in determining bakery product shelf-life and guiding future work in the predictive mycology field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of modified dichloran 18% glycerol (DG18) agar for enumerating fungi in wheat flour: a collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuchat, L R; Hwang, C A

    1996-04-01

    Dichloran 18% glycerol agar base supplemented with 100 micrograms of chloramphenicol ml-1 (DG18 agar) was compared to DG18 agar supplemented with 100 micrograms of Triton X-301 ml-1 (DG18T) and DG18 agar supplemented with 1 microgram of iprodione [3-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-N-(1-methyl-ethyl)-2,4-dioxo-1-imidazolidine- carboxamide] ml-1 (DG18I agar) for enumeration of fungi in ten brands of wheat flour. As the flours contained low fungal populations, all were inoculated with two to four strains of xerophilic fungi (Aspergillus candidus, A. penicillioides, Eurotium amstelodami, E. intermedium, E. repens, E. rubrum, E. tonophilum, E. umbrosum and Wallemia sebi), after which counts ranged from 3.87 to 6.37 log10 CFU g-1. Significantly higher populations (p repens or E. tonophilum had also been inoculated into at least one of the three flours showing significantly higher numbers of CFU on DG18T agar. Analysis of collapsed data from all samples showed that DG18T agar was significantly better than DG18 or DG18I agars at p < 0.10 but not at p < 0.05. Coefficients of variation for reproducibility (among-laboratory variation) were 8.4%, 7.5% and 8.6%, respectively, for DG18, DG18T and DG18I agars. DG18I agar restricted colony development most, especially for Eurotium species. Naturally occurring Penicillium species grew equally well on DG18 and DG18T agars, whereas W. sebi grew well on all three media. DG18T agar was judged to be superior to DG18 and DG18I agars for enumerating fungi in wheat flours.

  6. Identification and quantification of antifungal compounds produced by lactic acid bacteria and propionibacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Lay, Céline; Coton, Emmanuel; Le Blay, Gwenaëlle; Chobert, Jean-Marc; Haertlé, Thomas; Choiset, Yvan; Van Long, Nicolas Nguyen; Meslet-Cladière, Laurence; Mounier, Jérôme

    2016-12-19

    Fungal growth in bakery products represents the most frequent cause of spoilage and leads to economic losses for industrials and consumers. Bacteria, such as lactic acid bacteria and propionibacteria, are commonly known to play an active role in preservation of fermented food, producing a large range of antifungal metabolites. In a previous study (Le Lay et al., 2016), an extensive screening performed both in vitro and in situ allowed for the selection of bacteria exhibiting an antifungal activity. In the present study, active supernatants against Penicillium corylophilum and Aspergillus niger were analyzed to identify and quantify the antifungal compounds associated with the observed activity. Supernatant treatments (pH neutralization, heating and addition of proteinase K) suggested that organic acids played the most important role in the antifungal activity of each tested supernatant. Different methods (HPLC, mass spectrometry, colorimetric and enzymatic assays) were then applied to analyze the supernatants and it was shown that the main antifungal compounds corresponded to lactic, acetic and propionic acids, ethanol and hydrogen peroxide, as well as other compounds present at low levels such as phenyllactic, hydroxyphenyllactic, azelaic and caproic acids. Based on these results, various combinations of the identified compounds were used to evaluate their effect on conidial germination and fungal growth of P. corylophilum and Eurotium repens. Some combinations presented the same activity than the bacterial culture supernatant thus confirming the involvement of the identified molecules in the antifungal activity. The obtained results suggested that acetic acid was mainly responsible for the antifungal activity against P. corylophilum and played an important role in E. repens inhibition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of temperature, water activity and pH on growth of some xerophilic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gock, Melissa A; Hocking, Ailsa D; Pitt, John I; Poulos, Peter G

    2003-02-25

    The combined effects of water activity (aw), pH and temperature on the germination and growth of seven xerophilic fungi important in the spoilage of baked goods and confectionery were examined. Eurotium rubrum, E. repens, Wallemia sebi, Aspergillus penicillioides, Penicillium roqueforti, Chrysosporium xerophilum and Xeromyces bisporus were grown at 25, 30 and 37 degrees C on media with pH values of 4.5, 5.5, 6.5 and 7.5 and a range of water activities (aw) from 0.92 to 0.70. The aw of the media was controlled with a mixture of equal parts of glucose and fructose. Temperature affected the minimum aw for germination for most species. For example, P. roqueforti germinated at 0.82 aw at 25 degrees C, 0.86 aw at 30 degrees C and was unable to germinate at 37 degrees C. E. repens germinated at 0.70 aw at 30 degrees C, but at 25 and 37 degrees C, its minimum aw for germination was 0.74. C. xerophilum and X. bisporus germinated at 0.70 aw at all three temperatures. The optimum growth occurred at 25 degrees C for P. roqueforti and W. sebi, at 30 degrees C for Eurotium species, A. penicillioides and X. bisporus and at 37 degrees C for C. xerophilum. These fungi all grew faster under acidic than neutral pH conditions. The data presented here provide a matrix that will be used in the development of a mathematical model for the prediction of the shelf life of baked goods and confectionery.

  8. Baseline element concentrations in soils and plants, Wattenmeer National Park, North and East Frisian Islands, Federal Republic of Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severson, R.C.; Gough, L.P.; van den Boom, G.

    1992-01-01

    Baseline element concentrations are given for dune grass (Ammophilia arenaria), willow (Salix repens), moss (Hylocomium splendens) and associated surface soils. Baseline and variability data for pH, ash, Al, As, Ba, C, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, La, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Nb, Nd, Ni, P, Pb, S, Sc, Se, Sr, Th, Ti, V, Y, Yb, and Zn are reported; however, not all variables are reported for all media because, in some media, certain elements were below the analytical detection limit. Spatial variation in element concentration between five Frisian Islands are given for each of the sample media. In general, only a few elements in each media showed statistically significant differences between the islands sampled. The measured concentrations in all sample media exhibited ranges that cannot be attributed to anthropogenic additions of trace elements, with the possible exception of Hg and Pb in surface soils.Baseline element concentrations are given for dune grass (Ammophilia arenaria), willow (Salix repens), moss (Hylocomium splendens) and associated surface soils. Baseline and variability data for pH, ash, Al, As, Ba, C, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, La, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Nb, Nd, Ni, P, Pb, S, Sc, Se, Sr, Th, Ti, V, Y, Yb, and Zn are reported; however, not all variables are reported for all media because, in some media, certain elements were below the analytical detection limit. Spatial variation in element concentration between five Frisian Islands are given for each of the sample media. In general, only a few elements in each media showed statistically significant differences between the islands sampled. The measured concentrations in all sample media exhibited ranges that cannot be attributed to anthropogenic additions of trace elements, with the possible exception of Hg and Pb in surface soils.

  9. [Effects of the additives and the combination of plants on Pb absorption, growth and quality of Dianthus superbus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao Yu; Li, Cheng; Ma, Si Yue; Li, Jian Heng

    2017-04-18

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, neighboring plants (Trifolium repens), addition of EDTA and phosphate fertilizer on the performance of Dianthus superbus grown on Pb contaminated soil. The growth and quality of D. superbus were investigated to provide a theoretical basis for the scientific cultivation of Chinese herbal medicine. The results showed that the D. superbus with AM resulted in a significant inhibition of Pb uptake (P<0.05), increase of root development and root/shoot ratio compared to untreated control plants, and with the highest content of active component. The content of emodin reached 6.5 mg·g -1 . When planting with T. repens the reducing effect of Pb absorption induced by AM fungi was insignificant. The quality of D. superbus decreased, and the emodin content decreased to 3.2 mg·g -1 , which was lower than that in the control group. However, D. superbus showed improved growth and active ingredients, and the lowest Pb content (1.3 mg·g -1 ) due to AM fungal inoculation. The addition of EDTA decreased the growth of D. superbus, but promoted the absorption of Pb, with the Pb content to 340.0 mg·g -1 . Calcium phosphate showed the ability to immobilize other heavy metals in the soil, therefore might be more suitable to be applied in the conditions of compound pollution. Considering all of the results, AM fungi play a positive role in protecting the safety and quality of Chinese herbal medicine.

  10. Aspectos estructurales y tipos de vegetación de la isla Mocagua, río Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prieto Adriana

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of some parameters of vegetation structure (coberture -%-, density and specific diversity is presented for plant formations in the Mocagua island (Colombian Amazonia. The structure of the vegetation types ranging from simple river beach zone, aquatic and floodplain environments, to complex arrangement in forest formations. The average number of individuals with DAP > 10 cm (58/0.1 ha is lower than other similar regions. In addition, we describe the types of vegetation founded according with floristic affinities, wich is related to the water content in the sustrata.Tha natural vegetation comprise from aquatic communities of Oxyearyum eubense - Pontederia rotundifolia, to continental ones of Rheedia madruno- Palieourea eroeea, Triehilia pallida - Sommera sabiceoides, phases of Montriehardia arboreseens and Ceeropia latíloba, Paspalum repens and Ceeropia latíloba, and Leptochloa seabra and Torulinium maeroeephalum.Se presentan los resultados de los análisis sobre parámetros estructurales de la vegetación (cobertura-%-, densidad y diversidad específica de las formaciones vegetales de la isla Mocagua (Amazonas, Colombia. La estructura de los tipos de vegetación diferenciados cubre desde los arreglos simples como la de las zonas de playa, ambientes lacustres e inundables, hasta arreglos complejos con diferentes estratos en formaciones boscosas. El número de individuos con DAP > 10 cm (prom.=58/0.1 ha en comparación con los valores en otras zonas es bajo. Los tipos de vegetación descritos obedecen en su distribución esencialmente al contenido de agua en el sustrato; la vegetación natural comprende desde comunidades acuáticas de Oxycaryum cubense - Pontederia rotundifolia, hasta las continentales de Rheedia. madruno - Palieourea eroeea, Triehilia pallida - Sommera sabieeoides y las fases de Montriehardia arboreseens y Ceeropia latiloba, Paspalum repens y Cecropia latiloba, y la de Leptochloa scabra y Torulinium maerocephalum.

