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Sample records for fuelling elm pacing

  1. Pellet fuelling of plasmas with ELM mitigation by resonant magnetic perturbations in MAST

    CERN Document Server

    Valovic, M; Garzotti, L; Gurl, C; Kirk, A; Naylor, G; Patel, A; Scannell, R; Thornton, A J

    2013-01-01

    Shallow fuelling pellets are injected from the high field side into plasmas in which ELMs have been mitigated using external magnetic perturbation coils. The data are compared with ideal assumptions in the ITER fuelling model, namely that mitigated ELMs are not affected by fuelling pellets. Firstly it is shown that during the pellet evaporation an ELM is triggered, during which the amount particle loss could be larger (factor ~1.5) than the particle loss during an ELM which was not induced by pellet. Secondly, a favourable example is shown in which post-pellet particle losses due to mitigated ELMs are similar to the non-pellet case, however unfavourable counter-examples also exist.

  2. First observation of ELM pacing with vertical jogs in a spherical torus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerhardt, S.P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Ahn, Joon-Wook [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Canik, John [ORNL; Maingi, R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Bell, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Gates, D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Goldston, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Hawryluk, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Le Blanc, B. P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Menard, J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Sontag, Aaron C [ORNL; Sabbagh, S. A. [Columbia University; Tritz, K. [Johns Hopkins University

    2010-01-01

    Experiments in a number of conventional aspect ratio tokamaks have been successful in pacing edge localized modes (ELMs) by rapid vertical jogging of the plasma. This paper demonstrates the first pacing of ELMs in a spherical torus plasma. Applied 30 Hz vertical jogs synchronized the ELMs with the upward motion of the plasma. 45 Hz jogs also lead to an increase in the ELM frequency, though the synchronization of the ELMs and jogs was unclear. A reduction in the ELM energy was observed at the higher driven ELM frequencies.

  3. First observation of ELM pacing with vertical jogs in a spherical torus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, S. P.; Ahn, J.-W.; Canik, J. M.; Maingi, R.; Bell, R.; Gates, D.; Goldston, R.; Hawryluk, R.; Le Blanc, B. P.; Menard, J.; Sontag, A. C.; Sabbagh, S.; Tritz, K.

    2010-06-01

    Experiments in a number of conventional aspect ratio tokamaks have been successful in pacing edge localized modes (ELMs) by rapid vertical jogging of the plasma. This paper demonstrates the first pacing of ELMs in a spherical torus plasma. Applied 30 Hz vertical jogs synchronized the ELMs with the upward motion of the plasma. 45 Hz jogs also lead to an increase in the ELM frequency, though the synchronization of the ELMs and jogs was unclear. A reduction in the ELM energy was observed at the higher driven ELM frequencies.

  4. First Observation Of ELM Pacing With Vertical Jogs In A Spherical Torus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerhardt, S P; Canik, J M; Maingi, R; Bell, R; Gates, d; Goldston, R; Hawryluk, R; Le Blanc, B P; Menard, J; Sontag, A C; Sabbagh, S

    2010-07-15

    Experiments in a number of conventional aspect ratio tokamaks have been successful in pacing edge localized modes (ELMs) by rapid vertical jogging of the plasma. This paper demonstrates the first pacing of ELMs in a spherical torus plasma. Applied 30 Hz vertical jogs synchronized the ELMs with the upward motion of the plasma. 45 Hz jogs also lead to an increase in the ELM frequency, though the synchronization of the ELMs and jogs was unclear. A reduction in the ELM energy was observed at the higher driven ELM frequencies. __________________________________________________

  5. NSTX ELM Pacing and L-H Threshold Experiments for ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canik, J. M.; Maingi, R.; Sontag, A. C.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Kaye, S.; Bell, R. E.; Gates, D.; Goldston, R.; Leblanc, B. P.; Menard, J.; Park, J.-K.; Evans, T.; Osborne, T.; Sabbagh, S.; Unterberg, E. A.

    2009-11-01

    We present a summary of recent edge-localized mode (ELM) pacing and L-H power threshold (PLH) experiments performed in NSTX in support of ITER. ELM triggering using 3D magnetic perturbations was used to perform pacing during ELM-free H-modes induced by lithium conditioning, mitigating the impurity accumulation typically observed in these conditions. The waveform of the applied field has been tailored to provide high reliability triggering at frequencies of >60 Hz to reduce the average ELM size. ELM pacing was also performed using vertical position oscillations, with the ELM frequency increased to ˜30 Hz from a natural frequency of ˜15 Hz. PLH is reduced by ˜50% at low triangularity, and also decreased by ˜50% during discharge with thick lithium wall coatings. PLH was observed to increase strongly with plasma current during sustained H-modes. The influence of heating method, non-axisymmetric fields, and magnetic balance on PLH will be presented.

  6. Utilizing solid impurity granules for ELM pacing in NSTX-U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunsford, Robert; Roquemore, L.; Jaworski, M. A.; Kaita, R.; Maingi, R.; NSTX-U Team

    2015-11-01

    Periodic edge localized modes (ELMs) rapidly transport stored energy from the edge plasma to the divertor. These events result in abrupt heating of the plasma facing components (PFCs) which reduces their effective lifetime as well as generating a strong impurity influx. If the frequency of these ELMs can be increased through controlled triggering, also known as pacing, then the inverse relationship between the peak heat flux and the frequency of the ELMs can be utilized to prevent material damage that could result from otherwise unmitigated ELMs. At NSTX, the ability of small (300 - 1000 micron) impurity granules to trigger and pace these ELMs is being explored. In these experiments, ELMs are triggered by seeding a density perturbation within the edge-pedestal region through low speed injection and ablation of impurity granules, thus generating a localized instability. Granules are dropped from a reservoir and transit a vertical flight tube at which point a rotating impeller imparts horizontal momentum into the falling granules. This drives them into the edge of the discharge at speeds ranging from 50-150 m/s and average injection frequencies of up to 200 Hz depending upon the settings of the injector. Results from the initial laboratory injection tests of lithium, boron carbide (B4C) and vitreous carbon granules and their subsequent implementation in NSTX-U experiments will be discussed. Work supported by DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  7. Pellet Fueling, ELM pacing, and Disruption Mitigation Technology Development for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baylor, Larry R [ORNL; Combs, Stephen Kirk [ORNL; Foust, Charles R [ORNL; Jernigan, Thomas C [ORNL; Meitner, S. J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Parks, P. B. [General Atomics; Caughman, John B [ORNL; Maruyama, S. [ITER International Team, Garching, Germany; Qualls, A L [ORNL; Rasmussen, David A [ORNL; ThomasJr., C. E. [Third Dimension Technologies, LLC, Knoxville, TN

    2009-01-01

    Plasma fueling with pellet injection, pacing of edge localized modes (ELMs) by small frequent pellets, and disruption mitigation with gas jets or injected pellets are some of the most important technological capabilities needed for successful operation of ITER. Tools are being developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory that can be employed on ITER to provide the necessary core pellet fueling and the mitigation of ELMs and disruptions. Here we present progress on the development of the technology to provide reliable high throughput inner wall pellet fueling, pellet ELM pacing with high frequency small pellets, and disruption mitigation with gas jets and pellets. Examples of how these tools can be employed on ITER are discussed.

  8. Divertor load footprint of ELMs in pellet triggering and pacing experiments at JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frigione, D., E-mail: domenico.frigione@frascati.enea.it [Unità Tecnica Fusione, ENEA C.R. Frascati, via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Garzotti, L. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Lennholm, M. [EFDA CSU, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Alper, B. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Artaserse, G. [Unità Tecnica Fusione, ENEA C.R. Frascati, via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Bennett, P. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Giovannozzi, E. [Unità Tecnica Fusione, ENEA C.R. Frascati, via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Eich, T. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Garching (Germany); Kocsis, G. [WIGNER RCP RMI, POB 49, 1525 Budapest (Hungary); Lang, P.T. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Garching (Germany); Maddaluno, G. [Unità Tecnica Fusione, ENEA C.R. Frascati, via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Mooney, R. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Rack, M. [Institut für Energieforschung – Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Sips, G. [EFDA CSU, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Tvalashvili, G. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Viola, B. [Unità Tecnica Fusione, ENEA C.R. Frascati, via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Wilkes, D. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-15

    An investigation of pellet pacing and triggering of Edge Localized Modes (ELMs) was carried out in the frame of ELM mitigation studies aimed at reducing their damaging effects on the plasma-facing components (PFCs). The divertor power load footprint of triggered ELMs was compared with gas puffing controlled ELMs. Small pellets, corresponding to a few per cent of the target plasma particle inventory, were used to minimize the fueling effect and the total particle throughput. There is no evidence that pellets can reduce the divertor power load with respect to gas fueling when operating at the same ELM frequency. The line average density and the energy confinement time remained constant when the gas was progressively substituted by pellets. The launch from the Vertical High Field Side (VHFS) confirmed to be more efficient in ELM triggering than from the Low Field Side (LFS) while the power load footprint remained the same both in time evolution and in spatial distribution when changing the injection geometry.

  9. ELM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gould, Cathryn M; Diella, Francesca; Via, Allegra

    2010-01-01

    to reduce or deprecate false positive matches. Results are graphically displayed in a 'Bar Code' format, which also displays known instances from homologous proteins through a novel 'Instance Mapper' protocol based on PHI-BLAST. ELM server output provides links to the ELM annotation as well as to a number...

  10. Analysis of fuelling requirements in ITER H-modes with SOLPS-EPED1 derived scalings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polevoi, A. R.; Loarte, A.; Kukushkin, A. S.; Pacher, H. D.; Pacher, G. W.; Köchl, F.

    2017-02-01

    Fuelling requirements for ITER are analysed in relation to pellet fuelling and ELM pacing, and a divertor power load control consistent with the ITER pumping and fuel throughput capabilities. The plasma parameters at the separatrix and the particle sources are derived from scalings based on SOLPS simulations. Effective transport coefficients in the H-mode pedestal are derived from EPED1 + SOLPS scalings for the pedestal height and width. 1.5D transport is simulated in the ASTRA framework. The operating window for ITER DT plasmas with the required fusion performance and level of ELM, and divertor power load control compatible with ITER fuelling and pumping capabilities, is determined. It is shown that the flexibility of the ITER fuelling systems, comprising pellet and gas injection systems, enables operation with Q  =  10, which was found to be marginal in previous studies following a similar approach but with different assumptions. The present assessment shows that a reduction of by a factor ~2 (from 9 to 5  ×  1019 m-3) in 15 MA H-mode plasmas leads to a reduction in the required pellet fuelling rate by a factor of four. Results of the analysis of the fuelling requirements for a range of ITER scenarios are found to be similar to those obtained with the JINTRAC code that included 2D modelling of the edge plasma.

  11. Hydrogen Fuelling Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothuizen, Erasmus Damgaard

    This thesis concerns hydrogen fuelling stations from an overall system perspective. The study investigates thermodynamics and energy consumption of hydrogen fuelling stations for fuelling vehicles for personal transportation. For the study a library concerning the components in a hydrogen fuelling...... station has been developed in Dymola. The models include the fuelling protocol (J2601) for hydrogen vehicles made by Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) and the thermodynamic property library CoolProp is used for retrieving state point. The components in the hydrogen fuelling library are building up....... A system consisting of one high pressure storage tank is used to investigate the thermodynamics of fuelling a hydrogen vehicle. The results show that the decisive parameter for how the fuelling proceeds is the pressure loss in the vehicle. The single tank fuelling system is compared to a cascade fuelling...

  12. Moderation of target loads using fuelling and impurity seeding on JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddison, G., E-mail: geoff.maddison@ccfe.ac.uk [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Giroud, C. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); McCormick, K. [Max-Planck IPP, EURATOM Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Alonso, A. [Asociacion EURATOM-CIEMAT, Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion (Spain); Alper, B.; Andrew, Y.; Arnoux, G. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Belo, P. [IPFN, EURATOM-IST Associacao, 1096 Lisbon (Portugal); Beurskens, M.; Boboc, A.; Brett, A. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Brezinsek, S. [IEF-Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Association EURATOM-FZJ, Juelich (Germany); Brix, M. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Coffey, I. [Queen' s University Belfast, University Road, Belfast BT7 1NN, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Luna, E. de la [Asociacion EURATOM-CIEMAT, Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion (Spain); Devaux, S. [Max-Planck IPP, EURATOM Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Vries, P. de [FOM IPP Rijnhuizen, Association EURATOM-FOM, 3430 BE NIEUWEGEIN (Netherlands); Devynck, P. [Association EURATOM-CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul lez Durance (France); Eich, T. [Max-Planck IPP, EURATOM Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Felton, R. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-01

    Operation with an all metal, ITER-like wall on JET is scheduled from 2011. Adaptation particularly of baseline ELMy H-mode (q{sub 95} {approx} 3.5) to the new exhaust constraints involved has been explored by systematic scans of deuterium fuelling and seeding with extrinsic impurities neon or nitrogen. Peak heat load between ELMs on the outboard target can be strongly reduced by fuelling (recycling), and approach detachment with either seed species, for only {approx}10% loss of normalised energy confinement. Simultaneously, normalised plasma density and total radiation averaged between ELMs are not simply increased, but at stronger fuelling can actually fall with increasing seeding, indicating some redistribution of efflux power temporally and spatially. At highest nitrogen seeding, ELMs can also be mitigated, even while the electron pedestal and confinement are largely preserved. Charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy indicates a substitution of intrinsic carbon with extrinsic species.

  13. Advances in understanding and utilising ELM control in JET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, I. T.; de la Luna, E.; Lang, P. T.; Liang, Y.; Alper, B.; Denner, P.; Frigione, D.; Garzotti, L.; Ham, C. J.; Huijsmans, G. T. A.; Jachmich, S.; Kocsis, G.; Lennholm, M.; Lupelli, I.; Rimini, F. G.; Sips, A. C. C.; Contributors, JET

    2016-01-01

    Edge localised mode (ELM) control may be essential to develop ITER scenarios with a reasonable lifetime of divertor components, whilst ELM pacing may be essential to develop stationary ITER scenarios with a tungsten divertor. Resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) have mitigated ELMs in high collisionality plasmas in JET. The efficacy of RMPs in mitigating the ELMs is found to depend on plasma shaping, with the change in magnetic boundary achieved when non-axisymmetric fields are applied facilitating access to small ELM regimes. The understanding of ELM pacing by vertical kicks or pellets has also been improved in a range of pedestal conditions in JET ({{T}\\text{ped}}=0.7 -1.3 keV) encompassing the ITER-expected domain ({β\\text{N}}=1.4 -2.4, H 98(y, 2)  =  0.8-1.2, {{f}\\text{GW}}˜ 0.7 ). ELM triggering is reliable provided the perturbation is above a threshold which depends on pedestal parameters. ELM triggering is achieved even in the first 10% of the natural ELM cycle suggesting no inherent maximum frequency. At high normalised pressure, the peeling-ballooning modes are stabilised as predicted by ELITE, necessitating a larger perturbation from either kicks or pellets in order to trigger ELMs. Both kicks and pellets have been used to pace ELMs for tungsten flushing. This has allowed stationary plasma conditions with low gas injection in plasmas where the natural ELM frequency is such that it would normally preclude stationary conditions.

  14. Integrated ELM modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loennroth, J.S.; Kiviniemi, T. [Association EURATOM-Tekes, Helsinki University of Technology, P. O. Box 4100, 02015 TKK (Finland); Bateman, G.; Kritz, A. [Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA (United States); Becoulet, M.; Figarella, C.; Garbet, X.; Huysmans, G. [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA Cadarache (France); Beyer, P. [University of Marseille (France); Corrigan, G.; Fundamenski, W. [UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre (United Kingdom); Garcia, O.E.; Naulin, V. [Association Euratom-Risoe National Laboratory, Roskilde (Denmark); Janeschitz, G. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Johnson, T. [Association Euratom-VR, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Kuhn, S. [Association Euratom-OeAW, University of Innsbruck (Austria); Loarte, A. [EFDA Close Support Unit, Garching (Germany); Nave, F. [Association Euratom-IST, Centro de Fusao Nuclear, Lisbon (Portugal); Onjun, T. [Sirindhorn International Institute of Technology (Thailand); Pacher, G.W. [Hydro Quebec (Canada); Pacher, H.D.; Pankin, A.; Parail, V.; Pitts, R.; Saibene, G.; Snyder, P.; Spence, J.; Tskhakaya, D.; Wilson, H.

    2006-09-15

    This paper presents a short overview of current trends and progress in integrated ELM modelling. First, the concept of integrated ELM modelling is introduced, various interpretations of it are given and the need for it is discussed. Then follows an overview of different techniques and methods used in integrated ELM modelling presented roughly according to physics approached in use and in order of increasing complexity. The paper concludes with a short discussion of open issues and future modelling requirements within the field of integrated ELM modelling. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. Effect of resonant magnetic perturbations on ELMs in connected double null plasmas in MAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, A.; Liu, Yueqiang; Chapman, I. T.; Harrison, J.; Nardon, E.; Scannell, R.; Thornton, A. J.; the MAST Team

    2013-04-01

    The application of resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) with a toroidal mode number of n = 3 to connected double null plasmas in the MAST tokamak produces up to a factor of 9 increase in edge-localized mode (ELM) frequency and reduction in plasma energy loss associated with type-I ELMs. A threshold current for ELM mitigation is observed above which the ELM frequency increases approximately linearly with current in the coils. The effect of the RMPs is found to be scenario dependent. In one scenario the mitigation is only due to a large density pump out event and if the density is recovered by gas puffing a return to type-I ELMs is observed. In another scenario sustained ELM mitigation can be achieved irrespective of the amount of fuelling. Despite a large scan of parameters complete ELM suppression has not been achieved. The results are compared with modelling performed using either the vacuum approximation or including the plasma response. The requirement for a resonant condition, that is an optimum alignment of the perturbation with the plasma, is confirmed by performing a scan in the pitch angle of the applied field.

  16. Effect of resonant magnetic perturbations on ELMs in connected double null plasmas in MAST

    CERN Document Server

    Kirk, A; Chapman, I T; Harrison, J; Nardon, E; Scannell, R; Thornton, A J

    2013-01-01

    The application of resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) with a toroidal mode number of n=3 to connected double null plasmas in the MAST tokamak produces up to a factor of 9 increase in Edge Localized Mode (ELM) frequency and reduction in plasma energy loss associated with type-I ELMs. A threshold current for ELM mitigation is observed above which the ELM frequency increases approximately linearly with current in the coils. The effect of the RMPs is found to be scenario dependent. In one scenario the mitigation is only due to a large density pump out event and if the density is recovered by gas puffing a return to type I ELMs is observed. In another scenario sustained ELM mitigation can be achieved irrespective of the amount of fuelling. Despite a large scan of parameters complete ELM suppression has not been achieved. The results have been compared to modelling performed using either the vacuum approximation or including the plasma response. The requirement for a resonant condition, that is an optimum align...

  17. Direct-fuelled fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waidhas, M.; Drenckhahn, W.; Preidel, W.; Landes, H.

    Fuel supply is one important problem to be solved for commercial application of fuel cell technology. Conventional fuel-cell types require hydrogen as the fuel, which has to be free from impurities when operated at temperatures below 100 °C. The storage and distribution of this explosive and extremely fugitive gas is one of the open questions in the context of a customer-oriented broad commercial market. The direct-fuelled fuel cells (DMFCs) overcome the hydrogen specific restrictions. They are capable of directly using natural gas or fuels which are liquid under ambient conditions. In this paper the different options from direct-fuelled systems are described and their general aspects discussed. The state-of-the-art at Siemens in this field, and also the remaining technical questions are outlined as a basis for assessing future applications.

  18. The Italian elm breeding program for Dutch elm disease resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberto Santini; Francesco Pecori; Luisa Ghelardini

    2012-01-01

    In the 20th century, elms across Europe and North America were devastated by two pandemics of Dutch elm disease (DED), caused by the introduction of two fungal pathogens: Ophiostoma ulmi, followed by O. novo-ulmi. At the end of 1920s, research into a resistance to DED began in Europe and then in the United States. No...

  19. Impact of fuelling and impurity on pedestal dynamics and instabilities in the HL-2A tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, W. L.; Zou, X. L.; Gao, J. M.; Shi, Z. B.; Feng, B. B.; Cui, Z. Y.; Xu, M.; Shen, Y.; Dong, J. Q.; Ding, X. T.; Duan, X. R.; Liu, Yong; HL-2A Team

    2017-01-01

    In recent experiments of the HL-2A tokamak, the effect on the pedestal dynamics by the plasma fuelling with supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI) has been intensively investigated. Experimental results in several tokamaks suggested that SMBI is a promising technique for ELM mitigation. In addition to the fuelling, the impact of impurities on the pedestal dynamics and instabilities has been investigated in HL-2A. Experimental results have shown that during the H-mode phase, a broadband electromagnetic (EM) turbulence was driven by peaked impurity density profile at the edge plasma region, and governed by double critical gradients of the impurity density. The absolute value of the threshold in positive gradient region is much lower than that in the negative region. This strong asymmetry in the critical gradients has been predicted by theoretical simulation. The results reveal that pedestal dynamics and heat loads can be actively controlled by exciting or changing pedestal instabilities.

  20. Considerations on the DEMO pellet fuelling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, P.T., E-mail: peter.lang@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Day, Ch. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Fable, E. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Igitkhanov, Y. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Köchl, F. [Association EURATOM-Ö AW/ATI, Atominstitut, TU Wien, 1020 Vienna (Austria); Mooney, R. [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Culham Science Centre, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Pegourie, B. [CEA, IRFM, 13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Ploeckl, B. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Wenninger, R. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); EFDA, Garching (Germany); Zohm, H. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Considerations are made for a core particle fuelling system covering all DEMO requirements. • Particle deposition beyond the pedestal top is needed to achieve efficient fuelling. • Conventional pellet technology enabling launching from the torus inboard side can be used. • Efforts have been taken for integrating a suitable pellet guiding system into the EU DEMO model. • In addition, further techniques bearing potential for advanced fuelling performance are considered. - Abstract: The Demonstration Fusion Power Reactor DEMO is the step foreseen to bridge the gap between ITER and the first commercial fusion power plant. One key element in the European work plan for DEMO is the elaboration of a conceptual design for a suitable core particle fuelling system. First considerations for such a system are presented in this contribution. Following the well-considered ITER solution, most analysis performed in this study assumes conventional pellet technology will be used for the fuelling system. However, taking advantage of the less compressed time frame for the DEMO project, several other techniques thought to bear potential for advanced fuelling performance are considered as well. In a first, basic analysis all actuation parameters at hand and their implications on the fuelling performance were considered. Tentative transport modeling of a reference scenario strongly indicates only particles deposited inside the plasma pedestal allow for efficient fuelling. Shallow edge fuelling results in an unbearable burden on the fuel cycle. Sufficiently deep particle deposition seems technically achievable, provided pellets are launched from the torus inboard at sufficient speed. All components required for a DEMO pellet system capable for high speed inboard pellet launch are already available or can be developed in due time with reasonable efforts. Furthermore, steps to integrate this solution into the EU DEMO model are taken.

  1. Distributed power generation using biogas fuelled microturbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pointon, K.; Langan, M.

    2002-07-01

    This research sought to analyse the market for small scale biogas fuelled distributed power generation, to demonstrate the concept of a biogas fuelled microturbine using the Capstone microturbine in conjunction with an anaerobic digester, and undertake a technico-economic evaluation of the biogas fuelled microturbine concept. Details are given of the experimental trials using continuous and batch digesters, and feedstocks ranging from cow and pig slurries to vegetable wastes and municipal solid waste. The yields of methane are discussed along with the successful operation of the microturbine with biogas fuels, and anaerobic digestion projects.

  2. Temporary pacing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.J. Workman

    1983-09-01

    Full Text Available Artificial cardiac pacing, the use of electrical stimuli to cause contraction of heart muscle, is a sophisticated therapeutic and diagnostic tool. Its rapid technologic improvement since first developed in the late 1930’s by Hyman, has made it possible not only to avoid certain cases of death due to heart block, but also to extend and improve the quality of life. Pacemaker therapy is generally used to treat heart rate or rhythm disturbances, being either tachy- or bradyarrhythmias that produce a detrimental drop in cardiac output. Of the many different types of pacemakers and electrodes currently available, ventricular demand pacing is the most commonly used.

  3. Keeping Pace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the struggles of two tough moms who team up to start their own company. Fed up with a lack of stylish, properly-fitting shoes for their children with cerebral palsy, they established "Keeping Pace" which currently offers a selection of stylish girls' and boys' athletic sneakers and casual dress shoes for boys, all sold…

  4. An improved form of the ELMS algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Ying; Xie Shengli

    2005-01-01

    ELMS algorithm is the first two-channel adaptive filtering algorithm that takes into account the cross-correlation between the two input signals. The algorithm does not preprocess input signals, so it does not degrade the quality of the speech. However, a lot of computer simulation results show that ELMS algorithm has a bad performance. The ELMS algorithm is analyzed firstly, then a new algorithm is presented by modifying the block matrix used in ELMS algorithm to approximate input signals self-correlation matrix. The computer simulation results indicate that the improved algorithm has a better behavior than the ELMS algorithm.

  5. Impact of impurity seeding and divertor conditions on transitions, pedestal structure and ELMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, M. G.

    2017-02-01

    Future devices will require a high scrape-off later (SOL) density and impurity seeding to avoid high-Z sputtering. However, these operational parameters are not included in present-day scaling laws, making extrapolations to larger devices difficult. As such, understanding the physics of such effects is vital in order to design the operational scenarios most favorable to high fusion gain. This review presents the favorable lowering of L-H transition power by changing to metal walled devices and sumarises the effects currently thought to be responsible for how SOL geometry can play a role in determining this threshold. Experimental observations on changes to the pedestal structure with main ion fuelling and low-, medium-, and high-Z impurity seeding are presented. These results, from several devices, show that main ion fuelling or high density operation can result in a lower pedestal top pressure, and hence reduced stored energy, while impurity seeding can recover this lost pressure. Particular focus is given to nitrogen seeded discharges and the recovery of pedestal parameters (notably high {{T}\\text{e,\\text{ped}}} ) in JET and AUG since the changeover to metal walls in these devices. Lithium seeding is also emerging as a strong actuator in pedestal dynamics, with results ranging from a prolonged inter-ELM period to completely ELM-free scenarios on different devices. ELM dynamics are also presented in each section, with nitrogen seeding offering a probe into the structure of the ELM and demonstrating the difference between the initial ELM crash, likely due to a sharp MHD event, and a prolonged second phase, the origin of which remains unkown. Finally, modelling of the pedestal in impurity seeded scenarios reveals a common effect in the position of the density profile. Either through mode excitation near to the separatrix or an altered fuelling profile, seeding of impurities results in an inward shift of the density profile. This inward shift improves MHD stability

  6. Extinguishing ELMs in detached radiative divertor plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigarov, Alexander; Krasheninnikov, Sergei; Rognlien, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    In order to avoid deleterious effects of ELMs on PFCs in next-step fusion devices it has been suggested to operate with small-sized ELMs naturally extinguishing in the divertor. Our modeling effort is focusing at extinguishing type-I ELMs: conditions for expelled plasma dissipation; efficiency of ELM power handling by detached radiative divertors; and the ELM impact on detachment state. Here time-dependent modeling of a sequence of many ELMs was performed with 2-D edge plasma transport code UEDGE-MB-W which incorporates the Macro-Blob (MB) approach to simulate non-diffusive filamentary transport and various ``Wall'' (W) models for time-dependent hydrogen wall inventory and recycling. Three cases were modeled, in which extinguishing ELMs are achieved due to: (i) intrinsic impurities via graphite sputtering, (ii) extrinsic impurity gas puff (Ne), and (iii) =(i) +(ii). For each case, we performed a series of UEDGE-MB-W runs scanning the deuterium and impurity inventories, pedestal losses and ELM frequency. Temporal variations of the degree of detachment, ionization front shape, recombination sink strength, radiated fraction, peak power loads, OSP, impurity charge states, and in/out asymmetries were analyzed. We discuss the onset of extinguishing ELMs, conditions for not burning through and enhanced plasma recombination as functions of scanned parameters. Efficiencies of intrinsic and extrinsic impurities in ELM extinguishing are compared.

  7. The global build-up to intrinsic ELM bursts seen in divertor full flux loops in Jet

    CERN Document Server

    Chapman, S C; Todd, T N; Watkins, N W; Calderon, F A; Morris, J; Contributors, JET

    2015-01-01

    A global signature of the build-up to an intrinsic ELM is found in the phase of signals measured in full flux azimuthal loops in the divertor region of JET. Full flux loop signals provide a global measurement proportional to the voltage induced by changes in poloidal magnetic flux; they are electromagnetically induced by the dynamics of spatially integrated current density. We perform direct time-domain analysis of the high time-resolution full flux loop signals VLD2 and VLD3. We analyze plasmas where a steady H-mode is sustained over several seconds, during which all the observed ELMs are intrinsic; there is no deliberate intent to pace the ELMing process by external means. ELM occurrence times are determined from the Be II emission at the divertor. We previously found that the occurrence times of intrinsic ELMs correlate with specific phases of the VLD2 and VLD3 signals. Here, we investigate how the VLD2 and VLD3 phases vary with time in advance of the ELM occurrence time. We identify a build-up to the ELM ...

  8. Dutch Elm Disease Control: Intensive Sanitation and Survey Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    William N., Jr. Cannon; Jack H. Barger; David P. Worley

    1977-01-01

    Recent research has shown that prompt removal of diseased elms reduces the incidence of Dutch elm disease more than sanitation practice that allows diseased elms to remain standing into the dormant season. The key to prompt removal is repeated surveys to detect diseased elms as early as possible. Intensive sanitation can save more elms and cost less than the more...

  9. A review of ELMs in divertor tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, D.N.

    1996-05-23

    This paper reviews what is known about edge localized modes (ELMs), with an emphasis on their effect on the scrape-off layer and divertor plasmas. ELM effects have been measured in the ASDEX-U, C-Mod, COMPASS-D, DIII-D, JET, JFT-2M,JT-60U, and TCV tokamaks and are reported here. At least three types of ELMs have been identified and their salient features determined. Type-1 giant ELMs can cause the sudden loss of up to 10-15% of the plasma stored energy but their amplitude ({Delta}W/W) does not increase with increasing power. Type- 3 ELMs are observed near the H-mode power threshold and produce small energy dumps (1-3% of the stored energy). All ELMs increase the scrape- off layer plasma and produce particle fluxes on the divertor targets which are as much as ten times larger that the quiescent phase between ELMs. The divertor heat pulse is largest on the inner target, unlike that of L-Mode or quiescent H-mode; some tokamaks report radial structure in the heat flux profile which is suggestive of islands or helical structures. The power scaling of Type-1 ELM amplitude and frequency have been measured in several tokamaks and has recently been applied to predictions of the ELM Size in ITER. Concern over the expected ELM amplitude has led to a number of experiments aimed at demonstrating active control of ELMs. Impurity gas injection with feedback control on the radiation loss in ASDEX-U suggests that a promising mode of operation (the CDH-mode) with a very small type-3 ELMs can be maintained with heating power sell above the H-mode threshold, where giant type-1 ELMs can be maintained with heating power well above the H-mode threshold, where Giant type-1 ELMs are normally observed. While ELMs have many potential negative effects, the beneficial effect of ELMs in providing density control and limiting the core plasma impurity content in high confinement H- mode discharges should not be overlooked.

  10. Genotype x environment interaction and growth stability of several elm clones resistant to Dutch elm disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberto Santini; Francesco Pecori; Alessia L. Pepori; Luisa Ghelardini

    2012-01-01

    The elm breeding program carried out in Italy at the Institute of Plant Protection - Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricercje (CNR) during the last 40 years aimed to develop Dutch elm disease (DED)-resistant elm selections specific to the Mediterranean environment. The need for genotypes adapted to Mediterranean conditions was evident from the poor performance of the Dutch...

  11. ELM mitigation with pellet ELM triggering and implications for PFCs and plasma performance in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baylor, L.R., E-mail: BaylorLR@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37830-8050 (United States); Lang, P.T. [Max Plank Institute für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association., Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Allen, S.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 700 East Ave, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Combs, S.K.; Commaux, N. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37830-8050 (United States); Evans, T.E. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Fenstermacher, M.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 700 East Ave, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Huijsmans, G. [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Jernigan, T.C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37830-8050 (United States); Lasnier, C.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 700 East Ave, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Leonard, A.W. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Loarte, A. [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Maingi, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); Maruyama, S. [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Meitner, S.J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37830-8050 (United States); Moyer, R.A. [University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093-0417 (United States); Osborne, T.H. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    The triggering of rapid small edge localized modes (ELMs) by high frequency pellet injection has been proposed as a method to prevent large naturally occurring ELMs that can erode the ITER plasma facing components (PFCs). Deuterium pellet injection has been used to successfully demonstrate the on-demand triggering of edge localized modes (ELMs) at much higher rates and with much smaller intensity than natural ELMs. The proposed hypothesis for the triggering mechanism of ELMs by pellets is the local pressure perturbation resulting from reheating of the pellet cloud that can exceed the local high-n ballooning mode threshold where the pellet is injected. Nonlinear MHD simulations of the pellet ELM triggering show destabilization of high-n ballooning modes by such a local pressure perturbation. A review of the recent pellet ELM triggering results from ASDEX Upgrade (AUG), DIII-D, and JET reveals that a number of uncertainties about this ELM mitigation technique still remain. These include the heat flux impact pattern on the divertor and wall from pellet triggered and natural ELMs, the necessary pellet size and injection location to reliably trigger ELMs, and the level of fueling to be expected from ELM triggering pellets and synergy with larger fueling pellets. The implications of these issues for pellet ELM mitigation in ITER and its impact on the PFCs are presented along with the design features of the pellet injection system for ITER.

  12. Biological Control of Dutch Elm Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, J.; Goossen-van de Geijn, H.M.; Schraven, R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Elms are important trees in urban environments and coastal areas due to their resistance to harsh conditions such as wind, salt, flood, and narrow root space, as well as to their attractive architecture. However, a devastating disease, the so-called Dutch elm disease (DED), appeared in

  13. Inter-ELM pedestal evolution on MAST and impact of Resonant Magnetic Perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Scannell, R; Chapman, I T; 10.1088/0741-3335/55/3/035013

    2013-01-01

    The peak pressure gradient in the pedestal (dPe/d{\\psi}) on MAST varies little between edge localized modes (ELMs), although it varies between discharges due factors such as gas fuelling and plasma current. The pressure pedestal width in flux space on the high-field side (HFS), both during the inter-ELM period and amongst different plasma discharges is consistent with a scaling of . In flux space very similar dPe/d{\\psi} and {\\Delta}pe are observed on the HFS and low-field side (LFS) in single null configuration. This symmetry is broken by the application of resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs). During ELM mitigation by application of RMPs changes in the edge transport barrier position and width are observed. These changes are dependent on the intensity of the RMP and on the toroidal location with respect to the RMP phase. An outward displacement of up to 30 mm and increase in the edge pedestal width of up to 50% with respect to the coils case off are observed. Increased particle transport causes a decrease...

  14. Rotation Breaking Induced by ELMs on EAST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiong, H.; Xu, G.; Sun, Y.

    Spontaneous rotation has been observed in LHCD H-mode plasmas with type III ELMs (edge localized modes) on EAST, and it revealed that type III ELMs can induce the loss of both core and edge toroidal rotation. Here we work on the breaking mechanism during the ELMs. Several large tokamaks have...... discovered ELMs' filamentary structures. It revealed that the ELMs are filamentary perturbations of positive density formed along the local field lines close to the LCFS. Currents flowing in the filaments induce magnetic perturbations, which break symmetry of magnetic field strength and lead to deformation...... of magnetic surface, thus generate NTV (neoclassical toroidal viscosity) torque that affects toroidal rotation. We adopt 1cm maximum edge magnetic surface displacement from experimental observation, and our calculation shows that the edge torque is about 0.35 N/m2, and the core very small. The expected...

  15. A Study on Bible Archetypes in Desire under the Elms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Man-li

    2014-01-01

    Desire under the Elms reveals a tragedy of spiritual and survival desire of human being. O’Neill creates many Bible ar-chetypes in Desire under the Elms. The thesis analyzes and appreciates Desire under the Elms from aspect of Bible archetype to highlight the destructive power of improper desires in Desire under the Elms.

  16. Elm leaf beetle performance on ozone-fumigated elm. Forest Service research paper (Final)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barger, J.H.; Hall, R.W.; Townsend, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    Leaves (1986) from elm hybrids ('Pioneer', 'Homestead', '970') previously fumigated in open-top chambers with ozone or with charcoal-filtered air (CFA) were evaluated for water and nitrogen content or were fed to adult elm leaf beetles (ELB), Xanthogaleruca = (Pyrrhalta) luteola (Muller), to determine host suitability for beetle fecundity and survivorship. ELB females fed ozone-fumigated leaves laid significantly fewer eggs than females fed CFA-fumigated leaves. Leaf nitrogen or water content was unaffected. Hybrid '970' (1988) was fumigated with CFA or with ozone concentrations to determine effects on ELB fecundity, leaf consumption, and survivorship. Significantly fewer eggs were laid at the higher concentration of ozone. Because higher levels of ozone are found in urban areas and because municipalities often replace American elms, Ulmus americana L., with Dutch elm disease-resistant elm hybrids that are susceptible to ELB defoliation, it is important to explore the relationships between ozone sensitivity of elm and susceptibility to ELB herbivory before recommending replacement use of these elms to municipal arborists. The study was conducted to determine whether ozone pollution influences host quality of elm for ELB and how ELB fecundity, leaf consumption rate, and survivorship are affected.

  17. Inflow of atomic gas fuelling star formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michałowski, M. J.; Gentile, G.; Hjorth, Jeppe;

    2016-01-01

    Gamma-ray burst host galaxies are deficient in molecular gas, and show anomalous metal-poor regions close to GRB positions. Using recent Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) Hi observations we show that they have substantial atomic gas reservoirs. This suggests that star formation in these ga......Gamma-ray burst host galaxies are deficient in molecular gas, and show anomalous metal-poor regions close to GRB positions. Using recent Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) Hi observations we show that they have substantial atomic gas reservoirs. This suggests that star formation...... in these galaxies may be fuelled by recent inflow of metal-poor atomic gas. While this process is debated, it can happen in low-metallicity gas near the onset of star formation because gas cooling (necessary for star formation) is faster than the Hi-to-H2 conversion....

  18. The elm, tree of milk and wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heybroek HM

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Elm has played an important role in European culture for thousands of years, in many roles, with regional variation. In material culture, its wood has assisted in hunting and warfare for over seven thousand years; but more importantly, its leaves and bark were semi-indispensible for the production of milk and meat, and served as an emergency food for humans. In the Mediterranean, elm was the main tool for the production of a good quality wine by providing support for the grapevine, and it helped feeding the cattle. These functions sometimes found an echo in the non-material culture. The fact that in Germanic genesis stories the first woman was created out of an elm (the man out of an ash, as well as a severe local taboo on the use of elm wood for skis, threatening the offender with a place in hell, seem both connected to the superior feeding value of this tree. In England and in parts of continental Europe most sacred trees were elms, sometimes performing female functions such as the production of babies. In the Mediterranean, however, the elm was seen as the male partner in the “marriage of the vine to the elm”, which was the celebrated system of viticulture. That image has been used by poets and politicians over the ages to praise the effects of human marriage, cooperation and interdependence. It even forms the core of the apocryphal Bible book “The Shepherd”, where it is seen as a symbol and example for a kind of symbiosis between the rich and the poor. - In conclusion, the ultimate origin of the English elm or “Atinia”, as well as its discovery is discussed, which appears to be a question of milk and wine.

  19. The role of ELM filaments in setting the ELM wetted area in MAST and the implications for future devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, A. J.; Allan, S. Y.; Dudson, B. D.; Elmore, S. D.; Fishpool, G. M.; Harrison, J. R.; Kirk, A.; The MAST Team; The EUROfusion MST1 Team

    2017-01-01

    The ELM wetted area is a key factor in the peak power load during an ELM, as it sets the region over which the ELM energy is deposited. The deposited heat flux at the target is seen to have striations in the profiles that are generated by the arrival of filaments ejected from the confined plasma. The effect of the filaments arriving at the target on the ELM wetted area, and the relation to the midplane mode number is investigated in this paper using infrared (IR) thermography and high speed visible imaging (>10 kHz). Type I ELMs are analysed, as these have the largest heat fluxes and are observed to have toroidal mode numbers of between 5 and 15. The IR profiles during the ELMs show clear filamentary structures that evolve during the ELM cycle. An increasing number of striations at the target is seen to correspond to an increase in the wetted area. Analysis shows that the ratio of the ELM wetted area to the inter-ELM wetted area, a key parameter for ITER, for the type I ELMs is between 3 and 6 for lower single null plasmas and varies with the ELM midplane mode number, as determined by visible measurements. Monte-Carlo modelling of the ELMs is used to understand the variation seen in the wetted area and the effect of an increased mode number; the modelling replicates the trends seen in the experimental data and supports the observation of increased toroidal mode number generating larger target ELM wetted areas. ITER is thought to be peeling unstable which would imply a lower ELM mode number compared to MAST which is peeling-ballooning unstable. The results of this analysis suggest that the lower n peeling unstable ELMs expected for ITER will have smaller wetted areas than peeling-ballooning unstable ELMs. A smaller wetted area will increase the level of ELM control required, therefore a key prediction required for ITER is the expected ELM mode number.

  20. The global build-up to intrinsic ELM bursts and comparison with pellet triggered ELMs seen in JET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, S. C.; Dendy, R. O.; Lang, P. T.; Watkins, N. W.; Calderon, F. A.; Romanelli, M.; Todd, T. N.; Contributors, JET

    2017-02-01

    We focus on JET plasmas in which ELMs are triggered by pellets in the presence of ELMs which occur naturally. We perform direct time domain analysis of signals from fast radial field coils and toroidal full flux azimuthal loops. These toroidally integrating signals provide simultaneous high time resolution measurements of global plasma dynamics and its coupling to the control system. We examine the time dynamics of these signals in plasmas where pellet injection is used to trigger ELMs in the presence of naturally occurring ELMs. Pellets whose size and speed are intended to provide maximum local perturbation for ELM triggering are launched at pre-programmed times, without correlation to the occurrence times of intrinsic ELMs. Pellet rates were sufficiently low to prevent sustained changes of the underlying plasma conditions and natural ELM behaviour. We find a global signature of the build-up to natural ELMs in the temporal analytic phase of both the full flux loops and fast radial field coil signals. Before a natural ELM, the signal phases align to the same value on a ˜ 2-5 ms timescale. This global build up to a natural ELM occurs whilst the amplitude of the full flux loop and fast radial field coil signals are at their background value: it precedes the response seen in these signals to the onset of ELMing. In contrast these signals do not clearly phase align before the ELM for ELMs which are the first to occur following pellet injection. This provides a direct test that can distinguish when an ELM is triggered by a pellet as opposed to occurring naturally. It further supports the idea [1-4] of a global build up phase that precedes natural ELMs; pellets can trigger ELMs even when the signal phase is at a value when a natural ELM is unlikely to occur.

  1. Some Mathematical Models for ELM Signal

    CERN Document Server

    XIE, Hua-sheng

    2012-01-01

    There is no wide accepted theory for ELM (Edge Localized Mode) yet. Some fusion people feel that we may never get a final theory for ELM and H-mode, since which are too complicated (also related to the unsolved turbulence problem) and with at least three time scales. The only way out is using models. (This is analogous to that we believe quantum mechanics can explain chemistry and biology, but no one can calculate DNA structure from Schrodinger equation directly.) This manuscript gives some possible mathematical approaches to it. I should declare that these are just math toys for me yet. They may inspire to good understandings of ELM and H-mode, may not. Useful or useless, I don't know. One need not take too much care of it. Just for fun and enjoying different interesting ideas.

  2. The elm, tree of milk and wine

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Elm has played an important role in European culture for thousands of years, in many roles, with regional variation. In material culture, its wood has assisted in hunting and warfare for over seven thousand years; but more importantly, its leaves and bark were semi-indispensible for the production of milk and meat, and served as an emergency food for humans. In the Mediterranean, elm was the main tool for the production of a good quality wine by providing support for the grapevine, and it hel...

  3. Energy loss for grassy ELMs and effects of plasma rotation on the ELM characteristics in JT-60U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, N.; Sakamoto, Y.; Isayama, A.; Takechi, M.; Gohil, P.; Lao, L. L.; Snyder, P. B.; Fujita, T.; Ide, S.; Kamada, Y.; Miura, Y.; Oikawa, T.; Suzuki, T.; Takenaga, H.; Toi, K.; JT-60 Team

    2005-08-01

    The energy loss for grassy edge localized modes (ELMs) has been studied to investigate the applicability of the grassy ELM regime to ITER. The grassy ELM regime is characterized by high frequency periodic collapses of 800-1500 Hz, which is ~15 times faster than that for type I ELMs. The divertor peak heat flux due to grassy ELMs is less than 10% of that for type I ELMs. This smaller heat flux is caused by a narrower radial extent of the collapse of the temperature pedestal. The different radial extent between type I ELMs and grassy ELMs agrees qualitatively with the different radial distribution of the eigenfunctions as determined from ideal MHD stability analysis. The dominant ELM energy loss for grassy ELMs appears to be caused by temperature reduction, and its ratio to the pedestal stored energy was 0.4-1%. This ratio is lower by a factor of about 10 than that for type I ELMs, which typically have between 2-10% fractional loss of the pedestal energy. A systematic study of the effects of counter (CTR) plasma rotation on the ELM characteristics has been performed using a combination of tangential and perpendicular neutral beam injections (NBIs) in JT-60U. In the high plasma triangularity (δ) regime, ELM characteristics (e.g. amplitude, frequency and type) can be changed from type I ELMs to high frequency grassy ELMs as the CTR plasma rotation is increased. On the other hand, in the low δ regime, complete ELM suppression (QH-mode) can be sustained for long periods up to 3.4 s (~18τE or energy confinement times), when the plasma position in terms of the clearance between the first wall and the plasma separatrix is optimized during the application of CTR-NBIs. In JT-60U, a transient QH phase was also observed during the CO-NBI phase with almost no net toroidal rotation at the plasma edge.

  4. New Challenge to the Existing Fuelling Technique for ITER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENGBaiquan; PENGLilin

    2003-01-01

    A new challenge to the existing pellet fuelling technique for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) has been discussed by computing ablation rate using Kuteev lentil model with considering the kinetic effects. Numerical integral results show the existing pellet injection technique will be difficult to meet the deep fuelling requirement for the reactor relevant plasma of ITER. As high as a pressure of 254 MPa should be applied to the pellet accelerator of 2-meters long single stage pneumatic gun,

  5. Solitary magnetic perturbations at the ELM onset

    CERN Document Server

    Wenninger, RP; Boom, JE; Burckhart, A; Dunne, MG; Dux, R; Eich, T; Fischer, R; Fuchs, C; Garcia-Munoz, M; Igochine, V; Hoelzl, M; Luhmann, NC; Lunt, T; Maraschek, M; Mueller, HW; Park, HK; Schneider, PA; Sommer, F; Suttrop, W; Viezzer, E

    2012-01-01

    Edge localised modes (ELMs) allow maintaining sufficient purity of tokamak H-mode plasmas and thus enable stationary H-mode. On the other hand in a future device ELMs may cause divertor power flux densities far in excess of tolerable material limits. The size of the energy loss per ELM is determined by saturation effects in the non-linear phase of the ELM, which at present is hardly understood. Solitary magnetic perturbations (SMPs) are identified as dominant features in the radial magnetic fluctuations below 100kHz. They are typically observed close (+-0.1ms) to the onset of pedestal erosion. SMPs are field aligned structures rotating in the electron diamagnetic drift direction with perpendicular velocities of about 10km/s. A comparison of perpendicular velocities suggests that the perturbation evoking SMPs is located at or inside the separatrix. Analysis of very pronounced examples showed that the number of peaks per toroidal turn is 1 or 2, which is clearly lower than corresponding numbers in linear stabil...

  6. Understanding ELM mitigation by resonant magnetic perturbations on MAST

    CERN Document Server

    Kirk, A; Liu, Yueqiang; Cahyna, P; Denner, P; Fishpool, G; Ham, C J; Harrison, J R; Liang, Yunfeng; Nardon, E; Saarelma, S; Scannell, R; Thornton, A J

    2013-01-01

    Sustained ELM mitigation has been achieved using RMPs with a toroidal mode number of n=4 and n=6 in lower single null and with n=3 in connected double null plasmas on MAST. The ELM frequency increases by up to a factor of eight with a similar reduction in ELM energy loss. A threshold current for ELM mitigation is observed above which the ELM frequency increases approximately linearly with current in the coils. A comparison of the filament structures observed during the ELMs in the natural and mitigated stages shows that the mitigated ELMs have the characteristics of type I ELMs even though their frequency is higher, their energy loss is reduced and the pedestal pressure gradient is decreased. During the ELM mitigated stage clear lobe structures are observed in visible-light imaging of the X-point region. The size of these lobes is correlated with the increase in ELM frequency observed. The RMPs produce a clear 3D distortion to the plasma and it is likely that these distortions explain why ELMs are destabilise...

  7. Pacing in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harinder R Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The implantation of cardiac pacing devices in children and young adults can be challenging and different from the adult population due to their smaller size, their longer life expectancy, and anatomical variations associated with congenital heart defects. A knowledge of indications, pacing leads and devices, anatomical variations, and the technical skills are important for those who implant and care for children with pacemakers. In this review we attempt to discuss these specific points of cardiac pacing in children and young adults.

  8. Transvenous Temporary Cardiac Pacing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Emmanouil Poulidakis; Antonis S Manolis

    2014-01-01

      Transvenous temporary cardiac pacing is a rather old but still contemporary life-saving technique, with a unique value in the treatment of critically ill patients suffering from rhythm disturbances...

  9. Pacing for Dramaturgy

    OpenAIRE

    Pensjö, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is a study on how game mechanics affect dramaturgy through pacing within the multiplayer MOBA genre of video games and serves as an addition to ease dramaturgic design for future games. The thesis contains an introduction of drama and some of related terms in addition to the MOBA game genre, its format and a short history of the genre. To compare the observations and analysis made in this study, previous work on both dramaturgy and pacing have been recollected.

  10. Simulations of pedestal formation and ELM cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bateman, G [Lehigh University Physics Department, Bethlehem, PA, 18015 (United States); Kritz, A H [Lehigh University Physics Department, Bethlehem, PA, 18015 (United States); Pankin, A Y [SAIC, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States); Onjun, T [Sirindhorn International Institute of Technology, Pathumthani 12121 (Thailand); McElhenny, J E [Lehigh University Physics Department, Bethlehem, PA, 18015 (United States); MacDonald, C [Lehigh University Physics Department, Bethlehem, PA, 18015 (United States)

    2006-05-15

    Improved models are developed for integrated simulations of pedestal formation and edge localized mode (ELM) cycles at the edge of H-mode tokamak plasmas. The H-mode pedestal is formed in the simulations when flow shear and magnetic shear reduce the transport driven by drift modes at the edge of the plasma (Pankin A Y et al 2005 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 47 483). A large part of the flow shear is produced by the diamagnetic drift and the poloidal velocity, which is computed using a neoclassical model. Ion thermal transport is reduced to near the neoclassical level while electron thermal transport is reduced to the electron temperature gradient mode transport. A relatively large current density is driven in the pedestal by the bootstrap current. If the heating power is large enough, the pedestal growth is limited by ELM crashes, which are triggered by ideal MHD instabilities. Integrated simulations using these improved models are validated by comparing the simulation results with data for plasma profiles during the pedestal formation and with data for the ELM crash frequency. Simulations using the validated model are carried out for 31 Inernational Profile Database DIII-D and JET discharges.

  11. Microstability analysis of pellet fuelled discharges in MAST

    CERN Document Server

    Garzotti, L; Roach, C M; Valovic, M; Dickinson, D; Naylor, G; Romanelli, M; Scannell, R; Szepesi, G

    2014-01-01

    Reactor grade plasmas are likely to be fuelled by pellet injection. This technique transiently perturbs the profiles, driving the density profile hollow and flattening the edge temperature profile. After the pellet perturbation, the density and temperature profiles relax towards their quasi-steady-state shape. Microinstabilities influence plasma confinement and will play a role in determining the evolution of the profiles in pellet fuelled plasmas. In this paper we present the microstability analysis of pellet fuelled H-mode MAST plasmas. Taking advantage of the unique capabilities of the MAST Thomson scattering system and the possibility of synchronizing the eight lasers with the pellet injection, we were able to measure the evolution of the post-pellet electron density and temperature profiles with high temporal and spatial resolution. These profiles, together with ion temperature profiles measured using a charge exchange diagnostic, were used to produce equilibria suitable for microstability analysis of th...

  12. Symmetry Parameters of CSS Sources: Evidence of Fuelling?

    CERN Document Server

    Saikia, D J; Mantovani, F; Salter, C J; Spencer, R E; Thomasson, P; Wiita, P J

    2003-01-01

    The compact steep spectrum (CSS) and gigahertz peaked spectrum (GPS) sources are widely believed to be young radiosources, with ages <10^6 yr. If the activity in the nucleus is fuelled by the supply of gas, one might find evidence of this gas by studying the structural and polarisation characteristics of CSS sources and their evolution through this gas. In this paper we discuss some of the possible `smoking-gun' evidence of this gas which may have triggered and fuelled the radio source.

  13. ELM behavior in ASDEX Upgrade with and without nitrogen seeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frassinetti, L.; Dunne, M. G.; Beurskens, M.; Wolfrum, E.; Bogomolov, A.; Carralero, D.; Cavedon, M.; Fischer, R.; Laggner, F. M.; McDermott, R. M.; Meyer, H.; Tardini, G.; Viezzer, E.; the EUROfusion MST1 Team; the ASDEX-Upgrade Team

    2017-02-01

    The Type I ELM behavior in ASDEX Upgrade with full W plasma facing components is studied in terms of time scales and energy losses for a large set of shots characterized by similar operational parameters but different nitrogen seeding rate and input power. ELMs with no nitrogen can have two typical behaviors, that can be classified depending on their duration, the long and the short ELMs. The work shows that both short and long ELMs have a similar first phase, but the long ELMs are characterized by a second phase with further energy losses. The second phase disappears when nitrogen is seeded with a flux rate above 1022 (e s-1). The phenomenon is compatible with a threshold effect. The presence of the second phase is related to a high divertor/scrape-off layer (SOL) temperature and/or to a low pedestal temperature. The ELM energy losses of the two phases are regulated by different mechanisms. The energy losses of the first phase increase with nitrogen which, in turn, produce the increase of the pedestal temperature. So the energy losses of the first phase are regulated by the pedestal top parameters and the increase with nitrogen is due to the decreasing pedestal collisionality. The energy losses of the second phase are related to the divertor/SOL conditions. The long ELMs energy losses increase with increasing divertor temperature and with the number of the expelled filaments. In terms of the power lost by the plasma, the nitrogen seeding increases the power losses of the short ELMs. The long ELMs have a first phase with power losses comparable to the short ELMs losses. Assuming no major difference in the wetted area, these results suggest that (i) the nitrogen might increase the divertor heat fluxes during the short ELMs and that (ii) the long ELMs, despite the longer time scale, are not beneficial in terms of divertor heat loads.

  14. A Novel Improved ELM Algorithm for a Real Industrial Application

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that the feedforward neural networks meet numbers of difficulties in the applications because of its slow learning speed. The extreme learning machine (ELM) is a new single hidden layer feedforward neural network method aiming at improving the training speed. Nowadays ELM algorithm has received wide application with its good generalization performance under fast learning speed. However, there are still several problems needed to be solved in ELM. In this paper, a new improved...

  15. Adaptive Online Sequential ELM for Concept Drift Tackling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiman, Arif; Fanany, Mohamad Ivan; Basaruddin, Chan

    2016-01-01

    A machine learning method needs to adapt to over time changes in the environment. Such changes are known as concept drift. In this paper, we propose concept drift tackling method as an enhancement of Online Sequential Extreme Learning Machine (OS-ELM) and Constructive Enhancement OS-ELM (CEOS-ELM) by adding adaptive capability for classification and regression problem. The scheme is named as adaptive OS-ELM (AOS-ELM). It is a single classifier scheme that works well to handle real drift, virtual drift, and hybrid drift. The AOS-ELM also works well for sudden drift and recurrent context change type. The scheme is a simple unified method implemented in simple lines of code. We evaluated AOS-ELM on regression and classification problem by using concept drift public data set (SEA and STAGGER) and other public data sets such as MNIST, USPS, and IDS. Experiments show that our method gives higher kappa value compared to the multiclassifier ELM ensemble. Even though AOS-ELM in practice does not need hidden nodes increase, we address some issues related to the increasing of the hidden nodes such as error condition and rank values. We propose taking the rank of the pseudoinverse matrix as an indicator parameter to detect "underfitting" condition.

  16. Adaptive Online Sequential ELM for Concept Drift Tackling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Budiman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A machine learning method needs to adapt to over time changes in the environment. Such changes are known as concept drift. In this paper, we propose concept drift tackling method as an enhancement of Online Sequential Extreme Learning Machine (OS-ELM and Constructive Enhancement OS-ELM (CEOS-ELM by adding adaptive capability for classification and regression problem. The scheme is named as adaptive OS-ELM (AOS-ELM. It is a single classifier scheme that works well to handle real drift, virtual drift, and hybrid drift. The AOS-ELM also works well for sudden drift and recurrent context change type. The scheme is a simple unified method implemented in simple lines of code. We evaluated AOS-ELM on regression and classification problem by using concept drift public data set (SEA and STAGGER and other public data sets such as MNIST, USPS, and IDS. Experiments show that our method gives higher kappa value compared to the multiclassifier ELM ensemble. Even though AOS-ELM in practice does not need hidden nodes increase, we address some issues related to the increasing of the hidden nodes such as error condition and rank values. We propose taking the rank of the pseudoinverse matrix as an indicator parameter to detect “underfitting” condition.

  17. Pacing stress echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrusta Marco

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-rate pacing is a valid stress test to be used in conjunction with echocardiography; it is independent of physical exercise and does not require drug administration. There are two main applications of pacing stress in the echo lab: the noninvasive detection of coronary artery disease through induction of a regional transient dysfunction; and the assessment of contractile reserve through peak systolic pressure/ end-systolic volume relationship at increasing heart rates to assess global left ventricular contractility. Methods The pathophysiologic rationale of pacing stress for noninvasive detection of coronary artery disease is obvious, with the stress determined by a controlled increase in heart rate, which is a major determinant of myocardial oxygen demand, and thereby tachycardia may exceed a fixed coronary flow reserve in the presence of hemodynamically significant coronary artery disease. The use of pacing stress echo to assess left ventricular contractile reserve is less established, but promising. Positive inotropic interventions are mirrored by smaller end-systolic volumes and higher end-systolic pressures. An increased heart rate progressively increases the force of ventricular contraction (Bowditch treppe or staircase phenomenon. To build the force-frequency relationship, the force is determined at different heart rate steps as the ratio of the systolic pressure (cuff sphygmomanometer/end-systolic volume index (biplane Simpson rule. The heart rate is determined from ECG. Conclusion Two-dimensional echocardiography during pacing is a useful tool in the detection of coronary artery disease. Because of its safety and ease of repeatability noninvasive pacing stress echo can be the first-line stress test in patients with permanent pacemaker. The force-frequency can be defined as up- sloping (normal when the peak stress pacing systolic pressure/end-systolic volume index is higher than baseline and intermediate stress

  18. PACE Status Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M., Zimring,; Hoffman, I.; Fuller, M.

    2010-08-11

    The Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA) regulates Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, and the 12 Federal Home Loan Banks (the government-sponsored enterprises - GSEs). On July 6, 2010, FHFA and the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC) concluded that Property Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) programs 'present significant safety and soundness concerns' to the housing finance industry. This statement came after a year of discussions with state and federal agencies in which PACE, a novel mechanism for financing energy efficiency and renewable energy improvements, has gone from receiving support from the White House, canonization as one of Scientific American's 'World Changing Ideas' and legislative adoption in 24 states to questionable relevance, at least in the residential sector. Whether PACE resumes its expansion as an innovative tool for financing energy efficiency and clean generation depends on outcomes in each of the three branches of government - discussions on a PACE pilot phase among federal agencies, litigation in federal court, and legislation in Congress - all highly uncertain. This policy brief addresses the practical impacts of these possible outcomes on existing and emerging PACE programs across the United States and potential paths forward.

  19. Resistance to Dutch elm disease reduces presence of xylem endophytic fungi in Elms (Ulmus spp..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A Martín

    Full Text Available Efforts to introduce pathogen resistance into landscape tree species by breeding may have unintended consequences for fungal diversity. To address this issue, we compared the frequency and diversity of endophytic fungi and defensive phenolic metabolites in elm (Ulmus spp. trees with genotypes known to differ in resistance to Dutch elm disease. Our results indicate that resistant U. minor and U. pumila genotypes exhibit a lower frequency and diversity of fungal endophytes in the xylem than susceptible U. minor genotypes. However, resistant and susceptible genotypes showed a similar frequency and diversity of endophytes in the leaves and bark. The resistant and susceptible genotypes could be discriminated on the basis of the phenolic profile of the xylem, but not on basis of phenolics in the leaves or bark. As the Dutch elm disease pathogen develops within xylem tissues, the defensive chemistry of resistant elm genotypes thus appears to be one of the factors that may limit colonization by both the pathogen and endophytes. We discuss a potential trade-off between the benefits of breeding resistance into tree species, versus concomitant losses of fungal endophytes and the ecosystem services they provide.

  20. Birds and Dutch elm disease control

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, J.B.

    1958-01-01

    Brief, factual review of information on effect of DDT and other insecticides on birds. One program for control of elm disease caused 22% decrease in number of adult birds and 56% mortality of nestlings. Quail fed 3 oz. of DDT per ton of food had 16% reduction in young hatched and 500% increase in defective chicks. Quail fed same dosage during winter and breeding seasons had 30% decrease in fertile eggs and 800% increase in defective chicks. More than 90% of their chicks died in first 6 weeks although fed no insecticide. Almost equally bad results came from feeding Pheasants diets with about 1 oz. DDT per ton. Other common insecticides (chlorinated hydrocarbons) also caused lowered chick survival and higher percentages of crippled chicks. From field data we know that 2 lbs. DDT/acre can affect birds and has even worse effects on cold-blooded animals. Efforts to control elm disease have left as much as 196 lbs. DDT/acre in top 3 inches of soil. Earthworms concentrate DDT in their tissues. Thus the treated areas can be traps for birds and other animals. What can be done? 1) In control of elm disease, use minimum effective amount of insecticide; mist blowers use less than sprayers. 2) Avoid applications during migration and nesting seasons. It has been reported that adequate control can be obtained with dormant sprays and that foliar applications may not be required. Tables of this paper show effects of DDT on reproduction of Quail, relative toxicity to quail of 8 insecticides, and amounts of 7 insecticides required to cause 40% or more decrease in Quail reproduction. These comparisons demonstrate that Aldrin, Endrin, and Dieldrin are 20 to 200 times as toxic as DDT and that Heptachlor and Chlordane are only slightly less toxic than Dieldrin. Methoxychlor and Strobane are less toxic to Quail than is DDT.

  1. Graybar – pace project

    OpenAIRE

    Morillo Peres, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Proyecto Final de Carrera en el se presenta una memoria del trabajo realizado en la empresa Graybar de implantación de un sistema de Gestión de la Cadena de Suministro Mètodes basat en investigació operativa per agilitzar la logística interna d´industries Graybar.Projecte PACE

  2. [Advances in cardiac pacing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carranza, María-José Sancho-Tello; Fidalgo-Andrés, María Luisa; Ferrer, José Martínez; Mateas, Francisco Ruiz

    2012-01-01

    This article contains a review of the current status of remote monitoring and follow-up involving cardiac pacing devices and of the latest developments in cardiac resynchronization therapy. In addition, the most important articles published in the last year are discussed.

  3. Establishment patterns of water-elm at Catahoula Lake, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen S. Doerr; Sanjeev Joshi; Richard F. Keim

    2015-01-01

    At Catahoula Lake in central Louisiana, an internationally important lake for water fowl, hydrologic alterations to the surrounding rivers and the lake itself have led to an expansion of water-elm (Planera aquatic J.F. Gmel.) into the lake bed. In this study, we used dendrochronology and aerial photography to quantify the expansion of water-elm in the lake and identify...

  4. Cardiac pacing and aviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toff, W D; Edhag, O K; Camm, A J

    1992-12-01

    Certain applicants with stable disturbances of rhythm or conduction requiring cardiac pacing, in whom no other disqualifying condition is present, may be considered fit for medical certification restricted to multi-crew operations. The reliability of modern pacing systems appears adequate to permit restricted certification even in pacemaker dependent subjects except for certain models of pacemakers and leads known to be at increased risk of failure. These are to be avoided. There is little evidence to suggest that newer devices are any more reliable than their predecessors. Single and dual chamber systems appear to have similar reliability up to 4 years, after which time significant attrition of dual chamber devices occurs, principally due to battery depletion. All devices require increased scrutiny as they approach their end of life as predicted from longevity data and pacing characteristics. Unipolar and bipolar leads are of similar reliability, apart from a number of specific bipolar polyurethane leads which have been identified. Atrial leads, particularly those without active fixation, are less secure than ventricular leads and applicants who are dependent on atrial sensing or pacing should be denied certification. Bipolar leads are to be preferred due to the lower risk of myopotential and exogenous EMI. Sensor-driven adaptive-rate pacing systems using active sensors may have reduced longevity and require close scrutiny. Activity-sensing devices using piezoelectric crystal sensors may be subject to significant rate rises in rotary wing aircraft. The impracticality of restricted certification in helicopters will, in any event, preclude certification. Such devices would best be avoided in hovercraft (air cushioned vehicle) pilots. Only minor rate rises are likely in fixed-wing aircraft which are unlikely to be of significance. Anti-tachycardia devices and implanted defibrillators are inconsistent with any form of certification to fly.

