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Sample records for fuelled vehicles energetic

  1. Natural gas fuelled vehicles, energetic and environmental problems; Il gas naturale in autotrazione, aspetti energetici ed ambientali

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciancia, A.; Pede, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt.Energia

    1998-03-01

    The present report deals with the analysis and the presentation of the main problems concerning the introduction of the natural gas fuel for vehicles. The offer and demand side of the NGV market are analyzed, together with the presently available NG fuelled vehicles and the status of the technology for engines and on-board storage systems, with particular regard to the energetic and environmental performance of the system. Finally the NGV market development is presented, and the actors on the stage, showing the opportunities together with the possible obstacle to a wider diffusion of this technology. [Italiano] Il rapporto e` dedicato all`esposizione ed all`analisi delle principali tematiche afferenti all`introduzione del metano nel settore dell`autotrazione. Vengono quindi esaminati nell`ordine la situazione del mercato della domanda e dell`offerta di metano, le realizzazioni veicolari oggi disponibili, la tecnologia e le prestazioni dei motori alimentati a metano e quelle dei sistemi di accumulo a bordo, l`impatto ambientale di questi veicoli. Vengono infine trattati i temi dello sviluppo del mercato e degli attori di questo sviluppo, evidenziandone i possibili sbocchi insieme agli ostacoli che ne limitano la diffusione.

  2. METEV: Measurement Technologies for Emissions from Ethanol Fuelled Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandtroem-Dahl, Charlotte

    2009-11-15

    The interest of using alcohols, and especially ethanol, as vehicle fuel is high in Sweden. The advantages are many, such as; being renewable, the ethanol can be produced locally and it is easily mixed with gasoline. Alcohol fuels are considered to be a substantial part of the alternative fuel market, especially in Brazil, USA and Sweden. With this growing interest it is of most importance to investigate the emission performance of vehicles fuelled with alcohols. The focus in this study is on measurement and calculation of hydrocarbon emissions. The emission regulations in different countries have different ways to treat alcohol fuelled vehicles. When alcohols are used as blending components in gasoline, uncombusted alcohols from the fuel are emitted in the exhaust in various amounts. If a Flame Ionization Detector (FID) is used to measure hydrocarbons, the uncombusted alcohol will be included in the measurement. The alcohol is, per definition, however not a hydrocarbon (hydrocarbons contains only hydrogen and carbon). In the US regulations, the alcohol content is measured separately, and the FID measurement is adjusted for the alcohol part. This is not performed in the European regulations. The aim of this project is to highlight the need for a discussion regarding the methodology for measuring hydrocarbon and alcohol emissions from flexible fuelled vehicles operating on alcohol fuel blends.

  3. Technical and Feasibility Analysis of Gasoline and Natural Gas Fuelled Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Charalambos Chasos; George Karagiorgis; Chris Christodoulou

    2014-01-01

    There is recent interest for the utilisation of natural gas for empowering the internal combustion engines (ICE) of vehicles. The production of novel natural gas ICE for vehicles, as well as the conversion of existing gasoline fuelled ICE of vehicles to natural gas fuelled ICE are new technologies which require to be analysed and assessed. The objective of the present study is to examine the adaptation of natural gas as vehicle fuel and carry out a technical analysis and an economical feasibi...

  4. A comparison of exhaust emissions from vehicles fuelled with petrol, LPG and CNG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielaczyc, P.; Szczotka, A.; Woodburn, J.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents an analysis of THC, NMHC, CO, NOx and CO2 emissions during testing of two bi-fuel vehicles, fuelled with petrol and gaseous fuels, on a chassis dynamometer in the context of the Euro 6 emissions requirements. The analyses were performed on one Euro 5 bi-fuel vehicle (petrol/LPG) and one Euro 5 bi-fuel vehicle (petrol/CNG), both with SI engines equipped with MPI feeding systems operating in closed-loop control, typical three-way-catalysts and heated oxygen sensors. The vehicles had been adapted by their manufacturers for fuelling with LPG or CNG by using additional special equipment mounted onto the existing petrol fuelling system. The vehicles tested featured multipoint gas injection systems. The aim of this paper was an analysis of the impact of the gaseous fuels on the exhaust emission in comparison to the emission of the vehicles fuelled with petrol. The tests subject to the analyses presented here were performed in the Engine Research Department of BOSMAL Automotive Research and Development Institute Ltd in Bielsko-Biala, Poland, within a research programme investigating the influence of alternative fuels on exhaust emissions from light duty vehicle vehicles with spark-ignition and compression-ignition engines.

  5. Disaggregate demand for conventional and alternative fuelled vehicles in the Census Metropolitan Area of Hamilton, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potoglou, Dimitrios

    The focus of this thesis is twofold. First, it offers insight on how households' car-ownership behaviour is affected by urban form and availability of local-transit at the place of residence, after controlling for socio-economic and demographic characteristics. Second, it addresses the importance of vehicle attributes, household and individual characteristics as well as economic incentives and urban form to potential demand for alternative fuelled vehicles. Data for the empirical analyses of the aforementioned research activities were obtained through an innovative Internet survey, which is also documented in this thesis, conducted in the Census Metropolitan Area of Hamilton. The survey included a retrospective questionnaire of households' number and type of vehicles and a stated choices experiment for assessing the potential demand for alternative fuelled vehicles. Established approaches and emerging trends in automobile demand modelling identified early on in this thesis suggest a disaggregate approach and specifically, the estimation of discrete choice models both for explaining car ownership and vehicle-type choice behaviour. It is shown that mixed and diverse land uses as well as short distances between home and work are likely to decrease the probability of households to own a large number of cars. Regarding the demand for alternative fuelled vehicles, while vehicle attributes are particularly important, incentives such as free parking and access to high occupancy vehicle lanes will not influence the choice of hybrids or alternative fuelled vehicles. An improved understating of households' behaviour regarding the number of cars as well as the factors and trade-offs for choosing cleaner vehicles can be used to inform policy designed to reduce car ownership levels and encourage adoption of cleaner vehicle technologies in urban areas. Finally, the Internet survey sets the ground for further research on implementation and evaluation of this data collection method.

  6. Technical and Feasibility Analysis of Gasoline and Natural Gas Fuelled Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalambos Chasos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available There is recent interest for the utilisation of natural gas for empowering the internal combustion engines (ICE of vehicles. The production of novel natural gas ICE for vehicles, as well as the conversion of existing gasoline fuelled ICE of vehicles to natural gas fuelled ICE are new technologies which require to be analysed and assessed. The objective of the present study is to examine the adaptation of natural gas as vehicle fuel and carry out a technical analysis and an economical feasibility analysis of the two types of ICE vehicles, namely gasoline and natural gas fuelled vehicles. The technical model uses the physical properties of the two fuels and the performance factors of internal combustion engines including brake thermal efficiency. The resulting exhaust gas emissions are also estimated by the technical model using combustion calculations which provide the expected levels of exhaust gas emissions. Based on the analysis with the technical model, comparisons of the two types of engines are performed. Furthermore, the estimated performance characteristics of the two types of engines, along with local statistical data on annual fuel imports and annual fuel consumption for transportation and data on the vehicles fleet for the case study of Cyprus are used as input in the economical model. For the base year 2013, data of natural gas price is also used in the economical model. The economical model estimates the capital cost, the carbon dioxide emissions avoidance of fines, the net present value and the internal rate of return of the investment of large scale adaptation of natural gas fuelled vehicles for the case study. From the results and comparisons, conclusions are drawn and recommendations are provided for the adaptation of natural gas vehicles which can provide improved performance with reduced pollutant emissions.

  7. Hydrogen Fuelling Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothuizen, Erasmus Damgaard

    This thesis concerns hydrogen fuelling stations from an overall system perspective. The study investigates thermodynamics and energy consumption of hydrogen fuelling stations for fuelling vehicles for personal transportation. For the study a library concerning the components in a hydrogen fuelling...... station has been developed in Dymola. The models include the fuelling protocol (J2601) for hydrogen vehicles made by Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) and the thermodynamic property library CoolProp is used for retrieving state point. The components in the hydrogen fuelling library are building up....... A system consisting of one high pressure storage tank is used to investigate the thermodynamics of fuelling a hydrogen vehicle. The results show that the decisive parameter for how the fuelling proceeds is the pressure loss in the vehicle. The single tank fuelling system is compared to a cascade fuelling...

  8. An Internet based stated choices household survey for alternative fuelled vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potoglou, D.; Kanaroglou, P.S. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). Centre for Spatial Analysis

    2006-01-15

    Vehicles fuelled by alternative energy sources have the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and other negative externalities associated with the transportation sector. However, the demand for alternative fuelled vehicles (AFV) and the effectiveness of incentives, marketing promotions, new vehicle designs, and fuel subsystems should be evaluated before devising policy measures that promote the use of new vehicle technologies. This paper discussed the design and application of a stated choices experiment for the demand for AFVs that is administered uniquely through the Internet. The use of the Internet is a new method of survey data collection which provides many advantages over tradition methods of computer-aided telephone interviews (CATI) and mail interviews. The main advantages of Internet surveys are the savings in cost and time. The authors designed a Choice Internet Based Experiment for Research on Cars (CIBER-CARS). It is a self-administered online questionnaire that was used in the Census Metropolitan Area of Hamilton, Ontario. This paper described the survey design in detail and reviewed the implementation and data collection procedures. Measures for evaluating the efficiency of the Internet survey were also highlighted and the characteristics of the collected information were summarized with emphasis on the profiles of respondents and households. The characteristics of this survey were also compared with those of a similar study conducted in the State of California. Out of the 902 respondents in Hamilton, 602 stated that they would buy a vehicle in the next 5 years and 496 provided valid observations for each of the 8 stated choice exercises that included 3 fuel-type options (gasoline, hybrid, and alternative fuel) and 8 vehicle type/size-classes. The objective was to determine the impact of vehicle attributes and household characteristics to the actual choice of certain vehicles. It was expected that people with access to information via the

  9. Evaporative emissions of 1,3-butadiene from petrol-fuelled motor vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Y.; Galbally, I. E.; Weeks, I. A.; Duffy, B. L.; Nelson, P. F.

    This study reports the identification and quantification of 1,3-butadiene in petrol and in the evaporative emissions from Australian light-duty passenger vehicles. The mass fraction of 1,3-butadiene in each of the different grades of any brand of Australian petrol was found to be relatively constant for a given marketing area. However, the mass fractions vary significantly between the different brands (or refineries) from 0.004±0.001% to 0.047±0.008%. The measurements of the evaporative emissions of 1,3-butadiene from in-service motor vehicles were performed using standard Australian Design Rule 37/00 (ADR 37/00) Sealed Housing Evaporative Determination (SHED) tests. For post-1985 catalyst equipped vehicles fuelled with unleaded petrol, average evaporative emissions of 1,3-butadiene were 9.4 (0.7-22) and 5.0 (0.1-23) mg per test for diurnal and hot soak SHED tests, respectively. The corresponding average evaporative emissions for the older, pre-1986 non-catalyst equipped vehicles fuelled with leaded petrol were 26.5 (11.7-45.4) and 9.2 (4.3-13.1) mg per test, respectively, about double the observed emissions from newer vehicles. For the complete vehicle set (all ages), the average mass fraction of 1,3-butadiene in the total hydrocarbon (sum of C 1-C 10 hydrocarbons) emission was 0.21±0.14% from the diurnal phase and was 0.11±0.06% from the hot-soak phase. Evaporative emissions were estimated to contribute about 4% (ranging from 1-15%) of the total (exhaust and evaporative) emissions of 1,3-butadiene from Australian motor vehicles.

  10. Impact of hydrogen onboard storage technologies on the performance of hydrogen fuelled vehicles: A techno-economic well-to-wheel assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, M.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/310873754; Faaij, A.P.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/10685903X

    2007-01-01

    Hydrogen onboard storage technologies form an important factor in the overall performance of hydrogen fuelled transportation, both energetically and economically. Particularly, advanced storage options such as metal hydrides and carbon nanotubes are often hinted favourable to conventional, liquid

  11. Impact of hydrogen onboard storage technologies on the performance of hydrogen fuelled vehicles: A techno-economic well-to-wheel assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, M.P.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2007-01-01

    Hydrogen onboard storage technologies form an important factor in the overall performance of hydrogen fuelled transportation, both energetically and economically. Particularly, advanced storage options such as metal hydrides and carbon nanotubes are often hinted favourable to conventional, liquid an

  12. Emissions from Diesel and Gasoline Vehicles Fuelled by Fischer-Tropsch Fuels and Similar Fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ulrik; Lundorff, Peter; Ivarsson, Anders

    2007-01-01

    vehicles fuelled by Fischer Tropsch (FT) based diesel and gasoline fuel, compared to the emissions from ordinary diesel and gasoline. The comparison for diesel fuels was based on a literature review, whereas the gasoline comparison had to be based on our own experiments, since almost no references were...... and an alkylate fuel (Aspen), which was taken to be the ultimate formula of FT gasoline. FT based diesel generally showed good emission performance, whereas the FT based gasoline not necessary lead to lower emissions. On the other hand, the Aspen fuel did show many advantages for the emissions from the gasoline......The described investigation was carried out under the umbrella of IEA Advanced Motor Fuels Agreement. The purpose was to evaluate the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from...

  13. Exhaust gas catalysts for heavy-duty vehicles fuelled by alcohol or biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, L.J.; Wahlberg, A.M.; Jaeraas, S.G. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    1997-06-01

    The long-term objective for the project is to develop tailor-made exhaust gas catalysts for heavy-duty ethanol fuelled diesel vehicles operating in urban traffic. Due to special problems, related to emissions of unregulated compounds emanating from ethanol fuelled buses in Swedish fleet tests, a catalyst research programme has been initiated. The engineering target was to achieve a light-off temperature (T{sub 50}) for ethanol conversion below 110 deg C and a selectivity for total oxidation over 90 %. In this report results from laboratory-reactor tests are described. The results indicate that by combining two different precious metals both activity and selectivity can be positively affected compared to the properties of the corresponding mono metallic catalysts. The best results show a light-off temperature for ethanol conversion below 100 deg C. The base metal oxides were more selective for total oxidation than the corresponding precious metal catalysts. The results also indicate a considerable interaction between support and active material which affects the product distribution in catalytic oxidation of ethanol. At temperatures below 250 deg C the by-product formation can be quite high and the major by-product is acetaldehyde. The metal support interaction also has a certain influence on the oxidation of NO to NO{sub 2}. The results show that the NO{sub 2} formation can be suppressed without considerably affecting the activity of the catalyst. This report also includes a preliminary life cycle analysis (LCA) and life cycle cost (LCC) estimate for exhaust gas catalysts intended for heavy-duty ethanol vehicles in urban traffic. 22 refs, numerous figs and tabs

  14. Emissions from Road Vehicles Fuelled by Fischer Tropsch Based Diesel and Gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, U.; Lundorf, P.; Ivarsson, A.; Schramm, J. [Technical University of Denmark (Denmark); Rehnlund, B. [Atrax Energi AB (Sweden); Blinge, M. [The Swedish Transport Institute (Sweden)

    2006-11-15

    The described results were carried out under the umbrella of IEA Advanced Motor Fuels Agreement. The purpose was to evaluate the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from vehicles fuelled by Fischer Tropsch (FT) based diesel and gasoline fuel, compared to the emissions from ordinary diesel and gasoline. The comparison for diesel fuels was based on a literature review, whereas the gasoline comparison had to be based on our own experiments, since almost no references were found in this field. In this context measurement according to the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) and the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) were carried out on a chassis dynamometer with a directly injected gasoline vehicle. Experiments were carried out with a reference fuel, a fuel based 70% on FT and an alkylate fuel (Aspen), which was supposed to be very similar, in many ways, to FT fuel. FT based diesel generally showed good emission performance, whereas the FT based gasoline not necessary lead to lower emissions. On the other hand, the Aspen fuel did show many advantages for the emissions from the gasoline vehicle.

  15. Emissions from Road Vehicles Fuelled by Fischer Tropsch Based Diesel and Gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, U.; Lundorf, P.; Ivarsson, A.; Schramm, J. [Technical University of Denmark (Denmark); Rehnlund, B. [Atrax Energi AB (Sweden); Blinge, M. [The Swedish Transport Institute (Sweden)

    2006-11-15

    The described results were carried out under the umbrella of IEA Advanced Motor Fuels Agreement. The purpose was to evaluate the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from vehicles fuelled by Fischer Tropsch (FT) based diesel and gasoline fuel, compared to the emissions from ordinary diesel and gasoline. The comparison for diesel fuels was based on a literature review, whereas the gasoline comparison had to be based on our own experiments, since almost no references were found in this field. In this context measurement according to the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) and the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) were carried out on a chassis dynamometer with a directly injected gasoline vehicle. Experiments were carried out with a reference fuel, a fuel based 70% on FT and an alkylate fuel (Aspen), which was supposed to be very similar, in many ways, to FT fuel. FT based diesel generally showed good emission performance, whereas the FT based gasoline not necessary lead to lower emissions. On the other hand, the Aspen fuel did show many advantages for the emissions from the gasoline vehicle.

  16. Exergoeconomic optimization of coaxial tube evaporators for cooling of high pressure gaseous hydrogen during vehicle fuelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Rothuizen, Erasmus Damgaard; Markussen, Wiebke Brix

    2014-01-01

    Gaseous hydrogen as an automotive fuel is reaching the point of commercial introduction. Development of hydrogen fuelling stations considering an acceptable fuelling time by cooling the hydrogen to -40 C has started. This paper presents a design study of coaxial tube ammonia evaporators for three...

  17. Energetic and Exergetic Analysis of a Heat Exchanger Integrated in a Solid Biomass-Fuelled Micro-CHP System with an Ericsson Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Creyx

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A specific heat exchanger has been developed to transfer heat from flue gas to the working fluid (hot air of the Ericsson engine of a solid biomass-fuelled micro combined heat and power (CHP. In this paper, the theoretical and experimental energetic analyses of this heat exchanger are compared. The experimental performances are described considering energetic and exergetic parameters, in particular the effectiveness on both hot and cold sides. A new exergetic parameter called the exergetic effectiveness is introduced, which allows a comparison between the real and the ideal heat exchanger considering the Second Law of Thermodynamics. A global analysis of exergetic fluxes in the whole micro-CHP system is presented, showing the repartition of the exergy destruction among the components.

  18. An Exercise in Vehicle Kinematics and Energetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Solomon; Gluck, Paul

    2009-01-01

    We physics teachers are forever in search of real-life applications of the theoretical concepts we teach. In mechanics we often utilize vehicle motion exercises, yet most textbook problems involving these are rather tame and deal with constant acceleration. What often captures the imagination of students is the actual performance of cars they…

  19. Unregulated gaseous exhaust emission from modern ethanol fuelled light duty vehicles in cold ambient condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clairotte, M.; Adam, T. W.; Zardini, A. A.; Astorga, C.

    2011-12-01

    According to Directive 2003/30/EC and 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and the Council, Member States should promote the use of biofuel. Consequently, all petrol and diesel used for transport purpose available on the market since the 1st of January 2011 must contain a reference value of 5.75% of renewable energy. Ethanol in gasoline could be a promising alternative to comply with this objective, and is actually available in higher proportion in Sweden and Brazil. In addition to a lower dependence on fossil fuel, it is well established that ethanol contributes to reduce air pollutant emissions during combustion (CO, THC), and presents a beneficial effect on the greenhouse gas emissions. However, these statements rely on numerous chassis dynamometer emission studies performed in warm condition (22°C), and very few emission data are available at cold ambient condition encountered in winter, particularly in the north of Europe. In this present study, the effects of ethanol (E75-E85) versus gasoline (E5) have been investigated at cold ambient temperature (-7°C). Experiments have been carried out in a chassis dynamometer at the Vehicle Emission Laboratory (VELA) of the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC - Ispra, Italy). Emissions of modern passenger cars complying with the latest European standard (Euro4 and Euro5a) were tracked over the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Unregulated gaseous compounds like greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide), and air quality related compounds (ammonia, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde) were monitored by an online Fourier Transformed Infra-Red spectrometer with 1 Hz acquisition frequency. In addition, a number of ozone precursors (carbonyls and volatile organic hydrocarbons) were collected in order to assess the ozone formation potential (OFP) of the exhaust. Results showed higher unregulated emissions at -7°C, regardless of the ethanol content in the fuel blend. Most of the emissions occurred during

  20. Energetic and environmental balance of a natural gas fuelled low-capacity cogeneration system; Energetische und umwelttechnische Bilanz eines erdgasbetriebenen Klein-BHKW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hentschel, D. [Hochschule fuer Technik, Wirtschaft und Kultur (F.H.), Leipzig (Germany). Lehrgebiet Produktionsplanung und -steuerung; Werner, C. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie, Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Waermetechnik und Thermodynamik

    2002-03-01

    FH Leipzig University has been operating a natural gas fuelled cogeneration system since 1998. The performance of the system was tested in field experiments. The contribution presents the energy- and environment-related results. [German] Seit 1998 betreibt die Hochschule fuer Technik, Wirtschaft und Kultur Leipzig (FH) am Fachbereich Maschinen- und Energietechnik zu Lehr- und Forschungszwecken ein erdgasbetriebenes Blockheizkraftwerk (BHKW). Unter Beachtung wesentlicher energetischer und umwelttechnischer Aspekte ist das Betriebsverhalten des Gas-Otto-Motoren-BHKW anhand von Feldversuchen ermittelt worden. Im Folgenden erfolgt eine Verknuepfung der energetischen und umwelttechnischen Anlageneigenschaften. (orig.)

  1. Comparison of Carbonyls and BTEX Emissions from a Light Duty Vehicle Fuelled with Gasoline and Ethanol-Gasoline Blend, and Operated without 3-Way Catalytic Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asad Naeem Shah

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the comparison of unregulated emissions such as carbonyls and BTEX (Benzene, Toluene, Ethyl Benzene, and Xylenes species emanated from a light duty SI (Spark Ignition vehicle E-0 (fuelled on gasoline and E-10 (ethanol-gasoline blend. Meanwhile, the ozone forming potential of these pollutants based on their ozone SR (Specific Reactivity has also been addressed in this study. The experiments were performed on transient as well as steady-state modes in accordance with the standard protocols recommended for light duty vehicle emissions. Carbonyls and BTEX were analyzed by HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography with UV detector and GC/MS (Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy, respectively. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were the predominant components of the carbonyls for E-0 and E-10, respectively. During transient mode, formaldehyde, acrolein + acetone, and tolualdehyde pollutants were decreased but, acetaldehyde emissions increased with E-10 as compared to E-0. The BTEX emissions were also decreased with E-10, relative to E-0. During the steady-state modes, formaldehyde, acrolein + acetone and propionaldehyde were lower, aromatic aldehydes were absent, but acetaldehyde pollutants were higher with E-10 compared to E-0. The BTEX emissions were decreased at medium and higher speed modes however, increased at lower speed mode with E-10 as compared to E-0. Total BTEX emissions were maximal at lower speed mode but, least at medium speed mode for both the fuels. SR of the pollutants was higher over transient cycle of operation, compared with steady-state mode. Relative to E-0, E-10 displayed lower SR during both transient as well as steady-state mode.

  2. The influence of engine operating parameters on aldehyde emissions from an ethanol-fuelled vehicle; Influencia de parametros de operacao do motor nas emissoes de aldeidos por um veiculo a etanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaral, Rinaldo Antunes [FIAT Automoveis S.A., Betim, MG (Brazil). Engenharia de Motores]. E-mail: expmotor@fiat.com.br; Sodre, Jose Ricardo [Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: ricardo@pucminas.br

    2000-07-01

    This work presents results and analysis of experiments on aldehyde emissions and on the regulated pollutants (CO, HC and NO{sub X}) emissions, with varying engine operational parameters in an ethanol-fuelled vehicle during a standard urban test cycle. The test cycle was carried out with the vehicle in a chassis dynamometer, and simulates an average urban trip of approximately 5,8 km, under steady state conditions. The varied parameters were fuel/air equivalence ratio, dash pot function, cut off function and gear change speed. The results found showed lower aldehyde emissions for gear change at lower speeds and for richer mixtures. (author)

  3. Physico-mathematical model of motor vehicle of divided weight with unifying energetic element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid M. Petrov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The traction characteristics are important for ensuring of motor vehicle work process. In providing the traction characteristics the average velocity of mobile energetic transport grows, energy costs for work process execution are uprating and operation costs are reducing. The implementation of traction characteristics is performed by transmission of mobile energetic transport. Aim: The aim of the work is improvement of torque transfer technology from the engine to the wheel driving forces through the establishment of new construction of divided weight vehicle transmission. Materials and Methods: Consider a motor vehicle of divided weight with unifying energetic element which performs rotary motions relative to the vehicle frame. Results: It was shown that, the momentum which creates the rotational motion depends on the module and the direction of rotation speed of the unifying energetic element. For the first time, the technology and design of vehicle transmission which differs from previous designs by significant simplifying of the torque transmission from the engine to driving wheels at increased value of efficiency coefficient were proposed.

  4. Direct-fuelled fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waidhas, M.; Drenckhahn, W.; Preidel, W.; Landes, H.