  11. The Mycobiota of Air Inside and Outside the Meju Fermentation Room and the Origin of Meju Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Ho; Kim, Sun-Hwa; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Lee, Jong-Kyu; Hong, Seung-Beom

    2015-09-01

    The fungi on Meju are known to play an important role as degrader of macromolecule of soybeans. In order to elucidate the origin of fungi on traditional Meju, mycobiota of the air both inside and outside traditional Meju fermentation rooms was examined. From 11 samples of air collected from inside and outside of 7 Meju fermentation rooms, 37 genera and 90 species of fungi were identified. In outside air of the fermentation room, Cladosporium sp. and Cladosporium cladosporioides were the dominant species, followed by Cladosporium tenuissimum, Eurotium sp., Phoma sp., Sistotrema brinkmannii, Alternaria sp., Aspergillus fumigatus, Schizophyllum commune, and Penicillium glabrum. In inside air of the fermentation room, Cladosporium sp., Aspergillus oryzae, Penicillium chrysogenum, Asp. nidulans, Aspergillus sp., Cla. cladosporioides, Eurotium sp., Penicillium sp., Cla. tenuissimum, Asp. niger, Eur. herbariorum, Asp. sydowii, and Eur. repens were collected with high frequency. The concentrations of the genera Aspergillus, Eurotium, and Penicillium were significantly higher in inside air than outside air. From this result and those of previous reports, the origin of fungi present on Meju was inferred. Of the dominant fungal species present on Meju, Lichtheimia ramosa, Mucor circinelloides, Mucor racemosus, and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis are thought to be originated from outside air, because these species are not or are rarely isolated from rice straw and soybean; however, they were detected outside air of fermentation room and are species commonly found in indoor environments. However, Asp. oryzae, Pen. polonicum, Eur. repens, Pen. solitum, and Eur. chevalieri, which are frequently found on Meju, are common in rice straw and could be transferred from rice straw to Meju. The fungi grow and produce abundant spores during Meju fermentation, and after the spores accumulate in the air of fermentation room, they could influence mycobiota of Meju fermentation in the following

  12. Analysis of the Interactions of Botanical Extract Combinations Against the Viability of Prostate Cancer Cell Lines

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    Lynn S. Adams

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicines are often combinations of botanical extracts that are assumed to have additive or synergistic effects. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the effect of individual botanical extracts with combinations of extracts on prostate cell viability. We then modeled the interactions between botanical extracts in combination isobolographically. Scutellaria baicalensis, Rabdosia rubescens, Panax-pseudo ginseng, Dendranthema morifolium, Glycyrrhiza uralensis and Serenoa repens were collected, taxonomically identified and extracts prepared. Effects of the extracts on cell viability were quantitated in prostate cell lines using a luminescent ATP cell viability assay. Combinations of two botanical extracts of the four most active extracts were tested in the 22Rv1 cell line and their interactions assessed using isobolographic analysis. Each extract significantly inhibited the proliferation of prostate cell lines in a time- and dose-dependent manner except repens. The most active extracts, baicalensis, D. morifolium, G. uralensis and R. rubescens were tested as two-extract combinations. baicalensis and D. morifolium when combined were additive with a trend toward synergy, whereas D. morifolium and R. rubescens together were additive. The remaining two-extract combinations showed antagonism. The four extracts together were significantly more effective than the two-by-two combinations and the individual extracts alone. Combining the four herbal extracts significantly enhanced their activity in the cell lines tested compared with extracts alone. The less predictable nature of the two-way combinations suggests a need for careful characterization of the effects of each individual herb based on their intended use.

  13. Weed occurrence in Finnish coastal regions: a survey of organically cropped spring cereals

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    P. RIESINGER

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Weed communities of organically cropped spring cereal stands in the southern and the northwestern coastal regions of Finland (= south and northwest, respectively were compared with respect to number of species, frequency of occurrence, density and dry weight. Regional specialization of agricultural production along with differences in climate and soil properties were expected to generate differences in weed communities between south and northwest. Total and average numbers of species were higher in the south than in the northwest (33 vs. 26 and 15.6 vs. 10.0, respectively. Some rare species (e.g. Papaver dubium were found in the south. Fumaria officinalis and Lamium spp. were found only in the south. The densities and dry weights of Lapsana communis, Myosotis arvensis, Polygonum aviculare, Tripleurospermum inodorum and Vicia spp. were higher in the south, while the densities and dry weights of Elymus repens, Persicaria spp. and Spergula arvensis were higher in the northwest. Total density of weeds did not differ between south and northwest (average = 565 vs. 570 shoots m-2, respectively. Total dry weight of weeds was higher in the northwest compared with the south (average = 1594 vs. 697 kg ha-1, respectively, mainly due to the high dry weight of E. repens. The only variable that was dependent on the duration of organic farming was weed density in the south. The abundance of nitrophilous in relation to non-nitrophilous weed species was higher while the abundance of perennial ruderal and grassland weed species was lower compared with previous weed surveys. This can be regarded as the result of increasing cropping intensity on organic farms in Finland. Different weed communities call for the application of specific target-oriented weed management in the respective coastal regions.;

  14. The weed composition in an orchard as a result of long-term foliar herbicide application

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    Maria Licznar-Małańczuk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The weed composition and the dominance of individual species occurring in an orchard were assessed at the Research Station of the Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Poland, during the first 10 years after orchard establishment. ‘Ligol’ apple trees were planted in the spring of 2004 (3.5 × 1.2 m. Foliar herbicides were applied in 1 m wide tree rows twice or three times per each vegetation period. In the inter-row spaces, perennial grass was maintained. Ten years of maintenance of herbicide fallow contributed to a change in the weed composition in the orchard. It changed as a result of different responses of the most important weed species to the foliar herbicides. Total suppression of Elymus repens was observed in the first year after planting the trees. Convolvulus arvensis, Cirsium arvense, and other perennial weeds, completely disappeared in the succeeding periods. The maintenance of herbicide fallow did not affect the abundance of Taraxacum officinale. The percentage of the soil surface covered by Trifolium repens and Epilobium adenocaulon, perennial weeds with considerable tolerance to post-emergence herbicides, increased during the fruit-bearing period of the trees. The abundance of these weeds was significantly reduced only in the rows with the stronger growing trees on the semi-dwarf P 2 rootstock. Stellaria media was the dominant annual weed. Senecio vulgaris, Poa annua, Capsella bursa-pastoris, and Lamium spp. were also frequently observed. A significant increase in the abundance of annual and perennial weeds was found in the tree rows as a result of improved water availability after a period of high precipitation.

  15. Comportamento de espécies herbáceas em misturas de solo com diferentes graus de contaminação com metais pesados

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    Carneiro Marco Aurélio Carbone

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, em casa de vegetação, o comportamento de espécies herbáceas em relação ao excesso de Cd e Zn no solo. O gradiente de contaminação foi estabelecido a partir de mistura de solo contaminado com solo sem contaminação em diferentes proporções. As sementes foram semeadas em tubetes contendo 250 mL de solo, e após 90 dias as plantas foram colhidas e avaliadas. A maioria das espécies apresentou redução no crescimento com aumento da contaminação do solo e elevadas concentrações de Cd e Zn na matéria seca da parte aérea (MSPA, na mistura com 15% de solo contaminado. A espécie Pffafia sp. mostrou-se tolerante à contaminação, crescendo em misturas de solo contendo até 90 mg kg-1 de Cd e 1.450 mg kg-1 de zinco. Além disso, apresentou concentração superior a 100 mg kg-1 de Cd na MSPA, sendo considerada hiperacumuladora desse metal. Sida glaziovii, Bidens pilosa, Rhynchelytrum repens, Cenchrus echinatus e Nicandra physaloides, por sua vez, foram severamente afetadas pela contaminação, ao contrário de Trifolium repens, Euchlaena mexicana, Cynodon dactylon, Avena strigosa, Cenchrus ciliares e Cyperus sp. que apresentaram crescimento satisfatório. As espécies avaliadas mostram-se promissoras para estudos adicionais sobre a reabilitação de áreas contaminadas com metais pesados.

  16. GIS modeling for canine dirofilariosis risk assessment in central Italy

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    Michele Mortarino

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted in an area of central Italy in order to study the prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis and D. repens in dogs. Blood samples were collected from 283 dogs and examined using a modified Knott’s technique. In addition, in order to detect D. immitis occult infection, 203 serum samples were also analysed for D. immitis antigen detection. The results were analyzed in order to evaluate the behavioural and attitudinal risk factors. A geographical information system (GIS for the study area was constructed, utilizing the following data layers: administrative boundaries, elevation, temperature, rainfall and humidity. Microfilariae were detected in 32 of the 283 dogs surveyed, constituting a total Dirofilaria prevalence of 11.3%. In particular, 20 dogs (7.1% were positive for D. immitis and 12 dogs (4.2% for D. repens microfilariae. One case of D. immitis occult infection was also detected. Choroplethic municipal maps were drawn within the GIS in order to display the distribution of each Dirofilaria species in the study area. Statistical analysis showed a significant association between Dirofilaria infection and animal attitude (hunting/truffle dogs showed a higher prevalence compared to guard/pet dogs. A higher prevalence was also recorded in 2 to 5-years old dogs. Furthermore a GIS-based modelling of climatic data, collected from 5 meteorological stations in the study area, was performed to estimate the yearly number of D. immitis generations in the mosquito vector. The results of the model as depicted by GIS analysis was highly concordant with the territorial distribution of positive dogs and showed that D. immitis spreading is markedly influenced by season. The potential transmission period in the study area was found to be confined to summer months with a peak in July and August, as expected for a temperate region where summer season is the most favourable period for the parasite.