  5. Recent developments in cardiac pacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodak, D J

    1995-10-01

    Indications for cardiac pacing continue to expand. Pacing to improve functional capacity, which is now common, relies on careful patient selection and technical improvements, such as complex software algorithms and diagnostic capabilities.

  6. A dual-chamber pacing mode to minimize ventricular pacing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Rakovec

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Though patients with sick sinus syndrome theoretically need an atrial pacemaker only, they usually receive a ventricular or a dual-chamber pacemaker because of possible developement of atrioventricular conduction abnormalities. Right ventricular pacing produces left bundle branch block (i.e. pacing-induced ventricular desynchronization, promoting heart failure and atrial fibrillation. This problem can be solved by a special pacing mode which on one hand preserves the safety of dual-chamber pacing and on the other hand minimizes right ventricular pacing.

  7. TCP Pacing Developed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.

    2002-01-01

    Transmission control protocol (TCP) was conceived and designed to run over a variety of communication links, including wireless and high-bandwidth links. However, with recent technological advances in satellite and fiber-optic networks, researchers are reevaluating the flexibility of TCP. The TCP pacing and packet pair probing implementation may help overcome two of the major obstacles identified for efficient bandwidth utilization over communication links with large delay-bandwidth products.

  8. China's First Orimulsion-fuelled Power Project Kicks off

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ China's first Orimulsion-fuelled power project was recently kicked off in Zhanjiang, a coastal city in Southeastern China's Guangdong Province. This project, which draws an investment of about 4.1 billion yuan, is a joint venture among CNPC Fuel Oil Co Ltd with a 51 percent stake, Guangdong Electric Power Development Co Ltd with a 39 percent stake and Zhanjiang Harbor Group Co Ltd with a 10 percent.

  9. Avalanche Phenomenon of Runaway Electrons During Additional Fuelling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨进蔚; 曹建勇; 曾庆希; 张炜; 唐年益; 董贾福; 邓中朝; 肖正贵; 姚良骅

    2002-01-01

    During pellet injection and supersonic molecular beam injection, we have observed the increase of electron density and the enhancement of hard x-ray radiation, but the runaway electrons normally decrease without additional fuelling when the density of plasma increases. This phenomenon may come from the synergetic effects of Dreicer and avalanche runaway electrons. The experimental results are consistent with the calculation based on the theory of avalanche runaway in the HL-1M tokamak.

  10. Utilization of waste glycerin to fuelling of spark ignition engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmasiak, Z.; Pietras, D.

    2016-09-01

    The paper discusses a possibilities of usage a simple alcohols to fuelling of spark ignition engines. Methanol and blends of methanol with glycerin, being a waste product from production of bio-components to fuels based on rapeseed oil, have been used in course of the investigations. The main objective of the research was to determine possibilities of utilization of glycerin to blending of engine fuels. The investigations have been performed using the Fiat 1100 MPI engine. Parameters obtained with the engine powered by pure methanol and by methanol- glycerin mixtures with 10÷30%vol content of glycerin were compared to parameters of the engine fuelled conventionally with the E95 gasoline. The investigations have shown increase of overall efficiency of the engine run on pure methanol with 2.5÷5.0%, and run on the mixture having 10% addition of glycerin with 2.0÷7.8%. Simultaneously, fuelling of the engine with the investigated alcohols results in reduced concentration of toxic components in exhaust gases like: CO, THC and NOx, as well as the greenhouse gas CO2.

  11. METEV: Measurement Technologies for Emissions from Ethanol Fuelled Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandtroem-Dahl, Charlotte

    2009-11-15

    The interest of using alcohols, and especially ethanol, as vehicle fuel is high in Sweden. The advantages are many, such as; being renewable, the ethanol can be produced locally and it is easily mixed with gasoline. Alcohol fuels are considered to be a substantial part of the alternative fuel market, especially in Brazil, USA and Sweden. With this growing interest it is of most importance to investigate the emission performance of vehicles fuelled with alcohols. The focus in this study is on measurement and calculation of hydrocarbon emissions. The emission regulations in different countries have different ways to treat alcohol fuelled vehicles. When alcohols are used as blending components in gasoline, uncombusted alcohols from the fuel are emitted in the exhaust in various amounts. If a Flame Ionization Detector (FID) is used to measure hydrocarbons, the uncombusted alcohol will be included in the measurement. The alcohol is, per definition, however not a hydrocarbon (hydrocarbons contains only hydrogen and carbon). In the US regulations, the alcohol content is measured separately, and the FID measurement is adjusted for the alcohol part. This is not performed in the European regulations. The aim of this project is to highlight the need for a discussion regarding the methodology for measuring hydrocarbon and alcohol emissions from flexible fuelled vehicles operating on alcohol fuel blends.

  12. Model of ELM suppression by RMPs in DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callen, J. D.; Nazikian, R.; Ferraro, N. M.; Beidler, M. T.; Hegna, C. C.; La Haye, R. J.; Paz-Soldan, C.

    2016-10-01

    Recent DIII-D experiments explored effects of resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) near the minimum applied n=2 RMP amplitude required for ELM suppression in ITER-relevant low collisionality pedestals. Comprehensive tokamak forced magnetic reconnection (FMR) theory is used to describe and quantify the many physical processes involved in stages of RMP effects and an ELM crash response that lead to bifurcation into an ELM-suppressed state: 1) in ELMing equilibrium, flow-screening is strong with little magnetic reconnection; 2) the RMP at q=8/2 penetrates via FMR induced by an ELM crash and locks toroidal flow to the lab frame (like error field mode locking); 3) the ELM crash provides a 8/2 seed island (like NTMs) governed by a modified Rutherford equation; 4) if the total 8/2 RMP is large enough the internal tearing response and flow bifurcate and grow; and 5) flutter transport reduces pedestal top gradients which stabilizes P-B modes and hence suppresses ELMs. This analysis is for discharge 158115 in DIII-D; its potential universality is yet to be determined. Work supported by OFES/DOE under DE-FG02-92ER54139, DE-FG02-86ER53218, DE-AC02-09CH11466 and DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  13. Toroidally asymmetric ELM precursor oscillations in the TCV tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimerdes, H.; Pochelon, A.; Guittienne, P.; Weisen, H. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). Centre de Recherche en Physique des Plasma (CRPP); Suttrop, W. [Max-Planck Inst. fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)

    1997-06-01

    In TCV ohmic H-modes have been obtained in diverted single-null (SND), double-null (DND), and elongated limited plasma configurations. In ELM-free H-modes the particle density rises continuously until the discharge usually terminates with a high density disruption. Quasi-stationary H-modes have been obtained in the presence of ELMs. The observed ELM spectrum is continuous and ranges from clearly identifiable type III ELMs to low frequency, large ELMs. The necessity of ELMs for particle control of H-mode plasmas while causing high peak-power loads on strike points makes the control of their level and nature desirable and motivates the study of the underlying MHD-instability. Prior to ELMs in TCV coherent magnetic oscillations, that indicate a rapidly growing MHD instability, have been observed. The structure of these precursor oscillation is investigated with TCV`s Mirnov probe arrays. In particular an observed toroidal asymmetry in the growth of the instability has to be explained. (author) 2 figs., 6 refs.

  14. Ex situ conservation of genetic resources of field elm (Ulmus minor Mill and European white elm (Ulmus laevis Pall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Jelena

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Principles of the conservation of genetic resources of elms (Ulmus spp do not differ fundamentally from the general principles accepted for the conservation of genetic resources of other common Noble Hardwoods. Efficient conservation can best be achieved through appropriate combination of in situ and ex situ methods, which have distinct advantages. Besides that, ex situ conservation is employed when emergency measures are needed for rare endangered populations and when populations are too small to be managed in situ (e.g. risks of genetic drift and inbreeding. The aim of our research is ex situ conservation of genetic resources of field elm {Ulmus minor Mill and European white elm (Ulmus laevis Pall through establishment of field genebanks. Sampling was conducted in one population of field elm and one population of white elm. Plant material (buds from 8 trees of field elm and 10 trees of white elm was used for in vitro production of clones. Obtained clones will be used for establishment of field genebanks on the experimental estate of the Institute of Lowland Forestry and Environment.

  15. Comparison of ELM heat loads in snowflake and standard divertors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rognlien, T D; Cohen, R H; Ryutov, D D; Umansky, M V

    2012-05-08

    An analysis is given of the impact of the tokamak divertor magnetic structure on the temporal and spatial divertor heat flux from edge localized modes (ELMs). Two configurations are studied: the standard divertor where the poloidal magnetic field (B{sub p}) varies linearly with distance (r) from the magnetic null and the snowflake where B{sub p} varies quadratrically with r. Both one and two-dimensional models are used to analyze the effect of the longer magnetic field length between the midplane and the divertor plate for the snowflake that causes a temporal dilation of the ELM divertor heat flux. A second effect discussed is the appearance of a broad region near the null point where the poloidal plasma beta can substantially exceed unity, especially for the snowflake configuration during the ELM; such a condition is likely to drive additional radial ELM transport.

  16. Pheromone Chemistry of the Smaller European Elm Bark Beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Keith

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the aggregation pheromone of the smaller European elm bark beetle, Scolytus multistriatus (Marsham), with emphasis on information that could be used in the classroom as a practical application of organic chemistry. (Author/GA)

  17. e-Learning Management System (eLMS) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — DOT's electronic Learning Management System (eLMS) is a state-of-the-art web-based system that meets the needs of training administrators, learners, and managers and...

  18. ELM induced tungsten melting and its impact on tokamak operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coenen, J. W.; Arnoux, G.; Bazylev, B.; Matthews, G. F.; Jachmich, S.; Balboa, I.; Clever, M.; Dejarnac, R.; Coffey, I.; Corre, Y.; Devaux, S.; Frassinetti, L.; Gauthier, E.; Horacek, J.; Knaup, M.; Komm, M.; Krieger, K.; Marsen, S.; Meigs, A.; Mertens, Ph.; Pitts, R. A.; Puetterich, T.; Rack, M.; Stamp, M.; Sergienko, G.; Tamain, P.; Thompson, V.

    2015-08-01

    In JET-ILW dedicated melt exposures were performed using a sequence of 3MA/2.9T H-Mode JET pulses with an input power of PIN = 23 MW, a stored energy of ∼6 MJ and regular type I ELMs at ΔWELM = 0.3 MJ and fELM ∼ 30 Hz. In order to assess the risk of starting ITER operations with a full W divertor, one of the task was to measure the consequences of W transients melting due to ELMs. JET is the only tokamak able to produce transients/ ELMs large enough (>300 kJ per ELM) to facilitate melting of tungsten. Such ELMs are comparable to mitigated ELMs expected in ITER. By moving the outer strike point (OSP) onto a dedicated leading edge the base temperature was raised within ∼1 s to allow transient ELM-driven melting during the subsequent 0.5 s. Almost 1 mm (∼6 mm3) of W was moved by ∼ 150 ELMs within 5 subsequent discharges. Significant material losses in terms of ejections into the plasma were not observed. There is indirect evidence that some small droplets (∼ 80 μm) were ejected. The impact on the main plasma parameters is minor and no disruptions occurred. The W-melt gradually moved along the lamella edge towards the high field side, driven by j × B forces. The evaporation rate determined is 100 times less than expected from steady state melting and thus only consistent with transient melting during individual ELMs. IR data, spectroscopy, as well as melt modeling point to transient melting. Although the type of damage studied in these JET experiments is unlikely to be experienced in ITER, the results do strongly support the design strategy to avoid exposed edges in the ITER divertor. The JET experiments required a surface at normal incidence and considerable pre-heating to produce tungsten melting. They provide unique experimental evidence for the absence of significant melt splashing at events resembling mitigated ELMs on ITER and establish a unique experimental benchmark for the simulations being used to study transient shallow melting on ITER W

  19. Long-term time series prediction using OP-ELM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorievskiy, Alexander; Miche, Yoan; Ventelä, Anne-Mari; Séverin, Eric; Lendasse, Amaury

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, an Optimally Pruned Extreme Learning Machine (OP-ELM) is applied to the problem of long-term time series prediction. Three known strategies for the long-term time series prediction i.e. Recursive, Direct and DirRec are considered in combination with OP-ELM and compared with a baseline linear least squares model and Least-Squares Support Vector Machines (LS-SVM). Among these three strategies DirRec is the most time consuming and its usage with nonlinear models like LS-SVM, where several hyperparameters need to be adjusted, leads to relatively heavy computations. It is shown that OP-ELM, being also a nonlinear model, allows reasonable computational time for the DirRec strategy. In all our experiments, except one, OP-ELM with DirRec strategy outperforms the linear model with any strategy. In contrast to the proposed algorithm, LS-SVM behaves unstably without variable selection. It is also shown that there is no superior strategy for OP-ELM: any of three can be the best. In addition, the prediction accuracy of an ensemble of OP-ELM is studied and it is shown that averaging predictions of the ensemble can improve the accuracy (Mean Square Error) dramatically. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Analysis of carbon dioxide emission of gas fuelled cogeneration plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Adzuieen; Amin, M.; Majid, A.

    2013-12-01

    Gas turbines are widely used for power generation. In cogeneration system, the gas turbine generates electricity and the exhaust heat from the gas turbine is used to generate steam or chilled water. Besides enhancing the efficiency of the system, the process assists in reducing the emission of CO2 to the environment. This study analyzes the amount of CO2 emission by Universiti Teknologi Petronas gas fuelled cogeneration system using energy balance equations. The results indicate that the cogeneration system reduces the CO2 emission to the environment by 60%. This finding could encourage the power plant owners to install heat recovery systems to their respective plants.

  1. Performance Test of Engine Fuelled With Diesel and Ethanol Blends.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.K.L.Murthy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Environmental concerns and limited amount of petroleum fuels have caused interests in the development of alternative fuels for internal combustion (ICengines. As an alternative, biodegradable and renewable fuel, ethanol is receiving increasing attention. An experimental investigation on the application of the blends of ethanol with diesel to a diesel engine was carried out. First the solubility of ethanol and diesel was conducted with and without the additive of normal butanol (n-butanol. The purpose of this project is to find the optimum percentage of ethanol that gives simultaneously better performance and lower emissions. The experiments were conducted on a water-cooled single-cylinder Direct Injection (DI diesel engine using 0% (neat diesel fuel, 10% (E10-D, 15%(E15–D, 20% (E20–D, and 25%(E25–D ethanol–diesel blended fuels. Experimental tests were carried out to study the performance of the engine fuelled with the blends compared with those fuelled by diesel. The test results show that it is feasible and applicable for the blends with n-butanol to replace pure diesel as the fuel for diesel engine.

  2. Marathon pacing and elevation change

    CERN Document Server

    Elliott, J B

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of marathon pacing and elevation change is presented. It is based on an empirical observation of how the pace of elite and non-elite marathon runners change over the course of the marathon and a simple approximation of the energy cost of ascent and decent. It was observed that the pace of the runners slowed in a regular manner that could be broken up into four regions. That observation can be used to project target paces for a desired marathon finish time. However, that estimate fails to take in to account the energetic costs of elevation changes (hills) along the marathon course. Several approximations are made to give a coarse estimate of target paces for marathon run on courses with significant elevation changes, i.e. a hilly course. The 2012 Oakland Marathon course is used as and example of a hilly course and the times of 23 finishers are examined.

  3. Factors influencing pacing in triathlon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sam Sx; Peiffer, Jeremiah J; Brisswalter, Jeanick; Nosaka, Kazunori; Abbiss, Chris R

    2014-01-01

    Triathlon is a multisport event consisting of sequential swim, cycle, and run disciplines performed over a variety of distances. This complex and unique sport requires athletes to appropriately distribute their speed or energy expenditure (ie, pacing) within each discipline as well as over the entire event. As with most physical activity, the regulation of pacing in triathlon may be influenced by a multitude of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The majority of current research focuses mainly on the Olympic distance, whilst much less literature is available on other triathlon distances such as the sprint, half-Ironman, and Ironman distances. Furthermore, little is understood regarding the specific physiological, environmental, and interdisciplinary effects on pacing. Therefore, this article discusses the pacing strategies observed in triathlon across different distances, and elucidates the possible factors influencing pacing within the three specific disciplines of a triathlon.

  4. Exergoeconomic optimization of coaxial tube evaporators for cooling of high pressure gaseous hydrogen during vehicle fuelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Rothuizen, Erasmus Damgaard; Markussen, Wiebke Brix

    2014-01-01

    Gaseous hydrogen as an automotive fuel is reaching the point of commercial introduction. Development of hydrogen fuelling stations considering an acceptable fuelling time by cooling the hydrogen to -40 C has started. This paper presents a design study of coaxial tube ammonia evaporators for three...

  5. The Feasibility of Pellet Re-Fuelling of a Fusion Reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, Tinghong; Jørgensen, L. W.; Nielsen, P.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of re-fuelling a fusion reactor by injecting pellets of frozen hydrogen isotopes is reviewed. First a general look is taken of the dominant energy fluxes received by the pellet, the re-fuelling rate required and the relation between pellet size, injection speed and frequency...

  6. The ELM Survey. VI. Eleven New Double Degenerates

    CERN Document Server

    Gianninas, A; Brown, Warren R; Canton, Paul; Kenyon, Scott J

    2015-01-01

    We present the discovery of 11 new double degenerate systems containing extremely low-mass white dwarfs (ELM WDs). Our radial velocity observations confirm that all of the targets have orbital periods $\\leq$ 1 day. We perform spectroscopic fits and provide a complete set of physical and binary parameters. We review and compare recent evolutionary calculations and estimate that the systematic uncertainty in our mass determinations due to differences in the evolutionary models is small ($\\approx$ 0.01 M$_{\\odot}$). Five of the new systems will merge due to gravitational wave radiation within a Hubble time, bringing the total number of merger systems found in the ELM Survey to 38. We examine the ensemble properties of the current sample of ELM WD binaries, including the period distribution as a function of effective temperature, and the implications for the future evolution of these systems. We also revisit the empirical boundaries of instability strip of ELM WDs and identify new pulsating ELM WD candidates. Fin...

  7. Pneumothorax in cardiac pacing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkfeldt, Rikke Esberg; Johansen, Jens Brock; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard;

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To identify risk factors for pneumothorax treated with a chest tube after cardiac pacing device implantation in a population-based cohort.METHODS AND RESULTS: A nationwide cohort study was performed based on data on 28 860 patients from the Danish Pacemaker Register, which included all Danish...... patients who received their first pacemaker (PM) or cardiac resynchronization device from 1997 to 2008. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with 95% confidence intervals for the association between risk factors and pneumothorax treated with a chest tube. The median...... age was 77 years (25th and 75th percentile: 69-84) and 55% were male (n = 15 785). A total of 190 patients (0.66%) were treated for pneumothorax, which was more often in women [aOR 1.9 (1.4-2.6)], and in patients with age >80 years [aOR 1.4 (1.0-1.9)], a prior history of chronic obstructive pulmonary...

  8. ELM mitigation via rotating resonant magnetic perturbations on MAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, A.J., E-mail: andrew.thornton@ccfe.ac.uk [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Kirk, A. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Cahyna, P. [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR v.v.i, Prague (Czech Republic); Chapman, I.T.; Fishpool, G.; Harrison, J.R.; Liu, Y.Q. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Kripner, L.; Peterka, M. [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR v.v.i, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2015-08-15

    The application of resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) produces splitting of the divertor strike point due to the interaction of the RMP field and the plasma field. The application of a rotating RMP field causes the strike point splitting to rotate, distributing the particle and heat flux evenly over the divertor. The RMP coils in MAST have been used to generate a rotating perturbation with a toroidal mode number n = 3. The ELM frequency is doubled with the application of the RMP rotating field, whilst maintaining the H mode. During mitigation, the ELM peak heat flux is seen to be reduced by 50% for a halving in the ELM energy and motion of the strike point, consistent with the rotation of the applied RMP field, is seen using high spatial resolution (1.5 mm at the target) heat flux profiles measured using infrared (IR) thermography.

  9. ELM-KNN for photometric redshift estimation of quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanxia; Tu, Yang; Zhao, Yongheng; Tian, Haijun

    2017-06-01

    We explore photometric redshift estimation of quasars with the SDSS DR12 quasar sample. Firstly the quasar sample is separated into three parts according to different redshift ranges. Then three classifiers based on Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) are created in the three redshift ranges. Finally k-Nearest Neighbor (kNN) approach is applied on the three samples to predict photometric redshifts of quasars with multiwavelength photometric data. We compare the performance with different input patterns by ELM-KNN with that only by kNN. The experimental results show that ELM-KNN is feasible and superior to kNN (e.g. rms is 0.0751 vs. 0.2626 for SDSS sample), in other words, the ensemble method has the potential to increase regressor performance beyond the level reached by an individual regressor alone and will be a good choice when facing much more complex data.

  10. ELM mitigation via rotating resonant magnetic perturbations on MAST

    CERN Document Server

    Thornton, A J; Cahyna, P; Chapman, I T; Fishpool, G; Harrison, J R; Liu, Y Q; Kripner, L; Peterka, M

    2014-01-01

    The application of resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) produces splitting of the divertor strike point due to the interaction of the RMP field and the plasma field. The application of a rotating RMP field causes the strike point splitting to rotate, distributing the particle and heat flux evenly over the divertor. The RMP coils in MAST have been used to generate a rotating perturbation with a toroidal mode number n=3. The ELM frequency is doubled with the application of the RMP rotating field, whilst maintaining the H mode. During mitigation, the ELM peak heat flux is seen to be reduced by 50% for a halving in the ELM energy and motion of the strike point, consistent with the rotation of the applied RMP field, is seen using high spatial resolution (1.5mm at the target) heat flux profiles measured using infrared (IR) thermography.

  11. Tiny pollutant emissions of a dimethyl ether fuelled engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LANG Jing; ZHANG Yu-sheng; ZHOU Xiao-song; WU Hong-wei

    2008-01-01

    Emissions of dimethyl ether (DME) fuelled engines were investigated by orthogonal experiments on a ZS195 diesel engine. The study mainly focused on the tiny pollutant emissions of formaldehyde (CH2O), methyl formate (CH3OCHO) and formic acid (HCOOH). The presence of CH2O, CH3OCHO and HCOOH are proved in the exhaust by gas chromatograph and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The analysis of variance results indicate that the fuel delivery advance angle is the most important factor for CH2O emission. The fuel delivery advance angle and the interaction of injection pressure and nozzle diameter are considerable factors for unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emission. The mechanism forming tiny pollutants, primarily through CH2O formation, is suggested to be similar to the mechanism forming UHC by DME partial oxidation existing in crevices and boundary zones, and is verified via DME combustion simulation of a multizone chemical kinetic model.

  12. Investigation of dynamics of ELM crashes and their mitigation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pankin, Alexei Y. [Tech-X Corporation, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-08-14

    The accurate prediction of H-mode pedestal dynamics is critical for planning experiments in existing tokamaks and in the design of future tokamaks such as ITER and DEMO. The main objective of the proposed research is to advance the understanding of the physics of H-mode pedestal. Through advances in coupled kinetic-MHD simulations, a new model for H-mode pedestal and ELM crashes as well as an improved model for the bootstrap current will be developed. ELMmitigation techniques will also be investigated. The proposed research will help design efficient confinement scenarios and reduce transient heat loads on the divertor and plasma facing components. During the last two years, the principal investigator (PI) of this proposal actively participated in physics studies related to the DOE Joint Research Targets. These studies include the modeling of divertor heat load in the DIII-D, Alcator C-Mod, and NSTX tokamaks in 2010, and the modeling of H-mode pedestal structure in the DIII-D tokamak in 2011. It is proposed that this close collaboration with experimentalists from major US tokamaks continue during the next funding period. Verification and validation will be a strong component of the proposed research. During the course of the project, advances will be made in the following areas; Dynamics of the H-mode pedestal buildup and recovery after ELM crashes – The effects of neutral fueling, particle and thermal pinches will be explored; Dynamics of ELM crashes in realistic tokamak geometries – Heat loads associated with ELM crashes will be validated against experimental measurements. An improved model for ELM crashes will be developed; ELM mitigation – The effect of resonant magnetic perturbations on ELMs stability and their evolution will be investigated; Development of a new bootstrap current model – A reduced model for will be developed through careful verification of existing models for bootstrap current against first-principle kinetic neoclassical simulations

  13. Elm Fork of the Trinity River Floodplain Management Study

    OpenAIRE

    Tickle, Greg; Clary, Melinda

    2001-01-01

    Wendy Lopez and Associates, Inc. (WLA) was asked to provide a conservation and ecological restoration overview for the City of Dallas as part of an Elm Fork Floodplain Management Study. This study encompasses a unique portion of the main stem of the Elm Fork of the Trinity River, Dallas County, Dallas, Texas. The project area includes approximately 8.5 square miles, half of which lie within a 100-year floodplain. Approximately 15% of the project area is mature bottomland hardwood forest and s...

  14. ELM: AN ALGORITHM TO ESTIMATE THE ALPHA ABUNDANCE FROM LOW-RESOLUTION SPECTRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bu, Yude [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Shandong University, Weihai, 264209, Shandong (China); Zhao, Gang; Kumar, Yerra Bharat [Key Laboratory for Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100012 (China); Pan, Jingchang, E-mail: ydbu@bao.ac.cn, E-mail: gzhao@nao.cas.cn [School of Mechanical, Electrical and Information Engineering, Shandong University, Weihai, 264209, Shandong (China)

    2016-01-20

    We have investigated a novel methodology using the extreme learning machine (ELM) algorithm to determine the α abundance of stars. Applying two methods based on the ELM algorithm—ELM+spectra and ELM+Lick indices—to the stellar spectra from the ELODIE database, we measured the α abundance with a precision better than 0.065 dex. By applying these two methods to the spectra with different signal-to-noise ratios (S/Ns) and different resolutions, we found that ELM+spectra is more robust against degraded resolution and ELM+Lick indices is more robust against variation in S/N. To further validate the performance of ELM, we applied ELM+spectra and ELM+Lick indices to SDSS spectra and estimated α abundances with a precision around 0.10 dex, which is comparable to the results given by the SEGUE Stellar Parameter Pipeline. We further applied ELM to the spectra of stars in Galactic globular clusters (M15, M13, M71) and open clusters (NGC 2420, M67, NGC 6791), and results show good agreement with previous studies (within 1σ). A comparison of the ELM with other widely used methods including support vector machine, Gaussian process regression, artificial neural networks, and linear least-squares regression shows that ELM is efficient with computational resources and more accurate than other methods.

  15. Factors influencing pacing in triathlon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu SSX

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sam SX Wu,1 Jeremiah J Peiffer,2 Jeanick Brisswalter,3 Kazunori Nosaka,1 Chris R Abbiss1 1Centre for Exercise and Sports Science Research, School of Exercise and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Perth, WA, Australia; 2School of Psychology and Exercise Science, Murdoch University, Perth, WA, Australia; 3Laboratory of Human Motricity, Education Sport and Health, University of Nice Sophia Antipolis, Nice, France Abstract: Triathlon is a multisport event consisting of sequential swim, cycle, and run disciplines performed over a variety of distances. This complex and unique sport requires athletes to appropriately distribute their speed or energy expenditure (ie, pacing within each discipline as well as over the entire event. As with most physical activity, the regulation of pacing in triathlon may be influenced by a multitude of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The majority of current research focuses mainly on the Olympic distance, whilst much less literature is available on other triathlon distances such as the sprint, half-Ironman, and Ironman distances. Furthermore, little is understood regarding the specific physiological, environmental, and interdisciplinary effects on pacing. Therefore, this article discusses the pacing strategies observed in triathlon across different distances, and elucidates the possible factors influencing pacing within the three specific disciplines of a triathlon. Keywords: cycle, endurance, multisport, pacing strategy, run, swim

  16. Menyoal Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM dan Teori Retorika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudi Perbawaningsih

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Persuasion is a communication process to establish or change attitudes, which can be understood through theory of Rhetoric and theory of Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM. This study elaborates these theories in a Public Lecture series which to persuade the students in choosing their concentration of study. The result shows that in term of persuasion effectiveness it is not quite relevant to separate the message and its source. The quality of source is determined by the quality of the message, and vice versa. Separating the two routes of the persuasion process as described in the ELM theory would not be relevant. Abstrak: Persuasi adalah proses komunikasi untuk membentuk atau mengubah sikap, yang dapat dipahami dengan teori Retorika dan teori Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM. Penelitian ini mengelaborasi teori tersebut dalam Kuliah Umum sebagai sarana mempersuasi mahasiswa untuk memilih konsentrasi studi studi yang didasarkan pada proses pengolahan informasi. Menggunakan metode survey, didapatkan hasil yaitu tidaklah cukup relevan memisahkan pesan dan narasumber dalam melihat efektivitas persuasi. Keduanya menyatu yang berarti bahwa kualitas narasumber ditentukan oleh kualitas pesan yang disampaikannya, dan sebaliknya. Memisahkan proses persuasi dalam dua lajur seperti yang dijelaskan dalam ELM teori menjadi tidak relevan.

  17. On Equivalence of FIS and ELM for Interpretable Rule-Based Knowledge Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Shen Yuong; Yap, Keem Siah; Yap, Hwa Jen; Tan, Shing Chiang; Chang, Siow Wee

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a fuzzy extreme learning machine (F-ELM) that embeds fuzzy membership functions and rules into the hidden layer of extreme learning machine (ELM). Similar to the concept of ELM that employed the random initialization technique, three parameters of F-ELM are randomly assigned. They are the standard deviation of the membership functions, matrix-C (rule-combination matrix), and matrix-D [don't care (DC) matrix]. Fuzzy if-then rules are formulated by the rule-combination Matrix of F-ELM, and a DC approach is adopted to minimize the number of input attributes in the rules. Furthermore, F-ELM utilizes the output weights of the ELM to form the target class and confidence factor for each of the rules. This is to indicate that the corresponding consequent parameters are determined analytically. The operations of F-ELM are equivalent to a fuzzy inference system. Several benchmark data sets and a real world fault detection and diagnosis problem have been used to empirically evaluate the efficacy of the proposed F-ELM in handling pattern classification tasks. The results show that the accuracy rates of F-ELM are comparable (if not superior) to ELM with distinctive ability of providing explicit knowledge in the form of interpretable rule base.

  18. Presentation Time Concerning System-Paced Multimedia Instructions and the Superiority of Learner Pacing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiller, Klaus D.; Petzold, Kirstin; Zinnbauer, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The superiority of learner-paced over system-paced instructions was demonstrated in multiple experiments. In these experiments, the system-paced presentations were highly speeded, causing cognitive overload, while the learner-paced instructions allowed adjustments of the presentational flow to the learner's needs by pacing facilities, mostly…

  19. Diagnostic accuracy of pace spikes in the electrocardiogram to diagnose paced rhythm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Hedvig; Hansen, Marco Bo; Thorsberger, Mads;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine how often cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) pacing systems generate visible pace spikes in the electrocardiogram (ECG). METHODS: In 46 patients treated with CRT pacing systems, we recorded ECGs during intrinsic rhythm, atrial pacing and ventricular pacing. ECGs were...

  20. Technical and Feasibility Analysis of Gasoline and Natural Gas Fuelled Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Charalambos Chasos; George Karagiorgis; Chris Christodoulou

    2014-01-01

    There is recent interest for the utilisation of natural gas for empowering the internal combustion engines (ICE) of vehicles. The production of novel natural gas ICE for vehicles, as well as the conversion of existing gasoline fuelled ICE of vehicles to natural gas fuelled ICE are new technologies which require to be analysed and assessed. The objective of the present study is to examine the adaptation of natural gas as vehicle fuel and carry out a technical analysis and an economical feasibi...

  1. The pace and shape of ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baudisch, Annette

    2011-01-01

    dimensions of age-specific change - the pace and the shape of ageing. 2.Based on the two axes of pace and shape, I introduce a new conceptual framework to classify how species age. 3.With this method, I rank species according to how strongly they age (shape) and how fast they age (pace). Depending on whether...... they are ranked by pace or by shape, species are ordered differently. 4.Alternative pace measures turn out to be highly correlated. Alternative shape measures are also highly correlated. The correlation between pace and shape ranking is negative but weak. Among the examples here, no species is long lived yet...

  2. An autonomous chemically fuelled small-molecule motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Miriam R.; Solà, Jordi; Carlone, Armando; Goldup, Stephen M.; Lebrasseur, Nathalie; Leigh, David A.

    2016-06-01

    Molecular machines are among the most complex of all functional molecules and lie at the heart of nearly every biological process. A number of synthetic small-molecule machines have been developed, including molecular muscles, synthesizers, pumps, walkers, transporters and light-driven and electrically driven rotary motors. However, although biological molecular motors are powered by chemical gradients or the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), so far there are no synthetic small-molecule motors that can operate autonomously using chemical energy (that is, the components move with net directionality as long as a chemical fuel is present). Here we describe a system in which a small molecular ring (macrocycle) is continuously transported directionally around a cyclic molecular track when powered by irreversible reactions of a chemical fuel, 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl chloride. Key to the design is that the rate of reaction of this fuel with reactive sites on the cyclic track is faster when the macrocycle is far from the reactive site than when it is near to it. We find that a bulky pyridine-based catalyst promotes carbonate-forming reactions that ratchet the displacement of the macrocycle away from the reactive sites on the track. Under reaction conditions where both attachment and cleavage of the 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl groups occur through different processes, and the cleavage reaction occurs at a rate independent of macrocycle location, net directional rotation of the molecular motor continues for as long as unreacted fuel remains. We anticipate that autonomous chemically fuelled molecular motors will find application as engines in molecular nanotechnology.

  3. Coupled simulation of kinetic pedestal growth and MHD ELM crash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, G [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University (United States); Cummings, J [California Institute of Technology (United States); Chang, C S [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University (United States); Podhorszki, N [Univ. California at Davis (United States); Klasky, S [ORNL (United States); Ku, S [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University (United States); Pankin, A [Lehigh Univ. (United States); Samtaney, R [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (United States); Shoshani, A [LBNL (United States); Snyder, P [General Atomics (United States); Strauss, H [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University (United States); Sugiyama, L [MIT (United States)

    2007-07-15

    Edge pedestal height and the accompanying ELM crash are critical elements of ITER physics yet to be understood and predicted through high performance computing. An entirely self-consistent first principles simulation is being pursued as a long term research goal, and the plan is planned for completion in time for ITER operation. However, a proof-of-principle work has already been established using a computational tool that employs the best first principles physics available at the present time. A kinetic edge equilibrium code XGC0, which can simulate the neoclassically dominant pedestal growth from neutral ionization (using a phenomenological residual turbulence diffusion motion superposed upon the neoclassical particle motion) is coupled to an extended MHD code M3D, which can perform the nonlinear ELM crash. The stability boundary of the pedestal is checked by an ideal MHD linear peeling-ballooning code, which has been validated against many experimental data sets for the large scale (type I) ELMs onset boundary. The coupling workflow and scientific results to be enabled by it are described.

  4. Protoplast-to-plant regeneration of American elm (Ulmus americana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A M P; Shukla, M R; Biswas, G C G; Saxena, P K

    2015-05-01

    This study describes a protocol for regeneration of plants from cell suspension-derived protoplasts of American elm (Ulmus americana). Efficient protoplast isolation was achieved from a two-phase culture system through the incorporation of 100 μM 2-aminoindan-2-phosphonic acid, with a yield of approximately 2 × 10(6) protoplasts/ml packed cell volume. Isolated protoplasts failed to survive in liquid or alginate bead culture systems but initiated and continued to divide when embedded in low melting point agarose beads. Protoplast-derived callus proliferated and differentiated into shoot buds in response to 10 or 20 μM thidiazuron. Differentiated buds elongated and continued to proliferate on elm shoot medium supplemented with 3.0 μM GA3. The protoplast-derived shoots rooted and acclimatized to greenhouse conditions and continued to grow. This system provides the first protoplast-to-plant regeneration system for American elm and provides a framework for the development of protoplast fusion or genome editing technologies.

  5. Multiaxial fatigue analysis for IMIC of ITER upper ELM coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, S.W., E-mail: zhangsw@ipp.cn; Song, Y.T.; Wang, Z.W.; Lu, S.; Ji, X.; Du, S.S.; Liu, X.F.; Feng, C.L.; Yang, H.; Wang, S.K.; Luo, Z.R.

    2014-04-15

    Highlights: • The structural analysis provides the initial stresses. • Constant and variation of principal stress direction provide the design codes. • Two methods can be recommended for the ELM coils. • IMIC meets the fatigue criteria. - Abstract: Inconel Jacketed Mineral Insulated Conductor (IMIC) is a very important component of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Edge Localized Modes (ELM) coils, which are located between the vacuum vessel (VV) and blanket shield modules and subject to high radiation levels, high temperature and high magnetic field. These coils will experience thermal pulsed, cyclic electromagnetic (EM) load during operation. They are designed to sustain at 1.5e8 total stress cycles and shall have sufficient strength and excellent fatigue to transport and bear the high cyclic load. For IMIC, multiaxial fatigue analysis is used to evaluate failure. Two methods based on the alternating stress and mean stress in American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) code provide the design codes for multiaxial fatigue evaluation: constant principal stress direction and variation of principal stress direction. Results show that using the two methods obtains basically the same equivalent alternating stress. Both of them can be recommended for the ELM coils and IMIC can meet the fatigue criteria.

  6. Modelling ELM heat flux deposition on the ITER main chamber wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kočan, M., E-mail: martin.kocan@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, F-13067 St Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Pitts, R.A.; Lisgo, S.W.; Loarte, A. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, F-13067 St Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Gunn, J.P. [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA/DSM/IRFM, Cadarache, 13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Fuchs, V. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Praha 18200 (Czech Republic)

    2015-08-15

    The interaction of ELM filaments with the ITER beryllium first wall panels (FWPs) is studied using a simple ad-hoc fluid model of the filament parallel transport, taking into account the full, three-dimensional structure of the FWPs, including magnetic shadowing effects. The calculated ELM surface heat loads are used as input to the RACLETTE heat transfer code to estimate the FWP surface temperature rise. The results indicate that controlled ELMs in ITER during burning plasma operation (ΔW{sub ELM} ≈ 0.6 M J) will not lead to melting or significant evaporation of the beryllium surfaces, even in the case of high ELM broadening and the minimum allowable distance between the primary and secondary separatrices. The ELM-averaged steady-state heat load also stays below the maximum power handling capability of the FWPs.

  7. Low atrial septum pacing in pacemaker patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, Willem Gijsbert de

    2006-01-01

    In patients with an indication for anti bradycardia pacing, atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common arrhythmia (30-50%) even in the absence of atrial tachy arrhythmias before pacemaker implantation. Pace prevention and pace intervention for atrial tachy arrhythmias could be an interesting adjuvant trea

  8. Low atrial septum pacing in pacemaker patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, Willem Gijsbert de

    2006-01-01

    In patients with an indication for anti bradycardia pacing, atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common arrhythmia (30-50%) even in the absence of atrial tachy arrhythmias before pacemaker implantation. Pace prevention and pace intervention for atrial tachy arrhythmias could be an interesting adjuvant

  9. Fast dynamics of type I and grassy ELMs in JT-60U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, A.; Oyama, N.; Sakamoto, Y.; Kamada, Y.; Urano, H.; Kamiya, K.; Fujita, T.; Kubo, H.; Aiba, N.; JT-60 Team

    2009-11-01

    In order to understand the physics of the ELM trigger and determine the ELM size, the fast ELM dynamics of type I and grassy ELMs have been studied in JT-60U, using new fast diagnostics with high spatial and temporal resolutions such as a lithium beam probe (Δt ~ 0.5 ms) and a charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (Δt ~ 2.5 ms), which can measure the electron density and the ion temperature, respectively. The evolution of the ion pressure profile in the pedestal region has been evaluated for the first time by detailed edge profile measurements. Then, the dynamics of the density, the ion temperature and the ion pressure in the ELM cycle has been investigated. The co-rotating plasmas are compared with the counter (ctr)-rotating plasmas for the understanding of the toroidal rotation effects. Type I ELMs observed in co-rotating plasmas exhibit a larger and wider ELM affected area (Δnped/nped ~ 30%, radial extent >15 cm) than ctr-rotating plasmas (Δnped/nped ~ 20%, radial extent ~10 cm). Just before a type I ELM crash, the pedestal ion pressure and its maximum gradient in co-rotating plasmas are 20% and 12% higher than those in ctr-rotating plasmas, respectively. It is found that the radial extent of the ion pressure gradient at the pedestal region in co-rotating plasmas is 14% wider than that in ctr-rotating plasmas. The experimental results suggest that the ELM size is connected with the structure of the plasma pressure in the whole pedestal region. As for the dynamics of grassy ELMs, the collapse of density pedestal is smaller (narrower (~5 cm) than those of type I ELMs, as observed in the collapse of the electron temperature pedestal. Thus, it is confirmed that both conductive and convective losses due to grassy ELMs are small.

  10. Phospho.ELM: A database of experimentally verified phosphorylation sites in eukaryotic proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diella, F.; Cameron, S.; Gemund, C.

    2004-01-01

    need for an accurate database dedicated to phosphorylation to provide easily retrievable information on phosphoproteins. Description: Phospho. ELM http://phospho.elm.eu.org is a new resource containing experimentally verified phosphorylation sites manually curated from the literature and is developed...... to be phosphorylated by cellular kinases. Additional annotation includes literature references, subcellular compartment, tissue distribution, and information about the signaling pathways involved as well as links to the molecular interaction database MINT. Phospho. ELM version 2.0 contains 1703 phosphorylation site...

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The ELM survey. VII. 15 new ELM white dwarf cand. (Brown+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W. R.; Gianninas, A.; Kilic, M.; Kenyon, S. J.; Allende Prieto, C.

    2016-05-01

    We present observations of 15 new extremely low-mass white dwarf (ELM WD) candidates. Ten objects are selected by color for our targeted spectroscopic ELM Survey program as described in Brown et al. (2012ApJ...744..142B). Five objects come from follow-up spectroscopy of the completed Hypervelocity Star survey. We acquire spectra for the 15 ELM WD candidates using the Blue Channel spectrograph on the 6.5m MMT telescope. We configured the Blue Channel spectrograph to obtain 3650-4500Å spectral coverage with 1.0Å spectral resolution. We acquire additional spectra for 5 objects using the KOSMOS spectrograph on the Kitt Peak National Observatory 4m Mayall telescope on program numbers 2014B-0119 and 2015A-0082. We configured the KOSMOS spectrograph to obtain 3500-6200Å spectral coverage with 2.0Å spectral resolution. We also acquire spectra for objects with g<17mag using the FAST spectrograph on the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory 1.5m Tillinghast telescope. We configured the FAST spectrograph to obtain 3500-5500Å spectral coverage with 1.7Å spectral resolution. (3 data files).

  12. Confinement and ELM characteristics of H-mode plasmas in KSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, J.-W.; Kim, H.-S.; Park, Y. S.; Terzolo, L.; Ko, W. H.; Park, J.-K.; England, A. C.; Yoon, S. W.; Jeon, Y. M.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Bae, Y. S.; Bak, J. G.; Hahn, S. H.; Hillis, D. L.; Kim, J.; Kim, W. C.; Kwak, J. G.; Lee, K. D.; Na, Y. S.; Nam, Y. U.; Oh, Y. K.; Park, S. I.

    2012-11-01

    The latest results of confinement and edge-localized mode (ELM) characteristics of Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) H-mode plasmas are reported. The estimation of fast ion contribution to the total stored energy, calculated by both the NUBEAM and ASTRA simulations, and of the effective total heating power is used to derive the thermal energy confinement time (τE,thermal), which is compared with a multi-machine database. The measured power threshold for the L-H transition (Pthr) as a function of density shows a roll-over with minimum value at \\bar{n}_e \\sim 2\\times 10^{19}\\,m^{-3} . KSTAR H-mode plasmas exhibit three distinctive types of ELMs: large type-I ELMs, intermediate ELMs and a mixed (type-I and small ELM peaks) ELM regime. Power scans show that the frequency of the large ELMs increases with increasing heating power, a feature of type-I ELMs. The quality of confinement is higher for type-I and mixed ELMy H-mode (H98(y,2) ˜ 0.9-1) than for the intermediate ELM regime (H98(y,2) ˜ 0.7). Type-I ELMs have precursor-like signals from the magnetics measurement, while the other two ELM types do not. The low-field side (LFS) profile of electron temperature (Te), from the ECE measurement, and the pedestal profile of the toroidal velocity (Vt), from charge-exchange spectroscopy, show a continuous build up on the LFS during the inter-ELM period. However, the pedestal ion temperature (Ti) remains unchanged for most of the inter-ELM period until it rapidly rises in the last stage of the ELM cycle (⩾70-80%). The estimated electron pedestal collisionality for a type-I ELMy regime is v_e^\\ast \\sim 0.5{{--}}0.6 . The confinement and ELM characteristics for the ELM suppression discharges by the application of an n = 1 magnetic perturbation (MP) have also been investigated for each of the identified stages during the MP application. A second L-H transition during the L-mode phase after the end of first H-mode stage occurs for some discharges

  13. Probability distribution functions for ELM bursts in a series of JET tokamak discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenhough, J [Space and Astrophysics Group, Department of Physics, Warwick University, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Chapman, S C [Space and Astrophysics Group, Department of Physics, Warwick University, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Dendy, R O [Space and Astrophysics Group, Department of Physics, Warwick University, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Ward, D J [EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2003-05-01

    A novel statistical treatment of the full raw edge localized mode (ELM) signal from a series of previously studied JET plasmas is tested. The approach involves constructing probability distribution functions (PDFs) for ELM amplitudes and time separations, and quantifying the fit between the measured PDFs and model distributions (Gaussian, inverse exponential) and Poisson processes. Uncertainties inherent in the discreteness of the raw signal require the application of statistically rigorous techniques to distinguish ELM data points from background, and to extrapolate peak amplitudes. The accuracy of PDF construction is further constrained by the relatively small number of ELM bursts (several hundred) in each sample. In consequence the statistical technique is found to be difficult to apply to low frequency (typically Type I) ELMs, so the focus is narrowed to four JET plasmas with high frequency (typically Type III) ELMs. The results suggest that there may be several fundamentally different kinds of Type III ELMing process at work. It is concluded that this novel statistical treatment can be made to work, may have wider applications to ELM data, and has immediate practical value as an additional quantitative discriminant between classes of ELMing behaviour.

  14. Identification of characteristic ELM evolution patterns with Alfven-scale measurements and unsupervised machine learning analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David R.; Fonck, R. J.; McKee, G. R.; Diallo, A.; Kaye, S. M.; Leblanc, B. P.; Sabbagh, S. A.

    2016-10-01

    Edge localized mode (ELM) saturation mechanisms, filament dynamics, and multi-mode interactions require nonlinear models, and validation of nonlinear ELM models requires fast, localized measurements on Alfven timescales. Recently, we investigated characteristic ELM evolution patterns with Alfven-scale measurements from the NSTX/NSTX-U beam emission spectroscopy (BES) system. We applied clustering algorithms from the machine learning domain to ELM time-series data. The algorithms identified two or three groups of ELM events with distinct evolution patterns. In addition, we found that the identified ELM groups correspond to distinct parameter regimes for plasma current, shape, magnetic balance, and density pedestal profile. The observed characteristic evolution patterns and corresponding parameter regimes suggest genuine variation in the underlying physical mechanisms that influence the evolution of ELM events and motivate nonlinear MHD simulations. Here, we review the previous results for characteristic ELM evolution patterns and parameter regimes, and we report on a new effort to explore the identified ELM groups with 2D BES measurements and nonlinear MHD simulations. Supported by U.S. Department of Energy Award Numbers DE-SC0001288 and DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  15. Simulation of tungsten armour cracking due to small ELMs in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pestchanyi, S., E-mail: sergey.pestchanyi@ihm.fzk.de [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, IHM (Germany); Garkusha, I. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Kharkov 61108 (Ukraine); Landman, I. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, IHM (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    Simulations of tungsten armour cracking under small ELM-like plasma heat load, which does not cause surface melting, have been performed using the PEGASUS-3D code. A dedicated series of experiments have been performed in the QSPA-Kh50 facility for measurements of the unknown tungsten thermophysical properties and for verification of the PEGASUS-3D simulation results. The simulations revealed that a cellular crack network with average mesh size {Lambda} {approx} 0.5 mm formed after first ELMs and the pattern does not change further. With increasing number of repetitive ELMs loads, the average crack width {Delta}(n) has a maximum value {Delta}{sub m}. The ratio of {Delta}{sub m}/{Lambda} is equal to the tungsten thermal expansion at the maximum surface temperature. {Delta}(n) tends to this value exponentially. The number of ELMs n{sub m} needed for {Delta} stabilization depends on the ELMs energy density and time duration, n{sub m} {approx} 300 for the simulated ELMs of 0.45 MJ/m{sup 2} and 0.25 ms duration. The PEGASUS-3D code is prepared for simulations of tungsten armour damage under action of ELMs of various energy deposition and time duration. These parameters of ELMs depend on ITER regimes of operation and on how successful will be the efforts on ELMs mitigation.

  16. Effect of Fuelling Depth on the Fusion Performance and Particle Confinement of a Fusion Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shijia; Wang, Shaojie

    2016-12-01

    The fusion performance and particle confinement of an international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER)-like fusion device have been modeled by numerically solving the energy transport equation and the particle transport equation. The effect of fuelling depth has been investigated. The plasma is primarily heated by the fusion produced alpha particles and the loss process of particles and energy in the scrape-off layer has been taken into account. To study the effect of fuelling depth on fusion performance, the ITERH-98P(y,2) scaling law has been used to evaluate the transport coefficients. It is shown that the particle confinement and fusion performance are significantly dependent on the fuelling depth. Deviation of 10% of the minor radius on fuelling depth can make the particle confinement change by ∼ 61% and the fusion performance change by ∼ 108%. The enhancement of fusion performance is due to the better particle confinement induced by deeper particle fuelling. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11175178 and 11375196) and the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (No. 2014GB113000)

  17. Transport dynamics of collapse in a giant ELM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, Tetsuyuki [Kyushu Univ., Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan). Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences; Itoh, Sanae-I.; Yagi, Masatoshi; Itoh, Kimitaka

    1998-09-01

    Dynamics of collapse in a giant ELM (Edge Localized Mode) is presented. A model of transport bifurcation between the H-mode and the magnetic braiding mode (M-mode) is applied to the simulational study of edge plasma dynamics. The bifurcation contains the hysteresis characteristics. The pressure profile development, the propagation of the bifurcation (transition) fronts and the resultant bursting fluxes are obtained. The appearance of a pivot point in the pressure profile, an avalanche followed to the transition front propagation, and the structure of the burst are shown. (author)

  18. ELM Meets Urban Big Data Analysis: Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huajun; Chen, Jiaoyan

    2016-01-01

    In the latest years, the rapid progress of urban computing has engendered big issues, which creates both opportunities and challenges. The heterogeneous and big volume of data and the big difference between physical and virtual worlds have resulted in lots of problems in quickly solving practical problems in urban computing. In this paper, we propose a general application framework of ELM for urban computing. We present several real case studies of the framework like smog-related health hazard prediction and optimal retain store placement. Experiments involving urban data in China show the efficiency, accuracy, and flexibility of our proposed framework. PMID:27656203

  19. Impact of ELM filaments on divertor heat flux dynamics in NSTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, J.-W., E-mail: jahn@pppl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge (United States); Maingi, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton (United States); Canik, J.M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge (United States); Gan, K.F. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Hefei (China); Gray, T.K. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge (United States); McLean, A.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore (United States)

    2015-08-15

    The ELM induced change in wetted area (A{sub wet}) and peak heat flux (q{sub peak}) of divertor heat flux is investigated as a function of the number of striations, which represent ELM filaments, observed in the heat flux profile in NSTX. More striations are found to lead to larger A{sub wet} and lower q{sub peak}. The typical number of striations observed in NSTX is 0–9, while 10–15 striations are normally observed in other machines such as JET, and the ELM contracts heat flux profile when the number of striations is less than 3–4 but broadens it with more of them. The smaller number of striations in NSTX is attributed to the fact that NSTX ELMs are against kink/peeling boundary with lower toroidal mode number (n = 1–5), while typical peeling–ballooning ELMs have higher mode number of n = 10–20. For ELMs with smaller number of striations, relative A{sub wet} change is rather constant and q{sub peak} change rapidly increases with increasing ELM size, while A{sub wet} change slightly increases leading to a weaker increase of q{sub peak} change for ELMs with larger number of striations, both of which are unfavourable trend for the material integrity of divertor tiles.

  20. Effect of ELMs on rotation and momentum confinement in H-mode discharges in JET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versloot, T. W.; de Vries, P. C.; Giroud, C.; Hua, M. D.; Beurskens, M. N. A.; Brix, M.; Eich, T.; de la Luna, E.; Tala, T.; Naulin, V.; Zastrow, K. D.

    2010-01-01

    The loss of plasma toroidal angular momentum and thermal energy by edge localized modes (ELMs) has been studied in JET. The analysis shows a consistently larger drop in momentum in comparison with the energy loss associated with the ELMs. This difference originates from the large reduction in angula

  1. Langmuir-magnetic probe measurements of ELMs and dithering cycles in the EAST tokamak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Ning; Naulin, Volker; Xu, G. S.

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of the dynamical behavior associated with edge localized modes (ELMs) have been carried out in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) by direct probing near the separatrix and far scrape-off layer (SOL) using electrostatic as well as magnetic probes. Type-III ELMs...

  2. Magnetic diagnostic of SOL-filaments generated by type I ELMs on JET and ASDEX Upgrade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naulin, Volker; Vianello, N.; Schrittwieser, R.

    2011-01-01

    This contribution is focused on the magnetic signatures of type I ELM filaments. On JET a limited number of high time resolution magnetic coils were used to derive essential ELM filament parameters. The method uses forward modelling and simultaneous fitting of magnetic pickup coil signals to a si...

  3. A Fully Noninductive, ELM-Suppressed Scenario for ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, C. C.; Petrie, T. W.; Nazikian, R.; Turco, F.; Lasnier, C.

    2016-10-01

    An attractive regime with beta, collisionality and plasma shape relevant to the ITER steady-state mission has been attained in DIII-D using the hybrid scenario, including complete ELM suppression using resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) coils. Fully noninductive hybrids with simultaneous high beta (βN <= 3.1) and high confinement (H98 y 2 <= 1.4) have achieved zero surface loop voltage for up to two current relaxation times using efficient central current drive from ECCD and NBCD. This steady-state regime has been successfully integrated with ELM suppression by applying an odd parity n=3 RMP, which has only a minor impact on the pedestal pressure ( 15 %) and H98 y 2 ( 10 %) In radiating divertor experiments in hybrids, the combination of Argon seeding and strong Deuterium puffing more than doubles the plasma radiative power, up to 55% of the input power, with less than 10% increase in Zeff. IR camera measurements find that the peak heat flux in the upper, outer divertor falls by a factor of 2 (from 4.6 to 2.3 MW /m2). Work supported by USDOE under DE-FC02-04ER54698, DE-AC02-09CH11466, DE-FG02-04ER54761, and DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  4. The Downside of Right Ventricular Apical Pacing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Brenyo, MD

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The right ventricular (RV apex has been the standard pacing site since the development of implantable pacemaker technology. Although RV pacing was initially only utilized for the treatment of severe bradyarrhythmias usually due to complete heart block, today the indications for and implantation of RV pacing devices is dramatically larger. Recently, the adverse effects of chronic RV apical pacing have been described including an increased risk of heart failure and death. This review details the detrimental effects of RV apical pacing and their shared hemodynamic pathophysiology. In particular, the role of RV apical pacing induced ventricular dyssynchrony is highlighted with a specific focus on differential outcome based upon QRS morphology at implant.

  5. Migrating Broad-billed Sandpipers achieve high fuelling rates by taking a multi-course meal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuil, Y.I.; Dekinga, A; Koolhaas, A; van der Winden, J; van der Have, T M; Chernichko, I I

    2006-01-01

    In spring, large numbers of migrating Broad-billed Sandpipers make a stop-over in the Sivash, a shallow lagoon system in the Crimea, Ukraine, between the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. Observed fuelling rates are high and, in just a few weeks, the birds can build up sufficient departure mass to reac

  6. FARE device operational characteristics of remote controlled fuelling machine at Wolsong NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namgung, I. [Korea Power Engineering Co., Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y. B.; Lee, S. K. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-10-01

    There are 4 CANDU6 type reactors operating at Wolsong site. For fuelling operation of certain fuel channels (with flow less than 21.5 kg/s) a FARE (flow Assist Ram Extension) device is used. During the refuelling operation, two remote controlled F/Ms (Fuelling Machines) are attached to a designated fuel channel and carry out refuelling job. The upstream F/M inserts new fuel bundles into the fuel channel while the downstream F/M discharges spent fuel bundles. In order to assist fuelling operation of channels that has lower coolant flow rate, the FARE device is used instead of F/M C-ram to push the fuel bundle string. The FARE device is essentially a flow restricting element that produces enough drag force to push the fuel bundle string toward downstream F/M. Channels that require the use of FARE device for refuelling are located along the outside perimeter of reactor. This paper presents the FARE device design feature, steady state hydraulic and operational characteristics and behavior of the device when coupled with fuel bundle string during fuelling operation. The study showed that the steady state performance of Fare device meets the design objective that was confirmed by downstream F/M C-ram force to be positive.

  7. Avian pectoral muscle size rapidly tracks body mass changes during flight, fasting and fuelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindstrom, A; Kvist, A; Piersma, T; Dekinga, A; Dietz, MW; Lindström, Åke

    2000-01-01

    We used ultrasonic imaging to monitor short-term changes in the pectoral muscle size of captive red knots Calidris canutus. Pectoral muscle thickness changed rapidly and consistently in parallel with body mass changes caused by flight, fasting;and fuelling. Four knots hew repeatedly for 10h periods

  8. A comparison of exhaust emissions from vehicles fuelled with petrol, LPG and CNG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielaczyc, P.; Szczotka, A.; Woodburn, J.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents an analysis of THC, NMHC, CO, NOx and CO2 emissions during testing of two bi-fuel vehicles, fuelled with petrol and gaseous fuels, on a chassis dynamometer in the context of the Euro 6 emissions requirements. The analyses were performed on one Euro 5 bi-fuel vehicle (petrol/LPG) and one Euro 5 bi-fuel vehicle (petrol/CNG), both with SI engines equipped with MPI feeding systems operating in closed-loop control, typical three-way-catalysts and heated oxygen sensors. The vehicles had been adapted by their manufacturers for fuelling with LPG or CNG by using additional special equipment mounted onto the existing petrol fuelling system. The vehicles tested featured multipoint gas injection systems. The aim of this paper was an analysis of the impact of the gaseous fuels on the exhaust emission in comparison to the emission of the vehicles fuelled with petrol. The tests subject to the analyses presented here were performed in the Engine Research Department of BOSMAL Automotive Research and Development Institute Ltd in Bielsko-Biala, Poland, within a research programme investigating the influence of alternative fuels on exhaust emissions from light duty vehicle vehicles with spark-ignition and compression-ignition engines.

  9. Permanent cardiac pacing in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfy, Wael; Hegazy, Ranya; AbdElAziz, Osama; Sobhy, Rodina; Hasanein, Hossam; Shaltout, Fawzan

    2013-02-01

    Pediatric pacemaker (PM) implants comprise less than 1 % of all PM implants. This study aimed to investigate permanent cardiac pacing among the pediatric population, identifying different indications and complications of pediatric cardiac pacing, especially focusing on the effect of the pacing sites, the PM lead type, and the indications for pacing. The current work is a cross-sectional study of 103 procedures for permanent PM insertion in pediatric patients between January 2001 and December 2010. The patients were followed up 1, 3, and 6 months after implantation, then every 6 months or as needed. Evaluation included routine clinical examination, electrocardiography, chest X-ray, echocardiography, and a full analysis of the pacing system measurements. The ages of the patients ranged from 0.09 to 12 years (median, 2.3 years). The most common indication for pacing was postoperative complete heart bock, noted in 54 patients (52.4 %). Transvenous endocardial PM insertion was performed in 92 procedures (89.3 %), whereas transthoracic epicardial insertion was performed in 11 procedures (10.7 %). The most common site of pacing was the right ventricular apex (n = 64, 62 %), followed by the right ventricular outflow tract (n = 25, 24.3 %). Transthoracic epicardial PM insertion was associated with a significantly higher percentage and greater severity of complications. In this study, 65 % of the patients with left ventricle (LV) dilation before pacing showed a significant improvement in LV dimensions and function after pacing. This was noted only in those with endocardially inserted PM leads in both the congenital and the postoperative groups regardless of the pacing site. Endocardial PM insertion in children is a safe procedure with fewer complications and a lower ventricular threshold than the epicardial route. Permanent single-chamber right ventricle pacing is safe and can lead to significant improvement in LV function and dimensions. However, long-term follow

  10. Towards the construction of a model to describe the inter-ELM evolution of the pedestal on MAST

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Pedestal profiles that span the ELM cycle have been obtained and used to test the idea that the pedestal pressure gradient in MAST is limited by the onset of Kinetic Ballooning Modes (KBMs). During the inter-ELM period of a regularly type I ELM-ing discharge on MAST, the pressure pedestal height and width increase together while the pressure gradient increases by only 15 % during the ELM cycle. Stability analyses show that the pedestal region over which infinite-n ballooning modes are unstabl...

  11. Update in cardiac arrhythmias and pacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Bolao, Ignacio; Ruiz-Mateas, Francisco; Bazan, Victor; Berruezo, Antonio; Alcalde, Oscar; Leal del Ojo, Juan; Acosta, Juan; Martínez Sellés, Manuel; Mosquera, Ignacio

    2015-03-01

    This article discusses the main advances in cardiac arrhythmias and pacing published between 2013 and 2014. Special attention is given to the interventional treatment of atrial fibrillation and ventricular arrhythmias, and on advances in cardiac pacing and implantable cardioverter defibrillators, with particular reference to the elderly patient.

  12. Transcolonic Migration of Retained Epicardial Pacing Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Gonzales

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Temporary epicardial pacing wires are associated with rare complications. Most of these occur in the chest. Even rarer are complications that occur within the abdomen. We report a case of migrating epicardial pacing wires entering the abdomen and penetrating the transverse colon found incidentally on colonoscopy in an asymptomatic patient.

  13. Improved access to temporary pacing in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alhede, Christina; Weisz, Mathilde; Diederichsen, Axel

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to illustrate current use of temporary pacing (TP) in Denmark by replicating a questionnaire study from 1986 and to compare the results of the two studies.......The aim was to illustrate current use of temporary pacing (TP) in Denmark by replicating a questionnaire study from 1986 and to compare the results of the two studies....

  14. 42 CFR 460.60 - PACE organizational structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false PACE organizational structure. 460.60 Section 460... ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Administrative Requirements § 460.60 PACE organizational structure. (a) A PACE... planning a change in organizational structure must notify CMS and the State administering agency, in...

  15. Distributed Learning over Massive XML Documents in ELM Feature Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Bi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the exponentially increasing volume of XML data, centralized learning solutions are unable to meet the requirements of mining applications with massive training samples. In this paper, a solution to distributed learning over massive XML documents is proposed, which provides distributed conversion of XML documents into representation model in parallel based on MapReduce and a distributed learning component based on Extreme Learning Machine for mining tasks of classification or clustering. Within this framework, training samples are converted from raw XML datasets with better efficiency and information representation ability and taken to distributed learning algorithms in Extreme Learning Machine (ELM feature space. Extensive experiments are conducted on massive XML documents datasets to verify the effectiveness and efficiency for both classification and clustering applications.

  16. THE ELM SURVEY. V. MERGING MASSIVE WHITE DWARF BINARIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Warren R.; Kenyon, Scott J. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kilic, Mukremin; Gianninas, A. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks St., Norman, OK, 73019 (United States); Allende Prieto, Carlos, E-mail: wbrown@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: skenyon@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: kilic@ou.edu, E-mail: alexg@nhn.ou.edu, E-mail: callende@iac.es [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38205, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2013-05-20

    We present the discovery of 17 low-mass white dwarfs (WDs) in short-period (P {<=} 1 day) binaries. Our sample includes four objects with remarkable log g {approx_equal} 5 surface gravities and orbital solutions that require them to be double degenerate binaries. All of the lowest surface gravity WDs have metal lines in their spectra implying long gravitational settling times or ongoing accretion. Notably, six of the WDs in our sample have binary merger times <10 Gyr. Four have {approx}>0.9 M{sub Sun} companions. If the companions are massive WDs, these four binaries will evolve into stable mass transfer AM CVn systems and possibly explode as underluminous supernovae. If the companions are neutron stars, then these may be millisecond pulsar binaries. These discoveries increase the number of detached, double degenerate binaries in the ELM Survey to 54; 31 of these binaries will merge within a Hubble time.

  17. Modelling of ELM dynamics for DIII-D and ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pankin, A Y [Lehigh University, 16 Memorial Drive East, Bethlehem, PA 18015 (United States); Bateman, G [Lehigh University, 16 Memorial Drive East, Bethlehem, PA 18015 (United States); Brennan, D P [University of Tulsa, Tulsa, Oklahoma (United States); Kritz, A H [Lehigh University, 16 Memorial Drive East, Bethlehem, PA 18015 (United States); Kruger, S [Tech-X, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Snyder, P B [General Atomics, San Diego, CA 92186 (United States); Sovinec, C [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2007-07-15

    A model for integrated modelling studies of edge localized modes (ELMs) in ITER is discussed in this paper. Stability analyses are carried out for ITER and DIII-D equilibria that are generated with the TEQ and TOQ equilibrium codes. The H-mode pedestal pressure and parallel current density are varied in a systematic way in order to span the relevant parameter space for specific ITER plasma parameters. The ideal MHD stability codes, DCON, ELITE and BALOO, are employed to determine whether or not each ITER equilibrium profile is unstable to peeling or ballooning modes in the pedestal region. Several equilibria that are close to the marginal stability boundary for peeling and ballooning modes are tested with the NIMROD non-ideal MHD code. When the effects of finite resistivity are studied in a series of linear NIMROD computations, it is found that the peeling-ballooning stability threshold is very sensitive to the resistivity and viscosity profiles, which vary dramatically over a wide range near the separatrix. When two-fluid gyro-viscous and Hall effects are included in NIMROD computations, it is found that harmonics with high toroidal mode numbers are stabilized while the growth rate of harmonics with low toroidal mode numbers are only moderately reduced. When flow shear across the H-mode pedestal is included, it is found that linear growth rates are increased, particularly for harmonics with high toroidal mode numbers. In nonlinear NIMROD simulations, ELM crashes produce filaments that extend out to the wall in the absence of flow shear. When flow shear is included, the filaments are dragged by the fluid and sheared off before they extend to the wall.