    Fuel supply is one important problem to be solved for commercial application of fuel cell technology. Conventional fuel-cell types require hydrogen as the fuel, which has to be free from impurities when operated at temperatures below 100 °C. The storage and distribution of this explosive and extremely fugitive gas is one of the open questions in the context of a customer-oriented broad commercial market. The direct-fuelled fuel cells (DMFCs) overcome the hydrogen specific restrictions. They are capable of directly using natural gas or fuels which are liquid under ambient conditions. In this paper the different options from direct-fuelled systems are described and their general aspects discussed. The state-of-the-art at Siemens in this field, and also the remaining technical questions are outlined as a basis for assessing future applications.

  5. Considerations on the DEMO pellet fuelling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, P.T., E-mail: peter.lang@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Day, Ch. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Fable, E. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Igitkhanov, Y. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Köchl, F. [Association EURATOM-Ö AW/ATI, Atominstitut, TU Wien, 1020 Vienna (Austria); Mooney, R. [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Culham Science Centre, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Pegourie, B. [CEA, IRFM, 13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Ploeckl, B. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Wenninger, R. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); EFDA, Garching (Germany); Zohm, H. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Considerations are made for a core particle fuelling system covering all DEMO requirements. • Particle deposition beyond the pedestal top is needed to achieve efficient fuelling. • Conventional pellet technology enabling launching from the torus inboard side can be used. • Efforts have been taken for integrating a suitable pellet guiding system into the EU DEMO model. • In addition, further techniques bearing potential for advanced fuelling performance are considered. - Abstract: The Demonstration Fusion Power Reactor DEMO is the step foreseen to bridge the gap between ITER and the first commercial fusion power plant. One key element in the European work plan for DEMO is the elaboration of a conceptual design for a suitable core particle fuelling system. First considerations for such a system are presented in this contribution. Following the well-considered ITER solution, most analysis performed in this study assumes conventional pellet technology will be used for the fuelling system. However, taking advantage of the less compressed time frame for the DEMO project, several other techniques thought to bear potential for advanced fuelling performance are considered as well. In a first, basic analysis all actuation parameters at hand and their implications on the fuelling performance were considered. Tentative transport modeling of a reference scenario strongly indicates only particles deposited inside the plasma pedestal allow for efficient fuelling. Shallow edge fuelling results in an unbearable burden on the fuel cycle. Sufficiently deep particle deposition seems technically achievable, provided pellets are launched from the torus inboard at sufficient speed. All components required for a DEMO pellet system capable for high speed inboard pellet launch are already available or can be developed in due time with reasonable efforts. Furthermore, steps to integrate this solution into the EU DEMO model are taken.

  6. Distributed power generation using biogas fuelled microturbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pointon, K.; Langan, M.

    2002-07-01

    This research sought to analyse the market for small scale biogas fuelled distributed power generation, to demonstrate the concept of a biogas fuelled microturbine using the Capstone microturbine in conjunction with an anaerobic digester, and undertake a technico-economic evaluation of the biogas fuelled microturbine concept. Details are given of the experimental trials using continuous and batch digesters, and feedstocks ranging from cow and pig slurries to vegetable wastes and municipal solid waste. The yields of methane are discussed along with the successful operation of the microturbine with biogas fuels, and anaerobic digestion projects.

  7. Can hydrogen win?: exploring scenarios for hydrogen fuelled vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Muncaster, Katherine Aminta

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the conditions under which hydrogen might succeed in Canada’s transportation sector in a carbon-constrained world. Long-run simulations were created using CIMS, a hybrid energy-economy model that is technologically explicit, behaviourally realistic, and incorporates drivers of technological change. A hydrogen supply submodel was built to simulate economies of scale in infrastructure. Capital costs, technology performance, infrastructure, fuel prices, and other conditions w...

  8. Inflow of atomic gas fuelling star formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michałowski, M. J.; Gentile, G.; Hjorth, Jeppe;

    2016-01-01

    Gamma-ray burst host galaxies are deficient in molecular gas, and show anomalous metal-poor regions close to GRB positions. Using recent Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) Hi observations we show that they have substantial atomic gas reservoirs. This suggests that star formation in these ga......Gamma-ray burst host galaxies are deficient in molecular gas, and show anomalous metal-poor regions close to GRB positions. Using recent Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) Hi observations we show that they have substantial atomic gas reservoirs. This suggests that star formation...... in these galaxies may be fuelled by recent inflow of metal-poor atomic gas. While this process is debated, it can happen in low-metallicity gas near the onset of star formation because gas cooling (necessary for star formation) is faster than the Hi-to-H2 conversion....

  9. New Challenge to the Existing Fuelling Technique for ITER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENGBaiquan; PENGLilin

    2003-01-01

    A new challenge to the existing pellet fuelling technique for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) has been discussed by computing ablation rate using Kuteev lentil model with considering the kinetic effects. Numerical integral results show the existing pellet injection technique will be difficult to meet the deep fuelling requirement for the reactor relevant plasma of ITER. As high as a pressure of 254 MPa should be applied to the pellet accelerator of 2-meters long single stage pneumatic gun,

  10. Energetic Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Energetic Systems Division provides full-spectrum energetic engineering services (project management, design, analysis, production support, in-service support,...

  11. Energy and Exergy Analysis of a Diesel Engine Fuelled with Diesel and Simarouba Biodiesel Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahi, Nabnit; Mohanty, Mahendra Kumar; Mishra, Sruti Ranjan; Mohanty, Ramesh Chandra

    2016-08-01

    This article intends to determine the available work and various losses of a diesel engine fuelled with diesel and SB20 (20 % Simarouba biodiesel by volume blended with 80 % diesel by volume). The energy and exergy analysis were carried out by using first law and second law of thermodynamics respectively. The experiments were carried out on a 3.5 kW compression ignition engine. The analysis was conducted on per mole of fuel basis. The energy analysis indicates that about 37.23 and 37.79 % of input energy is converted into the capacity to do work for diesel and SB20 respectively. The exergetic efficiency was 34.8 and 35 % for diesel and Simarouba respectively. Comparative study indicates that the energetic and exergetic performance of SB20 resembles with that of diesel fuel.

  12. Microstability analysis of pellet fuelled discharges in MAST

    CERN Document Server

    Garzotti, L; Roach, C M; Valovic, M; Dickinson, D; Naylor, G; Romanelli, M; Scannell, R; Szepesi, G

    2014-01-01

    Reactor grade plasmas are likely to be fuelled by pellet injection. This technique transiently perturbs the profiles, driving the density profile hollow and flattening the edge temperature profile. After the pellet perturbation, the density and temperature profiles relax towards their quasi-steady-state shape. Microinstabilities influence plasma confinement and will play a role in determining the evolution of the profiles in pellet fuelled plasmas. In this paper we present the microstability analysis of pellet fuelled H-mode MAST plasmas. Taking advantage of the unique capabilities of the MAST Thomson scattering system and the possibility of synchronizing the eight lasers with the pellet injection, we were able to measure the evolution of the post-pellet electron density and temperature profiles with high temporal and spatial resolution. These profiles, together with ion temperature profiles measured using a charge exchange diagnostic, were used to produce equilibria suitable for microstability analysis of th...

  13. Symmetry Parameters of CSS Sources: Evidence of Fuelling?

    CERN Document Server

    Saikia, D J; Mantovani, F; Salter, C J; Spencer, R E; Thomasson, P; Wiita, P J

    2003-01-01

    The compact steep spectrum (CSS) and gigahertz peaked spectrum (GPS) sources are widely believed to be young radiosources, with ages <10^6 yr. If the activity in the nucleus is fuelled by the supply of gas, one might find evidence of this gas by studying the structural and polarisation characteristics of CSS sources and their evolution through this gas. In this paper we discuss some of the possible `smoking-gun' evidence of this gas which may have triggered and fuelled the radio source.

  14. Evaluation of the use of bioethanol fuelled buses based on ambient air pollution screening and on-road measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Aparicio, S; Hak, C

    2013-05-01

    Mitigation measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions may have adverse effects on urban air quality and human exposure to harmful pollutants. The use of bioethanol fuelled vehicles is increasing worldwide and may create new undesired pollution effects. Different measurement campaigns were performed in a pilot study to contribute to the understanding of the consequences associated with the use of bioethanol blended fuel (E95) on a series of pollutants. Ambient screening measurements of NO2, O3, acetic acid, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were performed at different urban locations, exposed and not exposed to the circulation of bioethanol buses. In addition, volatile organic compounds were measured at the exhaust pipe of a bioethanol fuelled bus, both under idling conditions (carbonyls; DNPH cartridge) and under on-road driving conditions applying online monitoring (PTR-TOF). Higher ambient acetaldehyde values were measured at locations exposed to bioethanol fuelled buses than at locations not exposed, and very high acetaldehyde and acetic acid values were measured from the exhaust pipe during driving conditions (acetaldehyde>150 ppm; acetic acid ≈ 20-30 ppm) and modelled at close distance to the bioethanol bus. Human exposure to high concentration of acetaldehyde is expected, and it may involve a significantly increased chance in developing cancer. The high concentration of acetic acid will involve odour annoyance and significant material degradation or corrosion.

  15. China's First Orimulsion-fuelled Power Project Kicks off

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ China's first Orimulsion-fuelled power project was recently kicked off in Zhanjiang, a coastal city in Southeastern China's Guangdong Province. This project, which draws an investment of about 4.1 billion yuan, is a joint venture among CNPC Fuel Oil Co Ltd with a 51 percent stake, Guangdong Electric Power Development Co Ltd with a 39 percent stake and Zhanjiang Harbor Group Co Ltd with a 10 percent.

  16. Avalanche Phenomenon of Runaway Electrons During Additional Fuelling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨进蔚; 曹建勇; 曾庆希; 张炜; 唐年益; 董贾福; 邓中朝; 肖正贵; 姚良骅

    2002-01-01

    During pellet injection and supersonic molecular beam injection, we have observed the increase of electron density and the enhancement of hard x-ray radiation, but the runaway electrons normally decrease without additional fuelling when the density of plasma increases. This phenomenon may come from the synergetic effects of Dreicer and avalanche runaway electrons. The experimental results are consistent with the calculation based on the theory of avalanche runaway in the HL-1M tokamak.

  17. Utilization of waste glycerin to fuelling of spark ignition engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmasiak, Z.; Pietras, D.

    2016-09-01

    The paper discusses a possibilities of usage a simple alcohols to fuelling of spark ignition engines. Methanol and blends of methanol with glycerin, being a waste product from production of bio-components to fuels based on rapeseed oil, have been used in course of the investigations. The main objective of the research was to determine possibilities of utilization of glycerin to blending of engine fuels. The investigations have been performed using the Fiat 1100 MPI engine. Parameters obtained with the engine powered by pure methanol and by methanol- glycerin mixtures with 10÷30%vol content of glycerin were compared to parameters of the engine fuelled conventionally with the E95 gasoline. The investigations have shown increase of overall efficiency of the engine run on pure methanol with 2.5÷5.0%, and run on the mixture having 10% addition of glycerin with 2.0÷7.8%. Simultaneously, fuelling of the engine with the investigated alcohols results in reduced concentration of toxic components in exhaust gases like: CO, THC and NOx, as well as the greenhouse gas CO2.

  18. ANALYSIS OF OPERATING PARAMETERS AND INDICATORS OF A COMPRESSION IGNITION ENGINE FUELLED WITH LPG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof GARBALA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the possibilities for using alternative fuels to power vehicles equipped with compression ignition (CI engines (diesel. Systems for using such fuels have been discussed. Detailed analysis and research covered the LPG STAG autogas system, which is used to power dual-fuel engine units (LPG+diesel. A description of the operation of the autogas system and installation in a vehicle has been presented. The basic algorithms of the controller, which is an actuating element of the whole system, have been discussed. Protection systems of a serial production engine unit to guarantee its factorycontrolled durability standards have been presented. A long-distance test drive and examinations of the engine over 150,000 km in a Toyota Hilux have been performed. Operating parameters and performance indicators of the engine with STAG LPG+diesel fuelling have been verified. Directions and perspectives for the further development of such a system in diesel-powered cars have been also indicated.

  19. Analysis of carbon dioxide emission of gas fuelled cogeneration plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Adzuieen; Amin, M.; Majid, A.

    2013-12-01

    Gas turbines are widely used for power generation. In cogeneration system, the gas turbine generates electricity and the exhaust heat from the gas turbine is used to generate steam or chilled water. Besides enhancing the efficiency of the system, the process assists in reducing the emission of CO2 to the environment. This study analyzes the amount of CO2 emission by Universiti Teknologi Petronas gas fuelled cogeneration system using energy balance equations. The results indicate that the cogeneration system reduces the CO2 emission to the environment by 60%. This finding could encourage the power plant owners to install heat recovery systems to their respective plants.

  20. Performance Test of Engine Fuelled With Diesel and Ethanol Blends.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.K.L.Murthy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Environmental concerns and limited amount of petroleum fuels have caused interests in the development of alternative fuels for internal combustion (ICengines. As an alternative, biodegradable and renewable fuel, ethanol is receiving increasing attention. An experimental investigation on the application of the blends of ethanol with diesel to a diesel engine was carried out. First the solubility of ethanol and diesel was conducted with and without the additive of normal butanol (n-butanol. The purpose of this project is to find the optimum percentage of ethanol that gives simultaneously better performance and lower emissions. The experiments were conducted on a water-cooled single-cylinder Direct Injection (DI diesel engine using 0% (neat diesel fuel, 10% (E10-D, 15%(E15–D, 20% (E20–D, and 25%(E25–D ethanol–diesel blended fuels. Experimental tests were carried out to study the performance of the engine fuelled with the blends compared with those fuelled by diesel. The test results show that it is feasible and applicable for the blends with n-butanol to replace pure diesel as the fuel for diesel engine.

  1. The Feasibility of Pellet Re-Fuelling of a Fusion Reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, Tinghong; Jørgensen, L. W.; Nielsen, P.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of re-fuelling a fusion reactor by injecting pellets of frozen hydrogen isotopes is reviewed. First a general look is taken of the dominant energy fluxes received by the pellet, the re-fuelling rate required and the relation between pellet size, injection speed and frequency...

  2. Increasing the competitiveness of e-vehicles in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Figenbaum, Erik; Fearnley, Nils; Pfaffenbichler, Paul; Hjorthol, Randi; Kolbenstvedt, Marika; Emmerling, Bettina; Jellinek, Reinhard; Bonnema, Gerrit Maarten; Ramjerdi, Farideh; Iversen, Lykke Møller

    2014-01-01

    The 2011 EU White Paper on Transport sets ambitious goals for phasing out conventionally fuelled cars in cities. Take-up and expansion of electric vehicles (e-vehicles, or electromobility) are one way to achieve this, as proposed by, i.a., the European Green Cars Initiative, the EU Action Plan on

  3. Increasing the competitiveness of e-vehicles in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Figenbaum, Erik; Fearnley, Nils; Pfaffenbichler, Paul; Hjorthol, Randi; Kolbenstvedt, Marika; Emmerling, Bettina; Jellinek, Reinhard; Bonnema, G. Maarten; Ramjerdi, Farideh; Iversen, Lykke Møller

    2014-01-01

    The 2011 EU White Paper on Transport sets ambitious goals for phasing out conventionally fuelled cars in cities. Take-up and expansion of electric vehicles (e-vehicles, or electromobility) are one way to achieve this, as proposed by, i.a., the European Green Cars Initiative, the EU Action Plan on Ur

  4. Tiny pollutant emissions of a dimethyl ether fuelled engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LANG Jing; ZHANG Yu-sheng; ZHOU Xiao-song; WU Hong-wei

    2008-01-01

    Emissions of dimethyl ether (DME) fuelled engines were investigated by orthogonal experiments on a ZS195 diesel engine. The study mainly focused on the tiny pollutant emissions of formaldehyde (CH2O), methyl formate (CH3OCHO) and formic acid (HCOOH). The presence of CH2O, CH3OCHO and HCOOH are proved in the exhaust by gas chromatograph and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The analysis of variance results indicate that the fuel delivery advance angle is the most important factor for CH2O emission. The fuel delivery advance angle and the interaction of injection pressure and nozzle diameter are considerable factors for unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emission. The mechanism forming tiny pollutants, primarily through CH2O formation, is suggested to be similar to the mechanism forming UHC by DME partial oxidation existing in crevices and boundary zones, and is verified via DME combustion simulation of a multizone chemical kinetic model.

  5. Particle emission from heavy-duty engine fuelled with blended diesel and biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Leila Droprinchinski; da Silva Júnior, Carlos Roberto; Solci, Maria Cristina; Pinto, Jurandir Pereira; Souza, Davi Zacarias; Vasconcellos, Pérola; Guarieiro, Aline Lefol Nani; Guarieiro, Lílian Lefol Nani; Sousa, Eliane Teixeira; de Andrade, Jailson B

    2012-05-01

    In this study, particulate matter (PM) were characterized from a place impacted by heavy-duty vehicles (Bus Station) fuelled with diesel/biodiesel fuel blend (B3) in the city of Londrina, Brazil. Sixteen priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) concentrations were analyzed in the samples by their association with atmospheric PM, mass size distributions and major ions (fluorite, chloride, bromide, nitrate, phosphate, sulfate, nitrite, oxalate; fumarate, formate, succinate and acetate; lithium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium and ammonium). Results indicate that major ions represented 21.2% particulate matter mass. Nitrate, sulfate, and ammonium, respectively, presented the highest concentration levels, indicating that biodiesel may also be a significant source for these ions, especially nitrate. Dibenzo[a,h]anthracene and indeno[1,2,3,-cd]pyrene were the main PAH found, and a higher fraction of PAH particles was found in diameters lower than 0.25 μm in Londrina bus station. The fine and ultrafine particles were dominant among the PM evaluated, suggesting that biodiesel decreases the total PAH emission. However, it does also increase the fraction of fine and ultrafine particles when compared to diesel.

  6. EFFECT OF IGNITION TIMING ON THE PERFORMANCE OF LPG FUELLED SI ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M.Dabhadkar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Fast depletion of fossil fuels and their detrimental effect on the environment is demanding an urgent need of alternative fuels for meeting sustainable energy demand with minimum environmental impact.A lot of research is being carried out throughout the world to evaluate the performance, exhaust emission and combustion characteristics of the existing engines using several alternative fuels such as hydrogen, compressed natural gas, alcohols, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG, biogas, producer gas, bio-diesels developed from vegetable oils, and others (Roy et. al, 2010. LPG and CNG are the alternative fuels to be widely adopted for use in the world. Gaseous fuel mix uniformly with air which burns precisely during combustion than liquid fuels. It has minimum carbon deposition & negligible physical delay. Internal combustion engines running on liquid petroleum gas (LPG are well-proven technologies and work much likegasoline-powered spark-ignition engines. They are normally used as spark-ignition engines for bi-fuelled (gasoline/CH4 cars, but have also been used, for example, in compression-ignition engines for heavy-duty vehicles. Both LPG and NG are not used alone, but always in bi-fuel vehicles, in combination with gasoline. In bi-fuel vehicles two fuels are stored in separate tanks and the engine runs on one fuel at a time. Bi-fuel vehicles have the capability to switch back and forth from gasoline to the other fuel, manually or automatically. As a fuel for spark-ignition engines LPG have some advantages over gasoline, such as a better anti-knock characteristic and reduced CO and unburned HC emissions (Hsieh et al., 2002. Environmental point of view is that there is an increasing interest among the suppliers to investigate LPG as a transportation fuel.It was found that the liquid petroleum gas, roughly a mixture of propane and butane, which gives a benefit in terms of toxic hydrocarbons emissions and ozone formation due to its composition and CO2

  7. Analysis of fuelling requirements in ITER H-modes with SOLPS-EPED1 derived scalings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polevoi, A. R.; Loarte, A.; Kukushkin, A. S.; Pacher, H. D.; Pacher, G. W.; Köchl, F.

    2017-02-01

    Fuelling requirements for ITER are analysed in relation to pellet fuelling and ELM pacing, and a divertor power load control consistent with the ITER pumping and fuel throughput capabilities. The plasma parameters at the separatrix and the particle sources are derived from scalings based on SOLPS simulations. Effective transport coefficients in the H-mode pedestal are derived from EPED1 + SOLPS scalings for the pedestal height and width. 1.5D transport is simulated in the ASTRA framework. The operating window for ITER DT plasmas with the required fusion performance and level of ELM, and divertor power load control compatible with ITER fuelling and pumping capabilities, is determined. It is shown that the flexibility of the ITER fuelling systems, comprising pellet and gas injection systems, enables operation with Q  =  10, which was found to be marginal in previous studies following a similar approach but with different assumptions. The present assessment shows that a reduction of by a factor ~2 (from 9 to 5  ×  1019 m-3) in 15 MA H-mode plasmas leads to a reduction in the required pellet fuelling rate by a factor of four. Results of the analysis of the fuelling requirements for a range of ITER scenarios are found to be similar to those obtained with the JINTRAC code that included 2D modelling of the edge plasma.

  8. On exhaust emissions from petrol-fuelled passenger cars at low ambient temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurikko, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Use

    1998-11-01

    The study at hand deals with regulated and unregulated exhaust emissions from petrol-fuelled cars at low ambient temperatures with present-day or near-future exhaust after treatment systems. The subject has been investigated at VTT over a decade and this report compiles data from various sub-studies carried out between the years 1993 - 1997. Each one of them viewed different aspects of the phenomenon, like determining the low-temperature response of today`s new cars employing three-way catalytic converters or assessing the long-term durability and the influence of vehicle mileage upon the low-temperature emissions performance. Within these studies, together more than 120 cars of model years from 1990 to 1997 have been tested. Most of them were normal, in-service vehicles with total mileages differing between only a few thousand kilometres for new cars up to 80,000 km or even more for the in-use vehicles. Both the US FTP75 and the European test cycle have been employed, and the ambient temperatures ranged from the baseline (+22 deg C) down to +- O deg C, -7 deg C and in some cases even to -20 deg C. The studies attested that new cars having today`s advanced emissions control systems produced fairly low levels of emissions when tested in conditions designated in the regulations that are the basis of the current new-vehicle certification. However, this performance was not necessarily attained at ambient temperatures that were below the normative range. Fairly widespread response was recorded, and cars having almost equal emissions output at baseline could produce largely deviating outcomes in low-temperature conditions. On average, CO and HC emissions increased by a factor of five to 10, depending on the ambient temperature and vehicle type. However, emissions of NO{sub x} were largely unaffected. Apart from these regulated emissions, many unregulated species were also determined, either by using traditional sampling and chromatography methods or on-line, employing

  9. An autonomous chemically fuelled small-molecule motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Miriam R.; Solà, Jordi; Carlone, Armando; Goldup, Stephen M.; Lebrasseur, Nathalie; Leigh, David A.

    2016-06-01

    Molecular machines are among the most complex of all functional molecules and lie at the heart of nearly every biological process. A number of synthetic small-molecule machines have been developed, including molecular muscles, synthesizers, pumps, walkers, transporters and light-driven and electrically driven rotary motors. However, although biological molecular motors are powered by chemical gradients or the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), so far there are no synthetic small-molecule motors that can operate autonomously using chemical energy (that is, the components move with net directionality as long as a chemical fuel is present). Here we describe a system in which a small molecular ring (macrocycle) is continuously transported directionally around a cyclic molecular track when powered by irreversible reactions of a chemical fuel, 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl chloride. Key to the design is that the rate of reaction of this fuel with reactive sites on the cyclic track is faster when the macrocycle is far from the reactive site than when it is near to it. We find that a bulky pyridine-based catalyst promotes carbonate-forming reactions that ratchet the displacement of the macrocycle away from the reactive sites on the track. Under reaction conditions where both attachment and cleavage of the 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl groups occur through different processes, and the cleavage reaction occurs at a rate independent of macrocycle location, net directional rotation of the molecular motor continues for as long as unreacted fuel remains. We anticipate that autonomous chemically fuelled molecular motors will find application as engines in molecular nanotechnology.

  10. Effect of Fuelling Depth on the Fusion Performance and Particle Confinement of a Fusion Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shijia; Wang, Shaojie

    2016-12-01

    The fusion performance and particle confinement of an international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER)-like fusion device have been modeled by numerically solving the energy transport equation and the particle transport equation. The effect of fuelling depth has been investigated. The plasma is primarily heated by the fusion produced alpha particles and the loss process of particles and energy in the scrape-off layer has been taken into account. To study the effect of fuelling depth on fusion performance, the ITERH-98P(y,2) scaling law has been used to evaluate the transport coefficients. It is shown that the particle confinement and fusion performance are significantly dependent on the fuelling depth. Deviation of 10% of the minor radius on fuelling depth can make the particle confinement change by ∼ 61% and the fusion performance change by ∼ 108%. The enhancement of fusion performance is due to the better particle confinement induced by deeper particle fuelling. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11175178 and 11375196) and the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (No. 2014GB113000)

  11. Pellet fuelling of plasmas with ELM mitigation by resonant magnetic perturbations in MAST

    CERN Document Server

    Valovic, M; Garzotti, L; Gurl, C; Kirk, A; Naylor, G; Patel, A; Scannell, R; Thornton, A J

    2013-01-01

    Shallow fuelling pellets are injected from the high field side into plasmas in which ELMs have been mitigated using external magnetic perturbation coils. The data are compared with ideal assumptions in the ITER fuelling model, namely that mitigated ELMs are not affected by fuelling pellets. Firstly it is shown that during the pellet evaporation an ELM is triggered, during which the amount particle loss could be larger (factor ~1.5) than the particle loss during an ELM which was not induced by pellet. Secondly, a favourable example is shown in which post-pellet particle losses due to mitigated ELMs are similar to the non-pellet case, however unfavourable counter-examples also exist.