  17. Antagonistic interactions between plant competition and insect herbivory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schädler, Martin; Brandl, Roland; Haase, Josephine

    2007-06-01

    Interspecific competition between plants and herbivory by specialized insects can have synergistic effects on the growth and performance of the attacked host plant. We tested the hypothesis that competition between plants may also negatively affect the performance of herbivores as well as their top-down effect on the host plant. In such a case, the combined effects of competition and herbivory may be less than expected from a simple multiplicative response. In other words, competition and herbivory may interact antagonistically. In a greenhouse experiment, Poa annua was grown in the presence or absence of a competitor (either Plantago lanceolata or Trifolium repens), as well as with or without a Poa-specialist aphid herbivore. Both competition and herbivory negatively affected Poa growth. Competition also reduced aphid density on Poa. This effect could in part be explained by changes in the biomass and the nitrogen content of Poa shoots. In treatments with competitors, reduced aphid densities alleviated the negative effect of herbivory on above- and belowground Poa biomass. Hence, we were able to demonstrate an antagonistic interaction between plant-plant interspecific competition and herbivory. However, response indices suggested that antagonistic interactions between competition and herbivory were contingent on the identity of the competitor. We found the antagonistic effect only in treatments with T. repens as the competitor. We conclude that both competitor identity and the herbivore's ability to respond with changes in its density or activity to plant competition affect the magnitude and direction (synergistic vs. antagonistic) of the interaction between competition and herbivory on plant growth.

  18. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) and their relevance as disease vectors in the city of Vienna, Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebl, Karin; Zittra, Carina; Silbermayr, Katja; Obwaller, Adelheid; Berer, Dominik; Brugger, Katharina; Walter, Melanie; Pinior, Beate; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Rubel, Franz

    2015-02-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are important vectors for a wide range of pathogenic organisms. As large parts of the human population in developed countries live in cities, the occurrence of vector-borne diseases in urban areas is of particular interest for epidemiologists and public health authorities. In this study, we investigated the mosquito occurrence in the city of Vienna, Austria, in order to estimate the risk of transmission of mosquito-borne diseases. Mosquitoes were captured using different sampling techniques at 17 sites in the city of Vienna. Species belonging to the Culex pipiens complex (78.8 %) were most abundant, followed by Coquillettidia richiardii (10.2 %), Anopheles plumbeus (5.4 %), Aedes vexans (3.8 %), and Ochlerotatus sticticus (0.7 %). Individuals of the Cx. pipiens complex were found at 80.2 % of the trap sites, while 58.8 % of the trap sites were positive for Cq. richiardii and Ae. vexans. Oc. sticticus was captured at 35.3 % of the sites, and An. plumbeus only at 23.5 % of the trap sites. Cx. pipiens complex is known to be a potent vector and pathogens like West Nile virus (WNV), Usutu virus (USUV), Tahyna virus (TAHV), Sindbis virus (SINV), Plasmodium sp., and Dirofilaria repens can be transmitted by this species. Cq. richiardii is a known vector species for Batai virus (BATV), SINV, TAHV, and WNV, while Ae. vexans can transmit TAHV, USUV, WNV, and Dirofilaria repens. An. plumbeus and Oc. sticticus seem to play only a minor role in the transmission of vector-borne diseases in Vienna. WNV, which is already wide-spread in Europe, is likely to be the highest threat in Vienna as it can be transmitted by several of the most common species, has already been shown to pose a higher risk in cities, and has the possibility to cause severe illness.

  19. Dr. Roberto Miguel Klein Herbarium (FURB), Blumenau, Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gasper, André Luís; Vibrans, Alexander Christian; Funez, Luís Adriano; Rigon, Morilo José; Bittencourt, Felipe; Vieira, Carina

    2014-01-01

    The premise of this study is to present the collection of the FURB herbarium, its collection area and type specimens, as well as its projects and contributions to the flora of the Subtropical Atlantic Forest. The FURB herbarium currently has nearly 41,000 records of vascular plants and has the largest collection of lycophytes and ferns in Southern Brazil, with more than 8,000 records. More than 4,500 scanned images of 4,436 species are available online, and it is expected that the whole collection will be scanned in less than one year. There are 198 families of angiosperms, 33 of ferns, three of lycophytes and six of gymnosperms. All collections of the Floristic and Forest Inventory of Santa Catarina project are recorded in FURB, which represents almost 35,000 herbarium specimens. The families with the largest number of species are: Cyperaceae (109 species), Rubiaceae (129), Solanaceae (131), Poaceae (155), Melastomataceae (157), Myrtaceae (257), Orchidaceae (288), Fabaceae (323), and Asteraceae (426), between angiosperms. Among the ferns and lycophytes are: Hymenophyllaceae (30), Thelypteridaceae (31), Aspleniaceae (32), Dryopteridaceae (43), Pteridaceae (54) and Polypodiaceae (60). There are five type specimens among them: one holotype, one isotype and three paratypes. To date, the FURB herbarium has donated 19,521 herbarium duplicates for identification or expansion of other herbaria.

  20. Postglacial vegetation history of Mitkof Island, Alexander Archipelago, southeastern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ager, Thomas A.; Carrara, Paul E.; Smith, Jane L.; Anne, Victoria; Johnson, Joni

    2010-03-01

    An AMS radiocarbon-dated pollen record from a peat deposit on Mitkof Island, southeastern Alaska provides a vegetation history spanning ˜12,900 cal yr BP to the present. Late Wisconsin glaciers covered the entire island; deglaciation occurred > 15,400 cal yr BP. The earliest known vegetation to develop on the island (˜12,900 cal yr BP) was pine woodland ( Pinus contorta) with alder ( Alnus), sedges (Cyperaceae) and ferns (Polypodiaceae type). By ˜12,240 cal yr BP, Sitka spruce ( Picea sitchensis) began to colonize the island while pine woodland declined. By ˜11,200 cal yr BP, mountain hemlock ( Tsuga mertensiana) began to spread across the island. Sitka spruce-mountain hemlock forests dominated the lowland landscapes of the island until ˜10,180 cal yr BP, when western hemlock ( Tsuga heterophylla) began to colonize, and soon became the dominant tree species. Rising percentages of pine, sedge, and sphagnum after ˜7100 cal yr BP may reflect an expansion of peat bog habitats as regional climate began to shift to cooler, wetter conditions. A decline in alders at that time suggests that coastal forests had spread into the island's uplands, replacing large areas of alder thickets. Cedars ( Chamaecyparis nootkatensis, Thuja plicata) appeared on Mitkof Island during the late Holocene.

  1. Tropical vegetation evidence for rapid sea level changes associated with Heinrich Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Catalina; Dupont, Lydie M, E-mail: catalina@uni-bremen.d, E-mail: dupont@uni-bremen.d [MARUM - Centre for Marine Environmental Sciences, University of Bremen, Leobener Strasse, D-28359 Germany (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    A Cariaco Basin pollen record shows the development of tropical salt marshes during marine isotope stage 3. Rapid and abrupt expansions of salt marsh vegetation in tropical South America are associated with north Atlantic Heinrich Events stadials (HE-stadials). Intervals of salt marsh expansion have an internal structure, which consists of a recurrent alternation of species that starts with pollen increments of Chenopodiaceae, that are followed by increments of grasses, and subsequently by increments of Cyperaceae. This pattern suggests a successional process that is determined by the close relationship between sea-level and plant community dynamics. The salt tolerant Chenopodiaceae, indicate hypersaline intertidal environments, which were most likely promoted by extremely dry atmospheric conditions. Rapid sea-level rise characterizes the onset of HE-stadials, causing the continued recruitment of pioneer species, which are the only ones tolerating rapid rates of disturbance. Once sea-level rise decelerates, marsh plants are able to trap and stabilize sediments, favouring the establishment of more competitive species. These results add to the scarce knowledge on the dynamics of tropical salt marsh ecosystems, and provide independent paleoclimatic evidence on sea-level changes following Antarctic climate variability.

  2. Functional consequences of climate change-induced plant species loss in a tallgrass prairie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craine, Joseph M; Nippert, Jesse B; Towne, E Gene; Tucker, Sally; Kembel, Steven W; Skibbe, Adam; McLauchlan, Kendra K

    2011-04-01

    Future climate change is likely to reduce the floristic diversity of grasslands. Yet the potential consequences of climate-induced plant species losses for the functioning of these ecosystems are poorly understood. We investigated how climate change might alter the functional composition of grasslands for Konza Prairie, a diverse tallgrass prairie in central North America. With species-specific climate envelopes, we show that a reduction in mean annual precipitation would preferentially remove species that are more abundant in the more productive lowland positions at Konza. As such, decreases in precipitation could reduce productivity not only by reducing water availability but by also removing species that inhabit the most productive areas and respond the most to climate variability. In support of this prediction, data on species abundance at Konza over 16 years show that species that are more abundant in lowlands than uplands are preferentially reduced in years with low precipitation. Climate change is likely to also preferentially remove species from particular functional groups and clades. For example, warming is forecast to preferentially remove perennials over annuals as well as Cyperaceae species. Despite these predictions, climate change is unlikely to unilaterally alter the functional composition of the tallgrass prairie flora, as many functional traits such as physiological drought tolerance and maximum photosynthetic rates showed little relationship with climate envelope parameters. In all, although climatic drying would indirectly alter grassland productivity through species loss patterns, the insurance afforded by biodiversity to ecosystem function is likely to be sustained in the face of climate change.