  18. Hydrologic data for Little Elm Creek, Trinity River basin, Texas, 1976

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, R.M.; Hays, T.H.; Schoultz, C.T.

    1976-01-01

    This report contains rainfall, runoff, and storage data collected during the 1976 water year for a 75.5 sq mi area above the stream-gaging station Little Elm Creek near Aubrey, Texas. Floodflows from 35.7 sq mi of the area are regulated by 16 floodwater-retarding structures constructed by the Soil Conservation Service. During the 1976 water year, five storm periods were selected for detailed computations and analyses. Beginning with the 1975 water year, water-quality data is given for Little Elm Creek. Investigations in the Little Elm Creek watershed were terminated on September 30, 1976. (Woodard-USGS)

  19. ELM 2016—data update and new functionality of the eukaryotic linear motif resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkel, Holger; Van Roey, Kim; Michael, Sushama; Kumar, Manjeet; Uyar, Bora; Altenberg, Brigitte; Milchevskaya, Vladislava; Schneider, Melanie; Kühn, Helen; Behrendt, Annika; Dahl, Sophie Luise; Damerell, Victoria; Diebel, Sandra; Kalman, Sara; Klein, Steffen; Knudsen, Arne C.; Mäder, Christina; Merrill, Sabina; Staudt, Angelina; Thiel, Vera; Welti, Lukas; Davey, Norman E.; Diella, Francesca; Gibson, Toby J.

    2016-01-01

    The Eukaryotic Linear Motif (ELM) resource (http://elm.eu.org) is a manually curated database of short linear motifs (SLiMs). In this update, we present the latest additions to this resource, along with more improvements to the web interface. ELM 2016 contains more than 240 different motif classes with over 2700 experimentally validated instances, manually curated from more than 2400 scientific publications. In addition, more data have been made available as individually searchable pages and are downloadable in various formats. PMID:26615199

  20. Simulating PACE Global Ocean Radiances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Watson W.; Rousseaux, Cecile S.

    2017-01-01

    The NASA PACE mission is a hyper-spectral radiometer planned for launch in the next decade. It is intended to provide new information on ocean biogeochemical constituents by parsing the details of high resolution spectral absorption and scattering. It is the first of its kind for global applications and as such, poses challenges for design and operation. To support pre-launch mission development and assess on-orbit capabilities, the NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office has developed a dynamic simulation of global water-leaving radiances, using an ocean model containing multiple ocean phytoplankton groups, particulate detritus, particulate inorganic carbon (PIC), and chromophoric dissolved organic carbon (CDOC) along with optical absorption and scattering processes at 1 nm spectral resolution. The purpose here is to assess the skill of the dynamic model and derived global radiances. Global bias, uncertainty, and correlation are derived using available modern satellite radiances at moderate spectral resolution. Total chlorophyll, PIC, and the absorption coefficient of CDOC (aCDOC), are simultaneously assimilated to improve the fidelity of the optical constituent fields. A 5-year simulation showed statistically significant (P leaving radiances at 1 nm for the spectral range 250-800 nm. These unassimilated radiances were within 0.074 mW/sq cm/micron/sr of MODIS-Aqua radiances at 412, 443, 488, 531, 547, and 667 nm. This difference represented a bias of 10.4% (model low). A mean correlation of 0.706 (P leaving radiances, biogeochemical model, radiative transfer model

  1. Development of a Wood Powder Fuelled 35 kW Stirling CHP Unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pålsson, M.; Carlsen, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    For biomass fuelled CHP in sizes below 100 kW, Stirling engines are the only feasible alternative today. Using wood powder as fuel, the Stirling engine can be heated directly by the flame like when using a gaseous or liquid fuel burner. However, the combustion chamber will have to be much larger...... recirculation (CGR) a smaller air preheater can be used, while system efficiency will increase compared with using excess air for flame cooling. In a three-year project, a wood powder fuelled Stirling engine CHP unit will be developed and run in field test. The project will use the double-acting four......, using wood powder as fuel will be developed at Lund University, Sweden, in cooperation with the Technical University of Denmark and with the wood powder boiler manufacturer VTS AB. The unit is to be run in CHP operation by Vattenfall - the largest electric power company in Sweden - in a one-year field...

  2. Ion temperature anisotropy in high power helium neutral beam fuelling experiments in JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maas, A.C.; Core, W.G.F.; Gerstel, U.C.; Von Hellermann, M.G.; Koenig, R.W.T.; Marcus, F.B. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking

    1994-07-01

    During helium beam fuelling experiments in JET, distinctive anisotropic features have been observed in the velocity distribution function describing both fast and thermal alpha particle populations. During the initial fuelling phase the central helium ion temperature observed perpendicular to the magnetic field is higher than the central electron temperature, while the central helium ion temperature observed parallel to the magnetic field is lower than or equal to the central electron temperature. In order to verify temperature measurements of both perpendicular and parallel lines of sight, other independent methods of deducing the ion temperature are investigated: deuterium ion temperature, deuterium density, comparison with neutron rates and profiles (influence of a possible metastable population of helium). 6 refs., 7 figs.

  3. The control of convection by fuelling and pumping in the JET pumped divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harbour, P.J.; Andrew, P.; Campbell, D.; Clement, S.; Davies, S.; Ehrenberg, J.; Erents, S.K.; Gondhalekar, A.; Gadeberg, M.; Gottardi, N.; Von Hellermann, M.; Horton, L.; Loarte, A.; Lowry, C.; Maggi, C.; McCormick, K.; O`Brien, D.; Reichle, R.; Saibene, G.; Simonini, R.; Spence, J.; Stamp, M.; Stork, D.; Taroni, A.; Vlases, G. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking

    1994-07-01

    Convection from the scrape-off layer (SOL) to the divertor will control core impurities, if it retains them in a cold, dense, divertor plasma. This implies a high impurity concentration in the divertor, low at its entrance. Particle flux into the divertor entrance can be varied systematically in JET, using the new fuelling and pumping systems. The convection ratio has been estimated for various conditions of operation. Particle convection into the divertor should increase thermal convection, decreasing thermal conduction, and temperature and density gradients along the magnetic field, hence increasing the frictional force and decreasing the thermal force on impurities. Changes in convection in the SOL, caused by gaseous fuelling, have been studied, both experimentally in the JET Mk I divertor and with EDGE2/NIMBUS. 1 ref., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Application of exhaust gas fuel reforming in diesel and homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines fuelled with biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsolakis, A. [School of Engineering, Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Megaritis, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering and Design, Brunel University, West London, Uxbridge UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Yap, D. [Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology, 71 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 638075 (Singapore)

    2008-03-15

    This paper documents the application of exhaust gas fuel reforming of two alternative fuels, biodiesel and bioethanol, in internal combustion engines. The exhaust gas fuel reforming process is a method of on-board production of hydrogen-rich gas by catalytic reaction of fuel and engine exhaust gas. The benefits of exhaust gas fuel reforming have been demonstrated by adding simulated reformed gas to a diesel engine fuelled by a mixture of 50% ultra low sulphur diesel (ULSD) and 50% rapeseed methyl ester (RME) as well as to a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine fuelled by bioethanol. In the case of the biodiesel fuelled engine, a reduction of NO{sub x} emissions was achieved without considerable smoke increase. In the case of the bioethanol fuelled HCCI engine, the engine tolerance to exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was extended and hence the typically high pressure rise rates of HCCI engines, associated with intense combustion noise, were reduced. (author)

  5. Non-linear simulations of ELMs in ASDEX Upgrade including diamagnetic drift effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lessig, Alexander; Hoelzl, Matthias; Krebs, Isabel; Franck, Emmanuel; Guenter, Sibylle [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Orain, Francois; Morales, Jorge; Becoulet, Marina [CEA-IRFM, Cadarache, 13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Huysmans, Guido [ITER Organization, 13067 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    2015-05-01

    Large edge localized modes (ELMs) are a severe concern for ITER due to high transient heat loads on divertor targets and wall structures. Using the non-linear MHD code JOREK, we have performed ELM simulations for ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) including diamagnetic drift effects. The influence of diamagnetic terms onto the evolution of the toroidal mode spectrum for different AUG equilibria and the non-linear interaction of the toroidal harmonics are investigated. In particular, we confirm the diamagnetic stabilization of high mode numbers and present new features of a previously introduced quadratic mode coupling model for the early non-linear evolution of the mode structure. Preliminary comparisons of full ELM crashes with experimental observations are shown aiming at code validation and the understanding of different ELM types. Work is ongoing to include toroidal and neoclassical poloidal rotation in our simulations.

  6. Effect of ELMs on rotation and momentum confinement in H-mode discharges in JET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Versloot, T.W.; de Vries, P.C.; Giroud, C.

    2010-01-01

    The loss of plasma toroidal angular momentum and thermal energy by edge localized modes (ELMs) has been studied in JET. The analysis shows a consistently larger drop in momentum in comparison with the energy loss associated with the ELMs. This difference originates from the large reduction...... in angular frequency at the plasma edge, observed to penetrate into the plasma up to r/a ~ 0.65 during large type-I ELMs. As a result, the time averaged angular frequency is lowered near the top of the pedestal with increasing ELM frequency, resulting in a significant drop in thermal Mach number at the edge...... for momentum in combination with the observed longer build-up time for the momentum density at the plasma edge....

  7. Cracking behavior of tungsten armor under ELM-like thermal shock loads: A computational study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Muyuan; Werner, Ewald; You, Jeong-Ha

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the cracking behavior of tungsten under edge-localized mode (ELM)-like thermal shock loads was investigated on the basis of a rigorous computational fracture mechanical analysis combined with the finite element method...

  8. Sustainability Indicators for Open-Cycle Thorium-Fuelled Nuclear Energy

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The potential for countries which currently have a nominal nuclear energy infrastructure to adopt thorium-uranium-fuelled nuclear energy systems, using a once-through “open” nuclear fuel cycle, has been presented by the International Atomic Energy Agency. This paper highlights Generation III and III+ nuclear energy technologies that could potentially adopt an open thorium-uranium fuel cycle and qualitatively highlights the main differences between the open thorium-uranium and open uranium fue...

  9. Disaggregate demand for conventional and alternative fuelled vehicles in the Census Metropolitan Area of Hamilton, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potoglou, Dimitrios

    The focus of this thesis is twofold. First, it offers insight on how households' car-ownership behaviour is affected by urban form and availability of local-transit at the place of residence, after controlling for socio-economic and demographic characteristics. Second, it addresses the importance of vehicle attributes, household and individual characteristics as well as economic incentives and urban form to potential demand for alternative fuelled vehicles. Data for the empirical analyses of the aforementioned research activities were obtained through an innovative Internet survey, which is also documented in this thesis, conducted in the Census Metropolitan Area of Hamilton. The survey included a retrospective questionnaire of households' number and type of vehicles and a stated choices experiment for assessing the potential demand for alternative fuelled vehicles. Established approaches and emerging trends in automobile demand modelling identified early on in this thesis suggest a disaggregate approach and specifically, the estimation of discrete choice models both for explaining car ownership and vehicle-type choice behaviour. It is shown that mixed and diverse land uses as well as short distances between home and work are likely to decrease the probability of households to own a large number of cars. Regarding the demand for alternative fuelled vehicles, while vehicle attributes are particularly important, incentives such as free parking and access to high occupancy vehicle lanes will not influence the choice of hybrids or alternative fuelled vehicles. An improved understating of households' behaviour regarding the number of cars as well as the factors and trade-offs for choosing cleaner vehicles can be used to inform policy designed to reduce car ownership levels and encourage adoption of cleaner vehicle technologies in urban areas. Finally, the Internet survey sets the ground for further research on implementation and evaluation of this data collection method.

  10. A modelling evaluation of an ammonia-fuelled microchannel reformer for hydrogen generation

    OpenAIRE

    Chiuta, Steven; Everson, Raymond C.; Neomagus, Hein W.J.P.; Le Grange, Louis A.; Bessarabov, Dmitri G.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen production from an ammonia-fuelled microchannel reactor is simulated in a three-dimensional (3D) model implemented via Comsol Multiphysics™. The work described in this paper endeavours to obtain a mathematical framework that provides an understanding of reaction-coupled transport phenomena within the microchannel reactor. The transport processes and reactor performance are elucidated in terms of velocity, temperature, and species concentration distributions, as well as local reaction...

  11. Tracing the origin of the AGN fuelling reservoir in MCG-6-30-15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimundo, S. I.; Davies, R. I.; Canning, R. E. A.; Celotti, A.; Fabian, A. C.; Gandhi, P.

    2017-02-01

    The active galaxy MCG-6-30-15 has a 400 pc diameter stellar kinematically distinct core, counter-rotating with respect to the main body of the galaxy. Our previous high spatial resolution (0.1 arcsec) H-band observations of this galaxy mapped the stellar kinematics and [Fe II] 1.64 μm gas dynamics though mainly restricted to the spatial region of the counter-rotating core. In this work, we probe the stellar kinematics on a larger field of view and determine the ionized and molecular gas dynamics to study the formation of the counter-rotating core and the implications for active galactic nucleus (AGN) fuelling. We present integral field spectroscopy observations with SINFONI in the H and K bands in the central 1.2 kpc and with VIMOS HR-blue in the central 4 kpc of the galaxy. Ionized gas outflows of vout ˜ 100 km s-1 are traced by the [Ca VIII] 2.32 μm coronal line and extend out to at least a radius of r ˜ 140 pc. The molecular gas, traced by the H2 2.12 μm emission, is also counter-rotating with respect to the main body of the galaxy, indicating that the formation of the distinct core was associated with inflow of external gas into the centre of MCG-6-30-15. The molecular gas traces the available gas reservoir for AGN fuelling and is detected as close as r ˜ 50-100 pc. External gas accretion is able to significantly replenish the fuelling reservoir suggesting that the event which formed the counter-rotating core was also the main mechanism providing gas for AGN fuelling.

  12. Effects of gas types and models on optimized gas fuelling station reservoir's pressure

    OpenAIRE

    M. Farzaneh-Gord; M. Deymi-Dashtebayaz; Rahbari,H. R.

    2013-01-01

    There are similar algorithms and infrastructure for storing gas fuels at CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) and CHG (Compressed Hydrogen Gas) fuelling stations. In these stations, the fuels are usually stored in the cascade storage system to utilize the stations more efficiently. The cascade storage system generally divides into three reservoirs, commonly termed low, medium and high-pressure reservoirs. The pressures within these reservoirs have huge effects on performance of the stations. In the c...

  13. Technical and Feasibility Analysis of Gasoline and Natural Gas Fuelled Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalambos Chasos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available There is recent interest for the utilisation of natural gas for empowering the internal combustion engines (ICE of vehicles. The production of novel natural gas ICE for vehicles, as well as the conversion of existing gasoline fuelled ICE of vehicles to natural gas fuelled ICE are new technologies which require to be analysed and assessed. The objective of the present study is to examine the adaptation of natural gas as vehicle fuel and carry out a technical analysis and an economical feasibility analysis of the two types of ICE vehicles, namely gasoline and natural gas fuelled vehicles. The technical model uses the physical properties of the two fuels and the performance factors of internal combustion engines including brake thermal efficiency. The resulting exhaust gas emissions are also estimated by the technical model using combustion calculations which provide the expected levels of exhaust gas emissions. Based on the analysis with the technical model, comparisons of the two types of engines are performed. Furthermore, the estimated performance characteristics of the two types of engines, along with local statistical data on annual fuel imports and annual fuel consumption for transportation and data on the vehicles fleet for the case study of Cyprus are used as input in the economical model. For the base year 2013, data of natural gas price is also used in the economical model. The economical model estimates the capital cost, the carbon dioxide emissions avoidance of fines, the net present value and the internal rate of return of the investment of large scale adaptation of natural gas fuelled vehicles for the case study. From the results and comparisons, conclusions are drawn and recommendations are provided for the adaptation of natural gas vehicles which can provide improved performance with reduced pollutant emissions.

  14. Observation of Current Structures at Type-III ELM Onset on EAST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Ning; Naulin, Volker; Xu, G.

    In far scrape-o layer (SOL), alternating negative and positive burst structures in ion saturation current were detected at the onset of each type-III edge localized mode (ELM) on EAST. Different from the fast streaming phenomenon reported previously, one subsequent positive burst structure appears...... led generated by scrape-off layer current can ultimately trigger the ELM through the coupling with MHD modes inside the separatrix....

  15. An elm EST database for identifying leaf beetle egg-induced defense genes

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Plants can defend themselves against herbivorous insects prior to the onset of larval feeding by responding to the eggs laid on their leaves. In the European field elm (Ulmus minor), egg laying by the elm leaf beetle ( Xanthogaleruca luteola) activates the emission of volatiles that attract specialised egg parasitoids, which in turn kill the eggs. Little is known about the transcriptional changes that insect eggs trigger in plants and how such indirect defense mechanisms a...

  16. Effect of Island Overlap on ELM Suppression by Resonant Magnetic Perturbations in DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenstermacher, M E; Evans, T E; Osborne, T H; Schaffer, M J; Aldan, M P; deGrassie, J S; Gohil, P; Joseph, I; Moyer, R A; Snyder, P B; Groebner, R J; Jakubowski, M; Leonard, A W; Schmitz, O

    2007-11-08

    Recent DIII-D [J.L. Luxon, et al., Nucl. Fusion 43, 1813 (2003)] experiments show a correlation between the extent of overlap of magnetic islands induced in the edge plasma by perturbation coils and complete suppression of Type-I edge localized modes (ELMs) in plasmas with ITER-like electron pedestal collisionality {nu}*{sub e} {approx} 0.1, flux surface shape and low edge safety factor (q{sub 95} {approx} 3.6). With fixed n = 3 resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) strength, ELM suppression is obtained only in a finite window in the edge safety factor (q{sub 95}) consistent with maximizing the resonant component of the applied helical field. ELM suppression is obtained over an increasing range of q{sub 95} by either increasing the n = 3 RMP strength, or by adding n = 1 perturbations to 'fill in' gaps between islands across the edge plasma. The suppression of Type-I ELMs correlates with a minimum width of the edge region having magnetic islands with Chirikov parameter >1.0, based on vacuum calculations of RMP mode components excluding the plasma response or rotational shielding. The fraction of vacuum magnetic field lines that are lost from the plasma, with connection length to the divertor targets comparable to an electron-ion collisional mean free path, increases throughout the island overlap region in the ELM suppressed case compared with the ELMing case.

  17. Adaptive Control of Nonlinear Discrete-Time Systems by Using OS-ELM Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Li Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As a kind of novel feedforward neural network with single hidden layer, ELM (extreme learning machine neural networks are studied for the identification and control of nonlinear dynamic systems. The property of simple structure and fast convergence of ELM can be shown clearly. In this paper, we are interested in adaptive control of nonlinear dynamic plants by using OS-ELM (online sequential extreme learning machine neural networks. Based on data scope division, the problem that training process of ELM neural network is sensitive to the initial training data is also solved. According to the output range of the controlled plant, the data corresponding to this range will be used to initialize ELM. Furthermore, due to the drawback of conventional adaptive control, when the OS-ELM neural network is used for adaptive control of the system with jumping parameters, the topological structure of the neural network can be adjusted dynamically by using multiple model switching strategy, and an MMAC (multiple model adaptive control will be used to improve the control performance. Simulation results are included to complement the theoretical results.

  18. Diffusion-trapping modelling of hydrogen recycling in tungsten under ELM-like heat loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, K.

    2016-02-01

    The recycling of D ions impinging onto a W divertor surface is a key input parameter into the power and momentum balance at the target boundary during SOL modeling. It is described by the ratio R of the flux of recombining D2 molecules to the non-reflected incident ion flux. In steady-state plasmas where the surface is in equilibrium with the incident flux, R equals one due to particle conservation. However, during transient events such as edge localized modes (ELMs) the evolution of R with time is not straightforward to predict. Therefore, detailed diffusion-trapping calculations were performed taking into account the variations in power influx and particle energy during an ELM. They showed that in contrast to the naive expectation, that the ELM would deplete the surface and subsequently lead to ‘pumping’ (R \\ll 1) of the incident flux by the empty surface, R ≈ 1 or even R \\gt 1 occurs. This paper will first describe how the ELM was approximated in the 1D diffusion-trapping code and then discuss the evolution of R during an ELM and in the inter ELM phase. Also, an analytical picture of R will be developed which allows qualitatively understanding the evolution of R as calculated by the diffusion-trapping code.

  19. Simulating PACE Global Ocean Radiances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Watson W.; Rousseaux, Cecile S.

    2017-01-01

    The NASA PACE mission is a hyper-spectral radiometer planned for launch in the next decade. It is intended to provide new information on ocean biogeochemical constituents by parsing the details of high resolution spectral absorption and scattering. It is the first of its kind for global applications and as such, poses challenges for design and operation. To support pre-launch mission development and assess on-orbit capabilities, the NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office has developed a dynamic simulation of global water-leaving radiances, using an ocean model containing multiple ocean phytoplankton groups, particulate detritus, particulate inorganic carbon (PIC), and chromophoric dissolved organic carbon (CDOC) along with optical absorption and scattering processes at 1 nm spectral resolution. The purpose here is to assess the skill of the dynamic model and derived global radiances. Global bias, uncertainty, and correlation are derived using available modern satellite radiances at moderate spectral resolution. Total chlorophyll, PIC, and the absorption coefficient of CDOC (aCDOC), are simultaneously assimilated to improve the fidelity of the optical constituent fields. A 5-year simulation showed statistically significant (P Ocean-Atmosphere Spectral Irradiance Model, OASIM) to estimate normalized water-leaving radiances at 1 nm for the spectral range 250-800 nm. These unassimilated radiances were within 0.074 mW/sq cm/micron/sr of MODIS-Aqua radiances at 412, 443, 488, 531, 547, and 667 nm. This difference represented a bias of 10.4% (model low). A mean correlation of 0.706 (P ocean color, water-leaving radiances, biogeochemical model, radiative transfer model

  20. Pollution Abatement and Control Expenditures Survey (PACE)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pollution Abatement Costs and Expenditures (PACE) survey is the most comprehensive national source of pollution abatement costs and expenditures related to...

  1. Transferring PACE Assessments Upon Home Sale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Coughlin, Jason; Fuller, Merrian; Zimring, Mark

    2010-04-12

    A significant barrier to investing in renewable energy and comprehensive energy efficiency improvements to homes across the country is the initial capital cost. Property Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) financing is one of several new financial models broadening access to clean energy by addressing this upfront cost issue. Recently, the White House cited PACE programs as an important element of its 'Recovery through Retrofit' plan. The residential PACE model involves the creation of a special clean energy financing district that homeowners elect to opt into. Once opted in, the local government (usually at the city or county level) finances the upfront investment of the renewable energy installation and/or energy efficiency improvements. A special lien is attached to the property and the assessment is paid back as a line item on the property tax bill. As of April 2010, 17 states have passed legislation to allow their local governments to create PACE programs, two already have the authority to set up PACE programs, and over 10 additional states are actively developing enabling legislation. This policy brief analyzes one of the advantages of PACE, which is the transferability of the special assessment from one homeowner to the next when the home is sold. This analysis focuses on the potential for the outstanding lien to impact the sales negotiation process, rather than the legal nature of the lien transfer itself. The goal of this paper is to consider what implications a PACE lien may have on the home sales negotiation process so that it can be addressed upfront rather than risk a future backlash to PACE programs. If PACE programs do expand at a rapid rate, the chances are high that there will be other cases where prospective buyers uses PACE liens to negotiate lower home prices or require repayment of the lien as a condition of sale. As a result, PACE programs should highlight this issue as a potential risk factor for the sake of full disclosure. A good example

  2. Cardiac pacing in pediatrics: Is still the right ventricle the optimal pacing site?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Cabrera Ortega

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Permanent cardiac pacing is frequently indicated in pediatric patients due to atrioventricular block. Traditionally, the right ventricle has been the pacing site because it is readily accessible, and provides lead stability and optimal chronic pacing thresholds. However, it is associated with a dyssynchrony pattern of ventricular activation, that may cause remodeling and impairment of left ventricular function. In pediatric patients, paced from an early age and with a long life expectancy, the preservation of cardiac function is a premise. Therefore, the prevention of dyssynchrony, using possible alternative sites, is not just a priority, is a challenge. The aim of the article is to show the effects of chronic right ventricular pacing as well as the evidence of benefits provided by alternatives pacing sites in pediatric population and their clinical and practical implications.

  3. Optogenetic pacing in Drosophila melanogaster (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex, Aneesh; Li, Airong; Men, Jing; Jerwick, Jason; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Zhou, Chao

    2016-03-01

    A non-invasive, contact-less cardiac pacing technology can be a powerful tool in basic cardiac research and in clinics. Currently, electrical pacing is the gold standard for cardiac pacing. Although highly effective in controlling the cardiac function, the invasive nature, non-specificity to cardiac tissues and possible tissue damage limits its capabilities. Optical pacing of heart is a promising alternative, which is non-invasive and more specific, has high spatial and temporal precision, and avoids shortcomings in electrical stimulation. Optical coherence tomography has been proved to be an effective technique in non-invasive imaging in vivo with ultrahigh resolution and imaging speed. In the last several years, non-invasive specific optical pacing in animal hearts has been reported in quail, zebrafish, and rabbit models. However, Drosophila Melanogaster, which is a significant model with orthologs of 75% of human disease genes, has rarely been studied concerning their optical pacing in heart. Here, we combined optogenetic control of Drosophila heartbeat with optical coherence microscopy (OCM) technique for the first time. The light-gated cation channel, channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) was specifically expressed by transgene as a pacemaker in drosophila heart. By stimulating the pacemaker with 472 nm pulsed laser light at different frequencies, we achieved non-invasive and more specific optical control of the Drosophila heart rhythm, which demonstrates the wide potential of optical pacing for studying cardiac dynamics and development. Imaging capability of our customized OCM system was also involved to observe the pacing effect visually. No tissue damage was found after long exposure to laser pulses, which proved the safety of optogenetic control of Drosophila heart.

  4. Synchronization of ventricular fibrillation with electrical pacing guided by optical signals: comparison of pacing locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Heidy; Hwang, Gyo-Seung; Lin, Shien-Fong

    2006-02-01

    Wavefront synchronization is an important aspect preceding the termination of ventricular fibrillation (VF). We designed a novel approach using multi-electrode pacing that could reduce the energy consumption of successful defibrillation by more than 100-fold. We compared the efficacy of a synchronized pacing algorithm using optical recording-guided pacing at the right ventricle and the posterior left ventricle in isolated rabbit hearts. Two modes of pacing were used in the study. The electrodes were individually controlled (independent mode, ISyncP) or fired together (simultaneous mode, SSyncP) when triggered by tissue polarization at a reference site separate from the pacing sites. The hearts were stained with voltage-sensitive dye and illuminated with laser for epifluorescence imaging during pacing. The number of phase singularities of VF propagation was used to estimate the complexity of VF. A decrease in the number of PS signified a higher degree of VF organization. We found that the pacing algorithm was more effective if the pacing was applied to the posterior left ventricle than to the right ventricle. Pacing in the posterior left ventricle resulted in a 25.3% decrease in the number of PS for ISyncP and a 31% decrease for SSyncP. Pacing in the right ventricle resulted in a 29.0% decrease for ISyncP and a 2.3% increase for SSyncP. The 5mA current reflected a 27.8% decrease for ISyncP and a 32.2% decrease for SSyncP, whereas the 10mA current reflected a 27.2% decrease for ISyncP and a 5.2% increase for SSyncP. We conclude that synchronized pacing can induce VF organization, and the efficacy is higher when pacing in the left ventricle with 5 mA.

  5. The Manipulation of Pace within Endurance Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorski, Sabrina; Abbiss, Chris R.

    2017-01-01

    In any athletic event, the ability to appropriately distribute energy is essential to prevent premature fatigue prior to the completion of the event. In sport science literature this is termed “pacing.” Within the past decade, research aiming to better understand the underlying mechanisms influencing the selection of an athlete's pacing during exercise has dramatically increased. It is suggested that pacing is a combination of anticipation, knowledge of the end-point, prior experience and sensory feedback. In order to better understand the role each of these factors have in the regulation of pace, studies have often manipulated various conditions known to influence performance such as the feedback provided to participants, the starting strategy or environmental conditions. As with all research there are several factors that should be considered in the interpretation of results from these studies. Thus, this review aims at discussing the pacing literature examining the manipulation of: (i) energy expenditure and pacing strategies, (ii) kinematics or biomechanics, (iii) exercise environment, and (iv) fatigue development. PMID:28289392

  6. Divertor heat fluxes and profiles during mitigated and unmitigated Edge Localised Modes (ELMs) on the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST)

    CERN Document Server

    Thornton, A J; Chapman, I T; Harrison, J R

    2013-01-01

    Edge localised modes (ELMs) are a concern for future devices as they can limit the operational lifetime of the divertor. The mitigation of ELMs can be performed by the application of resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) which act to degrade the pressure gradient in the edge of the plasma. Investigations of the effect of RMPs on MAST have been performed in a range of plasmas using perturbations with toroidal mode numbers of n=3, 4 and 6. It has been seen that the RMPs increase the ELM frequency, which gives rise to a corresponding decrease in the ELM energy. The reduced ELM energy decreases the peak heat flux to the divertor, with a three fold reduction in the ELM energy, generating a 1.5 fold reduction in the peak heat flux. Measurements of the divertor heat flux profile show evidence of strike point splitting consistent with modelling using the vacuum code ERGOS.

  7. A Mechanism of ELM Mitigation by External Magnetic Field Perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Raghvendra; Jhang, H.; Kim, J.-H.; Hahm, T. S.

    2016-10-01

    We study the impact of external magnetic perturbations (EMP) on the stability of ballooning mode (BM). We use: 1) the two-step process; 2) standard four wave interactions. In two-step process, we consider EMP are long wave-length perturbations interacting with short scale BM and generating side-bands of higher harmonics. This calculates contributions from all the high toroidal mode numbers. EMP can modify the dispersion characteristics of BM - the growth spectrum becomes broader in kBM space. The increase in high kBM can lead to the mitigation of an ELM crash by increasing turbulent transport. New nonlinear instability is also found even below the BM threshold at large EMP amplitude. In four wave interaction, EMP act like a short scale pump wave interacting with BM and creating two sidebands. The side-bands couple with the pump and produce the ponderomotive force, magnetic stress at BM frequency. EMP may enhance the BM instability threshold if RMP K->BM RMP and reduce the threshold if K->BM >K->RMP .

  8. Effects of ELMs on ITER divertor armour materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhitlukhin, A. [SRC RF TRINITI, Troitsk, 142190, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: zhitlukh@triniti.ru; Klimov, N. [SRC RF TRINITI, Troitsk, 142190, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Landman, I. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Linke, J. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, EURATOM-Association, Juelich (Germany)]. E-mail: j.linke@fz-juelich.de; Loarte, A. [EFDA, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Merola, M. [EFDA, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Podkovyrov, V. [SRC RF TRINITI, Troitsk, 142190, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Federici, G. [ITER JWS Garching, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Bazylev, B. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Pestchanyi, S. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Safronov, V. [SRC RF TRINITI, Troitsk, 142190, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Hirai, T. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, EURATOM-Association, Juelich (Germany); Maynashev, V. [SRC RF TRINITI, Troitsk, 142190, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Levashov, V. [SRC RF TRINITI, Troitsk, 142190, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Muzichenko, A. [SRC RF TRINITI, Troitsk, 142190, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2007-06-15

    This paper is concerned with investigation of an erosion of the ITER-like divertor plasma facing components under plasma heat loads expected during the Type I ELMs in ITER. These experiments were carried out on plasma accelerator QSPA at the SRC RF TRINITI under EU/RF collaboration. Targets were exposed by series repeated plasma pulses with heat loads in a range of 0.5-1.5 MJ/m{sup 2} and pulse duration 0.5 ms. Erosion of CFC macrobrushes was determined mainly by sublimation of PAN-fibres that was less than 2.5 {mu}m per pulse. The CFC erosion was negligible at the energy density less than 0.5 MJ/m{sup 2} and was increased to the average value 0.3 {mu}m per pulse at 1.5 MJ/m{sup 2}. The pure tungsten macrobrushes erosion was small in the energy range of 0.5-1.3 MJ/m{sup 2}. The sharp growth of tungsten erosion and the intense droplet ejection were observed at the energy density of 1.5 MJ/m{sup 2}.

  9. Effects of ELMs on ITER divertor armour materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhitlukhin, A.; Klimov, N.; Landman, I.; Linke, J.; Loarte, A.; Merola, M.; Podkovyrov, V.; Federici, G.; Bazylev, B.; Pestchanyi, S.; Safronov, V.; Hirai, T.; Maynashev, V.; Levashov, V.; Muzichenko, A.

    2007-06-01

    This paper is concerned with investigation of an erosion of the ITER-like divertor plasma facing components under plasma heat loads expected during the Type I ELMs in ITER. These experiments were carried out on plasma accelerator QSPA at the SRC RF TRINITI under EU/RF collaboration. Targets were exposed by series repeated plasma pulses with heat loads in a range of 0.5-1.5 MJ/m2 and pulse duration 0.5 ms. Erosion of CFC macrobrushes was determined mainly by sublimation of PAN-fibres that was less than 2.5 μm per pulse. The CFC erosion was negligible at the energy density less than 0.5 MJ/m2 and was increased to the average value 0.3 μm per pulse at 1.5 MJ/m2. The pure tungsten macrobrushes erosion was small in the energy range of 0.5-1.3 MJ/m2. The sharp growth of tungsten erosion and the intense droplet ejection were observed at the energy density of 1.5 MJ/m2.

  10. Assessment of erosion of the ITER divertor targets during type I ELMs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Federici, G [ITER JWS Garching Co-center, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Loarte, A [EFDA Close Support Unit, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Strohmayer, G [ITER JWS Garching Co-center, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2003-09-01

    This paper presents the results of a preliminary assessment conducted to estimate the thermal response and erosion lifetime of the ITER divertor targets clad either with carbon-fibre composite or tungsten during type I ELMs. The one-dimensional thermal/erosion model, used for the analyses, is briefly described. It includes all the key surface heat transfer processes such as evaporation, melting, and radiation, and their interaction with the bulk thermal response, and it is based on an implicit finite-difference scheme, which allows for temperature-dependent material properties. The cases analysed clarify the influence of several ELM parameters on the heat transfer and erosion processes at the target (i.e. characteristic plasma ELM energy loss from the pedestal, fraction of the energy reaching the divertor, broadening of the strike-points during ELMs, duration and waveform of the ELM heat load) and design/material parameters (i.e. inclination of the target, type and thickness of the armour material, and for tungsten only, fraction of the melt layer loss). Comparison is made between cases where all ELMs are characterized by the same fixed averaged parameters, and cases where instead the characteristic parameters of each ELM are evaluated in a random fashion by using a standard Monte Carlo technique, based on distributions of some of the variables of interest derived from experiments in today's machines. Although uncertainties rule out providing firm quantitative predictions, the results of this study are useful to illustrate trends. Based on the results, the implications on the design and operation are discussed and priorities are determined for the R and D needed to reduce the remaining uncertainties.

  11. Pruning The ELM Survey: Characterizing Candidate Low-mass White Dwarfs through Photometric Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Keaton J.; Gianninas, A.; Hermes, J. J.; Winget, D. E.; Kilic, Mukremin; Montgomery, M. H.; Castanheira, B. G.; Vanderbosch, Z.; Winget, K. I.; Brown, Warren R.

    2017-02-01

    We assess the photometric variability of nine stars with spectroscopic Teff and log g values from the ELM Survey that locates them near the empirical extremely low-mass (ELM) white dwarf instability strip. We discover three new pulsating stars: SDSS J135512.34+195645.4, SDSS J173521.69+213440.6, and SDSS J213907.42+222708.9. However, these are among the few ELM Survey objects that do not show radial velocity (RV) variations that confirm the binary nature expected of helium-core white dwarfs. The dominant 4.31 hr pulsation in SDSS J135512.34+195645.4 far exceeds the theoretical cut-off for surface reflection in a white dwarf, and this target is likely a high-amplitude δ Scuti pulsator with an overestimated surface gravity. We estimate the probability to be less than 0.0008 that the lack of measured RV variations in four of eight other pulsating candidate ELM white dwarfs could be due to low orbital inclination. Two other targets exhibit variability as photometric binaries. Partial coverage of the 19.342 hr orbit of WD J030818.19+514011.5 reveals deep eclipses that imply a primary radius >0.4 R⊙—too large to be consistent with an ELM white dwarf. The only object for which our time series photometry adds support to ELM white dwarf classification is SDSS J105435.78‑212155.9, which has consistent signatures of Doppler beaming and ellipsoidal variations. We conclude that the ELM Survey contains multiple false positives from another stellar population at Teff ≲ 9000 K, possibly related to the sdA stars recently reported from SDSS spectra.

  12. Temporary Epicardial Pacing After Adult Cardiac Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Antal Dönmez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Temporary epicardial pacing wires (TEPW have been routinely used in cardiac surgery in early postoperative period. Purpose of the study is to determine predictors for need of temporary pacing wires after surgery that will safely limit their usage and to document complications associated with the wires.Patients and Methods: This prospective study involved 112 patients operated at our institution from April 2010 to October 2010, who received TEPW following surgery. Surgical procedures included 34 isolated coronary revascularization, 51 valve replacement, 11 revascularization with valve replacement, 14 mitral reconstruction, 2 ascending aorta replacement.Results: Among 112 patients, 93 (83.1% were never paced. Nineteen (16.9% patients required pacing during weaning and 10 patients, required further pacing in intensive care unit. Indications for pacing included atrioventricular block in 7 (36.8%, sinus bradycardia in 2 (10.5%, junctional rhythm in 9 (47.4% and low cardiac output in 1 (5.2% patient. Atrioventricular block, junctional rhythm, postperfusion atrial fibrillation, inotropic agent requirement leaving the operating room, pacing requirement during weaning and mitral surgery are found to be the predictors for requirement of TEPWs. No complications were observed related with the use or removal of TEPWs.Conclusion: Routine placement of TEPWs is not necessary after cardiac surgery. Patients having rhythm disturbances after procedure and requiring pacemacer support during weaning of cardiopulmonary by-pass, require further pacemaker support in intensive care unit with higher probability. Depending on our data, because of potential complications related with use of wires, selective use of TEPWs for patients with identified predictors can be recommended.

  13. Optimal pacing for symptomatic AV block: a comparison of VDD and DDD pacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Max; Krahn, Andrew D; Yee, Raymond; Klein, George J; Skanes, Allan C

    2004-01-01

    VDD pacing provides the physiological benefits of atrioventricular synchronous pacing with the convenience of a single lead system, but is hampered by uncertainty regarding long term atrial sensing and potential development of sinus node disease. To examine the long-term reliability and complication rates of VDD pacing, we compared the outcome of 112 consecutive patients (age 70 +/- 13 years, 59% men) with symptomatic AV block who received a single pass bipolar VDD system, to 80 patients (age 63 +/- 16 years, 70% men) who received DDD pacing for the same indication. All patients were judged to have intact sinus node function based on submitted ECGs and monitoring results at the time of implant. Implant time was reduced in VDD patients compared to DDD patients (63 +/- 20 vs 97 +/- 36 minutes, P DDD patients compared to 3 (3%) VDD patients (P = 0.15). The implant P wave was lower with VDD pacing compared to DDD patients (2.91 +/- 1.48 vs 4.0 +/- 1.7 mv, P DDD patients. Physiological atrioventricular activation was maintained in 94%-99% of beats throughout the follow-up period in the VDD group. VDD pacing is an excellent strategy for treatment of patients with symptomatic AV block. The lower cost, high reliability, and abbreviated implantation time suggest that VDD pacing is a viable alternative to DDD pacing in patients with high degree AV block and normal sinus node function.

  14. Temporary emergency pacing-an orphan in district hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjesdal, Knut; Johansen, Jens Brock; Gadler, Fredrik

    2012-01-01

    . The procedure times were long and complications were frequent. The organization of emergency pacing is discussed, and we suggest that unless qualified physicians can establish transvenous pacing, the patients who need that should be transferred with transcutaneous pacing as back-up during transport...... to a hospital with more available competence. Ideally, those who need pacing immediately, including those who need permanent pacing, should be offered permanent implantation on a 24 hours/7 days per week base....

  15. A Simulation Study of Paced TCP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik, Joanna; Coulter, Robert; Rockwell, Dennis; Partridge, Craig

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we study the performance of paced TCP, a modified version of TCP designed especially for high delay- bandwidth networks. In typical networks, TCP optimizes its send-rate by transmitting increasingly large bursts, or windows, of packets, one burst per round-trip time, until it reaches a maximum window-size, which corresponds to the full capacity of the network. In a network with a high delay-bandwidth product, however, Transmission Control Protocol's (TCPs) maximum window-size may be larger than the queue size of the intermediate routers, and routers will begin to drop packets as soon as the windows become too large for the router queues. The TCP sender then concludes that the bottleneck capacity of the network has been reached, and it limits its send-rate accordingly. Partridge proposed paced TCP as a means of solving the problem of queueing bottlenecks. A sender using paced TCP would release packets in multiple, small bursts during a round-trip time in which ordinary TCP would release a single, large burst of packets. This approach allows the sender to increase its send-rate to the maximum window size without encountering queueing bottlenecks. This paper describes the performance of paced TCP in a simulated network and discusses implementation details that can affect the performance of paced TCP.

  16. Efficiency evaluation of gas fuelled and electric driven buses in the public transport sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aigner, Tobias Alexander

    2013-07-01

    The following report evaluates the efficiency of gas fuelled and electric driven buses in the public transport sector on a theoretical basis. The results indicate that the combination of CHP power plants and electric driven buses reach an overall efficiency of about 51% throughout the production chain (Well-to-Wheel), including heat distribution losses. The overall Well-to-Wheel efficiency for conventional gas turbines without heat recovery decreases to around 28%. For gas fuelled buses the Well-to-Wheel efficiency is about 30%. The Co2-emissions are evaluated based on the example of a #Left Double Quotation Mark#Volvo B10L CNG#Right Double Quotation Mark# gas bus and the electric driven #Left Double Quotation Mark#Eurabus 600#Right Double Quotation Mark#. The low energy consumption of the electric driven bus results in Co2-emissions of only 181.4 g Co2/km (Grid-to-Wheel). Depending on the utilised power plant technology the overall Co2-emissions (Well-to-Wheel) amount to 307.5 g Co2/km for a CHP power plant and 553.5 g Co2/km for a conventional gas turbine. On the other hand, gas fuelled buses emit about 1.25 kg Co2/km (Tank-to-Wheel), which is eightfold the emissions of an electrical bus. The Well-to-Tank emissions further increase to about 1.32 kg Co2/km. The emission calculation is based on real gas consumption data from a Norwegian public transport utility. The results indicate that the combination of CHP plants and electrical buses provide a much higher efficiency while reducing Co2-emissions. (author)

  17. ELM Suppression in DIII-D ITER-like Plasmas Using n = 2 Magnetic Perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazikian, R.; Grierson, B. A.; Okabayashi, M.; Tobias, B. J.; Eldon, D.; Evans, T. E.; Ferraro, N. M.; Groebner, R. J.; Paz-Soldan, C.; Strait, E. J.; Haskey, S. R.; King, J. D.; McKee, G. R.; Moyer, R. A.; Orlov, D. M.; Shafer, M. W.

    2014-10-01

    A robust window of edge localized mode (ELM) suppression was observed at elevated magnetic safety factor (q95 ~ 4.1) in ITER-like plasmas with even parity n = 2 resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) using the internal I-coils. Variation of the upper and lower I-coil phasing was used to explore the importance of pitch alignment vs kink alignment for ELM suppression. Both the pedestal density and ELM suppression were strongly dependent on I-coil phasing and a large variation in the plasma response amplitude was measured on multiple diagnostics. Surprisingly, toroidal rotation of the even parity n = 2 RMP led to the loss of ELM suppression, indicating that components of the residual error field orthogonal to the kink mode may be important near the threshold for ELM suppression. Work supported by the US Department of Energy under DE-AC02-09CH11466, DE-FC02-04ER54698, DE-AC05-06OR23100, DE-FG02-89ER53296, DE-FG02-08ER54999, DE-FG02-07ER54917, and DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  18. Effect of Aspect Ratio on H-mode and ELM Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thome, K. E.; Bodner, G. M.; Bongard, M. W.; Burke, M. G.; Fonck, R. J.; Kriete, D. M.

    2015-11-01

    The H-mode confinement regime is achieved at near-unity aspect ratio (A PLH , behaves quite differently at low- A when compared with high- A operations. PLH /PLH_ITPA 08 increases sharply as A is lowered and no difference in PLH for limited and diverted plasmas is observed at A ~ 1 . 2 . No minimum in PLH with density is observed. Some of these results are consistent with the FM3 model for the L-H transition. Two classes of ELMs have been observed. Small, Type III-like ELMs are present at low input power and have n >PLH , they transition to large, Type-I-like ELMs with intermediate 5 < n < 15 . The Type III ELM magnetic structures behave opposite that of high- A plasmas, with n much higher, presumably due to the naturally higher J / B peeling mode drive at low- A . Long-sought measurements of the Jedge (R , t) pedestal collapse during an ELM event show a complex, multimodal pedestal collapse and the subsequent ejection of a current-carrying filament. Work supported by US DOE grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.

  19. Occupational exposure to asbestos during renovation of oil-shale fuelled power plants in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangur, Maie

    2007-01-01

    Many thousands of tonnes of asbestos were used in buildings in the past, especially for thermal insulation of pipes and boilers in power plants. Occupational exposure to asbestos dust now mainly occurs during demolition, renovation and routine maintenance activities. The objective of this study was to evaluate occupational exposure to airborne asbestos during renovation of solid oil-shale fuelled power plants carried out in 2001-2003. Air monitoring inside and outside of the renovation area was performed. The concentration of airborne fibres in the working environment increased during renovation but the valid limit value (0.1 fibres/cm(3)) was not exceeded.

  20. Determination of operating parameters of industrial engine fuelled with post processing gases with high hydrogen content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzeżański, M.; Mareczek, M.; Marek, W.; Papuga, T.

    2016-09-01

    The results of investigations of SI engine fuelled with hydrogen and mixed n-butanol with isobutanol have been presented in article. The idea of flexible feeding system and the aim and methodology of carried out measurement have been also described. Obtained results have been compared to the results of tests carried out during flexible feeding of the same engine. The proposed control system enables not only application of different liquid and gaseous fuels but also application of the fuels which chemical composition vary within the relatively short time intervals.

  1. Performance analysis of different organic Rankine cycle configurations on board liquefied natural gas-fuelled vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldasso, Enrico; Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Meroni, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Gas-fuelled shipping is expected to increase significantly in the coming years. Similarly, much effort is devoted to the study of waste heat recovery systems to be implemented on board ships. In this context, the organic Rankine cycle (ORC) technology is considered one of the most promising...... solutions. The ORC favorably compares to the steam Rankine cycle because of its simple layout and high efficiency, achievable by selecting a working fluid with desirable properties. This paper aims at assessing the fuel savings attainable by implementing ORC units on board vessels powered by liquefied...

  2. Analytical Redundancy Design for Aeroengine Sensor Fault Diagnostics Based on SROS-ELM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Analytical redundancy technique is of great importance to guarantee the reliability and safety of aircraft engine system. In this paper, a machine learning based aeroengine sensor analytical redundancy technique is developed and verified through hardware-in-the-loop (HIL simulation. The modified online sequential extreme learning machine, selective updating regularized online sequential extreme learning machine (SROS-ELM, is employed to train the model online and estimate sensor measurements. It selectively updates the output weights of neural networks according to the prediction accuracy and the norm of output weight vector, tackles the problems of singularity and ill-posedness by regularization, and adopts a dual activation function in the hidden nodes combing neural and wavelet theory to enhance prediction capability. The experimental results verify the good generalization performance of SROS-ELM and show that the developed analytical redundancy technique for aeroengine sensor fault diagnosis based on SROS-ELM is effective and feasible.

  3. ELM control with RMP: plasma response models and the role of edge peeling response

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yueqiang; Kirk, A; Li, Li; Loarte, A; Ryan, D A; Sun, Youwen; Suttrop, W; Yang, Xu; Zhou, Lina

    2016-01-01

    Resonant magnetic perturbations (RMP) have extensively been demonstrated as a plausible technique for mitigating or suppressing large edge localized modes (ELMs). Associated with this is a substantial amount of theory and modelling efforts during recent years. Various models describing the plasma response to the RMP fields have been proposed in the literature, and are briefly reviewed in this work. Despite their simplicity, linear response models can provide alternative criteria, than the vacuum field based criteria, for guiding the choice of the coil configurations to achieve the best control of ELMs. The role of the edge peeling response to the RMP fields is illustrated as a key indicator for the ELM mitigation in low collisionality plasmas, in various tokamak devices.

  4. Enhancement of ELM by Clustering Discrimination Manifold Regularization and Multiobjective FOA for Semisupervised Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Ye

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel semisupervised extreme learning machine (ELM with clustering discrimination manifold regularization (CDMR framework named CDMR-ELM is proposed for semisupervised classification. By using unsupervised fuzzy clustering method, CDMR framework integrates clustering discrimination of both labeled and unlabeled data with twinning constraints regularization. Aiming at further improving the classification accuracy and efficiency, a new multiobjective fruit fly optimization algorithm (MOFOA is developed to optimize crucial parameters of CDME-ELM. The proposed MOFOA is implemented with two objectives: simultaneously minimizing the number of hidden nodes and mean square error (MSE. The results of experiments on actual datasets show that the proposed semisupervised classifier can obtain better accuracy and efficiency with relatively few hidden nodes compared with other state-of-the-art classifiers.

  5. ELM control with RMP: plasma response models and the role of edge peeling response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yueqiang; Ham, C. J.; Kirk, A.; Li, Li; Loarte, A.; Ryan, D. A.; Sun, Youwen; Suttrop, W.; Yang, Xu; Zhou, Lina

    2016-11-01

    Resonant magnetic perturbations (RMP) have extensively been demonstrated as a plausible technique for mitigating or suppressing large edge localized modes (ELMs). Associated with this is a substantial amount of theory and modelling efforts during recent years. Various models describing the plasma response to the RMP fields have been proposed in the literature, and are briefly reviewed in this work. Despite their simplicity, linear response models can provide alternative criteria, than the vacuum field based criteria, for guiding the choice of the coil configurations to achieve the best control of ELMs. The role of the edge peeling response to the RMP fields is illustrated as a key indicator for the ELM mitigation in low collisionality plasmas, in various tokamak devices.

  6. H-mode and ELM Characteristics at Ultralow Aspect Ratio in the Pegasus Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonck, R. J.; Barr, J. L.; Bongard, M. W.; Kriete, D. M.; Perry, J. M.; Reusch, J. A.; Thome, K. E.

    2016-10-01

    Operation at low BT and A PLH increases monotonically with ne, consistent with both the ITPA08 scaling, PITPA 08 , used for ITER and the theoretical FM3 power threshold model. Unlike at high A, PLH is comparable in limited and single-null diverted topologies at A 1.2 , consistent with FM3 predictions. PLH /PITPA 08 increases rapidly as A -> 1 , and is > 10 for A PLH with n PLH and intermediate 5 < n < 15 . High-resolution spatiotemporal measurements of Jedge(R , t) across single ELMs show the nonlinear generation and expulsion of current-carrying filaments during the large ELM crash. Helical edge current injection appears to suppress small ELM activity. Work supported by US DOE Grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.

  7. An Ecosystem-Based Job-Creation Engine Fuelled by Technology Entrepreneurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia D. Bot

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Job creation is at the centre of the rationale provided by governments and publicly funded organizations for investing in services purported to support entrepreneurs to launch and grow technology startups. However, little is known about how to design and build the engines that convert these publicly funded services into jobs in a region. In this article, we argue that the architecture of a job-creation engine fuelled by technology entrepreneurs is important and that it should be made visible to the stakeholders of a regional venture system. The manner in which the components of a job-creation engine are organized and integrated determines the effectiveness and efficiency of the conversion of public funds into jobs. Making visible the architecture of a job-creation engine enables individuals and organizations to: i better understand the link between the investment made to service technology entrepreneurs and systematic job creation; ii utilize the regional venture system more effectively; and iii set the performance benchmark for capability improvement and rapid adjustment to environmental changes. The experience gained from operating Lead To Win since 2009 is used to describe the architecture of a job-creation engine fuelled by technology entrepreneurs that operate in Canada’s Capital Region. Lead To Win is an ecosystem designed to help a technology venture generate sufficient revenue to create six or more knowledge jobs in the region within three years of inception.

  8. Optimization of biomass fuelled systems for distributed power generation using Particle Swarm Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, P. Reche; Reyes, N. Ruiz [Department of Telecommunication Engineering, University of Jaen, 23700 EPS Linares, Jaen (Spain); Gonzalez, M. Gomez [Junta of Andalusia, 23470 Maestro Francisco Yuste 2, Cazorla, Jaen (Spain); Jurado, F. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Jaen, 23700 EPS Linares, Jaen (Spain)

    2008-08-15

    With sufficient territory and abundant biomass resources Spain appears to have suitable conditions to develop biomass utilization technologies. As an important decentralized power technology, biomass gasification and power generation has a potential market in making use of biomass wastes. This paper addresses biomass fuelled generation of electricity in the specific aspect of finding the best location and the supply area of the electric generation plant for three alternative technologies (gas motor, gas turbine and fuel cell-microturbine hybrid power cycle), taking into account the variables involved in the problem, such as the local distribution of biomass resources, transportation costs, distance to existing electric lines, etc. For each technology, not only optimal location and supply area of the biomass plant, but also net present value and generated electric power are determined by an own binary variant of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). According to the values derived from the optimization algorithm, the most profitable technology can be chosen. Computer simulations show the good performance of the proposed binary PSO algorithm to optimize biomass fuelled systems for distributed power generation. (author)

  9. Avian pectoral muscle size rapidly tracks body mass changes during flight, fasting and fuelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, A; Kvist, A; Piersma, T; Dekinga, A; Dietz, M W

    2000-03-01

    We used ultrasonic imaging to monitor short-term changes in the pectoral muscle size of captive red knots Calidris canutus. Pectoral muscle thickness changed rapidly and consistently in parallel with body mass changes caused by flight, fasting and fuelling. Four knots flew repeatedly for 10 h periods in a wind tunnel. Over this period, pectoral muscle thickness decreased in parallel with the decrease in body mass. The change in pectoral muscle thickness during flight was indistinguishable from that during periods of natural and experimental fasting and fuelling. The body-mass-related variation in pectoral muscle thickness between and within individuals was not related to the amount of flight, indicating that changes in avian muscle do not require power-training as in mammals. Our study suggests that it is possible for birds to consume and replace their flight muscles on a time scale short enough to allow these muscles to be used as part of the energy supply for migratory flight. The adaptive significance of the changes in pectoral muscle mass cannot be explained by reproductive needs since our knots were in the early winter phase of their annual cycle. Instead, pectoral muscle mass changes may reflect (i) the breakdown of protein during heavy exercise and its subsequent restoration, (ii) the regulation of flight capacity to maintain optimal flight performance when body mass varies, or (iii) the need for a particular protein:fat ratio in winter survival stores.

  10. Density and impurity profile behaviours in HL-2A tokamak with different gas fuelling methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui Zheng-Ying; Zhou Yan; Li Wei; Feng Bei-Bin; Sun Ping; Dong Chun-Feng; Liu Yi; Hong Wen-Yu; Yang Qing-Wei; Ding Xuan-Tong; Duan Xu-Ru

    2009-01-01

    The electron density profile peaking and the impurity accumulation in the HL-2A tokamak plasma are observed when three kinds of fuelling methods are separately used at different fuelling particle locations.The density profile becomes more peaked when the line-averaged electron density approaches the Greenwald density limit nG and,consequently,impurity accumulation is often observed.A linear increase regime in the density range ne<0.6nG and a saturation regime in ne>0.6nG are obtained.There is no significant difference in achieved density peaking factor fne between the supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI) and gas puffing into the plasma main chamber.However,the achieved fne is relatively low,in particular,in the case of density below 0.7nG,when the working gas is puffed into the divertor chamber.A discharge with a density as high as 1.2nG,i.e.ne=1.2nG,can be achieved by SMBI just after siliconization as a wall conditioning.The metallic impurities,such as iron and chromium,also increase remarkably when the impurity accumulation happens.The mechanism behind the density peaking and impurity accumulation is studied by investigating both the density peaking factor versus the effective collisionality and the radiation peaking versus density peaking.

  11. The Glenwood Estate: our 32-year experience using Arbotext® 20-S to control Dutch elm disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    William L. MacDonald; Mark L. Double; Cameron M. Stauder; Kemp. Winfree

    2017-01-01

    We report a case study that demonstrates the successful use of the fungicide Arbotect® 20-S to protect American elms (Ulmus americana) from Dutch elm disease at a historic site in Charleston, WV. Standard injection protocols were used every 3 to 4 years to deliver the chemical into the root flares. Twelve of the original 16 trees remain 34 years...

  12. A PHARMACOLOGICAL STUDY ON THE PREGNANCY TERMINATION EFFECT OF COMPLEX PRESCRIPTION OF ELM WHITE BARK IN ANIMALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIUXi-Min; LIPci-Quan; ZHANGJian-Guo; YEXue-Min

    1989-01-01

    Complex prescription of elm white bark is made up of elm white bark and Olibanum, which has been used as a female contraceptive in China. Our animal experimental results showed that it had terminating effect of early, mid and fate pregnancies in

  13. SOLPS modelling of W arising from repetitive mitigated ELMs in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coster, D.P., E-mail: David.Coster@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Chankin, A.V.; Klingshirn, H.-J.; Dux, R.; Fable, E. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Bonnin, X. [CNRS – LSPM, Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Kukushkin, A.; Loarte, A. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2015-08-15

    SOLPS simulations of ELMs are performed for ITER to model the impact of sputtered tungsten on the plasma. Without prompt redeposition, the impact on the core is found to depend on the nature of the ELM event: if it is modelled by a diffusive process, contamination of the core is possible; if it is modelled by a convective process, contamination of the core can be avoided. With prompt redeposition, W contamination of the core seems to be unlikely as a result of the very high prompt redeposition fraction predicted by both simple and more complicated models.

  14. Comparative investigation of ELM control based on toroidal modelling of plasma response to RMP fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yueqiang

    2016-10-01

    The type-I edge localized mode (ELM), bursting at low frequency and with large amplitude, can channel a substantial amount of the plasma thermal energy into the surrounding plasma-facing components in tokamak devices operating at the high-confinement mode, potentially causing severe material damages. Learning effective ways of controlling this instability is thus an urgent issue in fusion research, in particular in view of the next generation large devices such as ITER and DEMO. Among other means, externally applied, three-dimensional resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) fields have been experimentally demonstrated to be successful in mitigating or suppressing the type-I ELM, in multiple existing devices. In this work, we shall report results of a comparative study of ELM control using RMPs. Comparison is made between the modelled plasma response to the 3D external fields and the observed change of the ELM behaviour on multiple devices, including MAST, ASDEX Upgrade, EAST, DIII-D, JET, and KSTAR. We show that toroidal modelling of the plasma response, based on linear and quasi-linear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models, provides essential insights that are useful in interpreting and guiding the ELM control experiments. In particular, linear toroidal modelling results, using the MARS-F code, reveal the crucial role of the edge localized peeling-tearing mode response during ELM mitigation/suppression on all these devices. Such response often leads to strong peaking of the plasma surface displacement near the region of weak equilibrium poloidal field (e.g. the X-point), and this provides an alternative practical criterion for ELM control, as opposed to the vacuum field based Chirikov criteria. Quasi-linear modelling using MARS-Q provides quantitative interpretation of the side effects due to the ELM control coils, on the plasma toroidal momentum and particle confinements. The particular role of the momentum and particle fluxes, associated with the neoclassical toroidal

  15. Preliminary investigations of equilibrium reconstruction quality during ELMy and ELM-free phases on JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelfusa, M., E-mail: gelfusa@ing.uniroma2.it [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA—University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Rome (Italy); Murari, A. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA per la Fusione, Consorzio RFX, 4-35127 Padova (Italy); Peluso, E. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, ENEA C.R. Frascati, C.P. 65, I-00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Gaudio, P. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA—University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Rome (Italy); Orsitto, F.P. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, ENEA C.R. Frascati, C.P. 65, I-00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Gerasimov, S. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Collaboration: JET-EFDA Contributors

    2013-08-21

    On JET, the magnetic topology is normally derived from the code EFIT, which solves the Grad–Shafranov equation with constraints imposed by the available measurements, typically the pick-up coils. Both the code and the measurements are expected to perform worse during ELMs. To assess this hypothesis, various statistical indicators, based on the values of the residuals and their probability distribution, have been calculated. They all show that the quality of EFIT reconstructions is clearly better in absence of ELMs. How the responsibility, for the lower quality of the reconstructions, is shared between the measurements and EFIT is a subject under investigation. © 2001 Elsevier Science. All rights reserved.

  16. Self-Paced Instruction: Hello, Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuba, Richard J.; Flammer, Gordon H.

    1975-01-01

    Answers criticisms of self-paced instruction (SPI) by citing advantages of SPI over lecture methods. Concludes that criticisms of SPI are useful since they indicate in which areas further research should be conducted to improve this method of instruction. (MLH)

  17. Advances in the Understanding of ELM Suppression by Resonant Magnetic Perturbations (RMPs) in DIII-D and Implications for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazikian, R. [PPPL

    2014-09-01

    Experiments on DIII-D have expanding the operating window for RMP ELM suppression to higher q95 with dominant electron heating and fully non-inductive current drive relevant to advanced modes of ITER operation. Robust ELM suppression has also been obtained with a reduced coil set, mitigating the risk of coil failure in maintaining ELM suppression in ITER. These results significantly expand the operating space and reduce risk for obtaining RMP ELM suppression in ITER. Efforts have also been made to search for 3D cause of ELM suppression. No internal non-axisymmetric structure is detected at the top of the pedestal, indicating that the dominant effect of the RMP is to produce an n=0 transport modification of the profiles. Linear two fluid MHD simulations using M3D-C1 indicate resonant field penetration and significant magnetic stochasticity at the top of the pedestal, consistent with the absence of detectable 3D structure in that region. A profile database was developed to compare the scaling of the pedestal and global confinement with the applied 3D field strength in ELM suppressed and ELM mitigated plasmas. The EPED pedestal model accurately predicts the measured pedestal pressure at the threshold of ELM suppression, increasing confidence in theoretical projections to ITER pedestal conditions. Both the H-factor (H(sub)98y2) and thermal energy confinement time do not degrade substantially with applied RMP fields near the threshold of ELM suppression, enhancing confidence in the compatibility of ITER high performance operation with RMP ELM suppression.

  18. Use Correlation Coefficients in Gaussian Process to Train Stable ELM Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-22

    Demiris, Y.: The one-hidden layer non-parametric bayesian kernel machine. In: 23rd IEEE International Conference on Tools with Artificial Intelligence , pp...process · Neural network 1 Introduction Extreme learning machine (ELM) is a special single-hidden layer feed-forward neural network (SLFN) [6]. Due to

  19. Prediction of aromatase inhibitory activity using the efficient linear method (ELM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoombuatong, Watshara; Prachayasittikul, Veda; Prachayasittikul, Virapong; Nantasenamat, Chanin

    2015-01-01

    Aromatase inhibition is an effective treatment strategy for breast cancer. Currently, several in silico methods have been developed for the prediction of aromatase inhibitors (AIs) using artificial neural network (ANN) or support vector machine (SVM). In spite of this, there are ample opportunities for further improvements by developing a simple and interpretable quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) method. Herein, an efficient linear method (ELM) is proposed for constructing a highly predictive QSAR model containing a spontaneous feature importance estimator. Briefly, ELM is a linear-based model with optimal parameters derived from genetic algorithm. Results showed that the simple ELM method displayed robust performance with 10-fold cross-validation MCC values of 0.64 and 0.56 for steroidal and non-steroidal AIs, respectively. Comparative analyses with other machine learning methods (i.e. ANN, SVM and decision tree) were also performed. A thorough analysis of informative molecular descriptors for both steroidal and non-steroidal AIs provided insights into the mechanism of action of compounds. Our findings suggest that the shape and polarizability of compounds may govern the inhibitory activity of both steroidal and non-steroidal types whereas the terminal primary C(sp3) functional group and electronegativity may be required for non-steroidal AIs. The R code of the ELM method is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.1274030.

  20. Some Guides to Discovery About Elm Trees, Owls, Cockroaches, Earthworms, Cement and Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Phyllis S.

    The introduction emphasizes the need for environmental and conservation education, and advocates an inquiry approach. Outdoor resources available to every school are listed. Detailed suggestions are made for investigating cement and concrete, cockroaches, earthworms, elm trees, and owls. In each case general background information and a list of…

  1. Investigation of ELM [edge localized mode] Dynamics with the Resonant Magnetic Perturbation Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pankin, Alexei Y.; Kritz, Arnold H.