  12. Moderation of target loads using fuelling and impurity seeding on JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddison, G., E-mail: geoff.maddison@ccfe.ac.uk [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Giroud, C. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); McCormick, K. [Max-Planck IPP, EURATOM Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Alonso, A. [Asociacion EURATOM-CIEMAT, Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion (Spain); Alper, B.; Andrew, Y.; Arnoux, G. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Belo, P. [IPFN, EURATOM-IST Associacao, 1096 Lisbon (Portugal); Beurskens, M.; Boboc, A.; Brett, A. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Brezinsek, S. [IEF-Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Association EURATOM-FZJ, Juelich (Germany); Brix, M. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Coffey, I. [Queen' s University Belfast, University Road, Belfast BT7 1NN, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Luna, E. de la [Asociacion EURATOM-CIEMAT, Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion (Spain); Devaux, S. [Max-Planck IPP, EURATOM Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Vries, P. de [FOM IPP Rijnhuizen, Association EURATOM-FOM, 3430 BE NIEUWEGEIN (Netherlands); Devynck, P. [Association EURATOM-CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul lez Durance (France); Eich, T. [Max-Planck IPP, EURATOM Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Felton, R. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-01

    Operation with an all metal, ITER-like wall on JET is scheduled from 2011. Adaptation particularly of baseline ELMy H-mode (q{sub 95} {approx} 3.5) to the new exhaust constraints involved has been explored by systematic scans of deuterium fuelling and seeding with extrinsic impurities neon or nitrogen. Peak heat load between ELMs on the outboard target can be strongly reduced by fuelling (recycling), and approach detachment with either seed species, for only {approx}10% loss of normalised energy confinement. Simultaneously, normalised plasma density and total radiation averaged between ELMs are not simply increased, but at stronger fuelling can actually fall with increasing seeding, indicating some redistribution of efflux power temporally and spatially. At highest nitrogen seeding, ELMs can also be mitigated, even while the electron pedestal and confinement are largely preserved. Charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy indicates a substitution of intrinsic carbon with extrinsic species.

  13. Trends in Hydrogen Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoevenaars, A.J.; Weeda, M. [ECN Hydrogen and Clean Fossil Fuels, Petten (Netherlands)

    2009-09-15

    This report intends to provide an update of the latest developments that have recently occurred within car industry within the field of Hydrogen powered fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) to date, October 2009. In attempts to provide a clear and logical overview, the report starts with an overview of the OEMs (Original Equipment Manufacturers) that are actually active within the Hydrogen vehicle business, and provides an overview of the intensity of FCV activity per OEM. This overview shows that there is a pool of distinctively most active OEMs, and that others have tried to create exposure for themselves, but have not seriously been involved in in-house technology development in support of FCV manufacturing. Furthermore, some manufacturers chose a different path when it comes to using hydrogen for vehicle propulsion and use Hydrogen gas as a fuel for a conventional Internal Combustion Engine (ICE). In the field of FCVs, Most FCV activities are displayed by Honda, Daimler, Opel/GM, Hyundai/Kia, Toyota, Nissan and Ford. Volkswagen has given less priority to FCV development and has not been profiling itself as a very Hydrogen-prone OEM. Mazda and BMW chose to put their efforts in the development of Hydrogen fuelled ICE vehicles. Also Ford has put efforts in Hydrogen fuelled ICE vehicles. After the active OEMs are mapped, an overview is given on how active they have been in terms of cars produced. It appeared difficult to come up with reliable estimations on the basis of numbers available for public. The sum of vehicles produced by all OEMs together was estimated on about 515 vehicles. This estimation however was much lower than the figures published by Fuel Cell Today (FCT). FCT projects accumulated vehicles shipped in 2009 around 1100 units, the double of the numbers found for this study. Communication with FCT learned us that FCT has access to confidential information from the OEMs. Especially the Asian OEMs do not provide transparency when it comes to FCVs shipped, however

  14. Energetics Conditioning Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Energetics Conditioning Facility is used for long term and short term aging studies of energetic materials. The facility has 10 conditioning chambers of which 2...

  15. Energetics Conditioning Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Energetics Conditioning Facility is used for long term and short term aging studies of energetic materials. The facility has 10 conditioning chambers of which 2...

  16. Migrating Broad-billed Sandpipers achieve high fuelling rates by taking a multi-course meal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuil, Y.I.; Dekinga, A; Koolhaas, A; van der Winden, J; van der Have, T M; Chernichko, I I

    2006-01-01

    In spring, large numbers of migrating Broad-billed Sandpipers make a stop-over in the Sivash, a shallow lagoon system in the Crimea, Ukraine, between the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. Observed fuelling rates are high and, in just a few weeks, the birds can build up sufficient departure mass to reac

  17. FARE device operational characteristics of remote controlled fuelling machine at Wolsong NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namgung, I. [Korea Power Engineering Co., Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y. B.; Lee, S. K. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-10-01

    There are 4 CANDU6 type reactors operating at Wolsong site. For fuelling operation of certain fuel channels (with flow less than 21.5 kg/s) a FARE (flow Assist Ram Extension) device is used. During the refuelling operation, two remote controlled F/Ms (Fuelling Machines) are attached to a designated fuel channel and carry out refuelling job. The upstream F/M inserts new fuel bundles into the fuel channel while the downstream F/M discharges spent fuel bundles. In order to assist fuelling operation of channels that has lower coolant flow rate, the FARE device is used instead of F/M C-ram to push the fuel bundle string. The FARE device is essentially a flow restricting element that produces enough drag force to push the fuel bundle string toward downstream F/M. Channels that require the use of FARE device for refuelling are located along the outside perimeter of reactor. This paper presents the FARE device design feature, steady state hydraulic and operational characteristics and behavior of the device when coupled with fuel bundle string during fuelling operation. The study showed that the steady state performance of Fare device meets the design objective that was confirmed by downstream F/M C-ram force to be positive.

  18. Avian pectoral muscle size rapidly tracks body mass changes during flight, fasting and fuelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindstrom, A; Kvist, A; Piersma, T; Dekinga, A; Dietz, MW; Lindström, Åke

    2000-01-01

    We used ultrasonic imaging to monitor short-term changes in the pectoral muscle size of captive red knots Calidris canutus. Pectoral muscle thickness changed rapidly and consistently in parallel with body mass changes caused by flight, fasting;and fuelling. Four knots hew repeatedly for 10h periods

  19. Scenery for final use of energy by light vehicles in the next 20 years: implications for a strategy of energetic sustainable development; Cenarios de uso final de energia por veiculos leves no Brasil nos proximos 20 anos: implicacoes para uma estrategia de desenvolvimento energetico sustentavel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Giovani; Szklo, Alexandre Salem; Schaeffer, Roberto; Pereira Junior, Amaro Olimpio; Mendes, Francisco Eduardo; Aragao, Amanda Pereira; Simoes, Andre Felipe [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Planejamento Energetico]. E-mail: giovani@ppe.ufrj.br

    2006-07-01

    This article synthesizes the main projection results for final use of energy consumed by light transportation vehicles on the next 20 years in Brazil, and evaluates their implications for a strategy of energetic sustainable development in Brazil. Arising out from previous studies performed for the Petroleum Brazilian Institute, for he Brazilian Ministry of Mines and Energy and for the IAEA, this article considers two sceneries: reference (REF) which considers significant changes, beyond those already consolidated; alternative (ALT), which considers progressive changes in the modal of transportation, in the energy efficiency and a augmented participation of 'clean' energy sources. Both sceneries estimates potential growing of light vehicles fleet, gain of energetic efficiency and a participation of bio fuels and VNG in Brazil, and the rhythm of the implementation. The results show the the difference between the final use of energy by light vehicles in REF (44 MtEP) in 2023 and in ALT (40 MtEP in 2023) can reach almost 10% during the next 20 years.

  20. Electric Vehicles Integration in the Electric Power System with Intermittent Energy Sources - The Charge/Discharge infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marra, Francesco

    The replacement of conventional fuelled vehicles with electric vehicles (EVs) is going to increase in the coming years, following the trend seen for renewable energy sources (RES), as photovoltaic (PV) and wind power. In this scenario, the electric power systems in Europe are going to accommodate...

  1. Development of a Wood Powder Fuelled 35 kW Stirling CHP Unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pålsson, M.; Carlsen, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    For biomass fuelled CHP in sizes below 100 kW, Stirling engines are the only feasible alternative today. Using wood powder as fuel, the Stirling engine can be heated directly by the flame like when using a gaseous or liquid fuel burner. However, the combustion chamber will have to be much larger...... recirculation (CGR) a smaller air preheater can be used, while system efficiency will increase compared with using excess air for flame cooling. In a three-year project, a wood powder fuelled Stirling engine CHP unit will be developed and run in field test. The project will use the double-acting four......, using wood powder as fuel will be developed at Lund University, Sweden, in cooperation with the Technical University of Denmark and with the wood powder boiler manufacturer VTS AB. The unit is to be run in CHP operation by Vattenfall - the largest electric power company in Sweden - in a one-year field...

  2. Ion temperature anisotropy in high power helium neutral beam fuelling experiments in JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maas, A.C.; Core, W.G.F.; Gerstel, U.C.; Von Hellermann, M.G.; Koenig, R.W.T.; Marcus, F.B. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking

    1994-07-01

    During helium beam fuelling experiments in JET, distinctive anisotropic features have been observed in the velocity distribution function describing both fast and thermal alpha particle populations. During the initial fuelling phase the central helium ion temperature observed perpendicular to the magnetic field is higher than the central electron temperature, while the central helium ion temperature observed parallel to the magnetic field is lower than or equal to the central electron temperature. In order to verify temperature measurements of both perpendicular and parallel lines of sight, other independent methods of deducing the ion temperature are investigated: deuterium ion temperature, deuterium density, comparison with neutron rates and profiles (influence of a possible metastable population of helium). 6 refs., 7 figs.

  3. The control of convection by fuelling and pumping in the JET pumped divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harbour, P.J.; Andrew, P.; Campbell, D.; Clement, S.; Davies, S.; Ehrenberg, J.; Erents, S.K.; Gondhalekar, A.; Gadeberg, M.; Gottardi, N.; Von Hellermann, M.; Horton, L.; Loarte, A.; Lowry, C.; Maggi, C.; McCormick, K.; O`Brien, D.; Reichle, R.; Saibene, G.; Simonini, R.; Spence, J.; Stamp, M.; Stork, D.; Taroni, A.; Vlases, G. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking

    1994-07-01

    Convection from the scrape-off layer (SOL) to the divertor will control core impurities, if it retains them in a cold, dense, divertor plasma. This implies a high impurity concentration in the divertor, low at its entrance. Particle flux into the divertor entrance can be varied systematically in JET, using the new fuelling and pumping systems. The convection ratio has been estimated for various conditions of operation. Particle convection into the divertor should increase thermal convection, decreasing thermal conduction, and temperature and density gradients along the magnetic field, hence increasing the frictional force and decreasing the thermal force on impurities. Changes in convection in the SOL, caused by gaseous fuelling, have been studied, both experimentally in the JET Mk I divertor and with EDGE2/NIMBUS. 1 ref., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Impact of fuelling and impurity on pedestal dynamics and instabilities in the HL-2A tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, W. L.; Zou, X. L.; Gao, J. M.; Shi, Z. B.; Feng, B. B.; Cui, Z. Y.; Xu, M.; Shen, Y.; Dong, J. Q.; Ding, X. T.; Duan, X. R.; Liu, Yong; HL-2A Team

    2017-01-01

    In recent experiments of the HL-2A tokamak, the effect on the pedestal dynamics by the plasma fuelling with supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI) has been intensively investigated. Experimental results in several tokamaks suggested that SMBI is a promising technique for ELM mitigation. In addition to the fuelling, the impact of impurities on the pedestal dynamics and instabilities has been investigated in HL-2A. Experimental results have shown that during the H-mode phase, a broadband electromagnetic (EM) turbulence was driven by peaked impurity density profile at the edge plasma region, and governed by double critical gradients of the impurity density. The absolute value of the threshold in positive gradient region is much lower than that in the negative region. This strong asymmetry in the critical gradients has been predicted by theoretical simulation. The results reveal that pedestal dynamics and heat loads can be actively controlled by exciting or changing pedestal instabilities.

  5. Application of exhaust gas fuel reforming in diesel and homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines fuelled with biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsolakis, A. [School of Engineering, Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Megaritis, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering and Design, Brunel University, West London, Uxbridge UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Yap, D. [Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology, 71 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 638075 (Singapore)

    2008-03-15

    This paper documents the application of exhaust gas fuel reforming of two alternative fuels, biodiesel and bioethanol, in internal combustion engines. The exhaust gas fuel reforming process is a method of on-board production of hydrogen-rich gas by catalytic reaction of fuel and engine exhaust gas. The benefits of exhaust gas fuel reforming have been demonstrated by adding simulated reformed gas to a diesel engine fuelled by a mixture of 50% ultra low sulphur diesel (ULSD) and 50% rapeseed methyl ester (RME) as well as to a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine fuelled by bioethanol. In the case of the biodiesel fuelled engine, a reduction of NO{sub x} emissions was achieved without considerable smoke increase. In the case of the bioethanol fuelled HCCI engine, the engine tolerance to exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was extended and hence the typically high pressure rise rates of HCCI engines, associated with intense combustion noise, were reduced. (author)

  6. Sustainability Indicators for Open-Cycle Thorium-Fuelled Nuclear Energy

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The potential for countries which currently have a nominal nuclear energy infrastructure to adopt thorium-uranium-fuelled nuclear energy systems, using a once-through “open” nuclear fuel cycle, has been presented by the International Atomic Energy Agency. This paper highlights Generation III and III+ nuclear energy technologies that could potentially adopt an open thorium-uranium fuel cycle and qualitatively highlights the main differences between the open thorium-uranium and open uranium fue...

  7. A modelling evaluation of an ammonia-fuelled microchannel reformer for hydrogen generation

    OpenAIRE

    Chiuta, Steven; Everson, Raymond C.; Neomagus, Hein W.J.P.; Le Grange, Louis A.; Bessarabov, Dmitri G.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen production from an ammonia-fuelled microchannel reactor is simulated in a three-dimensional (3D) model implemented via Comsol Multiphysics™. The work described in this paper endeavours to obtain a mathematical framework that provides an understanding of reaction-coupled transport phenomena within the microchannel reactor. The transport processes and reactor performance are elucidated in terms of velocity, temperature, and species concentration distributions, as well as local reaction...

  8. Tracing the origin of the AGN fuelling reservoir in MCG-6-30-15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimundo, S. I.; Davies, R. I.; Canning, R. E. A.; Celotti, A.; Fabian, A. C.; Gandhi, P.

    2017-02-01

    The active galaxy MCG-6-30-15 has a 400 pc diameter stellar kinematically distinct core, counter-rotating with respect to the main body of the galaxy. Our previous high spatial resolution (0.1 arcsec) H-band observations of this galaxy mapped the stellar kinematics and [Fe II] 1.64 μm gas dynamics though mainly restricted to the spatial region of the counter-rotating core. In this work, we probe the stellar kinematics on a larger field of view and determine the ionized and molecular gas dynamics to study the formation of the counter-rotating core and the implications for active galactic nucleus (AGN) fuelling. We present integral field spectroscopy observations with SINFONI in the H and K bands in the central 1.2 kpc and with VIMOS HR-blue in the central 4 kpc of the galaxy. Ionized gas outflows of vout ˜ 100 km s-1 are traced by the [Ca VIII] 2.32 μm coronal line and extend out to at least a radius of r ˜ 140 pc. The molecular gas, traced by the H2 2.12 μm emission, is also counter-rotating with respect to the main body of the galaxy, indicating that the formation of the distinct core was associated with inflow of external gas into the centre of MCG-6-30-15. The molecular gas traces the available gas reservoir for AGN fuelling and is detected as close as r ˜ 50-100 pc. External gas accretion is able to significantly replenish the fuelling reservoir suggesting that the event which formed the counter-rotating core was also the main mechanism providing gas for AGN fuelling.

  9. Effects of gas types and models on optimized gas fuelling station reservoir's pressure

    OpenAIRE

    M. Farzaneh-Gord; M. Deymi-Dashtebayaz; Rahbari,H. R.

    2013-01-01

    There are similar algorithms and infrastructure for storing gas fuels at CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) and CHG (Compressed Hydrogen Gas) fuelling stations. In these stations, the fuels are usually stored in the cascade storage system to utilize the stations more efficiently. The cascade storage system generally divides into three reservoirs, commonly termed low, medium and high-pressure reservoirs. The pressures within these reservoirs have huge effects on performance of the stations. In the c...

  10. Energetics of Si(001)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandvliet, H.J.W.

    2000-01-01

    A classical thermodynamic description of a surface requires the introduction of a number of energetic parameters related to the surface steps. These parameters are the step free energy, the kink creation energy, and the energetic and entropic interactions between steps. This review will demonstrate

  11. EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF BRAKE THERMAL EFFICIENCY AND BRAKE SPECIFIC FUEL CONSUMPTION OF DIESEL ENGINE FUELLED WITH BIO-DIESEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SHIVA SHANKAR

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The rapid depletion in world petroleum reserves and uncertainty in petroleum supply due to political and economical reasons, as well as, the sharp escalations in the petroleum prices have stimulated the search for alternatives to petroleum fuels. The situation is very grave in developing countries like India which imports 70% of the required fuel, spending 30% of her total foreign exchange earnings on oil imports. Petroleum fuels are being consumed by agriculture and transport sector for which diesel engine happens to be the prime mover. Diesel fuelled vehicles discharge significant amount of pollutants like CO, HC, NOx, soot, lead compounds which are harmful to the universe. Though there are wide varieties of alternative fuels available, the research has not yet provided the right renewable fuel to replace diesel. Vegetable oils due to their properties being close to diesel fuel may be a promising alternative for its use in diesel engines. The high viscosity and low volatility are the major drawbacks of the use of vegetable oils in diesel engines. India is the second largest cotton producing country in the world today. The cotton seeds are available in India at cheaper price. Experiments were conducted on 5.2 BHP single cylinder four stroke water-cooled variable compression diesel engine. Methyl ester of cottonseed oil is blended with the commercially available Xtramile diesel. Cottonseed oil methyl ester (CSOME is blended in four different compositions varying from 10% to 40% in steps of 10 vol%. Using these four blends and Xtramile diesel brake thermal efficiency (BTE and brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC are determined at 17.5 compression ratio.

  12. Development of Methanol-Reforming Catalysts for Fuel Cell Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Vehicles powered by proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuelcells are approaching commercialisation. Being inherently cleanand efficient sources of power, fuel cells constitute asustainable alternative to internal combustion engines to meetfuture low-emission legislation. The PEM fuel cell may befuelled directly by hydrogen, but other alternatives appearmore attractive at present, due to problems related to theproduction, transportation and handling of hydrogen. Fuelling with an alcohol fuel, such...

  13. Solar Energetic Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Király, Péter

    Energetic particles recorded in the Earth environment and in interplanetary space have a multitude of origins, i.e. acceleration and propagation histories. At early days practically all sufficiently energetic particles were considered to have come either from solar flares or from interstellar space. Later on, co-rotating interplanetary shocks, the termination shock of the supersonic solar wind, planetary bow shocks and magnetospheres, and also coronal mass ejections (CME) were recognized as energetic particle sources. It was also recognized that less energetic (suprathermal) particles of solar origin and pick-up ions have also a vital role in giving rise to energetic particles in interplanetary disturbances. The meaning of the term "solar energetic particles" (SEP) is now somewhat vague, but essentially it refers to particles produced in disturbances fairly directly related to solar processes. Variation of intensity fluctuations with energy and with the phase of the solar cycle will be discussed. Particular attention will be given to extremes of time variation, i.e. to very quiet periods and to large events. While quiet-time fluxes are expected to shed light on some basic coronal processes, large events dominate the fluctuation characteristics of cumulated fluence, and the change of that fluctuation with energy and with the phase of the solar cycle may also provide important clues. Mainly ISEE-3 and long-term IMP-8 data will be invoked. Energetic and suprathermal particles that may never escape into interplanetary space may play an important part in heating the corona of the sun.

  14. Study of hydrogen vehicle storage in enclosed parking facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belzile, M.A. [Transport Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). ecoTECHNOLOGY for Vehicles; Cook, S. [Canadian Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Association, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This paper reported on a coordinated research program between Transport Canada and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Canada that examines issues of hydrogen vehicle storage. The ecoTECHNOLOGY for Vehicles (eTV) program focuses on the safety issues of operating and storing hydrogen fuelled vehicles in enclosed parking facilities. The aim of the program is to review existing research, current building standards applied in Canada, standards applied to natural gas vehicles, and standards and recommended practices for the design of fuel cell vehicles. Any potential gaps in safety will be considered in the design of CFD modeling scenarios. Considerations that extend beyond previously performed studies include the effect of Canadian climate on vehicle safety and leak detection equipment, fail-safe mechanism performance, as well as analyses of the frequency of hydrogen leak occurrences and the probability of ignition. The results of the study will facilitate policy makers and authorities in making decisions regarding the storage of hydrogen fuelled vehicles as they become more popular.

  15. Efficiency evaluation of gas fuelled and electric driven buses in the public transport sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aigner, Tobias Alexander

    2013-07-01

    The following report evaluates the efficiency of gas fuelled and electric driven buses in the public transport sector on a theoretical basis. The results indicate that the combination of CHP power plants and electric driven buses reach an overall efficiency of about 51% throughout the production chain (Well-to-Wheel), including heat distribution losses. The overall Well-to-Wheel efficiency for conventional gas turbines without heat recovery decreases to around 28%. For gas fuelled buses the Well-to-Wheel efficiency is about 30%. The Co2-emissions are evaluated based on the example of a #Left Double Quotation Mark#Volvo B10L CNG#Right Double Quotation Mark# gas bus and the electric driven #Left Double Quotation Mark#Eurabus 600#Right Double Quotation Mark#. The low energy consumption of the electric driven bus results in Co2-emissions of only 181.4 g Co2/km (Grid-to-Wheel). Depending on the utilised power plant technology the overall Co2-emissions (Well-to-Wheel) amount to 307.5 g Co2/km for a CHP power plant and 553.5 g Co2/km for a conventional gas turbine. On the other hand, gas fuelled buses emit about 1.25 kg Co2/km (Tank-to-Wheel), which is eightfold the emissions of an electrical bus. The Well-to-Tank emissions further increase to about 1.32 kg Co2/km. The emission calculation is based on real gas consumption data from a Norwegian public transport utility. The results indicate that the combination of CHP plants and electrical buses provide a much higher efficiency while reducing Co2-emissions. (author)

  16. Energetics Laboratory Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — These energetic materials laboratories are equipped with explosion proof hoods with blow out walls for added safety, that are certified for safe handling of primary...

  17. Occupational exposure to asbestos during renovation of oil-shale fuelled power plants in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangur, Maie

    2007-01-01

    Many thousands of tonnes of asbestos were used in buildings in the past, especially for thermal insulation of pipes and boilers in power plants. Occupational exposure to asbestos dust now mainly occurs during demolition, renovation and routine maintenance activities. The objective of this study was to evaluate occupational exposure to airborne asbestos during renovation of solid oil-shale fuelled power plants carried out in 2001-2003. Air monitoring inside and outside of the renovation area was performed. The concentration of airborne fibres in the working environment increased during renovation but the valid limit value (0.1 fibres/cm(3)) was not exceeded.

  18. Determination of operating parameters of industrial engine fuelled with post processing gases with high hydrogen content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzeżański, M.; Mareczek, M.; Marek, W.; Papuga, T.

    2016-09-01

    The results of investigations of SI engine fuelled with hydrogen and mixed n-butanol with isobutanol have been presented in article. The idea of flexible feeding system and the aim and methodology of carried out measurement have been also described. Obtained results have been compared to the results of tests carried out during flexible feeding of the same engine. The proposed control system enables not only application of different liquid and gaseous fuels but also application of the fuels which chemical composition vary within the relatively short time intervals.

  19. Performance analysis of different organic Rankine cycle configurations on board liquefied natural gas-fuelled vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldasso, Enrico; Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Meroni, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Gas-fuelled shipping is expected to increase significantly in the coming years. Similarly, much effort is devoted to the study of waste heat recovery systems to be implemented on board ships. In this context, the organic Rankine cycle (ORC) technology is considered one of the most promising...... solutions. The ORC favorably compares to the steam Rankine cycle because of its simple layout and high efficiency, achievable by selecting a working fluid with desirable properties. This paper aims at assessing the fuel savings attainable by implementing ORC units on board vessels powered by liquefied...