  3. PLANTAS MEDICINALES USADAS POR LOS COGUI EN EL RÍO PALOMINO, SIERRA NEVADA DE SANTA MARTA (COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDUINO CARBONÓ-DELAHOZ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de registrar conocimientos tradicionales sobre plantas medicinales entre los Cogui o Kággaba en la cuenca del río Palomino, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (Colombia, se evaluó el uso de la flora con la aplicación de una técnica etnobotánica cuantitativa. Mediante entrevistas a mamos o sacerdotes-jefes, durante recorridos en áreas silvestres, cultivadas y huertos caseros en diferentes zonas climáticas de la cuenca, se obtuvo información de 189 especies utilizadas, incluidas en 162 géneros y 77 familias, así como el modo de uso y la forma de preparación para el tratamiento de enfermedades comunes. Las familias Asteraceae y Leguminosae registraron el mayor número de especies útiles. La evaluación con el índice de importancia relativa (IR permitió establecer que Ladenbergia moritziana (Rubiaceae, Stevia lucida (Asteraceae, Aniba sp. (Lauraceae, Erechtites hieracifolia (Asteraceae y Carex sp. (Cyperaceae son las especies con mayores valores de importancia. El 89 % de las plantas utilizadas es obtenido de espacios silvestres, lo que sugiere un conocimiento amplio de la diversidad vegetal local y el ejercicio de una práctica etnomédica.

  4. Genetic modification of wetland grasses for phytoremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czako, M.; Liang Dali; Marton, L. [Dept. of Biological Sciences, Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Feng Xianzhong; He Yuke [National Lab. of Plant Molecular Genetics, Shanghai Inst. of Plant Physiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, SH (China)

    2005-04-01

    Wetland grasses and grass-like monocots are very important natural remediators of pollutants. Their genetic improvement is an important task because introduction of key transgenes can dramatically improve their remediation potential. Tissue culture is prerequisite for genetic manipulation, and methods are reported here for in vitro culture and micropropagation of a number of wetland plants of various ecological requirements such as salt marsh, brackish water, riverbanks, and various zones of lakes and ponds, and bogs. The monocots represent numerous genera in various families such as Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Juncaceae, and Typhaceae. The reported species are in various stages of micropropagation and Arundo donax is scaled for mass propagation for selecting elite lines for pytoremediation. Transfer of key genes for mercury phytoremediation into the salt marsh cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) is also reported here. All but one transgenic lines contained both the organomercurial lyase (merB) and mercuric reductase (merA) sequences showing that co-introduction into Spartina of two genes from separate Agrobacterium strains is possible. (orig.)

  5. Endozoochory of seeds and invertebrates by migratory waterbirds in Oklahoma, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Andy J.; Frisch, Dagmar; Michot, Thomas C.; Allain, Larry K.; Barrow, Wylie C.

    2013-01-01

    Given their abundance and migratory behavior, waterbirds have major potential for dispersing plants and invertebrates within North America, yet their role as vectors remains poorly understood. We investigated the numbers and types of invertebrates and seeds within freshly collected faecal samples (n = 22) of migratory dabbling ducks and shorebirds in November 2008 in two parts of Lake Texoma in southern Oklahoma. Killdeer Charadrius vociferus were transporting a higher number and diversity of both plants and invertebrates than the green-winged teal Anas carolinensis. Ten plant taxa and six invertebrate taxa were identified to at least genus level, although viability was not confirmed for most of these taxa. Bryozoan statoblasts (from four species not previously recorded from Oklahoma) were especially abundant in killdeer faeces, while the ostracod Candona simpsoni was detected as a live adult in torpor in the teal faeces. Cyperaceae and Juncaceae were the most abundant plant families represented and Cyperus strigosus seeds germinated after extraction from killdeer faeces. This snapshot study underlines the importance of waterbirds as vectors of passive dispersal of many organisms and the need for more research in this discipline.

  6. Triacylglycerols in some underutilised tropical seed oils 1. Systematic studies of ten oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adebowale, K.O.; Adebowale, Y.A.; Nicholson, G.

    2002-05-01

    Triacylglycerols composition of ten lesser known and underutilised tropical seed oils have been determined. The seed oils include Monodora tenuifolia, Monodora myristica, Colocynthis citrullus, Cyperus esculentus, Cucumeropsis edulis, Andenopus breviflorus, Telfairia occidentalis, Blighia sapida, Antiaris africana and Sesame indicum. In the Moreaceae family (M. tenuifolia, M. myristica) the dominant triacylglycerol are OPO/POO, LLO, OOL, and OOO. They accounted for over 60% of the total triacylglycerol content in the oils. In the Cyperaceae family (C. esculentus), OPP/POO, POL and OOO accounted for over 80% of the total triacylglycerol content. In the Cucurbitaceae family, SSP was the dominant triacylglycerol specie in A. breviflorus, while OPO/POO and OOO were the dominant species in C. citrullus and C. edulis. Blighia sapida recorded a different distribution of triacylglycerols composition. PLL occurred at the highest concentration, while other high molecular weight triacylglycerols were also identified in the oil. They include, SSA, OSA, LSA, OAA and LLA. Analysis of A. antiaris oil showed a different pattern in the distribution of the triacylglycerols. LaLaM, MMLa and LaLaLa accounted for about 80% of the total triacylglycerols. This result reflected the fatty acid composition of the oil. Lauric acid (C12:0) and Myristic acid (C14:0) accounted for 71.5% of the total fatty acid. The possible use of the oils as cocoa butter equivalents CBEs and cocoa butter substitutes CBSs are discussed. (author)

  7. Heterogeneidade florística das fitocenoses de restingas nos estados do Rio de Janeiro e Espírito Santo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Silva Magnago

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo comparar florísticamente as formações vegetacionais que compõe o ecossistema Restinga dos Estados do Rio de Janeiro e Espírito Santo. Para isto foi realizado uma compilação de dados de levantamentos florísticos e fitossociológicos, sendo utilizado para esta análise o índice de similaridade de Jaccard, onde as interpretações se deram pela média de grupo (UPGMA. As 11 formações analisadas apresentaram uma riqueza total de 990 espécies, distribuídas em 141 famílias, sendo Fabaceae (73, Myrtaceae (59, Rubiaceae (48, Orchidaceae (44, Cyperaceae (38, Poaceae (36, Bromeliaceae (35, Euphorbiaceae (30, Asteraceae (30 as de maior riqueza. A similaridade entre as formações foi baixa, sendo o maior valor de 33%. Os resultados obtidos denotam uma alta heterogeneidade florística existente nas formações que compõe o ecossistema Restinga nos dois Estados analisados, sendo esta determinada por diferentes fatores que atuam em cada fitocenose.

  8. Floristic diversity of the soil weed seed bank in a rice-growing area of Brazil: in situ and ex situ evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Luiz Ribeiro Mesquita

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the ex situ and in situ floristic diversity of the soil weed seed bank of a rice field in northeastern Brazil. In a rice field in the county of Bacabal, located in the state of Maranhão, thirty 25-m² plots were laid out. From 15 plots, soil samples (6/plot; n = 90 were taken with a soil probe (25 × 16 × 3 cm and placed in aluminum trays in the greenhouse. From the remaining 15 plots, weed samples (6/plot; n = 90 were taken with the same soil probe. The number of seeds was estimated by germination. We evaluated the numbers of species and individuals, as well as the density, frequency, abundance and importance value (IV for each species. Diversity was computed by the Shannon index (H'. We recorded 13,892 individuals (among 20 families, 40 genera and 60 species, of which 11,530 (among 50 species germinated ex situ and 2,362 (among 34 species germinated in situ. The family Cyperaceae had the highest number of species (16, followed by Poaceae (10. The dominant species, in situ and ex situ, were Schoenoplectus juncoides (IV=47.4% and Ludwigia octovalvis (IV=34.8%, respectively. Floristic diversity was higher ex situ (H'=2.66. The information obtained here could help determine the infestation potential of these species, which could lead to improved management strategies.

  9. Hydrological Conditions Affect the Interspecific Interaction between Two Emergent Wetland Species

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    Jian Zhou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological conditions determine the distribution of plant species in wetlands, where conditions such as water depth and hydrological fluctuations are expected to affect the interspecific interactions among emergent wetland species. To test such effects, we conducted a greenhouse experiment with three treatment categories, interspecific interaction (mixed culture or monoculture, water depth (10 or 30 cm depth, and hydrological fluctuation (static or fluctuating water level, and two common emergent wetland plant species, Scirpus planiculumis Fr. (Cyperaceae and Phragmites australis var. baiyangdiansis (Gramineae. An increase in the water depth significantly restrained the growth of both S. planiculumis and P. australis, while hydrological fluctuations did not obviously alter the growth of either species. In addition, both water depth and hydrological fluctuations significantly affected the interspecific interaction between these two wetland species. P. australis benefited from interspecific interaction under increasing water depth and hydrological fluctuations, and the RII values were clearly positive for plants grown at a water depth that fluctuated around 30 cm. The results may have some implications for understanding how S. planiculumis and P. australis, as well as wetland communities, respond to the natural variation or human modification of hydrological conditions.

  10. Late quaternary savannah history of the Colombian Llanos Orientales from Lagunas Chenevo and Mozambique: A transects synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berrio, Juan Carlos; Hooghiemstra, Henry; Behling, Hermann; Botero, Pedro; Klaas Van Der Borg

    2002-01-01

    A 7000-yr pollen record a 90cm core from Chenevo (4 degrade 05' N, 70 degrade 21' W; 150 m alt.) and a 3500-yr pollen record of a 285-cm core from Mozambique (3 degrade 58' N, 73 degrade 03' W; 175 m alt.) both from the savannahs of the Llanos Orientales, Colombia, are presented. The records show dynamics between open savannah (Poaceae, Cyperaceae), woody savannah (Byrsonima, Curatella, Didymopanax) palm swamp (Mauritia, Mauritiella), and forest and gallery forest taxa. These reflect plant available moisture, i.e. precipitation and length of the dry season, and more latterly human impact. The record from Chenevo shows the following development: from 7260 to 6930 14 Cyr BP en savanna vegetation and gallery forest along the drainage system, from 6930 to 4000 14 C yr BP forest and gallery forest expanded, from 5500 14 C yr BP Mauritia palm forest increased and particularly so from 4000 to 2380 14 C yr BP also in combination with gallery forest expansion, from 2380 14 C yr BP to present day gallery forest, Mauritia and Mauritiella palm forest is most abundant

  11. Summer periphyton community in two streams of the Pampa Plain, Argentina

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    Esquius Karina Soledad

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available During summer 2001, periphytic algae associated to the giant bulrush Schoenoplectus californicus (Cyperaceae were studied in Los Padres and La Tapera streams (Pampa Plain, Argentina. One hundred and seven taxa were determined, being 76 of them common to both sampling sites. Diversity, total number of taxa and abundance of periphytic algae were greater in stems from the effl uent (La Tapera Stream. Diatoms were the most important group in both streams, according to their richness and abundance. Periphyton from the infl uent (Los Padres Stream was characterized by the dominance of the diatom Navicula cryptocephala and the codominance of another three algae. In contrast in La Tapera Stream, not any species could be recognized as dominant. Periphyton community architecture was more complex in the effl uent, with a high development of fi ve physiognomic groups. In conclusion, algal community attached to S. californicus differs in terms of diversity, abundance and community complexity, possibly due to the diffe rences registered in certain abiotic parameters, mainly in water transparency and velocity.