    2011-07-19

    Topics covered are: anomalous transport and E x B flow shear effects in the H-mode pedestal; RMP (resonant magnetic perturbation) effects in NSTX discharges; development of a scaling of H-mode pedestal in tokamak plasmas with type I ELMs (edge localized modes); and divertor heat load studies.

  2. An elm EST database for identifying leaf beetle egg-induced defense genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Büchel Kerstin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plants can defend themselves against herbivorous insects prior to the onset of larval feeding by responding to the eggs laid on their leaves. In the European field elm (Ulmus minor, egg laying by the elm leaf beetle ( Xanthogaleruca luteola activates the emission of volatiles that attract specialised egg parasitoids, which in turn kill the eggs. Little is known about the transcriptional changes that insect eggs trigger in plants and how such indirect defense mechanisms are orchestrated in the context of other biological processes. Results Here we present the first large scale study of egg-induced changes in the transcriptional profile of a tree. Five cDNA libraries were generated from leaves of (i untreated control elms, and elms treated with (ii egg laying and feeding by elm leaf beetles, (iii feeding, (iv artificial transfer of egg clutches, and (v methyl jasmonate. A total of 361,196 ESTs expressed sequence tags (ESTs were identified which clustered into 52,823 unique transcripts (Unitrans and were stored in a database with a public web interface. Among the analyzed Unitrans, 73% could be annotated by homology to known genes in the UniProt (Plant database, particularly to those from Vitis, Ricinus, Populus and Arabidopsis. Comparative in silico analysis among the different treatments revealed differences in Gene Ontology term abundances. Defense- and stress-related gene transcripts were present in high abundance in leaves after herbivore egg laying, but transcripts involved in photosynthesis showed decreased abundance. Many pathogen-related genes and genes involved in phytohormone signaling were expressed, indicative of jasmonic acid biosynthesis and activation of jasmonic acid responsive genes. Cross-comparisons between different libraries based on expression profiles allowed the identification of genes with a potential relevance in egg-induced defenses, as well as other biological processes, including signal transduction

  3. 42 CFR 460.122 - PACE organization's appeals process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) PACE organization's written appeals process. The PACE organization must have a formal written appeals... process must include written procedures for the following: (1) Timely preparation and processing of a... writing. (e) Services furnished during appeals process. During the appeals process, the PACE...

  4. Multi-Leu PACE4 Inhibitor Retention within Cells Is PACE4 Dependent and a Prerequisite for Antiproliferative Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Couture

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The overexpression as well as the critical implication of the proprotein convertase PACE4 in prostate cancer progression has been previously reported and supported the development of peptide inhibitors. The multi-Leu peptide, a PACE4-specific inhibitor, was further generated and its capability to be uptaken by tumor xenograft was demonstrated with regard to its PACE4 expression status. To investigate whether the uptake of this inhibitor was directly dependent of PACE4 levels, uptake and efflux from cancer cells were evaluated and correlations were established with PACE4 contents on both wild type and PACE4-knockdown cell lines. PACE4-knockdown associated growth deficiencies were established on the knockdown HepG2, Huh7, and HT1080 cells as well as the antiproliferative effects of the multi-Leu peptide supporting the growth capabilities of PACE4 in cancer cells.

  5. Emissions from Diesel and Gasoline Vehicles Fuelled by Fischer-Tropsch Fuels and Similar Fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ulrik; Lundorff, Peter; Ivarsson, Anders

    2007-01-01

    vehicles fuelled by Fischer Tropsch (FT) based diesel and gasoline fuel, compared to the emissions from ordinary diesel and gasoline. The comparison for diesel fuels was based on a literature review, whereas the gasoline comparison had to be based on our own experiments, since almost no references were...... and an alkylate fuel (Aspen), which was taken to be the ultimate formula of FT gasoline. FT based diesel generally showed good emission performance, whereas the FT based gasoline not necessary lead to lower emissions. On the other hand, the Aspen fuel did show many advantages for the emissions from the gasoline......The described investigation was carried out under the umbrella of IEA Advanced Motor Fuels Agreement. The purpose was to evaluate the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from...

  6. Auxiliary power unit based on a solid oxide fuel cell and fuelled with diesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Jeremy; Boltze, Matthias

    An auxiliary power unit (APU) is presented that is fuelled with diesel, thermally self-sustaining, and based on a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The APU is rated at 1 kW electrical, and can generate electrical power after a 3 h warm-up phase. System features include a "dry" catalytic partial oxidation (CPOX) diesel reformer, a 30 cell SOFC stack with an open cathode, and a porous-media afterburner. The APU does not require a supply of external water. The SOFC stack is an outcome of a development partnership with H.C. Starck GmbH and Fraunhofer IKTS, and is discussed in detail in an accompanying paper.

  7. Epidermal cells help coordinate leukocyte migration during inflammation through fatty acid-fuelled matrix metalloproteinase production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Christopher J; Boyle, Rachel H; Sun, Xueying; Wicker, Sophie M; Misa, June P; Krissansen, Geoffrey W; Print, Cristin G; Crosier, Kathryn E; Crosier, Philip S

    2014-05-23

    In addition to satisfying the metabolic demands of cells, mitochondrial metabolism helps regulate immune cell function. To date, such cell-intrinsic metabolic-immunologic cross-talk has only been described operating in cells of the immune system. Here we show that epidermal cells utilize fatty acid β-oxidation to fuel their contribution to the immune response during cutaneous inflammation. By live imaging metabolic and immunological processes within intact zebrafish embryos during cutaneous inflammation, we uncover a mechanism where elevated β-oxidation-fuelled mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species within epidermal cells helps guide matrix metalloproteinase-driven leukocyte recruitment. This mechanism requires the activity of a zebrafish homologue of the mammalian mitochondrial enzyme, Immunoresponsive gene 1. This study describes the first example of metabolic reprogramming operating within a non-immune cell type to help control its contribution to the immune response. Targeting of this metabolic-immunologic interface within keratinocytes may prove useful in treating inflammatory dermatoses.

  8. Performance and Emissions of Internal Combustion Engine Fuelled With CNG - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Darade

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of alternative fuels such as natural gases has become very essential because of the continuously decrease in the petroleum reserves and also their contribution for pollutants. In this paper, a survey of research papers on the utilization of Compressed Natural Gas in the Internal Combustion engines along with its effects on the performance and emissions is done. It is revealed that the performance characteristics except thermal efficiency and exhaust temperature, various other performance parameters like brake mean effective pressure, power, torque and brake specific fuel consumption are decreased for CNG fuelled engine while the emission characteristics of unburnt hydrocarbon, Carbon monoxide and Carbon-di-oxide except nitrogen oxides are better for CNG compared to petrol and diesel engines. The improvement in performance is observed with the addition of hydrogen.

  9. Performance of Membrane-Assisted Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System Fuelled by Bioethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amornchai Arpornwichanop

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The membrane separation units for bioethanol purification including pervaporation and vapor permeation are integrated with the bioethanol-fuelled solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC system. The preliminary calculations indicate that Hydrophilic type is a suitable membrane for vapor permeation to be installed after a hydrophobic pervaporation. Based on energy self-sufficient condition and data of available pervaporation membranes, the simulation results show that the use of vapor permeation unit after the pervaporation can significantly improve the overall electrical efficiency from 10.96% for the system with pervaporation alone to 26.56%. Regarding the effect of ethanol recovery, the ethanol recovery at 75% can offer the optimal overall efficiency from the proposed purification system compared to the ethanol recovery at 31.16% for the case with the single pervaporation.

  10. Energy and Exergy Analysis of a Diesel Engine Fuelled with Diesel and Simarouba Biodiesel Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahi, Nabnit; Mohanty, Mahendra Kumar; Mishra, Sruti Ranjan; Mohanty, Ramesh Chandra

    2016-08-01

    This article intends to determine the available work and various losses of a diesel engine fuelled with diesel and SB20 (20 % Simarouba biodiesel by volume blended with 80 % diesel by volume). The energy and exergy analysis were carried out by using first law and second law of thermodynamics respectively. The experiments were carried out on a 3.5 kW compression ignition engine. The analysis was conducted on per mole of fuel basis. The energy analysis indicates that about 37.23 and 37.79 % of input energy is converted into the capacity to do work for diesel and SB20 respectively. The exergetic efficiency was 34.8 and 35 % for diesel and Simarouba respectively. Comparative study indicates that the energetic and exergetic performance of SB20 resembles with that of diesel fuel.

  11. ELME817型集装箱吊具液压系统的改进%Modification of the rotation hydraulic system of the ELME817 container spreader

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩慧仙; 曹显利

    2009-01-01

    The thesis introduces the ELME817 container spreader.points out design flaw and modifies the rotation hydraulic system of the ELME817 container spreader,and studies application and economy of container spreader modified.%本文介绍了ELME817型集装箱吊具,指出了该吊具回转液压系统的设计缺陷并对其进行了改进,同时对改进后吊具的使用性和经济性进行了深入的探讨.

  12. Plasma fuelling with cryogenic pellets in the stellarator TJ-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, K. J. [Research Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Panadero, N. [Research Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Velasco, J. L. [Research Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Combs, S. K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Caughman, J. B. O. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fontdecaba, J. M. [Research Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Foust, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); García, R. [Research Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Hernández Sánchez, J. [Research Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Navarro, M. [Research Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Pastor, I. [Research Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Soleto, A. [Research Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain)

    2017-04-04

    Cryogenic pellet injection is a widely used technique for delivering fuel to the core of magnetically confined plasmas. Indeed, such systems are currently functioning on many tokamak, reversed field pinch and stellarator devices. A pipe-gun-type pellet injector is now operated on the TJ-II, a low-magnetic shear stellarator of the heliac type. Cryogenic hydrogen pellets, containing between 3×1018 and 4×1019 atoms, are injected at velocities between 800 and 1200 m s-1 from its low-field side into plasmas created and/or maintained in this device by electron cyclotron resonance and/or neutral beam injection heating. In this paper, the first systematic study of pellet ablation, particle deposition and fuelling efficiency is presented for TJ-II. From this, light-emission profiles from ablating pellets are found to be in reasonable agreement with simulated pellet ablation profiles (created using a neutral gas shielding-based code) for both heating scenarios. In addition, radial offsets between recorded light-emission profiles and particle deposition profiles provide evidence for rapid outward drifting of ablated material that leads to pellet particle loss from the plasma. Finally, fuelling efficiencies are documented for a range of target plasma densities (~4×1018– ~2×1019 m-3). These range from ~20%– ~85% and are determined to be sensitive to pellet penetration depth. Additional observations, such as enhanced core ablation, are discussed and planned future work is outlined.

  13. An Internet based stated choices household survey for alternative fuelled vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potoglou, D.; Kanaroglou, P.S. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). Centre for Spatial Analysis

    2006-01-15

    Vehicles fuelled by alternative energy sources have the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and other negative externalities associated with the transportation sector. However, the demand for alternative fuelled vehicles (AFV) and the effectiveness of incentives, marketing promotions, new vehicle designs, and fuel subsystems should be evaluated before devising policy measures that promote the use of new vehicle technologies. This paper discussed the design and application of a stated choices experiment for the demand for AFVs that is administered uniquely through the Internet. The use of the Internet is a new method of survey data collection which provides many advantages over tradition methods of computer-aided telephone interviews (CATI) and mail interviews. The main advantages of Internet surveys are the savings in cost and time. The authors designed a Choice Internet Based Experiment for Research on Cars (CIBER-CARS). It is a self-administered online questionnaire that was used in the Census Metropolitan Area of Hamilton, Ontario. This paper described the survey design in detail and reviewed the implementation and data collection procedures. Measures for evaluating the efficiency of the Internet survey were also highlighted and the characteristics of the collected information were summarized with emphasis on the profiles of respondents and households. The characteristics of this survey were also compared with those of a similar study conducted in the State of California. Out of the 902 respondents in Hamilton, 602 stated that they would buy a vehicle in the next 5 years and 496 provided valid observations for each of the 8 stated choice exercises that included 3 fuel-type options (gasoline, hybrid, and alternative fuel) and 8 vehicle type/size-classes. The objective was to determine the impact of vehicle attributes and household characteristics to the actual choice of certain vehicles. It was expected that people with access to information via the

  14. Plasma fuelling with cryogenic pellets in the stellarator TJ-II

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, K. J.; Panadero, N.; Velasco, J. L.; Combs, S. K.; Caughman, J. B. O.; Fontdecaba, J. M.; Foust, C.; García, R.; Hernández Sánchez, J.; Navarro, M.; Pastor, I.; Soleto, A.; the TJ-II Team

    2017-05-01

    Cryogenic pellet injection is a widely used technique for delivering fuel to the core of magnetically confined plasmas. Indeed, such systems are currently functioning on many tokamak, reversed field pinch and stellarator devices. A pipe-gun-type pellet injector is now operated on the TJ-II, a low-magnetic shear stellarator of the heliac type. Cryogenic hydrogen pellets, containing between 3  ×  1018 and 4  ×  1019 atoms, are injected at velocities between 800 and 1200 m s-1 from its low-field side into plasmas created and/or maintained in this device by electron cyclotron resonance and/or neutral beam injection heating. In this paper, the first systematic study of pellet ablation, particle deposition and fuelling efficiency is presented for TJ-II. From this, light-emission profiles from ablating pellets are found to be in reasonable agreement with simulated pellet ablation profiles (created using a neutral gas shielding-based code) for both heating scenarios. In addition, radial offsets between recorded light-emission profiles and particle deposition profiles provide evidence for rapid outward drifting of ablated material that leads to pellet particle loss from the plasma. Finally, fuelling efficiencies are documented for a range of target plasma densities (~4  ×  1018-  ~2  ×  1019 m-3). These range from ~20%-  ~85% and are determined to be sensitive to pellet penetration depth. Additional observations, such as enhanced core ablation, are discussed and planned future work is outlined.

  15. Exhaust gas catalysts for heavy-duty vehicles fuelled by alcohol or biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, L.J.; Wahlberg, A.M.; Jaeraas, S.G. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    1997-06-01

    The long-term objective for the project is to develop tailor-made exhaust gas catalysts for heavy-duty ethanol fuelled diesel vehicles operating in urban traffic. Due to special problems, related to emissions of unregulated compounds emanating from ethanol fuelled buses in Swedish fleet tests, a catalyst research programme has been initiated. The engineering target was to achieve a light-off temperature (T{sub 50}) for ethanol conversion below 110 deg C and a selectivity for total oxidation over 90 %. In this report results from laboratory-reactor tests are described. The results indicate that by combining two different precious metals both activity and selectivity can be positively affected compared to the properties of the corresponding mono metallic catalysts. The best results show a light-off temperature for ethanol conversion below 100 deg C. The base metal oxides were more selective for total oxidation than the corresponding precious metal catalysts. The results also indicate a considerable interaction between support and active material which affects the product distribution in catalytic oxidation of ethanol. At temperatures below 250 deg C the by-product formation can be quite high and the major by-product is acetaldehyde. The metal support interaction also has a certain influence on the oxidation of NO to NO{sub 2}. The results show that the NO{sub 2} formation can be suppressed without considerably affecting the activity of the catalyst. This report also includes a preliminary life cycle analysis (LCA) and life cycle cost (LCC) estimate for exhaust gas catalysts intended for heavy-duty ethanol vehicles in urban traffic. 22 refs, numerous figs and tabs

  16. Evaporative emissions of 1,3-butadiene from petrol-fuelled motor vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Y.; Galbally, I. E.; Weeks, I. A.; Duffy, B. L.; Nelson, P. F.

    This study reports the identification and quantification of 1,3-butadiene in petrol and in the evaporative emissions from Australian light-duty passenger vehicles. The mass fraction of 1,3-butadiene in each of the different grades of any brand of Australian petrol was found to be relatively constant for a given marketing area. However, the mass fractions vary significantly between the different brands (or refineries) from 0.004±0.001% to 0.047±0.008%. The measurements of the evaporative emissions of 1,3-butadiene from in-service motor vehicles were performed using standard Australian Design Rule 37/00 (ADR 37/00) Sealed Housing Evaporative Determination (SHED) tests. For post-1985 catalyst equipped vehicles fuelled with unleaded petrol, average evaporative emissions of 1,3-butadiene were 9.4 (0.7-22) and 5.0 (0.1-23) mg per test for diurnal and hot soak SHED tests, respectively. The corresponding average evaporative emissions for the older, pre-1986 non-catalyst equipped vehicles fuelled with leaded petrol were 26.5 (11.7-45.4) and 9.2 (4.3-13.1) mg per test, respectively, about double the observed emissions from newer vehicles. For the complete vehicle set (all ages), the average mass fraction of 1,3-butadiene in the total hydrocarbon (sum of C 1-C 10 hydrocarbons) emission was 0.21±0.14% from the diurnal phase and was 0.11±0.06% from the hot-soak phase. Evaporative emissions were estimated to contribute about 4% (ranging from 1-15%) of the total (exhaust and evaporative) emissions of 1,3-butadiene from Australian motor vehicles.

  17. Tree and stand transpiration in a Midwestern bur oak savanna after elm encroachment and restoration thinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbjornsen, H.; Tomer, M.D.; Gomez-Cardenas, M.; Brudvig, L.A.; Greenan, C.M.; Schilling, K.

    2007-01-01

    Oak savannas, once common in the Midwest, are now isolated remnants within agricultural landscapes. Savanna remnants are frequently encroached by invasive trees to become woodlands. Thinning and prescribed burning can restore savanna structure, but the ecohydrological effects of managing these remnants are poorly understood. In this study, we measured sap flow (Js) to quantify transpiration in an Iowa bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa) savanna woodland encroached by elms (Ulmus americana), and in an adjacent restored savanna after thinning to remove elms, during summer 2004. Savanna oaks had greater mean daily Js (35.9 L dm-2 day-1) than woodland oaks (20.7 L dm-2 day-1) and elms (12.4 L dm-2 day-1). The response of Js to vapor pressure deficit (D) was unexpectedly weak, although oaks in both stands showed negative correlation between daily Js and D for D > 0.4 kPa. An earlier daily peak in Js in the elm trees showed a possible advantage for water uptake. As anticipated, the woodland's stand transpiration was greater (1.23 mm day-1) than the savanna's (0.35 mm day-1), yet the savanna achieved 30% of the woodland's transpiration with only 11% of its sapwood area. The difference in transpiration influenced water table depths, which were 2 m in the savanna and 6.5 m in the woodland. Regionally, row-crop agriculture has increased groundwater recharge and raised water tables, providing surplus water that perhaps facilitated elm encroachment. This has implications for restoration of savanna remnants. If achieving a savanna ecohydrology is an aim of restoration, then restoration strategies may require buffers, or targeting of large or hydrologically isolated remnants. ?? 2007.

  18. Spatial Distribution and Site-Specific Spraying of Main Sucking Pests of Elm Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimzadeh, R; Iranipour, S

    2016-11-09

    Elm trees are important landscape trees and sucking insects weaken the elm trees and produce large amounts of honeydew. The main objectives of this study were to identify main honeydew-producing pests of elm trees and do site-specific spraying against these pests. To map the spatial distribution of the sucking pests in the large scale, the study area was divided into 40 × 40 m grids and one tree was chosen randomly from each grid (a total of 55 trees). These trees were sampled twice a year in 2011 and 2012. Each sample was a 30-cm branch terminal. Eight samples were taken from each tree in four cardinal directions and two canopy levels. The number of sucking insects and leaves of each sample were counted and recorded. Spatial analysis of the data was carried out using geostatistics. Kriging was used for producing prediction maps. Insecticide application was restricted to the regions with populations higher than threshold. To identify within-tree distribution of the honeydew-producing pests, six and four elm trees were chosen in 2011 and 2012 respectively, and sampled weekly. These trees were sampled as described previously. European elm scale (EES), Gossyparia spuria (Modeer) and two species of aphids were the dominant honeydew-producing pests. The results revealed that the effects of direction, canopy level and their interactions on insect populations were not statistically significant (P < 0.05). Site-specific spraying decreased the amount of insecticides used by ca. 20%, while satisfactory control of the sucking pests and honeydew excretion was obtained. Considering the environmental and economic benefits of site-specific spraying, it is worth doing more complementary works in this area.

  19. Visual aided pacing in respiratory maneuvers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rambaudi, L R [Laboratorio de Biofisica y Fisiologia ' Antonio Sadi Frumento' (Argentina); Rossi, E [Catedra de Bioingenieria II (Argentina); Mantaras, M C [Catedra de Bioingenieria II (Argentina); Perrone, M S [Laboratorio de Biofisica y Fisiologia ' Antonio Sadi Frumento' (Argentina); Siri, L Nicola [Catedra de Bioingenieria II (Argentina)

    2007-11-15

    A visual aid to pace self-controlled respiratory cycles in humans is presented. Respiratory manoeuvres need to be accomplished in several clinic and research procedures, among others, the studies on Heart Rate Variability. Free running respiration turns to be difficult to correlate with other physiologic variables. Because of this fact, voluntary self-control is asked from the individuals under study. Currently, an acoustic metronome is used to pace respiratory frequency, its main limitation being the impossibility to induce predetermined timing in the stages within the respiratory cycle. In the present work, visual driven self-control was provided, with separate timing for the four stages of a normal respiratory cycle. This visual metronome (ViMet) was based on a microcontroller which power-ON and -OFF an eight-LED bar, in a four-stage respiratory cycle time series handset by the operator. The precise timing is also exhibited on an alphanumeric display.

  20. Cardiac pacing in heart failure patients with left bundle branch block: impact of pacing site for optimizing left ventricular resynchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappone, C; Rosanio, S; Oreto, G; Tocchi, M; Gulletta, S; Salvati, A; Dicandia, C; Santinelli, V; Mazzone, P; Veglia, F; Ding, J; Sallusti, L; Spinelli, J; Vicedomini, G

    2000-07-01

    Acute left ventricular pacing has been associated with hemodynamic improvement in patients with congestive heart failure and wide QRS complex. We hypothesized that pacing two left ventricular sites simultaneously would produce faster activation and better systolic function than single-site pacing. We selected 14 heart failure patients (NYHA functional class III or IV) in normal sinus rhythm with left bundle branch block and QRS > 150 ms. An 8F dual micromanometer catheter was placed in the aorta for measuring +dP/dt (mmHg/s), aortic pulse pressure (mmHg), and end-diastolic pressure (mmHg). Pacing leads were positioned via coronary veins at the posterior base and lateral wall. Patients were acutely paced VDD at the posterior base, lateral wall, and both sites (dual-site) with 5 atrioventricular delays (from 8 ms to PR -30 ms). Pacing sequences were executed in randomized order using a custom external computer (FlexStim, Guidant CRM). Dual-site pacing increased peak +dP/dt significantly more than posterior base and lateral wall pacing. Dual-site and posterior base pacing raised aortic pulse pressure significantly more than lateral wall pacing. Dual-site pacing shortened QRS duration by 22 %, whereas posterior base and lateral wall pacing increased it by 2 and 12%, respectively (p = 0.006). In heart failure patients with left bundle branch block, dual-site pacing improves systolic function more than single-site stimulation. Improved ventricular activation synchrony, expressed by paced QRS narrowing, may account for the additional benefit of dual- vs single-site pacing in enhancing contractility. This novel approach deserves consideration for future heart failure pacing studies.

  1. PACE: Proactively Secure Accumulo with Cryptographic Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-27

    modify data using digital signatures . The contributions of our work include: • Cryptographic enforcement of access control. The PACE library allows...the impact of encryption and signatures on operation throughput. I. INTRODUCTION Over the last several years, many companies have moved their...second). This evaluation demonstrates that while encryp- tion and signatures have an impact on throughput, the impact is small enough to be

  2. [Effects of aboveground and belowground competition between grass and tree on elm seedlings growth in Horqin Sandy Land].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yi; Jiang, De-ming; Chen, Zhuo; Toshio, Oshida

    2011-08-01

    Elm sparse woodland steppe plays an important role in vegetation restoration and landscape protection in Horqin Sandy Land. In this paper, a two-factor and two-level field experiment was conducted to explore the effects of aboveground and belowground competition between grass and tree on the growth of elm seedlings in the Sandy Land. Five aspects were considered, i.e., seedling biomass, belowground biomass/aboveground biomass, stem height, ratio of root to stem, and leaf number. For the one-year-old elm seedlings, their biomass showed a trend of no competition > aboveground competition > full competition > belowground competition, belowground biomass / aboveground biomass showed a trend of belowground competition > full competition > no competition > aboveground competition, stem height showed a trend of aboveground competition > no competition > full competition > belowground competition, root/stem ratio showed a trend of belowground competition > full competition > no competition > aboveground competition, and leaf number showed a trend of aboveground competition > no competition > belowground competition > full competition. Belowground competition had significant effects on the growth of one-year-old elm seedlings, while aboveground competition did not have. Neither belowground competition nor aboveground competition had significant effects on the growth of two-year-old elm seedlings. It was suggested that in Horqin Sandy Land, grass affected the growth of elm seedlings mainly via below-ground competition, but the belowground competition didn' t affect the resource allocation of elm seedlings. With the age increase of elm seedlings, the effects of grass competition on the growth of elm seedlings became weaker.

  3. Almanac 2013: cardiac arrhythmias and pacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Reginald

    2013-10-01

    Important advances have been made in the past few years in the fields of clinical cardiac electrophysiology and pacing. Researchers and clinicians have a greater understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying atrial fibrillation (AF), which has transpired into improved methods of detection, risk stratification, and treatments. The introduction of novel oral anticoagulants has provided clinicians with alternative options in managing patients with AF at moderate to high thromboembolic risk and further data has been emerging on the use of catheter ablation for the treatment of symptomatic AF. Another area of intense research in the field of cardiac arrhythmias and pacing is in the use of cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT) for the treatment of patients with heart failure. Following the publication of major landmark randomised controlled trials reporting that CRT confers a survival advantage in patients with severe heart failure and improves symptoms, many subsequent studies have been performed to further refine the selection of patients for CRT and determine the clinical characteristics associated with a favourable response. The field of sudden cardiac death and implantable cardioverter defibrillators also continues to be actively researched, with important new epidemiological and clinical data emerging on improved methods for patient selection, risk stratification, and management. This review covers the major recent advances in these areas related to cardiac arrhythmias and pacing.

  4. Post operative temporary epicardial pacing: When, how and why?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batra Anjan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Temporary epicardial pacing is commonly used for the diagnosis and treatment of arrhythmias in the acute post operative period after surgery for congenital heart disease. Temporary epicardial pacemakers have become increasingly sophisticated over the years and have evolved from simple single chamber devices with few programmable parameters to complex dual chamber devices capable of adjustable parameters similar to permanent pacemakers. This review will describe the various indications for temporary pacing, technical considerations for both the choice of pacing wires and pacemaker modes, complications with temporary pacing and our current practice with temporary pacing.

  5. Impact of pacing modality and biventricular pacing on cardiac output and coronary conduit flow in the post-cardiotomy patient.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Healy, David G

    2012-02-03

    We have previously demonstrated the role of univentricular pacing modalities in influencing coronary conduit flow in the immediate post-operative period in the cardiac surgery patient. We wanted to determine the mechanism of this improved coronary conduit and, in addition, to explore the possible benefits with biventricular pacing. Sixteen patients undergoing first time elective coronary artery bypass grafting who required pacing following surgery were recruited. Comparison of cardiac output and coronary conduit flow was performed between VVI and DDD pacing with a single right ventricular lead and biventricular pacing lead placement. Cardiac output was measured using arterial pulse waveform analysis while conduit flow was measured using ultrasonic transit time methodology. Cardiac output was greatest with DDD pacing using right ventricular lead placement only [DDD-univentricular 5.42 l (0.7), DDD-biventricular 5.33 l (0.8), VVI-univentricular 4.71 l (0.8), VVI-biventricular 4.68 l (0.6)]. DDD-univentricular pacing was significantly better than VVI-univentricular (P=0.023) and VVI-biventricular pacing (P=0.001) but there was no significant advantage to DDD-biventricular pacing (P=0.45). In relation to coronary conduit flow, DDD pacing again had the highest flow [DDD-univentricular 55 ml\\/min (24), DDD-biventricular 52 ml\\/min (25), VVI-univentricular 47 ml\\/min (23), VVI-biventricular 50 ml\\/min (26)]. DDD-univentricular pacing was significantly better than VVI-univentricular (P=0.006) pacing but not significantly different to VVI-biventricular pacing (P=0.109) or DDD-biventricular pacing (P=0.171). Pacing with a DDD modality offers the optimal coronary conduit flow by maximising cardiac output. Biventricular lead placement offered no significant benefit to coronary conduit flow or cardiac output.

  6. Current understanding of the processes underlying the triggering of and energy loss associated with type I ELMs

    CERN Document Server

    Kirk, A; Dunne, M; Huijsmans, G; Pamela, S; Becoulet, M; Harrison, J R; Hillesheim, J; Roach, C; Saarelma, S

    2013-01-01

    The type I ELMy H-mode is the baseline operating scenario for ITER. While it is known that the type I ELM ultimately results from the peeling-ballooning instability, there is growing experimental evidence that a mode grows up before the ELM crash that may modify the edge plasma, which then leads to the ELM event due to the peeling-ballooning mode. The triggered mode results in the release of a large number of particles and energy from the core plasma but the precise mechanism by which these losses occur is still not fully understood and hence makes predictions for future devices uncertain. Our current understanding of the processes that trigger type I ELMs and the size of the resultant energy loss are reviewed and compared to experimental data and ideas for further development are discussed.

  7. Co-Occurrence of the Invasive Banded and European Elm Bark Beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in North America

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jana C. Lee; Ingrid Aguayo; Ray Aslin; Gail Durham; Shakeer M. Hamud; Bruce D. Moltzan; A. Steve Munson; José F. Negrón; Travis Peterson; Iral R. Ragenovich; Jeffrey J. Witcosky; Steven J. Seybold

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT The invasive European elm bark beetle, Scolytus multistriatus (Marsham), was detected in Massachusetts a century ago, and it now occurs throughout the continental United States and southern Canada...

  8. Effect of resonant magnetic perturbations with toroidal mode numbers of 4 and 6 on ELMs in single null H-mode plasmas in MAST

    CERN Document Server

    Kirk, A; Harrison, J; Liu, Yueqiang; Nardon, E; Saarelma, S; Scannell, R; Thornton, A J

    2013-01-01

    The application of resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) with a toroidal mode number of n=4 or n=6 to lower single null plasmas in the MAST tokamak produces up to a factor of 5 increase in Edge Localized Mode (ELM) frequency and reduction in plasma energy loss associated with type-I ELMs. A threshold current for ELM mitigation is observed above which the ELM frequency increases approximately linearly with current in the coils. Despite a large scan of parameters, complete ELM suppression has not been achieved. The results have been compared to modelling performed using either the vacuum approximation or including the plasma response. During the ELM mitigated stage clear lobe structures are observed in visible-light imaging of the X-point region. The size of these lobes is correlated with the increase in ELM frequency observed. The characteristics of the mitigated ELMs are similar to those of the natural ELMs suggesting that they are type I ELMs which are triggered at a lower pressure gradient. The application...

  9. Stock price prediction based on ELM and FOA%基于ELM和FOA的股票价格预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李栋; 张文宇

    2014-01-01

    Extreme Learning Machine(ELM)is not stable in predicting stock price. To address the problem, this paper proposes an Improved Fruit Fly of Algorithm(IFOA)that optimizes ELM by improving fruit fly. In the algorithm, fruit fly swarm constantly adjusts its radius to optimize the ELM input weights and thresholds of hidden layer, building an ELM prediction model with the optimized results. The IFOA-ELM model proposed in this paper can be applied to predicting stock price. Compared with ELM and FOA-ELM, IFOA-ELM model is more accurate and stable in predicting stock price.%针对股票价格预测中应用极限学习机预测存在稳定性不理想的问题,提出了一种改进果蝇优化极限学习机(IFOA-ELM)预测模型的算法。在该算法中,果蝇群通过不断调整群半径来优化ELM的输入层与隐含层连接权值和隐含层阈值,并以优化后的结果为基础,构建ELM预测模型。将IFOA-ELM模型用于股票价格预测。实验表明,与ELM和FOA-ELM相比,IFOA-ELM在股票价格预测中具有更高的预测精度和更好的稳定性。

  10. ELM - A SIMPLE TOOL FOR THERMAL-HYDRAULIC ANALYSIS OF SOLID-CORE NUCLEAR ROCKET FUEL ELEMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, J. T.

    1994-01-01

    ELM is a simple computational tool for modeling the steady-state thermal-hydraulics of propellant flow through fuel element coolant channels in nuclear thermal rockets. Written for the nuclear propulsion project of the Space Exploration Initiative, ELM evaluates the various heat transfer coefficient and friction factor correlations available for turbulent pipe flow with heat addition. In the past, these correlations were found in different reactor analysis codes, but now comparisons are possible within one program. The logic of ELM is based on the one-dimensional conservation of energy in combination with Newton's Law of Cooling to determine the bulk flow temperature and the wall temperature across a control volume. Since the control volume is an incremental length of tube, the corresponding pressure drop is determined by application of the Law of Conservation of Momentum. The size, speed, and accuracy of ELM make it a simple tool for use in fuel element parametric studies. ELM is a machine independent program written in FORTRAN 77. It has been successfully compiled on an IBM PC compatible running MS-DOS using Lahey FORTRAN 77, a DEC VAX series computer running VMS, and a Sun4 series computer running SunOS UNIX. ELM requires 565K of RAM under SunOS 4.1, 360K of RAM under VMS 5.4, and 406K of RAM under MS-DOS. Because this program is machine independent, no executable is provided on the distribution media. The standard distribution medium for ELM is one 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskette. ELM was developed in 1991. DEC, VAX, and VMS are trademarks of Digital Equipment Corporation. Sun4 and SunOS are trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. IBM PC is a registered trademark of International Business Machines. MS-DOS is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation.

  11. Scrape-off layer ion temperature measurements at the divertor target during type III and type I ELMs in MAST measured by RFEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, S.; Allan, S. Y.; Fishpool, G.; Kirk, A.; Thornton, A. J.; Walkden, N. R.; Harrison, J. R.; the MAST Team

    2016-06-01

    In future nuclear fusion reactors high heat load events, such as edge-localised modes (ELMs), can potentially damage divertor materials and release impurities into the main plasma, limiting plasma performance. The most difficult to handle are type I ELMs since they carry the largest fraction of energy from the plasma and therefore deposit the largest heat flux at the target and on first wall materials. Knowing the temperature of the ions released from ELM events is important since it determines the potential sputtering they would cause from plasma facing materials. To make measurements of T i by retarding field energy analyser (RFEA) during type I ELMs a new operational technique has been used to allow faster measurements to be made; this is called the fast swept technique (FST). The FST method allows measurements to be made within the time of the ELM event which has previously not been possible with T i measurements. This new technique has been validated by comparing it with a slower average measurement previously used to make ion temperature measurements of ELMs. Presented here are the first T i measurements during Type I ELMs made at a tokamak divertor. Temperatures as high as 20 eV are measured more than 15 cm from the peak heat flux of an ELM, in a region where no inter-ELM current is measured by the RFEA; showing that ELM events cause hot ions to reach the divertor target far into the scrape off layer. Fast camera imaging has been used to investigate the type of ELM filaments that have been measured by the divertor RFEA. It is postulated that most of the ion temperatures measured in type I ELMs are from secondary ELM filaments which have not been previously identified in MAST plasmas.

  12. An ELM-Based Approach for Estimating Train Dwell Time in Urban Rail Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-jun Chu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dwell time estimation plays an important role in the operation of urban rail system. On this specific problem, a range of models based on either polynomial regression or microsimulation have been proposed. However, the generalization performance of polynomial regression models is limited and the accuracy of existing microsimulation models is unstable. In this paper, a new dwell time estimation model based on extreme learning machine (ELM is proposed. The underlying factors that may affect urban rail dwell time are analyzed first. Then, the relationships among different factors are extracted and modeled by ELM neural networks, on basis of which an overall estimation model is proposed. At last, a set of observed data from Beijing subway is used to illustrate the proposed method and verify its overall performance.

  13. LIBS analysis of tungsten coatings exposed to Magnum PSI ELM-like plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piip, K.; De Temmerman, G.; van der Meiden, H. J.; Lissovski, A.; Karhunen, J.; Aints, M.; Hakola, A.; Paris, P.; Laan, M.; Likonen, J.; Jõgi, I.; Kozlova, J.; Mändar, H.

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this work was to study the applicability of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) as an in situ method for monitoring plasma facing materials in fusion reactors. Tungsten coated samples were exposed to Magnum PSI plasma using two different regimes: the steady-state (the sequence of approximately 11 s pulses) and the ELM-like. Right after the plasma exposure samples were tested with LIBS in the Magnum PSI analyses and target exchange chamber. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the surface morphology and crystallinity. These methods showed that changes at the sample surface caused by used ELM-like mode did not differ remarkably from those caused by steady-state mode. Surface temperature had significant effect on the surface structure. In addition post mortem LIBS measurements were performed that gave result similar to that of in situ LIBS.

  14. LIBS analysis of tungsten coatings exposed to Magnum PSI ELM-like plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piip, K., E-mail: kaarel.piip@ut.ee [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); De Temmerman, G.; Meiden, H.J. van der [FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Lissovski, A. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); Karhunen, J. [Aalto University, 02150 Espoo (Finland); Aints, M. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); Hakola, A. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 02044 VTT (Finland); Paris, P.; Laan, M. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); Likonen, J. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 02044 VTT (Finland); Jõgi, I.; Kozlova, J.; Mändar, H. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, 50411 Tartu (Estonia)

    2015-08-15

    The aim of this work was to study the applicability of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) as an in situ method for monitoring plasma facing materials in fusion reactors. Tungsten coated samples were exposed to Magnum PSI plasma using two different regimes: the steady-state (the sequence of approximately 11 s pulses) and the ELM-like. Right after the plasma exposure samples were tested with LIBS in the Magnum PSI analyses and target exchange chamber. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the surface morphology and crystallinity. These methods showed that changes at the sample surface caused by used ELM-like mode did not differ remarkably from those caused by steady-state mode. Surface temperature had significant effect on the surface structure. In addition post mortem LIBS measurements were performed that gave result similar to that of in situ LIBS.

  15. In-out divertor flow asymmetries during ELMs in ASDEX Upgrade H-mode plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsalas, M. [NCSR ' Demokritos' , Institute of Nuclear Technology - Radiation Protection, 153 10 Aghia Paraskevi, Attica (Greece) and EDFA-JET CSU, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: maximos@ipta.demokritos.gr; Coster, D. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany); Fuchs, C. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany); Herrmann, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany); Kallenbach, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany); Mueller, H.W. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany); Neuhauser, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany); Rohde, V. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany); Tsois, N. [NCSR ' Demokritos' , Institute of Nuclear Technology - Radiation Protection, 153 10 Aghia Paraskevi, Attica (Greece)

    2007-06-15

    In ASDEX Upgrade, a fast reciprocating probe positioned in the lower divertor, capable of accessing the low-field side (LFS) and high-field side (HFS) scrape-off layer (SOL) just below the x-point, as well as the private flux region, was equipped with a Mach head and used to investigate fast flow fluctuations and in-out divertor flow asymmetries during ELMs. We compare the flow behaviour during ELMs in the three separate regions. Flow enhancement is observed in the HFS SOL, with Mach number values reaching or exceeding M = 2, flow reversal in the LFS SOL, and complex fluctuating behaviour in the private flux region (which includes flow reversal). We discuss the possible mechanisms that could drive these observations.

  16. Segmentation and abnormality detection of cervical cancer cells using fast elm with particle swarm optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukumar P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer arises when the anomalous cells on the cervix mature unmanageable obviously in the renovation sector. The most probably used methods to detect abnormal cervical cells are the routine and there is no difference between the abnormal and normal nuclei. So that the abnormal nuclei found are brown in color while normal nuclei are blue in color. The spread or cells are examined and the image denoising is performed based on the Iterative Decision Based Algorithm. Image Segmentation is the method of paneling a digital image into compound sections. The major utilize of segmentation is to abridge or modify the demonstration of an image. The images are segmented by applying anisotropic diffusion on the Denoised image. Image can be enhanced using dark stretching to increase the quality of the image. It separates the cells into all nuclei region and abnormal nuclei region. The abnormal nuclei regions are further classified into touching and non-touching regions and touching regions undergoes feature selection process. The existing Support Vector Machines (SVM is classified few nuclei regions but the time to taken for execution is high. The abnormality detected from the image is calculated as 45% from the total abnormal nuclei. Thus the proposed method of Fast Particle Swarm Optimization with Extreme Learning Machines (Fast PSO-ELM to classify all nuclei regions further into touching region and separated region. The iterative method for to training the ELM and make it more efficient than the SVM method. In experimental result, the proposed method of Fast PSO-ELM may shows the accuracy as above 90% and execution time is calculated based on the abnormality (ratio of abnormal nuclei regions to all nuclei regions image. Therefore, Fast PSO-ELM helps to detect the cervical cancer cells with maximum accuracy.

  17. Analytical Redundancy Design for Aeroengine Sensor Fault Diagnostics Based on SROS-ELM

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Zhou; Yuan Liu; Tianhong Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Analytical redundancy technique is of great importance to guarantee the reliability and safety of aircraft engine system. In this paper, a machine learning based aeroengine sensor analytical redundancy technique is developed and verified through hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation. The modified online sequential extreme learning machine, selective updating regularized online sequential extreme learning machine (SROS-ELM), is employed to train the model online and estimate sensor measurement...

  18. Development of On Broad Diagnostic System Based on ELM327%基于ELM327的车载故障诊断系统开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晓东; 王彪; 黄晓华

    2012-01-01

    随着第二代在线故障诊断(OBD II)标准在不同品牌汽车上的强制应用,针对普通用户如何很好地了解汽车运行状态和故障诊断的需求,系统开发采用ELM327芯片通过OBDⅡ读取汽车ECU的数据,在PC、PDA或Mobile上显示汽车运行状态和进行故障诊断,省去繁杂的通讯协议,为广大普通用户提供一种简单易用的通用汽车故障诊断系统。%As compulsory application of On Broad Diagnostic System in vehicles,in light of needs of normal users to know more about vehicle running state and breakdown diagnosis,this system adopts ELM327 chips to read ECU data,to indicate vehicle running state and process breakdown diagnosis in PC,PDA or mobiles.This method has left out complicated communication protocols,and provided normal users with a simple,easy-to-use vehicle breakdown diagnosis system.

  19. Optimized pacing mode for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: Impact of ECG fusion during pacing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berruezo, A.; Penela, D.; Burgos, F.; Evertz, R.; Fernandez-Armenta, J.; Roca, J.; Doltra, A.; Acosta, J.; Francino, A.; Sitges, M.; Alsina, X.; Ordonez, A.; Villuendas, R.; Brugada, R.; Mont, L.; Brugada, J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Electrocardiographic (ECG) fusion with intrinsic QRS could reduce the benefit of atrial synchronous biventricular pacing (AS-BiVP) in patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM). OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the benefit of AS-BiVP and the influence

  20. Impact of hydrogen onboard storage technologies on the performance of hydrogen fuelled vehicles: A techno-economic well-to-wheel assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, M.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/310873754; Faaij, A.P.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/10685903X

    2007-01-01

    Hydrogen onboard storage technologies form an important factor in the overall performance of hydrogen fuelled transportation, both energetically and economically. Particularly, advanced storage options such as metal hydrides and carbon nanotubes are often hinted favourable to conventional, liquid

  1. Impact of hydrogen onboard storage technologies on the performance of hydrogen fuelled vehicles: A techno-economic well-to-wheel assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, M.P.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2007-01-01

    Hydrogen onboard storage technologies form an important factor in the overall performance of hydrogen fuelled transportation, both energetically and economically. Particularly, advanced storage options such as metal hydrides and carbon nanotubes are often hinted favourable to conventional, liquid an

  2. The Rock Elm meteorite impact structure, Wisconsin: Geology and shock-metamorphic effects in quartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, B.M.; Cordua, W.S.; Plescia, J.B.

    2004-01-01

    The Rock Elm structure in southwest Wisconsin is an anomalous circular area of highly deformed rocks, ???6.5 km in diameter, located in a region of virtually horizontal undeformed sedimentary rocks. Shock-produced planar microstructures (PMs) have been identified in quartz grains in several lithologies associated with the structure: sandstones, quartzite pebbles, and breccia. Two distinct types of PMs are present: P1 features, which appear identical to planar fractures (PFs or cleavage), and P2 features, which are interpreted as possible incipient planar deformation features (PDFs). The latter are uniquely produced by the shock waves associated with meteorite impact events. Both types of PMs are oriented parallel to specific crystallographic planes in the quartz, most commonly to c(0001), ??112??2, and r/z101??1. The association of unusual, structurally deformed strata with distinct shock-produced microdeformation features in their quartz-bearing rocks establishes Rock Elm as a meteorite impact structure and supports the view that the presence of multiple parallel cleavages in quartz may be used independently as a criterion for meteorite impact. Preliminary paleontological studies indicate a minimum age of Middle Ordovician for the Rock Elm structure. A similar age estimate (450-400 Ma) is obtained independently by combining the results of studies of the general morphology of complex impact structures with estimated rates of sedimentation for the region. Such methods may be applicable to dating other old and deeply eroded impact structures formed in sedimentary target rocks.

  3. The Calibration of High-Speed Camera Imaging System for ELMs Observation on EAST Tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chao; Zhong, Fangchuan; Hu, Liqun; Yang, Jianhua; Yang, Zhendong; Gan, Kaifu; Zhang, Bin; East Team

    2016-09-01

    A tangential fast visible camera has been set up in EAST tokamak for the study of edge MHD instabilities such as ELM. To determine the 3-D information from CCD images, Tsai's two-stage technique was utilized to calibrate the high-speed camera imaging system for ELM study. By applying tiles of the passive stabilizers in the tokamak device as the calibration pattern, transformation parameters for transforming from a 3-D world coordinate system to a 2-D image coordinate system were obtained, including the rotation matrix, the translation vector, the focal length and the lens distortion. The calibration errors were estimated and the results indicate the reliability of the method used for the camera imaging system. Through the calibration, some information about ELM filaments, such as positions and velocities were obtained from images of H-mode CCD videos. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11275047), the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (No. 2013GB102000)

  4. A Study on Symbolic Images of land in Desire under the Elms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜曼丽; 刘寒冰

    2014-01-01

    奥尼尔在《榆树下的欲望》中不仅以现实生活为蓝本,更揉入了许多寓意深刻的象征成分。本论文从象征主义的表现手法方面分析欣赏奥尼尔的著名悲剧《榆树下的欲望》,主要对作品中土地的象征意象进行了分析研究。%Eugene O’Neil ’s Desire under the Elms reveals a tragedy of spiritual and survival desire of human being.O’Neil adopt the symbolic techniques to disclose cruelty of real life in the play.The thesis wil analyze and appreciate Desire under the Elms from symbolic images of land to highlight the destructive power of improper desires in Desire under the Elms.

  5. Coupled Kinetic-MHD Simulations of Divertor Heat Load with ELM Perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Julian; Chang, C. S.; Park, Gunyoung; Sugiyama, Linda; Pankin, Alexei; Klasky, Scott; Podhorszki, Norbert; Docan, Ciprian; Parashar, Manish

    2010-11-01

    The effect of Type-I ELM activity on divertor plate heat load is a key component of the DOE OFES Joint Research Target milestones for this year. In this talk, we present simulations of kinetic edge physics, ELM activity, and the associated divertor heat loads in which we couple the discrete guiding-center neoclassical transport code XGC0 with the nonlinear extended MHD code M3D using the End-to-end Framework for Fusion Integrated Simulations, or EFFIS. In these coupled simulations, the kinetic code and the MHD code run concurrently on the same massively parallel platform and periodic data exchanges are performed using a memory-to-memory coupling technology provided by EFFIS. The M3D code models the fast ELM event and sends frequent updates of the magnetic field perturbations and electrostatic potential to XGC0, which in turn tracks particle dynamics under the influence of these perturbations and collects divertor particle and energy flux statistics. We describe here how EFFIS technologies facilitate these coupled simulations and discuss results for DIII-D, NSTX and Alcator C-Mod tokamak discharges.

  6. THE HYDROGEN-FUELLED INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES FOR MARINE APPLICATIONS WITH A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim S. Seddiek

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern marine power plants have been designed to improve the overall ship’s efficiency. This pushed the designers of marine machinery to search for unconventional fuels for these plants. During the previous years, diesel oil has been extensively used on-board ships. Due to the high price of light diesel oil and the environmental problems resulting from the use of heavy fuel oil, it has become necessary to search for an alternative to traditional fuels. As a result, natural gas fuel has been used on-board some types of ships, especially short-voyage cruise ships. Unfortunately, there are still some technical and logistic problems related to the use of natural gas as a fuel, especially as it is considered a non-renewable energy source. The use of hydrogen fuel on-board ships, particularly in modern power plants may contribute to overcoming the above problems. The present paper considers the possibility of the use of hydrogen fuel for marine applications and discusses different stages of hydrogen gas cycle beginning with hydrogen generation process from clean energy until using it as fuel for internal combustion engines on-board one RO/RO ship, named Taba, operating in the Mediterranean Sea. Compared to the diesel engine, the hydrogen fuelled engine is found to be lower in thermal efficiency and fuel consumption, however, some adjustments are needed.

  7. Bioethanol/gasoline blends for fuelling conventional and hybrid scooter. Regulated and unregulated exhaust emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costagliola, Maria Antonietta; Prati, Maria Vittoria; Murena, Fabio

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this experimental activity was to evaluate the influence of ethanol fuel on the pollutant emissions measured at the exhaust of a conventional and a hybrid scooter. Both scooters are 4-stroke, 125 cm3 of engine capacity and Euro 3 compliant. They were tested on chassis dynamometer for measuring gaseous emissions of CO, HC, NOx, CO2 and some toxic micro organic pollutants, such as benzene, 1,3-butadiene, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. The fuel consumption was estimated throughout a carbon balance on the exhaust species. Moreover, total particles number with diameter between 20 nm up to 1 μm was measured. Worldwide and European test cycles were carried out with both scooters fuelled with gasoline and ethanol/gasoline blends (10/90, 20/80 and 30/70% vol). According to the experimental results relative to both scooter technologies, the addiction of ethanol in gasoline reduces CO and particles number emissions. The combustion of conventional scooter becomes unstable when a percentage of 30%v of bioethanol is fed; as consequence a strong increasing of hydrocarbon is monitored, including carcinogenic species. The negative effects of ethanol fuel are related to the increasing of fuel consumption due to the less carbon content for volume unit and to the increasing of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde due to the higher oxygen availability. Almost 70% of Ozone Formation Potential is covered by alkenes and aromatics.

  8. Effects of gas types and models on optimized gas fuelling station reservoir's pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Farzaneh-Gord

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There are similar algorithms and infrastructure for storing gas fuels at CNG (Compressed Natural Gas and CHG (Compressed Hydrogen Gas fuelling stations. In these stations, the fuels are usually stored in the cascade storage system to utilize the stations more efficiently. The cascade storage system generally divides into three reservoirs, commonly termed low, medium and high-pressure reservoirs. The pressures within these reservoirs have huge effects on performance of the stations. In the current study, based on the laws of thermodynamics, conservation of mass and real/ideal gas assumptions, a theoretical analysis has been constructed to study the effects of gas types and models on performance of the stations. It is intended to determine the optimized reservoir pressures for these stations. The results reveal that the optimized pressure differs between the gas types. For ideal and real gas models in both stations (CNG and CHG, the optimized non-dimensional low pressure-reservoir pressure is found to be 0.22. The optimized non-dimensional medium-pressure reservoir pressure is the same for the stations, and equal to 0.58.

  9. Performance evaluation of common rail direct injection (CRDI engine fuelled with Uppage Oil Methyl Ester (UOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Basavarajappa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available For economic and social development of any country energy is one of the most essential requirements. Continuously increasing price of crude petroleum fuels in the present days coupled with alarming emissions and stringent emission regulations has led to growing attention towards use of alternative fuels like vegetable oils, alcoholic and gaseous fuels for diesel engine applications. Use of such fuels can ease the burden on the economy by curtailing the fuel imports. Diesel engines are highly efficient and the main problems associated with them is their high smoke and NOx emissions. Hence there is an urgent need to promote the use of alternative fuels in place of high speed diesel (HSD as substitute. India has a large agriculture base that can be used as a feed stock to obtain newer fuel which is renewable and sustainable. Accordingly Uppage oil methyl ester (UOME biodiesel was selected as an alternative fuel. Use of biodiesels in diesel engines fitted with mechanical fuel injection systems has limitation on the injector opening pressure (300 bar. CRDI system can overcome this drawback by injecting fuel at very high pressures (1500-2500 bar and is most suitable for biodiesel fuels which are high viscous. This paper presents the performance and emission characteristics of a CRDI diesel engine fuelled with UOME biodiesel at different injection timings and injection pressures. From the experimental evidence it was revealed that UOME biodiesel yielded overall better performance with reduced emissions at retarded injection timing of -10° BTDC in CRDI mode of engine operation.

  10. Emissions from Road Vehicles Fuelled by Fischer Tropsch Based Diesel and Gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, U.; Lundorf, P.; Ivarsson, A.; Schramm, J. [Technical University of Denmark (Denmark); Rehnlund, B. [Atrax Energi AB (Sweden); Blinge, M. [The Swedish Transport Institute (Sweden)

    2006-11-15

    The described results were carried out under the umbrella of IEA Advanced Motor Fuels Agreement. The purpose was to evaluate the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from vehicles fuelled by Fischer Tropsch (FT) based diesel and gasoline fuel, compared to the emissions from ordinary diesel and gasoline. The comparison for diesel fuels was based on a literature review, whereas the gasoline comparison had to be based on our own experiments, since almost no references were found in this field. In this context measurement according to the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) and the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) were carried out on a chassis dynamometer with a directly injected gasoline vehicle. Experiments were carried out with a reference fuel, a fuel based 70% on FT and an alkylate fuel (Aspen), which was supposed to be very similar, in many ways, to FT fuel. FT based diesel generally showed good emission performance, whereas the FT based gasoline not necessary lead to lower emissions. On the other hand, the Aspen fuel did show many advantages for the emissions from the gasoline vehicle.

  11. Emissions from Road Vehicles Fuelled by Fischer Tropsch Based Diesel and Gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, U.; Lundorf, P.; Ivarsson, A.; Schramm, J. [Technical University of Denmark (Denmark); Rehnlund, B. [Atrax Energi AB (Sweden); Blinge, M. [The Swedish Transport Institute (Sweden)

    2006-11-15

    The described results were carried out under the umbrella of IEA Advanced Motor Fuels Agreement. The purpose was to evaluate the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from vehicles fuelled by Fischer Tropsch (FT) based diesel and gasoline fuel, compared to the emissions from ordinary diesel and gasoline. The comparison for diesel fuels was based on a literature review, whereas the gasoline comparison had to be based on our own experiments, since almost no references were found in this field. In this context measurement according to the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) and the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) were carried out on a chassis dynamometer with a directly injected gasoline vehicle. Experiments were carried out with a reference fuel, a fuel based 70% on FT and an alkylate fuel (Aspen), which was supposed to be very similar, in many ways, to FT fuel. FT based diesel generally showed good emission performance, whereas the FT based gasoline not necessary lead to lower emissions. On the other hand, the Aspen fuel did show many advantages for the emissions from the gasoline vehicle.

  12. Tracing the origin of the AGN fuelling reservoir in MCG--6-30-15

    CERN Document Server

    Raimundo, S I; Canning, R E A; Celotti, A; Fabian, A C; Gandhi, P

    2016-01-01

    The active galaxy MCG--6-30-15 has a 400 pc diameter stellar kinematically distinct core, counter-rotating with respect to the main body of the galaxy. Our previous high spatial resolution (0".1) H-band observations of this galaxy mapped the stellar kinematics and [Fe II] 1.64 {\\mu}m gas dynamics though mainly restricted to the spatial region of the counter-rotating core. In this work we probe the stellar kinematics on a larger field-of-view and determine the ionised and molecular gas dynamics to study the formation of the counter-rotating core and the implications for AGN fuelling. We present integral field spectroscopy observations with SINFONI in the H and K-bands in the central 1.2 kpc and with VIMOS HR-blue in the central 4 kpc of the galaxy. Ionised gas outflows of v ~ 100 km/s are traced by the [Ca VIII] 2.32 {\\mu}m coronal line and extend out to at least a radius of r ~ 140 pc. The molecular gas, traced by the H2 2.12 {\\mu}m emission is also counter rotating with respect to the main body of the galaxy...

  13. PERFORMANCE AND EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS OF CI ENGINE FUELLED WITH NON EDIBLE VEGETABLE OIL AND DIESEL BLENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. ELANGO

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine which is fuelled with different blends of jatropha oil and diesel (10–50%. A single cylinder four stroke diesel engine was used for the experiments at various loads and speed of 1500 rpm. An AVL 5 gas analyzer and a smoke meter were used for the measurements of exhaust gas emissions. Engine performance (specific fuel consumption SFC, brake thermal efficiency, and exhaust gas temperature and emissions (HC, CO, CO2, NOx and Smoke Opacity were measured to evaluate and compute the behaviour of the diesel engine running on biodiesel. The results showed that the brake thermal efficiency of diesel is higher at all loads. Among the blends maximum brake thermal efficiency and minimum specific fuel consumption were found for blends upto 20% Jatropha oil. The specific fuel consumption of the blend having 20% Jatropha oil and 80% diesel (B20 was found to be comparable with the conventional diesel. The optimum blend is found to be B20 as the CO2 emissions were lesser than diesel while decrease in brake thermal efficiency is marginal.

  14. PM, carbon, and PAH emissions from a diesel generator fuelled with soy-biodiesel blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jen-Hsiung; Chen, Shui-Jen; Huang, Kuo-Lin; Lin, Yuan-Chung; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Lin, Chih-Chung; Lin, Wen-Yinn

    2010-07-15

    Biodiesels have received increasing attention as alternative fuels for diesel engines and generators. This study investigates the emissions of particulate matter (PM), total carbon (TC), e.g., organic/elemental carbons, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from a diesel generator fuelled with soy-biodiesel blends. Among the tested diesel blends (B0, B10 (10 vol% soy-biodiesel), B20, and B50), B20 exhibited the lowest PM emission concentration despite the loads (except the 5 kW case), whereas B10 displayed lower PM emission factors when operating at 0 and 10 kW than the other fuel blends. The emission concentrations or factors of EC, OC, and TC were the lowest when B10 or B20 was used regardless of the loading. Under all tested loads, the average concentrations of total-PAHs emitted from the generator using the B10 and B20 were lower (by 38% and 28%, respectively) than those using pure petroleum diesel fuel (B0), while the emission factors of total-PAHs decreased with an increasing ratio of biodiesel to premium diesel. With an increasing loading, although the brake specific fuel consumption decreased, the energy efficiency increased despite the bio/petroleum diesel ratio. Therefore, soy-biodiesel is promising for use as an alternative fuel for diesel generators to increase energy efficiency and reduce the PM, carbon, and PAH emissions.

  15. Thermal instabilities in cooling galactic coronae: fuelling star formation in galactic discs

    CERN Document Server

    Hobbs, Alexander; Power, Chris; Cole, David

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the means by which cold gas can accrete onto Milky Way mass galaxies from a hot corona of gas, using a new smoothed particle hydrodynamics code, 'SPHS'. We find that the 'cold clumps' seen in many classic SPH simulations in the literature are not present in our SPHS simulations. Instead, cold gas condenses from the halo along filaments that form at the intersection of supernovae-driven bubbles from previous phases of star formation. This positive feedback feeds cold gas to the galactic disc directly, fuelling further star formation. The resulting galaxies in the SPH and SPHS simulations differ greatly in their morphology, gas phase diagrams, and stellar content. We show that the classic SPH cold clumps owe to a numerical thermal instability caused by an inability for cold gas to mix in the hot halo. The improved treatment of mixing in SPHS suppresses this instability leading to a dramatically different physical outcome. In our highest resolution SPHS simulation, we find that the cold filaments ...

  16. Particulate Matter Emission from Dual Fuel Diesel Engine Fuelled with Natural Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelmasiak Zdzisław

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of examination of particulate matter emission from the Diesel engine FPT 1.3 MJT simultaneously fuelled with diesel oil and natural gas CNG. The basic premise for engine adaptation was the addition of a small amount of CNG to reduce exhaust gas opacity and particulate matter emission. At this assumption, diesel oil remained the basic fuel, with contribution amounting to 0,70-0,85 of total energy delivered to the engine. The dual fuel engine was examined using an original controller installed in the Diesel engine FPT 1.3 MJT which controlled the diesel fuel dose. The dose of the injected natural gas was controlled by changing the opening time of gas injectors at constant pressure in the gas collector. The examined issues included the exhaust gas opacity, and the total number and fractional distribution of the emitted particles. The measurements were performed at twenty selected measuring points corresponding to the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC test. The performed tests have demonstrated a positive effect of gas addition on exhaust gas opacity and particulate matter emission. Depending on test conditions, the exhaust gas opacity was reduced by 10÷92%, and the total number of particles by 30÷40%. The performed tests have revealed that a small addition of gas can reduce the load of the DPF filter, extend its lifetime, and increase engine reliability. Longer time intervals between successive DPF filter regenerations improve ecological properties of the engine.

  17. ANALYSIS OF OPERATING PARAMETERS AND INDICATORS OF A COMPRESSION IGNITION ENGINE FUELLED WITH LPG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof GARBALA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the possibilities for using alternative fuels to power vehicles equipped with compression ignition (CI engines (diesel. Systems for using such fuels have been discussed. Detailed analysis and research covered the LPG STAG autogas system, which is used to power dual-fuel engine units (LPG+diesel. A description of the operation of the autogas system and installation in a vehicle has been presented. The basic algorithms of the controller, which is an actuating element of the whole system, have been discussed. Protection systems of a serial production engine unit to guarantee its factorycontrolled durability standards have been presented. A long-distance test drive and examinations of the engine over 150,000 km in a Toyota Hilux have been performed. Operating parameters and performance indicators of the engine with STAG LPG+diesel fuelling have been verified. Directions and perspectives for the further development of such a system in diesel-powered cars have been also indicated.

  18. Emission of a compression ignition engine fuelled by diesel and imitated syngas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahgoub, Bahaaddein Kamal M.; Sulaiman, S. A.; Karim, Zainal Ambri B. A.

    2012-06-01

    Biomass can be converted into a useful source of energy through gasification. The gasification product, known as synthesis gas or syngas, composition of syngas may fluctuate due to many factors such as operational errors of the gasifier as well as the type of feedstock used or may be due to the feeding rate fluctuation. Therefore it would be difficult to assess the effect of syngas composition and diesel replacement ratio to the emission when combusted in dual fuel syngas - diesel compression ignition engine. In order to overcome this problem controllable composition and conditions of imitated syngas was used in this study by selective three compositions of syngas close to the real conditions. The objective of this study is to determine the exhaust emissions of a compression ignition engine fuelled with diesel and imitated syngas at different compositions and diesel replacement ratios to determine the most appropriate composition of syngas and diesel replacement ratio which will give less emission. The test results on syngas emission are compared with the results of diesel. CO2 and NOX emission level was reduced on syngas dual fuel mode, but there were increases in CO and THC emissions throughout all syngas compositions examined due to poor combustion efficiency of dual fuel operation.

  19. Developing a Knock Predictive Criterion in Spark Ignition Engines Fuelled with Gaseous Fuels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.A.Karim

    1993-01-01

    Consideration of the chemical reaction activity of the end gas in a spark ignition and operating conditions are combined to predict the onset of knock and associated performance in an engine fuelled with methane.A two-zone predictive combustion model was developed based on an estimate of the effective duration of the combustion period and the mass burning rate for any set of operating conditions.The unburned end gas preignition chemical reaction activity is described by a detailed chemical reaction kinetic scheme for methane and air,The variation with time of the value of a formulated dimensionless knock parameter(k)is calcuated.It is shown that whenever knocking is encounteren.the value of “k” builds up to a sufficiently high value that exceeds a critical value.Under normal operating conditions,the value of “k” remains throughout the whole combustion period at comparatively very low levels.It is shown that the model and the use of this knock criterion“k” produce results that are in good agreement with experiment.

  20. Particle emission from heavy-duty engine fuelled with blended diesel and biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Leila Droprinchinski; da Silva Júnior, Carlos Roberto; Solci, Maria Cristina; Pinto, Jurandir Pereira; Souza, Davi Zacarias; Vasconcellos, Pérola; Guarieiro, Aline Lefol Nani; Guarieiro, Lílian Lefol Nani; Sousa, Eliane Teixeira; de Andrade, Jailson B

    2012-05-01

    In this study, particulate matter (PM) were characterized from a place impacted by heavy-duty vehicles (Bus Station) fuelled with diesel/biodiesel fuel blend (B3) in the city of Londrina, Brazil. Sixteen priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) concentrations were analyzed in the samples by their association with atmospheric PM, mass size distributions and major ions (fluorite, chloride, bromide, nitrate, phosphate, sulfate, nitrite, oxalate; fumarate, formate, succinate and acetate; lithium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium and ammonium). Results indicate that major ions represented 21.2% particulate matter mass. Nitrate, sulfate, and ammonium, respectively, presented the highest concentration levels, indicating that biodiesel may also be a significant source for these ions, especially nitrate. Dibenzo[a,h]anthracene and indeno[1,2,3,-cd]pyrene were the main PAH found, and a higher fraction of PAH particles was found in diameters lower than 0.25 μm in Londrina bus station. The fine and ultrafine particles were dominant among the PM evaluated, suggesting that biodiesel decreases the total PAH emission. However, it does also increase the fraction of fine and ultrafine particles when compared to diesel.

  1. Ozone depletion in the plume of a solid-fuelled rocket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. C. Krüger

    Full Text Available The local effects of the emission of a solid-fuelled rocket on the stratospheric ozone concentration have been investigated by photochemical model calculations. A one-dimensional horizontal model has been applied which calculates the trace gas composition at a single atmospheric altitude spatially resolved around the exhaust plume. Different cases were tested for the emissions of the Space Shuttle concerning the composition of the exhaust and the effects of heterogeneous reactions on atmospheric background aerosol.