  20. Exposure assessment of particulates originating from diesel and CNG fuelled engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oravisjaervi, K.; Pietikaeinen, M.; Keiski, R. L. (Univ. of Oulu, Dept. of Process and Environmental Engineering (Finland)). email: kati.oravisjarvi@oulu.fi; Voutilainen, A. (Univ. of Kuopio, Dept. of Physics (Finland)); Haataja, M. (Oulu Univ. of Applied Sciences (Finland); Univ. of Oulu, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering (Finland)); Ruuskanen, J. (Univ. of Kuopio, Dept. of Environmental Sciences (Finland)); Rautio, A. (Univ. of Oulu, Thule Inst. (Finland))

    2009-07-01

    Particulates emitted from combustion engines have been a great concern in past years due to their adverse health effects, such as pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases, morbidity and mortality. The source of particulates can be stationary and transient, such as gas and oil fuelled engines, turbines and boilers. Particulate matter (PM) dispersed into ambient air can be classified in many ways: the mechanism of the formation, the size and the composition. Fine particles (PM2.5) are particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 mum and particles, greater than 2.5 mum in diameter are generally referred to as coarse particles (PM10). PM2.5 is also called the respirable fraction, because they can penetrate to the unciliated regions of the lung. Fine particles consist of so called ultrafine particles (an aerodynamic diameter less than 0.1 mum). The sizes of particulates emitted from combustion processes range between 10 nm and 100 mum, and are usually a mixture of unburned and partially burned hydrocarbons. Diesel exhaust particles have a mass median diameter of 0.05-1.0 mum. They are a complex mixture of elemental carbon, a variety of hydrocarbons, sulphur compounds, and other species. They consist of a numerous spherical primary particles, which are agglomerated into aggregates. Particles from natural gas engine emissions range from 0.01-0.7 mum. Increase in PM10 pollution has been found to be associated with a range of adverse health effects, such as increased use of medication for asthma, attacks of asthma in patients with pre-existing asthma, attacks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), deaths from respiratory causes, admission to hospital for cardiovascular causes, deaths from heart attacks and deaths from strokes. While it is unknown, which particulate matter component is the most hazardous for humans, a number of factors suggest that ultrafine particles may be more toxic than larger particles. Ultrafine particles have a large surface area per

  1. An Ecosystem-Based Job-Creation Engine Fuelled by Technology Entrepreneurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia D. Bot

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Job creation is at the centre of the rationale provided by governments and publicly funded organizations for investing in services purported to support entrepreneurs to launch and grow technology startups. However, little is known about how to design and build the engines that convert these publicly funded services into jobs in a region. In this article, we argue that the architecture of a job-creation engine fuelled by technology entrepreneurs is important and that it should be made visible to the stakeholders of a regional venture system. The manner in which the components of a job-creation engine are organized and integrated determines the effectiveness and efficiency of the conversion of public funds into jobs. Making visible the architecture of a job-creation engine enables individuals and organizations to: i better understand the link between the investment made to service technology entrepreneurs and systematic job creation; ii utilize the regional venture system more effectively; and iii set the performance benchmark for capability improvement and rapid adjustment to environmental changes. The experience gained from operating Lead To Win since 2009 is used to describe the architecture of a job-creation engine fuelled by technology entrepreneurs that operate in Canada’s Capital Region. Lead To Win is an ecosystem designed to help a technology venture generate sufficient revenue to create six or more knowledge jobs in the region within three years of inception.

  2. Optimization of biomass fuelled systems for distributed power generation using Particle Swarm Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, P. Reche; Reyes, N. Ruiz [Department of Telecommunication Engineering, University of Jaen, 23700 EPS Linares, Jaen (Spain); Gonzalez, M. Gomez [Junta of Andalusia, 23470 Maestro Francisco Yuste 2, Cazorla, Jaen (Spain); Jurado, F. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Jaen, 23700 EPS Linares, Jaen (Spain)

    2008-08-15

    With sufficient territory and abundant biomass resources Spain appears to have suitable conditions to develop biomass utilization technologies. As an important decentralized power technology, biomass gasification and power generation has a potential market in making use of biomass wastes. This paper addresses biomass fuelled generation of electricity in the specific aspect of finding the best location and the supply area of the electric generation plant for three alternative technologies (gas motor, gas turbine and fuel cell-microturbine hybrid power cycle), taking into account the variables involved in the problem, such as the local distribution of biomass resources, transportation costs, distance to existing electric lines, etc. For each technology, not only optimal location and supply area of the biomass plant, but also net present value and generated electric power are determined by an own binary variant of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). According to the values derived from the optimization algorithm, the most profitable technology can be chosen. Computer simulations show the good performance of the proposed binary PSO algorithm to optimize biomass fuelled systems for distributed power generation. (author)

  3. Avian pectoral muscle size rapidly tracks body mass changes during flight, fasting and fuelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, A; Kvist, A; Piersma, T; Dekinga, A; Dietz, M W

    2000-03-01

    We used ultrasonic imaging to monitor short-term changes in the pectoral muscle size of captive red knots Calidris canutus. Pectoral muscle thickness changed rapidly and consistently in parallel with body mass changes caused by flight, fasting and fuelling. Four knots flew repeatedly for 10 h periods in a wind tunnel. Over this period, pectoral muscle thickness decreased in parallel with the decrease in body mass. The change in pectoral muscle thickness during flight was indistinguishable from that during periods of natural and experimental fasting and fuelling. The body-mass-related variation in pectoral muscle thickness between and within individuals was not related to the amount of flight, indicating that changes in avian muscle do not require power-training as in mammals. Our study suggests that it is possible for birds to consume and replace their flight muscles on a time scale short enough to allow these muscles to be used as part of the energy supply for migratory flight. The adaptive significance of the changes in pectoral muscle mass cannot be explained by reproductive needs since our knots were in the early winter phase of their annual cycle. Instead, pectoral muscle mass changes may reflect (i) the breakdown of protein during heavy exercise and its subsequent restoration, (ii) the regulation of flight capacity to maintain optimal flight performance when body mass varies, or (iii) the need for a particular protein:fat ratio in winter survival stores.

  4. Density and impurity profile behaviours in HL-2A tokamak with different gas fuelling methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui Zheng-Ying; Zhou Yan; Li Wei; Feng Bei-Bin; Sun Ping; Dong Chun-Feng; Liu Yi; Hong Wen-Yu; Yang Qing-Wei; Ding Xuan-Tong; Duan Xu-Ru

    2009-01-01

    The electron density profile peaking and the impurity accumulation in the HL-2A tokamak plasma are observed when three kinds of fuelling methods are separately used at different fuelling particle locations.The density profile becomes more peaked when the line-averaged electron density approaches the Greenwald density limit nG and,consequently,impurity accumulation is often observed.A linear increase regime in the density range ne<0.6nG and a saturation regime in ne>0.6nG are obtained.There is no significant difference in achieved density peaking factor fne between the supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI) and gas puffing into the plasma main chamber.However,the achieved fne is relatively low,in particular,in the case of density below 0.7nG,when the working gas is puffed into the divertor chamber.A discharge with a density as high as 1.2nG,i.e.ne=1.2nG,can be achieved by SMBI just after siliconization as a wall conditioning.The metallic impurities,such as iron and chromium,also increase remarkably when the impurity accumulation happens.The mechanism behind the density peaking and impurity accumulation is studied by investigating both the density peaking factor versus the effective collisionality and the radiation peaking versus density peaking.

  5. Preliminary study on gas-driven vehicles; Foerstudie om teknik foer gasdrivna fordon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egebaeck, K.E. [Autoemission KE E Consultant AB, Nykoeping (Sweden); Ryden, C. [Stockholm MFO AB (Sweden)

    2001-10-01

    The use of alternative fuels for motor vehicles has been a subject of interest for a long time and alternative fuels have also been subject to extensive investigations. Studies and investigations of the alternatives have resulted in many positive and useful results in that both advantages and disadvantages of different fuels have been evaluated. An important prerequisite for an introduction of new fuels for motor vehicles is that engines and vehicles have been developed and adapted to the new fuel. In most of the cases there are specific differences in composition and physical function between alternative fuels and the commercial fuels, petrol and diesel oil. There is therefore a need for both engines and the exhaust control systems to be developed in order to take the full advantages of the positive property of the new fuel. The aim of the project was to study the technical development of natural gas and biogas fuelled engines and vehicles which had taken place during the last few years, from both a national and an international perspective. The method used has been to visit, among others, various car manufacturers in order to ascertain the state of the art concerning the development of gaseous-fuelled vehicles. In addition an extensive literature study has been carried out aiming at a widening of the knowledge about the development of natural gas fuelled vehicles in especially in USA, Europe and Japan. The results are presented in this report, which hopefully gives a broad picture of the state of the art of current gaseous-fuelled vehicles and information concerning the technology used for the development.

  6. Mathanol infrastructure - will it affect the introduction of SPFC vehicles?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, D.; Leach, M.A.; Fouquet, R.; Pearson, P.J.; Bauen, A. [Energy-Environment Policy Research Group, TH Huxley School, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)

    2000-03-01

    The possibility that future solid polymer fuel cell vehicles will be fuelled by methanol has been suggested. If this is the case, it will have significant implications for the future structure of the methanol supply industry, and methanol supply and availability may have an impact on the take-up of these SPFC vehicles. In this study, a model assessing the possible future penetration of methanol SPFC vehicles was constructed. This suggested that it would be possible for SPFC vehicles to achieve rapid market penetration after an initially slow start. A further model indicated that methanol supply would be adequate for vehicle demand until about 2013, when significant new capacity would be required. The cost of this new capacity was estimated, along with the cost of providing refuelling infrastructure such as road tankers, storage, and suitable fuelling stations. Amortising the cost over a short period (to 2013) could double the pre-tax price of methanol as a fuel, while over a longer timeframe (to 2029) it would add less than 10% to this value. The model suggests that methanol capacity need not be a constraint to the future introduction of SPFC vehicles using it as a fuel, but that other factors such as fuel purity and safety must be carefully considered before real costs can be calculated. (orig.)

  7. Auxiliary power unit based on a solid oxide fuel cell and fuelled with diesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Jeremy; Boltze, Matthias

    An auxiliary power unit (APU) is presented that is fuelled with diesel, thermally self-sustaining, and based on a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The APU is rated at 1 kW electrical, and can generate electrical power after a 3 h warm-up phase. System features include a "dry" catalytic partial oxidation (CPOX) diesel reformer, a 30 cell SOFC stack with an open cathode, and a porous-media afterburner. The APU does not require a supply of external water. The SOFC stack is an outcome of a development partnership with H.C. Starck GmbH and Fraunhofer IKTS, and is discussed in detail in an accompanying paper.

  8. Epidermal cells help coordinate leukocyte migration during inflammation through fatty acid-fuelled matrix metalloproteinase production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Christopher J; Boyle, Rachel H; Sun, Xueying; Wicker, Sophie M; Misa, June P; Krissansen, Geoffrey W; Print, Cristin G; Crosier, Kathryn E; Crosier, Philip S

    2014-05-23

    In addition to satisfying the metabolic demands of cells, mitochondrial metabolism helps regulate immune cell function. To date, such cell-intrinsic metabolic-immunologic cross-talk has only been described operating in cells of the immune system. Here we show that epidermal cells utilize fatty acid β-oxidation to fuel their contribution to the immune response during cutaneous inflammation. By live imaging metabolic and immunological processes within intact zebrafish embryos during cutaneous inflammation, we uncover a mechanism where elevated β-oxidation-fuelled mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species within epidermal cells helps guide matrix metalloproteinase-driven leukocyte recruitment. This mechanism requires the activity of a zebrafish homologue of the mammalian mitochondrial enzyme, Immunoresponsive gene 1. This study describes the first example of metabolic reprogramming operating within a non-immune cell type to help control its contribution to the immune response. Targeting of this metabolic-immunologic interface within keratinocytes may prove useful in treating inflammatory dermatoses.

  9. Performance and Emissions of Internal Combustion Engine Fuelled With CNG - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Darade

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of alternative fuels such as natural gases has become very essential because of the continuously decrease in the petroleum reserves and also their contribution for pollutants. In this paper, a survey of research papers on the utilization of Compressed Natural Gas in the Internal Combustion engines along with its effects on the performance and emissions is done. It is revealed that the performance characteristics except thermal efficiency and exhaust temperature, various other performance parameters like brake mean effective pressure, power, torque and brake specific fuel consumption are decreased for CNG fuelled engine while the emission characteristics of unburnt hydrocarbon, Carbon monoxide and Carbon-di-oxide except nitrogen oxides are better for CNG compared to petrol and diesel engines. The improvement in performance is observed with the addition of hydrogen.

  10. Performance of Membrane-Assisted Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System Fuelled by Bioethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amornchai Arpornwichanop

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The membrane separation units for bioethanol purification including pervaporation and vapor permeation are integrated with the bioethanol-fuelled solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC system. The preliminary calculations indicate that Hydrophilic type is a suitable membrane for vapor permeation to be installed after a hydrophobic pervaporation. Based on energy self-sufficient condition and data of available pervaporation membranes, the simulation results show that the use of vapor permeation unit after the pervaporation can significantly improve the overall electrical efficiency from 10.96% for the system with pervaporation alone to 26.56%. Regarding the effect of ethanol recovery, the ethanol recovery at 75% can offer the optimal overall efficiency from the proposed purification system compared to the ethanol recovery at 31.16% for the case with the single pervaporation.

  11. Plasma fuelling with cryogenic pellets in the stellarator TJ-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, K. J. [Research Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Panadero, N. [Research Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Velasco, J. L. [Research Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Combs, S. K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Caughman, J. B. O. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fontdecaba, J. M. [Research Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Foust, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); García, R. [Research Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Hernández Sánchez, J. [Research Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Navarro, M. [Research Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Pastor, I. [Research Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Soleto, A. [Research Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain)

    2017-04-04

    Cryogenic pellet injection is a widely used technique for delivering fuel to the core of magnetically confined plasmas. Indeed, such systems are currently functioning on many tokamak, reversed field pinch and stellarator devices. A pipe-gun-type pellet injector is now operated on the TJ-II, a low-magnetic shear stellarator of the heliac type. Cryogenic hydrogen pellets, containing between 3×1018 and 4×1019 atoms, are injected at velocities between 800 and 1200 m s-1 from its low-field side into plasmas created and/or maintained in this device by electron cyclotron resonance and/or neutral beam injection heating. In this paper, the first systematic study of pellet ablation, particle deposition and fuelling efficiency is presented for TJ-II. From this, light-emission profiles from ablating pellets are found to be in reasonable agreement with simulated pellet ablation profiles (created using a neutral gas shielding-based code) for both heating scenarios. In addition, radial offsets between recorded light-emission profiles and particle deposition profiles provide evidence for rapid outward drifting of ablated material that leads to pellet particle loss from the plasma. Finally, fuelling efficiencies are documented for a range of target plasma densities (~4×1018– ~2×1019 m-3). These range from ~20%– ~85% and are determined to be sensitive to pellet penetration depth. Additional observations, such as enhanced core ablation, are discussed and planned future work is outlined.

  12. Plasma fuelling with cryogenic pellets in the stellarator TJ-II

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, K. J.; Panadero, N.; Velasco, J. L.; Combs, S. K.; Caughman, J. B. O.; Fontdecaba, J. M.; Foust, C.; García, R.; Hernández Sánchez, J.; Navarro, M.; Pastor, I.; Soleto, A.; the TJ-II Team

    2017-05-01

    Cryogenic pellet injection is a widely used technique for delivering fuel to the core of magnetically confined plasmas. Indeed, such systems are currently functioning on many tokamak, reversed field pinch and stellarator devices. A pipe-gun-type pellet injector is now operated on the TJ-II, a low-magnetic shear stellarator of the heliac type. Cryogenic hydrogen pellets, containing between 3  ×  1018 and 4  ×  1019 atoms, are injected at velocities between 800 and 1200 m s-1 from its low-field side into plasmas created and/or maintained in this device by electron cyclotron resonance and/or neutral beam injection heating. In this paper, the first systematic study of pellet ablation, particle deposition and fuelling efficiency is presented for TJ-II. From this, light-emission profiles from ablating pellets are found to be in reasonable agreement with simulated pellet ablation profiles (created using a neutral gas shielding-based code) for both heating scenarios. In addition, radial offsets between recorded light-emission profiles and particle deposition profiles provide evidence for rapid outward drifting of ablated material that leads to pellet particle loss from the plasma. Finally, fuelling efficiencies are documented for a range of target plasma densities (~4  ×  1018-  ~2  ×  1019 m-3). These range from ~20%-  ~85% and are determined to be sensitive to pellet penetration depth. Additional observations, such as enhanced core ablation, are discussed and planned future work is outlined.

  13. Dense energetic nitraminofurazanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Dennis; Klapötke, Thomas M; Reymann, Marius; Stierstorfer, Jörg

    2014-05-19

    3,3'-Diamino-4,4'-bifurazane (1), 3,3'-diaminoazo-4,4'-furazane (2), and 3,3'-diaminoazoxy-4,4'-furazane (3) were nitrated in 100 % HNO3 to give corresponding 3,3'-dinitramino-4,4'-bifurazane (4), 3,3'-dinitramino-4,4'-azofurazane (5) and 3,3'-dinitramino-4,4'-azoxyfurazane (6), respectively. The neutral compounds show very imposing explosive performance but possess lower thermal stability and higher sensitivity than hexogen (RDX). More than 40 nitrogen-rich compounds and metal salts were prepared. Most compounds were characterized by low-temperature X-ray diffraction, all of them by infrared and Raman spectroscopy, multinuclear NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Calculated energetic performances using the EXPLO5 code based on calculated (CBS-4M) heats of formation and X-ray densities support the high energetic performances of the nitraminofurazanes as energetic materials. The sensitivities towards impact, friction, and electrostatic discharge were also explored. Additionally the general toxicity of the anions against vibrio fischeri, representative for an aquatic microorganism, was determined.

  14. Vehicle to Vehicle Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Jeppe Rørbæk

    2008-01-01

    , mobility, and availability of services. The dissertation consists of two parts. Part I gives an overview of service oriented architecture for pervasive computing systems and describes the contributions of the publications listed in part II. We investigate architecture for vehicular technology applications......As computing devices, sensors, and actuators pervade our surroundings, new applications emerge with accompanying research challenges. In the transportation domain vehicles are being linked by wireless communication and equipped with an array of sensors and actuators that make is possible to provide...... location aware infotainment, increase safety, and lessen environmental strain. This dissertation is about service oriented architecture for pervasive computing with an emphasis on vehicle to vehicle applications. If devices are exposed as services, applications can be created by composing a set of services...

  15. Frequency-Control Reserves and Voltage Support from Electric Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2013-01-01

    The increasing penetration of variable wind power generation units and electricity consumption in power systems demands additional ancillary services for its reliable operation. The battery storages of electric vehicles are one of the substitute solutions for replacing conventional fossil......-fuelled generators to supply future grid support functions. The quick start and fast response characteristics of battery storages enable the electric vehicles to provide most of the power system auxiliary tasks. This chapter discusses key ancillary services that could be supplied by electric vehicles to maintain...... the system balance in power systems with high volumes of wind power generation. To analyse the applications and performance of electric vehicles in supplying active power balancing services, the case studies simulated in wind-power-dominated Danish power systems are also presented....

  16. Emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from gasohol and ethanol vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abrantes, Rui; Vicente de Assunção, João; Pesquero, Célia Regina; Bruns, Roy Edward; Nóbrega, Raimundo Paiva

    The exhaust emission of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) considered toxic to human health were investigated on two spark ignition light duty vehicles, one being gasohol (Gasohol, in Brazil, is the generic denomination for mixtures of pure gasoline plus 20-25% of anhydrous ethyl alcohol fuel (AEAF).)-fuelled and the other a flexible-fuel vehicle fuelled with hydrated ethanol. The influence of fuel type and quality, aged lubricant oil type and use of fuel additives on the formation of these compounds was tested using standardized tests identical to US FTP-75 cycle. PAH sampling and chemical analysis followed the basic recommendations of method TO-13 (United States. Environmental Protection Agency, 1999. Compendium Method TO-13A - Determination of polycyclic Aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in Ambient Air Using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (CG/MS). Center for environmental research information, Cincinnati, p. 78), with the necessary modification for this particular application. Results showed that the total PAH emission factor varied from 41.9 μg km -1 to 612 μg km -1 in the gasohol vehicle, and from 11.7 μg km -1 to 27.4 μg km -1 in the ethanol-fuelled vehicle, a significant difference in favor of the ethanol vehicle. Generally, emission of light molecular weight PAHs was predominant, while high molecular weights PAHs were not detected. In terms of benzo( a)pyrene toxicity equivalence, emission factors varied from 0.00984 μg TEQ km -1 to 4.61 μg TEQ km -1 for the gasohol vehicle and from 0.0117 μg TEQ km -1 to 0.0218 μg TEQ km -1 in the ethanol vehicle. For the gasohol vehicle, results showed that the use of fuel additive causes a significant increase in the emission of naphthalene and phenanthrene at a confidence level of 90% or higher; the use of rubber solvent on gasohol showed a reduction in the emission of naphthalene and phenanthrene at the same confidence level; the use of synthetic oil instead of mineral oil also contributed

  17. Nonadiabatic reaction of energetic molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Atanu; Guo, Yuanqing; Bernstein, Elliot R

    2010-12-21

    Energetic materials store a large amount of chemical energy that can be readily converted into mechanical energy via decomposition. A number of different ignition processes such as sparks, shocks, heat, or arcs can initiate the excited electronic state decomposition of energetic materials. Experiments have demonstrated the essential role of excited electronic state decomposition in the energy conversion process. A full understanding of the mechanisms for the decomposition of energetic materials from excited electronic states will require the investigation and analysis of the specific topography of the excited electronic potential energy surfaces (PESs) of these molecules. The crossing of multidimensional electronic PESs creates a funnel-like topography, known as conical intersections (CIs). CIs are well established as a controlling factor in the excited electronic state decomposition of polyatomic molecules. This Account summarizes our current understanding of the nonadiabatic unimolecular chemistry of energetic materials through CIs and presents the essential role of CIs in the determination of decomposition pathways of these energetic systems. Because of the involvement of more than one PES, a decomposition process involving CIs is an electronically nonadiabatic mechanism. Based on our experimental observations and theoretical calculations, we find that a nonadiabatic reaction through CIs dominates the initial decomposition process of energetic materials from excited electronic states. Although the nonadiabatic behavior of some polyatomic molecules has been well studied, the role of nonadiabatic reactions in the excited electronic state decomposition of energetic molecules has not been well investigated. We use both nanosecond energy-resolved and femtosecond time-resolved spectroscopic techniques to determine the decomposition mechanism and dynamics of energetic species experimentally. Subsequently, we employ multiconfigurational methodologies (such as, CASSCF

  18. Energetic particle physics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F. Zonca; G.Y. Fu; S.J. Wang

    2007-01-01

    @@ The confinement properties of energetic (EsslMeV) ions are a crucial aspect of burning plasmas since they are present both as fast particles generated via additional heating and current drive systems as well as charged fusion products. In the first case, successful plasma operations rely on the possibility of controlling plasma current and flow profiles via neutral beam injection (NBI) and plasma temperature profiles by both NBI and ion cyclotron resonant heating (ICRH). In the second case, fusion alpha particles must provide a significant fraction of the local power density, which is ultimately necessary for the sustainment of the plasma burning.

  19. THE HYDROGEN-FUELLED INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES FOR MARINE APPLICATIONS WITH A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim S. Seddiek

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern marine power plants have been designed to improve the overall ship’s efficiency. This pushed the designers of marine machinery to search for unconventional fuels for these plants. During the previous years, diesel oil has been extensively used on-board ships. Due to the high price of light diesel oil and the environmental problems resulting from the use of heavy fuel oil, it has become necessary to search for an alternative to traditional fuels. As a result, natural gas fuel has been used on-board some types of ships, especially short-voyage cruise ships. Unfortunately, there are still some technical and logistic problems related to the use of natural gas as a fuel, especially as it is considered a non-renewable energy source. The use of hydrogen fuel on-board ships, particularly in modern power plants may contribute to overcoming the above problems. The present paper considers the possibility of the use of hydrogen fuel for marine applications and discusses different stages of hydrogen gas cycle beginning with hydrogen generation process from clean energy until using it as fuel for internal combustion engines on-board one RO/RO ship, named Taba, operating in the Mediterranean Sea. Compared to the diesel engine, the hydrogen fuelled engine is found to be lower in thermal efficiency and fuel consumption, however, some adjustments are needed.