  12. Limnological and botanical characterization of larval habitats for two primary malarial vectors, Anopheles albimanus and Anopheles pseudopunctipennis, in coastal areas of Chiapas State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, H M; Rejmankova, E; Arredondo-Jim'enez, J I; Roberts, D R; Rodr'iguez, M H

    1990-12-01

    Field surveys of mosquito breeding sites on the Pacific coastal plain and foothill regions of southern Chiapas, Mexico, were carried out in the dry and wet seasons of 1988. At each site, selected environmental variables were measured or estimated, presence and percent cover of aquatic plants recorded, a water sample collected for subsequent analyses, and 10-30 dips made for mosquito larvae. Logistic regression and discriminant analyses revealed that the occurrence of Anopheles albimanus larvae in both the wet and dry seasons was positively associated with planktonic algae and negatively associated with altitude. In the dry season, An. albimanus larvae were largely restricted to the margins of permanent water bodies and were associated with the presence of floating plants, particularly Eichhornia crassipes. During the wet season An. albimanus larvae were positively associated with emergent plants, particularly seasonally flooded Cyperaceae, and phosphorus (PO4) concentrations, and were negatively associated with abundant filamentous algae, high levels of total suspended solids (TSS) and Salvinia. In the dry season, An. pseudopunctipennis larvae were positively associated with filamentous algae, altitude and the presence of Heteranthera if encountered in a riverine setting, and were negatively associated with water depth. During the wet season, flooding eliminated typical flood plain An. pseudopunctipennis habitats, and larvae were rarely encountered.

  13. Photosynthetic characteristics of an amphibious plant, Eleocharis vivipara: Expression of C4 and C3 modes in contrasting environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Osamu; Samejima, Muneaki; Muto, Shoshi; Miyachi, Shigetoh

    1988-01-01

    Eleocharis vivipara Link, a freshwater amphibious leafless plant belonging to the Cyperaceae can grow in both terrestrial and submersed aquatic conditions. Two forms of E. vivipara obtained from these contrasting environments were examined for the characteristics associated with C 4 and C 3 photosynthesis. In the terrestrial form, the culms, which are photosynthetic organs, possess a Kranz-type anatomy typical of C 4 plants, and well-developed bundle-sheath cells contain numerous large chloroplasts. In the submersed form, the culms possess anatomical features characteristic of submersed aquatic plants, and the reduced bundle-sheath cells contain only a few small chloroplasts. 14 C pulse- 12 C chase experiments showed that the terrestrial form and the submersed form fix carbon by way of the C 4 pathway, with aspartate (40%) and malate (35%) as the main primary products, and by way of the C 3 pathway, with 3-phosphoglyceric acid (53%) and sugar phosphates (14%) as the main primary products, respectively. The terrestrial form showed photosynthetic enzyme activities typical of the NAD-malic enzyme-C 4 subtype, whereas the submersed form showed decreased activities of key C 4 enzymes and an increased ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase activity. These data suggest that this species can differentiate into the C 4 mode under terrestrial conditions and into the C 3 mode under submersed conditions

  14. Soil weed seed bank in situ and ex situ at a smallholder field in Maranhão State, northeastern Brazil

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    Mário Luiz Ribeiro Mesquita

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to assess the density, floristic composition,  phytosociology and diversity of a soil weed seed bank ex situ by germination in a greenhouse and in situ by weed sampling on a smallholder corn field located in Lago Verde County, Maranhão State. Fifteen pairs of 25 m2 plots were designated. In half of these plots, 90 soil samples were collected with an open metal template measuring 25 x 16 x 3 cm and placed in a greenhouse to germinate. In the other half, 90 weed samples were collected using the same metal template. We recorded a total of 1,998 individuals from 40 species, 31 genera and 16 families, from which 659 individuals germinated in situ and 1,339 exsitu. Density was higher ex situ, with 372 plants m-2. The Cyperaceae family had the highest floristic richness with nine species, followed by the Poaceae with six. The dominant species based on the Importance Value Index were Lindernia crustacea (IVI 27.7% in situ and Scleria lithosperma (IVI 37.0% ex situ. Floristic diversity was higher ex situ, with H’ = 2.66 nats ind-1. These results could help predict infestation potential and could lead to improved weed management strategies in corn-growing areas on smallholdings in Maranhão State, northeastern Brazil.

  15. Flora vascular y vegetación del humedal de Santa Rosa (Chancay, Lima

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    Dámaso W. Ramirez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo muestra los resultados de un estudio de la flora y vegetación del humedal de Santa Rosa (Chancay, Lima realizado entre los años 2007 y 2009. La flora vascular estuvo conformada por 66 especies agrupadas en 57 géneros y 26 familias. Las Poaceae (16, Cyperaceae (6 y Asteraceae (6 fueron las familias más diversas y constituyeron el 42% de la flora total. En comparación con los principales humedales de Lima, Santa Rosa presenta un mayor número de especies (Pantanos de Villa (65, Paraíso (26 y Medio Mundo (16. El análisis de similitud florística muestra que Santa Rosa es más semejante a Los Pantanos de Villa (Lima. El Análisis de Correspondencia (AC determinó tres comunidades vegetales predominantes: a Comunidad de acuáticas flotantes, b Totoral y asociadas y c Vega Mixta. Se considera que los cambios en la estructura de las comunidades vegetales y el número de especies introducidas son indicadores del impacto antrópico al que está sometido este ecosistema. Se identifican las fuentes de impacto humano y se considera a la agricultura como la principal amenaza del humedal.

  16. Opal phytolith and isotopic studies of "Restinga" communities of Maricá, Brazil, as a modern reference for paleobiogeoclimatic reconstruction

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    Cátia Pereira dos Santos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe Maricá restinga, located in the eastern part of the Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil, corresponds to one of the few remaining preserved areas of the state's coastal plain. This paper reports on a study of the Maricá restinga plant communities and also presents an identification of the main plant species present in each community, with the objective of establishing reference collections, by the methods of the proxies opal phytoliths and stable carbon isotopes, for paleoenvironmental reconstructions of this coastal area during the Quaternary. Six plant communities, distributed perpendicularly to the coast line over sandy barriers, lagoonal plain, lagoon margin and weathered basement were identified: halophile-psamophile, scrub, herbaceous swamp, slack, shrubby vegetation and dry forest. In general, the plant species analyzed in each community presented low productivity of opal phytoliths, as only the Poaceae, Cyperaceae and Arecaceae families produce a great amount and diversity of morphotypes of opal phytoliths. The results of the analysis of stable carbon isotopes in sediments indicated a predominance of C3 or a mixture of C3 and C4 plants, presenting a close correlation with the results found in plants collected in each community. In conclusion, it was verified that the carbon isotope analysis associated with that of the opal phytoliths are good proxies for the reconstruction of vegetation in the study area.

  17. Caracterización palinológica de las mieles de la llanura del río Senguerr (Chubut-Argentina

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    Alicia Forcone

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Forcone, A. & Tellería, M. C. 2000. Caracterización palinológica de las mieles de la llanuradel río Senguerr (Chubut-Argentina. Darwiniana 38(3-4: 267-271.Con el fin de conocer las plantas melíferas de la llanura del río Senguerr, se realizó el análisispalinológico de 19 muestras de miel. El estudio permitió identificar 57 tipos morfológicos y demostrarque las principales fuentes de néctar pertenecen a las familias Fabaceae, Rosaceae, Brassicaceae yAsteraceae. Del total de muestras analizadas 9 resultaron mixtas y 10 monoflorales, de estas últimas, 8fueron de Melilotus sp. y 2 de Rosaceae. Las mieles estudiadas pueden ser caracterizadas por unaasociación polínica de Trifolieae, Brassicaceae, Rosaceae, Acaena sp., Glycyrrhiza astragalina Gillies exHook. & Arn. and Cyperaceae. En la mayoría de las muestras el contenido polínico fue inferior a 2000granos/gramo

  18. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, DNA Damage Protective, Cytotoxic and Antibacterial Activities of Cyperus rotundus Rhizomes Essential Oil against Foodborne Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qing-Ping; Cao, Xin-Ming; Hao, Dong-Lin; Zhang, Liang-Liang

    2017-01-01

    Cyperus rotundus L. (Cyperaceae) is a medicinal herb traditionally used to treat various clinical conditions at home. In this study, chemical composition of Cyperus rotundus rhizomes essential oil, and in vitro antioxidant, DNA damage protective and cytotoxic activities as well as antibacterial activity against foodborne pathogens were investigated. Results showed that α-cyperone (38.46%), cyperene (12.84%) and α-selinene (11.66%) were the major components of the essential oil. The essential oil had an excellent antioxidant activity, the protective effect against DNA damage, and cytotoxic effects on the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell, as well as antibacterial activity against several foodborne pathogens. These biological activities were dose-dependent, increasing with higher dosage in a certain concentration range. The antibacterial effects of essential oil were greater against Gram-positive bacteria as compared to Gram-negative bacteria, and the antibacterial effects were significantly influenced by incubation time and concentration. These results may provide biological evidence for the practical application of the C. rotundus rhizomes essential oil in food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:28338066

  19. Floristic composition of the riparian forest in the lower Gramame river, Paraíba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago da Silva Farias

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2015v28n3p23 Riparian forest has a key ecological and economic significance to productive chains associated with it. This study aimed to conduct a floristic survey of riparian forest stretches in the Gramame river, state of Paraíba, Brazilian Northeast region, and analyze the floristic similarity with Brazilian riparian vegetation fragments. We found 136 species belonging to 106 genera and 43 families. The most representative families were: Fabaceae (19 spp., Cyperaceae (16 spp., and Rubiaceae (11 spp.. The predominant habit was herbaceous and the best represented biological spectrum was camephyte. Regarding the geographic distribution, there was a predominance of widely distributed species associated with the Neotropical province. The distribution patterns have shown a low similarity between areas, and largely distributed species stand out. Similarity analysis pointed out that the area was floristically related to other two coastal areas in the Brazilian Northeast and Southeast regions. Only species typically related to estuarine environments might explain the floristic connections detected.