    The strongest depletion of ozone is achieved when a high amount of the emitted chlorine is Cl2. If it is purely HCl, the effect is smallest, though in this case the heterogeneous reactions show their largest influence. From the results it may be estimated whether ozone depletion caused by rocket launches can be detected by satellite instruments. It appears that the chance of coincidental detection of such an event is rather small.

  2. The Stability of Lubricant Oil Acidity of Biogas Fuelled Engine due to Biogas Desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gde Tirta Nindhia, Tjokorda; Wayan Surata, I.; Wardana, Ari

    2017-05-01

    This research is established for the purpose of the understanding the stability of the acidity of lubricant oil in biogas fuelled engine due to the absence of hydrogen sulfide (H2S). As was recognized that other than Methane (CH4), there are also other gas impurities in the biogas such as carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), moisture (H2O) and ammonia (NH3). Due to H2S contents in the biogas fuel, the engine was found failure. This is caused by corrosion in the combustion chamber due to increase of lubricant acidity. To overcome this problem in practical, the lubricant is increased the pH to basic level with the hope will be decrease to normal value after several time use. Other method is by installing pH measurement sensor in the engine lubricant so that when lubricant is known turn to be acid, then lubricant replacement should be done. In this research, the effect of biogas desulfurization down to zero level to the acidity of lubricant oil in the four stroke engine was carried out with the hope that neutral lubrication oil to be available during running the engine. The result indicates that by eliminating H2S due desulfurization process, effect on stability and neutrality of pH lubricant. By this method the engine safety can be obtained without often replacement the lubricant oil.

  3. A supersonic gas injection system for fuelling and probing fusion plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collis, Scott [Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Howard, John [Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Blackwell, Boyd [Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Carlsson, Peter [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteburg (Sweden); Abelsson, Mattias [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteburg (Sweden); Powell, Ben [Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2006-11-01

    The large gas reservoir surrounding the H-1NF plasma leads to difficulties in achieving the density control required to maximize the plasma temperature. We have designed and tested an alternative fuelling system which uses a double conical nozzle to generate a directed flow of particles into the plasma without adding to the gas inventory in the rest of the vacuum vessel. By using a closed plenum at a programmable pressure and a piezo-electric valve, the particle flux can be dynamically changed in a controlled and quantitative manner. Measurements of the gas jet using constant temperature hot wire anemometry show that, for plenum pressures between 500 and 1000 Torr, the particle injection rate (helium) ranges between 2 x 10{sup 20} and 4 x 10{sup 20} s{sup -1} with half-cone angles between 5 deg. and 20 deg. The system has been installed on the H-1NF device and first plasma results indicate localized gas injection consistent with test tank anemometry measurements.

  4. Evaluation of the use of bioethanol fuelled buses based on ambient air pollution screening and on-road measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Aparicio, S; Hak, C

    2013-05-01

    Mitigation measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions may have adverse effects on urban air quality and human exposure to harmful pollutants. The use of bioethanol fuelled vehicles is increasing worldwide and may create new undesired pollution effects. Different measurement campaigns were performed in a pilot study to contribute to the understanding of the consequences associated with the use of bioethanol blended fuel (E95) on a series of pollutants. Ambient screening measurements of NO2, O3, acetic acid, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were performed at different urban locations, exposed and not exposed to the circulation of bioethanol buses. In addition, volatile organic compounds were measured at the exhaust pipe of a bioethanol fuelled bus, both under idling conditions (carbonyls; DNPH cartridge) and under on-road driving conditions applying online monitoring (PTR-TOF). Higher ambient acetaldehyde values were measured at locations exposed to bioethanol fuelled buses than at locations not exposed, and very high acetaldehyde and acetic acid values were measured from the exhaust pipe during driving conditions (acetaldehyde>150 ppm; acetic acid ≈ 20-30 ppm) and modelled at close distance to the bioethanol bus. Human exposure to high concentration of acetaldehyde is expected, and it may involve a significantly increased chance in developing cancer. The high concentration of acetic acid will involve odour annoyance and significant material degradation or corrosion.

  5. A centre-triggered magnesium fuelled cathodic arc thruster uses sublimation to deliver a record high specific impulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Patrick R. C.; Bilek, Marcela; McKenzie, David R.

    2016-08-01

    The cathodic arc is a high current, low voltage discharge that operates in vacuum and provides a stream of highly ionised plasma from a solid conducting cathode. The high ion velocities, together with the high ionisation fraction and the quasineutrality of the exhaust stream, make the cathodic arc an attractive plasma source for spacecraft propulsion applications. The specific impulse of the cathodic arc thruster is substantially increased when the emission of neutral species is reduced. Here, we demonstrate a reduction of neutral emission by exploiting sublimation in cathode spots and enhanced ionisation of the plasma in short, high-current pulses. This, combined with the enhanced directionality due to the efficient erosion profiles created by centre-triggering, substantially increases the specific impulse. We present experimentally measured specific impulses and jet power efficiencies for titanium and magnesium fuels. Our Mg fuelled source provides the highest reported specific impulse for a gridless ion thruster and is competitive with all flight rated ion thrusters. We present a model based on cathode sublimation and melting at the cathodic arc spot explaining the outstanding performance of the Mg fuelled source. A further significant advantage of an Mg-fuelled thruster is the abundance of Mg in asteroidal material and in space junk, providing an opportunity for utilising these resources in space.

  6. Galaxy pairs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey - XII: The fuelling mechanism of low excitation radio-loud AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Ellison, Sara L; Hickox, Ryan C

    2015-01-01

    We investigate whether the fuelling of low excitation radio galaxies (LERGs) is linked to major galaxy interactions. Our study utilizes a sample of 10,800 spectroscopic galaxy pairs and 97 post-mergers selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey with matches to multi-wavelength datasets. The LERG fraction amongst interacting galaxies is a factor of 3.5 higher than that of a control sample matched in local galaxy density, redshift and stellar mass. However, the LERG excess in pairs does not depend on projected separation and remains elevated out to at least 500 kpc, suggesting that major mergers are not their main fuelling channel. In order to identify the primary fuelling mechanism of LERGs, we compile samples of control galaxies that are matched in various host galaxy and environmental properties. The LERG excess is reduced, but not completely removed, when halo mass or D4000 are included in the matching parameters. However, when BOTH M_halo and D4000 are matched, there is no LERG excess and the 1.4 GHz lumin...

  7. Enact legislation supporting residential property assessed clean energy financing (PACE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Devashree

    2012-11-15

    Congress should enact legislation that supports residential property assessed clean energy (PACE) programs in the nation’s states and metropolitan areas. Such legislation should require the Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA) to allow Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac to purchase residential mortgages with PACE assessments while at the same time providing responsible underwriting standards and a set of benchmarks for residential PACE assessments in order to minimize financial risks to mortgage holders. Congressional support of residential PACE financing will improve energy efficiency, encourage job creation, and foster economic growth in the nation’s state and metropolitan areas.

  8. Dendrometric, phytopathological and entomological characteristics of a wych elm tree on mt. Goč

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medarević Milan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Valuable broadleaves, including also wych elms, belong to the category of rare tree species in the growing stock of Serbia. The conservation of Serbian forest diversity and the genetic potential of these tree species require a multidisciplinary study. In this respect, we undertook a dendrometric and health analysis of a wych elm tree on Goč, as it is a rarity by its dimensions, not only from the local, but also from the regional aspects. The tree is 266 years old, its diameter at breast height is 2.09 m, height 42.1 m, and volume (d>3 cm 56.35 m3. Current height increment culminated early, at the age of 20-30 years, attaining 0.5 m, and current diameter increment at the age of 40-50 years when its value was 14.4 mm. The above data point to a high productivity of this elm tree and to favourable site and stand conditions of its development. On the other hand, its current diameter increment and height over the last period (1.7 mm, and 0.03 m respectively indicate that the tree was in the phase of physiological dying. 10 species of fungi were identified on the tree (facultative parasites or saprophytes, the most significant being Armillaria mellea and Aurantioporus fissilis, which caused central heartwood decay. Other fungi developed saprophytically in the dead part of the stem or in dead branches. Eight insect species (secondary and tertiary pests were identified, including the two most dangerous elm beetles (Scolytus scolytus and S. multistriatus. Together with the species Saperda punctata and Cerambyx scopolii, they accelerated the dying process of twigs and branches, as well as of the whole tree. Ambrosia beetle Xyleborus monographus infested the stem and the large dead branches and caused minor technical damage in wood. The species Dorcus paralelopipedus, Oryctes nasicornis and Valgus hemipterus supported the faster progress of wood-rotting fungi and thus contributed to physiological weakening and shortened the life cycle of the study elm tree.

  9. Fuelling fortress America : a report on the Athabasca Tar Sands and U.S. demands for Canada's energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCullum, H.

    2006-07-01

    The economic, ecological, and social costs at stake in developing the Athabasca tar sands were examined in order to stimulate public discussion, debate, and action towards a new made-in-Canada energy policy and strategy. The report is organized according to five lines of inquiry. It first looks at the United States empire and its demands for energy security. This includes the growing dependence of the United States on foreign oil; how Canada exports its oil and natural gas to the U.S.; the growth and threat of China's energy needs; and how this relates to the global depletion of fossil fuels and Canada's future energy security. The report also looks at the role that Canada plays as a United States energy satellite. Topics that are covered include the nature and scope of the Athabasca tar sands as a major source of oil; the existing projects and rapidly growing developments; the kind of extraction processes used; the energy intensity of the process and the role played by natural gas; the proposed Mackenzie Valley pipeline to bring gas from the High Arctic; and, the emerging continental energy corridor. In addition, the report examines the environmental costs of this new energy corridor and looks at the fuelling of the United States military-industrial complex. Last, the report discusses the social impacts of the tar sands and pipeline including how the fast pace of development combines with a lack of vision or industrial strategy in Alberta; the issue of royalties and financing social needs; the moves to use non-unionized and cheap foreign labour in the tar sands projects; and the impacts on First Nations. The report concludes with a set of recommendations on what needs to be done to stimulate new policies and strategies on three fronts including further development of the Athabasca tar sands and the construction of the accompanying Mackenzie Valley and Alaska natural gas pipelines; a made-in-Canada national energy policy and strategy; and, short- and long

  10. Effect of atrial pacing therapy with selective pacing algorithms on paroxysmal atrial fibrillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘晓宏; 张雪华; 徐耕; 傅国胜; 单江

    2004-01-01

    @@ Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia among the elderly. Its incidence increases dramatically with increasing age and decreasing left ventricular function, peaking in subjects with overt congestive heart failure.1 Because of the unsatisfactory efficacy and possible serious side effects of clinically available anti-AF drugs for AF patients with sick sinus syndrome, pacing techniques have recently been applied in the treatment of AF. The cardiac pacemaker Vitatron Selection 900E has special AF diagnostic and prophylactic therapy algorithms. The objective of this study was to use the diagnostic information concerning the onset mechanisms of AF to program the preventive pacing algorithms for each patient individually and to find out whether a reduction in AF burden could be achieved.

  11. Far field pacing supersedes anti-tachycardia pacing in a generic model of excitable media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bittihn, Philip; Parlitz, Ulrich [Drittes Physikalisches Institut, Goettingen University, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Goettingen (Germany); Luther, Gisela; Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Krinsky, Valentin; Luther, Stefan [Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization, Bunsenstrasse 10, 37073 Goettingen (Germany)], E-mail: bittihn@physik3.gwdg.de

    2008-10-15

    Removing anchored spirals from obstacles is an important step in terminating cardiac arrhythmia. Conventional anti-tachycardia pacing (ATP) has this ability, but only under very restrictive conditions. In a generic model of excitable media, we demonstrate that for unpinning spiral waves from obstacles this profound limitation of ATP can be overcome by far field pacing (FFP). More specifically, an argument is presented for why FFP includes and thus can only extend the capabilities of ATP in the configurations considered. By numerical simulations, we show that in the model there exists a parameter region in which unpinning is possible by FFP but not by ATP. The relevance of this result regarding clinical applications is discussed.

  12. COMBUSTION AND PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF A SMALL SPARK IGNITION ENGINE FUELLED WITH HCNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. SONTHALIA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to environmental concerns and fossil fuel depletion, large scale researches were carried out involving the use of natural gas in internal combustion engines. Natural gas is a clean burning fuel that is available from large domestic natural reserve. When it is used as a fuel in SI engines, it reduces emissions to meet EURO-III norms with carburettors and EURO-IV norms with manifold injection. Countries like India with fewer natural fossil fuel reserves depend heavily on oil imported from Middle East Asian countries and on the other hand combustion of fossil fuel has negative impact on air quality in urban areas. Use of CNG as a fuel in internal combustion engines can reduce the intensiveness of these pervasive problems. The performance of CNG can further be improved by addition of small percentages of hydrogen to it to overcome the drawbacks like lower energy density of the fuel, drop in engine power and engine out exhaust emissions. When hydrogen is added to CNG it is called as Hythane or Hydrogen enriched Compressed Natural Gas (HCNG. This can be considered as a first step towards promotion of hydrogen in automobiles. In this study, the effects of mixing hydrogen with CNG on a small air cooled four stroke SI engine’s performance, emissions and heat release rate was analyzed. A comparison of performance and emission by running engine separately on gasoline, hydrogen, CNG and HCNG was done. The results show a significant decrease in HC, CO and NOx emissions and marginal increase in specific energy consumption when fuelled with HCNG.

  13. Performance evaluation of common rail direct injection (CRDI engine fuelled with Uppage Oil Methyl Ester (UOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Basavarajappa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available For economic and social development of any country energy is one of the most essential requirements. Continuously increasing price of crude petroleum fuels in the present days coupled with alarming emissions and stringent emission regulations has led to growing attention towards use of alternative fuels like vegetable oils, alcoholic and gaseous fuels for diesel engine applications. Use of such fuels can ease the burden on the economy by curtailing the fuel imports. Diesel engines are highly efficient and the main problems associated with them is their high smoke and NOx emissions.  Hence there is an urgent need to promote the use of alternative fuels in place of high speed diesel (HSD as substitute. India has a large agriculture base that can be used as a feed stock to obtain newer fuel which is renewable and sustainable. Accordingly Uppage oil methyl ester (UOME biodiesel was selected as an alternative fuel. Use of biodiesels in diesel engines fitted with mechanical fuel injection systems has limitation on the injector opening pressure (300 bar. CRDI system can overcome this drawback by injecting fuel at very high pressures (1500-2500 bar and is most suitable for biodiesel fuels which are high viscous. This paper presents the performance and emission characteristics of a CRDI diesel engine fuelled with UOME biodiesel at different injection timings and injection pressures. From the experimental evidence it was revealed that UOME biodiesel yielded overall better performance with reduced emissions at retarded injection timing of -10° BTDC in CRDI mode of engine operation.

  14. Development and test of a new catalytic converter for natural gas fuelled engine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M A Kalam; H H Masjuki; M Redzuan; T M I Mahlia; M A Fuad; M Mohibah; K H Halim; A Ishak; M Khair; A Shahrir; A Yusoff

    2009-06-01

    This paper presents characteristics of a new catalytic converter (catco) to be used for natural gas fuelled engine. The catco were developed based on catalyst materials consisting of metal oxides such as titanium dioxide (TiO2) and cobalt oxide (CoO) with wire mesh substrate. Both of the catalyst materials (such as TiO2 and CoO) are inexpensive in comparison with conventional catalysts (noble metals) such as palladium or platinum. In addition, the noble metals such as platinum group metals are now identified as human health risk due to their rapid emissions in the environment from various resources like conventional catalytic converter, jewelers and other medical usages. It can be mentioned that the TiO2/CoO based catalytic converter and a new natural gas engine such as compressed natural gas (CNG) direct injection (DI) engine were developed under a research collaboration program. The original engine manufacture catalytic conveter (OEM catco) was tested for comparison purposes. The OEM catco was based on noble metal catalyst with honeycomb ceramic substrate. It is experimentally found that the conversion efficiencies of TiO2/CoO based catalytic converter are 93%, 89% and 82% for NOx, CO and HC emissions respectively. It is calculated that the TiO2/CoO based catalytic converter reduces 24%, 41% and 40% higher NOx, CO and HC emissions in comparison to OEM catco respectively. The objective of this paper is to develop a low-cost three way catalytic converter to be used with the newly developed CNG-DI engine. Detailed review on catalytic converter, low-cost catalytic converter development characteristics and CNGDI engine test results have been presented with discussions.

  15. PACE3 - front-end chip for the CMS Preshower

    CERN Multimedia

    Aspel, Paul

    2003-01-01

    This is PACE3 which is the front-end chip for the CMS Preshower. In fact PACE3 is the combination of two ASICs called Delta3 and PACEAM3. Delta3 is on the left and PACEAM3 is on the right. The two ASICs are bonded together and then packaged within a single 196 pin fpBGA package.

  16. Is Self-Paced Instruction Really Worth It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, J. A.; Crowe, C. T.

    1975-01-01

    Describes a self-paced, learning-for-mastery course in undergraduate fluid mechanics. Includes the method of course assessment, method of student evaluation, and a description of the instructor's role and work load. Summarizes aspects of self-paced instruction considered favorable and unfavorable. (GS)

  17. Inhibition of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis increases cell wall digestibility, protoplast isolation, and facilitates sustained cell division in American elm (Ulmus americana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones A Maxwell P

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protoplast technologies offer unique opportunities for fundamental research and to develop novel germplasm through somatic hybridization, organelle transfer, protoclonal variation, and direct insertion of DNA. Applying protoplast technologies to develop Dutch elm disease resistant American elms (Ulmus americana L. was proposed over 30 years ago, but has not been achieved. A primary factor restricting protoplast technology to American elm is the resistance of the cell walls to enzymatic degradation and a long lag phase prior to cell wall re-synthesis and cell division. Results This study suggests that resistance to enzymatic degradation in American elm was due to water soluble phenylpropanoids. Incubating tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. leaf tissue, an easily digestible species, in aqueous elm extract inhibits cell wall digestion in a dose dependent manner. This can be mimicked by p-coumaric or ferulic acid, phenylpropanoids known to re-enforce cell walls. Culturing American elm tissue in the presence of 2-aminoindane-2-phosphonic acid (AIP; 10-150 μM, an inhibitor of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL, reduced flavonoid content, decreased tissue browning, and increased isolation rates significantly from 11.8% (±3.27 in controls to 65.3% (±4.60. Protoplasts isolated from callus grown in 100 μM AIP developed cell walls by day 2, had a division rate of 28.5% (±3.59 by day 6, and proliferated into callus by day 14. Heterokaryons were successfully produced using electrofusion and fused protoplasts remained viable when embedded in agarose. Conclusions This study describes a novel approach of modifying phenylpropanoid biosynthesis to facilitate efficient protoplast isolation which has historically been problematic for American elm. This isolation system has facilitated recovery of viable protoplasts capable of rapid cell wall re-synthesis and sustained cell division to form callus. Further, isolated protoplasts survived

  18. A comparison of single-lead atrial pacing with dual-chamber pacing in sick sinus syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Cosedis; Thomsen, Poul Erik B; Højberg, Søren

    2011-01-01

    In patients with sick sinus syndrome, bradycardia can be treated with a single-lead pacemaker or a dual-chamber pacemaker. Previous trials have revealed that pacing modes preserving atrio-ventricular synchrony are superior to single-lead ventricular pacing, but it remains unclear if there is any ...

  19. Atrial-based pacing has no benefit over ventricular pacing in preventing atrial arrhythmias in adults with congenital heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opic, P.; Yap, S.C.; Kranenburg, M. van; Dijk, A.P.J. van; Budts, W.; Vliegen, H.W.; Erven, L. van; Can, A.; Sahin, G.; Groot, N.M. de; Witsenburg, M.; Roos-Hesselink, J.W.

    2013-01-01

    AIMS: To determine whether atrial-based pacing prevents atrial arrhythmias in adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) compared with ventricular pacing. METHODS AND RESULTS: All adult CHD patients from four participating centres with a permanent pacemaker were identified. Patients with permanent a

  20. Scientific Opinion on the pest categorisation of Elm phloem necrosis mycoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of Elm phloem necrosis mycoplasma, now renamed Candidatus Phytoplasma ulmi (CPu, for the European Union (EU territory. CPu is a well-defined phytoplasma species of the genus Candidatus Phytoplasma, for which molecular detection assays are available. CPu is transmitted by grafting and vegetative propagation material as well as by insect vectors. CPu is reported from North America and is present in at least four EU Member States: the Czech Republic, France, Germany and Italy. CPu distribution in Europe is suspected to be underestimated, with high uncertainty since no systematic surveys are carried out. CPu has a host range restricted to Ulmaceae species, and especially to the genus Ulmus, with some variations in susceptibility to the disease. It is listed in Annex IAI of Directive 2000/29/EC. CPu is not expected to be affected by EU ecoclimatic conditions wherever its hosts are present and has the potential to establish largely within the EU territory. Two insect vectors, Macropsis glandacea and Philaenus spumarius, are widely distributed in Europe. The uncertainty about other potential vector species, in which the phytoplasma has been detected, is considered as high. There is a lack of data to fully assess the potential consequences of the disease, with regards to the susceptibility of European elm species and virulence of European CPu strains. Data are not sufficient to reach a conclusion on pest categorisation of CPu and a full risk assessment can be conducted but is unlikely to bring any additional value unless the key additional data gaps on distribution, insect vectors, elm species susceptibility and potential consequences of the pest are filled.

  1. Synergistic effects of ELMs and steady state H and H/He irradiation on tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemahieu, Nathan, E-mail: n.lemahieu@fz-juelich.de [Institute for Energy and Climate Research, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41 B4, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Institute of Interfacial Process Engineering and Plasma Technology IGVP, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 31, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Greuner, Henri [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Linke, Jochen [Institute for Energy and Climate Research, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Maier, Hans [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Pintsuk, Gerald [Institute for Energy and Climate Research, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Van Oost, Guido [Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41 B4, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Wirtz, Marius [Institute for Energy and Climate Research, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Tungsten was first exposed to H or H/He fluxes and then to ELM-like transients. • The influence of particle exposure on the thermal shock behaviour was studied. • There was no deterioration of thermal shock behaviour compared to reference material. • Some combinations of loading conditions resulted in an improved material behaviour. - Abstract: To investigate synergistic effects of high heat flux loading on H and H/He loaded tungsten surfaces, specimens were exposed to a 30 keV steady-state H or H/He beam and subsequently loaded with an electron beam to simulate ELMs. The heat flux during the H and H/He loading was 10.5 MW m{sup −2}, while a 2 × 10{sup 25} m{sup −2} fluence was reached. After exposure, all specimens exhibited an altered surface morphology. The H/He samples with a surface temperature of 1000 °C and 1500 °C had a multitude of surface extrusions. Afterwards the particle loaded samples were exposed to 100 ELM-like pulses around the material's damage threshold. Transient heat fluxes of 190 MW m{sup −2} and 380 MW m{sup −2} were applied at room temperature and 400 °C for a duration of 1 ms. Post-mortem analysis showed no deterioration of thermal shock resistance in comparison with polished material. For some tests the reference specimens roughened or cracked while the H or H/He exposed material had no damage. The H-content and the H/He-induced cavities and/or extrusions are suggested as two potential causes for this change in material behaviour.

  2. Joule heating of the ITER TF cold structure: Effects of vertical control coil currents and ELMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radovinsky, A.; Pillsbury, R.D. Jr.

    1993-11-09

    The toroidal field coil and support structures for ITER are maintained at cryogenic temperatures. The time-varying currents in the poloidal field coil system will induce eddy currents in these structures. The associated Joule dissipation will cause local heating and require heat removal which will show up as a load on the cryogenic system. Studies of Joule heating of the ITER TF cold structure (TFCS) due to the currents in the poloidal field coil system are presented. The two regimes considered in this study are the plasma vertical stability control and the Edge Loss Mode (ELM) events. The 3-D, thin-shell, eddy current program, EDDYCUFF was used to analyze the eddy currents and Joule losses in the cold structure. The current versus time scenarios were defined. Four control coil options were studied. All schemes use coils external to the TF cold structure. Analyses of power depositions during the plasma vertical stability control were performed for each of the four options. For each of these options three different recovery times were assumed. The times were 3, 1, and 1/3 seconds. Sets of four sequential ELMs, as well as isolated ELMs have been studied for various sets of active PF coils. The results showed that the lowest average power dissipation in the TF cold structure occurs when a subset of PF2 and PF7 are active, and all the other PF coils are passive. The general conclusion is that to minimize power dissipation in the TF cold structure it is preferable that only coils PF2 and PF7 are active. The other coils (PF3-PF6) should be passive and driven by a condition of constant flux. It is recommended in particular, that coils PF3 and PF5 be allowed to change currents to conserve flux, since they provide the maximum shielding of the TFCS from the fields caused by the active coils.

  3. An Undergraduate Intern Program at PACES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starks, Scott A.

    1997-01-01

    The University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) established the Pan American Center for Earth and Environmental Studies (PACES) in 1995 to conduct basic and applied research that contributes to NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. Specifically, PACES provides a repository of remote sensing and other information that supports investigations into an improved understanding of geological, ecological and environmental processes occurring in the southwestern United States and Northern Mexico. Approximately 85% of UTEP's students come from El Paso County, a fast growing urban region representative of many large cities in the Southwest that have, or will soon have, a majority of their population composed of groups currently underrepresented in the scientific and technical workforce. UTEP's student population has an ethnic distribution (63% Hispanic, 32% Anglo, 3% African American, 1.5 % Asian American, and less than 1% Native American) that closely matches the demographics of the region it serves. Thus, UTEP has a mission to serve a multicultural population where minority students comprise the majority. Most Hispanic students at UTEP are primarily of Mexican origin. A large number are first or second-generation U.S. citizens. Characteristics that unite Hispanic students, in particular those of Mexican-origin, are a strong sense of family loyalty and a belief that all family members are responsible for contributing to the economic stability and well-being of the family. Most of their families are larger in number than the national average, and a variety of generations live together or share considerable resources. Thus, many young people feel an obligation and a desire to go to work at a young age and to continue working while in college, thereby assisting their parents and other family members. Older siblings understand that they have responsibilities to do household chores, to aid their younger siblings economically, and to assist elderly family members. This "work ethic" within the

  4. On the asymmetries of ELM divertor power deposition in JET and ASDEX Upgrade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eich, T.; Kallenbach, A.; Fundamenski, W.

    2009-01-01

    . The paper discusses a comparable simple extension of the model by introducing a non-zero characteristic velocity of the Maxwellian distributed particles. This way the experimentally observed temporal evolution as well as the in/out energy imbalance can be described. The extended model named free......An analytical expression was derived for describing the divertor target power during ELMs based on the model discussed in [W. Fundamenski, R.A. Pitts, Plasma Phys. Control. Fus. 48 (2006) 109] where the power load arises from a Maxwellian distribution of particles released into the SOL region...

  5. Characterizations of power loads on divertor targets for type-I, compound and small ELMs in the EAST superconducting tokamak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, L.; Xu, G.S.; Guo, H.Y.;

    2013-01-01

    -III ELMy H-modes. The energy loss and divertor power load are systematically characterized for these different ELMy H-modes to provide a physics basis for the next-step high-power long-pulse operations in EAST. Both type-I and compound ELMs exhibit good confinement (H98(y,2) ∼ 1). A significant loss...... is about 10 MW m−2, as determined from the divertor-embedded triple Langmuir probe system with high time resolution. As expected, type-III ELMs lead to much smaller divertor power loads with a peak heat flux of about 2 MW m−2. Peak power loads for compound ELMs are between those for type-I and type...

  6. Program ELM: A tool for rapid thermal-hydraulic analysis of solid-core nuclear rocket fuel elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, James T.

    1992-01-01

    This report reviews the state of the art of thermal-hydraulic analysis codes and presents a new code, Program ELM, for analysis of fuel elements. ELM is a concise computational tool for modeling the steady-state thermal-hydraulics of propellant flow through fuel element coolant channels in a nuclear thermal rocket reactor with axial coolant passages. The program was developed as a tool to swiftly evaluate various heat transfer coefficient and friction factor correlations generated for turbulent pipe flow with heat addition which have been used in previous programs. Thus, a consistent comparison of these correlations was performed, as well as a comparison with data from the NRX reactor experiments from the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Applications (NERVA) project. This report describes the ELM Program algorithm, input/output, and validation efforts and provides a listing of the code.

  7. Energy-optimisation of biogas-fuelled CHP units; Energetische Optimierung von Biogas-BHKW's

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soltic, P.; Edenhauser, D.; Winkler, A.

    2008-07-15

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal office of Energy (SFOE) reports on the energy-related optimisation of combined heat and power (CHP) units that are fuelled with non-processed biogas. Ways of increasing the efficiency of these units as far as the production of electricity is concerned are examined and commented on. Also, ways of using the heat generated by the CHP units to produce electricity using other, exergetic means are also described. Systems such as Stirling engines and existing and new thermo-electrical elements are discussed. The economic viability of the systems is also discussed.

  8. Altering embryonic cardiac dynamics with optical pacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, L M; McPheeters, M; Barwick, L; Gu, S; Rollins, A M; Jenkins, M W

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have shown that altering blood flow early in development leads to congenital heart defects. In these studies the perturbations to hemodynamics were very gross manipulations (vessel ligation, conotruncal banding, etc.) that would be inappropriate for probing the delicate mechanisms responsible for mechanically-transduced signaling. Also, these perturbations lacked feedback from a monitoring system to determine the exact degree of alteration and the location of its effect. Here, we employed optical pacing (OP) to alter the heart rate in quail embryos and optical coherence tomography (OCT) to measure the resultant shear forces on the endocardium. OP is a new technique utilizing pulsed 1.851 µm infrared laser light to noninvasively capture the heart rate to the pulse frequency of the laser without the use of exogenous agents. To measure shear stress on the endocardium, we extended our previous OCT algorithms to enable the production of 4-D shear maps. 4-D shear maps allowed observation of the spatial and temporal distribution of shear stress. Employing both OCT and OP, we were able to develop perturbation protocols that increase regurgitant flow and greatly modify the oscillatory shear index (OSI) in a region of the heart tube where future valves will develop. Regurgitant flow has been linked with valve development and precise perturbations may allow one to determine the role of hemodynamics in valvulogenesis.

  9. The evolution of pace in popular movies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutting, James E

    2016-01-01

    Movies have changed dramatically over the last 100 years. Several of these changes in popular English-language filmmaking practice are reflected in patterns of film style as distributed over the length of movies. In particular, arrangements of shot durations, motion, and luminance have altered and come to reflect aspects of the narrative form. Narrative form, on the other hand, appears to have been relatively unchanged over that time and is often characterized as having four more or less equal duration parts, sometimes called acts - setup, complication, development, and climax. The altered patterns in film style found here affect a movie's pace: increasing shot durations and decreasing motion in the setup, darkening across the complication and development followed by brightening across the climax, decreasing shot durations and increasing motion during the first part of the climax followed by increasing shot durations and decreasing motion at the end of the climax. Decreasing shot durations mean more cuts; more cuts mean potentially more saccades that drive attention; more motion also captures attention; and brighter and darker images are associated with positive and negative emotions. Coupled with narrative form, all of these may serve to increase the engagement of the movie viewer.

  10. Pushing the pace of tree species migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli D Lazarus

    Full Text Available Plants and animals have responded to past climate changes by migrating with habitable environments, sometimes shifting the boundaries of their geographic ranges by tens of kilometers per year or more. Species migrating in response to present climate conditions, however, must contend with landscapes fragmented by anthropogenic disturbance. We consider this problem in the context of wind-dispersed tree species. Mechanisms of long-distance seed dispersal make these species capable of rapid migration rates. Models of species-front migration suggest that even tree species with the capacity for long-distance dispersal will be unable to keep pace with future spatial changes in temperature gradients, exclusive of habitat fragmentation effects. Here we present a numerical model that captures the salient dynamics of migration by long-distance dispersal for a generic tree species. We then use the model to explore the possible effects of assisted colonization within a fragmented landscape under a simulated tree-planting scheme. Our results suggest that an assisted-colonization program could accelerate species-front migration rates enough to match the speed of climate change, but such a program would involve an environmental-sustainability intervention at a massive scale.

  11. A Review of Temporary Cardiac Pacing Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This review aims to tabulate data from all available studies of temporary cardiac pacing wires. Particular aims were to determine the best route of venous access and find ways to reduce complications. The review set out to see if specialist doctors are better at inserting wires than non-specialist doctors. In addition, a contemporary study of wire insertion has been performed to compare modern practice in the UK with the previous studies.Methods: A literature search produced 15 studies available for inclusion. Over 3700 patients from 1973 to 2004 were included. The data was tabulated and attention was given to the route of venous access, the complication rates and whether a specialist or non-specialist doctor had inserted the wire. Results: Internal jugular veins are associated with lowest complication rates and ease of access. Antecubital fossa veins have the highest complication rates. Complication rates are high, especially infections and failure to secure access. Specialist doctors have lower rates of complications than non-specialist doctors. Elderly patient suffer the highest complication rate. Our study showed comparable results to the previous studies.Conclusions: Internal jugular veins are the preferred route for access followed by subclavian and femoral veins. The right side should be used when possible. The use of antibiotics and ultrasound probes must be contemplated for all wire insertions. Alternatives to wire insertion (especially in the elderly must be seriously considered. Setting up an on-call rota would provide experienced doctors to reduce complication rates.

  12. The pace of aging: Intrinsic time scales in demography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Wrycza

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The pace of aging is a concept that captures the time-related aspect of aging. It formalizesthe idea of a characteristic life span or intrinsic population time scale. In the rapidly developing field of comparative biodemography, measures that account for inter-speciesdifferences in life span are needed to compare how species age. Objective: We aim to provide a mathematical foundation for the concept of pace. We derive desiredmathematical properties of pace measures and suggest candidates which satisfy these properties. Subsequently, we introduce the concept of pace-standardization, which reveals differences in demographic quantities that are not due to pace. Examples and consequences are discussed. Conclusions: Mean life span (i.e., life expectancy from birth or from maturity is intuitively appealing,theoretically justified, and the most appropriate measure of pace. Pace-standardizationprovides a serviceable method for comparative aging studies to explore differences indemographic patterns of aging across species, and it may considerably alter conclusionsabout the strength of aging.

  13. The road to right ventricular septal pacing: techniques and tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mond, Harry G

    2010-07-01

    Prolonged right ventricular (RV) apical pacing is associated with progressive left ventricular dysfunction due to dysynchronous ventricular activation and contraction. RV septal pacing allows a narrower QRS compared to RV apical pacing, which might reflect a more physiological and synchronous ventricular activation. Previous clinical studies, which did not consistently achieve RV septal pacing, were not confirmatory and need to be repeated. This review summarizes the anatomy of the RV septum, the radiographic appearances of pacing leads in the RV, the electrocardiograph correlates of RV septal lead positioning, and the techniques and tools required for implantation of an active-fixation lead onto the RV septum. Using the described techniques and tools, conventional active-fixation leads can now be reliably secured to either the RV outflow tract septum or mid-RV septum with very low complication rates and good long-term performance. Even though physiologic and hemodynamic studies on true RV septal pacing have not been completed, the detrimental effects of long-term RV apical pacing are significant enough to suggest that it is now time to leave the RV apex and secure all RV leads onto the septum.

  14. 基于信赖域Newton算法的ELM网络%ELM based on trust region Newton method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩敏; 王新迎

    2011-01-01

    Considering the problems that the complexity of generalized inverse limits the learning speed of extreme machine learning(ELM), a novel ELM, called TRON-ELM, is proposed based on the trust region Newton method in which the trust region Newton method is used to derive the output weights.The proposed method takes the Newton equation of the cost funcion of ELM as an unconstrained optimization, and a conjugate gradient method is used to solve the equation, which avoids solving the inverse of the Hessian matrix, thus the operation speed is improved.Meanwhile, the existence of trust region guarantees the global convergence.The experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.%针对极端学习机(ELM)网络伪逆输出权值计算方法的运算复杂度制约其训练速度问题,提出一种基于信赖域Newton算法的新型ELM网络(TRON-ELM),并采用信赖域Newton算法求解ELM网络的输出权值.该算法首先构造一个ELM网络代价函数的Newton方程,并将其作为一个无约束优化问题,采用共轭梯度法求解,避免了求代价函数Hessian矩阵逆的运算,提高了训练速度,信赖域条件的存在保证了算法的整体收敛性.仿真实验结果验证了所提出方法的有效性.

  15. Comparison of ELM, GANN, WNN and empirical models for estimating reference evapotranspiration in humid region of Southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yu; Cui, Ningbo; Zhao, Lu; Hu, Xiaotao; Gong, Daozhi

    2016-05-01

    Reference evapotranspiration (ET0) is an essential component in hydrological ecological processes and agricultural water management. Accurate estimation of ET0 is of importance in improving irrigation efficiency, water reuse and irrigation scheduling. FAO-56 Penman-Monteith (P-M) model is recommended as the standard model to estimate ET0. Nevertheless, its application is limited due to the lack of required meteorological data. In this study, trained extreme learning machine (ELM), backpropagation neural networks optimized by genetic algorithm (GANN) and wavelet neural networks (WNN) models were developed to estimate ET0, and the performances of ELM, GANN, WNN, two temperature-based (Hargreaves and modified Hargreaves) and three radiation-based (Makkink, Priestley-Taylor and Ritchie) ET0 models in estimating ET0 were evaluated in a humid area of Southwest China. Results indicated that among the new proposed models, ELM and GANN models were much better than WNN model, and the temperature-based ELM and GANN models had better performance than Hargreaves and modified Hargreaves models, radiation-based ELM and GANN models had higher precision than Makkink, Priestley-Taylor and Ritchie models. Both of radiation-based ELM (RMSE ranging 0.312-0.332 mm d-1, Ens ranging 0.918-0.931, MAE ranging 0.260-0.300 mm d-1) and GANN models (RMSE ranging 0.300-0.333 mm d-1, Ens ranging 0.916-0.941, MAE ranging 0.2580-0.303 mm d-1) could estimate ET0 at an acceptable accuracy level, and are highly recommended for estimating ET0 without adequate meteorological data.

  16. EFFECT OF IGNITION TIMING ON THE PERFORMANCE OF LPG FUELLED SI ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M.Dabhadkar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Fast depletion of fossil fuels and their detrimental effect on the environment is demanding an urgent need of alternative fuels for meeting sustainable energy demand with minimum environmental impact.A lot of research is being carried out throughout the world to evaluate the performance, exhaust emission and combustion characteristics of the existing engines using several alternative fuels such as hydrogen, compressed natural gas, alcohols, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG, biogas, producer gas, bio-diesels developed from vegetable oils, and others (Roy et. al, 2010. LPG and CNG are the alternative fuels to be widely adopted for use in the world. Gaseous fuel mix uniformly with air which burns precisely during combustion than liquid fuels. It has minimum carbon deposition & negligible physical delay. Internal combustion engines running on liquid petroleum gas (LPG are well-proven technologies and work much likegasoline-powered spark-ignition engines. They are normally used as spark-ignition engines for bi-fuelled (gasoline/CH4 cars, but have also been used, for example, in compression-ignition engines for heavy-duty vehicles. Both LPG and NG are not used alone, but always in bi-fuel vehicles, in combination with gasoline. In bi-fuel vehicles two fuels are stored in separate tanks and the engine runs on one fuel at a time. Bi-fuel vehicles have the capability to switch back and forth from gasoline to the other fuel, manually or automatically. As a fuel for spark-ignition engines LPG have some advantages over gasoline, such as a better anti-knock characteristic and reduced CO and unburned HC emissions (Hsieh et al., 2002. Environmental point of view is that there is an increasing interest among the suppliers to investigate LPG as a transportation fuel.It was found that the liquid petroleum gas, roughly a mixture of propane and butane, which gives a benefit in terms of toxic hydrocarbons emissions and ozone formation due to its composition and CO2

  17. Pacing: a concept analysis of the chronic pain intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson-Lega, Kathryn; Berry, Robyn; Brown, Cary A

    2013-01-01

    The intervention of pacing is regularly recommended for chronic pain patients. However, pacing is poorly defined and appears to be interpreted in varying, potentially contradictory manners within the field of chronic pain. This conceptual lack of clarity has implications for effective service delivery and for researchers' ability to conduct rigorous study. An examination of the background literature demonstrates that while pacing is often one part of a multidisciplinary pain management program, outcome research is hindered by a lack of a clear and shared definition of this currently ill-defined construct. To conduct a formal concept analysis of the term 'pacing'. A standardized concept analysis process (including literature scoping to identify all uses of the concept, analysis to determine defining attributes of the concept and identification of model, borderline and contrary cases) was used to determine what the concept of pacing does and does not represent within the current evidence base. A conceptual model including the core attributes of action, time, balance, learning and self-management emerged. From these attributes, an evidence-based definition for pacing was composed and distributed to stakeholders for review. After consideration of stakeholder feedback, the emergent definition of pacing was finalized as follows: "Pacing is an active self-management strategy whereby individuals learn to balance time spent on activity and rest for the purpose of achieving increased function and participation in meaningful activities". The findings of the present concept analysis will help to standardize the use and definition of the term pacing across disciplines for the purposes of both pain management and research.

  18. Variability of morphometric characteristics of the leaves of European white elm from the area of Great War Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devetaković Jovana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The European White Elm (Ulmus effusa Willd. is indicated as a rare and endangered species in the growing stock of the Republic of Serbia. In the area of Great War Island, its natural populations were reduced to 56 registered trees, which occur in three spatially isolated subpopulations. On the basis of the research conducted on the level of variability of adaptible morphometric characteristics of leaves from 14 selected test trees of European White Elm, it can be concluded that the degree of interpopulation variability is satisfactory, which is a good basis for the conservation of the available gene pool.

  19. Pacing: A Concept Analysis of a Chronic Pain Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Jamieson-Lega

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The intervention of pacing is regularly recommended for chronic pain patients. However, pacing is poorly defined and appears to be interpreted in varying, potentially contradictory manners within the field of chronic pain. This conceptual lack of clarity has implications for effective service delivery and for researchers’ ability to conduct rigorous study. An examination of the background literature demonstrates that while pacing is often one part of a multidisciplinary pain management program, outcome research is hindered by a lack of a clear and shared definition of this currently ill-defined construct.

  20. Quality Prediction and Control of Reducing Pipe Based on EOS-ELM-RPLS Mathematics Modeling Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The inspection of inhomogeneous transverse and longitudinal wall thicknesses, which determines the quality of reducing pipe during the production of seamless steel reducing pipe, is lags and difficult to establish its mechanism model. Aiming at the problems, we proposed the quality prediction model of reducing pipe based on EOS-ELM-RPLS algorithm, which taking into account the production characteristics of its time-varying, nonlinearity, rapid intermission, and data echelon distribution. Key contents such as analysis of data time interval, solving of mean value, establishment of regression model, and model online prediction were introduced and the established prediction model was used in the quality prediction and iteration control of reducing pipe. It is shown through experiment and simulation that the prediction and iteration control method based on EOS-ELM-RPLS model can effectively improve the quality of steel reducing pipe, and, moreover, its maintenance cost was low and it has good characteristics of real time, reliability, and high accuracy.

  1. Plasma convection near the magnetic null of a snowflake divertor during an ELM event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryutov, D.D.; Cohen, R.H.; Rognlien, T.D.; Umansky, M.V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States)

    2012-06-15

    A snowflake magnetic configuration is created in a tokamak when the poloidal magnetic field and its first spatial derivatives become zero at a certain point. The separatrix then acquires a characteristic hexagonal shape reminiscent of a snowflake. We study new features of the plasma macroscopic equilibrium and stability in the vicinity of the snowflake null. We note that, compared to the standard X-point divertor, the zone of weak poloidal magnetic field is much larger. The weak poloidal field leads to development of intense plasma convection over the expanded area around the null-point during the ejection phase of an edge localized mode (ELM) event when the plasma pressure in the scrape-off layer increases compared to its inter-ELM value. Intense convection may lead to a roughly-equal splitting of the heat flux between the 4 snowflake divertor legs and to a broadening of the plasma wetted area in each leg, thereby mitigating damage to divertor plates (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  2. Recrystallization and grain growth induced by ELMs-like transient heat loads in deformed tungsten samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suslova, A; El-Atwani, O; Sagapuram, D; Harilal, S S; Hassanein, A

    2014-11-04

    Tungsten has been chosen as the main candidate for plasma facing components (PFCs) due to its superior properties under extreme operating conditions in future nuclear fusion reactors such as ITER. One of the serious issues for PFCs is the high heat load during transient events such as ELMs and disruption in the reactor. Recrystallization and grain size growth in PFC materials caused by transients are undesirable changes in the material, since the isotropic microstructure developed after recrystallization exhibits a higher ductile-to-brittle transition temperature which increases with the grain size, a lower thermal shock fatigue resistance, a lower mechanical strength, and an increased surface roughening. The current work was focused on careful determination of the threshold parameters for surface recrystallization, grain growth rate, and thermal shock fatigue resistance under ELM-like transient heat events. Transient heat loads were simulated using long pulse laser beams for two different grades of ultrafine-grained tungsten. It was observed that cold rolled tungsten demonstrated better power handling capabilities and higher thermal stress fatigue resistance compared to severely deformed tungsten. Higher recrystallization threshold, slower grain growth, and lower degree of surface roughening were observed in the cold rolled tungsten.

  3. High frequency magnetic fluctuations correlated with the inter-ELM pedestal evolution in ASDEX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laggner, F. M.; Wolfrum, E.; Cavedon, M.; Mink, F.; Viezzer, E.; Dunne, M. G.; Manz, P.; Doerk, H.; Birkenmeier, G.; Fischer, R.; Fietz, S.; Maraschek, M.; Willensdorfer, M.; Aumayr, F.; the EUROfusion MST1 Team; the ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2016-06-01

    In order to understand the mechanisms that determine the structure of the high confinement mode (H-mode) pedestal, the evolution of the plasma edge electron density and temperature profiles between edge localised modes (ELMs) is investigated. The onset of radial magnetic fluctuations with frequencies above 200 kHz is found to correlate with the stagnation of the electron temperature pedestal gradient. During the presence of these magnetic fluctuations the gradients of the edge electron density and temperature are clamped and stable against the ELM onset. The detected magnetic fluctuation frequency is analysed for a variety of plasma discharges with different electron pressure pedestals. It is shown that the magnetic fluctuation frequency scales with the neoclassically estimated \\text{E} × \\text{B} velocity at the plasma edge. This points to a location of the underlying instability in the gradient region. Furthermore, the magnetic signature of these fluctuations indicates a global mode structure with toroidal mode numbers of approximately 10. The fluctuations are also observed on the high field side with significant amplitude, indicating a mode structure that is symmetric on the low field side and high field side. The associated fluctuations in the current on the high field side might be attributed to either a strong peeling part or the presence of non-adiabatic electron response.

  4. Design of JET ELM control coils for operation at 350 degrees C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zatz, I J [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Baker, R [Association EURATOM-CCFE, Abingdon, UK; Brooks, A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Cole, Michael J [ORNL; Neilson, G. H. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL)

    2011-01-01

    A study has confirmed the feasibility of designing, fabricating and installing resonant magnetic field perturbation (RMP) coils in JET(1) with the objective of controlling edge localized modes (ELM). A system of two rows of in-vessel coils, above the machine midplane, has been chosen as it not only can investigate the physics of and achieve the empirical criteria for ELM suppression, but also permits variation of the spectra allowing for comparison with other experiments. These coils present several engineering challenges. Conditions in JET necessitate the installation of these coils via remote handling, which will impose weight, dimensional and logistical limitations. And while the encased coils are designed to be conventionally wound and bonded, they will not have the usual benefit of active cooling. Accordingly, coil temperatures are expected to reach 350 degrees C during bakeout as well as during plasma operations. These elevated temperatures are beyond the safe operating limits of conventional OFHC copper and the epoxies that bond and insulate the turns of typical coils. This has necessitated the use of an alternative copper alloy conductor C18150 (CuCrZr). More importantly, an alternative to epoxy had to be found. An R&D program was initiated to find the best available insulating and bonding material. The search included polyimides and ceramic polymers. The scope and status of this R&D program, as well as the critical engineering issues encountered to date are reviewed and discussed.

  5. Assessing the suitability of extreme learning machines (ELM for groundwater level prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadav Basant

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Fluctuation of groundwater levels around the world is an important theme in hydrological research. Rising water demand, faulty irrigation practices, mismanagement of soil and uncontrolled exploitation of aquifers are some of the reasons why groundwater levels are fluctuating. In order to effectively manage groundwater resources, it is important to have accurate readings and forecasts of groundwater levels. Due to the uncertain and complex nature of groundwater systems, the development of soft computing techniques (data-driven models in the field of hydrology has significant potential. This study employs two soft computing techniques, namely, extreme learning machine (ELM and support vector machine (SVM to forecast groundwater levels at two observation wells located in Canada. A monthly data set of eight years from 2006 to 2014 consisting of both hydrological and meteorological parameters (rainfall, temperature, evapotranspiration and groundwater level was used for the comparative study of the models. These variables were used in various combinations for univariate and multivariate analysis of the models. The study demonstrates that the proposed ELM model has better forecasting ability compared to the SVM model for monthly groundwater level forecasting.

  6. Simulation of residual thermostress in tungsten after repetitive ELM-like heat loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pestchanyi, S., E-mail: serguei.pestchanyi@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, IHM (Germany); Garkusha, I. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Kharkov (Ukraine); Landman, I. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, IHM (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Brittle destruction of tungsten armour under action of edge localised modes of plasma instabilities (ELMs) in ITER is an important issue determining the lifetime of the divertor. Besides, cracking of the armour produces tungsten dust with characteristic size of 1-10 {mu}m flying from the armour surface with velocities up to 10 m/s. Influx of the tungsten dust into the ITER confinement decreases the temperature of the plasma, reduces the thermonuclear gain and even may run the confinement into disruption. This paper describes experiments in QSPA-Kh50 plasma gun and modeling, which has been performed for providing more insight into the physics of tungsten cracking under action of ELMs and for confirmation of the important result on stabilization of the crack development at the tungsten armour surface, predicted in our previous paper - the same authors, 2010. The threshold value of energy density deposition for start of tungsten cracking has been measured as 0.3 MJ/m{sup 2} after 5-10 shots. From analytical considerations three times smaller threshold value has been predicted with increasing number of shots.

  7. Analysis of volatiles induced by oviposition of elm leaf beetle Xanthogaleruca luteola on Ulmus minor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, R; Schulz, S; Meiners, T; Hadwich, K; Hilker, M

    2001-03-01

    Egg deposition of the elm leaf beetle Xanthogaleruca luteola causes the emission of volatiles from its food plant, Ulmus minor. These volatiles are exploited by the egg parasitoid, Oomyzus gallerucae, to locate its host. In contrast to other tritrophic systems, the release of volatiles is not induced by feeding but by egg deposition. Previous investigations showed that the release is systemic and can be triggered by jasmonic acid. Comparison of headspace analysis revealed similarities in the blend of volatiles emitted following egg deposition and feeding. The mixture consists of more than 40 compounds; most of the substances are terpenoids. Leaves next to those carrying eggs emit fewer compounds. When treated with jasmonic acid, leaves emit a blend that consists almost exclusively of terpenoids. Dichloromethane extracts of leaves treated with jasmonic acid were also investigated. After separation of extracts of jasmonate induced elm leaves on silica, we obtained a fraction of terpenoid hydrocarbons that was attractive to the parasitoids. This indicates that jasmonic acid stimulates the production of terpenoid hydrocarbons that convey information of egg deposition to the parasitoid.

  8. Cracking behavior of tungsten armor under ELM-like thermal shock loads: A computational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muyuan Li

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the cracking behavior of tungsten under edge-localized mode (ELM-like thermal shock loads was investigated on the basis of a rigorous computational fracture mechanical analysis combined with the finite element method. Typical transient thermal shock loads of ELM conditions were considered with a relevant range of power density and base temperature for a loading duration of 1 ms. Crack initiation and progressive growth were predicted using the extended finite element method and the J-integral was calculated for the assumed precrack by means of the virtual crack extension method. For a power density of 1 GW/m2 and higher, a crack is preferably initiated near the edge of the loading area and is then followed by a gradual horizontal kinking, parallel to the loading surface. The crack formation is predicted for the power density of 0.6 GW/m2 and above, and when the base temperature is higher than 600 °C, almost no cracks is predicted. The numerically predicted cracking behavior agrees in general with the experimental observations.

  9. Fast Paced, Low Cost Projects at MSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson-Morgan, Lisa; Clinton, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    What does an orbiting microsatellite, a robotic lander and a ruggedized camera and telescope have in common? They are all fast paced, low cost projects managed by Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) teamed with successful industry partners. MSFC has long been synonymous with human space flight large propulsion programs, engineering acumen and risk intolerance. However, there is a growing portfolio/product line within MSFC that focuses on these smaller, fast paced projects. While launching anything into space is expensive, using a managed risk posture, holding to schedule and keeping costs low by stopping at egood enough f were key elements to their success. Risk is defined as the possibility of loss or failure per Merriam Webster. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) defines risk using procedural requirement 8705.4 and establishes eclasses f to discern the acceptable risk per a project. It states a Class D risk has a medium to significant risk of not achieving mission success. MSFC, along with industry partners, has created a niche in Class D efforts. How did the big, cautious MSFC succeed on these projects that embodied the antithesis of its heritage in human space flight? A key factor toward these successful projects was innovative industry partners such as Dynetics Corporation, University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAHuntsville), Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU APL), Teledyne Brown Engineering (TBE), Von Braun Center for Science and Innovation (VCSI), SAIC, and Jacobs. Fast Affordable Satellite Technology (FastSat HSV01) is a low earth orbit microsatellite that houses six instruments with the primary scientific objective of earth observation and technology demonstration. The team was comprised of Dynetics, UAHuntsvile, SAIC, Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and VCSI with the United States Air Force Space Test Program as the customer. The team completed design, development, manufacturing, environmental test and integration in

  10. Direct His-bundle pacing: present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Pramod M; Romanyshyn, Mary

    2004-06-01

    Direct His-bundle pacing (DHBP) produces rapid sequential multisite synchronous ventricular activation and, therefore, would be an ideal alternative to right ventricular apical (RVA) pacing. In 54 patients with cardiomyopathy, ejection fraction (EF) 0.23 +/- 0.11, persistent atrial fibrillation, and normal QRS Treppe effect) was investigated. Twelve patients who also received a RVA lead underwent cardiopulmonary testing. After a mean follow-up of 42 months, 29 patients are still alive with EF improving from 0.23 +/- 0.11 to 0.33 +/- 0.15. Functional class improved from 3.5 to 2.2. DP/dt increased at each pacing site (P Treppe effect and increased cardiopulmonary reserve when compared to RVA pacing.

  11. Tracking the path traversed by temporary pacing lead

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kapoor, Aditya; Moorthy, Nagaraja; Khanna, Roopali; Kumar, Sudeep

    2012-01-01

    ... of stylets and considerable lead maneuvering. We describe an interesting case wherein a temporary pacemaker lead after entering the PLSVC followed an unusual fluoroscopic course with demonstrable pacing in right ventricle (RV), right atrium (RA...

  12. Impedance to transesophageal atrial pacing: significance regarding power sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, C R; Chung, D C; Wickham, G; Jameson, M; Vorderbrugge, S

    1989-06-01

    Transesophageal stimulation is an expeditious method of atrial pacing. Using pulse widths of 10 msec results in reduction of current requirement to values that are usually less than 15 mA. An unknown variable in transesophageal atrial pacing has been impedance. In this study, we investigated the impedance to transesophageal atrial pacing in ten patients using a stimulator with a 63 V power source capable of delivering constant current to 20 mA against an impedance of 2,000 ohms. A bipolar electrode was used to deliver stimuli with a current of 15 mA. Voltage across a known resistance and current were measured on an oscilloscope and the impedance was calculated. Pacing thresholds were also performed and ranged from 6.2 to 16.5 mA (mean 9.4 +/- 2.9 mA, SD). Impedance varied between 720 and 2,670 ohms (mean 1,750 +/- 540 ohms). The stimulator used to measure impedance in man and two other commercially available stimulators were bench tested against known resistances of 500 to 2,000 ohms. The other stimulators with power sources of 12.5 and 15 V had attenuation of the delivered current at resistances of between 1,000 and 2,000 ohms. Thus, this study has demonstrated that transesophageal atrial pacing incurs impedances two to five times greater than incurred with intracardiac pacing leads. Therefore stimulators with high power sources are required to deliver the programmed current against these impedances.

  13. PACE and the Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimring, Mark; Fuller, Merrian

    2010-03-17

    The FHFA regulates Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, and the 12 Federal Home Loan Banks (the government-sponsored enterprises - GSEs). On June 18, 2009, James B. Lockhart III, then Director of FHFA, released a letter expressing concern about the negative impact of energy loan tax assessment programs (ELTAPs) - also known as Property Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) programs - on both the housing finance system and homeowner program participants. Subsequently, a number of PACE proponents responded to the concerns laid out in the FHFA letter. In early Fall 2009, word circulated that FHFA was planning to follow its June letter with guidance to other agencies, possibly including Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, discouraging them from buying loans on properties subject to PACE-type assessment liens. This triggered a second round of stakeholder letters, several of which were addressed to President Obama. On October 18, 2009, the White House, in what some believe was an attempt to obviate the need for FHFA guidance, released a Policy Framework for PACE Financing Programs that outlined best practices guidance for homeowner and lender protection. As of February 2010, FHFA and the GSEs have agreed to monitor PACE programs and work with stakeholders and the Administration to consider additional guidance beyond the Policy Framework and to collect more information on PACE program efficacy and risks. A summary of the communications timeline and highlights of the communications are provided.

  14. AGN fuelling: Bridging Large and Small Scales - Overlapping Inflows as Catalysts of Accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel Carmona Loaiza, Juan Manuel

    2015-05-01

    One of the biggest challenges in understanding the fuelling of supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei (AGN) is not on accounting for the source of fuel, as a galaxy can comfortably supply the required mass budget, but on its actual delivery. While a clear picture has been developed for the large scale (~ kpc) down to the intermediate one (~ 100 pc), and for the smallest scales (~ 0.1 pc) where an accretion disc likely forms, a bridge that has proven difficult to build is that between ~ 100 pc and ~ 0.1 pc. It is feared that gas at these scales might still retain enough angular momentum and settle into a larger scale disc with very low or no inflow to form or replenish the inner accretion disc (on ~ 0.01 pc scales). In this Thesis, I present numerical simulations in which a rotating gaseous shell flows towards a SMBH because of its lack of rotational support. As inflow proceeds, gas from the shell impacts an already present nuclear (~ 10pc) disc. The cancellation of angular momentum and redistribution of gas, due to the misalignment between the angular momentum of the shell and that of the disc, is studied in this scenario. The underlying hypothesis is that even if transport of angular momentum at these scales may be inefficient, the interaction of an inflow with a nuclear disc would still provide a mechanism to bring mass inwards because of the cancellation of angular momentum. I quantify the amount of gas such a cancellation would bring to the central parsec under different circumstances: Co- and counter-rotation between the disc and the shell and the presence or absence of an initial turbulent kick; I also discuss the impact of self gravity in our simulations. The scenario we study is highly idealized and designed to capture the specific outcomes produced by the mechanism proposed. I find that angular momentum cancellation and redistribution via hydrodynamical shocks leads to sub-pc inflows enhanced by more than 2-3 orders of magnitude. In all of our

  15. On exhaust emissions from petrol-fuelled passenger cars at low ambient temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurikko, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Use

    1998-11-01

    The study at hand deals with regulated and unregulated exhaust emissions from petrol-fuelled cars at low ambient temperatures with present-day or near-future exhaust after treatment systems. The subject has been investigated at VTT over a decade and this report compiles data from various sub-studies carried out between the years 1993 - 1997. Each one of them viewed different aspects of the phenomenon, like determining the low-temperature response of today`s new cars employing three-way catalytic converters or assessing the long-term durability and the influence of vehicle mileage upon the low-temperature emissions performance. Within these studies, together more than 120 cars of model years from 1990 to 1997 have been tested. Most of them were normal, in-service vehicles with total mileages differing between only a few thousand kilometres for new cars up to 80,000 km or even more for the in-use vehicles. Both the US FTP75 and the European test cycle have been employed, and the ambient temperatures ranged from the baseline (+22 deg C) down to +- O deg C, -7 deg C and in some cases even to -20 deg C. The studies attested that new cars having today`s advanced emissions control systems produced fairly low levels of emissions when tested in conditions designated in the regulations that are the basis of the current new-vehicle certification. However, this performance was not necessarily attained at ambient temperatures that were below the normative range. Fairly widespread response was recorded, and cars having almost equal emissions output at baseline could produce largely deviating outcomes in low-temperature conditions. On average, CO and HC emissions increased by a factor of five to 10, depending on the ambient temperature and vehicle type. However, emissions of NO{sub x} were largely unaffected. Apart from these regulated emissions, many unregulated species were also determined, either by using traditional sampling and chromatography methods or on-line, employing

  16. 基于 ELM 的跨越前馈神经网络及其应用研究%Span feedforward neural network based on ELM and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石红伟; 杨明红

    2013-01-01

    The single⁃hidden layer feedforward neural network(SLFN)based on ELM needs larger⁃scale network structure to solve practical applications,which will influence the generalization capability. In order to solve the problem,a span feedforward neural network (SFN) is proposed based on the characteristic of neocortex neurons. The span connections between any two non ⁃ adjacent layers were introduced into this network. At the same time,an improved learning algorithm based on ELM is presented,the proposed approach of span feedforward neural network and improved ELM learning algorithm is used for some benchmark problems. The study on Image Segmentation multi⁃classification problem and linear 1⁃stage inverted pendulum system control show that the proposed approach performs better than SLFN and ELM,and it could improve the learning ability of the nerwork.%  针对基于 ELM 学习算法的单隐含层前馈神经网络需要较大的网络规模、影响网络泛化能力的问题,基于新皮层内神经元的连接特点,在前馈神经网络中引入不同层神经元之间的跨越连接,构造跨越前馈神经网络。同时,基于 ELM学习算法设计适用于跨越前馈神经网络的学习算法,提高网络的学习能力。Image Segmentation 多分类问题及直线一级倒立摆系统控制的实验研究表明,该方法能够提高网络的学习能力,具有明显的优势。

  17. Description and phylogeny of a new microsporidium from the elm leaf beetle, Xanthogaleruca luteola Muller, 1766 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study describes a new genus and species of microsporidia which is a pathogen of the elm leaf beetle, Xanthogaleruca luteola Muller, 1776 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). The beetles were collected from Istanbul in Turkey. All developmental stages are uninucleate and in direct contact with the host ...

  18. Human impact on the genetic diversity of Dutch field elm (Ulmus minor) populations in the Netherlands: implications for conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buiteveld, Joukje; Vanden Broeck, An; Cox, Karen; Collin, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims – Field elms (Ulmus minor Mill.) can easily reproduce vegetatively by root suckers or sprouting. They also have a long history of propagation and planting in the Netherlands. Both natural vegetative reproduction and cultivation may significantly influence the genetic structure of

  19. H-mode pedestal characteristics, ELMs, and energy confinement in ITER shape discharges on DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborne, T.H.; Groebner, R.J.; Lao, L.L.; Leonard, A.W.; Miller, R.L.; Thomas, D.M.; Waltz, R.E. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Maingi, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Porter, G.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The H-mode confinement enhancement factor, H, is found to be strongly correlated with the height of the edge pressure pedestal in ITER shape discharges. In discharges with Type I ELMs the pedestal pressure is set by the maximum pressure gradient before the ELM and the width of the H-mode transport barrier. The pressure gradient before Type I ELMs is found to scale as would be expected for a stability limit set by ideal ballooning modes, but with values significantly in excess of that predicted by stability code calculations. The width of the H-mode transport barrier is found to scale equally well with pedestal P(POL)(2/3) or B(POL)(1/2). The improved H value in high B(POL) discharges may be due to a larger edge pressure gradient and wider H-mode transport barrier consistent with their higher edge ballooning mode limit. Deuterium puffing is found to reduce H consistent with the smaller pedestal pressure which results from the reduced barrier width and critical pressure gradient. Type I ELM energy loss is found to be proportional to the change in the pedestal energy.

  20. First report of Geosmithia langdonii and Geosmithia spp. isolated from a decaying elm (Ulmus minor in Geneva, Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hänzi Martine

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The mortality of a young elm Ulmus minor in 2014 in Geneva prompted a search for the microorganisms potentially involved. Symptoms included foliar chlorosis and wilting followed by defoliation of branches. Wood symptoms included a brown streaking of sap wood and brown stains in trunk and branches. The comparison of the resulting ITS rDNA sequences to the NCBI Nucleotide database allowed to identify 10 different organisms. The genus Geosmithia represented 48% of the isolates belonging to three species: Geosmithia langdonii (7 isolates and 2 unknown morphologically and genetically different Geosmithia sp. 1 and sp. 2 (4 isolates. Geosmithia species are very little known ascomycetes, which have been recently shown to be opportunistic pathogens on broadleaved trees and conifers, living as saprobes in galleries of many bark beetle species. In the case described here, Geosmithia langdonii, and the unknown Geosmithia species were found in symptomatic wood while bark beetle galleries were found in close regions of the symptomatic wood. Geosmithia langdonii was the major fungus retrieved from the symptomatic wood and could have contributed, along with other identified fungal species, to a pathogenic complex producing symptoms similar to the ones of the Dutch Elm Disease and led to the dieback of this elm tree. Geosmithia langdonii and 2 yet unknown Geosmithia species (sp. 1 and sp. 2, different from any other reported Geosmithia species are reported from an elm tree in Switzerland for the first time.

  1. ELM simulation experiments on Pilot-PSI using simultaneous high flux plasma and transient heat/particle source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Temmerman, G.; Zielinski, J. J.; van Diepen, S.; Marot, L.; Price, M.