  20. Bioethanol/gasoline blends for fuelling conventional and hybrid scooter. Regulated and unregulated exhaust emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costagliola, Maria Antonietta; Prati, Maria Vittoria; Murena, Fabio

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this experimental activity was to evaluate the influence of ethanol fuel on the pollutant emissions measured at the exhaust of a conventional and a hybrid scooter. Both scooters are 4-stroke, 125 cm3 of engine capacity and Euro 3 compliant. They were tested on chassis dynamometer for measuring gaseous emissions of CO, HC, NOx, CO2 and some toxic micro organic pollutants, such as benzene, 1,3-butadiene, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. The fuel consumption was estimated throughout a carbon balance on the exhaust species. Moreover, total particles number with diameter between 20 nm up to 1 μm was measured. Worldwide and European test cycles were carried out with both scooters fuelled with gasoline and ethanol/gasoline blends (10/90, 20/80 and 30/70% vol). According to the experimental results relative to both scooter technologies, the addiction of ethanol in gasoline reduces CO and particles number emissions. The combustion of conventional scooter becomes unstable when a percentage of 30%v of bioethanol is fed; as consequence a strong increasing of hydrocarbon is monitored, including carcinogenic species. The negative effects of ethanol fuel are related to the increasing of fuel consumption due to the less carbon content for volume unit and to the increasing of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde due to the higher oxygen availability. Almost 70% of Ozone Formation Potential is covered by alkenes and aromatics.

  1. Effects of gas types and models on optimized gas fuelling station reservoir's pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Farzaneh-Gord

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There are similar algorithms and infrastructure for storing gas fuels at CNG (Compressed Natural Gas and CHG (Compressed Hydrogen Gas fuelling stations. In these stations, the fuels are usually stored in the cascade storage system to utilize the stations more efficiently. The cascade storage system generally divides into three reservoirs, commonly termed low, medium and high-pressure reservoirs. The pressures within these reservoirs have huge effects on performance of the stations. In the current study, based on the laws of thermodynamics, conservation of mass and real/ideal gas assumptions, a theoretical analysis has been constructed to study the effects of gas types and models on performance of the stations. It is intended to determine the optimized reservoir pressures for these stations. The results reveal that the optimized pressure differs between the gas types. For ideal and real gas models in both stations (CNG and CHG, the optimized non-dimensional low pressure-reservoir pressure is found to be 0.22. The optimized non-dimensional medium-pressure reservoir pressure is the same for the stations, and equal to 0.58.

  2. Performance evaluation of common rail direct injection (CRDI engine fuelled with Uppage Oil Methyl Ester (UOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Basavarajappa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available For economic and social development of any country energy is one of the most essential requirements. Continuously increasing price of crude petroleum fuels in the present days coupled with alarming emissions and stringent emission regulations has led to growing attention towards use of alternative fuels like vegetable oils, alcoholic and gaseous fuels for diesel engine applications. Use of such fuels can ease the burden on the economy by curtailing the fuel imports. Diesel engines are highly efficient and the main problems associated with them is their high smoke and NOx emissions. Hence there is an urgent need to promote the use of alternative fuels in place of high speed diesel (HSD as substitute. India has a large agriculture base that can be used as a feed stock to obtain newer fuel which is renewable and sustainable. Accordingly Uppage oil methyl ester (UOME biodiesel was selected as an alternative fuel. Use of biodiesels in diesel engines fitted with mechanical fuel injection systems has limitation on the injector opening pressure (300 bar. CRDI system can overcome this drawback by injecting fuel at very high pressures (1500-2500 bar and is most suitable for biodiesel fuels which are high viscous. This paper presents the performance and emission characteristics of a CRDI diesel engine fuelled with UOME biodiesel at different injection timings and injection pressures. From the experimental evidence it was revealed that UOME biodiesel yielded overall better performance with reduced emissions at retarded injection timing of -10° BTDC in CRDI mode of engine operation.

  3. Tracing the origin of the AGN fuelling reservoir in MCG--6-30-15

    CERN Document Server

    Raimundo, S I; Canning, R E A; Celotti, A; Fabian, A C; Gandhi, P

    2016-01-01

    The active galaxy MCG--6-30-15 has a 400 pc diameter stellar kinematically distinct core, counter-rotating with respect to the main body of the galaxy. Our previous high spatial resolution (0".1) H-band observations of this galaxy mapped the stellar kinematics and [Fe II] 1.64 {\\mu}m gas dynamics though mainly restricted to the spatial region of the counter-rotating core. In this work we probe the stellar kinematics on a larger field-of-view and determine the ionised and molecular gas dynamics to study the formation of the counter-rotating core and the implications for AGN fuelling. We present integral field spectroscopy observations with SINFONI in the H and K-bands in the central 1.2 kpc and with VIMOS HR-blue in the central 4 kpc of the galaxy. Ionised gas outflows of v ~ 100 km/s are traced by the [Ca VIII] 2.32 {\\mu}m coronal line and extend out to at least a radius of r ~ 140 pc. The molecular gas, traced by the H2 2.12 {\\mu}m emission is also counter rotating with respect to the main body of the galaxy...

  4. PERFORMANCE AND EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS OF CI ENGINE FUELLED WITH NON EDIBLE VEGETABLE OIL AND DIESEL BLENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. ELANGO

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine which is fuelled with different blends of jatropha oil and diesel (10–50%. A single cylinder four stroke diesel engine was used for the experiments at various loads and speed of 1500 rpm. An AVL 5 gas analyzer and a smoke meter were used for the measurements of exhaust gas emissions. Engine performance (specific fuel consumption SFC, brake thermal efficiency, and exhaust gas temperature and emissions (HC, CO, CO2, NOx and Smoke Opacity were measured to evaluate and compute the behaviour of the diesel engine running on biodiesel. The results showed that the brake thermal efficiency of diesel is higher at all loads. Among the blends maximum brake thermal efficiency and minimum specific fuel consumption were found for blends upto 20% Jatropha oil. The specific fuel consumption of the blend having 20% Jatropha oil and 80% diesel (B20 was found to be comparable with the conventional diesel. The optimum blend is found to be B20 as the CO2 emissions were lesser than diesel while decrease in brake thermal efficiency is marginal.

  5. PM, carbon, and PAH emissions from a diesel generator fuelled with soy-biodiesel blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jen-Hsiung; Chen, Shui-Jen; Huang, Kuo-Lin; Lin, Yuan-Chung; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Lin, Chih-Chung; Lin, Wen-Yinn

    2010-07-15

    Biodiesels have received increasing attention as alternative fuels for diesel engines and generators. This study investigates the emissions of particulate matter (PM), total carbon (TC), e.g., organic/elemental carbons, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from a diesel generator fuelled with soy-biodiesel blends. Among the tested diesel blends (B0, B10 (10 vol% soy-biodiesel), B20, and B50), B20 exhibited the lowest PM emission concentration despite the loads (except the 5 kW case), whereas B10 displayed lower PM emission factors when operating at 0 and 10 kW than the other fuel blends. The emission concentrations or factors of EC, OC, and TC were the lowest when B10 or B20 was used regardless of the loading. Under all tested loads, the average concentrations of total-PAHs emitted from the generator using the B10 and B20 were lower (by 38% and 28%, respectively) than those using pure petroleum diesel fuel (B0), while the emission factors of total-PAHs decreased with an increasing ratio of biodiesel to premium diesel. With an increasing loading, although the brake specific fuel consumption decreased, the energy efficiency increased despite the bio/petroleum diesel ratio. Therefore, soy-biodiesel is promising for use as an alternative fuel for diesel generators to increase energy efficiency and reduce the PM, carbon, and PAH emissions.

  6. Thermal instabilities in cooling galactic coronae: fuelling star formation in galactic discs

    CERN Document Server

    Hobbs, Alexander; Power, Chris; Cole, David

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the means by which cold gas can accrete onto Milky Way mass galaxies from a hot corona of gas, using a new smoothed particle hydrodynamics code, 'SPHS'. We find that the 'cold clumps' seen in many classic SPH simulations in the literature are not present in our SPHS simulations. Instead, cold gas condenses from the halo along filaments that form at the intersection of supernovae-driven bubbles from previous phases of star formation. This positive feedback feeds cold gas to the galactic disc directly, fuelling further star formation. The resulting galaxies in the SPH and SPHS simulations differ greatly in their morphology, gas phase diagrams, and stellar content. We show that the classic SPH cold clumps owe to a numerical thermal instability caused by an inability for cold gas to mix in the hot halo. The improved treatment of mixing in SPHS suppresses this instability leading to a dramatically different physical outcome. In our highest resolution SPHS simulation, we find that the cold filaments ...

  7. Particulate Matter Emission from Dual Fuel Diesel Engine Fuelled with Natural Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelmasiak Zdzisław

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of examination of particulate matter emission from the Diesel engine FPT 1.3 MJT simultaneously fuelled with diesel oil and natural gas CNG. The basic premise for engine adaptation was the addition of a small amount of CNG to reduce exhaust gas opacity and particulate matter emission. At this assumption, diesel oil remained the basic fuel, with contribution amounting to 0,70-0,85 of total energy delivered to the engine. The dual fuel engine was examined using an original controller installed in the Diesel engine FPT 1.3 MJT which controlled the diesel fuel dose. The dose of the injected natural gas was controlled by changing the opening time of gas injectors at constant pressure in the gas collector. The examined issues included the exhaust gas opacity, and the total number and fractional distribution of the emitted particles. The measurements were performed at twenty selected measuring points corresponding to the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC test. The performed tests have demonstrated a positive effect of gas addition on exhaust gas opacity and particulate matter emission. Depending on test conditions, the exhaust gas opacity was reduced by 10÷92%, and the total number of particles by 30÷40%. The performed tests have revealed that a small addition of gas can reduce the load of the DPF filter, extend its lifetime, and increase engine reliability. Longer time intervals between successive DPF filter regenerations improve ecological properties of the engine.

  8. Emission of a compression ignition engine fuelled by diesel and imitated syngas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahgoub, Bahaaddein Kamal M.; Sulaiman, S. A.; Karim, Zainal Ambri B. A.

    2012-06-01

    Biomass can be converted into a useful source of energy through gasification. The gasification product, known as synthesis gas or syngas, composition of syngas may fluctuate due to many factors such as operational errors of the gasifier as well as the type of feedstock used or may be due to the feeding rate fluctuation. Therefore it would be difficult to assess the effect of syngas composition and diesel replacement ratio to the emission when combusted in dual fuel syngas - diesel compression ignition engine. In order to overcome this problem controllable composition and conditions of imitated syngas was used in this study by selective three compositions of syngas close to the real conditions. The objective of this study is to determine the exhaust emissions of a compression ignition engine fuelled with diesel and imitated syngas at different compositions and diesel replacement ratios to determine the most appropriate composition of syngas and diesel replacement ratio which will give less emission. The test results on syngas emission are compared with the results of diesel. CO2 and NOX emission level was reduced on syngas dual fuel mode, but there were increases in CO and THC emissions throughout all syngas compositions examined due to poor combustion efficiency of dual fuel operation.

  9. Developing a Knock Predictive Criterion in Spark Ignition Engines Fuelled with Gaseous Fuels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.A.Karim

    1993-01-01

    Consideration of the chemical reaction activity of the end gas in a spark ignition and operating conditions are combined to predict the onset of knock and associated performance in an engine fuelled with methane.A two-zone predictive combustion model was developed based on an estimate of the effective duration of the combustion period and the mass burning rate for any set of operating conditions.The unburned end gas preignition chemical reaction activity is described by a detailed chemical reaction kinetic scheme for methane and air,The variation with time of the value of a formulated dimensionless knock parameter(k)is calcuated.It is shown that whenever knocking is encounteren.the value of “k” builds up to a sufficiently high value that exceeds a critical value.Under normal operating conditions,the value of “k” remains throughout the whole combustion period at comparatively very low levels.It is shown that the model and the use of this knock criterion“k” produce results that are in good agreement with experiment.

  10. Ozone depletion in the plume of a solid-fuelled rocket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. C. Krüger

    Full Text Available The local effects of the emission of a solid-fuelled rocket on the stratospheric ozone concentration have been investigated by photochemical model calculations. A one-dimensional horizontal model has been applied which calculates the trace gas composition at a single atmospheric altitude spatially resolved around the exhaust plume. Different cases were tested for the emissions of the Space Shuttle concerning the composition of the exhaust and the effects of heterogeneous reactions on atmospheric background aerosol.

    The strongest depletion of ozone is achieved when a high amount of the emitted chlorine is Cl2. If it is purely HCl, the effect is smallest, though in this case the heterogeneous reactions show their largest influence. From the results it may be estimated whether ozone depletion caused by rocket launches can be detected by satellite instruments. It appears that the chance of coincidental detection of such an event is rather small.

  11. The Stability of Lubricant Oil Acidity of Biogas Fuelled Engine due to Biogas Desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gde Tirta Nindhia, Tjokorda; Wayan Surata, I.; Wardana, Ari

    2017-05-01

    This research is established for the purpose of the understanding the stability of the acidity of lubricant oil in biogas fuelled engine due to the absence of hydrogen sulfide (H2S). As was recognized that other than Methane (CH4), there are also other gas impurities in the biogas such as carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), moisture (H2O) and ammonia (NH3). Due to H2S contents in the biogas fuel, the engine was found failure. This is caused by corrosion in the combustion chamber due to increase of lubricant acidity. To overcome this problem in practical, the lubricant is increased the pH to basic level with the hope will be decrease to normal value after several time use. Other method is by installing pH measurement sensor in the engine lubricant so that when lubricant is known turn to be acid, then lubricant replacement should be done. In this research, the effect of biogas desulfurization down to zero level to the acidity of lubricant oil in the four stroke engine was carried out with the hope that neutral lubrication oil to be available during running the engine. The result indicates that by eliminating H2S due desulfurization process, effect on stability and neutrality of pH lubricant. By this method the engine safety can be obtained without often replacement the lubricant oil.

  12. A supersonic gas injection system for fuelling and probing fusion plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collis, Scott [Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Howard, John [Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Blackwell, Boyd [Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Carlsson, Peter [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteburg (Sweden); Abelsson, Mattias [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteburg (Sweden); Powell, Ben [Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2006-11-01

    The large gas reservoir surrounding the H-1NF plasma leads to difficulties in achieving the density control required to maximize the plasma temperature. We have designed and tested an alternative fuelling system which uses a double conical nozzle to generate a directed flow of particles into the plasma without adding to the gas inventory in the rest of the vacuum vessel. By using a closed plenum at a programmable pressure and a piezo-electric valve, the particle flux can be dynamically changed in a controlled and quantitative manner. Measurements of the gas jet using constant temperature hot wire anemometry show that, for plenum pressures between 500 and 1000 Torr, the particle injection rate (helium) ranges between 2 x 10{sup 20} and 4 x 10{sup 20} s{sup -1} with half-cone angles between 5 deg. and 20 deg. The system has been installed on the H-1NF device and first plasma results indicate localized gas injection consistent with test tank anemometry measurements.

  13. A centre-triggered magnesium fuelled cathodic arc thruster uses sublimation to deliver a record high specific impulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Patrick R. C.; Bilek, Marcela; McKenzie, David R.

    2016-08-01

    The cathodic arc is a high current, low voltage discharge that operates in vacuum and provides a stream of highly ionised plasma from a solid conducting cathode. The high ion velocities, together with the high ionisation fraction and the quasineutrality of the exhaust stream, make the cathodic arc an attractive plasma source for spacecraft propulsion applications. The specific impulse of the cathodic arc thruster is substantially increased when the emission of neutral species is reduced. Here, we demonstrate a reduction of neutral emission by exploiting sublimation in cathode spots and enhanced ionisation of the plasma in short, high-current pulses. This, combined with the enhanced directionality due to the efficient erosion profiles created by centre-triggering, substantially increases the specific impulse. We present experimentally measured specific impulses and jet power efficiencies for titanium and magnesium fuels. Our Mg fuelled source provides the highest reported specific impulse for a gridless ion thruster and is competitive with all flight rated ion thrusters. We present a model based on cathode sublimation and melting at the cathodic arc spot explaining the outstanding performance of the Mg fuelled source. A further significant advantage of an Mg-fuelled thruster is the abundance of Mg in asteroidal material and in space junk, providing an opportunity for utilising these resources in space.

  14. Galaxy pairs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey - XII: The fuelling mechanism of low excitation radio-loud AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Ellison, Sara L; Hickox, Ryan C

    2015-01-01

    We investigate whether the fuelling of low excitation radio galaxies (LERGs) is linked to major galaxy interactions. Our study utilizes a sample of 10,800 spectroscopic galaxy pairs and 97 post-mergers selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey with matches to multi-wavelength datasets. The LERG fraction amongst interacting galaxies is a factor of 3.5 higher than that of a control sample matched in local galaxy density, redshift and stellar mass. However, the LERG excess in pairs does not depend on projected separation and remains elevated out to at least 500 kpc, suggesting that major mergers are not their main fuelling channel. In order to identify the primary fuelling mechanism of LERGs, we compile samples of control galaxies that are matched in various host galaxy and environmental properties. The LERG excess is reduced, but not completely removed, when halo mass or D4000 are included in the matching parameters. However, when BOTH M_halo and D4000 are matched, there is no LERG excess and the 1.4 GHz lumin...

  15. Energetics Manufacturing Technology Center (EMTC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Energetics Manufacturing Technology Center (EMTC), established in 1994 by the Office of Naval Research (ONR) Manufacturing Technology (ManTech) Program, is Navy...

  16. National measures fostering alternative vehicles: electric, natural gas, liquefied oil gas vehicles; Dispositions nationales en faveur des vehicules alternatifs: vehicules electriques, au gaz naturel (GNv) et au gaz de petrole liquefie (GPLc)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-07

    This document, issued by the French Ministry of Economy, Finances and Industry, presents national measures fostering alternative vehicles, i.e., electric, natural gas and liquefied oil gas vehicles. Financial supports for studies aiming at optimizing the fleet and choosing the alternative vehicles as well as for purchasing vehicles both by counter procedure and for demonstration programmes are provided. Amount of subsidies, conditions of obtaining and categories of addressees are indicated. The document contains also two relating studies. The first one is titled 'the policy of developing alternative vehicles'. The following four items are addressed: - the present frame favouring the alternative vehicles; - the electric vehicles; - natural gas fuelled vehicles (GNV); - liquefied oil gas fuelled vehicles (GPLc). Although non-polluting the electric vehicles are not tempting because of their rather limited range (80 Km at a battery charging). So far only around 3,000 vehicles were sold. Fifty GNV buses were ordered by RATP and the figure raised at 70 in 1998 and 1999. The GPLc fleet amounts up to 70,000 vehicles and by the end of 2000 it is foreseen to reach the level of 300,000 vehicles. The second study addresses to the issue of natural gas for vehicles. It presents: - its advantages; - its peculiarities; - the action of public authorities; -the current state and trends of GNV vehicles. In a joint effort public authorities and partners of this option are aiming at a fleet of 2500 light service vehicles and 300 bus for urban transport by the end of 1999.

  17. Energetic Causal Sets

    CERN Document Server

    Cortês, Marina

    2013-01-01

    We propose an approach to quantum theory based on the energetic causal sets, introduced in Cort\\^{e}s and Smolin (2013). Fundamental processes are causal sets whose events carry momentum and energy, which are transmitted along causal links and conserved at each event. Fundamentally there are amplitudes for such causal processes, but no space-time. An embedding of the causal processes in an emergent space-time arises only at the semiclassical level. Hence, fundamentally there are no commutation relations, no uncertainty principle and, indeed, no hbar. All that remains of quantum theory is the relationship between the absolute value squared of complex amplitudes and probabilities. Consequently, we find that neither locality, nor non locality, are primary concepts, only causality exists at the fundamental level.

  18. COMBUSTION AND PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF A SMALL SPARK IGNITION ENGINE FUELLED WITH HCNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. SONTHALIA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to environmental concerns and fossil fuel depletion, large scale researches were carried out involving the use of natural gas in internal combustion engines. Natural gas is a clean burning fuel that is available from large domestic natural reserve. When it is used as a fuel in SI engines, it reduces emissions to meet EURO-III norms with carburettors and EURO-IV norms with manifold injection. Countries like India with fewer natural fossil fuel reserves depend heavily on oil imported from Middle East Asian countries and on the other hand combustion of fossil fuel has negative impact on air quality in urban areas. Use of CNG as a fuel in internal combustion engines can reduce the intensiveness of these pervasive problems. The performance of CNG can further be improved by addition of small percentages of hydrogen to it to overcome the drawbacks like lower energy density of the fuel, drop in engine power and engine out exhaust emissions. When hydrogen is added to CNG it is called as Hythane or Hydrogen enriched Compressed Natural Gas (HCNG. This can be considered as a first step towards promotion of hydrogen in automobiles. In this study, the effects of mixing hydrogen with CNG on a small air cooled four stroke SI engine’s performance, emissions and heat release rate was analyzed. A comparison of performance and emission by running engine separately on gasoline, hydrogen, CNG and HCNG was done. The results show a significant decrease in HC, CO and NOx emissions and marginal increase in specific energy consumption when fuelled with HCNG.

  19. Performance evaluation of common rail direct injection (CRDI engine fuelled with Uppage Oil Methyl Ester (UOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Basavarajappa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available For economic and social development of any country energy is one of the most essential requirements. Continuously increasing price of crude petroleum fuels in the present days coupled with alarming emissions and stringent emission regulations has led to growing attention towards use of alternative fuels like vegetable oils, alcoholic and gaseous fuels for diesel engine applications. Use of such fuels can ease the burden on the economy by curtailing the fuel imports. Diesel engines are highly efficient and the main problems associated with them is their high smoke and NOx emissions.  Hence there is an urgent need to promote the use of alternative fuels in place of high speed diesel (HSD as substitute. India has a large agriculture base that can be used as a feed stock to obtain newer fuel which is renewable and sustainable. Accordingly Uppage oil methyl ester (UOME biodiesel was selected as an alternative fuel. Use of biodiesels in diesel engines fitted with mechanical fuel injection systems has limitation on the injector opening pressure (300 bar. CRDI system can overcome this drawback by injecting fuel at very high pressures (1500-2500 bar and is most suitable for biodiesel fuels which are high viscous. This paper presents the performance and emission characteristics of a CRDI diesel engine fuelled with UOME biodiesel at different injection timings and injection pressures. From the experimental evidence it was revealed that UOME biodiesel yielded overall better performance with reduced emissions at retarded injection timing of -10° BTDC in CRDI mode of engine operation.

  20. Development and test of a new catalytic converter for natural gas fuelled engine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M A Kalam; H H Masjuki; M Redzuan; T M I Mahlia; M A Fuad; M Mohibah; K H Halim; A Ishak; M Khair; A Shahrir; A Yusoff

    2009-06-01

    This paper presents characteristics of a new catalytic converter (catco) to be used for natural gas fuelled engine. The catco were developed based on catalyst materials consisting of metal oxides such as titanium dioxide (TiO2) and cobalt oxide (CoO) with wire mesh substrate. Both of the catalyst materials (such as TiO2 and CoO) are inexpensive in comparison with conventional catalysts (noble metals) such as palladium or platinum. In addition, the noble metals such as platinum group metals are now identified as human health risk due to their rapid emissions in the environment from various resources like conventional catalytic converter, jewelers and other medical usages. It can be mentioned that the TiO2/CoO based catalytic converter and a new natural gas engine such as compressed natural gas (CNG) direct injection (DI) engine were developed under a research collaboration program. The original engine manufacture catalytic conveter (OEM catco) was tested for comparison purposes. The OEM catco was based on noble metal catalyst with honeycomb ceramic substrate. It is experimentally found that the conversion efficiencies of TiO2/CoO based catalytic converter are 93%, 89% and 82% for NOx, CO and HC emissions respectively. It is calculated that the TiO2/CoO based catalytic converter reduces 24%, 41% and 40% higher NOx, CO and HC emissions in comparison to OEM catco respectively. The objective of this paper is to develop a low-cost three way catalytic converter to be used with the newly developed CNG-DI engine. Detailed review on catalytic converter, low-cost catalytic converter development characteristics and CNGDI engine test results have been presented with discussions.

  1. Energy recovery for a road vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarulescu, R.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper the author analyse the possibility of fluid energy recovery, generated from a road vehicle through the aerodynamic impact. The suggested dynamic recovery system use an axial wind turbine, bended with the vehicle. Also, are presented the benefits (economic and energetic) and the disadvantages (constructive and functional) in the base of a calculus statement, with original parts. The results of some numeric calculus for a concrete opportunity are hopeful, the degree of recovery (in fluid - mechanic - electric conversion) tending to 40%.

  2. Stab Sensitivity of Energetic Nanolaminates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gash, A; Barbee, T; Cervantes, O

    2006-05-22

    This work details the stab ignition, small-scale safety, and energy release characteristics of bimetallic Al/Ni(V) and Al/Monel energetic nanolaminate freestanding thin films. The influence of the engineered nanostructural features of the energetic multilayers is correlated with both stab initiation and small-scale energetic materials testing results. Structural parameters of the energetic thin films found to be important include the bi-layer period, total thickness of the film, and presence or absence of aluminum coating layers. In general the most sensitive nanolaminates were those that were relatively thick, possessed fine bi-layer periods, and were not coated. Energetic nanolaminates were tested for their stab sensitivity as freestanding continuous parts and as coarse powders. The stab sensitivity of mock M55 detonators loaded with energetic nanolaminate was found to depend strongly upon both the particle size of the material and the configuration of nanolaminate material, in the detonator cup. In these instances stab ignition was observed with input energies as low as 5 mJ for a coarse powder with an average particle dimension of 400 {micro}m. Selected experiments indicate that the reacting nanolaminate can be used to ignite other energetic materials such as sol-gel nanostructured thermite, and conventional thermite that was either coated onto the multilayer substrate or pressed on it. These results demonstrate that energetic nanolaminates can be tuned to have precise and controlled ignition thresholds and can initiate other energetic materials and therefore are viable candidates as lead-free impact initiated igniters or detonators.