  20. Mid-late Holocene environments of Agua Buena locality (34{sup 0}50'S; 69{sup 0}56'W), Mendoza, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, Diego; Paez, M M [Laboratorio de Paleoecologia y Palinologia, Departamento de Biologia, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Funes 3350, (B7602AYL) Mar del Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Mehl, A; Zarate, M A, E-mail: dnavarro@mdp.edu.a, E-mail: navarro.dd@gmail.co [INCITAP - Instituto de Ciencias de la Tierra y Ambientales de La Pampa. CONICET- Universidad Nacional de La Pampa, Uruguay 151, (L6300CLB) Santa Rosa, La Pampa (Argentina)

    2010-03-15

    In southern South America the acquisition of high-quality Holocene paleoclimate data is a priority due to the paucity of complete, continuous and well dated records. Here we report preliminary results from a combined sedimentological and palynological study of an alluvial fan sequence and the laterally connected sedimentary deposits of the Vega de la Cueva profile at Agua Buena east of the Andes in central Argentina. The main geomorphological units of the area were identified and mapped based on satellite image analysis and multiple field surveys. The sedimentological and pollen results allowed us to reconstruct the development of some environments. The Agua Buena record corresponds to the distal facies of the Arroyo Bayo alluvial fan starting the aggradation process prior to ca. 4100 cal yr BP. The organic-rich levels found were formed during the development of wetlands (vegas) dominated by Cyperaceae, Juncaceae and Poaceae. These highly productive environments with almost permanent water saturation were important between 4100 and 2800 cal yr BP, indicating more stable conditions. After 2800 cal yr BP, the organic content was comparatively lower with increasing sedimentation rates that are indicative of higher fluvial discharges. This information is fundamental to interpret both the pollen and charcoal records of the area and to evaluate their representativeness and potential to reconstruct past local and/or regional vegetation.

  1. Economic Potentialities of Some Aquatic Plants Growing in North East Nile Delta, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Ziada, M. E.; Mashaly, I. A.; Abd El-Monem, M.; Torky, M.

    The present study provides quantitative assessment of the vegetative yield, growth characteristics, metabolic products, elemental composition and antimicrobial bioactivity of five common macrohydrophytes: Bolboschoenus glaucus (Cyperaceae), Veronica anagallis-aquatica (Scrophulariaceae), Nymphaea lotus (Nymphaceae), Pistia stratiotes (Araceae) and Myriophyllum spicatum (Haloragidaceae). These plants tend to flourish vegetatively during the summer season (June-August). Their relative growth rate, relative assimilating surface growth rate and net assimilation rate were higher during early vegetative stage (February-May). The highest percentages of protein and lipids content were recorded in Nymphaea, while the crude fiber content was higher in Bolboschoenus than in other species. The macronutrient elements were detected with relatively high concentration and sodium cation appeared to be an essential accumulatent as compared with K, Ca and Mg. Myriophyllum appeared to be the major accumulator species of heavy metals, while Pistia appeared to be the minor one. Sterols, alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins and resins were detected in these plants. Nymphyaea was found to have the most effective antimicrobial activities than the other studied species.

  2. Impact of logging on a mangrove swamp in South Mexico: cost / benefit analysis

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    Cristian Tovilla Hernández

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental changes caused by logging in a mangrove swamp were studied in Barra de Tecoanapa, Guerrero, Mexico. Original forest included Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa, Avicennia germinans and halophytic vegetation, and produced wood (164.03 m3/ha and organic matter (3.9 g/m2/day. A total of 3.5 tons of wood per year were harvested from this area. Later, an average of 2 555 kg of maize per planting cycle were obtained (market value of 88 USD. Succession when the area was abandoned included strictly facultative and glycophyte halophytes (16 families, Cyperaceae and Poaceae were the best represented. After logging, temperatures increased 13 °C in the soil and 11°C in the air, whereas salinity reached 52 psu in the dry season. These modified soil color and sand content increased from 42.6 to 63.4%. Logging was deleterious to species, habitat, biogeochemical and biological cycles, organic matter production, seeds, young plants, genetic exchange conservation of soil and its fertility, coastal protection, and aesthetic value; 3 000 m2 had eroded as the river advanced towards the deforested area (the cost/benefit analysis showed a ratio of 246: 1. There was long-term economic loss for the community and only 30% of the site has recovered after five years.

  3. Mineral content as a basis for food selection by western lowland gorillas in a forest clearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magliocca, Florence; Gautier-Hion, Annie

    2002-06-01

    The forests in northwest Republic of Congo contain a number of herbaceous swamp clearings that provide foraging sites for lowland gorillas (G.g. gorilla). A 10-month study at the Maya Nord clearing (Parc National d'Odzala) showed that feeding activities occupied 72% of the time visiting gorillas spent on the clearing. They fed on four plant species: Enydra fluctuans (Asteraceae), Cyperus sp., Pycreus mundtii, and Rhynchospora corymbosa (Cyperaceae) among the 45 species recorded on the clearing. These clearing food species have higher mineral contents (especially Na and Ca) than the dominant Marantaceae species (Haumania liebrechtsiana) that constituted a staple food plant for gorillas in this forest. They also have higher potassium contents and contain less lignin than non-eaten clearing items/species. Finally, the most actively searched for clearing food (Enydra fluctuans) was characterized by the highest amount of Na and Ca. These results suggest that the mineral content (especially in Na, Ca, and/or K) could determine the feeding selectivity of gorillas at the clearing. They also tend to confirm that the amount of fiber plays a deterrent role in food selectivity, as has been found by many authors. The high density of gorillas in that region could result from the combination of the large areas of Marantaceae forests that provide abundant though monotonous food, and the number of clearings that provide sufficient mineral supplies. Clearings should thus be considered as key habitats for the conservation of gorillas. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Mid-late Holocene environments of Agua Buena locality (34050'S; 69056'W), Mendoza, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, Diego; Paez, M M; Mehl, A; Zarate, M A

    2010-01-01

    In southern South America the acquisition of high-quality Holocene paleoclimate data is a priority due to the paucity of complete, continuous and well dated records. Here we report preliminary results from a combined sedimentological and palynological study of an alluvial fan sequence and the laterally connected sedimentary deposits of the Vega de la Cueva profile at Agua Buena east of the Andes in central Argentina. The main geomorphological units of the area were identified and mapped based on satellite image analysis and multiple field surveys. The sedimentological and pollen results allowed us to reconstruct the development of some environments. The Agua Buena record corresponds to the distal facies of the Arroyo Bayo alluvial fan starting the aggradation process prior to ca. 4100 cal yr BP. The organic-rich levels found were formed during the development of wetlands (vegas) dominated by Cyperaceae, Juncaceae and Poaceae. These highly productive environments with almost permanent water saturation were important between 4100 and 2800 cal yr BP, indicating more stable conditions. After 2800 cal yr BP, the organic content was comparatively lower with increasing sedimentation rates that are indicative of higher fluvial discharges. This information is fundamental to interpret both the pollen and charcoal records of the area and to evaluate their representativeness and potential to reconstruct past local and/or regional vegetation.

  5. Rural herbaceous plant diversity under different land uses in North Zhejiang Province%浙北地区不同土地利用下乡村草本层植物多样性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴灏; 张建锋; 陈光才; 汪庆兵; 王丽; 张颖

    2016-01-01

    , farming area for comparing plant diversity un-der different artificial habits, and three parameters such as Shannon-Wiener index, Simpson index, Sorensen index were employed. The results showed that based on the investigation, there were 162 species including 47 families, 123 genera, were found in all the habits. The principal species was from Compositae and Gramineae, accounted for 31.48% of the total. The highest plant diversity was in farming area, Shannon-wiener index value reaching 2.76 and Simpson index value being 0.91, Sorensen index value of 0.57, the same with rivers. From the farming area, rivers, gardens to artificial forest habitat, the value of herbaceous species diversity overall decreased. Moreover, taking green-ing measures would lead to herbaceous species reduction. For example, from the paddy field to farming area habitat, the main herb family and genus composition did not change significantly, plants of Cyperaceae, Compositae and Gra-mineae still occupied the main body. The composition of the main species of herbaceous plant community had changed, the herb species of Cyperaceae, Compositae and Gramineae were 11, 8 and 15 in the paddy field habitat, Cyperaceae, Compositae and Gramineae species were 4, 19 and 17 in the farming area habitat. Comparison of two kinds of habitats in herbaceous species composition, species number of cyperaceae reduced, compositae species number increased. Ad-ditionally, Alternanthera philoxeroides, Solidago canadensis and Dysphania ambrosioides, total three invasive species were found in four habitats, and their important values were so low that they could not constitute a significant impact on native species. By the research it implied that different land use types seriously affected the species composition and species diversity of herb community. The herbaceous community changed with land use types variation, diversification of land use could contribute native herbaceous species diversity protection. Hence, to study on the

  6. Late Otiran sedimentation and glacial chronology in the Warwick valley, southeast Nelson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mabin, M.C.G.