    2011-01-01

    A new experimental setup has been developed for edge localized mode (ELM) simulation experiments with relevant steady-state plasma conditions and transient heat/particle source. The setup is based on the Pilot-PSI linear plasma device and allows the superimposition of a transient heat/particle pulse

  2. Morphological Characteristics and Water-Use Efficiency of Siberian Elm Trees (Ulmus pumila L. within Arid Regions of Northeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go Eun Park

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Siberian elm (Ulmus pumila L. is one of the most commonly found tree species in arid areas of northeast Asia. To understand the morphological and physiological characteristics of Siberian elms in arid regions, we analyzed leaves from seven study sites (five arid or semi-arid and two mesic in China, Mongolia and the Republic of Korea, which covered a wide range of average annual precipitation (232 mm·year−1 to 1304 mm·year−1 under various aridity indexes (AI and four different microenvironments: sand dune, steppe, riverside and forest. The traits of Siberian elms varied widely along different annual precipitation (P and AI gradients. Tree height (H, leaf size (LS and stomatal area per unit leaf area (AS/AL decreased with increasing AI, whereas leaf mass per unit leaf area (LMA and water-use efficiency (WUE increased significantly. In addition, trees at the five arid sites showed significant differences in LS, LMA and AS/AL but not in H and WUE. Thus, our study indicated that indigenous Siberian elm trees in arid areas have substantially altered their morphological and physiological characteristics to avoid heat stress and increase water conservation in comparison to mesic areas. However, their changes differed depending on the surrounding microenvironment even in arid areas. Trees in sand dunes had a smaller LS, higher LMA, thicker leaf cuticle layer and higher stomatal density and AS than those in steppes and near a riverside.

  3. The Pace of Perceivable Extreme Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, X.; Gan, T. Y.

    2015-12-01

    When will the signal of obvious changes in extreme climate emerge over climate variability (Time of Emergence, ToE) is a key question for planning and implementing measures to mitigate the potential impact of climate change to natural and human systems that are generally adapted to potential changes from current variability. We estimated ToEs for the magnitude, duration and frequency of global extreme climate represented by 24 extreme climate indices (16 for temperature and 8 for precipitation) with different thresholds of the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio based on projections of CMIP5 global climate models under RCP8.5 and RCP4.5 for the 21st century. The uncertainty of ToE is assessed by using 3 different methods to calculate S/N for each extreme index. Results show that ToEs of the projected extreme climate indices based on the RCP4.5 climate scenarios are generally projected to happen about 20 years later than that for the RCP8.5 climate scenarios. Under RCP8.5, the projected magnitude, duration and frequency of extreme temperature on Earth will all exceed 2 standard deviations by 2100, and the empirical 50th percentile of the global ToE for the frequency and magnitude of hot (cold) extreme are about 2040 and 2054 (2064 and 2054) for S/N > 2, respectively. The 50th percentile of global ToE for the intensity of extreme precipitation is about 2030 and 2058 for S/N >0.5 and S/N >1, respectively. We further evaluated the exposure of ecosystems and human societies to the pace of extreme climate change by determining the year of ToE for various extreme climate indices projected to occur over terrestrial biomes, marine realms and major urban areas with large populations. This was done by overlaying terrestrial, ecoregions and population maps with maps of ToE derived, to extract ToEs for these regions. Possible relationships between GDP per person and ToE are also investigated by relating the mean ToE for each country and its average value of GDP per person.

  4. Effects of gastric pacing on gastric emptying and plasma motilin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Yang; Dian-Chun Fang; Qian-Wei Li; Nian-Xu Sun; Qing-Lin Long; Jian-Feng Sui; Lu Gan

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To invertigate the effects of gastric pacing on gastric emptying and plasma motilin level in a canine model of gastric motility disorders and the correlation between gastric emptying and plasma motilin level.METHODS: Ten healthy Mongrel dogs were divided into:experimental group of six dogs and control group of four dogs. A model of gastric motility disorders was established in the experimental group undergone truncal vagotomy combined with injection of glucagon. Gastric half-emptying time (GEt1/2) was monitored with single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT), and the half-solid test meal was labeled with an isotope-99m Tc sulfur colloid. Plasma motilin concentration was measured with radioimmunoassay (RIA) kit. Surface gastric pacing at 1.1-1.2 times the intrinsic slow-wave frequency and a superimposed series of high frequency pulses (10-30 Hz) was performed for 45 min daily for a month in conscious dogs.RESULTS: After surgery, GEt1/2 in dogs undergone truncal vagotomy was increased significantly from 56.35±2.99 min to 79.42±l.91 min (P<0.001), but surface gastric pacing markedly accelerated gastric emptying and significantly decreased GEt1/2 to 64,94±l.75 min (P<0.001) in animals undergone vagotomy. There was a significant increase of plasma level of motilin at the phase of IMCⅢ (interdigertive myoelectrical complex, IMCⅢ) in the dogs undergone bilateral truncal vagotomy (baseline vs vagotomy, 184.29±9.81 pg/ml vs 242.09±17,22 pg/ml; P<0.01). But plasma motilin concentration (212.55±11.20 pg/ml; P<0.02) was decreased significantly after a long-term treatment with gastric pacing.Before gastric pacing, GEt1/2 and plasma motilin concentration of the dogs undergone vagotomy showed a positive correlation (r=0.867, P<0.01), but after a long-term gastric pacing, GEt1/2 and motilin level showed a negative correlation (r=-0.733, P<0,04).CONCLUSION: Surface gastric pacing with optimal pacing parameters can improve gastric emptying

  5. Right ventricular pacing: the best site is yet to be defined

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li ZHOU; Brian Olshansky

    2005-01-01

    @@ The right ventricular (RV) apex is the traditional site to provide stable and reliable chronic ventricular pacing. Interest in alternate site pacing has grown since RV apical pacing has been associated with increased mortality and morbidity compared to normal atrio-ventricular conduction. 1-4 Alternate pacing sites include the RV septum and outflow tract.

  6. Effect of left ventricular pacing mode and site on hemodynamic, torsional and strain indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savvas Toumanidis

    2016-05-01

    Conclusions: LV pacing at the apical or lateral wall, in the ischemic myocardium, leads to a suboptimal response in comparison to sinus rhythm. LV pacing at the apex outside the ischemic area exhibits a better response than pacing at the lateral wall, possibly because pacing from this site leads to a more physiological propagation of electrical conduction.

  7. Estimation of in-situ bioremediation system cost using a hybrid Extreme Learning Machine (ELM)-particle swarm optimization approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Basant; Ch, Sudheer; Mathur, Shashi; Adamowski, Jan

    2016-12-01

    In-situ bioremediation is the most common groundwater remediation procedure used for treating organically contaminated sites. A simulation-optimization approach, which incorporates a simulation model for groundwaterflow and transport processes within an optimization program, could help engineers in designing a remediation system that best satisfies management objectives as well as regulatory constraints. In-situ bioremediation is a highly complex, non-linear process and the modelling of such a complex system requires significant computational exertion. Soft computing techniques have a flexible mathematical structure which can generalize complex nonlinear processes. In in-situ bioremediation management, a physically-based model is used for the simulation and the simulated data is utilized by the optimization model to optimize the remediation cost. The recalling of simulator to satisfy the constraints is an extremely tedious and time consuming process and thus there is need for a simulator which can reduce the computational burden. This study presents a simulation-optimization approach to achieve an accurate and cost effective in-situ bioremediation system design for groundwater contaminated with BTEX (Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and Xylenes) compounds. In this study, the Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) is used as a proxy simulator to replace BIOPLUME III for the simulation. The selection of ELM is done by a comparative analysis with Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) as they were successfully used in previous studies of in-situ bioremediation system design. Further, a single-objective optimization problem is solved by a coupled Extreme Learning Machine (ELM)-Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) technique to achieve the minimum cost for the in-situ bioremediation system design. The results indicate that ELM is a faster and more accurate proxy simulator than ANN and SVM. The total cost obtained by the ELM-PSO approach is held to a minimum

  8. Temporary Pacing in the Correction of Drug-Induced Bradycardia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Khoronenko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to reduce the risk from surgical treatment in geriatric cancer patients with severe concomitant cardiovascular (CV diseases through the differentiated intra- and postoperative use of pacing technologies for correction of life-threatening cardiac rhythm and conduction disturbances.Subjects and methods. Two hundred and eight patients (mean age 72.0±5.8 years receiving pulse-reducing cardiotropic therapy to compensate for CV disorders, who had undergone extensive radical surgical interventions for abdominal and small pelvic malignancies of mainly Stage III (mean duration 4.2±1.6 hours under multimodal general anesthesia, were examined. A pacing technique was chosen depending on the pattern of arrhythmia and antrioventricular (AV block.Results. During CV therapy, bradycardia at a heart rate of 44 to 57 beats per min was identified in 71 (34.1% patients. Perioperative pacing correction of bradycardia was required in 58 (27.9% patients, of them 46 had no AV conduction disturbances, which permitted the use of transesophageal atrial pacing (TEAC. Endocardial pacing was performed in 12 patients with impaired AV conduction and bradysystole in the presence of persistent atrial fibrillation during and early after surgery. In the postoperative period, it was necessary to continue long-term (more than 20 hours TEAC in the asynchronous mode in 7 patients. Extensive surgical interventions of the planned volume were made in all the patients being examined. None patient had any CV events, including pacing complications.Conclusion. Temporary pacing techniques are effective in correcting critical circulatory disorders during surgical treatment in elderly patients with persistent drug-induced bradycardia when they are treated with cardiotropic drugs. 

  9. High-Speed Monitoring of Dust Particles in ITER ELMs Simulation Experiments with QSPA Kh-50

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadym A. Makhlaj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dust generation under powerful plasma stream impacts has been studied in ITER ELM simulation experiments with QSPA Kh-50 plasma accelerator. Repetitive plasma exposures of tungsten have been performed by 0.25 ms plasma pulses and the heat load varied in the range (0.1÷1.1 MJm-2. Main characteristics of dust particles such as a number of ejected particles, their velocity, angular distribution and start time from the surface are investigated. Dust particles have not been observed under heat load below the cracking threshold. Quantity of dust particles rises with increasing heat load. Average velocities of dust particles are found to be strongly dependent on their start time from the surface after beginning of plasma-surface interaction. Maximal velocity achieved a few tens of meters per second.

  10. Tungsten melt layer erosion due to J x B force under conditions relevant to ITER ELMs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garkusha, I.E. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Akademicheskaya 1, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine)]. E-mail: garkusha@ipp.kharkov.ua; Bazylev, B.N. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, IHM, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bandura, A.N. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Akademicheskaya 1, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Byrka, O.V. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Akademicheskaya 1, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Chebotarev, V.V. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Akademicheskaya 1, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Landman, I.S. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, IHM, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Kulik, N.V. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Akademicheskaya 1, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Makhlaj, V.A. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Akademicheskaya 1, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Petrov, Yu.V. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Akademicheskaya 1, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Solyakov, D.G. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Akademicheskaya 1, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Tereshin, V.I. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Akademicheskaya 1, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2007-06-15

    The behavior of tungsten under repetitive hydrogen plasma impacts causing surface melting in conditions of an applied J x B force of up to 20 MN/m{sup 3} is studied with the plasma accelerator QSPA Kh-50. Tungsten samples of EU trademark have been exposed to up to 100 pulses simulating ITER ELMs of the energy load 0.7 MJ/m{sup 2} and the duration 0.25 ms. An electric current J flows across the magnetic field B of 1.4 T, and the resulting J x B force produces a displacement of the melt with formation of an erosion crater and an inclination of the surface profile along the force. Surface morphology and the damage by surface cracks are discussed. Comparisons of experimental results with numerical simulations of the code MEMOS-1.5D are presented.

  11. Damage to preheated tungsten targets after multiple plasma impacts simulating ITER ELMs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garkusha, I.E. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Akademicheskaya 1, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine)], E-mail: garkusha@ipp.kharkov.ua; Bandura, A.N.; Byrka, O.V.; Chebotarev, V.V. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Akademicheskaya 1, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Landman, I. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, IHM, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Makhlaj, V.A. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Akademicheskaya 1, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Pestchanyi, S. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, IHM, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Tereshin, V.I. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Akademicheskaya 1, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-04-30

    The behavior of a preheated at 650 deg. C tungsten targets under repetitive ELM-like plasma pulses is studied in simulation experiments with the quasi-stationary plasma accelerator QSPA Kh-50. The targets have been exposed up to 350 pulses of the duration 0.25 ms and the surface heat loads either 0.45 MJ/m{sup 2} or 0.75 MJ/m{sup 2}, which is below and above the melting threshold, respectively. The development of surface morphology of the exposed targets as well as cracking and swelling at the surface is discussed. First comparisons of obtained experimental results with corresponding numerical simulations of the code PEGASUS-3D are presented.

  12. Experimental study of plasma energy transfer and material erosion under ELM-like heat loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garkusha, I.E., E-mail: garkusha@ipp.kharkov.u [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Akademicheskaya 1, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Makhlaj, V.A.; Chebotarev, V.V. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Akademicheskaya 1, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Landman, I. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, IHM, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Tereshin, V.I.; Aksenov, N.N.; Bandura, A.N. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Akademicheskaya 1, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-06-15

    Main features of plasma-surface interaction and energy transfer to tokamak plasma facing components are studied at different heat loads in ELM simulation experiments with the plasma gun QSPA Kh-50. Repetitive plasma exposures of tungsten, graphite and different combined W-C targets were performed at the pulse duration of 0.25 ms and the heat loads varied in the range 0.2-2.5 MJ/m{sup 2}. The onset of vapor shield in front of the surface was investigated. The evaporation is immediately followed by a saturation of surface heat load if further increasing the impact energy. The presence of graphite essentially decreases the heat flux to the nearby tungsten surface, which is due to the carbon vapor shield. Droplet splashing at the tungsten surface and formation of hot spots on the graphite surface are discussed.

  13. Effect of collisional temperature isotropisation on ELM parallel transport in a tokamak scrape-off layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulette, David; Hirstoaga, Sever A.; Manfredi, Giovanni

    2016-08-01

    We develop a hybrid model to describe the parallel transport in a tokamak scrape-off layer following an edge-localized mode (ELM) event. The parallel dynamics is treated with a kinetic Vlasov-Poisson model, while the evolution of the perpendicular temperature {{T}\\bot} is governed by a fluid equation. The coupling is ensured by isotropising collisions. The model generalises an earlier approach where {{T}\\bot} was constant in space and time (Manfredi et al 2011 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 53 015012). Numerical results show that the main effect comes from electron-electron collisions, which limit the decrease of the parallel electron temperature and increase the potential drop in the Debye sheath in front of the surface. Ion-ion collisions have an almost negligible impact. The net effect is an increased peak power load on the target plates.

  14. A Gyrokinetic 1D Scrape-Off Layer Model of an ELM Heat Pulse

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, E L; Hammett, G W

    2014-01-01

    We have applied an electrostatic gyrokinetic-based model to simulate parallel plasma transport in the scrape-off layer to a divertor plate. We focus on a test problem that has been studied previously, using parameters chosen to model a heat pulse driven by an edge localized mode (ELM) in JET. Previous work has used direct particle-in-cell equations with full dynamics, or Vlasov or fluid equations with only parallel dynamics. With the use of the gyrokinetic quasineutrality equation and logical sheath boundary conditions, spatial and temporal resolution requirements are no longer set by the electron Debye length and plasma frequency, respectively. This test problem also helps illustrate some of the physics contained in the Hamiltonian form of the gyrokinetic equations and some of the numerical challenges in developing an edge gyrokinetic code.

  15. Surface damage characteristics of CFC and tungsten with repetitive ELM-like pulsed plasma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Y.; Nishijima, D.; Nakatsuka, M.; Ando, K.; Higashi, T.; Ueno, Y.; Ishihara, M.; Shoda, K.; Nagata, M.; Kawai, T.; Ueda, Y.; Fukumoto, N.; Doerner, R. P.

    2011-08-01

    Surface damage of carbon fiber composite (CFC) and tungsten (W) due to repetitive ELM-like pulsed plasma irradiation has been investigated by using a magnetized coaxial plasma gun. CX2002U CFC and stress-relieved W samples were exposed to repetitive pulsed deuterium plasmas with duration of ˜0.5 ms, incident ion energy of ˜30 eV, and surface absorbed energy density of ˜0.3-0.7 MJ/m2. Bright spots on a CFC surface during pulsed plasma exposures were clearly observed with a high-speed camera, indicating a local surface heating. No melting of a W surface was observed under a single plasma pulse exposure at energy density of ˜0.7 MJ/m2, although cracks were formed. Cracking of the W surface grew with repetitive pulsed plasma exposures. Subsequently, the surface melted due to localized heat absorption.

  16. The ELM Survey. VII. Orbital Properties of Low Mass White Dwarf Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Warren R; Kilic, Mukremin; Kenyon, Scott J; Prieto, Carlos Allende

    2016-01-01

    We present the discovery of 15 extremely low mass (5 < log{g} < 7) white dwarf candidates, 9 of which are in ultra-compact double-degenerate binaries. Our targeted ELM Survey sample now includes 76 binaries. The sample has a lognormal distribution of orbital periods with a median period of 5.4 hr. The velocity amplitudes imply that the binary companions have a normal distribution of mass with 0.76 Msun mean and 0.25 Msun dispersion. Thus extremely low mass white dwarfs are found in binaries with a typical mass ratio of 1:4. Statistically speaking, 95% of the white dwarf binaries have a total mass below the Chandrasekhar mass and thus are not Type Ia supernova progenitors. Yet half of the observed binaries will merge in less than 6 Gyr due to gravitational wave radiation; probable outcomes include single massive white dwarfs and stable mass transfer AM CVn binaries.

  17. Influence of plasma pedestal profiles on access to ELM-free regimes in ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedev, S. Yu.; Ivanov, A. A.; Martynov, A. A.; Poshekhonov, Yu. Yu.; Konovalov, S. V.; Polevoi, A. R.

    2016-05-01

    The influence of current density and pressure gradient profiles in the pedestal on the access to the regimes free from edge localized modes (ELMs) like quiescent H-mode in ITER is investigated. Using the simulator of MHD modes localized near plasma boundary based on the KINX code, calculations of the ELM stability were performed for the ITER plasma in scenarios 2 and 4 under variations of density and temperature profiles with the self-consistent bootstrap current in the pedestal. Low pressure gradient values at the separatrix, the same position of the density and temperature pedestals and high poloidal beta values facilitate reaching high current density in the pedestal and a potential transition into the regime with saturated large scale kink modes. New version of the localized MHD mode simulator allows one to compute the growth rates of ideal peeling-ballooning modes with different toroidal mode numbers and to determine the stability region taking into account diamagnetic stabilization. The edge stability diagrams computations and sensitivity studies of the stability limits to the value of diamagnetic frequency show that diamagnetic stabilization of the modes with high toroidal mode numbers can help to access the quiescent H-mode even with high plasma density but only with low pressure gradient values at the separatrix. The limiting pressure at the top of the pedestal increases for higher plasma density. With flat density profile the access to the quiescent H-mode is closed even with diamagnetic stabilization taken into account, while toroidal mode numbers of the most unstable peeling-ballooning mode decrease from n = 10-40 to n = 3-20.

  18. Evaporation and Vapor Shielding of CFC Targets Exposed to Plasma Heat Fluxes Relevant to ITER ELMs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safronov, V.; Arkhipov, N.I.; Toporkov, D.A.; Zhitlukhin, A.M. [Troitsk Inst. for Innovation and Fusion Research, TRINITI, Kostromskaya, 12A, 79, RU-142092 Troitsk, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Landman, I. [FZK-Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Association Euratom-FZK, Technik und Umwelt, Postfach 3640, D-7602l Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Carbon-fibre composite (CFC) is foreseen presently as armour material for the divertor target in ITER. During the transient processes such as instabilities of Edge Localized Modes (ELMs) the target as anticipated will be exposed to the plasma heat loads of a few MJ/m{sup 2} on the time scale of a fraction of ms, which causes an intense evaporation at the target surface and contaminates tokamak plasma by evaporated carbon. The ITER transient loads are not achievable at existing tokamaks therefore for testing divertor armour materials other facilities, in particular plasma guns are employed. In the present work the CFC targets have been tested for ITER at the plasma gun facility MK- 200 UG in Troitsk by ELM relevant heat fluxes. The targets in the applied magnetic field up to 2 T were irradiated by hydrogen plasma streams of diameter 6 - 8 cm, impact ion energy 2 - 3 keV, pulse duration 0.05 ms and energy density varying in the range 0.05 - 1 MJ/m{sup 2}. Primary attention has been focused on the measurement of evaporation threshold and investigation of carbon vapor properties. Fast infrared pyrometer, optical and VUV spectrometers, framing cameras and plasma calorimeters were applied as diagnostics. The paper reports the results obtained on the evaporation threshold of CFC, the evaporation rate of the carbon fibers oriented parallel and perpendicular to the exposed target surface, the velocity of carbon vapor motion along and across the magnetic field lines, and the parameters of carbon plasma such as temperature, density and ionization state measured up to the distance 15 cm at varying plasma load. First experimental results on investigation of the vapor shield onset conditions are presented also. (authors)

  19. ELM simulation experiments using transient heat and particle load produced by a magnetized coaxial plasma gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoda, K.; Sakuma, I.; Iwamoto, D.; Kikuchi, Y.; Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.

    2011-10-01

    It is considered that thermal transient events such as type I edge-localized modes (ELMs) and disruptions will limit the lifetime of plasma-facing components (PFCs) in ITER. It is predicted that the heat load onto the PFCs during type I ELMs in ITER is 0.2-2MJ/m2 with pulse length of ~0.1-1ms. We have investigated interaction between transient heat and particle load and the PFCs by using a magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG) at University of Hyogo. In the experiment, a pulsed plasma with duration of ~0.5ms, incident ion energy of ~30eV, and surface absorbed energy density of ~0.3-0.7MJ/m2 was produced by the MCPG. However, no melting occurred on a tungsten surface exposed to a single plasma pulse of ~0.7MJ/m2, while cracks clearly appeared at the edge part of the W surface. Thus, we have recently started to improve the performance of the MCPG in order to investigate melt layer dynamics of a tungsten surface such as vapor cloud formation. In the modified MCPG, the capacitor bank energy for the plasma discharge is increased from 24.5 kJ to 144 kJ. In the preliminary experiments, the plasmoid with duration of ~0.6 ms, incident ion energy of ~ 40 eV, and the surface absorbed energy density of ~2 MJ/m2 was successfully produced at the gun voltage of 6 kV.

  20. Melatonin enhances the recovery of cryopreserved shoot tips of American elm (Ulmus americana L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchendu, Esther E; Shukla, Mukund R; Reed, Barbara M; Saxena, Praveen K

    2013-11-01

    Climate change and global migrations of people and goods have exposed trees to new diseases and abiotic challenges that threaten the survival of species. In vitro germplasm storage via cryopreservation is an effective tool to ensure conservation of tree species, but plant cells and tissues are exposed to multiple stresses during the cryopreservation process. The current study was designed to evaluate the potential of melatonin to improve survival through the process of cryopreservation. Shoot tips of in vitro-grown plantlets and dormant winter buds of American elm were successfully cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen (LN) at -196°C under controlled environmental conditions following melatonin treatment and cold acclimation with either vitrification or encapsulation–vitrification protocols. Explants had optimal regrowth following cryopreservation when treated with the plant vitrification solution#2 (PVS2) for 10 min. Supplementation of both preculture and regrowth media with melatonin significantly enhanced regrowth of frozen shoots compared with the untreated control (P < 0.05). Approximately 80–100% of shoot explants grew under optimized conditions using melatonin-enriched media. Shoot tips of dormant winter buds consistently produced nearly 100% regrowth with both techniques. The main steps of the optimized protocol are14-day cold-acclimated cultures exposed to preculture medium with 0.1–0.5 lM melatonin for 24 hr, application of PVS2 for 10 min, rapid cooling in LN, rapid rewarming, removal of cryoprotectants, and recovery on a medium supplemented with 0.1–0.5 lM melatonin. Our results demonstrate the usefulness of the antioxidant melatonin for long-term storage of naturally resistant elm germplasm.

  1. H/He irradiation on tungsten exposed to ELM-like thermal shocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemahieu, Nathan, E-mail: Nathan.Lemahieu@UGent.be [Institute for Energy and Climate Research, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41 B4, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Institute of Interfacial Process Engineering and Plasma Technology IGVP, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 31, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Balden, Martin; Elgeti, Stefan; Greuner, Henri [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Linke, Jochen [Institute for Energy and Climate Research, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Maier, Hans [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Pintsuk, Gerald; Wirtz, Marius [Institute for Energy and Climate Research, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Van Oost, Guido [Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41 B4, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Noterdaeme, Jean-Marie [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41 B4, 9000 Gent (Belgium)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • After ELM-like thermal shocks, tungsten was exposed to H/He particle fluxes. • The influence of combined loading conditions on the damage behaviour was studied. • Roughened surfaces do not alter H/He induced surface modifications. • Cracks interact with the particle flux, resulting in phenomena such as crack bridging. - Abstract: ELM-like thermal shocks and H/He particle exposure were subsequently applied on tungsten samples. Polished test specimens underwent in the JUDITH 1 electron beam facility 100 transient thermal events with a duration of 1 ms. The absorbed heat flux was 0.4 GW m{sup −2} and 1.5 GW m{sup −2}, which is above the material's damage threshold. These experiments were done at room temperature and with the samples heated to 400 °C base temperature. Depending on the loading conditions the test specimens have either a crack network or showed surface roughening. The samples were then loaded in the GLADIS facility at different surface temperatures with a mixed H/He beam with a flux of 3.7 × 10{sup 21} m{sup −2} s{sup −1}. Post-mortem analysis showed that the roughened surface did not alter the H/He induced surface modifications. In contrast to that on the test specimens that exhibited crack formation, phenomena such as bubble creation along the crack edge, formation of a shallow layer of nano-structures covering the crack opening, and the emerging of a porous structure which partially fills the crack are observed.

  2. Cold tolerance and supercooling capacity in overwintering adults of elm leaf beetle Xanthogaleruca luteola (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soudi, Sh; Moharramipour, S

    2011-12-01

    Elm leaf beetle, Xanthogaleruca luteola (Muller) is one of the key pests of elm trees all over the world, and survives winter in reproductive diapause in sheltered locations. Seasonal variation of whole body supercooling points (SCPs), LT50 (temperature at which 50% of the test individuals die) and survival rate after exposure to subzero temperatures were determined in field collected adults during October 2008 to May 2009 and October 2009 to May 2010. The SCP of adults decreased significantly from October (median=-13.8°C) to January (median=-20.7°C) in first year, relatively similar results was observed in the second year. The lowest LT50 was observed in overwintering adults collected in January (-16.81°C) in the first year and December (-15.59°C) in the second year. Mortality at -15°C for 24 h was >70% in early autumn in both years whereas it decreased to lower than 45% in early winter, the highest mortality (100%) was observed in adults collected in May in both years. Cold acclimated adults (30 d, 5°C) in November 2008 exhibited significantly higher SCP (-12.21±0.64°C) than nonacclimated adults (-15.57±1.35°C). A 30-d exposure to 5°C caused >20% mortality in November, while <9% mortality was observed in adults collected in December and January 2008. Overwintering adults died upon freezing and the lower lethal temperatures were within the range of SCP, indicating that X. luteola is a freeze intolerant insect.

  3. Comparative study of cogasification and co-combustion of communal sewage sludge in brown coal fuelled plants; Vergleich der Mitvergasung und Mitverbrennung kommunaler Klaerschlaemme in braunkohlegefeuerten Anlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer, H.P.; Bierbaum, K.; Adlhoch, W.; Thomas, G. [Rheinbraun AG, Koeln (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Co-combustion and cogasification of sewage sludge in brown coal fuelled plants are compared, and an economic assessment is made. (ABI) [Deutsch] Die Mitverbrennung und Mitvergasung von Klaerschlamm in braunkohlegefeuerten Anlagen werden verglichen und auf ihre Wirtschaftlichkeit hin untersucht. (ABI)

  4. Comparing in Cylinder Pressure Modelling of a DI Diesel Engine Fuelled on Alternative Fuel Using Two Tabulated Chemistry Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngayihi Abbe, Claude Valery; Nzengwa, Robert; Danwe, Raidandi

    2014-01-01

    The present work presents the comparative simulation of a diesel engine fuelled on diesel fuel and biodiesel fuel. Two models, based on tabulated chemistry, were implemented for the simulation purpose and results were compared with experimental data obtained from a single cylinder diesel engine. The first model is a single zone model based on the Krieger and Bormann combustion model while the second model is a two-zone model based on Olikara and Bormann combustion model. It was shown that both models can predict well the engine's in-cylinder pressure as well as its overall performances. The second model showed a better accuracy than the first, while the first model was easier to implement and faster to compute. It was found that the first method was better suited for real time engine control and monitoring while the second one was better suited for engine design and emission prediction.

  5. A cycle simulation model for predicting the performance of a diesel engine fuelled by diesel and biodiesel blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gogoi, T.K. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Tezpur University, Napaam, Tezpur, Assam 784028 (India); Baruah, D.C. [Energy Department, Tezpur University, Napaam, Tezpur, Assam 784028 (India)

    2010-03-15

    Among the alternative fuels, biodiesel and its blends are considered suitable and the most promising fuel for diesel engine. The properties of biodiesel are found similar to that of diesel. Many researchers have experimentally evaluated the performance characteristics of conventional diesel engines fuelled by biodiesel and its blends. However, experiments require enormous effort, money and time. Hence, a cycle simulation model incorporating a thermodynamic based single zone combustion model is developed to predict the performance of diesel engine. The effect of engine speed and compression ratio on brake power and brake thermal efficiency is analysed through the model. The fuel considered for the analysis are diesel, 20%, 40%, 60% blending of diesel and biodiesel derived from Karanja oil (Pongamia Glabra). The model predicts similar performance with diesel, 20% and 40% blending. However, with 60% blending, it reveals better performance in terms of brake power and brake thermal efficiency. (author)

  6. T wave alternans during exercise and atrial pacing in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohnloser, S. H.; Klingenheben, T.; Zabel, M.; Li, Y. G.; Albrecht, P.; Cohen, R. J.

    1997-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Evidence is accumulating that microvolt T wave alternans (TWA) is a marker of increased risk for ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Initially, atrial pacing was used to elevate heart rate and elicit TWA. More recently, a noninvasive approach has been developed that elevates heart rate using exercise. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 30 consecutive patients with a history of ventricular tachyarrhythmias, the spectral method was used to detect TWA during both atrial pacing and submaximal exercise testing. The concordance rate for the presence or absence of TWA using the two measurement methods was 84%. There was a patient-specific heart rate threshold for the detection of TWA that averaged 100 +/- 14 beats/min during exercise compared with 97 +/- 9 beats/min during right atrial pacing (P = NS). Beyond this threshold, there was a significant and comparable increase in level of TWA with decreasing pacing cycle length and increasing exercise heart rates. CONCLUSIONS: The present study is the first to demonstrate that microvolt TWA can be assessed reliably and noninvasively during exercise stress. There is a patient-specific heart rate threshold beyond which TWA continues to increase with increasing heart rates. Heart rate thresholds for the onset of TWA measured during atrial pacing and exercise stress were comparable, indicating that heart rate alone appears to be the main factor of determining the onset of TWA during submaximal exercise stress.

  7. Cardiac pacing in left bundle branch/ bifascicular block patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maddali Madan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary concern in patients with bifascicular block is the increased risk of progression to complete heart block. Further, an additional first-degree A-V block in patients with bifascicular block or LBBB might increase the risk of block progression. Anesthesia, monitoring and surgical techniques can induce conduction defects and bradyarrhythmias in patients with pre-existing bundle branch block. In the setting of an acute MI, several different types of conduction disturbance may become manifest and complete heart block occurs usually in patients with acute myocardial infarction more commonly if there is pre-existing or new bundle branch block. The question that arises is whether it is necessary to insert a temporary pacing catheter in patients with bifascicular block undergoing anesthesia. It is important that an anesthesiologist should be aware of the indications for temporary cardiac pacing as well as the current recommendations for permanent pacing in patients with chronic bifascicular and trifascicular block. This article also highlights the recent guidelines for temporary transvenous pacing in the setting of acute MI and the different pacing modalities that are available for an anesthesiologist.

  8. Exposure assessment of particulates originating from diesel and CNG fuelled engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oravisjaervi, K.; Pietikaeinen, M.; Keiski, R. L. (Univ. of Oulu, Dept. of Process and Environmental Engineering (Finland)). email: kati.oravisjarvi@oulu.fi; Voutilainen, A. (Univ. of Kuopio, Dept. of Physics (Finland)); Haataja, M. (Oulu Univ. of Applied Sciences (Finland); Univ. of Oulu, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering (Finland)); Ruuskanen, J. (Univ. of Kuopio, Dept. of Environmental Sciences (Finland)); Rautio, A. (Univ. of Oulu, Thule Inst. (Finland))

    2009-07-01

    Particulates emitted from combustion engines have been a great concern in past years due to their adverse health effects, such as pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases, morbidity and mortality. The source of particulates can be stationary and transient, such as gas and oil fuelled engines, turbines and boilers. Particulate matter (PM) dispersed into ambient air can be classified in many ways: the mechanism of the formation, the size and the composition. Fine particles (PM2.5) are particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 mum and particles, greater than 2.5 mum in diameter are generally referred to as coarse particles (PM10). PM2.5 is also called the respirable fraction, because they can penetrate to the unciliated regions of the lung. Fine particles consist of so called ultrafine particles (an aerodynamic diameter less than 0.1 mum). The sizes of particulates emitted from combustion processes range between 10 nm and 100 mum, and are usually a mixture of unburned and partially burned hydrocarbons. Diesel exhaust particles have a mass median diameter of 0.05-1.0 mum. They are a complex mixture of elemental carbon, a variety of hydrocarbons, sulphur compounds, and other species. They consist of a numerous spherical primary particles, which are agglomerated into aggregates. Particles from natural gas engine emissions range from 0.01-0.7 mum. Increase in PM10 pollution has been found to be associated with a range of adverse health effects, such as increased use of medication for asthma, attacks of asthma in patients with pre-existing asthma, attacks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), deaths from respiratory causes, admission to hospital for cardiovascular causes, deaths from heart attacks and deaths from strokes. While it is unknown, which particulate matter component is the most hazardous for humans, a number of factors suggest that ultrafine particles may be more toxic than larger particles. Ultrafine particles have a large surface area per

  9. The effect of EGR rates on NOX and smoke emissions of an IDI diesel engine fuelled with Jatropha biodiesel blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gomaa, A.J. Alimin, K.A. Kamarudin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The depletion of fossil fuels and the worst impact on environmental pollution caused of their burning have led to the search for renewable clean energies. Nowadays, there are many sources of renewable energy. Biodiesel is just one source, but a very important one. Biodiesel has been known as an attractive alternative fuel although biodiesel produced from edible oil is very expensive than conventional diesel. Therefore, the uses of biodiesel produced from non-edible oils are much better option. Currently Jatropha biodiesel (JBD is receiving attention as an alternative fuel for diesel engine. However, previous studies have reported that combustion of JBD emitted higher nitrogen oxides (NOX, while hydrocarbon (HC and smoke emissions were lower than conventional diesel fuel. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR is one of the techniques being used to reduce NOX emission from diesel engines; because it decreases both flame temperature and oxygen concentration in the combustion chamber. Some studies succeeded to reduce NOX emission from biodiesel fuelled engines using EGR; but they observed increase in smoke emission with increasing engine load and EGR rate. The aim of the present work is to investigate the effect of EGR on an indirect injection (IDI diesel engine fuelled with JBD blends in order to reduce NOX and smoke emissions. A 4-cylinder, water-cooled, turbocharged, IDI diesel engine was used for investigation. Smoke, NOX, carbon monoxide (CO and carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions were recorded and various engine performance parameters were also evaluated. The results showed that, at 5% EGR with JB5, both NOX and smoke opacity were reduced by 27% and 17% respectively. Furthermore, JB20 along with 10% EGR was also able to reduce both NOX and smoke emission by 36% and 31%, respectively compared to diesel fuel without EGR.

  10. Galaxy Zoo: the effect of bar-driven fuelling on the presence of an active galactic nucleus in disc galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Melanie A.; Willett, Kyle W.; Fortson, Lucy F.; Cardamone, Carolin N.; Schawinski, Kevin; Cheung, Edmond; Lintott, Chris J.; Masters, Karen L.; Melvin, Thomas; Simmons, Brooke D.

    2015-04-01

    We study the influence of the presence of a strong bar in disc galaxies which host an active galactic nucleus (AGN). Using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and morphological classifications from the Galaxy Zoo 2 project, we create a volume-limited sample of 19 756 disc galaxies at 0.01 < z < 0.05 which have been visually examined for the presence of a bar. Within this sample, AGN host galaxies have a higher overall percentage of bars (51.8 per cent) than inactive galaxies exhibiting central star formation (37.1 per cent). This difference is primarily due to known effects: that the presence of both AGN and galactic bars is strongly correlated with both the stellar mass and integrated colour of the host galaxy. We control for this effect by examining the difference in AGN fraction between barred and unbarred galaxies in fixed bins of mass and colour. Once this effect is accounted for, there remains a small but statistically significant increase that represents 16 per cent of the average barred AGN fraction. Using the L_{[O III]}/MBH ratio as a measure of AGN strength, we show that barred AGNs do not exhibit stronger accretion than unbarred AGNs at a fixed mass and colour. The data are consistent with a model in which bar-driven fuelling does contribute to the probability of an actively growing black hole, but in which other dynamical mechanisms must contribute to the direct AGN fuelling via smaller, non-axisymmetric perturbations.

  11. Does migratory distance affect fuelling in a medium-distance passerine migrant?: results from direct and step-wise simulated magnetic displacements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Ilieva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In birds, fat accumulation before and during migration has been shown to be endogenously controlled and tuned by, among other factors, the Earth's magnetic field. However, our knowledge about the influence of the geomagnetic field on the fuelling in migrating birds is still limited to just a few nocturnally migrating passerine species. In order to study if variations of the magnetic field can also influence the fuelling of both day- and night-migrating passerines, we caught first-year dunnocks (Prunella modularis and subjected them to three magnetic field conditions simulated by a system of magnetic coils: (1 local geomagnetic field of southern Sweden, (2 magnetic field corresponding to the centre of the expected wintering area, and (3 magnetic field met at the northern limit of the species' breeding distribution. We did not find a difference in mass increase between the birds kept in a local magnetic field and a field resembling their wintering area, irrespectively of the mode of magnetic displacement, i.e. direct or step-wise. However, the dunnocks magnetically displaced north showed a lower rate of fuelling in comparison to the control group, probably due to elevated activity. Compared with previous studies, our results suggest that the fuelling response to magnetic displacements during the migration period is specific to the eco-physiological situation. Future studies need to address if there is an effect of magnetic field manipulation on the level of migratory activity in dunnocks and how widespread the influence of local geomagnetic field parameters is on fuelling decisions in different bird species, which have different migratory strategies, distances and migration history.

  12. Cardiac Pacing and Defibrillation in Children and Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harinder R. Singh, MD, CCDS

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The population of children and young adults requiring a cardiac pacing device has been consistently increasing. The current generation of devices are small with a longer battery life, programming capabilities that can cater to the demands of the young patients and ability to treat brady and tachyarrhythmias as well as heart failure. This has increased the scope and clinical indications of using these devices. As patients with congenital heart disease (CHD comprise majority of these patients requiring devices, the knowledge of indications, pacing leads and devices, anatomical variations and the technical skills required are different than that required in the adult population. In this review we attempt to discuss these specific points in detail to improve the understanding of cardiac pacing in children and young adults.

  13. Optogenetics for in vivo cardiac pacing and resynchronization therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussinovitch, Udi; Gepstein, Lior

    2015-07-01

    Abnormalities in the specialized cardiac conduction system may result in slow heart rate or mechanical dyssynchrony. Here we apply optogenetics, widely used to modulate neuronal excitability, for cardiac pacing and resynchronization. We used adeno-associated virus (AAV) 9 to express the Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) transgene at one or more ventricular sites in rats. This allowed optogenetic pacing of the hearts at different beating frequencies with blue-light illumination both in vivo and in isolated perfused hearts. Optical mapping confirmed that the source of the new pacemaker activity was the site of ChR2 transgene delivery. Notably, diffuse illumination of hearts where the ChR2 transgene was delivered to several ventricular sites resulted in electrical synchronization and significant shortening of ventricular activation times. These findings highlight the unique potential of optogenetics for cardiac pacing and resynchronization therapies.

  14. Pacing during an ultramarathon running event in hilly terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo A. Kerhervé

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose The dynamics of speed selection as a function of distance, or pacing, are used in recreational, competitive, and scientific research situations as an indirect measure of the psycho-physiological status of an individual. The purpose of this study was to determine pacing on level, uphill and downhill sections of participants in a long (>80 km ultramarathon performed on trails in hilly terrain. Methods Fifteen ultramarathon runners competed in a  173 km event (five finished at  103 km carrying a Global-Positioning System (GPS device. Using the GPS data, we determined the speed, relative to average total speed, in level (LEV, uphill (UH and downhill (DH gradient categories as a function of total distance, as well as the correlation between overall performance and speed variability, speed loss, and total time stopped. Results There were no significant differences in normality, variances or means in the relative speed in 173-km and 103-km participants. Relative speed decreased in LEV, UH and DH. The main component of speed loss occurred between 5% and 50% of the event distance in LEV, and between 5% and 95% in UH and DH. There were no significant correlations between overall performance and speed loss, the variability of speed, or total time stopped. Conclusions Positive pacing was observed at all gradients, with the main component of speed loss occurring earlier (mixed pacing in LEV compared to UH and DH. A speed reserve (increased speed in the last section was observed in LEV and UH. The decrease in speed and variability of speed were more important in LEV and DH than in UH. The absence of a significant correlation between overall performance and descriptors of pacing is novel and indicates that pacing in ultramarathons in trails and hilly terrain differs to other types of running events.

  15. Scrape-off layer ion temperature measurements at the divertor target during type III and type I ELMs in MAST measured by RFEA

    CERN Document Server

    Elmore, S; Fishpool, G; Kirk, A; Thornton, A J; Walkden, N R; Harrison, J R

    2016-01-01

    In future nuclear fusion reactors high heat load events, such as edge-localised modes (ELMs), can potentially damage divertor materials and release impurities into the main plasma, limiting plasma performance. The most difficult to handle are type I ELMs since they carry the largest fraction of energy from the plasma and therefore deposit the largest heat flux at the target and on first wall materials. Knowing the temperature of the ions released from ELM events is important since it determines the potential sputtering they would cause from plasma facing materials. To make measurements of Ti by retarding field energy analyser (RFEA) during type I ELMs a new operational technique has been used to allow faster measurements to be made; this is called the fast swept technique (FST).

  16. [Anesthesic management of thoracic aortic stent graft deployment using rapid ventricular pacing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Akio; Kunisawa, Takayuki; Katsumi, Norifumi; Nagashima, Michio; Takahata, Osamu; Iwasaki, Hiroshi

    2008-08-01

    Controlled hypotension is useful for accurate deployment of an aortic endograft. We describe the use of rapid ventricular pacing during thoracic aortic stent graft deployment. Anesthesia was induced and maintained with intravenous propofol and remifentanil. A pulmonary artery catheter with pacing function was introduced, and rapid ventricular pacing was started before stent graft deployment. Pacing mode was VVI and pacing rate was 120-160 beats min(-1). Aortic pressure and flow decreased immediately and were maintained at low levels during surgical manipulation. After stopping rapid ventricular pacing, heart rate and aortic pressure recovered immediately. Rapid ventricular pacing was performed 4 times, and there were no complications such as entailed arrhythmia. With rapid ventricular pacing maneuver, which is thought to cause a rapid change in cardiac output, continuous cardiac output measurement can be a useful monitor. This procedure has advantages over pharmacologic or other methods of aortic pressure reduction. Rapid ventricular pacing is safe and effective during stent graft positioning and deployment.

  17. Application of SVM and ELM Methods to Predict Location and Magnitude Leakage of Pipelines on Water Distribution Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Ejah Umraeni Salam

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the system of leakage of pipelines detection will be done by a computerized technique by using analysis of pressure monitoring as a determinant of presence of pipeline leaks in the water distribution network. The pressure data obtained from EPANET software, namely a modeling in a hydraulic system. This study uses two methods, artificial intelligence, namely Support Vector Machine (SVM and Extreme Learning Machine (ELM which the results can be compared in order to predict the magnitude and location of leakage. Overall, both of these methods can be used to predict the magnitude and location of leakage. The accuracy of predictions for the magnitude and location of leakage of these methods is based on the value of NRMSE. In this case the results obtained by using the method of ELM are more accurate compared than the method of SVM of the entire pipeline systems.

  18. Estimation of the dust production rate from the tungsten armour after repetitive ELM-like heat loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestchanyi, S.; Garkusha, I.; Makhlaj, V.; Landman, I.

    2011-12-01

    Experimental simulations for the erosion rate of tungsten targets under ITER edge-localized mode (ELM)-like surface heat loads of 0.75 MJ m-2 causing surface melting and of 0.45 MJ m-2 without melting have been performed in the QSPA-Kh50 plasma accelerator. Analytical considerations allow us to conclude that for both energy deposition values the erosion mechanism is solid dust ejection during surface cracking under the action of thermo-stress. Tungsten influx into the ITER containment of NW~5×1018 W per medium size ELM of 0.75 MJ m-2 and 0.25 ms time duration has been estimated. The radiation cooling power of Prad=150-300 MW due to such influx of tungsten is intolerable: it should cool the ITER core to 1 keV within a few seconds.

  19. Investigation of inter-ELM ion heat transport in the H-mode pedestal of ASDEX Upgrade plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viezzer, E.; Fable, E.; Cavedon, M.; Angioni, C.; Dux, R.; Laggner, F. M.; Bernert, M.; Burckhart, A.; McDermott, R. M.; Pütterich, T.; Ryter, F.; Willensdorfer, M.; Wolfrum, E.; the ASDEX Upgrade Team; the EUROfusion MST1 Team

    2017-02-01

    The ion heat transport in the pedestal of H-mode plasmas is investigated in various H-mode discharges with different pedestal ion collisionalities. Interpretive modelling suggests that in all analyzed discharges the ion heat diffusivity coefficient, {χ\\text{i}} , in the pedestal is close to the neoclassical prediction within the experimental uncertainties. The impact of changing the deposition location of the electron cyclotron resonance heating on the ion heat transport has been studied. The effect on the background profiles is small. The pre-ELM (edge localized modes) edge profiles as well as the behaviour of the electron temperature and density, ion temperature and impurity toroidal rotation during the ELM cycle are very similar in discharges with on- and off-axis ECRH heating. No significant deviation of {χ\\text{i}} from neoclassics is observed when changing the ECRH deposition location to the plasma edge.

  20. Tungsten divertor sourcing in DIII-D H-mode discharges and its impact on core impurity accumulation in different ELM regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, T.; Ding, R.; Guterl, J.; Briesemeister, A.; Unterberg, E. A.; Guo, H. Y.; Leonard, A. W.; Thomas, D. M.; McLean, A. G.; Victor, B.; Rudakov, D.; Grierson, B.; Watkins, J. G.; Elder, J. D.; Stangeby, P. C.

    2016-10-01

    Significant progress has been made understanding W sourcing during Type I ELMy H-mode on DIII-D using fast high-resolution measurements of W sourcing coupled with OEDGE/ERO and TRIM.SP modeling. ERO modeling of the inter-ELM phase, using a new OEDGE capability for charge state-resolved carbon ion fluxes and a material mixing model, shows measured W erosion is well explained by C- >W sputtering. Ion impact energies in the DIII-D divertor during ELMs, inferred from ratios of heat flux to ion flux, are 200-500 eV. Comparisons with TRIM.SP indicate C- >W sputtering dominates W sourcing during ELMs. This is in contrast to JET where ion impact energies are 3-5 keV during ELMs, predicted by the ``free streaming model,'' and D- >W sputtering strongly contributes to W sourcing. Fast measurements of W erosion dynamics during ELMs agree well with TRIM.SP-based sputtering models assuming C/W surface concentrations of 0.5-0.8 and a 2% C2+ ion flux fraction. Core W accumulation and SOL W density measurements made during the DIII-D high-Z tile array mini-campaign correlate with ELM frequency and W source rate. Supported by US DOE under DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  1. Semiochemical-mediated flight strategies of two invasive elm bark beetles: a potential factor in competitive displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jana C; Hamud, Shakeeb M; Negrón, José F; Witcosky, Jeffrey J; Seybold, Steven J

    2010-04-01

    A seven-state survey showed that the recently detected invasive Asian banded elm bark beetle, Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov, was abundant in areas of Colorado and Wyoming, whereas the long-established European elm bark beetle, S. multistriatus (Marsham), was not as abundant. In one of a series of studies to evaluate whether S. schevyrewi is competitively displacing S. multistriatus in their North American zone of sympatry, we characterized long-range flight responses infested or uninfested to small cut logs of American, Chinese, and Siberian elm, Ulmus americana, U. parvifolia, and U. pumila. Trials were conducted in Colorado and Wyoming to test the flight response of S. schevyrewi; in California to test the response of S. multistriatus; and in Nevada to test the responses of both species simultaneously. Studies with S. schevyrewi showed that males and females aggregated toward Ulmus spp. host volatiles but provided no evidence of a putative aggregation pheromone during the 0- to 48- or 48- to 96-h period of infestation. In contrast, S. multistriatus was attracted to U. pumila over unbaited controls, more to U. pumila infested with conspecific females than without, and more during the 48- to 96- versus 0- to 48-h period of infestation. This confirmed that male and female S. multistriatus aggregated toward host volatiles and that females produced an aggregation pheromone. In a cross-attraction study, S. schevyrewi displayed neither flight preference nor interruption to U. pumila infested with conspecifics, heterospecifics, or a mix of both species. Response of S. multistriatus was too low to draw conclusions. Although S. multistriatus aggregates moderately to host volatiles and strongly to female-derived pheromones emitted after a few days, S. multistriatus may have a relative disadvantage by selecting elm hosts more slowly than S. schevyrewi, which aggregates very strongly to host volatiles. The differential long-range host location strategy may be one factor in a

  2. Damage to Preheated Tungsten Targets after Multiple Plasma Impacts Simulating ITER ELMs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garkusha, I.E.; Bandura, A.N.; Byrka, O.V.; Chebotarev, V.V.; Makhlay, V.A.; Tereshin, V.I. [Kharkov Inst. of Physics and Technology, Inst. of Plasma Physics of National Science Center, Akademicheskaya street, 1, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Landman, I.; Pestchanyi, S. [FZK-Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Association Euratom-FZK, Technik und Umwelt, Postfach 3640, D-7602 1 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: The energy loads onto ITER divertor surfaces associated with the Type I ELMs are expected to be up to 1 MJ/m{sup 2} during 0.1-0.5 ms, with the number of pulses about 103 per discharge. Tungsten is a candidate material for major part of the surface, but its brittleness can result in substantial macroscopic erosion after the repetitive heat loads. To minimize the brittle destruction, tungsten may be preheated above the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature. In this work the behavior of preheated tungsten targets under repetitive ELM-like plasma pulses is studied in simulation experiments with the quasi-stationary plasma accelerator QSPA Kh-50. The targets have been exposed up to 450 pulses of the duration 0.25 ms and the heat loads either 0.45 MJ/m{sup 2} or 0.75 MJ/m{sup 2}, which is respectively below and above the melting threshold. During the exposures the targets were permanently kept preheated at 650 deg. C by a heater at target backside. In the course of exposures the irradiated surfaces were examined after regular numbers of pulses using the SEM and the optical microscopy. The profilometry, XRD, microhardness and weight loss measurements have been performed, as well as comparisons of surface damages after the heat loads both below and above the melting threshold. It is obtained that macro-cracks do not develop on the preheated surface. After the impacts with surface melting, a fine mesh of intergranular microcracks has appeared. The width of fine intergranular cracks grows with pulse number, achieving 1-1.5 microns after 100 pulses, and after 210 pulses the crack width increases up to 20 microns, which is comparable with grain sizes. Threshold changes in surface morphology resulting in corrugation structures and pits on the surface as well as importance of surface tension in resulted 'micro-brush' structures are discussed. Further evolution of the surface pattern is caused by loss of separated grains on exposed

  3. "Set the Pace": Nutrition Education DVD for Head Start Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedze, Pascasie; Orr, Robin A.; Chapman-Novakofski, Karen; Donovan, Sharon M.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood overweight remains a major public health problem and innovative nutrition education programs are still needed. Thus, the "Set the Pace" is a nutrition education DVD for Head Start parents which provides visual nutrition education and physical activities to incorporate in their daily routines. (Contains 1 table.)

  4. Hardware packet pacing using a DMA in a parallel computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Phillip; Vranas, Pavlos

    2013-08-13

    Method and system for hardware packet pacing using a direct memory access controller in a parallel computer which, in one aspect, keeps track of a total number of bytes put on the network as a result of a remote get operation, using a hardware token counter.

  5. Design Recommendations for Self-Paced Online Faculty Development Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzuto, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    An increased need for self-paced, online professional development opportunities in higher education has emerged from a variety of factors including dispersed geographic locations of faculty, full teaching loads, and institutional evaluation requirements. This article is a report of the examination of the design and evaluation of a self-paced…

  6. How do we perceive activity pacing in rheumatology care?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuperus, N.; Vliet Vlieland, T.; Brodin, N.

    2015-01-01

    that future research should focus on the effectiveness of activity pacing interventions and on appropriate outcome measures to assess its effectiveness, as selected by 64% and 82% of the panellists, respectively. Conclusions: The diversity and number of items included in the consensual list developed...

  7. 'Human paced' walking: Followers adopt stride time dynamics of leaders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marmelat, V.C.M.; Delignières, D.; Torre, K.; Beek, P.J.; Daffertshofer, A.

    2014-01-01

    Isochronous cueing is widely used in gait rehabilitation even though it alters the stride-time dynamics toward anti-persistent rather than the persistent, fractal fluctuations characteristic of human walking. In the present experiment we tested an alternative cueing method: pacing by a human. To thi

  8. 42 CFR 460.180 - Medicare payment to PACE organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... risk adjustment model. (5) CMS may adjust the monthly capitation amount to take into account other... or Federal workers' compensation, any no-fault insurance, or any liability insurance policy or plan, including a self-insured plan, the PACE organization may charge any of the following: (i) The...

  9. Self-Paced Instruction Methods in a Required Sophomore Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Franklin G.; Hossain, Muhammad A.

    1984-01-01

    Compares a personalized system of instruction (PSI) to the lecture method and linear self-paced instruction (LSPI) of teaching stoichiometry to undergraduate students. Discusses the methods used to assess student achievement which includes: the use of common midterms and final examinations; and modules, mini-courses and mini-course final exams.…

  10. The Effects of Self-Paced Blended Learning of Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balentyne, Phoebe; Varga, Mary Alice

    2016-01-01

    As online and blended learning gain more popularity in education, it becomes more important to understand their effects on student learning. The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of self-paced blended learning of mathematics on the attitudes and achievement of 26 high ability middle school students, and investigate the relationship…

  11. "Set the Pace": Nutrition Education DVD for Head Start Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedze, Pascasie; Orr, Robin A.; Chapman-Novakofski, Karen; Donovan, Sharon M.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood overweight remains a major public health problem and innovative nutrition education programs are still needed. Thus, the "Set the Pace" is a nutrition education DVD for Head Start parents which provides visual nutrition education and physical activities to incorporate in their daily routines. (Contains 1 table.)

  12. Entrainment of Activation during Ventricular Fibrillation (VF) by Distributed Pacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yiping; Moghe, Sachin; Patwardhan, Abhijit

    2002-03-01

    Optical mapping and pacing studies show excitable gaps during VF. This observation supports entrainment of activation by spatially distributed pacing. Such pacing approach would be enhanced by availability of an index of spatio-temporal heterogeneity in activation. We use simulations to demonstrate feasibility of entraining activations and of using spatially averaged coherence as an index of uniformity in activation. We used a Luo-Rudy model to simulate VF in a matrix of 400x400 cells. Stimuli were delivered from 8 rows of electrodes. Trans-membrane voltages from nine locations spanning the entrained area were used to compute 6 time-coherencies. Average of 6 coherencies was used as an index of uniformity of activations. Results showed that when stimuli were delivered at cycle lengths slightly shorter than intrinsic activation intervals, activations during VF could be entrained into a planar pattern. As expected, average coherence was low during native VF and increased during entrainment. Thus, distributed pacing and time-coherence may be used to entrain and modify activation during VF.

  13. 77 FR 3958 - Mortgage Assets Affected by PACE Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... that would flow from the same project if financed in any other manner? Question 7: How does the effect... cash flow to service the PACE obligation in addition to the homeowner-borrower's pre-existing financial... prepare environmental impact statement; request for scoping comments. SUMMARY: The Federal Housing Finance...

  14. The pace of shifting climate in marine and terrestrial ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burrows, Michael T.; Schoeman, David S.; Buckley, Lauren B.

    2011-01-01

    Climate change challenges organisms to adapt or move to track changes in environments in space and time. We used two measures of thermal shifts from analyses of global temperatures over the past 50 years to describe the pace of climate change that species should track: the velocity of climate cha...

  15. Gait coordination after stroke: Benefits of acoustically paced treadmill walking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, Melvyn; Lamoth, Claudine J.C.; Kwakkel, Gert; Van Wieringen, Piet C.W.; Beek, Peter J.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Gait coordination often is compromised after stroke. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of acoustically paced treadmill walking as a method for improving gait coordination in people after stroke. Participants: Ten people after stroke volunteered for the st

  16. Gait coordination after stroke: benefits of acoustically paced treadmill walking.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, M.; Lamoth, C.J.; Kwakkel, G.; Wieringen, P.C. van; Beek, P.J.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Gait coordination often is compromised after stroke. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of acoustically paced treadmill walking as a method for improving gait coordination in people after stroke. PARTICIPANTS: Ten people after stroke volunteered for the st

  17. Kentucky's Parent and Child Education (PACE) Program. Innovations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Kevin M.

    A lack of education is a major cause of poverty among many Kentucky citizens. In 1986, Kentucky's dropout rate was the second highest of the 50 states. That same year, Kentucky established the Parent and Child Education (PACE) Program in an effort to combat the problems of insufficient education and poverty that tend to be perpetuated from…

  18. Experimental and numerical simulations of ELM-like transient damage behaviors to different grade tungsten and tungsten alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang; Lian, Youyun; Chen, Lei; Chen, Zhenkui; Chen, Jiming; Duan, Xuru; Fan, Jinlian; Song, Jiupeng

    2015-08-01

    Transient heat loads, such as plasma disruptions and ELMs, could induce plastic deformations, cracking, melting, even fatigue cracks and creep of tungsten (W) surface. A high purity W, CVD-W coating, TiC dispersion strengthened and K doped tungsten alloys were tested in a 60 kW electron-beam facility by simulating the transient load events under different base temperatures. It was found that CVD-W, W-TiC and W-K alloys have higher crack thresholds than high purity W, meanwhile CVD-W is more sensitive to the crack disappearing at elevated base temperatures. On the other hand, repetitive pulse loading like ELMs can induce serious network cracks even the power density was quite lower than the crack threshold determined by a single shot. The ABAQUS code was used to simulate the crack behaviors of ITER grade pure W by a single shot and a FE-SAFE code was adopted to estimate the fatigue life under ELMs-like loads. A good agreement with experiment results was found.

  19. Simulations of fast ion wall loads in ASDEX Upgrade in the presence of magnetic perturbations due to ELM mitigation coils

    CERN Document Server

    Asunta, Otto; Kurki-Suonio, Taina; Koskela, Tuomas; Sipilä, Seppo; Snicker, Antti; Garcia-Muñoz, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The effect of ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) ELM mitigation coils on fast ion wall loads was studied with the fast particle following Monte Carlo code ASCOT. Neutral beam injected (NBI) particles were simulated in two AUG discharges both in the presence and in the absence of the magnetic field perturbation induced by the eight newly installed in-vessel coils. In one of the discharges (#26476) beams were applied individually, making it a useful basis for investigating the effect of the coils on different beams. However, no ELM mitigation was observed in #26476, probably due to the low plasma density. Therefore, another discharge (#26895) demonstrating clear ELM mitigation was also studied. The magnetic perturbation due to the in-vessel coils has a significant effect on the fast particle confinement, but only when total magnetic field, $B_{tot}$, is low. When $B_{tot}$ was high, the perturbation did not increase the losses, but merely resulted in redistribution of the wall power loads. Hence, it seems to be possible to ac...

  20. Ventricular pacing in single ventricles-A bad combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulic, Anica; Zimmerman, Frank J; Ceresnak, Scott R; Shetty, Ira; Motonaga, Kara S; Freter, Anne; Trela, Anthony V; Hanisch, Deb; Russo, Lisa; Avasarala, Kishor; Dubin, Anne M

    2017-06-01

    Chronic ventricular pacing (VP) is associated with systolic dysfunction in a subset of pediatric patients with heart block and structurally normal hearts. The effect of chronic VP in congenital heart disease is less well understood, specifically in the single-ventricle (SV) population. To determine the longitudinal effect of VP in SV patients. SV patients with heart block and dual-chamber pacemakers requiring >50% VP were compared with nonpaced (controls) SV patients matched for age, sex, and SV morphology. Patients were excluded if a prepacing echocardiogram was not available. Echocardiogram and clinical parameters were compared at baseline (prepacing) and at last follow-up in the paced group, and in controls when they were at ages similar to those of their paced-group matches. Twenty-two paced and 53 control patients from 2 institutions were followed for similar durations (6.6±5 years vs 7.6±7.6 years; P = .59). There was no difference between groups regarding baseline ventricular function or the presence of moderate-to-severe atrioventricular valvar regurgitation (AVVR). Paced patients were more likely to develop moderate-to-severe systolic dysfunction (68% vs 15%; P < .01) and AVVR (55% vs 8%; P < .001) and require heart failure medications (65% vs 21%; P < .001). Chronic VP was also associated with a higher risk of transplantation or death (odds ratio, 4.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-22.7; P = .04). SV patients requiring chronic VP are at higher risk of developing moderate-to-severe ventricular dysfunction and AVVR with an increased risk of death or transplantation compared with controls. New strategies to either limit VP or improve synchronization in this vulnerable population is imperative. Copyright © 2017 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. SolarPaces: genealogy of an international research program; SolarPaces: genealogie d`un programme international de recherche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pharabod, F.; Lede, J. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 75 - Paris (France); Lefevre, P.; D`Humieres, B.; Forget, F.

    1998-07-01

    What are the stakes of SolarPaces, the solar research program of the International Energy Agency (IEA)? The explanations are given by Francais Pharabod and Jacques Lede which analyze the France joining conditions in this program and evoke the industrial repercussions. (O.M.)

  2. Automated melanoma recognition in dermoscopic images based on extreme learning machine (ELM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md. Mahmudur; Alpaslan, Nuh

    2017-03-01

    Melanoma is considered a major health problem since it is the deadliest form of skin cancer. The early diagnosis through periodic screening with dermoscopic images can significantly improve the survival rate as well as reduce the treatment cost and consequent suffering of patients. Dermoscopy or skin surface microscopy provides in vivo inspection of color and morphologic structures of pigmented skin lesions (PSLs), rendering higher accuracy for detecting suspicious cases than it is possible via inspecting with naked eye. However, interpretation of dermoscopic images is time consuming and subjective, even for trained dermatologists. Therefore, there is currently a great interest in the development of computeraided diagnosis (CAD) systems for automated melanoma recognition. However, the majority of the CAD systems are still in the early development stage with lack of descriptive feature generation and benchmark evaluation in ground-truth datasets. This work is focusing on by addressing the various issues related to the development of such a CAD system with effective feature extraction from Non-Subsampled Contourlet Transform (NSCT) and Eig(Hess) histogram of oriented gradients (HOG) and lesion classification with efficient Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) due to its good generalization abilities and a high learning efficiency and evaluating its effectiveness in a benchmark data set of dermoscopic images towards the goal of realistic comparison and real clinical integration. The proposed research on melanoma recognition has huge potential for offering powerful services that would significantly benefit the present Biomedical Information Systems.