  3. Energy-optimisation of biogas-fuelled CHP units; Energetische Optimierung von Biogas-BHKW's

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soltic, P.; Edenhauser, D.; Winkler, A.

    2008-07-15

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal office of Energy (SFOE) reports on the energy-related optimisation of combined heat and power (CHP) units that are fuelled with non-processed biogas. Ways of increasing the efficiency of these units as far as the production of electricity is concerned are examined and commented on. Also, ways of using the heat generated by the CHP units to produce electricity using other, exergetic means are also described. Systems such as Stirling engines and existing and new thermo-electrical elements are discussed. The economic viability of the systems is also discussed.

  4. Electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    Quiet, clean, and efficient, electric vehicles (EVs) may someday become a practical mode of transportation for the general public. Electric vehicles can provide many advantages for the nation's environment and energy supply because they run on electricity, which can be produced from many sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, uranium, and hydropower. These vehicles offer fuel versatility to the transportation sector, which depends almost solely on oil for its energy needs. Electric vehicles are any mode of transportation operated by a motor that receives electricity from a battery or fuel cell. EVs come in all shapes and sizes and may be used for different tasks. Some EVs are small and simple, such as golf carts and electric wheel chairs. Others are larger and more complex, such as automobile and vans. Some EVs, such as fork lifts, are used in industries. In this fact sheet, we will discuss mostly automobiles and vans. There are also variations on electric vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles and solar-powered vehicles. Hybrid vehicles use electricity as their primary source of energy, however, they also use a backup source of energy, such as gasoline, methanol or ethanol. Solar-powered vehicles are electric vehicles that use photovoltaic cells (cells that convert solar energy to electricity) rather than utility-supplied electricity to recharge the batteries. These concepts are discussed.

  5. Heat release mechanism of energetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, N. [Third Research Center, Technical Research and development Institute (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Determination of the heat release mechanism of energetic materials is a major subject of combustion study. In order to elucidate the combustion process of various types of energetic materials a generalized combustion wave structure was proposed and the heat release process was discussed. The heat release process was significantly different between the physical structures of the materials: homogeneous and heterogeneous materials. The thermal structure of an azide polymer was evaluated to demonstrate the heat release mechanism. (author) 6 refs.

  6. Photodecomposition of energetic nitro compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mialocq, J.C.

    1989-03-14

    The photodecomposition of energetic nitrocompounds depends on the excitation energy, the light intensity which determines the mono-, bi- or multiphotonic character of the initial process and their gaseous, liquid or solid state. The initial processes of the photodecomposition of nitromethane and nitroalcanes are reviewed and their relevance to the initiation of energetic nitrocompounds detonation is discussed. The case of nitramines (dimethylnitramine and tutorial) is also briefly introduced.

  7. Off-road vehicle dynamics analysis, modelling and optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Taghavifar, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    This book deals with the analysis of off-road vehicle dynamics from kinetics and kinematics perspectives and the performance of vehicle traversing over rough and irregular terrain. The authors consider the wheel performance, soil-tire interactions and their interface, tractive performance of the vehicle, ride comfort, stability over maneuvering, transient and steady state conditions of the vehicle traversing, modeling the aforementioned aspects and optimization from energetic and vehicle mobility perspectives. This book brings novel figures for the transient dynamics and original wheel terrain dynamics at on-the-go condition.

  8. AGN fuelling: Bridging Large and Small Scales - Overlapping Inflows as Catalysts of Accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel Carmona Loaiza, Juan Manuel

    2015-05-01

    One of the biggest challenges in understanding the fuelling of supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei (AGN) is not on accounting for the source of fuel, as a galaxy can comfortably supply the required mass budget, but on its actual delivery. While a clear picture has been developed for the large scale (~ kpc) down to the intermediate one (~ 100 pc), and for the smallest scales (~ 0.1 pc) where an accretion disc likely forms, a bridge that has proven difficult to build is that between ~ 100 pc and ~ 0.1 pc. It is feared that gas at these scales might still retain enough angular momentum and settle into a larger scale disc with very low or no inflow to form or replenish the inner accretion disc (on ~ 0.01 pc scales). In this Thesis, I present numerical simulations in which a rotating gaseous shell flows towards a SMBH because of its lack of rotational support. As inflow proceeds, gas from the shell impacts an already present nuclear (~ 10pc) disc. The cancellation of angular momentum and redistribution of gas, due to the misalignment between the angular momentum of the shell and that of the disc, is studied in this scenario. The underlying hypothesis is that even if transport of angular momentum at these scales may be inefficient, the interaction of an inflow with a nuclear disc would still provide a mechanism to bring mass inwards because of the cancellation of angular momentum. I quantify the amount of gas such a cancellation would bring to the central parsec under different circumstances: Co- and counter-rotation between the disc and the shell and the presence or absence of an initial turbulent kick; I also discuss the impact of self gravity in our simulations. The scenario we study is highly idealized and designed to capture the specific outcomes produced by the mechanism proposed. I find that angular momentum cancellation and redistribution via hydrodynamical shocks leads to sub-pc inflows enhanced by more than 2-3 orders of magnitude. In all of our

  9. Analysis of energetic and exergetic efficiency, and environmental benefits of biomass integrated gasification combined cycle technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mínguez, María; Jiménez, Angel; Rodríguez, Javier; González, Celina; López, Ignacio; Nieto, Rafael

    2013-04-01

    The problem of the high carbon dioxide emissions linked to power generation makes necessary active research on the use of biofuels in gas turbine systems as a promising alternative to fossil fuels. Gasification of biomass waste is particularly of interest in obtaining a fuel to be run in gas turbines, as it is an efficient biomass-to-biofuel conversion process, and an integration into a combined cycle power plant leads to a high performance with regard to energetic efficiency. The goal of this study was to carry out an energetic, exergetic and environmental analysis of the behaviour of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant fuelled with different kinds of biomass waste by means of simulations. A preliminary economic study is also included. Although a technological development in gasification technology is necessary, the results of simulations indicate a high technical and environmental interest in the use of biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BioIGCC) systems for large-scale power generation from biomass waste.

  10. Zeolite synthesis: an energetic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwijnenburg, Martijn A; Bromley, Stefan T

    2010-11-21

    Taking |D(H(2)O)(x)|[AlSiO(4)] based materials (where D is Li, Na, K, Rb or Cs) as an archetypal aluminosilicate system, we use accurate density functional theory calculations to demonstrate how the substitution of silicon cations in silica, with pairs of aluminium and (alkali metal) cations, changes the energetic ordering of different competing structure-types. For large alkali metal cations we further show that the formation of porous aluminosilicate structures, the so-called zeolites, is energetically favored. These findings unequivocally demonstrate that zeolites can be energetic preferred reaction products, rather than being kinetically determined, and that the size of the (hydrated) cations in the pore, be it inorganic or organic, is critical for directing zeolite synthesis.

  11. Energetic materials at extreme conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millar, David I.A. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). EaStCHEM Research School of Chemistry

    2012-07-01

    This thesis describes the high-pressure structural behaviour of a series of energetic compounds that includes the widely used explosive RDX and gas generators such as sodium azide. Using a combination of X-ray and neutron diffraction techniques, crystal structures of these compounds have been obtained under conditions of elevated pressure and temperature. Such studies present significant technical challenges associated with both data collection and analysis, especially for compounds containing conformationally flexible molecules, but the structural information obtained is crucial for enhancing the understanding of the characteristics of energetic materials. Particularly significant is the observation that a high-pressure, high-temperature form of RDX may be recovered to ambient pressure. This has implications for the discovery of new forms of energetic materials that may exhibit enhanced properties, e.g. reduced sensitivity to accidental initiation. The rich high-pressure behaviour of the simple inorganic azides is also noteworthy. All of the six compounds studied in this work were found to undergo at least one phase transition and a total of ten polymorphs have been identified at variable pressure and/or temperature. For example, at high pressure sodium azide adopts the same structure observed for the larger alkali metal azides at atmospheric conditions. The first two chapters of this thesis provide a very accessible introduction to high-pressure research and energetic materials. The subsequent chapters detail the results of these high-pressure studies of energetic materials, demonstrating excellent clarity of expression and highly developed critical analysis. The final chapter points clearly to future opportunities for extending these studies to other energetic materials and for alternative methodologies for their structural modification. (orig.)

  12. Helioseismic Effects of Energetic Transients

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok Ambastha

    2008-03-01

    Photospheric and chromospheric signatures related to large, energetic transients such as flares and CMEs, have been extensively reported during the last several years. In addition, energetic solar transients are expected to cause helioseismic effects. Some of the recent results are reviewed here; in particular, the helioseismic effects of the powerful flares in superactive region, NOAA 10486, including the 4B/X17 superflare of October 28, 2003. We also examine the temporal variations of power in low- modes during the period May 1995–October 2005, and compare with daily, disk-integrated flare- and CME-indices to infer the effect of transients on the scale of whole solar disk.

  13. Shock Sensitivity of energetic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K.

    1980-01-01

    Viscoplastic deformation is examined as the principal source of hot energy. Some shock sensitivity data on a proposed model is explained. A hollow sphere model is used to approximate complex porous matrix of energetic materials. Two pieces of shock sensitivity data are qualitatively compared with results of the proposed model. The first is the p2 tau law. The second is the desensitization of energetic materials by a ramp wave applied stress. An approach to improve the model based on experimental observations is outlined.

  14. Routing of Electric Vehicles: Case Study of City Distribution in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, Esben; Larsen, Allan; Nørrelund, Anders Vedsted

    In Copenhagen, Denmark, the preliminary steps of introducing an Urban Consolidation Centre (UCC) in the perimeter of the city centre has been taken. By implementing a UCC, interests of customers and distributors, as well as improvement of the local urban environment are sought considered [1...... a tour. Furthermore, intelligent location of these recharging points is considered. The objective is to find a least cost plan for routing and recharging the vehicles so that each customer is serviced by exactly one vehicle within its time windows and the vehicle capacity and driving range constraints......]. The UCC service aims to consolidate urban freight, as well as implement additional aspects such as off-peak delivery and utilisation of alternatively fuelled vehicles. In the specific case of Copenhagen, a comprehensive traffic survey was conducted in May 2011. The aim of the survey was to estimate...

  15. Comparative study of cogasification and co-combustion of communal sewage sludge in brown coal fuelled plants; Vergleich der Mitvergasung und Mitverbrennung kommunaler Klaerschlaemme in braunkohlegefeuerten Anlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer, H.P.; Bierbaum, K.; Adlhoch, W.; Thomas, G. [Rheinbraun AG, Koeln (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Co-combustion and cogasification of sewage sludge in brown coal fuelled plants are compared, and an economic assessment is made. (ABI) [Deutsch] Die Mitverbrennung und Mitvergasung von Klaerschlamm in braunkohlegefeuerten Anlagen werden verglichen und auf ihre Wirtschaftlichkeit hin untersucht. (ABI)

  16. Comparing in Cylinder Pressure Modelling of a DI Diesel Engine Fuelled on Alternative Fuel Using Two Tabulated Chemistry Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngayihi Abbe, Claude Valery; Nzengwa, Robert; Danwe, Raidandi

    2014-01-01

    The present work presents the comparative simulation of a diesel engine fuelled on diesel fuel and biodiesel fuel. Two models, based on tabulated chemistry, were implemented for the simulation purpose and results were compared with experimental data obtained from a single cylinder diesel engine. The first model is a single zone model based on the Krieger and Bormann combustion model while the second model is a two-zone model based on Olikara and Bormann combustion model. It was shown that both models can predict well the engine's in-cylinder pressure as well as its overall performances. The second model showed a better accuracy than the first, while the first model was easier to implement and faster to compute. It was found that the first method was better suited for real time engine control and monitoring while the second one was better suited for engine design and emission prediction.

  17. A cycle simulation model for predicting the performance of a diesel engine fuelled by diesel and biodiesel blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gogoi, T.K. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Tezpur University, Napaam, Tezpur, Assam 784028 (India); Baruah, D.C. [Energy Department, Tezpur University, Napaam, Tezpur, Assam 784028 (India)

    2010-03-15

    Among the alternative fuels, biodiesel and its blends are considered suitable and the most promising fuel for diesel engine. The properties of biodiesel are found similar to that of diesel. Many researchers have experimentally evaluated the performance characteristics of conventional diesel engines fuelled by biodiesel and its blends. However, experiments require enormous effort, money and time. Hence, a cycle simulation model incorporating a thermodynamic based single zone combustion model is developed to predict the performance of diesel engine. The effect of engine speed and compression ratio on brake power and brake thermal efficiency is analysed through the model. The fuel considered for the analysis are diesel, 20%, 40%, 60% blending of diesel and biodiesel derived from Karanja oil (Pongamia Glabra). The model predicts similar performance with diesel, 20% and 40% blending. However, with 60% blending, it reveals better performance in terms of brake power and brake thermal efficiency. (author)

  18. Abandoned vehicles

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  19. The effect of EGR rates on NOX and smoke emissions of an IDI diesel engine fuelled with Jatropha biodiesel blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gomaa, A.J. Alimin, K.A. Kamarudin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The depletion of fossil fuels and the worst impact on environmental pollution caused of their burning have led to the search for renewable clean energies. Nowadays, there are many sources of renewable energy. Biodiesel is just one source, but a very important one. Biodiesel has been known as an attractive alternative fuel although biodiesel produced from edible oil is very expensive than conventional diesel. Therefore, the uses of biodiesel produced from non-edible oils are much better option. Currently Jatropha biodiesel (JBD is receiving attention as an alternative fuel for diesel engine. However, previous studies have reported that combustion of JBD emitted higher nitrogen oxides (NOX, while hydrocarbon (HC and smoke emissions were lower than conventional diesel fuel. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR is one of the techniques being used to reduce NOX emission from diesel engines; because it decreases both flame temperature and oxygen concentration in the combustion chamber. Some studies succeeded to reduce NOX emission from biodiesel fuelled engines using EGR; but they observed increase in smoke emission with increasing engine load and EGR rate. The aim of the present work is to investigate the effect of EGR on an indirect injection (IDI diesel engine fuelled with JBD blends in order to reduce NOX and smoke emissions. A 4-cylinder, water-cooled, turbocharged, IDI diesel engine was used for investigation. Smoke, NOX, carbon monoxide (CO and carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions were recorded and various engine performance parameters were also evaluated. The results showed that, at 5% EGR with JB5, both NOX and smoke opacity were reduced by 27% and 17% respectively. Furthermore, JB20 along with 10% EGR was also able to reduce both NOX and smoke emission by 36% and 31%, respectively compared to diesel fuel without EGR.

  20. Galaxy Zoo: the effect of bar-driven fuelling on the presence of an active galactic nucleus in disc galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Melanie A.; Willett, Kyle W.; Fortson, Lucy F.; Cardamone, Carolin N.; Schawinski, Kevin; Cheung, Edmond; Lintott, Chris J.; Masters, Karen L.; Melvin, Thomas; Simmons, Brooke D.

    2015-04-01

    We study the influence of the presence of a strong bar in disc galaxies which host an active galactic nucleus (AGN). Using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and morphological classifications from the Galaxy Zoo 2 project, we create a volume-limited sample of 19 756 disc galaxies at 0.01 < z < 0.05 which have been visually examined for the presence of a bar. Within this sample, AGN host galaxies have a higher overall percentage of bars (51.8 per cent) than inactive galaxies exhibiting central star formation (37.1 per cent). This difference is primarily due to known effects: that the presence of both AGN and galactic bars is strongly correlated with both the stellar mass and integrated colour of the host galaxy. We control for this effect by examining the difference in AGN fraction between barred and unbarred galaxies in fixed bins of mass and colour. Once this effect is accounted for, there remains a small but statistically significant increase that represents 16 per cent of the average barred AGN fraction. Using the L_{[O III]}/MBH ratio as a measure of AGN strength, we show that barred AGNs do not exhibit stronger accretion than unbarred AGNs at a fixed mass and colour. The data are consistent with a model in which bar-driven fuelling does contribute to the probability of an actively growing black hole, but in which other dynamical mechanisms must contribute to the direct AGN fuelling via smaller, non-axisymmetric perturbations.

  1. Does migratory distance affect fuelling in a medium-distance passerine migrant?: results from direct and step-wise simulated magnetic displacements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Ilieva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In birds, fat accumulation before and during migration has been shown to be endogenously controlled and tuned by, among other factors, the Earth's magnetic field. However, our knowledge about the influence of the geomagnetic field on the fuelling in migrating birds is still limited to just a few nocturnally migrating passerine species. In order to study if variations of the magnetic field can also influence the fuelling of both day- and night-migrating passerines, we caught first-year dunnocks (Prunella modularis and subjected them to three magnetic field conditions simulated by a system of magnetic coils: (1 local geomagnetic field of southern Sweden, (2 magnetic field corresponding to the centre of the expected wintering area, and (3 magnetic field met at the northern limit of the species' breeding distribution. We did not find a difference in mass increase between the birds kept in a local magnetic field and a field resembling their wintering area, irrespectively of the mode of magnetic displacement, i.e. direct or step-wise. However, the dunnocks magnetically displaced north showed a lower rate of fuelling in comparison to the control group, probably due to elevated activity. Compared with previous studies, our results suggest that the fuelling response to magnetic displacements during the migration period is specific to the eco-physiological situation. Future studies need to address if there is an effect of magnetic field manipulation on the level of migratory activity in dunnocks and how widespread the influence of local geomagnetic field parameters is on fuelling decisions in different bird species, which have different migratory strategies, distances and migration history.

  2. Energetic materials research using scanning electron microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elshout, J.J.M.H. van den; Duvalois, W.; Benedetto, G.L. Di; Bouma, R.H.B.; Heijden, A.E.D.M. van der

    2016-01-01

    A key-technique for the research of energetic materials is scanning electron microscopy. In this paper several examples are given of characterization studies on energetic materials, including a solid composite propellant formulation. Results of the characterization of energetic materials using scann

  3. Energetic materials research using scanning electron microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elshout, J.J.M.H. van den; Duvalois, W.; Benedetto, G.L. Di; Bouma, R.H.B.; Heijden, A.E.D.M. van der

    2016-01-01

    A key-technique for the research of energetic materials is scanning electron microscopy. In this paper several examples are given of characterization studies on energetic materials, including a solid composite propellant formulation. Results of the characterization of energetic materials using

  4. The location of energetic compartments affects energetic communication in cardiomyocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikke eBirkedal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The heart relies on accurate regulation of mitochondrial energy supply to match energy demand. The main regulators are Ca2+ and feedback of ADP and Pi. Regulation via feedback has intrigued for decades. First, the heart exhibits a remarkable metabolic stability. Second, diffusion of ADP and other molecules is restricted specifically in heart and red muscle, where a fast feedback is needed the most. To explain the regulation by feedback, compartmentalization must be taken into account. Experiments and theoretical approaches suggest that cardiomyocyte energetic compartmentalization is elaborate with barriers obstructing diffusion in the cytosol and at the level of the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM. A recent study suggests the barriers are organized in a lattice with dimensions in agreement with those of intracellular structures. Here, we discuss the possible location of these barriers. The more plausible scenario includes a barrier at the level of MOM. Much research has focused on how the permeability of MOM itself is regulated, and the importance of the creatine kinase system to facilitate energetic communication. We hypothesize that at least part of the diffusion restriction at the MOM level is not by MOM itself, but due to the close physical association between the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR and mitochondria. This will explain why animals with a disabled creatine kinase system exhibit rather mild phenotype modifications. Mitochondria are hubs of energetics, but also ROS production and signaling. The close association between SR and mitochondria may form a diffusion barrier to ADP added outside a permeabilised cardiomyocyte. But in vivo, it is the structural basis for the mitochondrial-SR coupling that is crucial for the regulation of mitochondrial Ca2+-transients to regulate energetics, and for avoiding Ca2+-overload and irreversible opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore.

  5. Hermes vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cretenet, J. C.

    1985-11-01

    The presence of Europe in the future developments of spatial programs, which are foreseen, for the 1990s and further, needs the availability of vehicles, modules and all related technologies adapted to operational use of low earth orbit station. The manned HERMES vehicle shall be part of the in-orbit infrastructure realized either in the European context or in cooperation between Europe and the United States. The main mission for this vehicle will be to run a shuttle with the station that means transport and change of the crews, its safe return in abort condition and cargo transport of consumable and experimental equipment. Secondary missions could be servicing on automatic platform, making autonomous scientific experiments. Lastly, the vehicle, by means of its on-board propulsion capability, could be used to accomplish in-orbit tow and assembly missions. Studies which are undertaken now about the vehicle are devoted to the aerodynamic shape (research of a compromise between aerothermic and overall fitting), the system (functional architecture, ground and flight configuration); further works dealing with technology are presently on hand in the field of thermal protection, aerodynamics, power generation with a high massic yield.

  6. electric vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. R. Lee

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A major problem facing battery-powered electric vehicles is in their batteries: weight and charge capacity. Thus, a battery-powered electric vehicle only has a short driving range. To travel for a longer distance, the batteries are required to be recharged frequently. In this paper, we construct a model for a battery-powered electric vehicle, in which driving strategy is to be obtained such that the total travelling time between two locations is minimized. The problem is formulated as an optimization problem with switching times and speed as decision variables. This is an unconventional optimization problem. However, by using the control parametrization enhancing technique (CPET, it is shown that this unconventional optimization is equivalent to a conventional optimal parameter selection problem. Numerical examples are solved using the proposed method.

  7. Hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, J.G.W. [Electrical Machines (United Kingdom)

    1997-07-01

    The reasons for adopting hybrid vehicles result mainly from the lack of adequate range from electric vehicles at an acceptable cost. Hybrids can offer significant improvements in emissions and fuel economy. Series and parallel hybrids are compared. A combination of series and parallel operation would be the ideal. This can be obtained using a planetary gearbox as a power split device allowing a small generator to transfer power to the propulsion motor giving the effect of a CVT. It allows the engine to run at semi-constant speed giving better fuel economy and reduced emissions. Hybrid car developments are described that show the wide range of possible hybrid systems. (author)

  8. An assessment of electric vehicles: technology, infrastructure requirements, greenhouse-gas emissions, petroleum use, material use, lifetime cost, consumer acceptance and policy initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delucchi, M A; Yang, C; Burke, A F; Ogden, J M; Kurani, K; Kessler, J; Sperling, D

    2014-01-13

    Concerns about climate change, urban air pollution and dependence on unstable and expensive supplies of foreign oil have led policy-makers and researchers to investigate alternatives to conventional petroleum-fuelled internal-combustion-engine vehicles in transportation. Because vehicles that get some or all of their power from an electric drivetrain can have low or even zero emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and urban air pollutants, and can consume little or no petroleum, there is considerable interest in developing and evaluating advanced electric vehicles (EVs), including pure battery-electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and hydrogen fuel-cell electric vehicles. To help researchers and policy-makers assess the potential of EVs to mitigate climate change and reduce petroleum use, this paper discusses the technology of EVs, the infrastructure needed for their development, impacts on emissions of GHGs, petroleum use, materials use, lifetime costs, consumer acceptance and policy considerations.

  9. Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Septon, Kendall K [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-11

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).

  10. Nano Engineered Energetic Materials (NEEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    reactivity of the nitro group. The more perpendicular orientation of the NO2 in p- NBA leaves both oxygen atoms available to complex vapor deposited Al...different solutes have been recorded in supercritical CO2 in the past, the information on the solubility of many energetic materials including RDX is...The pH level of the solution was monitored before and after to record the ionic activity of the solution. Different amounts of dispersant and

  11. Design of Energetic Ionic Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    design of energetic ILs, is the application of robust theoretical methods for the reliable prediction of IL heats of formation, synthesis routes, phase... synthesis of the next generation of monopropellants for rocket propulsion applications. 2. Computational Methods An integrated approach...bonded complex between the neutral 1,2,4- triazole and dinitramine molecules, as shown in Figure 1. An ion pair in the presence of a single water

  12. The energetics of bouncing droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turton, Sam; Molacek, Jan; Bush, John

    2016-11-01

    We present the results of a theoretical investigation of the energetics of droplets bouncing on the surface of a vertically vibrating bath. We first assess the relative magnitudes of the kinetic, surface and gravitational potential energies of both the droplet and its wave field. We then seek to rationalize the transitions between the various bouncing and walking states that arise as the vibrational forcing is increased. Our results are compared with prior theoretical and experimental work.