    1983-01-01

    Approximately 14 m of sediment are exposed in a road cutting beneath a landslide deposit in the Warwick valley, southeast Nelson, New Zealand. Three radiocarbon dates and 5 pollen spectra were obtained from organic horizons in these sediments. The dates indicate that lacustrine sedimentation predominated from before 17 500 until 14 450 years ago. This was interrupted by a brief period of gravel aggradation between 17 500 and 16 650 years ago, which is attributed to a glacial advance. Vegetation at the site was consistently dominated by Cyperaceae, with some Gramineae, suggesting a bleak, treeless landscape. Correlation of this information with other radiocarbon dated sites indicates the need for some revision of the chronology of the late Otira Glaciation. A late phase of the Kumara 2 2 advance occurred between 17 000 and 16 000 years ago, and the Kumara 3 1 advance did not occur until after about 15 000 years ago. The end of the Otira Glaciation probably occurred between 13 000 and 12 500 years ago. (auth)

  7. Palaeoenvironment and human impact in modifying vegetation at Mt St John, Auckland Isthmus, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horrocks, M.; Nichol, S.L.; D'Costa, D.M.; Shane, P.; Prior, C.

    2005-01-01

    A 2.34 m sediment profile from the base of the crater of Mt St John volcano (a small basaltic cone on Auckland Isthmus) provides a partial environmental record of the Late Quaternary. The record highlights potential age control problems with sediment cores taken directly from archaeological sites. Two distal tephras were recorded: 9.5 ka Rotoma and 7 ka Tuhua. A date of 16 309 ± 90 14 C yr BP from the basal scoria of the profile provides a minimum date for the eruption of Mt St John. Pollen was present only in the upper 0.33 m of the profile, in a layer of peat and soil which caps highly weathered silts and clays eroded from the crater walls. In early Polynesian times (most likely after c. 800 14 C yr BP), vegetation of the crater swamp was dominated by Cyperaceae sedges and Paesia ground fern. Dacrycarpus trees were also present. Podocarp-hardwood forest, dominated by Metrosideros, grew on the rim and inner slopes of the crater. Elaeocarpus, Griselinia, and Cyathea were also present. A decline in Dacrycarpus pollen and an accelerated erosion rate mark Polynesian forest clearance within the crater. Typha became a major component of the swamp vegetation during the Late Polynesian-European era. (author). 30 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Digitizing information for wider reach through 'him-Padap-Sanklan', an e-inventory of Himalayan flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available 'him-Padap-Sankalan' is a digital directory of floral resources of Himachal Pradesh H.P., a biologically rich state of the Himalayan Biodiversity hotspot. It provides information on nomenclature, taxonomic classification, local name(s, trade name(s and uses of 3348 plant species along with maps showing their distribution in H.P. The information housed in 'Him-Padap-Sankalan' has been compiled from published sources, primarily the Flora of Himachal Pradesh: Analysis. The Graphic User Interface of the 'him-Padap-Sankalan' has been prepared using ASP.Net having MS-Access database in the back end. The 'scientific names', 'trade names', 'local names', 'synonyms', 'genus' and 'species' are the various search modules of 'him-Padap-Sankalan', which can be accessed using an internet browser connected through local area network. Analysis of information reveals that of the 201 families, Poaceae, Asteraceae, Papilionaceae, Scrophularariaceae, Rosaceae, Cyperaceae, Lamiaceae, Ranunculaceae, Brassicaceae and Apiaceae are the ten dominat families in the state. 24 families and 18 genera are common to all the 12 districts of H.P. The maximum number of families, genera and species are in Shimla district and the least in Bilaspur district of H.P.

  9. Feeding pattern and use of reproductive habitat of the Striped toad Rhinella crucifer (Anura: Bufonidae from Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo B. Ferreira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Diet composition, foraging mode, and using of reproductive habitat of Rhinella crucifer was studied in an artificial pond in Espírito Santo, Brazil. The favored substrate was leaf litter, followed by Cyperaceae/Poaceae. Calling sites, preferred for 23.3 % (n = 7 of the observed toads, were within the water, with only the head not submerged. We analyzed a total of 61 specimens, mainly males (98.5% male and 1.5% female. Seven categories of prey were found in the stomach contents: Coleoptera, Hymenoptera (Formicidae, Isoptera, Lepidoptera, Orthoptera, Gastropoda (Mollusca, Opilionida (Arachnida. Our studies indicate that the diet of Rhinella crucifer consists mainly of terrestrial colonial arthropods. Formicidae was the predominant food item in frequency of occurrence, number of prey and weight. Isoptera and Coleoptera were also relevant in terms of weight. Neither large ontogenetic dietary nor seasonal shifts were observed in the population studied. Our results suggest that no intraspecific food resource partitioning occurs in adult or juveniles. Rhinella crucifer adults avoid competition inhabiting different home range habitats and seem to be ant-specialist with a wide foraging mode.

  10. Vascular flora of saline lakes in the southern high plains of Texas and eastern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, David J.; Conway, Warren C.; Haukos, David A.; Caskey, Amber D.

    2013-01-01

    Saline lakes and freshwater playas form the principal surface hydrological feature of the High Plains of the Southern Great Plains. Saline lakes number less than 50 and historically functioned as discharge wetlands with relatively consistent water availability due to the presence of one or more springs. Currently, less than ten saline lakes contain functional springs. A survey of vascular plants at six saline lakes in the Southern High Plains of northwest Texas and one in eastern New Mexico during May and September 2009 resulted in a checklist of 49 species representing 16 families and 40 genera. The four families with the most species were Asteraceae (12), Amaranthaceae (8), Cyperaceae (5), and Poaceae (12). Non-native species (Bromus catharticus, Poa compressa, Polypogon monspeliensis, Sonchus oleraceus, Kochia scoparia, and Tamarix ramosissima) accounted for 10% of the total species recorded. Whereas nearly 350 species of vascular plants have been identified in playas in the Southern High Plains, saline lakes contain a fraction of this species richness. The Southern High Plains saline lake flora is regionally unique, containing taxa not found in playas, with species composition that is more similar to temperate desert wetlands of the Intermountain Region and Gulf Coastal Plain of North America.

  11. Biodiversity and Phytosociological Studies of Upstream and Downstream Riparian Areas of Pakistan: Special Reference to Taunsa Wildlife Sanctuary and Keti Shah Forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arfeen, R. Z.; Saleem, A.; Mirza, S. N.; Tayyab, H. M.; Akmal, M.; Afzal, O.

    2015-01-01

    Pakistan riparian zone mostly belongs to Sindh and Punjab provinces and prone to climatic problems and anthropogenic activities. The research was conduct to estimate and compare the structure and composition of riverine floral diversity in low riparian zone of River Indus. The data was collected from Keti Shah forest and Taunsa wildlife sanctuary. Total 14259 plants/individuals were recorded, which belong to 54 plant species with 18 different families. In Taunsa pre-monsoon survey, total 30 plant species were found with 4476 plants from 16 different families. In Taunsa post-monsoon survey total 3348 individuals were recorded from 20 plant species and 9 families. Similarly, in Keti Shah forest, total 3975 individual were recorded from 22 species and 11 families during the pre-monsoon season and 2460 plants were recorded in post-monsoon season, belonging to 16 species and 10 families. These species mostly belong to Fabaceae, Poaceae, Cyperaceae and Asclepiadaceae. Different phytosociological parameters indicate Tamarix dioca, Cynodon dactylon, Desmostachya bipinnata, Imperata cylindrica, Fimbristylis hispidula, Acacia nilotica, Phragmites karka, Tamarix sp. and Saccharum bengalense as dominant species. The biodiversity in upstream and downstream areas were rich in pre-monsoon season in comparison to post-monsoon season in surveyed areas. This study is useful for management of the area in the future as conservation strategies can be made through considering the adaptive tree species in future plantation and endangered species can be conserved. (author)

  12. Late Holocene environmental reconstructions and their implications on flood events, typhoon, and agricultural activities in NE Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.-C.; Behling, H.; Lee, T.-Q.; Li, H.-C.; Huh, C.-A.; Shiau, L.-J.; Chang, Y.-P.

    2014-10-01

    We reconstructed paleoenvironmental changes from a sediment archive of a lake in the floodplain of the Ilan Plain of NE Taiwan on multi-decadal resolution for the last ca. 1900 years. On the basis of pollen and diatom records, we evaluated past floods, typhoons, and agricultural activities in this area which are sensitive to the hydrological conditions in the western Pacific. Considering the high sedimentation rates with low microfossil preservations in our sedimentary record, multiple flood events were. identified during the period AD 100-1400. During the Little Ice Age phase 1 (LIA 1 - AD 1400-1620), the abundant occurrences of wetland plant (Cyperaceae) and diatom frustules imply less flood events under stable climate conditions in this period. Between AD 500 and 700 and the Little Ice Age phase 2 (LIA 2 - AD 1630-1850), the frequent typhoons were inferred by coarse sediments and planktonic diatoms, which represented more dynamical climate conditions than in the LIA 1. By comparing our results with the reconstructed changes in tropical hydrological conditions, we suggested that the local hydrology in NE Taiwan is strongly influenced by typhoon-triggered heavy rainfalls, which could be influenced by the variation of global temperature, the expansion of the Pacific warm pool, and the intensification of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events.