  3. Chronic atrial fibrillation and stroke in paced patients with sick sinus syndrome. Relevance of clinical characteristics and pacing modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgarbossa, E B; Pinski, S L; Maloney, J D; Simmons, T W; Wilkoff, B L; Castle, L W; Trohman, R G

    1993-09-01

    The goal of the report was to study the long-term incidence and the independent predictors for chronic atrial fibrillation and stroke in 507 paced patients with sick sinus syndrome, adjusting for differences in baseline clinical variables with multivariate analysis. From 1980 to 1989, we implanted 376 dual-chamber, 19 atrial, and 112 ventricular pacemakers to treat patients with sick sinus syndrome. After a maximum follow-up of 134 months (mean: 59 +/- 38 months for chronic atrial fibrillation, 65 +/- 37 months for stroke), actuarial incidence of chronic atrial fibrillation was 7% at 1 year, 16% at 5 years, and 28% at 10 years. Independent predictors for this event, from Cox's proportional hazards model, were history of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (P < .001; hazard ratio [HR] = 16.84), use of antiarrhythmic drugs before pacemaker implant (P < .001; HR = 2.25), ventricular pacing mode (P = .003; HR = 1.98), age (P = .005; HR = 1.03), and valvular heart disease (P = .008; HR = 2.05). For patients with preimplant history of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, independent predictors were prolonged episodes of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (P < .001; HR = 2.56), long history of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (P = .004; HR = 2.05), ventricular pacing mode (P = .025; HR = 1.69), use of antiarrhythmic drugs before pacemaker implant (P = .024; HR = 1.71), and age (P = .04; HR = 1.02). Actuarial incidence of stroke was 3% at 1 year, 5% at 5 years, and 13% at 10 years. Independent predictors for stroke were history of cerebrovascular disease (P < .001; HR = 5.22), ventricular pacing mode (P = .008; HR = 2.61), and history of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (P = .037; HR = 2.81). Development of chronic atrial fibrillation and stroke in paced patients with sick sinus syndrome are strongly determined by clinical variables and secondarily by the pacing modality. Ventricular pacing mode predicts chronic atrial fibrillation in patients with preimplant paroxysmal atrial fibrillation

  4. Reader Comment: A Realistic Appraisal of First Efforts at Self-Paced Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craver, W. Lionel, Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Examines a number of reasons for the apparent failure of self-paced instruction when it is first adopted by enthusiastic engineering instructors, and describes how and why the typical self-paced course improves during the second offering. (JR)

  5. Impact of the permanent ventricular pacing site on left ventricular function in children : a retrospective multicentre survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Geldorp, Irene E.; Delhaas, Tammo; Gebauer, Roman A.; Frias, Patrick; Tomaske, Maren; Friedberg, Mark K.; Tisma-Dupanovic, Svjetlana; Elders, Jan; Fruh, Andreas; Gabbarini, Fulvio; Kubus, Petr; Illikova, Viera; Tsao, Sabrina; Blank, Andreas Christian; Hiippala, Anita; Sluysmans, Thierry; Karpawich, Peter; Clur, Sally-Ann; Ganame, Xavier; Collins, Kathryn K.; Dann, Gisela; Thambo, Jean-Benoit; Trigo, Conceicao; Nagel, Bert; Papagiannis, John; Rackowitz, Annette; Marek, Jan; Nuernberg, Jan-Hendrik; Vanagt, Ward Y.; Prinzen, Frits W.; Janousek, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Background Chronic right ventricular (RV) pacing is associated with deleterious effects on cardiac function. Objective In an observational multicentre study in children with isolated atrioventricular (AV) block receiving chronic ventricular pacing, the importance of the ventricular pacing site on le

  6. SPARC fast reactor design : Design of two passively safe metal-fuelled sodium-cooled pool-type small modular fast reactors with Autonomous Reactivity Control

    OpenAIRE

    Lindström, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    In this master thesis a small modular sodium-cooled metal-fuelled pool-type fast reactor design, called SPARC - Safe and Passive with Autonomous Reactivity control, has been designed. The long term reactivity changes in the SPARC are managed by implementation of the the Autonomous Reactivity Control (ARC) system, which is the novelty of the design. The overall design is mainly based on the Integral Fast Reactor project (IFR), which experimentally demonstrated the passive safety characteristic...

  7. Contrasting H-mode behaviour with deuterium fuelling and nitrogen seeding in the all-carbon and metallic versions of JET

    CERN Document Server

    Maddison, G P; Alper, B; Arnoux, G; Balboa, I; Beurskens, M N A; Boboc, A; Brezinsek, S; Brix, M; Clever, M; Coelho, R; Coenen, J W; Coffey, I; Belo, P C da Silva Aresta; Devaux, S; Devynck, P; Eich, T; Felton, R C; Flanagan, J; Frassinetti, L; Garzotti, L; Groth, M; Jachmich, S; Järvinen, A; Joffrin, E; Kempenaars, M A H; Kruezi, U; Lawson, K D; Lehnen, M; Leyland, M J; Liu, Y; Lomas, P J; Lowry, C G; Marsen, S; Matthews, G F; McCormick, G K; Meigs, A G; Morris, A W; Neu, R; Nunes, I M; Oberkofler, M; Rimini, F G; Saarelma, S; Sieglin, B; Sips, A C C; Sirinelli, A; Stamp, M F; van Rooij, G J; Ward, D J; Wischmeier, M; contributors, JET EFDA

    2014-01-01

    The former all-carbon wall on JET has been replaced with beryllium in the main torus and tungsten in the divertor to mimic the surface materials envisaged for ITER. Comparisons are presented between Type I H-mode characteristics in each design by examining respective scans over deuterium fuelling and impurity seeding, required to ameliorate exhaust loads both in JET at full capability and in ITER.

  8. Effect of age and performance on pacing of marathon runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaidis PT

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Pantelis Theodoros Nikolaidis,1 Beat Knechtle2,3 1Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Attiki, Greece; 2Gesundheitszentrum St. Gallen, St. Gallen, 3Institute of Primary Care, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland Abstract: Pacing strategies in marathon runners have previously been examined, especially with regard to age and performance level separately. However, less information about the age × performance interaction on pacing in age-group runners exists. The aim of the present study was to examine whether runners with similar race time and at different age differ for pacing. Data (women, n=117,595; men, n=180,487 from the “New York City Marathon” between 2006 and 2016 were analyzed. A between–within subjects analysis of variance showed a large main effect of split on race speed (p<0.001, η2=0.538 with the fastest speed in the 5–10 km split and the slowest in the 35–40 km. A small sex × split interaction on race speed was found (p<0.001, η2=0.035 with men showing larger increase in speed at 5 km and women at 25 km and 40 km (end spurt. An age-group × performance group interaction on Δspeed was shown for both sexes at 5 km, 10 km, 15 km, 20 km, 25 km, 30 km, 35 km, and 40 km (p<0.001, 0.001≤η2≤0.004, where athletes in older age-groups presented a relatively more even pace compared with athletes in younger age-groups, a trend that was more remarkable in the relatively slow performance groups. So far, the present study is the first one to observe an age × performance interaction on pacing; ie, older runners pace differently (smaller changes than younger runners with similar race time. These findings are of great practical interest for coaches working with marathon runners of different age, but similar race time. Keywords: running, master athlete, endurance, aerobic capacity, fatigue, gender, race time

  9. Natural gas fuelled vehicles, energetic and environmental problems; Il gas naturale in autotrazione, aspetti energetici ed ambientali

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciancia, A.; Pede, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt.Energia

    1998-03-01

    The present report deals with the analysis and the presentation of the main problems concerning the introduction of the natural gas fuel for vehicles. The offer and demand side of the NGV market are analyzed, together with the presently available NG fuelled vehicles and the status of the technology for engines and on-board storage systems, with particular regard to the energetic and environmental performance of the system. Finally the NGV market development is presented, and the actors on the stage, showing the opportunities together with the possible obstacle to a wider diffusion of this technology. [Italiano] Il rapporto e` dedicato all`esposizione ed all`analisi delle principali tematiche afferenti all`introduzione del metano nel settore dell`autotrazione. Vengono quindi esaminati nell`ordine la situazione del mercato della domanda e dell`offerta di metano, le realizzazioni veicolari oggi disponibili, la tecnologia e le prestazioni dei motori alimentati a metano e quelle dei sistemi di accumulo a bordo, l`impatto ambientale di questi veicoli. Vengono infine trattati i temi dello sviluppo del mercato e degli attori di questo sviluppo, evidenziandone i possibili sbocchi insieme agli ostacoli che ne limitano la diffusione.

  10. Potential of renewable energy in large fossil-fuelled boilers; Potential erneuerbarer Energien in groesseren fossilen Feuerungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dettli, R.; Baur, M.; Philippen, D. [Econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Kernen, M. [Planair SA, La Sagne (Switzerland)

    2007-01-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the findings of a project that examined large heat generation systems used in Switzerland for the supply of heating services to several buildings via small and large district heating systems. Focus is placed on those using fossil fuels and the potential of using combined heat and power plants and renewable forms of energy such as heat-pumps and boilers fired with wood-chippings. The study was also extended to other large-scale, fossil-fuelled heating installations. The report discusses the setting up of a data base, the assessment of the potentials for fuel substitution, the economic viability of wood-fired systems and heat-pumps and the analysis of various factors that can obstruct the use of systems employing renewable forms of energy. Around 20 owners of large installations were interviewed on the subject. Strategic planning, studies, putting to tender, realisation and operation aspects are reviewed.

  11. Unintended Outcomes of University-Community Partnerships: Building Organizational Capacity with PACE International Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Kate; Clark, Lindie; Hammersley, Laura; Baker, Michaela; Rawlings-Sanaei, Felicity; D'ath, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Professional and Community Engagement (PACE) at Macquarie University provides experiential opportunities for students and staff to contribute to more just, inclusive and sustainable societies by engaging in activities with partner organizations. PACE International offers a range of opportunities with partners overseas. Underpinning PACE is a…

  12. Effects of Modality and Pace on Achievement, Mental Effort, and Positive Affect in Multimedia Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izmirli, Serkan; Kurt, Adile Askim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of instruction given with different multimedia modalities (written text + animation or narration + animation) on the academic achievement, cognitive load, and positive affect in different paces (learner-paced or system-paced); 97 freshmen university students divided into four groups taught in…

  13. "U-Pace" Instruction: Improving Student Success by Integrating Content Mastery and Amplified Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Diane M.; Pfeiffer, Heidi M.; Fleming, Raymond; Ports, Katie A.; Pedrick, Laura E.; Barnack-Tavlaris, Jessica L.; Jirovec, Danielle L.; Helion, Alicia M.; Swain, Rodney A.

    2013-01-01

    "U-Pace," an instructional intervention, has potential for widespread implementation because student behavior recorded in any learning management system is used by "U-Pace" instructors to tailor coaching of student learning based on students' strengths and motivations. "U-Pace" utilizes an online learning environment…

  14. Biventricular pacing as bridge to rapid recovery in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragulescu, Andreea; Bilska, Karolina; Van Doorn, Catharina; Goldman, Allan; Marek, Jan

    2010-09-01

    The authors present the unique case of an 8-month-old baby diagnosed with severe left ventricular failure of unknown etiology. Due to a lack of organ availability for this age, a mechanical assist device and assessment for cardiac transplantation were not offered. Subsequent comprehensive echocardiographic dyssynchrony assessment and the presence of left bundle branch block were suggestive of response to cardiac resynchronization therapy. Dual-chamber epicardial pacing was initiated, resulting in prompt marked clinical and echocardiographic improvement, which continued until complete normalization of cardiac function. The pacing system was safely turned off 6 months after its implantation. In conclusion, cardiac resynchronization therapy should be considered as a treatment option even in infancy, regardless of the etiology of disease and/or patient age. 2010 American Society of Echocardiography. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. 640 X 480 Pace HgCdTe FPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, Lester J.; Bailey, Robert B.; Cabelli, Scott A.; Cooper, Donald E.; McComas, Gail D.; Vural, Kadri; Tennant, William E.

    1992-12-01

    A hybrid HgCdTe 640 X 480 infrared (IR) focal plane array (FPA) that meets the sensitivity, resolution, and field-of-view requirements of high-performance medium wavelength infrared (MWIR) imaging systems has been developed. The key technology making this large, high sensitivity device producible is the epitaxial growth of HgCdTe on a CdTe-buffered, sapphire substrate (referred to as PACE, for Producible Alternative to CdTe for Epitaxy; PACE-I refers to sapphire). The device offers TV resolution with excellent sensitivity at temperatures below 120 K. Mean NE(Delta) T as low as 13 mK has been achieved at operating temperatures nonuniformity compensation.

  16. The pace of vocabulary growth helps predict later vocabulary skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Meredith L; Raudenbush, Stephen W; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Children vary widely in the rate at which they acquire words--some start slow and speed up, others start fast and continue at a steady pace. Do early developmental variations of this sort help predict vocabulary skill just prior to kindergarten entry? This longitudinal study starts by examining important predictors (socioeconomic status [SES], parent input, child gesture) of vocabulary growth between 14 and 46 months (n = 62) and then uses growth estimates to predict children's vocabulary at 54 months. Velocity and acceleration in vocabulary development at 30 months predicted later vocabulary, particularly for children from low-SES backgrounds. Understanding the pace of early vocabulary growth thus improves our ability to predict school readiness and may help identify children at risk for starting behind.

  17. De pace fidei: de la libertad a la tolerancia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enzo Solari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este articulo resume las articulaciones fundamentales de De pace fidei, luego de lo cual muestra algunas de sus mejores interpretaciones recientes y plantea ciertas cuestiones que adn merece la pena explorar en aquella obra, particularmente la de su conexión con la filosofia de la libertad del Cusano y la del reflejo ya renacentista que tal filosofia halla en la oratio de Pico della Mirandola.This article summarizes the fundamental reasonings in De pace fidei and goes on to show some of their most relevant recent readings, to finally lay down some questions which are still worth exploring in the cited work, in particular its connection with the philosophy of freedom of the Cusanus and the reflection, with renaissance spirit, which such philosophy finds in the oratio of Pico della Mirandola.

  18. The Pace and Shape of Senescence in Angiosperms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baudisch, Annette; Salguero-Gómez, Roberto; Jones, Owen

    2013-01-01

    age-specific trajectories from 290 angiosperm species of various growth forms distributed globally. From these trajectories, we survey pace and shape values and investigate how growth form and ecoregion influence these two aspects of mortality using a Bayesian regression analysis that accounts...... for phylogenetic relationships using a resolved supertree. 4. In contrast to the animal kingdom, most angiosperms (93%) show no senescence. Senescence is observed among phanerophytes (i.e. trees), but not among any other growth form (e.g. epiphytes, chamaephytes or cryptopyhtes). Yet, most phanerophytes (81%) do...... not senesce. We find that growth form relates to differences in pace, that is, life span, as woody plants are typically longer lived than nonwoody plants, while differences in shape, that is, whether or not angiosperms senesce, are related to ancestral history. 5. Synthesis: The age trajectory of mortality...

  19. Alternate Pacing of Border-Collision Period-Doubling Bifurcations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaopeng; Schaeffer, David G

    2007-11-01

    Unlike classical bifurcations, border-collision bifurcations occur when, for example, a fixed point of a continuous, piecewise C1 map crosses a boundary in state space. Although classical bifurcations have been much studied, border-collision bifurcations are not well understood. This paper considers a particular class of border-collision bifurcations, i.e., border-collision period-doubling bifurcations. We apply a subharmonic perturbation to the bifurcation parameter, which is also known as alternate pacing, and we investigate the response under such pacing near the original bifurcation point. The resulting behavior is characterized quantitatively by a gain, which is the ratio of the response amplitude to the applied perturbation amplitude. The gain in a border-collision period-doubling bifurcation has a qualitatively different dependence on parameters from that of a classical period-doubling bifurcation. Perhaps surprisingly, the differences are more readily apparent if the gain is plotted vs. the perturbation amplitude (with the bifurcation parameter fixed) than if plotted vs. the bifurcation parameter (with the perturbation amplitude fixed). When this observation is exploited, the gain under alternate pacing provides a useful experimental tool to identify a border-collision period-doubling bifurcation.

  20. Factors affecting the regulation of pacing: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauger AR

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Alexis R Mauger Endurance Research Group, School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Kent, Chatham, UK Abstract: During prolonged dynamic and rhythmic exercise, muscular pain and discomfort arises as a result of an increased concentration of deleterious metabolites. Sensed by peripheral nociceptors and transmitted via afferent feedback to the brain, this provides important information regarding the physiological state of the muscle. These sensations ultimately contribute to what is termed "exercise-induced pain". Despite being well recognized by athletes and coaches, and suggested to be integral to exercise performance, this construct has largely escaped attention in experimental work. This perspective article highlights the current understanding of pacing in endurance performance, and the causes of exercise-induced pain. A new perspective is described, which proposes how exercise-induced pain may be a contributing factor in helping individuals to regulate their work rate during exercise and thus provides an important construct in pacing. Keywords: pain, exercise-induced pain, discomfort, exercise performance, self-paced

  1. Tropical birds have a slow pace of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiersma, Popko; Muñoz-Garcia, Agustí; Walker, Amy; Williams, Joseph B

    2007-05-29

    Tropical birds are relatively long-lived and produce few offspring, which develop slowly and mature relatively late in life, the slow end of the life-history axis, whereas temperate birds lie at the opposite end of this continuum. We tested the hypothesis that tropical birds have evolved a reduced basal metabolic rate (BMR). We measured BMR of 69 species of tropical birds, the largest data set amassed on metabolic rates of tropical birds, and compared these measurements with 59 estimates of BMR for temperate birds. Our analyses included conventional least squares regression, regressions based on phylogenetic independent contrasts, and a comparison of BMR of 13 phylogenetically matched pairs, one species from the tropics and one from northerly temperate areas. Our triptych showed that tropical birds had a reduced BMR, compelling evidence for a connection between the life history of tropical birds and a slow pace of life. Further, tropical migrants breeding in temperate habitats had a lower BMR than did temperate residents, suggesting that these migrants have physiological traits consistent with a slow pace of life. In addition, we determined that tropical birds had a lower cold-induced peak metabolic rate and thermogenic metabolic scope than temperate species, a finding that is consistent with the hypothesis that their environment has not selected for high levels of thermogenesis, or alternatively, that a slow pace of life may be incompatible with high thermogenic capacity. We conclude that physiological function correlates with the suite of life-history traits.

  2. Speed, pacing strategy and aerodynamic drafting in Thoroughbred horse racing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Andrew J; Thurman, Andrew S; Maher, Michael J; Wilson, Alan M

    2012-08-23

    Choice of pacing strategy and the benefit of aerodynamic drafting are thought to be key determinants of racing performance. These effects have largely been analysed without reference to final outcome, in small datasets with low temporal resolution, and a focus on human swimming, cycling and running. Here, we determined the position and speed of 44,803 racehorses, once per second, in 3,357 races ranging in length from 1006 to 4225 m (50.9-292.9 seconds duration) using a validated radio tracking system. We find that aerodynamic drafting has a marked effect on horse performance, and hence racing outcome. Furthermore, we demonstrate that race length-dependent pacing strategies are correlated with the fastest racing times, with some horses reaching a maximum speed in excess of 19 m s(-1). The higher speeds seen with certain pacing strategies may arise due to the nature of pack racing itself, or may be a reflection of individual capabilities, that is, corresponding to horses that perform well in roles suited to their 'front-running' or 'chaser' personality traits.

  3. Unilateral Laryngeal Pacing System and Its Functional Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiping Zeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Goal. To establish a reliable instrumental system for synchronized reactivation of a unilaterally paralyzed vocal fold and evaluate its functional feasibility. Methods. Unilateral vocal fold paralysis model was induced by destruction of the left recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN in anesthetized dogs. With a micro controller-based electronic system, electromyography (EMG signals from cricothyroid (CT muscle on the ipsilateral side were recorded and used to trigger pacing of paralyzed vocalis muscles. The dynamic movement of vocal folds was continuously monitored using an endoscope, and the opening and closing of the glottis were quantified with customized imaging processing software. Results. The recorded video images showed that left side vocal fold was obviously paralyzed after destructing the RLN. Using the pacing system with feedback triggering EMG signals from the ipsilateral CT muscle, the paralyzed vocal fold was successfully reactivated, and its movement was shown to be synchronized with the healthy side. Significance. The developed unilateral laryngeal pacing system triggered by EMG from the ipsilateral side CT muscle could be successfully used in unilateral vocal fold paralysis with the advantage of avoiding disturbance to the healthy side muscles.

  4. MRI with cardiac pacing devices – Safety in clinical practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaasalainen, Touko, E-mail: touko.kaasalainen@hus.fi [HUS Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, POB 340 (Haartmaninkatu 4), 00290 Helsinki (Finland); Department of Physics, University of Helsinki (Finland); Pakarinen, Sami, E-mail: sami.pakarinen@hus.fi [HUS Department of Cardiology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, POB 340 (Haartmaninkatu 4), 00290 Helsinki (Finland); Kivistö, Sari, E-mail: sari.kivisto@hus.fi [HUS Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, POB 340 (Haartmaninkatu 4), 00290 Helsinki (Finland); Holmström, Miia, E-mail: miia.holmstrom@hus.fi [HUS Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, POB 340 (Haartmaninkatu 4), 00290 Helsinki (Finland); Hänninen, Helena, E-mail: helena.hanninen@hus.fi [HUS Department of Cardiology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, POB 340 (Haartmaninkatu 4), 00290 Helsinki (Finland); Peltonen, Juha, E-mail: juha.peltonen@hus.fi [HUS Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, POB 340 (Haartmaninkatu 4), 00290 Helsinki (Finland); Department of Biomedical Engineering and Computational Science, School of Science, Aalto University, Helsinki (Finland); Lauerma, Kirsi, E-mail: kirsi.lauerma@hus.fi [HUS Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, POB 340 (Haartmaninkatu 4), 00290 Helsinki (Finland); Sipilä, Outi, E-mail: outi.sipila@hus.fi [HUS Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, POB 340 (Haartmaninkatu 4), 00290 Helsinki (Finland)

    2014-08-15

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to introduce a single centre “real life” experience of performing MRI examinations in clinical practice on patients with cardiac pacemaker systems. Additionally, we aimed to evaluate the safety of using a dedicated safety protocol for these patients. Materials and methods: We used a 1.5 T MRI scanner to conduct 68 MRI scans of different body regions in patients with pacing systems. Of the cardiac devices, 32% were MR-conditional, whereas the remaining 68% were MR-unsafe. We recorded the functional parameters of the devices prior, immediately after, and approximately one month after the MRI scanning, and compared the device parameters to the baseline values. Results: All MRI examinations were completed safely, and each device could be interrogated normally following the MRI. We observed no changes in the programmed parameters of the devices. For most of the participants, the distributions of the immediate and one-month changes in the device parameters were within 20% of the baseline values, although some changes approached clinically important thresholds. Furthermore, we observed no differences in the variable changes between MR-conditional and MR-unsafe pacing systems, or between scans of the thorax area and other scanned areas. Conclusion: MRI in patients with MR-conditional pacing systems and selected MR-unsafe systems could be performed safely under strict conditions in this study.

  5. Combined obliquity and precession pacing of late Pleistocene deglaciations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huybers, Peter

    2011-12-08

    Milankovitch proposed that Earth resides in an interglacial state when its spin axis both tilts to a high obliquity and precesses to align the Northern Hemisphere summer with Earth's nearest approach to the Sun. This general concept has been elaborated into hypotheses that precession, obliquity or combinations of both could pace deglaciations during the late Pleistocene. Earlier tests have shown that obliquity paces the late Pleistocene glacial cycles but have been inconclusive with regard to precession, whose shorter period of about 20,000 years makes phasing more sensitive to timing errors. No quantitative test has provided firm evidence for a dual effect. Here I show that both obliquity and precession pace late Pleistocene glacial cycles. Deficiencies in time control that have long stymied efforts to establish orbital effects on deglaciation are overcome using a new statistical test that focuses on maxima in orbital forcing. The results are fully consistent with Milankovitch's proposal but also admit the possibility that long Southern Hemisphere summers contribute to deglaciation.

  6. Material Surface Damage under High Pulse Loads Typical for ELM Bursts and Disruptions in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landman, I.S.; Pestchanyi, S.E.; Bazylev, B.N [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. for Pulsed Power and Microwave Technology; Safronov, V.M. [Troitsk Inst. for Innovation and Fusion Research (TRINITI) (Russian Federation); Garkusha, I.E. [Kharkov Inst. of Physics and Technology (KIPT) (Ukraine). Inst. of Plasma Physics

    2004-08-01

    The divertor armour material for the tokamak ITER will probably be carbon manufactured as fibre composites (CFC) and tungsten as either brush-like structures or thin plates. Disruptive pulse loads where the heat deposition Q may reach 10{sup 2} MJ/m{sup 2} on a time scale {tau} of 3 ms, or operation in the ELMy H-mode at repetitive loads with Q {approx} 3MJ/m{sup 2} and {tau}{approx}0.3 ms; deteriorate armour performance. This work surveys recent numerical and experimental investigations of erosion mechanisms at these off-normal regimes carried out at FZK, TRINITI, and IPP-Kharkov. The modelling uses the anisotropic thermomechanics code PEGASUS-3D for the simulation of CFC brittle destruction, the surface melt motion code MEMOS-1.5D for tungsten targets, and the radiation-magnetohydrodynamics code FOREV-2D for calculating the plasma impact and simulating the heat loads for the ITER regime. Experiments aimed at validating these codes are being carried out at the plasma gun facilities MK-200UG, QSPA-T, and QSPA-Kh50 which produce powerful streams of hydrogen plasma with Q=10-30MJ/m{sup 2} and {tau} = 0.03-0.5 ms. Essential results are, for CFC targets, the experiments at high heat loads and the development of a local overheating model incorporated in PEGASUS-3D, and for the tungsten targets the analysis of evaporation- and melt motion erosion on the base of MEMOS-1.5D calculations for repetitive ELMs.

  7. Material Surface Damage under High Pulse Loads Typical for ELM Bursts and Disruptions in ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landman, I. S.; Pestchanyi, S. E.; Safronov, V. M.; Bazylev, B. N.; Garkusha, I. E.

    The divertor armour material for the tokamak ITER will probably be carbon manufactured as fibre composites (CFC) and tungsten as either brush-like structures or thin plates. Disruptive pulse loads where the heat deposition Q may reach 102 MJ/m 2 on a time scale Ïä of 3 ms, or operation in the ELMy H-mode at repetitive loads with Q âe 1/4 3 MJ/m2 and Ïä âe 1/4 0.3 ms, deteriorate armour performance. This work surveys recent numerical and experimental investigations of erosion mechanisms at these off-normal regimes carried out at FZK, TRINITI, and IPP-Kharkov. The modelling uses the anisotropic thermomechanics code PEGASUS-3D for the simulation of CFC brittle destruction, the surface melt motion code MEMOS-1.5D for tungsten targets, and the radiation-magnetohydrodynamics code FOREV-2D for calculating the plasma impact and simulating the heat loads for the ITER regime. Experiments aimed at validating these codes are being carried out at the plasma gun facilities MK-200UG, QSPA-T, and QSPA-Kh50 which produce powerful streams of hydrogen plasma with Q = 10–30 MJ/m2 and Ïä = 0.03–0.5 ms. Essential results are, for CFC targets, the experiments at high heat loads and the development of a local overheating model incorporated in PEGASUS-3D, and for the tungsten targets the analysis of evaporation- and melt motion erosion on the base of MEMOS-1.5D calculations for repetitive ELMs.

  8. Budding yeast dma proteins control septin dynamics and the spindle position checkpoint by promoting the recruitment of the Elm1 kinase to the bud neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlini, Laura; Fraschini, Roberta; Boettcher, Barbara; Barral, Yves; Lucchini, Giovanna; Piatti, Simonetta

    2012-01-01

    The first step towards cytokinesis in budding yeast is the assembly of a septin ring at the future site of bud emergence. Integrity of this ring is crucial for cytokinesis, proper spindle positioning, and the spindle position checkpoint (SPOC). This checkpoint delays mitotic exit and cytokinesis as long as the anaphase spindle does not properly align with the division axis. SPOC signalling requires the Kin4 protein kinase and the Kin4-regulating Elm1 kinase, which also controls septin dynamics. Here, we show that the two redundant ubiquitin-ligases Dma1 and Dma2 control septin dynamics and the SPOC by promoting the efficient recruitment of Elm1 to the bud neck. Indeed, dma1 dma2 mutant cells show reduced levels of Elm1 at the bud neck and Elm1-dependent activation of Kin4. Artificial recruitment of Elm1 to the bud neck of the same cells is sufficient to re-establish a normal septin ring, proper spindle positioning, and a proficient SPOC response in dma1 dma2 cells. Altogether, our data indicate that septin dynamics and SPOC function are intimately linked and support the idea that integrity of the bud neck is crucial for SPOC signalling.

  9. Budding yeast dma proteins control septin dynamics and the spindle position checkpoint by promoting the recruitment of the Elm1 kinase to the bud neck.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Merlini

    Full Text Available The first step towards cytokinesis in budding yeast is the assembly of a septin ring at the future site of bud emergence. Integrity of this ring is crucial for cytokinesis, proper spindle positioning, and the spindle position checkpoint (SPOC. This checkpoint delays mitotic exit and cytokinesis as long as the anaphase spindle does not properly align with the division axis. SPOC signalling requires the Kin4 protein kinase and the Kin4-regulating Elm1 kinase, which also controls septin dynamics. Here, we show that the two redundant ubiquitin-ligases Dma1 and Dma2 control septin dynamics and the SPOC by promoting the efficient recruitment of Elm1 to the bud neck. Indeed, dma1 dma2 mutant cells show reduced levels of Elm1 at the bud neck and Elm1-dependent activation of Kin4. Artificial recruitment of Elm1 to the bud neck of the same cells is sufficient to re-establish a normal septin ring, proper spindle positioning, and a proficient SPOC response in dma1 dma2 cells. Altogether, our data indicate that septin dynamics and SPOC function are intimately linked and support the idea that integrity of the bud neck is crucial for SPOC signalling.

  10. EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF BRAKE THERMAL EFFICIENCY AND BRAKE SPECIFIC FUEL CONSUMPTION OF DIESEL ENGINE FUELLED WITH BIO-DIESEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SHIVA SHANKAR

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The rapid depletion in world petroleum reserves and uncertainty in petroleum supply due to political and economical reasons, as well as, the sharp escalations in the petroleum prices have stimulated the search for alternatives to petroleum fuels. The situation is very grave in developing countries like India which imports 70% of the required fuel, spending 30% of her total foreign exchange earnings on oil imports. Petroleum fuels are being consumed by agriculture and transport sector for which diesel engine happens to be the prime mover. Diesel fuelled vehicles discharge significant amount of pollutants like CO, HC, NOx, soot, lead compounds which are harmful to the universe. Though there are wide varieties of alternative fuels available, the research has not yet provided the right renewable fuel to replace diesel. Vegetable oils due to their properties being close to diesel fuel may be a promising alternative for its use in diesel engines. The high viscosity and low volatility are the major drawbacks of the use of vegetable oils in diesel engines. India is the second largest cotton producing country in the world today. The cotton seeds are available in India at cheaper price. Experiments were conducted on 5.2 BHP single cylinder four stroke water-cooled variable compression diesel engine. Methyl ester of cottonseed oil is blended with the commercially available Xtramile diesel. Cottonseed oil methyl ester (CSOME is blended in four different compositions varying from 10% to 40% in steps of 10 vol%. Using these four blends and Xtramile diesel brake thermal efficiency (BTE and brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC are determined at 17.5 compression ratio.

  11. Varying the Pre-discharge Lithium Wall Coatings to Alter the Characteristics of the ELM-free H-mode Pedestal in NSTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.P. Boyle, J.M. Canik, R. Maing, P.B. Snyder, T.H. Osborne, and the NSTX Team

    2012-06-28

    A previous experiment in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) showed pre-discharge lithium deposition gradually suppresed edge-localized modes (ELMs) and had nearly continuous relationships with reduced recycling and transport. In this paper, additional data filled gaps in the earlier experiment, and demonstrates that recycling, confinement, and pedestal structure continued to improve with additional lithium, even after ELMs were completely suppressed. New analysis shows that toroidal rotation and ion temperature also increased continuously with additional lithium. Besides its evolution with additional lithium, we also characterize the time evolution of the ELM-free H-mode pedestal as average density rose and impurities accumulated. We find that the pedestal structure, divertor heat flux and Dalpha profiles, and inferred recycling coefficient did not change significantly, at least until radiative losses become dominant. This suggests that the low-recycling properties of lithium were not significantly degraded over the duration of the discharge.

  12. Effects of rippled fields due to ferritic inserts and ELM mitigation coils on energetic ion losses in a 15 MA inductive scenario in ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, K.; Tani, K.; Oikawa, T.; Putvinski, S.; Schaffer, M.; Loarte, A.

    2012-09-01

    The energetic ion loss has been assessed using the F3D-OFMC code for a 15 MA inductive scenario with Q = 10 and the latest information on the first wall geometry, the implementation of ferritic inserts (FI) and the ELM mitigation/control coils. Alpha particles and NB ions generated by the neutral beam injectors with the injection energy of 1 MeV are well confined and the heat load on the first wall is negligibly small and allowable for the magnetic background by the toroidal field coils and FI. However, an increase in the loss of these energetic ions is observed when the magnetic field by the ELM coils is applied. The increase in the loss fraction is larger for NB ions than for alpha particles under the ELM coil field. The origin of the expelled NB ions is dominantly trapped ions generated in the peripheral region due to a high-density plasma of the 15 MA scenario.

  13. Validation of the model for ELM suppression with 3D magnetic fields using low torque ITER baseline scenario discharges in DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, R. A.; Paz-Soldan, C.; Nazikian, R.; Orlov, D. M.; Ferraro, N. M.; Grierson, B. A.; Knölker, M.; Lyons, B. C.; McKee, G. R.; Osborne, T. H.; Rhodes, T. L.; Meneghini, O.; Smith, S.; Evans, T. E.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Groebner, R. J.; Hanson, J. M.; La Haye, R. J.; Luce, T. C.; Mordijck, S.; Solomon, W. M.; Turco, F.; Yan, Z.; Zeng, L.; DIII-D Team

    2017-10-01

    Experiments have been executed in the DIII-D tokamak to extend suppression of Edge Localized Modes (ELMs) with Resonant Magnetic Perturbations (RMPs) to ITER-relevant levels of beam torque. The results support the hypothesis for RMP ELM suppression based on transition from an ideal screened response to a tearing response at a resonant surface that prevents expansion of the pedestal to an unstable width [Snyder et al., Nucl. Fusion 51, 103016 (2011) and Wade et al., Nucl. Fusion 55, 023002 (2015)]. In ITER baseline plasmas with I/aB = 1.4 and pedestal ν* ˜ 0.15, ELMs are readily suppressed with co- Ip neutral beam injection. However, reducing the beam torque from 5 Nm to ≤ 3.5 Nm results in loss of ELM suppression and a shift in the zero-crossing of the electron perpendicular rotation ω⊥e ˜ 0 deeper into the plasma. The change in radius of ω⊥e ˜ 0 is due primarily to changes to the electron diamagnetic rotation frequency ωe*. Linear plasma response modeling with the resistive MHD code m3d-c1 indicates that the tearing response location tracks the inward shift in ω⊥e ˜ 0. At pedestal ν*˜ 1, ELM suppression is also lost when the beam torque is reduced, but the ω⊥e change is dominated by collapse of the toroidal rotation vT. The hypothesis predicts that it should be possible to obtain ELM suppression at reduced beam torque by also reducing the height and width of the ωe* profile. This prediction has been confirmed experimentally with RMP ELM suppression at 0 Nm of beam torque and plasma normalized pressure βN ˜ 0.7. This opens the possibility of accessing ELM suppression in low torque ITER baseline plasmas by establishing suppression at low beta and then increasing beta while relying on the strong RMP-island coupling to maintain suppression.

  14. Acute impact of pacing at different cardiac sites on left ventricular rotation and twist in dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Wen Zhou

    Full Text Available We evaluated the acute impact of different cardiac pacing sites on two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE derived left ventricular (LV rotation and twist in healthy dogs.Twelve dogs were used in this study. The steerable pacing electrodes were positioned into right heart through the superior or inferior vena cava, into LV through aorta across the aortic valve. The steerable pacing electrodes were positioned individually in the right atrium (RA, right ventricular apex (RVA, RV outflow tract (RVOT, His bundle (HB, LV apex (LVA and LV high septum (LVS, individual pacing mode was applied at 10 minutes interval for at least 5 minutes from each position under fluoroscopy and ultrasound guidance and at stabilized hemodynamic conditions. LV short-axis images at the apical and basal levels were obtained during sinus rhythm and pacing. Offline STE analysis was performed. Rotation, twist, time to peak rotation (TPR, time to peak twist (TPT, and apical-basal rotation delay (rotational synchronization index, RSI values were compared at various conditions. LV pressure was monitored simultaneously.Anesthetic death occurred in 1 dog, and another dog was excluded because of bad imaging quality. Data from 10 dogs were analyzed. RVA, RVOT, HB, LVA, LVS, RARV (RA+RVA pacing resulted in significantly reduced apical and basal rotation and twist, significantly prolonged apical TPR, TPT and RSI compared to pre-pacing and RA pacing (all P<0.05. The apical and basal rotation and twist values were significantly higher during HB pacing than during pacing at ventricular sites (all P<0.05, except basal rotation at RVA pacing. The apical TPR during HB pacing was significantly shorter than during RVOT and RVA pacing (both P<0.05. The LV end systolic pressure (LVESP was significantly lower during ventricular pacing than during pre-pacing and RA pacing.Our results show that RA and HB pacing results in less acute reduction on LV twist, rotation and LVESP compared

  15. Biventricular / Left Ventricular Pacing in Hypertrophic Obstructive Cardiomyopathy: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Vatasescu, MD

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM is an autosomal dominant inherited genetic disease characterized by compensatory pathological left ventricle (LV hypertrophy due to sarcomere dysfunction. In an important proportion of patients with HCM, the site and extent of cardiac hypertrophy results in severe obstruction to LV outflow tract (LVOT, contributing to disabling symptoms and increasing the risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD. In patients with progressive and/or refractory symptoms despite optimal pharmacological treatment, invasive therapies that diminish or abolish LVOT obstruction relieve heart failure-related symptoms, improve quality of life and could be associated with long-term survival similar to that observed in the general population. The gold standard in this respect is surgical septal myectomy, which might be supplementary associated with a reduction in SCD. Percutaneous techniques, particularly alcohol septal ablation (ASA and more recently radiofrequency (RF septal ablation, can achieve LVOT gradient reduction and symptomatic benefit in a large proportion of HOCM patients at the cost of a supposedly limited septal myocardial necrosis and a 10-20% risk of chronic atrioventricular block. After an initial period of enthusiasm, standard DDD pacing failed to show in randomized trials significant LVOT gradient reductions and objective improvement in exercise capacity. However, case reports and recent small pilot studies suggested that atrial synchronous LV or biventricular (biV pacing significantly reduce LVOT obstruction and improve symptoms (acutely as well as long-term in a large proportion of severely symptomatic HOCM patients not suitable to other gradient reduction therapies. Moreover, biV/LV pacing in HOCM seems to be associated with significant LV reverse remodelling.

  16. Successful pacing using a batteryless sunlight-powered pacemaker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeberlin, Andreas; Zurbuchen, Adrian; Schaerer, Jakob; Wagner, Joerg; Walpen, Sébastien; Huber, Christoph; Haeberlin, Heinrich; Fuhrer, Juerg; Vogel, Rolf

    2014-10-01

    Today's cardiac pacemakers are powered by batteries with limited energy capacity. As the battery's lifetime ends, the pacemaker needs to be replaced. This surgical re-intervention is costly and bears the risk of complications. Thus, a pacemaker without primary batteries is desirable. The goal of this study was to test whether transcutaneous solar light could power a pacemaker. We used a three-step approach to investigate the feasibility of sunlight-powered cardiac pacing. First, the harvestable power was estimated. Theoretically, a subcutaneously implanted 1 cm(2) solar module may harvest ∼2500 µW from sunlight (3 mm implantation depth). Secondly, ex vivo measurements were performed with solar cells placed under pig skin flaps exposed to a solar simulator and real sunlight. Ex vivo measurements under real sunlight resulted in a median output power of 4941 µW/cm(2) [interquartile range (IQR) 3767-5598 µW/cm(2), median skin flap thickness 3.0 mm (IQR 2.7-3.3 mm)]. The output power strongly depended on implantation depth (ρSpearman = -0.86, P pacemaker powered by a 3.24 cm(2) solar module was implanted in vivo in a pig to measure output power and to pace. In vivo measurements showed a median output power of >3500 µW/cm(2) (skin flap thickness 2.8-3.84 mm). Successful batteryless VVI pacing using a subcutaneously implanted solar module was performed. Based on our results, we estimate that a few minutes of direct sunlight (irradiating an implanted solar module) allow powering a pacemaker for 24 h using a suitable energy storage. Thus, powering a pacemaker by sunlight is feasible and may be an alternative energy supply for tomorrow's pacemakers. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Pajarito Aerosol Couplings to Ecosystems (PACE) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubey, M [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Laboratory (LANL) worked on the Pajarito Aerosol Couplings to Ecosystems (PACE) intensive operational period (IOP). PACE’s primary goal was to demonstrate routine Mobile Aerosol Observing System (MAOS) field operations and improve instrumental and operational performance. LANL operated the instruments efficiently and effectively with remote guidance by the instrument mentors. This was the first time a complex suite of instruments had been operated under the ARM model and it proved to be a very successful and cost-effective model to build upon.

  18. Structural analysis of cell wall polysaccharides using PACE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortimer, Jennifer C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Joint BioEnergy Institute

    2017-01-01

    The plant cell wall is composed of many complex polysaccharides. The composition and structure of the polysaccharides affect various cell properties including cell shape, cell function and cell adhesion. Many techniques to characterize polysaccharide structure are complicated, requiring expensive equipment and specialized operators e.g. NMR, MALDI-MS. PACE (Polysaccharide Analysis using Carbohydrate gel Electrophoresis) uses a simple, rapid technique to analyze polysaccharide quantity and structure (Goubet et al. 2002). Whilst the method here describes xylan analysis, it can be applied (by use of the appropriate glycosyl hydrolase) to any cell wall polysaccharide.

  19. Light-controlled propulsion, aggregation and separation of water-fuelled TiO2/Pt Janus submicromotors and their ``on-the-fly'' photocatalytic activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Fangzhi; Kong, Lei; Chen, Chuanrui; Chen, Zhihong; Xu, Leilei; Guan, Jianguo

    2016-02-01

    In this work, water-fuelled TiO2/Pt Janus submicromotors with light-controlled motions have been developed by utilizing the asymmetrical photocatalytic water redox reaction over TiO2/Pt Janus submicrospheres under UV irradiation. The motion state, speed, aggregation and separation behaviors of the TiO2/Pt Janus submicromotor can be reversibly, wirelessly and remotely controlled at will by regulating the ``on/off'' switch, intensity and pulsed/continuous irradiation mode of UV light. The motion of the water-fuelled TiO2/Pt Janus submicromotor is governed by light-induced self-electrophoresis under the local electrical field generated by the asymmetrical water oxidation and reduction reactions on its surface. The TiO2/Pt Janus submicromotors can interact with each other through the light-switchable electrostatic forces, and hence continuous and pulsed UV irradiation can make the TiO2/Pt Janus submicromotors aggregate and separate at will, respectively. Because of the enhanced mass exchange between the environment and active submicromotors, the separated TiO2/Pt Janus submicromotors powered by the pulsed UV irradiation show a much higher activity for the photocatalytic degradation of the organic dye than the aggregated TiO2/Pt submicromotors. The water-fuelled TiO2/Pt Janus submicromotors developed here have some outstanding advantages as ``swimming'' photocatalysts for organic pollutant remediation in the macro or microenvironment (microchannels and microwells in microchips) because of their small size, long-term stability, wirelessly controllable motion behaviors and long life span.In this work, water-fuelled TiO2/Pt Janus submicromotors with light-controlled motions have been developed by utilizing the asymmetrical photocatalytic water redox reaction over TiO2/Pt Janus submicrospheres under UV irradiation. The motion state, speed, aggregation and separation behaviors of the TiO2/Pt Janus submicromotor can be reversibly, wirelessly and remotely controlled at will by

  20. The enhanced ASDEX Upgrade pellet centrifuge launcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plöckl, B.; Lang, P. T.

    2013-10-01

    Pellets played an important role in the program of ASDEX Upgrade serving both for investigations on efficient particle fuelling and high density scenarios but also for pioneering work on Edge Localised Mode (ELM) pacing and mitigation. Initially designed for launching fuelling pellets from the magnetic low field side, the system was converted already some time ago to inject pellets from the magnetic high field side as much higher fuelling efficiency was found using this configuration. In operation for more than 20 years, the pellet launching system had to undergo a major revision and upgrading, in particular of its control system. Furthermore, the control system installed adjacent to the launcher had to be transferred to a more distant location enforcing a complete galvanic separation from torus potential and a fully remote control solution. Changing from a hybrid system consisting of PLC S5/S7 and some hard wired relay control to a state of the art PLC system allowed the introduction of several new operational options enabling more flexibility in the pellet experiments. This article describes the new system architecture of control hardware and software, the operating procedure, and the extended operational window. First successful applications for ELM pacing and triggering studies are presented as well as utilization for the development of high density scenarios.

  1. Optimal design and operation of a syngas-fuelled SOFC micro CHP system for residential applications in different climate zones in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Wenyuan; Zhao, Yingru; Liso, Vincenzo; Brandon, Nigel

    2014-01-01

    Fuel cell based micro-CHP systems are expected to be one of the most promising technologies for implementation in the residential sector. Since the design and operation of such CHP systems are greatly dependent upon the seasonal atmospheric conditions, it is important to evaluate their performance under difference climate conditions to ensure that it is well matched with the local heat-to-power ratio. The aim of this study is to investigate the optimal design and operation of a syngas-fuelled...

  2. Energetic and environmental balance of a natural gas fuelled low-capacity cogeneration system; Energetische und umwelttechnische Bilanz eines erdgasbetriebenen Klein-BHKW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hentschel, D. [Hochschule fuer Technik, Wirtschaft und Kultur (F.H.), Leipzig (Germany). Lehrgebiet Produktionsplanung und -steuerung; Werner, C. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie, Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Waermetechnik und Thermodynamik

    2002-03-01

    FH Leipzig University has been operating a natural gas fuelled cogeneration system since 1998. The performance of the system was tested in field experiments. The contribution presents the energy- and environment-related results. [German] Seit 1998 betreibt die Hochschule fuer Technik, Wirtschaft und Kultur Leipzig (FH) am Fachbereich Maschinen- und Energietechnik zu Lehr- und Forschungszwecken ein erdgasbetriebenes Blockheizkraftwerk (BHKW). Unter Beachtung wesentlicher energetischer und umwelttechnischer Aspekte ist das Betriebsverhalten des Gas-Otto-Motoren-BHKW anhand von Feldversuchen ermittelt worden. Im Folgenden erfolgt eine Verknuepfung der energetischen und umwelttechnischen Anlageneigenschaften. (orig.)

  3. Paced QRS duration and myocardial scar amount: predictors of long-term outcome of right ventricular apical pacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Ah; Cha, Myung-Jin; Cho, Youngjin; Oh, Il-Young; Choi, Eue-Keun; Oh, Seil

    2016-07-01

    Long-term right ventricular apical pacing (RVAP) is reportedly associated with heart failure (HF) development. However, the predictors of pacing-induced HF (PHF) remained unclear. We retrospectively enrolled 234 patients without structural heart disease who underwent a permanent pacemaker implantation with RVAP between 1982 and 2004. RVAP-induced HF was defined as left ventricular ejection fraction decrease >5 % with HF symptom without other HF development etiology. The QRS duration of a paced beat (pQRSd) and myocardial scar score were analyzed from each patient's 12-lead ECG. During a mean 15.6 years (range 3.3-30.0 years), 48 patients (20.5 %) patients developed RVAP-induced HF. The PHF group patients had a longer pQRSd (192.4 ± 13.5 vs. 175.7 ± 14.7 ms in non-PHF patients, p scar score (5.2 ± 1.9 vs. 2.7 ± 1.9, respectively p scar score (HR 1.23, 95 % CI 1.03-1.49, p = 0.037), and a higher percentage of ventricular pacing (HR 1.31, 95 % CI 1.01-1.49, p = 0.010) were independent predictors of PHF. Based on the results of the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve, the pQRSd cutoff was 185 ms (AUC 0.79, sensitivity 66.7 %, specificity 76.3 %) and myocardial scar score cutoff value was 4 (AUC 0.81, sensitivity 81.3 %, specificity 66.1 %). The pQRSd was positively correlated with scar score (r = 0.70, p scar score ≥4 might be independent long-term prognostic markers of PHF.

  4. Social Interaction in Self-paced Distance Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Anderson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a case study of a self-paced university course that was originally designed to support independent, self-paced study at distance. We developed a social media intervention, in design-based research terms, that allows these independent students to contribute archived content to enhance the course, to engage in discussions with other students and to share as little or as much personal information with each other as they wished. We describe the learning design for the intervention and present survey data of student and tutor perception of value and content analysis of the archived contributions. The results indicate that the intervention was positively received by tutors and by the majority (but not all students and that the archive created by the students’ contributions was adding value to the course. We conclude that the intervention was a modest, yet manageable example of a learning enhancement to a traditional cognitive-behavioral, course that has positive impact and potential with little negative impact on workload.

  5. Data reproducibility of pace strategy in a laboratory test run

    Science.gov (United States)

    de França, Elias; Xavier, Ana Paula; Hirota, Vinicius Barroso; Côrrea, Sônia Cavalcanti; Caperuto, Érico Chagas

    2016-01-01

    This data paper contains data related to a reproducibility test for running pacing strategy in an intermittent running test until exhaustion. Ten participants underwent a crossover study (test and retest) with an intermittent running test. The test was composed of three-minute sets (at 1 km/h above Onset Blood Lactate Accumulation) until volitional exhaustion. To assess pace strategy change, in the first test participants chose the rest time interval (RTI) between sets (ranging from 30 to 60 s) and in the second test the maximum RTI values were either the RTI chosen in the first test (maximum RTI value), or less if desired. To verify the reproducibility of the test, rating perceived exertion (RPE), heart rate (HR) and blood plasma lactate concentration ([La]p) were collected at rest, immediately after each set and at the end of the tests. As results, RTI, RPE, HR, [La]p and time to exhaustion were not statistically different (p>0.05) between test and retest, as well as they demonstrated good intraclass correlation. PMID:27081672

  6. Pilot trial of an age-paced parenting newsletter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Brigid; Waterston, Tony; McConachie, Helen; Towner, Elizabeth; Cook, Margaret; Birks, Eileen

    2005-10-01

    Supporting parents in the first three years of a child's life has the potential to produce successful outcomes. Present government initiatives such as Sure Start focus on this age group. An American educational intervention, in the style of a monthly newsletter, was adapted for use in the UK for parents of young children. Topics were presented in an easy-to-read format and focused on infant emotional development, parent interaction and play. Newsletters, called Baby Express were posted at monthly intervals to the family home providing age-paced information which could meet the specific needs of parents at that stage of their child's life. The aim of the study was to determine the applicability of the newsletter to UK parents and evaluate their satisfaction. Sixty home-based interviews were conducted and 95 per cent of mothers reported reading all or part of the newsletter. Changes in parenting style were spontaneously reported by 28 per cent of mothers. This study found that an aged-paced parenting newsletter was an acceptable and useful method of supporting parents in the early months of a child's life and promotes positive changes in parenting behaviour.

  7. Self-paced model learning for robust visual tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenhui; Gu, Jason; Ma, Xin; Li, Yibin

    2017-01-01

    In visual tracking, learning a robust and efficient appearance model is a challenging task. Model learning determines both the strategy and the frequency of model updating, which contains many details that could affect the tracking results. Self-paced learning (SPL) has recently been attracting considerable interest in the fields of machine learning and computer vision. SPL is inspired by the learning principle underlying the cognitive process of humans, whose learning process is generally from easier samples to more complex aspects of a task. We propose a tracking method that integrates the learning paradigm of SPL into visual tracking, so reliable samples can be automatically selected for model learning. In contrast to many existing model learning strategies in visual tracking, we discover the missing link between sample selection and model learning, which are combined into a single objective function in our approach. Sample weights and model parameters can be learned by minimizing this single objective function. Additionally, to solve the real-valued learning weight of samples, an error-tolerant self-paced function that considers the characteristics of visual tracking is proposed. We demonstrate the robustness and efficiency of our tracker on a recent tracking benchmark data set with 50 video sequences.

  8. Fuelling the Nigerian economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oseni, T.

    1987-05-01

    A special report on the achievements of the Nigerian National Petroleum Corp. credits the merger of the Nigerian National Oil Corp. and the Ministry of Petroleum Resources as a step which revolutionized the industry has had a positive impact on the economy. A national corporation with close links to OPEC, it was charged with all aspects, from exploring to marketing, of petroleum development. The author describes activities, including joint ventures, which have led to new production and refining facilities and the diversification of the industry into petrochemicals. The impact on end-use applications will be to produce consumer items and improve the balance of trade. Government regulation includes inspections and oversight of performance of all operations, including environmental standards.

  9. Pacing a data transfer operation between compute nodes on a parallel computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blocksome, Michael A.

    2011-09-13

    Methods, systems, and products are disclosed for pacing a data transfer between compute nodes on a parallel computer that include: transferring, by an origin compute node, a chunk of an application message to a target compute node; sending, by the origin compute node, a pacing request to a target direct memory access (`DMA`) engine on the target compute node using a remote get DMA operation; determining, by the origin compute node, whether a pacing response to the pacing request has been received from the target DMA engine; and transferring, by the origin compute node, a next chunk of the application message if the pacing response to the pacing request has been received from the target DMA engine.

  10. Hemodynamic improvement by right ventricular septal pacing in elderly patients with chronic atrial fibrillation and slow ventricular response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei HUA; Shidong GUO; Shu ZHANG; Fangzheng WANG; Lida ZHI; Hongxia NIU; Xin CHEN

    2005-01-01

    Background and objectives Right ventricular apical (RVA) pacing has been reported impairing left ventricular (LV)performance. Alternative pacing sites in right ventricle (RV) has been explored to obtain better cardiac function. Our study was designed to compare the hemodynamic effects of right ventricular septal (RVS) pacing with RVA pacing. Methods Ten elderly patients with chronic atrial fibrillation (AF) and long RR interval or slow ventricular response (VR) received VVI pacing. The hemodynamic difference between RVS and RVA pacing were examined by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). Results Pacing leads were implanted successfully at the RVA and then RVS in all patients without complication. The left ventricular (LV) parameters,measured during RVA pacing including left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), FS, stroke volume (SV) and peak E wave velocity (EV) were decreased significantly compared to baseline data, while during RVS pacing, they were significantly better than those during RVA pacing. However, after 3-6 weeks there was no statistical significant difference between pre- and post- RVS pacing.Conclusions The LV hemodynamic parameters during RVA pacing were significantly worse than baseline data. The short term LV hemodynamic parameters of RVS pacing were significantly better than those of RVA pacing; RVS pacing could improve the hemodynamic effect through maintaining normal ventricular activation sequence and biventricular contraction synchrony in patients with chronic AF and slow ventricular response.

  11. Controlling Spiral Dynamics in Excitable Media by a Weakly Localized Pacing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bing-Wei; SUN Li-Li; CHEN Bin; YING He-Ping

    2007-01-01

    @@ Spiral dynamics controlled by a weakly localized pacing around the spiral tip is investigated. Numerical simulations show two distinct characteristics when the pacing is applied with the weak amplitude for suitable frequencies:for a rigidly rotating spiral, a transition from rigid rotation to meandering motion is observed, and for unstable spiral waves, spiral breakup can be prevented. Successfully preventing spiral breakup is relevant to the modulation of the tip trajectory induced by a localized pacing.

  12. Coronary grafts flow and cardiac pacing modalities: how to improve perioperative myocardial perfusion.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    D'Ancona, Giuseppe

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: Aim of this study was to investigate modifications of coronary grafts flow during different pacing modalities after CABG. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two separate prospective studies were conducted in patients undergoing CABG and requiring intraoperative epicardial pacing. In a first study (22 patients) coronary grafts flows were measured during dual chamber pacing (DDD) and during ventricular pacing (VVI). In a second study (10 patients) flows were measured during DDD pacing at different atrio-ventricular (A-V) delay periods. A-V delay was adjusted in 25 ms increments from 25 to 250 ms and flow measurements were performed for each A-V delay increment. A transit time flowmeter was used for the measurements. RESULTS: An average of 3.4 grafts\\/patient were performed. In the first study, average coronary graft flow was 47.4+\\/-20.8 ml\\/min during DDD pacing and 41.8+\\/-18.2 ml\\/min during VVI pacing (P = 0.0004). Furthermore average systolic pressure was 94.3+\\/-10.1 mmHg during DDD pacing and 89.6+\\/-12.2 mmHg during VVV pacing (P = 0.0007). No significant differences in diastolic pressure were recorded during the two different pacing modalities. In the second study, maximal flows were achieved during DDD pacing with an A-V delay of 175 ms (54+\\/-9.6 ml\\/min) and minimal flows were detected at 25 ms A-V delay (38.1+\\/-4.7 ml\\/min) (P=ns). No significant differences in systolic or diastolic blood pressure were noticed during the different A-V delays. CONCLUSION: Grafts flowmetry provides an extra tool to direct supportive measures such as cardiac pacing after CABG. DDD mode with A-V delay around 175 ms. should be preferred to allow for maximal myocardial perfusion via the grafts.

  13. Pacing and Self-regulation: Important Skills for Talent Development in Endurance Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; Hettinga, Florentina J

    2017-07-01

    Pacing has been characterized as a multifaceted goal-directed process of decision making in which athletes need to decide how and when to invest their energy during the race, a process essential for optimal performance. Both physiological and psychological characteristics associated with adequate pacing and performance are known to develop with age. Consequently, the multifaceted skill of pacing might be under construction throughout adolescence, as well. Therefore, the authors propose that the complex skill of pacing is a potential important performance characteristic for talented youth athletes that needs to be developed throughout adolescence. To explore whether pacing is a marker for talent and how talented athletes develop this skill in middle-distance and endurance sports, they aim to bring together literature on pacing and literature on talent development and self-regulation of learning. Subsequently, by applying the cyclical process of self-regulation to pacing, they propose a practical model for the development of performance in endurance sports in youth athletes. Not only is self-regulation essential throughout the process of reaching the long-term goal of athletic excellence, but it also seems crucial for the development of pacing skills within a race and the development of a refined performance template based on previous experiences. Coaches and trainers are advised to incorporate pacing as a performance characteristic in their talent-development programs by stimulating their athletes to reflect, plan, monitor, and evaluate their races on a regular basis to build performance templates and, as such, improve their performance.

  14. Effects of Amiodarone plus Losartan on Electrical Remodeling in Rapid Atrial Pacing in Rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liye Wei; Yue Xia; Guoqing Qi; Qingwen Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the electrical remodeling and the effects of amiodarone and losartan on electrical remode-ling in rapid atrial pacing on rabbit model. Methods 40 normal rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups: the sa-line group (control group), amiodarone group, losartan group, ami + los group. All rabbits were raised drugs in a week. The atrial effective refractory period (AERP) was measured. Then, take a rapid atrial pacing (600 bpm) and the AERP was measured after 0. 5, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 hours pacing and 30 minutes after the termination of rapid pacing. Results ① In control group, after 8 hours rapid pacing, AERP 200 and AERP 150 were significantly shortened 16. 11%± 3. 1% (P <0. 01) and 9. 99%±4. 2% (P <0. 01). And the degree of AERP shortening induced by rapid pacing was greater at basic cycle lengths of 200 ms (BCL200) than that at BCL150. The AERP of amiodarone, losartan group and anti + los group were not shortened during rapid pacing.② In the control group, after the termination of rapid pacing, the AERP gradually increased. The AERP at all of the BCLS examined recovered to almost the 95.78% and 96. 76% of baseline values within the first 10 minutes and recovered to almost the 99. 07% and 99. 39% of baseline values within the first 30 minutes. Condusions Short-term atrial rapid pacing can induce the atrial electrical remodeling. Amiodarone and losartan can prevent the electrical remodeling.

  15. Feasibility of dual-chamber (DDD) pacing via a single-pass (VDD) pacing lead employing a floating atrial ring (dipole): case series, future considerations, and refinements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassotis, John; Voigt, Louis; Mongwa, Mbu; Reddy, C V R

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of DDD pacing from a standard single-pass VDD pacemaker system. Over the past 2 decades significant advances have been made in the development of single-pass VDD pacing systems. These have been shown in long-term prospective studies to effectively preserve atrioventricular (AV)synchrony in patients with AV block and normal sinus node function. What remains problematic is the development of a single-pass pacing system capable of DDD pacing. Such a lead configuration would be useful in those patients with peripheral venous anomalies and in younger patients with congenital anomalies, which may require lead revisions in the future. In addition, with the increased use of resynchronization (biventricular pacing) therapy, the availability of a reliable single-pass lead will minimize operative time, enhance patient safety, and minimize the amount of hardware within the heart. The feasibility of DDD pacing via a Medtronic Capsure VDD-2 (Model #5038) pacing lead was evaluated. Twenty patients who presented with AV block and normal sinus node function were recruited for this study. Atrial pacing thresholds and sensitivities were assessed intraoperatively in the supine position with various respiratory maneuvers. Five patients who agreed to participate in long-term follow-up received a dual-chamber generator and were evaluated periodically over a 12-month period. Mean atrial sensitivity was 2.35 +/- 0.83 mV at the time of implantation. Effective atrial stimulation was possible in all patients at the time of implantation (mean stimulation threshold 3.08 +/- 1.04 V at 0.5 ms [bipolar], 3.34 +/- 0.95 V at 0.5 ms [unipolar]). Five of the 20 patients received a Kappa KDR701 generator, and atrial electrical properties were followed up over a 1-year period. There was no significant change in atrial pacing threshold or incidence of phrenic nerve stimulation over the 1-year follow-up. A standard single-pass VDD pacing lead

  16. The effects of grazing on the spatial pattern of elm (Ulmus pumila L.) in the sparse woodland steppe of Horqin Sandy Land in northeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; Wu, J.; Tang, Y.

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effects of grazing on the formation of the spatial pattern of elm growth in a sparse woodland steppe. We used a point pattern method to analyze the elm trees within different diameter at breast height (DBH) classes in both grazed and fenced plots, which were established in Horqin Sandy Land of northeastern China. The results showed that, in the grazed plot, the distances where transformation between random and clustered patterns occurred in class 1 (10 cm ≤ DBH ≤ 15 cm) and class 2 (15 cm DBH ≤ 20 cm) were 2.27 and 2.37 m, respectively. Meanwhile, in the fenced plot, the distances between random and aggregated patterns that occurred in classes 1, 2 and 3 (DBH > 20 cm) were 3.13, 3.13 and 7.85 m, respectively. In the fenced plot, at distances larger than 67.72 m there was a negative association between classes 1 and 2, which was also the case between classes 2 and 3 and between classes 1 and 3 for distances greater than 104.09 and 128.54 m, respectively. Meanwhile, negative associations occurred only at distances larger than 29.38 m in the grazed plot. These findings suggest that grazing reduced the competition intensity between elm trees; and therefore, grazing management could be an effective strategy used to regulate the elm population in the degraded sandy land of northern China.

  17. Static gesture recognition algorithm of combinating skin color segmentation with ELM%结合肤色分割和ELM算法的静态手势识别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽; 胡桂明; 黄东芳; 周杨

    2015-01-01

    针对目前复杂背景下手势图像识别率不高、识别困难等问题,基于ELM( extreme learning machine),提出了一种快速手势识别方法。结合RGB与HSV两种颜色空间模型,从复杂背景中去除大部分类肤色的干扰,实现手势分割;采用改进的Hu不变矩以及指尖个数对获取的手势轮廓进行描述;利用ELM进行特征数据分类,从而实现实验所采用手势的识别,其中ELM是在单隐层神经网络的基础上提出来的一种新型前馈神经网络,网络结构比较简单,输入权值和偏差随机给定的。在采用ELM识别的同时又用传统的BP网络进行了识别,结果表明:相对于BP网络,ELM具有较快的学习速度和良好的抗差能力,同时识别率比较高,适合静态手势识别。%Aiming at the problems of low image recognition rate and difficulty in gesture recognition under complicated background, a rapid gesture recognition method based on ELM ( extreme learning machine) is proposed. Firstly, by combining RGB and HSV color space model and removing most classification from complex background color interference, gesture segmentation is achieved. Then, the improved geometric moment invariants and the number of fingers are used to describe the ob-tained gesture contour. Finally the generated characteristics data are classified by using ELM, so as to realize gesture recognition. ELM is a new type of feed forward neural networks which is proposed on the basis of single-hidden layer neural network. ELM's network structure is simpler, and the in-put weights and bias are randomly given. Recognition using ELM and recognition using traditional BP network are experimented respectively. The results shows that ELM is suitable for static gesture recognition, for it has faster learning speed and better resistance, and the recognition rate is higher, compared with BP network.

  18. Feasibility of a Dual-Fuel Engine Fuelled with Waste Vegetable Oil and Municipal Organic Fraction for Power Generation in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. De Simio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass, in form of residues and waste, can be used to produce energy with low environmental impact. It is important to use the feedstock close to the places where waste are available, and with the shortest conversion pathway, to maximize the process efficiency. In particular waste vegetable oil and the organic fraction of municipal solid waste represent a good source for fuel production in urban areas. Dual fuel engines could be taken into consideration for an efficient management of these wastes. In fact, the dual fuel technology can achieve overall efficiencies typical of diesel engines with a cleaner exhaust emission. In this paper the feasibility of a cogeneration system fuelled with waste vegetable oil and biogas is discussed and the evaluation of performance and emissions is reported on the base of experimental activities on dual fuel heavy duty engine in comparison with diesel and spark ignition engines. The ratio of biogas potential from MSW and biodiesel potential from waste vegetable oil was estimated and it results suitable for dual fuel fuelling. An electric power installation of 70 kW every 10,000 people could be achieved.

  19. Analysis of unprotected transients with control and safety rod drive mechanism expansion feedback in a medium sized oxide fuelled fast breeder reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathiyasheela, T., E-mail: sheela@igcar.gov.in; Natesan, K.; Srinivasan, G.S.; Devan, K.; Puthiyavinayagam, P.

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Possibilities of enhancing safety under ULOF and UTOP accidents. • CSRDM expansion feedbacks under unprotected transients. • CSRDM expansion feedback enhances the safety of fast reactors. • CSRDM expansion feedbacks ensuring enough time for initiating safety actions. - Abstract: Possibilities of enhancing core safety under unprotected loss of flow (ULOF) and unprotected transient over power (UTOP) accidents with control and safety rod drive mechanism (CSRDM) expansion feedbacks are explored in a medium sized oxide fuelled fast breeder reactor. This feedback is expected to take the reactor to a safe shutdown under ULOF and to an another steady state under UTOP where there is no significant fuel melting. Under ULOF, with CSRDM feedback net reactivity was maintained negative throughout the transient (up to 2000 s) and the power dropped to a level of heat removal capacity of decay heat removal system based on natural circulation. Similarly, under UTOP with the above feedback reactor power goes to a lower peak value. The fuel temperature is just touching the melting temperature and the melt fraction does not cross 5%. With CSRDM expansion feedbacks both ULOF and UTOP transients prolong beyond 2000 s. It ensures, availability of time for initiating any safety actions against the transients, and thus it helps to preclude core disruptive accidents (CDA) in a medium sized oxide fuelled reactors.Classification: L. safety and risk analysis.