  13. Cardiac energetics: sense and nonsense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Colin L

    2003-08-01

    1. The background to current ideas in cardiac energetics is outlined and, in the genomic era, the need is stressed for detailed knowledge of mouse heart mechanics and energetics. 2. The mouse heart is clearly different to the rat in terms of its excitation-contraction (EC) coupling and the common assumption that heart rate difference between mice and humans will account for the eightfold difference in myocardial oxygen consumption is wrong, because the energy per beat of the mouse heart is approximately one-third that of the human heart. 3. In vivo evidence suggests that there may well be an eightfold species difference in the non-beating metabolism of mice and human hearts. It is speculated that the magnitude of basal metabolism in the heart is regulatable and that, in the absence of perfusion, it falls to approximately one-quarter of its in vivo rate and that in clinical conditions, such as hibernation, it probably decreases; its magnitude may be controlled by the endothelium. 4. The active energy balance sheet is briefly discussed and it is suggested that the activation heat accounts for 20-25% of the active energy per beat and cross-bridge turnover accounts for the balance. It is argued that force, not shortening, is the major determinant of cardiac energy usage. 5. The outcome of recent cardiac modelling with variants of the Huxley and Hill/Eisenberg models is described. It has been necessary to invoke 'loose coupling' to replicate the low cardiac energy flux measured at low afterloads (medium to high velocities of shortening). 6. Lastly, some of the unexplained or 'nonsense' energetic data are outlined and eight unsolved problems in cardiac energetics are discussed.

  14. Energetic ions in ITER plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinches, S. D. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Chapman, I. T.; Sharapov, S. E. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Lauber, Ph. W. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Boltzmanstraße 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Oliver, H. J. C. [H H Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Royal Fort, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Shinohara, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Tani, K. [Nippon Advanced Technology Co., Ltd, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0102 (Japan)

    2015-02-15

    This paper discusses the behaviour and consequences of the expected populations of energetic ions in ITER plasmas. It begins with a careful analytic and numerical consideration of the stability of Alfvén Eigenmodes in the ITER 15 MA baseline scenario. The stability threshold is determined by balancing the energetic ion drive against the dominant damping mechanisms and it is found that only in the outer half of the plasma (r/a>0.5) can the fast ions overcome the thermal ion Landau damping. This is in spite of the reduced numbers of alpha-particles and beam ions in this region but means that any Alfvén Eigenmode-induced redistribution is not expected to influence the fusion burn process. The influence of energetic ions upon the main global MHD phenomena expected in ITER's primary operating scenarios, including sawteeth, neoclassical tearing modes and Resistive Wall Modes, is also reviewed. Fast ion losses due to the non-axisymmetric fields arising from the finite number of toroidal field coils, the inclusion of ferromagnetic inserts, the presence of test blanket modules containing ferromagnetic material, and the fields created by the Edge Localised Mode (ELM) control coils in ITER are discussed. The greatest losses and associated heat loads onto the plasma facing components arise due to the use of the ELM control coils and come from neutral beam ions that are ionised in the plasma edge.

  15. Energetic ions in ITER plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinches, S. D.; Chapman, I. T.; Lauber, Ph. W.; Oliver, H. J. C.; Sharapov, S. E.; Shinohara, K.; Tani, K.

    2015-02-01

    This paper discusses the behaviour and consequences of the expected populations of energetic ions in ITER plasmas. It begins with a careful analytic and numerical consideration of the stability of Alfvén Eigenmodes in the ITER 15 MA baseline scenario. The stability threshold is determined by balancing the energetic ion drive against the dominant damping mechanisms and it is found that only in the outer half of the plasma ( r / a > 0.5 ) can the fast ions overcome the thermal ion Landau damping. This is in spite of the reduced numbers of alpha-particles and beam ions in this region but means that any Alfvén Eigenmode-induced redistribution is not expected to influence the fusion burn process. The influence of energetic ions upon the main global MHD phenomena expected in ITER's primary operating scenarios, including sawteeth, neoclassical tearing modes and Resistive Wall Modes, is also reviewed. Fast ion losses due to the non-axisymmetric fields arising from the finite number of toroidal field coils, the inclusion of ferromagnetic inserts, the presence of test blanket modules containing ferromagnetic material, and the fields created by the Edge Localised Mode (ELM) control coils in ITER are discussed. The greatest losses and associated heat loads onto the plasma facing components arise due to the use of the ELM control coils and come from neutral beam ions that are ionised in the plasma edge.

  16. Modelling of flame propagation in the gasoline fuelled Wankel rotary engine with hydrogen additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedyanov, E. A.; Zakharov, E. A.; Prikhodkov, K. V.; Levin, Y. V.

    2017-02-01

    Recently, hydrogen has been considered as an alternative fuel for a vehicles power unit. The Wankel engine is the most suitable to be adapted to hydrogen feeding. A hydrogen additive helps to decrease incompleteness of combustion in the volumes near the apex of the rotor. Results of theoretical researches of the hydrogen additives influence on the flame propagation in the combustion chamber of the Wankel rotary engine are presented. The theoretical research shows that the blend of 70% gasoline with 30% hydrogen could accomplish combustion near the T-apex in the stoichiometric mixture and in lean one. Maps of the flame front location versus the angle of rotor rotation and hydrogen fraction are obtained. Relations of a minimum required amount of hydrogen addition versus the engine speed are shown on the engine modes close to the average city driving cycle. The amount of hydrogen addition that could be injected by the nozzle with different flow sections is calculated in order to analyze the capacity of the feed system.

  17. Virtual Energetic Particle Observatory (VEPO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F.; Lal, Nand; McGuire, Robert E.; Szabo, Adam; Narock, Thomas W.; Armstrong, Thomas P.; Manweiler, Jerry W.; Patterson, J. Douglas; Hill, Matthew E.; Vandergriff, Jon D.; McKibben, Robert B.; Lopate, Clifford; Tranquille, Cecil

    2008-01-01

    The Virtual Energetic Particle Observatory (VEPO) focuses on improved discovery, access, and usability of heliospheric energetic particle and ancillary data products from selected spacecraft and sub-orbital instruments of the heliophysics data environment. The energy range of interest extends over the full range of particle acceleration from keV energies of suprathermal seed particles to GeV energies of galactic cosmic ray particles. Present spatial coverage is for operational and legacy spacecraft operating from the inner to the outer heliosphere, e.g. from measurements by the two Helios spacecraft to 0.3 AU to the inner heliosheath region now being traversed by the two Voyager spacecraft. This coverage will eventually be extended inward to ten solar radii by the planned NASA solar probe mission and at the same time beyond the heliopause into the outer heliosheath by continued Voyager operations. The geospace fleet of spacecraft providing near-Earth interplanetary measurements, selected magnetospheric spacecraft providing direct measurements of penetrating interplanetary energetic particles, and interplanetary cruise measurements from planetary spacecraft missions further extend VEPO resources to the domain of geospace and planetary interactions. Ground-based (e.g., neutron monitor) and high-altitude suborbital measurements can expand coverage to the highest energies of galactic cosmic rays affected by heliospheric interaction and of solar energetic particles. Science applications include investigation of solar flare and coronal mass ejection events. acceleration and transport of interplanetary particles within the inner heliosphere, cosmic ray interactions with planetary surfaces and atmospheres, sources of suprathermal and anomalous cosmic ray ions in the outer heliosphere, and solar cycle modulation of galactic cosmic rays. Robotic and human exploration, and eventual habitation, of planetary and space environments beyond the Earth require knowledge of radiation

  18. Carbonyl-bridged energetic materials: biomimetic synthesis, organic catalytic synthesis, and energetic performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yong-An; Qiu, Hao; Yang, Sa-Sha; Du, Jiang; Zhang, Tong-Lai

    2016-11-01

    In order to obtain high-performance energetic materials, in this work, carbonyl groups (C[double bond, length as m-dash]O) have been newly introduced as sole bridging groups in the field of energetic materials. To this end, two tailored green methods for the synthesis of carbonyl-bridged energetic compounds have been developed for the first time. One is a biomimetic synthesis, in which the conversion route of heme to biliverdin has been used to obtain metal-containing energetic compounds. The other one is an organocatalysis, in which guanidinium serves as an energetic catalyst to afford other energetic compounds. Experimental studies and theoretical calculations have shown that carbonyl-bridged energetic compounds exhibit excellent energetic properties, which is promising for the carbonyl group as a new important and effective linker in energetic materials.

  19. SPARC fast reactor design : Design of two passively safe metal-fuelled sodium-cooled pool-type small modular fast reactors with Autonomous Reactivity Control

    OpenAIRE

    Lindström, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    In this master thesis a small modular sodium-cooled metal-fuelled pool-type fast reactor design, called SPARC - Safe and Passive with Autonomous Reactivity control, has been designed. The long term reactivity changes in the SPARC are managed by implementation of the the Autonomous Reactivity Control (ARC) system, which is the novelty of the design. The overall design is mainly based on the Integral Fast Reactor project (IFR), which experimentally demonstrated the passive safety characteristic...

  20. Contrasting H-mode behaviour with deuterium fuelling and nitrogen seeding in the all-carbon and metallic versions of JET

    CERN Document Server

    Maddison, G P; Alper, B; Arnoux, G; Balboa, I; Beurskens, M N A; Boboc, A; Brezinsek, S; Brix, M; Clever, M; Coelho, R; Coenen, J W; Coffey, I; Belo, P C da Silva Aresta; Devaux, S; Devynck, P; Eich, T; Felton, R C; Flanagan, J; Frassinetti, L; Garzotti, L; Groth, M; Jachmich, S; Järvinen, A; Joffrin, E; Kempenaars, M A H; Kruezi, U; Lawson, K D; Lehnen, M; Leyland, M J; Liu, Y; Lomas, P J; Lowry, C G; Marsen, S; Matthews, G F; McCormick, G K; Meigs, A G; Morris, A W; Neu, R; Nunes, I M; Oberkofler, M; Rimini, F G; Saarelma, S; Sieglin, B; Sips, A C C; Sirinelli, A; Stamp, M F; van Rooij, G J; Ward, D J; Wischmeier, M; contributors, JET EFDA

    2014-01-01

    The former all-carbon wall on JET has been replaced with beryllium in the main torus and tungsten in the divertor to mimic the surface materials envisaged for ITER. Comparisons are presented between Type I H-mode characteristics in each design by examining respective scans over deuterium fuelling and impurity seeding, required to ameliorate exhaust loads both in JET at full capability and in ITER.

  1. Potential of renewable energy in large fossil-fuelled boilers; Potential erneuerbarer Energien in groesseren fossilen Feuerungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dettli, R.; Baur, M.; Philippen, D. [Econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Kernen, M. [Planair SA, La Sagne (Switzerland)

    2007-01-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the findings of a project that examined large heat generation systems used in Switzerland for the supply of heating services to several buildings via small and large district heating systems. Focus is placed on those using fossil fuels and the potential of using combined heat and power plants and renewable forms of energy such as heat-pumps and boilers fired with wood-chippings. The study was also extended to other large-scale, fossil-fuelled heating installations. The report discusses the setting up of a data base, the assessment of the potentials for fuel substitution, the economic viability of wood-fired systems and heat-pumps and the analysis of various factors that can obstruct the use of systems employing renewable forms of energy. Around 20 owners of large installations were interviewed on the subject. Strategic planning, studies, putting to tender, realisation and operation aspects are reviewed.

  2. Amination of energetic anions: high-performing energetic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapötke, Thomas M; Piercey, Davin G; Stierstorfer, Jörg

    2012-08-21

    The new energetic materials 2-amino-5-nitrotetrazole (ANT, 1), 1-amino-3,4-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole (ADNT, 2), and both 1,1'-diamino-5,5'-bistetrazole and 1,2'-diamino-5,5'-bistetrazole (11DABT, 3 and 12DABT, 4) have been prepared by the amination of the parent anion with O-tosylhydroxylamine. The 5-H-tetrazolate anion has also been aminated using hydroxylamine O-sulfonic acid to both 1-aminotetrazole and 2-aminotetrazole (1AT, 5 and 2AT, 6). The prepared materials have been characterized chemically (XRD (1-4, 6·AtNO(2), 8), multinuclear NMR, IR, Raman) and as explosives (mechanical and electrostatic sensitivity) and their explosive performances calculated using the EXPLO5 computer code. The prepared N-amino energetic materials, which can also be used as new ligands for high energy-capacity transition metal complexes, exhibit high explosive performances (in the range of hexogen and octogen) and a range of sensitivities from low to extremely high.

  3. Energetic particles in the heliosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Simnett, George M

    2017-01-01

    This monograph traces the development of our understanding of how and where energetic particles are accelerated in the heliosphere and how they may reach the Earth. Detailed data sets are presented which address these topics. The bulk of the observations are from spacecraft in or near the ecliptic plane. It is timely to present this subject now that Voyager-1 has entered the true interstellar medium. Since it seems unlikely that there will be a follow-on to the Voyager programme any time soon, the data we already have regarding the outer heliosphere are not going to be enhanced for at least 40 years.

  4. Nanoporous Silicon Based Energetic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    performed at SINTEF , Norway as shown in Figure 4 (line a). 3 Annealing PSi in air at different temperatures can be used to change the surface...3h (c)PSi annealed at 500C for 0.5 h (courtesy SINTEF ) e is C d magnification bright field TEM image of PSi-Fe2O3. The inset electron...Dr. Knut Thorshaug and Dr Diplos Spyros of SINTEF Norway for DRIFTS and XPS data. REFERENCES dvanced Energetics Materials, 2004; report byA ring

  5. Active interrogation using energetic protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, Christopher L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chung, Kiwhan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Greene, Steven J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hogan, Gary E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Makela, Mark [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mariam, Fesseha [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Milner, Edward C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Murray, Matthew [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Saunders, Alexander [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Spaulding, Randy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wang, Zhehui [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Waters, Laurie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wysocki, Frederick [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Energetic proton beams provide an attractive alternative when compared to electromagnetic and neutron beams for active interrogation of nuclear threats because they have large fission cross sections, long mean free paths and high penetration, and they can be manipulated with magnetic optics. We have measured time-dependent cross sections and neutron yields for delayed neutrons and gamma rays using 800 MeV and 4 GeV proton beams with a set of bare and shielded targets. The results show significant signals from both unshielded and shielded nuclear materials. Measurements of neutron energies yield suggest a signature unique to fissile material. Results are presented in this paper.

  6. Hosting anions. The energetic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidtchen, Franz P

    2010-10-01

    Hosting anions addresses the widely spread molecular recognition event of negatively charged species by dedicated organic compounds in condensed phases at equilibrium. The experimentally accessible energetic features comprise the entire system including the solvent, any buffers, background electrolytes or other components introduced for e.g. analysis. The deconvolution of all these interaction types and their dependence on subtle structural variation is required to arrive at a structure-energy correlation that may serve as a guide in receptor construction. The focus on direct host-guest interactions (lock-and-key complementarity) that have dominated the binding concepts of artificial receptors in the past must be widened in order to account for entropic contributions which constitute very significant fractions of the total free energy of interaction. Including entropy necessarily addresses the ambiguity and fuzziness of the host-guest structural ensemble and requires the appreciation of the fact that most liquid phases possess distinct structures of their own. Apparently, it is the perturbation of the intrinsic solvent structure occurring upon association that rules ion binding in polar media where ions are soluble and abundant. Rather than specifying peculiar structural elements useful in anion binding this critical review attempts an illumination of the concepts and individual energetic contributions resulting in the final observation of specific anion recognition (95 references).

  7. Energetic materials and methods of tailoring electrostatic discharge sensitivity of energetic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, Michael A.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Wallace, Ronald S.; Pantoya, Michelle L.; Collins, Eric S.

    2016-11-01

    An energetic material comprising an elemental fuel, an oxidizer or other element, and a carbon nanofiller or carbon fiber rods, where the carbon nanofiller or carbon fiber rods are substantially homogeneously dispersed in the energetic material. Methods of tailoring the electrostatic discharge sensitivity of an energetic material are also disclosed.

  8. Kinematics and energetics of swimming performance during acute warming in brown trout Salmo trutta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, J M D; Keen, A N; Nudds, R L; Shiels, H A

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how acute warming of water temperature affects the mechanical efficiency of swimming and aerobic capabilities of the brown trout Salmo trutta. Swimming efficiency was assessed using the relationship between swimming kinematics and forward speed (U), which is thought to converge upon an optimum range of a dimensionless parameter, the Strouhal number (St ). Swim-tunnel intermittent stopped-flow respirometry was used to record kinematics and measure oxygen consumption (ṀO2) of S. trutta during warming and swimming challenges. Salmo trutta maintained St between 0·2 and 0·3 at any given U over a range of temperatures, irrespective of body size. The maintenance of St within the range for maximum efficiency for oscillatory propulsion was achieved through an increase in tail-beat frequency (ftail) and a decrease in tail-beat amplitude (A) as temperature increased. Maintenance of efficient steady-state swimming was fuelled by aerobic metabolism, which increased as temperature increased up to 18° C but declined above this temperature, decreasing the apparent metabolic scope. As St was maintained over the full range of temperatures whilst metabolic scope was not, the results may suggest energetic trade-offs at any given U at temperatures above thermal optima.

  9. Destruction of Energetic Materials in Supercritical Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-06-25

    THERMOCHEMISTRY OF ENERGETIC MATERIALS IN SUPERCRITICAL WATER...fringe spacing is 13.5 µm and the acoustic signal period is 28.3 ns. 138 SECTION VI THERMOCHEMISTRY OF ENERGETIC MATERIALS IN...validation calculation studied the solvation free energies of alkali–chloride ion pairs in liquid water. Such information can teach us about the

  10. Energetic model of metal hardening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignatova O.N.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on Bailey hypothesis on the link between strain hardening and elastic lattice defect energy this paper suggests a shear strength energetic model that takes into consideration plastic strain intensity and rate as well as softening related to temperature annealing and dislocation annihilation. Metal strain hardening was demonstrated to be determined only by elastic strain energy related to the energy of accumulated defects. It is anticipated that accumulation of the elastic energy of defects is governed by plastic work. The suggested model has a reasonable agreement with the available experimental data for copper up to P = 70 GPa , for aluminum up to P = 10 GPa and for tantalum up to P = 20 GPa.

  11. Energetics and the immune system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiches, Meredith W.; Prentice, Andrew M.; Moore, Sophie E.; Ellison, Peter T.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background and objectives: The human immune system is an ever-changing composition of innumerable cells and proteins, continually ready to respond to pathogens or insults. The cost of maintaining this state of immunological readiness is rarely considered. In this paper we aim to discern a cost to non-acute immune function by investigating how low levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) relate to other energetic demands and resources in adolescent Gambian girls. Methodology: Data from a longitudinal study of 66 adolescent girls was used to test hypotheses around investment in immune function. Non-acute (under 2 mg/L) CRP was used as an index of immune function. Predictor variables include linear height velocity, adiposity, leptin, and measures of energy balance. Results: Non-acute log CRP was positively associated with adiposity (β = 0.16, P resources and demands. We also find support for an adaptive association between the immune system and adipose tissue. PMID:28003312

  12. Cosmic Ray Energetics and Mass

    CERN Document Server

    Baylon cardiel, J L; Wallace, K C; Anderson, T B; Copley, M

    The cosmic-ray energetics and mass (CREAM) investigation is designed to measure cosmic-ray composition to the supernova energy scale of 10$^{15}$ eV in a series of ultra long duration balloon (ULDB) flights. The first flight is planned to be launched from Antarctica in December 2004. The goal is to observe cosmic-ray spectral features and/or abundance changes that might signify a limit to supernova acceleration. The particle ($\\{Z}$) measurements will be made with a timing-based charge detector and a pixelated silicon charge detector to minimize the effect of backscatter from the calorimeter. The particle energy measurements will be made with a transition radiation detector (TRD) for $\\{Z}$ > 3 and a sampling tungsten/scintillator calorimeter for $\\{Z}$ $\\geq$1 particles, allowing inflight cross calibration of the two detectors. The status of the payload construction and flight preparation are reported in this paper.

  13. Observations and Modeling of Geospace Energetic Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinlin

    2016-07-01

    Comprehensive measurements of energetic particles and electric and magnetic fields from state-of-art instruments onboard Van Allen Probes, in a geo-transfer-like orbit, revealed new features of the energetic particles and the fields in the inner magnetosphere and impose new challenges to any quantitative modeling of the physical processes responsible for these observations. Concurrent measurements of energetic particles by satellites in highly inclined low Earth orbits and plasma and fields by satellites in farther distances in the magnetospheres and in the up stream solar wind are the critically needed information for quantitative modeling and for leading to eventual accurate forecast of the variations of the energetic particles in the magnetosphere. In this presentation, emphasis will be on the most recent advance in our understanding of the energetic particles in the magnetosphere and the missing links for significantly advance in our modeling and forecasting capabilities.

  14. Interchange mode excited by trapped energetic ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Seiya, E-mail: n-seiya@kobe-kosen.ac.jp [Kobe City College of Technology, Kobe, Hyogo 651-2194 (Japan)

    2015-07-15

    The kinetic energy principle describing the interaction between ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes with trapped energetic ions is revised. A model is proposed on the basis of the reduced ideal MHD equations for background plasmas and the bounce-averaged drift-kinetic equation for trapped energetic ions. The model is applicable to large-aspect-ratio toroidal devices. Specifically, the effect of trapped energetic ions on the interchange mode in helical systems is analyzed. Results show that the interchange mode is excited by trapped energetic ions, even if the equilibrium states are stable to the ideal interchange mode. The energetic-ion-induced branch of the interchange mode might be associated with the fishbone mode in helical systems.

  15. Femtosecond Laser Interaction with Energetic Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, E; Benterou, J; Lee, R; Roeske, F; Stuart, B

    2002-03-25

    Femtosecond laser ablation shows promise in machining energetic materials into desired shapes with minimal thermal and mechanical effects to the remaining material. We will discuss the physical effects associated with machining energetic materials and assemblies containing energetic materials, based on experimental results. Interaction of ultra-short laser pulses with matter will produce high temperature plasma at high-pressure which results in the ablation of material. In the case of energetic material, which includes high explosives, propellants and pyrotechnics, this ablation process must be accomplished without coupling energy into the energetic material. Experiments were conducted in order to characterize and better understand the phenomena of femtosecond laser pulse ablation on a variety of explosives and propellants. Experimental data will be presented for laser fluence thresholds, machining rates, cutting depths and surface quality of the cuts.

  16. Solar impulsive energetic electron events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linghua

    The Sun is capable of accelerating ions from ~ tens of keV up to tens of GeV and electrons from ~ tens of eV up to hundreds of MeVs in transient events such as flares and fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The energized particles escaping into the interplanetary medium are referred to as Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events. The great majority of SEP events are impulsive SEP events that are dominated by ~1-100 keV electrons and ~MeV/nucleon ion emissions, with enhanced 3 He/ 4 He ratios up to 10 4 times the coronal values (also called electron/ 3 He-rich SEP events). This thesis is focused on solar impulsive energetic electron events, the electron part of impulsive SEP events, using electron observations from the 3-D Plasma and Energetic Particle instrument (3DP) on the WIND spacecraft near the Earth. First, I present the first comprehensive statistical study of solar energetic electron events over almost one solar cycle. I find that the occurrence rate of solar electron events shows a strong solar-cycle variation; after correction for the background effect, the estimated occurrence frequency exhibits a good power-law distribution, and the estimated occurrence rate near the Earth is ~1000/year at solar maximum and ~30/year at solar minimum for the instrumental sensitivity (~2.9×10^-4 (cm 2 s str eV) -1 for the 40 keV channel) of WIND/3DP, about one order of magnitude larger than the observed occurrence rate. Solar energetic electron events have a one-to-one association with type III radio bursts and a poor association with flares, but a close association with 3 He- rich ion emissions. These 3 He-rich electron events also have a poor association with flares but a close (~ 60%) association with west-limb CMEs. Then I present two case studies: one investigating the temporal relationship between solar impulsive electrons and type III radio emissions, and the second studying the temporal relationship between solar impulsive electrons and 3 He- rich ions. For both

  17. Light-controlled propulsion, aggregation and separation of water-fuelled TiO2/Pt Janus submicromotors and their ``on-the-fly'' photocatalytic activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Fangzhi; Kong, Lei; Chen, Chuanrui; Chen, Zhihong; Xu, Leilei; Guan, Jianguo

    2016-02-01

    In this work, water-fuelled TiO2/Pt Janus submicromotors with light-controlled motions have been developed by utilizing the asymmetrical photocatalytic water redox reaction over TiO2/Pt Janus submicrospheres under UV irradiation. The motion state, speed, aggregation and separation behaviors of the TiO2/Pt Janus submicromotor can be reversibly, wirelessly and remotely controlled at will by regulating the ``on/off'' switch, intensity and pulsed/continuous irradiation mode of UV light. The motion of the water-fuelled TiO2/Pt Janus submicromotor is governed by light-induced self-electrophoresis under the local electrical field generated by the asymmetrical water oxidation and reduction reactions on its surface. The TiO2/Pt Janus submicromotors can interact with each other through the light-switchable electrostatic forces, and hence continuous and pulsed UV irradiation can make the TiO2/Pt Janus submicromotors aggregate and separate at will, respectively. Because of the enhanced mass exchange between the environment and active submicromotors, the separated TiO2/Pt Janus submicromotors powered by the pulsed UV irradiation show a much higher activity for the photocatalytic degradation of the organic dye than the aggregated TiO2/Pt submicromotors. The water-fuelled TiO2/Pt Janus submicromotors developed here have some outstanding advantages as ``swimming'' photocatalysts for organic pollutant remediation in the macro or microenvironment (microchannels and microwells in microchips) because of their small size, long-term stability, wirelessly controllable motion behaviors and long life span.In this work, water-fuelled TiO2/Pt Janus submicromotors with light-controlled motions have been developed by utilizing the asymmetrical photocatalytic water redox reaction over TiO2/Pt Janus submicrospheres under UV irradiation. The motion state, speed, aggregation and separation behaviors of the TiO2/Pt Janus submicromotor can be reversibly, wirelessly and remotely controlled at will by

  18. Global Energetics of Solar Flares: IV. Coronal Mass Ejection Energetics

    CERN Document Server

    Aschwanden, Markus J

    2016-01-01

    This study entails the fourth part of a global flare energetics project, in which the mass $m_{\\mathrm{cme}}$, kinetic energy $E_{\\mathrm{kin}}$, and the gravitational potential energy $E_{\\mathrm{grav}}$ of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) is measured in 399 M and X-class flare events observed during the first 3.5 yrs of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) mission, using a new method based on the EUV dimming effect. The EUV dimming is modeled in terms of a radial adiabatic expansion process, which is fitted to the observed evolution of the total emission measure of the CME source region. The model derives the evolution of the mean electron density, the emission measure, the bulk plasma expansion velocity, the mass, and the energy in the CME source region. The EUV dimming method is truly complementary to the Thomson scattering method in white light, which probes the CME evolution in the heliosphere at $r > 2 R_{\\odot}$, while the EUV dimming method tracks the CME launch in the corona. We compare the CME paramet...