  13. Late Otiran sedimentation and glacial chronology in the Warwick valley, southeast Nelson

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mabin, M C.G. [Canterbury Univ., Christchurch (New Zealand). Dept. of Geology

    1983-01-01

    Approximately 14 m of sediment are exposed in a road cutting beneath a landslide deposit in the Warwick valley, southeast Nelson, New Zealand. Three radiocarbon dates and 5 pollen spectra were obtained from organic horizons in these sediments. The dates indicate that lacustrine sedimentation predominated from before 17,500 until 14,450 years ago. This was interrupted by a brief period of gravel aggradation between 17,500 and 16,650 years ago, which is attributed to a glacial advance. Vegetation at the site was consistently dominated by Cyperaceae, with some Gramineae, suggesting a bleak, treeless landscape. Correlation of this information with other radiocarbon dated sites indicates the need for some revision of the chronology of the late Otira Glaciation. A late phase of the Kumara 2/sub 2/ advance occurred between 17,000 and 16,000 years ago, and the Kumara 3/sub 1/ advance did not occur until after about 15,000 years ago. The end of the Otira Glaciation probably occurred between 13,000 and 12,500 years ago.

  14. Holocene vegetation and climate change recorded in alpine bog sediments from the Borreguiles de la Virgen, Sierra Nevada, southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Moreno, Gonzalo; Anderson, R. Scott

    2012-01-01

    High-resolution pollen and magnetic susceptibility (MS) analyses have been carried out on a sediment core taken from a high-elevation alpine bog area located in Sierra Nevada, southern Spain. The earliest part of the record, from 8200 to about 7000 cal yr BP, is characterized by the highest abundance of arboreal pollen and Pediastrum, indicating the warmest and wettest conditions in the area at that time. The pollen record shows a progressive aridification since 7000 cal yr BP that occurred in two steps, first shown by a decrease in Pinus, replaced by Poaceae from 7000 to 4600 cal yr BP and then by Cyperaceae, Artemisia and Amaranthaceae from 4600 to 1200 cal yr BP. Pediastrum also decreased progressively and totally disappeared at ca. 3000 yr ago. The progressive aridification is punctuated by periodically enhanced drought at ca. 6500, 5200 and 4000 cal yr BP that coincide in timing and duration with well-known dry events in the Mediterranean and other areas. Since 1200 cal yr BP, several changes are observed in the vegetation that probably indicate the high-impact of humans in the Sierra Nevada, with pasturing leading to nutrient enrichment and eutrophication of the bog, Pinus reforestation and Olea cultivation at lower elevations.

  15. [Spatial and temporal dynamics of the weed community in the Zoysia matrella lawn].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia-Qi; Li, You-Han; Zeng, Ying; Xie, Xin-Ming

    2014-02-01

    The heterogeneity of species composition is one of the main attributes in weed community dynamics. Based on species frequency and power law, this paper studied the variations of weed community species composition and spatial heterogeneity in a Zoysia matrella lawn in Guangzhou at different time. The results showed that there were 43 weed species belonging to 19 families in the Z. matrella lawn from 2007 to 2009, in which Gramineae, Compositae, Cyperaceae and Rubiaceae had a comparative advantage. Perennial weeds accounted for the largest proportion of weeds and increased gradually in the three years. Weed communities distributed in higher heterogeneity than in a random model. Dominant weeds varied with season and displayed regularity in the order of 'dicotyledon-monocotyledon-dicotyledon weeds' and 'perennial-annual-perennial weeds'. The spatial heterogeneity of weed community in Z. matrella lawn was higher in summer than in winter. The diversity and evenness of weed community were higher in summer and autumn than in winter and spring. The number of weed species with high heterogeneity in summer was higher than in the other seasons. The spatial heterogeneity and diversity of weed community had no significant change in the three years, while the evenness of weed community had the tendency to decline gradually.

  16. The sedimentary sequence from the Lake Ķūži outcrop, central Latvia: implications for late glacial stratigraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiiu Koff

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Sediment samples from an outcrop in the near-shore area of Lake Ķūži (Vidzeme Heights, Central Latvia were investigated using palaeobotanical (pollen and macrofossil analysis and lithological (grain-size analysis methods and accelerator mass spectrometry 14C dating. A dark, organic-rich sediment layer was found below 1.7 m of sandy layers approximately 30 cm above the present lake level. Radiocarbon dating of a wood sample from the lowermost layer (11 050 ± 60 14C BP, 13 107–12 721 cal BP shows that the layer is of late glacial age. The composition of the pollen spectra is characterized by Betula nana, Cyperaceae pollen and spores of Equisetum, confirming that the lowermost sediments were formed during the late glacial. Fossils of obligate aquatic organisms in the upper layer, which include oospores of Characeae and seeds of Potamogeton, indicate an open water environment. Pollen of Myriophyllum and Potamogeton and non-pollen palynomorphs, such as algal Botryococcus and Pediastrum cf. boryanum, confirm this conclusion. The pollen assemblage from the greyish loam layer following this lacustrine phase shows a pattern characteristic of the Younger Dryas vegetation before the start of the real expansion of birch forests at the beginning of the Holocene.

  17. Spesies Tumbuhan Penyusun Vegetasi Lantai di Wilayah Restorasi Taman Nasional Gunung Merapi di Ngablak, Magelang, Jawa Tengah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purnomo Purnomo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation restoration by Mount Merapi National Park (TNGM in Ngablak, Magelang, Central Java need the floristic data composition of understory vegetation. The objectives of this research were to identify and to determine the importance values of each plants species that composed of that restoration area. Sample collections were conducted using survey method for their morphological characters as voucher specimens that were used for species identification. Vegetation analysis was conducted using the quadratic method; shrubs (5x5 m2, grasses and herbs (1x1 m2, and importance values were analysed using relative frequencies and densities. The result shows that understory vegetation on the restoration area in Ngablak was composed of 60 seed plant species from 18 plant families. There were 7 plant families that dominate the region; Papilionaceae (13 species, Asteraceae (11, Poaceae (Grasses (10, Cyperaceae (Sedges (5, Amaranthaceae (3, Mimosaceae (3 and Commelinaceae (3. Plants species that have important value more than 25% in this restoration area were Cymbopogon citratus (sereh, Mimosa pudica (Putri malu, Gomphrena serrata (Bunga kancing, Pannisetum purpureum (Rumput gajah, Ageratum conyzoides (Wedusan, dan Euphatorium inulifolium (kirinyuh. The external factors that influence the growth of the understory vegetation are pH of soil and soil moisture.

  18. Surface pollen and its relationship to vegetation in the Zoige Basin, eastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Furong; Zhao, Yan; Sun, Jinghui; Zhao, Wenwei; Guo, Xiaoli; Zhang, Ke

    2011-09-01

    We use a data set of 23 surface pollen samples from moss polsters in the Zoige Basin to explore the relationship between modern pollen assemblages and contemporary vegetation patterns. The surface pollen samples spanned four types of plant communities: Carex muliensis marsh, Stipa and Kobresia meadow, Carex-dominated forb meadow and Sibiraea angustata scrub. Principal-components analysis (PCA) was used to determine the relationships between modern pollen and vegetation and environmental variables. The results show that the pollen assemblages of surface moss samples generally reflect the features of the modern vegetation, basically similar in the vegetation types and the dominant genera; however, they don't show a very clear distinction between different communities. Our results also demonstrate that pollen representation of different families or genus varied. Some tree taxa, such as Pinus and Betula, and herb types, such as Artemisia are over-represented, while Asteraceae, Ranunculaceae and Cyperaceae are moderately represented, and Poaceae and Rosaceae are usually under-represented in our study region. PCA results indicate that the distribution of vegetation in the Zoige Basin is mainly controlled by precipitation and altitude.

  19. Floristic and ecological characterization of habitat types on an inselberg in Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza F. A. de Paula

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Inselbergs are granitic or gneissic rock outcrops, distributed mainly in tropical and subtropical regions. They are considered terrestrial islands because of their strong spatial and ecological isolation, thus harboring a set of distinct plant communities that differ from the surrounding matrix. In Brazil, inselbergs scattered in the Atlantic Forest contain unusually high levels of plant species richness and endemism. This study aimed to inventory species of vascular plants and to describe the main habitat types found on an inselberg located in the state of Minas Gerais, in southeastern Brazil. A total of 89 species of vascular plants were recorded (belonging to 37 families, of which six were new to science. The richest family was Bromeliaceae (10 spp., followed by Cyperaceae (seven spp., Orchidaceae and Poaceae (six spp. each. Life forms were distributed in different proportions between habitats, which suggested distinct microenvironments on the inselberg. In general, habitats under similar environmental stress shared common species and life-form proportions. We argue that floristic inventories are still necessary for the development of conservation strategies and management of the unique vegetation on inselbergs in Brazil.

  20. Late Holocene paleoenvironments of the floodplain of the Solimões River, Central Amazonia, based on the palynological record of Lake Cabaliana

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    Natália de Paula Sá

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The core PD-67 of 160 cm depth was collected from the delta of Lake Cabaliana situated on the Solimões River. Seventeen samples were removed for palynological and sedimentological analysis and three for radiocarbon analysis. Two dry periods, both in the Late Holocene, were observed (2800-2550 cal yr BP, 1450-550 cal yr BP separated by a wetter phase (2550-1450 cal yr BP. In 2800-2550 cal yr BP, varzea forests of Alchornea, Symmeria, Cecropia, Alternanthera and Asteraceae were predominant. Beginning in 2,550-1450 cal yr BP, the varzea was characterized by pioneer elements, such as Cassia, Laetia, Mabea, Symmeria and Cecropia, and by the expansion of Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Sagittaria, Montrichardia and Asteraceae. In 1450-550 cal yr BP the succession of varzea continued with Pseudobombax, Laetia, Luehea/Lueheopsis and Ryanaea increasing simultaneously with the terra firme vegetation of Rutaceae, Sapotaceae, Styrax, Scleronema, Anthurium, Araceae, pteridophytes and Pariana. The successional dynamics at Lake Cabaliana indicated that the local varzea had become established recently, and is composed of a mosaic of different successional stages of vegetation influenced mainly by flood pulse and variation in rainfall. It is therefore possible to propose that the recent climate history of Central Amazonia reflects changes in rainfall patterns in the basin.