  20. Thermodynamic Performance Analysis of a Biogas-Fuelled Micro-Gas Turbine with a Bottoming Organic Rankine Cycle for Sewage Sludge and Food Waste Treatment Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunhee Kim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the Republic of Korea, efficient biogas-fuelled power systems are needed to use the excess biogas that is currently burned due to a lack of suitable power technology. We examined the performance of a biogas-fuelled micro-gas turbine (MGT system and a bottoming organic Rankine cycle (ORC. The MGT provides robust operation with low-grade biogas, and the exhaust can be used for heating the biodigester. Similarly, the bottoming ORC generates additional power output with the exhaust gas. We selected a 1000-kW MGT for four co-digestion plants with 28,000-m3 capacity. A 150-kW ORC system was selected for the MGT exhaust gas. We analysed the effects of the system size, methane concentration, and ORC operating conditions. Based on the system performance, we analysed the annual performance of the MGT with a combined heat and power (CHP system, bottoming ORC, or both a bottoming ORC and CHP system. The annual net power outputs for each system were 7.4, 8.5, and 9.0 MWh per year, respectively.

  1. Sex differences in pacing during ‘Ultraman Hawaii’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beat Knechtle

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background To date, little is known for pacing in ultra-endurance athletes competing in a non-stop event and in a multi-stage event, and especially, about pacing in a multi-stage event with different disciplines during the stages. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the effect of age, sex and calendar year on triathlon performance and variation of performance by events (i.e., swimming, cycling 1, cycling 2 and running in ‘Ultraman Hawaii’ held between 1983 and 2015. Methods Within each sex, participants were grouped in quartiles (i.e., Q1, Q2, Q3 and Q4 with Q1 being the fastest (i.e., lowest overall time and Q4 the slowest (i.e., highest overall time. To compare performance among events (i.e., swimming, cycling 1, cycling 2 and running, race time in each event was converted in z score and this value was used for further analysis. Results A between-within subjects ANOVA showed a large sex × event (p = 0.015, η2 = 0.014 and a medium performance group × event interaction (p = 0.001, η2 = 0.012. No main effect of event on performance was observed (p = 0.174, η2 = 0.007. With regard to the sex × event interaction, three female performance groups (i.e., Q2, Q3 and Q4 increased race time from swimming to cycling 1, whereas only one male performance group (Q4 revealed a similar trend. From cycling 1 to cycling 2, the two slower female groups (Q3 and Q4 and the slowest male group (Q4 increased raced time. In women, the fastest group decreased (i.e., improved race time from swimming to cycling 1 and thereafter, maintained performance, whereas in men, the fastest group decreased race time till cycling 2 and increased it in the running. Conclusion In summary, women pace differently than men during ‘Ultraman Hawaii’ where the fastest women decreased performance on day 1 and could then maintain on day 2 and 3, whereas the fastest men worsened performance on day 1 and 2 but improved on day 3.

  2. Massive sequencing of Ulmus minor's transcriptome provides new molecular tools for a genus under the constant threat of Dutch elm disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro ePerdiguero

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Elms, especially Ulmus minor and Ulmus americana, are carrying out a hard battle against Dutch elm disease (DED. This vascular wilt disease, caused by Ophiostoma ulmi and O. novo-ulmi, appeared in the twentieth century and killed millions of elms across North America and Europe. Elm breeding and conservation programmes have identified a reduced number of DED tolerant genotypes. In this study, three U. minor genotypes with contrasted levels of tolerance to DED were exposed to several biotic and abiotic stresses in order to (i obtain a de novo assembled transcriptome of U. minor using 454 pyrosequencing, (ii perform a functional annotation of the assembled transcriptome, (iii identify genes potentially involved in the molecular response to environmental stress, and (iv develop gene-based markers to support breeding programmes. A total of 58,429 putative unigenes were identified after assembly and filtering of the transcriptome. 32,152 of these unigenes showed homology with proteins identified in the genome from the most common plant model species. Well-known family proteins and transcription factors involved in abiotic, biotic or both stresses were identified after functional annotation. A total of 30,693 polymorphisms were identified in 7,125 isotigs, a large number of them corresponding to SNPs (27,359. In a subset randomly selected for validation, 87 % of the SNPs were confirmed. The material generated may be valuable for future Ulmus gene expression, population genomics and association genetics studies, especially taking into account the scarce molecular information available for this genus and the great impact that DED has on elm populations.

  3. Right ventricular septal pacing: Safety and efficacy in a long term follow up

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eraldo; Occhetta; Gianluca; Quirino; Lara; Baduena; Rosaria; Nappo; Chiara; Cavallino; Emanuela; Facchini; Paolo; Pistelli; Andrea; Magnani; Miriam; Bortnik; Gabriella; Francalacci; Gabriele; Dell’Era; Laura; Plebani; Paolo; Marino

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of the permanent high interventricular septal pacing in a long term follow up, as alternative to right ventricular apical pacing. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated:(1) 244 patients(74 ± 8 years; 169 men, 75 women) implanted with a single(132 pts) or dual chamber(112 pts) pacemaker(PM) with ventricular screw-in lead placed at the right ventricular high septal parahisian site(SEPTAL pacing);(2) 22 patients with permanent pacemaker and low percentage of pacing(< 20%)(NO pacing);(3) 33 patients with high percentage(> 80%) right ventricular apical pacing(RVA). All patients had a narrow spontaneous QRS(101 ± 14 ms). We evaluated New York Heart Association(NYHA) class, quality of life(Qo L), 6 min walking test(6MWT) and left ventricular function(end-diastolic volume, LV-EDV; end-systolic volume, LVESV; ejection fraction, LV-EF) with 2D-echocardiography. RESULTS: Pacing parameters were stable duringfollow up(21 mo/patient). In SEPTAL pacing group we observed an improvement in NYHA class, Qo L score and 6MWT. While LV-EDV didn’t significantly increase(104 ± 40 m L vs 100 ± 37 m L; P = 0.35), LV-ESV slightly increased(55 ± 31 m L vs 49 ± 27 m L; P = 0.05) and LV-EF slightly decreased(49% ± 11% vs 53% ± 11%; P = 0.001) but never falling < 45%. In the RVA pacing control group we observed a worsening of NYHA class and an important reduction of LV-EF(from 56% ± 6% to 43% ± 9%, P < 0.0001).CONCLUSION: Right ventricular permanent high septal pacing is safe and effective in a long term follow up evaluation; it could be a good alternative to the conventional RVA pacing in order to avoid its deleterious effects.

  4. The pace of shifting climate in marine and terrestrial ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burrows, Michael T.; Schoeman, David S.; Buckley, Lauren B.

    2011-01-01

    Climate change challenges organisms to adapt or move to track changes in environments in space and time. We used two measures of thermal shifts from analyses of global temperatures over the past 50 years to describe the pace of climate change that species should track: the velocity of climate...... change (geographic shifts of isotherms over time) and the shift in seasonal timing of temperatures. Both measures are higher in the ocean than on land at some latitudes, despite slower ocean warming. These indices give a complex mosaic of predicted range shifts and phenology changes that deviate from...... simple poleward migration and earlier springs or later falls. They also emphasize potential conservation concerns, because areas of high marine biodiversity often have greater velocities of climate change and seasonal shifts....

  5. Percutaneously injectable fetal pacemaker: electronics, pacing thresholds, and power budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Adriana; Chmait, Ramen; Bar-Cohen, Yaniv; Zheng, Kaihui; Loeb, Gerald E

    2012-01-01

    We are developing a cardiac pacemaker that is designed to be implanted percutaneously into a fetus to treat complete heart block and consequent hydrops fetalis, which is otherwise fatal. One of the most significant considerations for this device is the technical challenges presented by the battery and charging system. The size of the device is limited to about 3 mm in diameter; batteries on this scale have very small charge capacities. The smaller capacity means that the device needs to be designed so that it uses as little current as possible and so that its battery can be recharged wirelessly. We determined the pacing thresholds for a simple relaxation oscillator that can be assembled from discrete, surface mount components and analyzed the power consumption of the device given different electrode configurations and stimulus parameters. An inductive recharging system will be required for some patients; it is feasible within the package constraints and under development.

  6. Specific Intensity for Peaking: Is Race Pace the Best Option?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munoz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The peaking period for endurance competition is characterized for a relative increase of the intensity of training, after a longer period of training relatively dominated by lower intensity and higher volume Objectives The present study was designed to compare physiological and 10 km performance effects of high intensity training (HIT versus race pace interval training (RP during peaking for competition in well-trained runners. Patients and Methods 13 athletes took part in the study, they were divided into two groups: HIT and RP. HIT performed short intervals at ~105% of the maximal aerobic velocity (MAV, while RP trained longer intervals at a speed of ~90% of the MAV (a speed approximating 10 km race pace. After 12 weeks of baseline training, the athletes trained for 6 weeks under one of the two peaking regimes. Subjects performed 10 km prior to and after the intervention period. The total load of training was matched between groups during the treatment phase. Subjects completed a graded treadmill running test until volitional exhaustion prior to each 10 km race. MAV was determined as the minimal velocity eliciting maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max. Results Both groups significantly improved their 10 km time (35 minutes 29 seconds ± 1 minutes 41 seconds vs 34 minutes 53 seconds ± 1 minutes 55 seconds, P 0.05. In contrast, running economy decreased significantly after HIT (210 ± 6 ml.Kg-1.km-1 vs 218 ± 9, P < 0.05. Conclusions A 6 week period of training at either 105% of MAV or 90% of MAV yielded similar performance gains in a 10km race performed at ~90% MAV. Therefore, the physiological impact of HIT training seems to be positive for VO2max but negative for running economy.

  7. Evaluation of the effects of transvenous pacing site on left ventricular function and synchrony in healthy anesthetized dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisenbacher, Herbert W; Estrada, Amara H; Prosek, Robert; Shih, Andre C; Vangilder, James M

    2009-04-01

    OBJECTIVE-To compare the acute effects of cardiac pacing from various transvenous pacing sites on left ventricular (LV) function and synchrony in clinically normal dogs. ANIMALS-10 healthy adult mixed-breed dogs. PROCEDURES-Dogs were anesthetized, and dual-chamber transvenous biventricular pacing systems were implanted. Dogs were paced in single-chamber mode from the right atrial appendage (RAA) alone and in dual-chamber mode from the right ventricular apex (RVA), from the left ventricular free wall (LVFW), and simultaneously from the RVA and LVFW (BiV). Standard ECG and echocardiographic measurements, cardiac output measured with the lithium dilution method (LiDCO), and tissue Doppler-derived measurements of LV synchrony were obtained during each of the pacing configurations. RESULTS-Placement of the biventricular pacing systems was possible in 8 of the 10 dogs. The QRS duration was significantly different among all pacing sites, and the order of increasing duration was RAA, BiV, LVFW, and RVA. Pacing sites did not differ with respect to fractional shortening; however, pacing from the RVA resulted in a significantly lower ejection fraction than pacing from all other sites. During RVA and LVFW pacing, LiDCO was significantly lower than that at other sites; there was no significant difference between RAA and BiV pacing with respect to LiDCO. Although the degree of dyssynchrony was significantly lower during pacing from the RAA versus other ventricular pacing sites, it was not significantly different among sites. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE-Ventricular activation by RAA pacing provided the best LV function and synchrony. Pacing from the RVA worsened LV function, and although pacing from the LVFW improved it, BiV pacing may provide additional improvement.

  8. Experimental investigation of vapor shielding effects induced by ELM-like pulsed plasma loads using the double plasma gun device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, I.; Kikuchi, Y.; Kitagawa, Y.; Asai, Y.; Onishi, K.; Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.

    2015-08-01

    We have developed a unique experimental device of so-called double plasma gun, which consists of two magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG) devices, in order to clarify effects of vapor shielding on material erosion due to transient events in magnetically confined fusion devices. Two ELM-like pulsed plasmas produced by the two MCPG devices were injected into a target chamber with a variable time difference. For generating ablated plasmas in front of a target material, an aluminum foil sample in the target chamber was exposed to a pulsed plasma produced by the 1st MCPG device. The 2nd pulsed plasma was produced with a time delay of 70 μs. It was found that a surface absorbed energy measured by a calorimeter was reduced to ∼66% of that without the Al foil sample. Thus, the reduction of the incoming plasma energy by the vapor shielding effect was successfully demonstrated in the present experiment.

  9. Experimental investigation of vapor shielding effects induced by ELM-like pulsed plasma loads using the double plasma gun device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakuma, I., E-mail: eu13z002@steng.u-hyogo.ac.jp; Kikuchi, Y.; Kitagawa, Y.; Asai, Y.; Onishi, K.; Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.

    2015-08-15

    We have developed a unique experimental device of so-called double plasma gun, which consists of two magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG) devices, in order to clarify effects of vapor shielding on material erosion due to transient events in magnetically confined fusion devices. Two ELM-like pulsed plasmas produced by the two MCPG devices were injected into a target chamber with a variable time difference. For generating ablated plasmas in front of a target material, an aluminum foil sample in the target chamber was exposed to a pulsed plasma produced by the 1st MCPG device. The 2nd pulsed plasma was produced with a time delay of 70 μs. It was found that a surface absorbed energy measured by a calorimeter was reduced to ∼66% of that without the Al foil sample. Thus, the reduction of the incoming plasma energy by the vapor shielding effect was successfully demonstrated in the present experiment.

  10. Cracking behavior of tungsten armor under ELM-like thermal shockloads II: A revised prediction for crack appearance map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muyuan Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the surface cracking features of tungsten armor under thermal shock loads by edge-localized mode (ELM were investigated by means of computational fracture mechanics analysis. For the simulation it was assumed that a small crack was initiated at low temperature after the shut-off of thermal load in contrast to the previous studies where the presence of a crack before thermal loading was assumed. The threshold power density for surface cracking was predicted to range between 0.3 and 0.6GW/m2 while the threshold of base temperature lay between 200 and 400°C. The theoretically predicted damage map agreed well with the experimental data from electron beam irradiation tests. The current simulation model turned out to match better to the real experimental observation than the previous predictions where the threshold base temperature lies roughly between 400 and 600°C.

  11. Two-dimensional numerical study of ELMs-induced erosion of tungsten divertor target tiles with different edge shapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yan [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); School of Information Science and Engineering, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian 116034 (China); Sun, Jizhong, E-mail: jsun@dlut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Hu, Wanpeng; Sang, Chaofeng [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Wang, Dezhen, E-mail: wangdez@dlut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • Thermal performance of three edge-shaped divertor tiles was assessed numerically. • All the divertor tiles exposed to type-I ELMs like ITER's will melt. • The rounded edge tile thermally performs the best in all tiles of interest. • The incident energy flux density was evaluated with structural effects considered. - Abstract: Thermal performance of the divertor tile with different edge shapes was assessed numerically along the poloidal direction by a two-dimensional heat conduction model with considering the geometrical effects of castellated divertor tiles on the properties of its adjacent plasma. The energy flux density distribution arriving at the castellated divertor tile surface was evaluated by a two-dimension-in-space and three-dimension-in-velocity particle-in-cell plus Monte Carlo Collisions code and then the obtained energy flux distribution was used as input for the heat conduction model. The simulation results showed that the divertor tiles with any edge shape of interest (rectangular edge, slanted edge, and rounded edge) would melt, especially, in the edge surface region of facing plasma poloidally under typical heat flux density of a transient event of type-I ELMs for ITER, deposition energy of 1 MJ/m{sup 2} in a duration of 600 μs. In comparison with uniform energy deposition, the vaporizing erosion was reduced greatly but the melting erosion was aggravated noticeably in the edge area of plasma facing diveror tile. Of three studied edge shapes, the simulation results indicated that the divertor plate with rounded edge was the most resistant to the thermal erosion.

  12. Atrioventricular Left Ventricular Apical Pacing Improves Haemodynamic, Rotational, and Deformation Variables in Comparison to Pacing at the Lateral Wall in Intact Myocardium: Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savvas Toumanidis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the effect on left ventricular (LV function of atrioventricular (AV and ventricular pacing at the LV apical or lateral wall and to compare the normal torsional and deformation pattern of the intact LV myocardium with those created by the aforementioned LV pacing modes and sites. Methods. Experiments were conducted in pigs (n=21 with normal LV function to investigate the acute hemodynamic effects of epicardial AV and ventricular LV pacing at the LV apical or lateral wall. Torsional and deformation indices of LV function were assessed using speckle tracking echocardiography. Results. AV pacing at the apex revealed a significant reduction in the radial strain of the base (P<0.03, without affecting significantly the ejection fraction and the LV torsion or twist. In contrast, AV pacing at the lateral wall produced, in addition to the reduction of the radial strain of the base (P<0.01, significant reduction of the circumferential and the radial strain of the apex (both P<0.01 as well as of the ejection fraction (P<0.002 and twist (P<0.05. Conclusions. In pig hearts with intact myocardium, LV function is maintained at sinus rhythm level when AV pacing is performed at the LV apex.

  13. Effect of right ventricular pacing on ventricular rhythm during atrial fibrillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittkampf, F.H.M.; Jongste, M.J.L. de; Lie, H.I.; Meijler, F.L.

    1988-01-01

    In 13 patients with atrial fibrillation, the effect of right ventricular pacing at various rates on spontaneous RR intervals was studied. Five hundred consecutive RR intervals were recorded and measured before and during varying right ventricular pacing rates. As anticipated, all RR intervals longer

  14. Differential effects of film on preschool children's behaviour dependent on editing pace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyrka-Allchorne, Katarzyna; Cooper, Nicholas R; Gossmann, Anna Maria; Barber, Katy J; Simpson, Andrew

    2017-05-01

    Evidence on how the pace of television and film editing affects children's behaviour and attention is inconclusive. We examined whether a fast-paced film affected how preschool-aged children interacted with toys. The study comprised 70 children (36 girls) aged two to four-and-a-half years who attended preschools in Essex, United Kingdom. The children were paired up and tested with either a fast- or a slow-paced film of a narrator reading a children's story. The fast-paced version had 102 camera cuts and 16 still images, and the slow-paced version had 22 camera cuts and four still images. Each dyad took part in two video-recorded free-play sessions, before and after they watched one of the specially edited four-minute films. The number of toys the children played with before and after the film sessions was recorded. Before they watched the films, the children's behaviour did not differ between the groups. However, after watching the film, the children in the fast-paced group shifted their attention between toys more frequently than the children who watched the slow-paced film. Even a brief exposure to differently paced films had an immediate effect on how the children interacted with their toys. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Self-Paced Economics Instruction: A Large-Scale Disaggregated Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soper, John C.; Thorton, Richard M.

    1976-01-01

    This paper reports on an evaluation of the Sterling Institute self-paced macroeconomics course at Northern Illinois University. Results show that a completely self-paced teaching format for macroeconomics is inferior to a well-directed, concept-oriented, graduate-student instructed, lecture-discussion taught course. (Author/RM)

  16. The Student Experience of PACE at Macquarie University: Understanding Motivations for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, Kath; Rawlings-Sanaei, Felicity; Mason, Colina; Haski-Levanthal, Debbie; Nabeel, Hussein

    2017-01-01

    Professional and Community Engagement (PACE) at Macquarie University offers undergraduate students experiential learning opportunities with local, regional and international partners. Through PACE, students work on mutually beneficial projects that both meet the partner's organizational goals and enable students to strengthen graduate capabilities…

  17. Improvement of pacing induced regional myocardial ischemia by Solcoseryl in conscious dogs with coronary stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, T; Sasayama, S; Takahashi, M; Osakada, G; Kawai, C

    1984-02-01

    The effects of Solcoseryl on regional myocardial function were studied in 5 conscious dogs with partial coronary constriction, in which temporary ischemia was induced by rapid cardiac pacing. During the coronary artery constriction, the percent shortening of the ischemic segment decreased by 9%. When the heart rate was increased by pacing, the percent shortening of the ischemic segments was further reduced by 57%. On cessation of cardiac pacing, the early potentiation of dP/dt and of control segment shortening became evident and was followed by exponential decay in the subsequent several beats. In the ischemic segment, the percent shortening was significantly improved in the first post-pacing beat but was more severely depressed at five seconds. Thirty minutes after administration of Solcoseryl, the cardiac pacing was repeated in the same manner but the pacing-induced hypokinesia of the ischemic segment were less marked, the percent shortening being at an average of 9.1% during control pacing and 12.7% during the second pacing after Solcoseryl (p less than 0.05). Postpacing deterioration of the ischemic segment shortening was also significantly improved from 9.8 to 11.8% at 5 seconds (p less than 0.05). These findings indicate that Solcoseryl exerts protective effects on the ischemic myocardium by promoting a rapid recovery from ischemia, probably due to the improvement of oxygen utility through activated cellular respiration.

  18. Effects of Priming and Pacing Strategy on Oxygen-Uptake Kinetics and Cycling Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Stephen J; Vanhatalo, Anni; Black, Matthew I; DiMenna, Fred J; Jones, Andrew M

    2016-05-01

    To assess whether combining prior "priming" exercise with an all-out pacing strategy is more effective at improving oxygen-uptake (VO2) kinetics and cycling performance than either intervention administered independently. Nine men completed target-work cycling performance trials using a self-paced or all-out pacing strategy with or without prior severe-intensity (70%Δ) priming exercise. Breath-by-breath pulmonary VO2 and cycling power output were measured during all trials. Compared with the self-paced unprimed control trial (22 ± 5 s), the VO2 mean response time (MRT) was shorter (VO2 kinetics were faster) with all-out pacing (17 ± 4 s) and priming (17 ± 3 s), with the lowest VO2 MRT observed when all-out pacing and priming were combined (15 ± 4 s) (P primed trials (P primed (93 ± 8 s) and all-out primed (92 ± 8 s) trials (P .05). These findings suggest that combining an all-out start with severe-intensity priming exercise additively improves VO2 MRT but not total O2 consumption and cycling performance since these were improved by a similar magnitude in both primed trials relative to the self-paced unprimed control condition. Therefore, these results support the use of priming exercise as a precompetition intervention to improve oxidative metabolism and performance during short-duration high-intensity cycling exercise, independent of the pacing strategy adopted.

  19. Effects of permanent dual chamber pacing on myocardial perfusion in symptomatic hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posma, JL; Blanksma, PK; VanderWall, EE; Vaalburg, W; Crijns, HJGM; Lie, KI

    1996-01-01

    Objective-Angina and the presence of myocardial ischaemia are common in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Dual chamber pacing results in clinical improvement in these patients. This study evaluates the effects of permanent dual chamber pacing on absolute regional myocardial perfusion and perfusion

  20. TEE-guided left ventricular epicardial pacing lead placement for cardiac resynchronization therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Chand Arya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biventricular pacing has demonstrated improvement in cardiac functions in treating congestive cardiac failure patients. Recent trials have proven the clinical and functional benefits of cardiac resynchronization therapy in severe heart failure and intraventricular cardiac delays, mainly left bundle branch block. Biventricular pacing improves the exercise tolerance, quality of life, systolic heart function, reduces hospitalization and slows progression of the disease. A 54-year-old lady, a known case of dilated cardiomyopathy, was on biventricular pacing since 2 years. She presented in emergency with sudden deterioration of dyspnea to NYHA class III/IV. When investigated, the coronary sinus lead was found displaced; thus, left ventricle (LV was not getting paced. After multiple failures to reposition the coronary sinus lead, it was decided to surgically place the epicardial lead for LV pacing under general anesthesia. Lateral thoracotomy was done and LV pacing lead was placed at different sites with simultaneous monitoring of cardiac output (CO and stroke volume (SV by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE. Baseline CO and SV were 1.9 l/min and 19.48 ml respectively and increased at different sites of pacing at LV, the best CO and SV were 4.2 l/min and 42.39 ml respectively on lateral surface. Intraoperative TEE can calculate beat to beat stroke volume and thus CO and helps to choose optimal site for placement of epicardial pacing lead.

  1. The effect of work pace on workload, motor variability and fatigue during simulated light assembly work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, T; Mathiassen, S E; Visser, B; de Looze, M P; van Dieën, J H

    2011-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of work pace on workload, motor variability and fatigue during light assembly work. Upper extremity kinematics and electromyography (EMG) were obtained on a cycle-to-cycle basis for eight participants during two conditions, corresponding to "normal" and "high" work pace according to a predetermined time system for engineering. Indicators of fatigue, pain sensitivity and performance were recorded before, during and after the task. The level and variability of muscle activity did not differ according to work pace, and manifestations of muscle fatigue or changed pain sensitivity were not observed. In the high work pace, however, participants moved more efficiently, they showed more variability in wrist speed and acceleration, but they also made more errors. These results suggest that an increased work pace, within the range addressed here, will not have any substantial adverse effects on acute motor performance and fatigue in light, cyclic assembly work. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: In the manufacturing industry, work pace is a key issue in production system design and hence of interest to ergonomists as well as engineers. In this laboratory study, increasing the work pace did not show adverse effects in terms of biomechanical exposures and muscle fatigue, but it did lead to more errors. For the industrial engineer, this observation suggests that an increase in work pace might diminish production quality, even without any noticeable fatigue being experienced by the operators.

  2. New method for cardiac resynchronization therapy: Transapical endocardial lead implantation for left ventricular free wall pacing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Kassai (Imre); C. Foldesi (Csaba); A. Szekely (Andrea); T. Szili-Torok (Tamas)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractCoronary sinus lead placement for transvenous left ventricular (LV) pacing in cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has a significant failure rate at implant and a significant dislocation rate during follow-up. For these patients, epicardial pacing lead implantation is the most frequen

  3. Effects of permanent dual chamber pacing on myocardial perfusion in symptomatic hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posma, JL; Blanksma, PK; VanderWall, EE; Vaalburg, W; Crijns, HJGM; Lie, KI

    1996-01-01

    Objective-Angina and the presence of myocardial ischaemia are common in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Dual chamber pacing results in clinical improvement in these patients. This study evaluates the effects of permanent dual chamber pacing on absolute regional myocardial perfusion and perfusion reserv

  4. Right ventricular outflow and apical pacing comparably worsen the echocardioghraphic normal left ventricle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.J.F. ten Cate (Tim); M.G. Scheffer (Michael); G.R. Sutherland (George); J.F. Verzijlbergen (Fred); N.M. van Hemel (Norbert)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAims: A depressed left ventricular function (LVF) is sometimes observed during right ventricular apical (RVA) pacing, but any prediction of this adverse effect cannot be done. Right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) pacing is thought to deteriorate LVF less frequently because of a more no

  5. Beyond a Unitary Conception of Pedagogic Pace: Quantitative Measurement and Ethnographic Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefstein, Adam; Snell, Julia

    2013-01-01

    English education policy-makers have targeted classroom time as a key area for regulation and intervention, with "brisk pace" widely accepted as a feature of good teaching practice. We problematise this conventional wisdom through an exploration of objective and subjective dimensions of lesson pace in a corpus of 30 Key Stage 2 literacy…

  6. New method for cardiac resynchronization therapy: Transapical endocardial lead implantation for left ventricular free wall pacing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Kassai (Imre); C. Foldesi (Csaba); A. Szekely (Andrea); T. Szili-Torok (Tamas)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractCoronary sinus lead placement for transvenous left ventricular (LV) pacing in cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has a significant failure rate at implant and a significant dislocation rate during follow-up. For these patients, epicardial pacing lead implantation is the most

  7. Working on something else for a while: pacing in creative design projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eerde, W.; Beeftink, F.; Rutte, C.G.

    2015-01-01

    In an interview study among 25 architects we investigated how activities were allocated over time in the design phase of an architectural project. Specifically, linking the literatures about pacing behavior and incubation, we set out to identify patterns related to how the interviewees paced their a

  8. Working on something else for a while : Pacing in creative design projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Eerde, Wendelien; Beeftink, Flora; Rutte, C.G.

    2016-01-01

    In an interview study among 25 architects we investigated how activities were allocated over time in the design phase of an architectural project. Specifically, linking the literatures about pacing behavior and incubation, we set out to identify patterns related to how the interviewees paced their a

  9. Research on Electrical Remodeling After Short Term Pacing in Canine Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kebbati A Hafid; Huang Congxin; Wang Xi; Zhao Qingyan

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the changes in atrial effective refractory period (AERP) proprieties and in ionic currents in PVs myocytes from dogs subjected to rapid atrial pacing in PVs and right atrial appendage (RAA) and to relate these changes to the ability to induce AF. Methods Twelve mongrel dogs in normal sinus rhythm were paced from the superior left PVs or RAA at 500 bpm for 4 hours. Electrophysiologic studies conducted to determine changes in AERP, dispersion and rhythm. Ionic currents were studies with the patch clamp technique in single PVs myocytes in sham operated dogs and compared with those from PVs pacing and RAA pacing groups. Results The presence of rapid atrial pacing was associated with a marked shortening in AERP in both PVs and RAA pacing group with a marked increase of AERP dispersion in PVs pacing. Both L-type calcium current (ICa, L) and the transient outward current (Ito)were reduced in both groups with an increased significance in PVs pacing group. The density of ICa-L WaS decreased significantly from ( - 6.03 ± 0.63 ) pA/pF in the control group to ( -3.21±0.34) pA/pF in PVs pacing group and ( - 4,75 ± 0.41 ) pA/pF in RAA pacing group (n = 6, P<0.05) while the density of Ito was decreased significantly from (8.45±0.71 ) pA/pF in the control group to (5.21 ±0.763 ) pA/pF in PVs pacing group and (6,84 ± 0.69) pA/pF in RAA pacing group (n = 6, P<0.05). Conclusions Our findings provide likely ionic mechanisms of shortened repolarization in induced atrial tachycardia with a decrease in Ica,L and Ito current densities which is the likely mechanism for a decrease in Action potential duration (APD) rate adaptation in the canine rapid pacing model more pronounced in PVs pacing group underlying the crucial role of PVs in initiating AF.

  10. Temporary neonatal atrial pacing through the umbilical venous route: A novel technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiren N Doshi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Atrial pacing in the neonate is rarely done due to constraints of equipment, technical knowhow, and risk of complications. We describe a novel method of atrial pacing in the new born using equipment readily available in any intensive care unit. Atrial pacing can be achieved using an adult bipolar pacing wire directly introduced through the umbilical venous route. We have used this method in 5 neonates, and achieved atrial capture in 4 patients. Temporary atrial pacing is a therapeutic option in a few neonatal arrhythmias, such as atrial flutter, a few types of re-entrant tachycardias, such as accessory pathway mediated tachycardia and junctional reciprocating tachycardia, and has a limited role in cardiopulmonary resuscitation where sinoatrial node dysfunction is suspected.

  11. Effects of right atrial and ventricular DDD pacing on cardiac function and ventricular contraction synchrony

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    支力大; 华伟; 张澍; 史蓉芳; 王方正; 陈新

    2004-01-01

    Background Right ventricular apical pacing has been reported to reduce cardiac performance. But there are few reports on the effects of dual chamber (DDD) pacing on cardiac function compared to sinus rhythm. In this study, we evaluated the effects of right atrial and ventricular DDD pacing on cardiac function and ventricular contraction synchrony using equilibrium radionuclide angiography.Methods Ten patients implanted with a right atrial and ventricular DDD pacemaker underwent equilibrium radionuclide angiography. The scintigraphic data were obtained during sinus rhythm and pacing rhythm. Cardiac function parameters were obtained semimanually. Phase analysis was used to study the ventricular activation sequence and ventricular synchrony.Results The left ventricular 1/3 ejection fraction decreased significantly during pacing compared with that during sinus rhythm[(23.4 ±6.1)% vs(27.7 ±4.5)%, P =0.01]. Regional ejection fraction also decreased during pacing, although the difference was not statistically significant. Phase analysis showed that the right ventricle was activated earlier than the left ventricle during pacing, and that the phase shift was significantly greater during pacing than that during sinus rhythm[64.13°±16.80° vs 52.88°± 9.26°, P =0.007]. The activation of both ventricles occurred simultaneously during sinus rhythm, with the activation sequence from proximal septum or base of left ventricle to apex. The earliest activation during pacing occurred at the right ventricular apex, and subsequently spread to the base and left ventricle.Conclusion Right atrial and ventricular DDD pacing impairs left ventricular systolic function and ventricular synchrony.

  12. Development of Pacing, Electrophysiology and Defibrillation in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Nair

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available History of cardiac pacing in India dates back to late 1960s. Kar1 reported that cardiac pacing was introduced in India in 1966. Basu2 while discussing on cardiac pacemaking in Calcutta, mentions that the first pacing was performed in April 1967 at the Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education and Research (IPGME&R. Bhatia et al3 started pacemaker implantation at AIIMS, New Delhi in 1968. Their first patient was a doctor from Assam and the pulse generator was supplied by Medtronic Inc. The pulse generator was powered by a mercury-iodide battery which lasted for about 2 ½ years, after which the patient underwent pulse generator replacement. Unfortunately he succumbed to miliary tuberculosis about a year after that. Currently around 8000 pacemakers are being implanted annually in India, in various centers around the country. G.B. Pant Hospital New Delhi has been the pioneering center in the field of Invasive Cardiac Electrophysiology in the country. Bhatia M.L et al9 and Khalilullah M et al 10,11,12,13 were the pioneers in His bundle electrography in the country. Prof. K.K. Sethi was the first to perform catheter ablation in the country. Direct Current ablation was started in 1988 followed by Radio Frequency (RF ablation later on. The number of centres having electrophysiology setup in the country has increased from about 10 in 1997 to around 30 in 2001 (Fig 4. The number of RF ablations being performed in the country has gone up from 800 to 2000 during the same period. Newer insights in the field of atrial fibrillation in rheumatic heart disease have been obtained by electrophysiological studies from the country. Atrial disease due to rheumatic carditis is an important parameter, in addition to valvular involvement in the genesis of atrial fibrillation. Multiple substrates for atrial fibrillation are present in these cases, namely: stretch, fibrosis, raised pressures, increased atrial size and increased anisotropy. Atrial fibrillation in

  13. Impact of the permanent ventricular pacing site on left ventricular function in children: A retrospective multicentre survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.E. van Geldorp (Irene); T. Delhaas (Tammo); R.A. Gebauer (Roman); P. Frias (Patrick); M. Tomaske (Maren); M.K. Friedberg (Mark); S. Tisma-Dupanovic (Svjetlana); J. Elders (Jan); A. Früh (Andreas); F. Gabbarini (Fulvio); P. Kubuš (Petr); V. Illikova (Viera); E.C. Tsao (Elisa); A.C. Blank (Andreas Christian); A. Hiippala (Anita); T. Sluysmans (Thierry); P. Karpawich (Peter); S.A. Clur (Sally-Ann); X. Ganame (Xavier); K.K. Collins (Kathryn); G.C. Dann (Greg); J.-B. Thambo (Jean-Benoît); C. Trigo (Conceição); B. Nagel (Bert); J. Papagiannis (John); A. Rackowitz (Annette); J. Marek (Josef); J.-H. Nürnberg (Jan-Hendrik); W.Y. Vanagt (Ward); F.W. Prinzen (Frits); J. Janousek (Jan)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Chronic right ventricular (RV) pacing is associated with deleterious effects on cardiac function. Objective In an observational multicentre study in children with isolated atrioventricular (AV) block receiving chronic ventricular pacing, the importance of the ventricular paci

  14. Optimal Design and Operation of A Syngas-fuelled SOFC Micro-CHP System for Residential Applications in Different Climate Zones in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Wenyuan; Liso, Vincenzo; Zhao, Yingru

    2013-01-01

    demand. Numerical simulations are conducted in Matlab environment. System design trade-offs are discussed to determine the optimal match between the energy demand of the household for different climates across China and the energy supply of the micro-CHP during the whole year. Moreover, criteria......Energy consumption in residential sector can be considerably reduced by enhancing the efficiency of energy supply. Fuel cell-based residential micro-CHP systems are expected to be one of the most promising technologies because of their high efficiency and low environmental impact. Since the design...... heat-to-power load ratio. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the optimal design and operation of a syngas-fuelled SOFC micro-CHP system for small households located in five different climate zones in China. The ability of the micro-CHP to cover the heat and electricity demand of a 70m2...

  15. Energetic and Exergetic Analysis of a Heat Exchanger Integrated in a Solid Biomass-Fuelled Micro-CHP System with an Ericsson Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Creyx

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A specific heat exchanger has been developed to transfer heat from flue gas to the working fluid (hot air of the Ericsson engine of a solid biomass-fuelled micro combined heat and power (CHP. In this paper, the theoretical and experimental energetic analyses of this heat exchanger are compared. The experimental performances are described considering energetic and exergetic parameters, in particular the effectiveness on both hot and cold sides. A new exergetic parameter called the exergetic effectiveness is introduced, which allows a comparison between the real and the ideal heat exchanger considering the Second Law of Thermodynamics. A global analysis of exergetic fluxes in the whole micro-CHP system is presented, showing the repartition of the exergy destruction among the components.

  16. 天然气燃料动力船燃料加注模式研究%Research on Bunkering Mode of Natural Gas-fuelled Ship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石国政; 张晖; 范洪军

    2013-01-01

    针对天然气燃料加注方案,分析国内外船舶天然气燃料加注的现状、主要加注模式及其特点。结合我国内河水域的特点,提出适合我国天然气燃料动力船加注模式的建议。%The bunkering modes for natural gas fuel were taken as the research object .The bunkering situation on the do-mestic and international ships was analyzed , as well as the current principal bunkering modes and their features .Some sugges-tions on the bunkering modes applying to Chinese natural gas fuelled ships were put forward in light of the special features of Chi -nese inland waterways .

  17. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS OF REAL TIME SECONDARY CO-INJECTION OF WATER – DIETHYL ETHER SOLUTION IN DI-DIESEL ENGINE FUELLED WITH PALM KERNEL METHYL ESTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. V. SATYANARAYANAMURTHY

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation tests were conducted on single cylinder diesel engine fuelled with neat diesel and biodiesel palm kernel methyl ester as a base line fuel with secondary injection of Water-DEE solution through the inlet manifold. A real time control systems consists of electronic unit pump that delivers 5% to 25% vol. Water-DEE solution through injector tip mounted nearer to the inlet manifold under a pressure of 3 kgf/cm2. NOx emissions reduced to a level of 500 ppm with simultaneous reduction of soot especially for PKME. However for 15% vol. of Water-DEE injection the HC emissions are closely tallying with that of neat diesel. A global overview of the results has shown that the 15% Water-DEE solution is the optimal blend based on performance and emission characteristics.

  18. Effects of fuel processing methods on industrial scale biogas-fuelled solid oxide fuel cell system for operating in wastewater treatment plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhad, Siamak; Yoo, Yeong; Hamdullahpur, Feridun

    The performance of three solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems, fuelled by biogas produced through anaerobic digestion (AD) process, for heat and electricity generation in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is studied. Each system has a different fuel processing method to prevent carbon deposition over the anode catalyst under biogas fuelling. Anode gas recirculation (AGR), steam reforming (SR), and partial oxidation (POX) are the methods employed in systems I-III, respectively. A planar SOFC stack used in these systems is based on the anode-supported cells with Ni-YSZ anode, YSZ electrolyte and YSZ-LSM cathode, operated at 800 °C. A computer code has been developed for the simulation of the planar SOFC in cell, stack and system levels and applied for the performance prediction of the SOFC systems. The key operational parameters affecting the performance of the SOFC systems are identified. The effect of these parameters on the electrical and CHP efficiencies, the generated electricity and heat, the total exergy destruction, and the number of cells in SOFC stack of the systems are studied. The results show that among the SOFC systems investigated in this study, the AGR and SR fuel processor-based systems with electrical efficiency of 45.1% and 43%, respectively, are suitable to be applied in WWTPs. If the entire biogas produced in a WWTP is used in the AGR or SR fuel processor-based SOFC system, the electricity and heat required to operate the WWTP can be completely self-supplied and the extra electricity generated can be sold to the electrical grid.

  19. Electrical Pacing of Cardiac Tissue Including Potassium Inward Rectification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galappaththige, Suran; Roth, Bradley J

    2015-01-01

    In this study cardiac tissue is stimulated electrically through a small unipolar electrode. Numerical simulations predict that around an electrode are adjacent regions of depolarization and hyperpolarization. Experiments have shown that during pacing of resting cardiac tissue the hyperpolarization is often inhibited. Our goal is to determine if the inward rectifying potassium current (IK1) causes the inhibition of hyperpolarization. Numerical simulations were carried out using the bidomain model with potassium dynamics specified to be inward rectifying. In the simulations, adjacent regions of depolarization and hyperpolarization were observed surrounding the electrode. For cathodal currents the virtual anode produces a hyperpolarization that decreases over time. For long duration pulses the current-voltage curve is non-linear, with very small hyperpolarization compared to depolarization. For short pulses, the hyperpolarization is more prominent. Without the inward potassium rectification, the current voltage curve is linear and the hyperpolarization is evident for both long and short pulses. In conclusion, the inward rectification of the potassium current explains the inhibition of hyperpolarization for long duration stimulus pulses, but not for short duration pulses.

  20. Electrical Pacing of Cardiac Tissue Including Potassium Inward Rectification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suran Galappaththige

    Full Text Available In this study cardiac tissue is stimulated electrically through a small unipolar electrode. Numerical simulations predict that around an electrode are adjacent regions of depolarization and hyperpolarization. Experiments have shown that during pacing of resting cardiac tissue the hyperpolarization is often inhibited. Our goal is to determine if the inward rectifying potassium current (IK1 causes the inhibition of hyperpolarization. Numerical simulations were carried out using the bidomain model with potassium dynamics specified to be inward rectifying. In the simulations, adjacent regions of depolarization and hyperpolarization were observed surrounding the electrode. For cathodal currents the virtual anode produces a hyperpolarization that decreases over time. For long duration pulses the current-voltage curve is non-linear, with very small hyperpolarization compared to depolarization. For short pulses, the hyperpolarization is more prominent. Without the inward potassium rectification, the current voltage curve is linear and the hyperpolarization is evident for both long and short pulses. In conclusion, the inward rectification of the potassium current explains the inhibition of hyperpolarization for long duration stimulus pulses, but not for short duration pulses.

  1. Antitachycardia pacing programming in implantable cardioverter defibrillator: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Maria, Elia; Giacopelli, Daniele; Borghi, Ambra; Modonesi, Letizia; Cappelli, Stefano

    2017-05-26

    Implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) programming involves several parameters. In recent years antitachycardia pacing (ATP) has gained an increasing importance in the treatment of ventricular arrhythmias, whether slow or fast. It reduces the number of unnecessary and inappropriate shocks and improves both patient's quality of life and device longevity. There is no clear indication regarding the type of ATP to be used, except for the treatment of fast ventricular tachycardias (188 bpm-250 bpm) where it has been shown a greater efficacy and safety of burst compared to ramp; 8 impulses in each sequence of ATP appears to be the best programming option in this setting. Beyond ATP use, excellent clinical results were obtained with programming standardization following these principles: extended detection time in ventricular fibrillation (VF) zone; supraventricular discrimination criteria up to 200 bpm; first shock in VF zone at the maximum energy in order to reduce the risk of multiple shocks. The MADIT-RIT trial and some observational registries have also recently demonstrated that programming with a widespread use of ATP, higher cut-off rates or delayed intervention reduces the number of inappropriate and unnecessary therapies and improves the survival of patients during mid-term follow-up.

  2. Predictors of left ventricular remodelling and failure in right ventricular pacing in the young

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebauer, Roman A.; Tomek, Viktor; Salameh, Aida; Marek, Jan; Chaloupecký, Václav; Gebauer, Roman; Matějka, Tomáš; Vojtovič, Pavel; Janoušek, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Aims To identify risk factors for left ventricular (LV) dysfunction in right ventricular (RV) pacing in the young. Methods and results Left ventricular function was evaluated in 82 paediatric patients with either non-surgical (n = 41) or surgical (n= 41) complete atrioventricular block who have been 100% RV paced for a mean period of 7.4 years. Left ventricular shortening fraction (SF) decreased from a median (range) of 39 (24–62)% prior to implantation to 32 (8–49)% at last follow-up (P +2z-values) and dysfunction (SF < 0.26) was found to increase from 1.3% prior to pacemaker implantation to 13.4% (11/82 patients) at last follow-up (P = 0.01). Ten of these 11 patients had progressive LV remodelling and 8 of 11 were symptomatic. The only significant risk factor for the development of LV dilatation and dysfunction was the presence of epicardial RV free wall pacing (OR = 14.3, P < 0.001). Other pre-implantation demographic, diagnostic, and haemodynamic factors including block aetiology, pacing variables, and pacing duration did not show independent significance. Conclusion Right ventricular pacing leads to pathologic LV remodelling in a significant proportion of paediatric patients. The major independent risk factor is the presence of epicardial RV free wall pacing, which should be avoided whenever possible. PMID:19286675

  3. [Competitive pacing in a patient with DDD pacemaker and bigeminal ventricular extrasystoles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Vincenzo; Candelmo, Fiore; Todaro, Chiara; Oreto, Giuseppe

    2008-11-01

    The ECG recorded from a patient with DDD pacemaker showed variable responses of the pacing system to bigeminal ventricular extrasystoles, dependent on the coupling interval of premature beats. For relatively short coupling intervals, the premature spontaneous event was detected by the pacemaker, inhibiting both atrial and ventricular output, and resulting in a relatively long pacing pause. In slightly less premature end-diastolic extrasystoles, in contrast, the pacing system delivered an atrial spike that was superimposed upon the spontaneous premature QRS complex (pseudo-pseudofusion); under these circumstances, the atrial spike was followed, at the end of the programmed atrioventricular interval, by a ventricular spike falling on the extrasystolic T wave apex (competitive ventricular pacing). This phenomenon, however, did not express a sensing malfunction, but was due to post-atrial ventricular blanking (PAVB), a short period initiated by the atrial spike during which ventricular sensing is temporarily disabled, so that no signal can be detected. Finally, whenever premature end-diastolic impulses occurred after PAVB, during the brief interval defined ventricular safety pacing, the spontaneous event was sensed, being followed by an earlier-than-expected ventricular spike, whose prematurity was aimed at avoiding the occurrence of an artificial impulse upon the T wave of extrasystole. In conclusion, despite several not sensed ventricular extrasystoles and competitive pacing, no sensing malfunction was present. This case demonstrates how complex can be the electrocardiographic analysis of a DDD pacemaker, owing to the many complicating phenomena related to this pacing mechanism.

  4. The interrelations among stochastic pacing, stability, and memory in the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvir, Hila; Zlochiver, Sharon

    2014-08-19

    Low pacing variability in the heart has been clinically reported as a risk factor for lethal cardiac arrhythmias and arrhythmic death. In ia previous simulation study, we demonstrated that stochastic pacing sustains an antiarrhythmic effect by moderating the slope of the action potential duration (APD) restitution curve, by reducing the propensity of APD alternans, converting discordant to concordant alternans, and ultimately preventing wavebreaks. However, the dynamic mechanisms relating pacing stochasticity to tissue stability are not yet known. In this work, we develop a mathematical framework to describe the APD signal using an autoregressive stochastic model, and we establish the interrelations between stochastic pacing, cardiac memory, and cardiac stability, as manifested by the degree of APD alternans. Employing stability analysis tools, we show that increased stochasticity in the ventricular tissue activation sequence works to lower the maximal absolute eigenvalues of the stochastic model, thereby contributing to increased stability. We also show that the memory coefficients of the autoregressive model are modulated by pacing stochasticity in a nonlinear, biphasic way, so that for exceedingly high levels of pacing stochasticity, the antiarrhythmic effect is hampered by increasing APD variance. This work may contribute to establishment of an optimal antiarrhythmic pacing protocol in a future study. Copyright © 2014 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cardiomyopathy induced by artificial cardiac pacing: myth or reality sustained by evidence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Di Leoni Ferrari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Implantable cardiac pacing systems are a safe and effective treatment for symptomatic irreversible bradycardia. Under the proper indications, cardiac pacing might bring significant clinical benefit. Evidences from literature state that the action of the artificial pacing system, mainly when the ventricular lead is located at the apex of the right ventricle, produces negative effects to cardiac structure (remodeling, dilatation and function (dissinchrony. Patients with previously compromised left ventricular function would benefit the least with conventional right ventricle apical pacing, and are exposed to the risk of developing higher incidence of morbidity and mortality for heart failure. However, after almost 6 decades of cardiac pacing, just a reduced portion of patients in general would develop these alterations. In this context, there are not completely clear some issues related to cardiac pacing and the development of this cardiomyopathy. Causality relationships among QRS widening with a left bundle branch block morphology, contractility alterations within the left ventricle, and certain substrates or clinical (previous systolic dysfunction, structural heart disease, time from implant or electrical conditions (QRS duration, percentage of ventricular stimulation are still subjecte of debate. This review analyses contemporary data regarding this new entity, and discusses alternatives of how to use cardiac pacing in this context, emphasizing cardiac resynchronization therapy.

  6. Differences in atrial septal activation with an intrasinoatrial nodal pacemaker and epicardial sinoatrial nodal pacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, J M

    1979-01-01

    Changes in Intra-SA nodal pacemaker localization were produced through stimulation of the decentralized cervical vagi and stellate ganglia in the anesthetized dog. Shifts in pacemaker to the rostral, middle, or caudal regions of the SA node produced a change in the timing as well as a change in the sequence of activation of recording sites overlying the AV node. Epicardial pacing with a plaque electrode from either the rostral, middle, or caudal regions of the SA node produced the same activation sequence of the AV nodal electrodes irrespective of the epicardial SA nodal pacing site. The inability of epicardial SA nodal pacing to precisely reproduce the activation pattern of the atrial septum overlying the AV node observed with a natural SA nodal pacemaker can be explained by the geographic relationship of the pacemaker cells within the node to the preferential internodal pathways and the area of atrial tissue stimulated by pacing. Pacing activates a large mass of tissue, whereas an intrinsic pacemaker probably acts as a more localized focus. The inability of pacing to reproduce the activation pattern seen with spontaneous rhythm may be a determinant in the varied P wave morphology seen with coronary sinus or AV nodal junctional rhythms, as compared with more consistent morphology seen with pacing.

  7. High-resolution entrainment mapping of gastric pacing: a new analytical tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, Gregory; Du, Peng; Lammers, Wim J E P; Egbuji, John U; Mithraratne, Pulasthi; Chen, Jiande D Z; Cheng, Leo K; Windsor, John A; Pullan, Andrew J

    2010-02-01

    Gastric pacing has been investigated as a potential treatment for gastroparesis. New pacing protocols are required to improve symptom and motility outcomes; however, research progress has been constrained by a limited understanding of the effects of electrical stimulation on slow-wave activity. This study introduces high-resolution (HR) "entrainment mapping" for the analysis of gastric pacing and presents four demonstrations. Gastric pacing was initiated in a porcine model (typical amplitude 4 mA, pulse width 400 ms, period 17 s). Entrainment mapping was performed using flexible multielectrode arrays (entrainment onset was quantified over successive waves in spatiotemporal detail. In the second demonstration, slow-wave velocity was accurately determined with HR field analysis, and paced propagation was found to be anisotropic (longitudinal 2.6 +/- 1.7 vs. circumferential 4.5 +/- 0.6 mm/s; P Entrainment mapping enables an accurate quantification of the effects of gastric pacing on slow-wave activity, offering an improved method to assess whether pacing protocols are likely to achieve physiologically and clinically useful outcomes.

  8. Cardiac optogenetic pacing in drosophila melanogaster using red-shifted opsins (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men, Jing; Li, Airong; Jerwick, Jason; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Zhou, Chao

    2017-02-01

    Electrical pacing is the current gold standard for investigation of mammalian cardiac electrical conduction systems as well as for treatment of certain cardiac pathologies. However, this method requires an invasive surgical procedure to implant the pacing electrodes. Recently, optogenetic pacing has been developed as an alternative, non-invasive method for heartbeat pacing in animals. It induces heartbeats by shining pulsed light on transgene-generated microbial opsins which in turn activate light gated ion channels in animal hearts. However, commonly used opsins, such as channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2), require short light wavelength stimulation (475 nm), which is strongly absorbed and scattered by tissue. Here, we expressed recently engineered red-shifted opsins, ReaChR and CsChrimson, in the heart of a well-developed animal model, Drosophila melanogaster, for the first time. Optogenetic pacing was successfully conducted in both ReaChR and CsChrimson flies at their larval, pupal, and adult stages using 617 nm excitation light pulse, enabling a much deeper tissue penetration compared to blue stimulation light. A customized high speed and ultrahigh resolution OCM system was used to non-invasively monitor the heartbeat pacing in Drosophila. Compared to previous studies on optogenetic pacing of Drosophila, higher penetration depth of optogenetic excitation light was achieved in opaque late pupal flies. Lower stimulating power density is needed for excitation at each developmental stage of both groups, which improves the safety of this technique for heart rhythm studies.

  9. Helping Girls Get Back on Track: An Implementation Study of the PACE Center for Girls. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treskon, Louisa; Millenky, Megan; Freedman, Lily

    2017-01-01

    PACE Center for Girls is a unique program that provides academic and social services to girls ages 11 to 18. Girls eligible for PACE exhibit multiple health, safety, and delinquency risk factors, such as poor academic performance, exposure to abuse or violence, truancy, risky sexual behavior, and substance abuse. PACE seeks to help them onto a…

  10. Facility Composer (Trademark) and PACES (Trademark) Integration: Development of an XML Interface Based on Industry Foundation Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    Density Parameters. ...............................111 Figure C5. PACES Facilities Values editing screen, Shell Quantity Parameters...112 Figure C6. PACES Facilities Values editing screen, Shell Descriptive Parameters...........................113 Figure C7. PACES import... COCOA B1 12008 FL COCOA B2 12009 FL COCOA OC 12010 FL FT PIERCE 12011 FL JONATHAN 12012 FL MALABAR 12013 FL MELBOURN 12014 FL STUART 12015 FL

  11. Echocardiographic estimation of acute haemodynamic response during optimization of multisite pace-maker using different pacing modalities and atrioventricular delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šalinger-Martinović Sonja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT improves ventricular dyssynchrony and is associated with an improvement in symptoms, quality of life and prognosis in patients with severe heart failure and intraventricular conduction delay. Different pacing modalities produce variable activation patterns and may be a cause of different haemodynamic changes. The aim of our study was to investigate acute haemodynamic changes with different CRT configurations during optimization procedure. Methods. This study included 30 patients with severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction and left bundle branch block with wide QRS (EF 24.33 ± 3.7%, QRS 159 ± 17.3 ms, New York Heart Association III/IV 25/5 with implanted CRT device. The whole group of patients had severe mitral regurgitation in order to measure dP/dt. After implantation and before discharge all the patients underwent optimization procedure guided by Doppler echocardiography. Left and right ventricular pre-ejection intervals (LVPEI and RVPEI, interventricular mechanical delay (IVD and the maximal rate of ventricular pressure rise during early systole (max dP/dt were measured during left and biventricular pacing with three different atrioventricular (AV delays. Results. After CRT device optimization, optimal AV delay and CRT mode were defined. Left ventricular pre-ejection intervals changed from 170.5 ± 24.6 to 145.9 ± 9.5 (p < 0.001, RVPEI from 102.4 ± 15.9 to 119.8 ± 10.9 (p < 0.001, IVD from 68.1 ± 18.3 to 26.5 ± 8.2 (p < 0.001 and dP/dt from 524.2 ± 67 to 678.2 ± 88.5 (p < 0.01. Conclusion. In patients receiving CRT echocardiographic assessment of the acute haemodynamic response to CRT is a useful tool in optimization procedure. The variability of Doppler parameters with different CRT modalities emphasizes the necessity of individualized approach in optimization procedure.

  12. Análisis comparativo de la disponibilidad léxica en español como lengua extranjera (ELE y lengua materna (ELM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šifrar Kajan, Marjana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo es comparar la disponibilidad léxica de los estudiantes eslovenos de ELE con la disponibilidad léxica de los estudiantes españoles de ELM, y detectar las diferencias o similitudes léxicas entre los hablantes extranjeros y nativos de español en diez campos semánticos: partes del cuerpo, la ropa, la casa, alimentos y bebidas, la ciudad, el campo, medios de transporte, los animales, juegos y distracciones, y profesiones y oficios. Quedan así expuestas las grandes discrepancias entre el léxico más disponible en ELE y ELM, y en relación con el Plan Curricular. A partir de los resultados se propone la aplicación pedagógica de la planificación léxica en la enseñanza de ELE.

  13. Recovery in ERG gene expression with biventricular pacing in a rabbit model of myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba S

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Samir Saba,* Haider Mehdi,* William Barrington, Fardeen Mehdi, Zahid Islam, Barry LondonCardiovascular Institute of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Improved clinical and echocardiographic parameters have been documented with biventricular (BIV pacing in patients after myocardial infarction (MI. We investigated the changes in gene expression in cardiac tissue with BIV pacing, using a rabbit model of MI.Method: New Zealand White rabbits were divided into four groups: sham-operated controls, MI with no pacing, MI with right ventricle (RV pacing (MI + RV, and MI with BIV pacing (MI + BIV. Pacing was initiated 1–2 weeks after the coronary ligation. At 5 weeks, the hearts were excised. The tissue extracted from the left ventricle (LV and RV underwent analysis for protein and messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA levels.Results: The ether-a-go-go-related gene (ERG protein levels recovered from the base of the LV away from the MI area were two- to threefold lower in the MI and the MI + RV compared with the MI + BIV groups (P = 0.07. The ERG protein levels were similar between the MI + BIV and the control groups. However, the RNA levels were comparable between the four study groups, suggesting that a posttranscriptional mechanism accounted for the difference in protein levels.Conclusion: In this rabbit model of MI, we demonstrated a recovery in ERG protein levels with BIV pacing, after MI. This recovery may underlie some of the benefits seen with BIV pacing in ischemic cardiomyopathy.Keywords: heart failure, biventricular pacing, cardiac reverse remodeling, ether-a-go-go-related gene

  14. Inter-ELM evolution of the pedestal structures in type-I ELMy H-mode plasmas with LHW and NBI heating on EAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, X.; Zang, Q.; Xiao, S.; Wang, T.; Hu, A.; Tian, B.; Li, D.; Zhou, H.; Zhao, J.; Hsieh, C.; Li, M.; Yan, N.; Gong, X.; Hu, L.; Xu, G.; Gao, X.; the EAST Team

    2017-04-01

    The evolution characteristics of type-I ELMy high-confinement mode pedestal are examined in EAST based on the recently developed Thomson scattering system. The influence of the plasma current on pedestal evolvement has been confirmed experimentally. In the higher I p case (500 kA) the pedestal height shows an increase trend until the onset of next ELM and in the lower I p cases (300 and 400 kA), however, this buildup saturates at the first ∼30% of the ELM cycle. In contrast, the width increases only during the first ∼70% of the ELM cycle and then keeps almost stable in three I p cases, but resulting in different widening size of ∼1.5, 1 and 0.5 cm for 300, 400 and 500 kA respectively. Experimental results show that the pedestal pressure width has good correlation with poloidal beta as {{{Δ }}}{{p}{{e}},\\psi }=0.16\\sqrt{{{β }}{{p}{{o}}{{l}}}}, where the fitting coefficient 0.16 is not changed with different plasma currents but a little larger than that of other machines. For each current level, the pedestal density increases while the pedestal temperature decreases. But with increasing {I}{{p}} platforms, the pedestal height prior to the ELM onset shows a near quadratic (within error bars) increase. Experimental measurements demonstrate that the decrease of {{Δ }}{W}{{E}{{L}}{{M}}} with increasing {ν }{{p}{{e}}{{d}}}* comes mostly from the reduction of the plasma temperature drop, while the pedestal density height keeps relatively stable. Additional injection of LHW has been proved to modify the pedestal structure which should be responsible for the remaining scatter of the experimental data.

  15. Extending glacial refugia for a European tree: genetic markers show that Iberian populations of white elm are native relicts and not introductions

    OpenAIRE

    Fuentes-Utrilla, P.; Venturas, M; Hollingsworth, P.M.; Squirrell, J; Collada, C.; Stone, G. N.; Gil, L.

    2013-01-01

    Conservation policies usually focus on in situ protection of native populations, a priority that requires accurate assessment of population status. Distinction between native and introduced status can be particularly difficult (and at the same time, is most important) for species whose natural habitat has become both rare and highly fragmented. Here, we address the status of the white elm (Ulmus laevis Pallas), a European riparian tree species whose populations have been fragme...

  16. Approach of EEG detection based on ELM and approximate entropy%基于ELM和近似熵的脑电信号检测方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁琦; 周卫东; 李淑芳; 蔡冬梅

    2012-01-01

    The automatic detection and classification of epileptic EEG are significant in diagnosis of epilepsy. This paper presents a new EEG detection approach based on extreme learning machine ( ELM) and approximate entropy ( ApEn). Firstly, the value of the ApEn is calculated as the non-linear feature. Then wavelet transform is used to compute the fluctuation indices as linear features. Secondly, ELM algorithm is employed to train single-hidden layer feedforward neural network (SLFN) with the features. Finally, the SLFN is tested. Experiments demonstrate that compared with BP algorithm and support vector machine ( SVM), the performance of ELM is better in terms of training time and classification accuracy, and a satisfied classification rate more than 98% for interictal and ictal EEGs is achieved.%脑电癫痫波的自动检测与分类对癫痫病情的诊断具有重要意义.提出了一种基于极端学习机(extreme learning machine,ELM)和近似熵的脑电信号检测方法.首先,计算脑电信号的近似熵作为非线性特征,并与利用小波变换技术提取的线性特征波动指数相结合,组成特征向量,然后将特征向量送入单隐层前馈神经网络,采用ELM学习算法训练网络.实验表明,与BP(backpropagation)和SVM(support vector machine)算法相比,ELM在训练时间和识别精度两方面性能最佳,对用于实验的脑电数据检测识别率达到98%以上.

  17. Successful treatment with biventricular pacing in a patient with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Ji-qiang; JIANG Teng-yong; WANG Yun-long; WANG Yan; L(U) Shu-zheng

    2011-01-01

    We report the effects of biventricular pacing in a patient with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) refractory to medical therapy. A 58-year-old man with HOCM had suffered from dyspnea,chest pain and palpitation for 5 years. Cardiac catheterization showed a left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) gradient of 80 mmHg. He refused septal myomectomy and the septal ablation was not available. Based on intraoperative pressure measurements,he was implanted with biventricular pacing and LVOT gradient decreased to 10 mmHg. During the follow-up period of 6 months, the patient's symptoms were markedly improved. Biventricular pacing may be an alternative therapy for patients with HOCM.

  18. Earlier Right Ventricular Pacing in Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy for a Patient with Right Axis Deviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Yusuke; Ishibashi, Kohei; Noda, Takashi; Okamura, Hideo; Kanzaki, Hideaki; Anzai, Toshihisa; Yasuda, Satoshi; Kusano, Kengo

    2017-09-01

    We describe the case of a 37-year-old woman who presented with complete right bundle branch block and right axis deviation. She was admitted to our hospital due to severe heart failure and was dependent on inotropic agents. Cardiac resynchronization therapy was initiated but did not improve her condition. After the optimization of the pacing timing, we performed earlier right ventricular pacing, which led to an improvement of her heart failure. Earlier right ventricular pacing should be considered in patients with complete right bundle branch block and right axis deviation when cardiac resynchronization therapy is not effective.

  19. Evaluation of systemic insecticides as a treatment option in integrated pest management of the elm leaf beetle, Xanthogaleruca luteola (Müller) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Andrew B; Dahlsten, Donald L

    2003-10-01

    This study evaluates the efficacy of two systemic insecticides (imidacloprid and abamectin) in an operational setting and their suitability to be incorporated into an integrated pest management program. Elm leaf beetle abundance and leaf damage were compared between treated trees and untreated control trees from 1995 through 1999. Laboratory bioassays using first-instar larvae were also used to measure the toxicity of leaves collected from treated trees at varying times after treatment. Trunk injections of abamectin and imidacloprid reduced the defoliation caused by elm leaf beetle when applied after monitoring at the peak density of elm leaf beetle eggs. Treatment in the first generation appeared to provide protection against damage in that generation as well as the second and third beetle generations. Both of these materials become active within the tree canopy very quickly and are therefore compatible with a management program that determines the need for treatment based on monitoring for egg clusters at peak density of eggs. Laboratory bioassays showed no toxicity of leaves in the year following treatment.

  20. Pace: an advanced structure for handling multi-technique NDT; Pace: une structure avancee pour la gestion de donnees CND multitechniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayos, M.; Guisnel, F.

    1995-08-01

    The growing extent and complexity of NDT data analysis has reached a stage where dedicated systems are required. In the context of a European research program, EDF participated from 1992 to 1994 in one of the first international projects in this field, TRAPPIST and, in 1993, began developing An application for the electricity generating industry, giving rise to the PACE project. The prime objective specially targets the French electricity generating industry, where PACE was to be the reference system for analysis of NDE data concerning EdF power plants. The second objective is to promote the adoption of PACE by other industrial sectors and other countries. The analysis of needs shows that the required system must be designed to analyze data from widely different sources. The PACE entry point consequently has to be a standard format compatible with geometrical data as well as those provided by NDT. The TRAPPIST format constitutes the first version of this standard and is the first step towards European standardization in this respect. Consideration of the different user modes defined for PACE led to the design of a 2-part user structure comprising a database management system (Ingres/Windows 4GL) and a display/processing tool (AVS), also usable to construct analysis scenarios. The structure of PACE is defined nd seems well suited to industrial requirements, but before it is possible to proceed further towards its adoption for actual power plant inspections, it has to be validated on a more realistic application, the eddy current and ultrasonic testing of a full-scale T-joint. This is already under way, whilst work on format standardization and industrialization preparatory procedures are proceeding in parallel. (authors). 4 refs., 6 figs.