  19. Energetic extremes in aquatic locomotion by coral reef fishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Fulton

    Full Text Available Underwater locomotion is challenging due to the high friction and resistance imposed on a body moving through water and energy lost in the wake during undulatory propulsion. While aquatic organisms have evolved streamlined shapes to overcome such resistance, underwater locomotion has long been considered a costly exercise. Recent evidence for a range of swimming vertebrates, however, has suggested that flapping paired appendages around a rigid body may be an extremely efficient means of aquatic locomotion. Using intermittent flow-through respirometry, we found exceptional energetic performance in the Bluelined wrasse Stethojulis bandanensis, which maintains tuna-like optimum cruising speeds (up to 1 metre s(-1 while using 40% less energy than expected for their body size. Displaying an exceptional aerobic scope (22-fold above resting, streamlined rigid-body posture, and wing-like fins that generate lift-based thrust, S. bandanensis literally flies underwater to efficiently maintain high optimum swimming speeds. Extreme energetic performance may be key to the colonization of highly variable environments, such as the wave-swept habitats where S. bandanensis and other wing-finned species tend to occur. Challenging preconceived notions of how best to power aquatic locomotion, biomimicry of such lift-based fin movements could yield dramatic reductions in the power needed to propel underwater vehicles at high speed.

  20. Energetic Extremes in Aquatic Locomotion by Coral Reef Fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Christopher J.; Johansen, Jacob L.; Steffensen, John F.

    2013-01-01

    Underwater locomotion is challenging due to the high friction and resistance imposed on a body moving through water and energy lost in the wake during undulatory propulsion. While aquatic organisms have evolved streamlined shapes to overcome such resistance, underwater locomotion has long been considered a costly exercise. Recent evidence for a range of swimming vertebrates, however, has suggested that flapping paired appendages around a rigid body may be an extremely efficient means of aquatic locomotion. Using intermittent flow-through respirometry, we found exceptional energetic performance in the Bluelined wrasse Stethojulis bandanensis, which maintains tuna-like optimum cruising speeds (up to 1 metre s−1) while using 40% less energy than expected for their body size. Displaying an exceptional aerobic scope (22-fold above resting), streamlined rigid-body posture, and wing-like fins that generate lift-based thrust, S. bandanensis literally flies underwater to efficiently maintain high optimum swimming speeds. Extreme energetic performance may be key to the colonization of highly variable environments, such as the wave-swept habitats where S. bandanensis and other wing-finned species tend to occur. Challenging preconceived notions of how best to power aquatic locomotion, biomimicry of such lift-based fin movements could yield dramatic reductions in the power needed to propel underwater vehicles at high speed. PMID:23326566

  1. Numerical Analyses of Energetic Particles in LHD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todo, Yasushi [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Japan; Murakami, S. [Kyoto University, Japan; Yamamoto, T. [Kyoto University, Japan; Fukuyama, A. [Kyoto University, Japan; Spong, Donald A [ORNL; Yamamoto, S. [Nagoya University, Japan; Osakabe, M. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Japan; Nakajima, N. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Japan

    2010-01-01

    The confinement of energetic ions generated by neutral beam injection (NBI) and ion cyclotron resonance frequency heating is studied using GNET simulation code, in which the drift kinetic equation is solved in five-dimensional phase-space. The steady-state distributions of the energetic ions are obtained, and characteristics of the energetic-ion distribution depending on the plasma heating method are shown. The magnetic configuration effect on the energetic-ion confinement is also investigated, and it is found that the energetic-ion confinement is improved by a strong inward shift of the magnetic axis position in the major radius direction. The interaction between energetic particles and Alfven eigenmodes are investigated using the MEGA code and the AE3D code. A reduced version of the MEGA code has been developed to simulate the Alfven eigenmode (AE) evolution in the Large Helical Device (LHD) plasma with NBI and collisions taken into account. The spatial profile and frequency of the AE modes in the LHD plasma are analyzed with the AE3D code. The evolution of energetic particles and AE mode amplitude and phase are followed in a self-consistent way, while the AE spatial profiles are assumed to be constant. It is demonstrated that the AE bursts can be simulated with the new code.

  2. Optimal design and operation of a syngas-fuelled SOFC micro CHP system for residential applications in different climate zones in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Wenyuan; Zhao, Yingru; Liso, Vincenzo; Brandon, Nigel

    2014-01-01

    Fuel cell based micro-CHP systems are expected to be one of the most promising technologies for implementation in the residential sector. Since the design and operation of such CHP systems are greatly dependent upon the seasonal atmospheric conditions, it is important to evaluate their performance under difference climate conditions to ensure that it is well matched with the local heat-to-power ratio. The aim of this study is to investigate the optimal design and operation of a syngas-fuelled...

  3. Vehicle Development Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports the development of prototype deployment platform vehicles for offboard countermeasure systems.DESCRIPTION: The Vehicle Development Laboratory is...

  4. Vehicle Development Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports the development of prototype deployment platform vehicles for offboard countermeasure systems. DESCRIPTION: The Vehicle Development Laboratory is...

  5. Fuelling the Nigerian economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oseni, T.

    1987-05-01

    A special report on the achievements of the Nigerian National Petroleum Corp. credits the merger of the Nigerian National Oil Corp. and the Ministry of Petroleum Resources as a step which revolutionized the industry has had a positive impact on the economy. A national corporation with close links to OPEC, it was charged with all aspects, from exploring to marketing, of petroleum development. The author describes activities, including joint ventures, which have led to new production and refining facilities and the diversification of the industry into petrochemicals. The impact on end-use applications will be to produce consumer items and improve the balance of trade. Government regulation includes inspections and oversight of performance of all operations, including environmental standards.

  6. Effects of Fuel Type and Fuel Delivery System on Pollutant Emissions of Pride and Samand Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Sarhadi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to study the effect of the type of fuel delivery system (petrol, dedicated or bifuel, the type of consumed fuel (petrol or gas, the portion of consumed fuel and also the duration of dual-fuelling in producing carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and unburned hydrocarbons from Pride and Samand. According to research objectives, data gathering from 2000 vehicles has been done by visiting Hafiz Vehicle Inspection Center every day for 2 months. The results of this survey indicated that although there is no significant difference between various fuel delivery systems in terms of producing the carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and unburned hydrocarbons by Samand, considering the emission amount of carbon dioxide, the engine performance of Pride in bifuel and dedicated state in GTXI and 132 types is more unsatisfactory than that of petrol state by 0.3 and 0.4%, respectively. On the other hand, consuming natural gas increases the amount of carbon monoxide emission in dual- fuel Pride by 0.18% and decreases that in dual-fuel Samand by 1.2%, which signifies the better design of Samand in terms of fuel pumps, used kit type and other engine parts to use this alternative fuel compared to Pride. Since the portion of consumed fuel and also duration of dual-fuelling does not have a significant effect on the amount of output pollutants from the studied vehicles, it can be claimed that the output substances from the vehicle exhaust are more related to the vehicle’s condition than the fuel type.

  7. Energetic salt of trinitrophloroglucinol and melamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Patrick R.; Leonard, Philip W.; Lichthardt, Joseph P.; Tappan, Bryce C.; Ramos, Kyle J.

    2017-01-01

    We hope to harness the field of energetic co-crystals for development of insensitive, high-performing explosives. As demonstrated by other groups, co-crystals of energetic materials are diverse in their resultant properties versus the native materials. Herein, we discuss the synthesis, characterization, and testing of an energetic co-crystal of trinitrophloroglucinol (1,3,5-trihydroxy-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene) and melamine. Although melamine is not an energetic material, high nitrogen content and insensitivity can be of benefit in a co-crystal. Currently, trinitrophloroglucinol (TNPG) and melamine have been found to exist as a 1:1 ionic co-crystal. Characterization by NMR, IR, small-scale sensitivity, thermal stability and powder X-ray diffraction have all been used to characterize the individual compounds as well as the co-crystals developed.

  8. Safer energetic materials by a nanotechnological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegert, Benny; Comet, Marc; Spitzer, Denis

    2011-09-01

    Energetic materials - explosives, thermites, populsive powders - are used in a variety of military and civilian applications. Their mechanical and electrostatic sensitivity is high in many cases, which can lead to accidents during handling and transport. These considerations limit the practical use of some energetic materials despite their good performance. For industrial applications, safety is one of the main criteria for selecting energetic materials. The sensitivity has been regarded as an intrinsic property of a substance for a long time. However, in recent years, several approaches to lower the sensitivity of a given substance, using nanotechnology and materials engineering, have been described. This feature article gives an overview over ways to prepare energetic (nano-)materials with a lower sensitivity.

  9. Global Positioning System (GPS) Energetic Particle Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Energetic particle data from the CXD and BDD instrument on the GPS constellation are available to the space weather research community. The release of these data...

  10. Cyanuric Acid/Epichlorohydrin Energetic Prepolymers

    OpenAIRE

    Pedroso, Luís M.; Simões, Pedro; Portugal, António

    2005-01-01

    In this work new energetic prepolymers are synthesised and characterised. The structure of the prepolymers exhibits the 1,3,5-s-triazine ring with lateral chains derived from the epichlorohydrin ring opening. The chlorine atoms in these precursors are here substituted by azido groups. The presence of these groups was confirmed by FTIR and 1H NMR spectroscopy and elemental and thermal analysis. OH group content in the energetic prepolymers was found slightly lower than expected having in view ...

  11. Energetic tuning in spirocyclic conjugated polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Hugo Bronstein; Frank D. King

    2016-01-01

    Precise control of the energy levels in a conjugated polymer is the key to allowing their exploitation in optoelectronic devices. The introduction of spirocycles into conjugated polymers has traditionally been used to enhance their solid state microstructure. Here we present a highly novel method of energetic tuning through the use of electronically active spirocyclic systems. By modifying the size and oxidation state of a heteroatom in an orthogonal spirocycle we demonstrate energetic fine t...

  12. Feasibility of a Dual-Fuel Engine Fuelled with Waste Vegetable Oil and Municipal Organic Fraction for Power Generation in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. De Simio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass, in form of residues and waste, can be used to produce energy with low environmental impact. It is important to use the feedstock close to the places where waste are available, and with the shortest conversion pathway, to maximize the process efficiency. In particular waste vegetable oil and the organic fraction of municipal solid waste represent a good source for fuel production in urban areas. Dual fuel engines could be taken into consideration for an efficient management of these wastes. In fact, the dual fuel technology can achieve overall efficiencies typical of diesel engines with a cleaner exhaust emission. In this paper the feasibility of a cogeneration system fuelled with waste vegetable oil and biogas is discussed and the evaluation of performance and emissions is reported on the base of experimental activities on dual fuel heavy duty engine in comparison with diesel and spark ignition engines. The ratio of biogas potential from MSW and biodiesel potential from waste vegetable oil was estimated and it results suitable for dual fuel fuelling. An electric power installation of 70 kW every 10,000 people could be achieved.

  13. Analysis of unprotected transients with control and safety rod drive mechanism expansion feedback in a medium sized oxide fuelled fast breeder reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathiyasheela, T., E-mail: sheela@igcar.gov.in; Natesan, K.; Srinivasan, G.S.; Devan, K.; Puthiyavinayagam, P.

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Possibilities of enhancing safety under ULOF and UTOP accidents. • CSRDM expansion feedbacks under unprotected transients. • CSRDM expansion feedback enhances the safety of fast reactors. • CSRDM expansion feedbacks ensuring enough time for initiating safety actions. - Abstract: Possibilities of enhancing core safety under unprotected loss of flow (ULOF) and unprotected transient over power (UTOP) accidents with control and safety rod drive mechanism (CSRDM) expansion feedbacks are explored in a medium sized oxide fuelled fast breeder reactor. This feedback is expected to take the reactor to a safe shutdown under ULOF and to an another steady state under UTOP where there is no significant fuel melting. Under ULOF, with CSRDM feedback net reactivity was maintained negative throughout the transient (up to 2000 s) and the power dropped to a level of heat removal capacity of decay heat removal system based on natural circulation. Similarly, under UTOP with the above feedback reactor power goes to a lower peak value. The fuel temperature is just touching the melting temperature and the melt fraction does not cross 5%. With CSRDM expansion feedbacks both ULOF and UTOP transients prolong beyond 2000 s. It ensures, availability of time for initiating any safety actions against the transients, and thus it helps to preclude core disruptive accidents (CDA) in a medium sized oxide fuelled reactors.Classification: L. safety and risk analysis.

  14. Thermodynamic Performance Analysis of a Biogas-Fuelled Micro-Gas Turbine with a Bottoming Organic Rankine Cycle for Sewage Sludge and Food Waste Treatment Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunhee Kim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the Republic of Korea, efficient biogas-fuelled power systems are needed to use the excess biogas that is currently burned due to a lack of suitable power technology. We examined the performance of a biogas-fuelled micro-gas turbine (MGT system and a bottoming organic Rankine cycle (ORC. The MGT provides robust operation with low-grade biogas, and the exhaust can be used for heating the biodigester. Similarly, the bottoming ORC generates additional power output with the exhaust gas. We selected a 1000-kW MGT for four co-digestion plants with 28,000-m3 capacity. A 150-kW ORC system was selected for the MGT exhaust gas. We analysed the effects of the system size, methane concentration, and ORC operating conditions. Based on the system performance, we analysed the annual performance of the MGT with a combined heat and power (CHP system, bottoming ORC, or both a bottoming ORC and CHP system. The annual net power outputs for each system were 7.4, 8.5, and 9.0 MWh per year, respectively.

  15. Theoretical studies on nitrogen rich energetic azoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghule, Vikas Dasharath; Sarangapani, Radhakrishnan; Jadhav, Pandurang M; Tewari, Surya P

    2011-06-01

    Different nitro azole isomers based on five membered heterocyclics were designed and investigated using computational techniques in order to find out the comprehensive relationships between structure and performances of these high nitrogen compounds. Electronic structure of the molecules have been calculated using density functional theory (DFT) and the heat of formation has been calculated using the isodesmic reaction approach at B3LYP/6-31G* level. All designed compounds show high positive heat of formation due to the high nitrogen content and energetic nitro groups. The crystal densities of these energetic azoles have been predicted with different force fields. All the energetic azoles show densities higher than 1.87 g/cm(3). Detonation properties of energetic azoles are evaluated by using Kamlet-Jacobs equation based on the calculated densities and heat of formations. It is found that energetic azoles show detonation velocity about 9.0 km/s, and detonation pressure of 40GPa. Stability of the designed compounds has been predicted by evaluating the bond dissociation energy of the weakest C-NO(2) bond. The aromaticity using nucleus independent chemical shift (NICS) is also explored to predict the stability via delocalization of the π-electrons. Charge on the nitro group is used to assess the impact sensitivity in the present study. Overall, the study implies that all energetic azoles are found to be stable and expected to be the novel candidates of high energy density materials (HEDMs).

  16. Structure of Energetic Particle Mediated Shocks Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafavi, P.; Zank, G. P.; Webb, G. M.

    2017-05-01

    The structure of collisionless shock waves is often modified by the presence of energetic particles that are not equilibrated with the thermal plasma (such as pickup ions [PUIs] and solar energetic particles [SEPs]). This is relevant to the inner and outer heliosphere and the Very Local Interstellar Medium (VLISM), where observations of shock waves (e.g., in the inner heliosphere) show that both the magnetic field and thermal gas pressure are less than the energetic particle component pressures. Voyager 2 observations revealed that the heliospheric termination shock (HTS) is very broad and mediated by energetic particles. PUIs and SEPs contribute both a collisionless heat flux and a higher-order viscosity. We show that the incorporation of both effects can completely determine the structure of collisionless shocks mediated by energetic ions. Since the reduced form of the PUI-mediated plasma model is structurally identical to the classical cosmic ray two-fluid model, we note that the presence of viscosity, at least formally, eliminates the need for a gas sub-shock in the classical two-fluid model, including in that regime where three are possible. By considering parameters upstream of the HTS, we show that the thermal gas remains relatively cold and the shock is mediated by PUIs. We determine the structure of the weak interstellar shock observed by Voyager 1. We consider the inclusion of the thermal heat flux and viscosity to address the most general form of an energetic particle-thermal plasma two-fluid model.

  17. A proposed model of factors influencing hydrogen fuel cell vehicle acceptance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanina, N. H. Noor; Kwe Lu, Tan; Fadhilah, A. R.

    2016-03-01

    Issues such as environmental problem and energy insecurity keep worsening as a result of energy use from household to huge industries including automotive industry. Recently, a new type of zero emission vehicle, hydrogen fuel cell vehicle (HFCV) has received attention. Although there are argues on the feasibility of hydrogen as the future fuel, there is another important issue, which is the acceptance of HFCV. The study of technology acceptance in the early stage is a vital key for a successful introduction and penetration of a technology. This paper proposes a model of factors influencing green vehicle acceptance, specifically HFCV. This model is built base on two technology acceptance theories and other empirical studies of vehicle acceptance. It aims to provide a base for finding the key factors influencing new sustainable energy fuelled vehicle, HFCV acceptance which is achieved by explaining intention to accept HFCV. Intention is influenced by attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control from Theory of Planned Behaviour and personal norm from Norm Activation Theory. In the framework, attitude is influenced by perceptions of benefits and risks, and social trust. Perceived behavioural control is influenced by government interventions. Personal norm is influenced by outcome efficacy and problem awareness.

  18. Assessment of the energetics of human labor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giampietro, M. (Istituto Nazionale della Nutrizione, Rome (Italy)); Pimentel, D. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (USA))

    1990-10-01

    The energetic analysis of farming systems implies an assessment of the energetics of human labor. The energy cost of 1 h of human labor is generally estimated according to its physiological requirement (the hierarchical level at which the assessment is made is at the individual level). A different way of describing the interaction between human society and the ecosystem is presented (assessment referred to the society level). The shift from the individual level to the societal level provides a new perspective when assessing the energetic efficiency of farming. For example, the power level of the system becomes a new and important parameter to consider. Numerical examples illustrate the proposed approach. 4 figs., 12 refs., 1 tab.

  19. Energetic Tuning in Spirocyclic Conjugated Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Bronstein

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Precise control of the energy levels in a conjugated polymer is the key to allowing their exploitation in optoelectronic devices. The introduction of spirocycles into conjugated polymers has traditionally been used to enhance their solid state microstructure. Here we present a highly novel method of energetic tuning through the use of electronically active spirocyclic systems. By modifying the size and oxidation state of a heteroatom in an orthogonal spirocycle we demonstrate energetic fine tuning in both the absorption and emission of a conjugated polymer. Furthermore, the synthesis of highly novel triplet-decker spirocyclic conjugated polymers is presented. This new method of energetic manipulation in a conjugated polymer paves the way for future application targeted synthesis of polymers with electronically active spirocycles.

  20. Spin foam models as energetic causal sets

    CERN Document Server

    Cortês, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Energetic causal sets are causal sets endowed by a flow of energy-momentum between causally related events. These incorporate a novel mechanism for the emergence of space-time from causal relations. Here we construct a spin foam model which is also an energetic causal set model. This model is closely related to the model introduced by Wieland, and this construction makes use of results used there. What makes a spin foam model also an energetic causal set is Wieland's identification of new momenta, conserved at events (or four-simplices), whose norms are not mass, but the volume of tetrahedra. This realizes the torsion constraints, which are missing in previous spin foam models, and are needed to relate the connection dynamics to those of the metric, as in general relativity. This identification makes it possible to apply the new mechanism for the emergence of space-time to a spin foam model.

  1. Energetic particle pressure in intense ESP events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lario, D.; Decker, R. B.; Roelof, E. C.; Viñas, A.-F.

    2015-09-01

    We study three intense energetic storm particle (ESP) events in which the energetic particle pressure PEP exceeded both the pressure of the background thermal plasma Pth and the pressure of the magnetic field PB. The region upstream of the interplanetary shocks associated with these events was characterized by a depression of the magnetic field strength coincident with the increase of the energetic particle intensities and, when plasma measurements were available, a depleted solar wind density. The general feature of cosmic-ray mediated shocks such as the deceleration of the upstream background medium into which the shock propagates is generally observed. However, for those shocks where plasma parameters are available, pressure balance is not maintained either upstream of or across the shock, which may result from the fact that PEP is not included in the calculation of the shock parameters.

  2. Energetic deposition of thin metal films

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Busaidy, M S K

    2001-01-01

    deposited films. The primary aim of this thesis was to study the physical effect of energetic deposition metal thin films. The secondary aim is to enhance the quality of the films produced to a desired quality. Grazing incidence X-ray reflectivity (GIXR) measurements from a high-energy synchrotron radiation source were carried out to study and characterise the samples. Optical Profilers Interferometery, Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), Medium energy ion spectroscopy (MEIS), and the Electron microscope studies were the other main structural characterisation tools used. AI/Fe trilayers, as well as multilayers were deposited using a Nordico planar D.C. magnetron deposition system at different voltage biases and pressures. The films were calibrated and investigated. The relation between energetic deposition variation and structural properties was intensely researched. Energetic deposition refers to the method in which the deposited species possess higher kinetic energy and impact ...

  3. Reapplication of energetic materials at fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, L.; Sinquefield, S.; Huey, S.; Lipkin, J.; Shah, D.; Ross, J.; Sclippa, G. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Davis, K. [Reaction Engineering Internaional, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1995-05-01

    This investigation addresses the combustion-related aspects of the reapplication of energetic materials as fuels in boilers as an economically viable and environmentally acceptable use of excess energetic materials. The economics of this approach indicate that the revenues from power generation and chemical recovery approximately equal the costs of boiler modification and changes in operation. The primary tradeoff is the cost of desensitizing the fuels against the cost of open burn/open detonation (OB/OD) or other disposal techniques. Two principal combustion-related obstacles to the use of energetic-material-derived fuels are NO{sub x} generation and the behavior of metals. NO{sub x} measurements obtained in this investigation indicate that the nitrated components (nitrocellulose, nitroglycerin, etc.) of energetic materials decompose with NO{sub x} as the primary product. This can lead to high uncontrolled NO{sub x} levels (as high as 2600 ppM on a 3% O{sub 2} basis for a 5% blend of energetic material in the fuel). NO{sub x} levels are sensitive to local stoichiometry and temperature. The observed trends resemble those common during the combustion of other nitrogen containing fuels. Implications for NO{sub x} control strategies are discussed. The behavior of inorganic components in energetic materials tested in this investigation could lead to boiler maintenance problems such as deposition, grate failure, and bed agglomeration. The root cause of the problem is the potentially extreme temperature generated during metal combustion. Implications for furnace selection and operation are discussed.

  4. Optimal Design and Operation of A Syngas-fuelled SOFC Micro-CHP System for Residential Applications in Different Climate Zones in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Wenyuan; Liso, Vincenzo; Zhao, Yingru

    2013-01-01

    demand. Numerical simulations are conducted in Matlab environment. System design trade-offs are discussed to determine the optimal match between the energy demand of the household for different climates across China and the energy supply of the micro-CHP during the whole year. Moreover, criteria......Energy consumption in residential sector can be considerably reduced by enhancing the efficiency of energy supply. Fuel cell-based residential micro-CHP systems are expected to be one of the most promising technologies because of their high efficiency and low environmental impact. Since the design...... heat-to-power load ratio. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the optimal design and operation of a syngas-fuelled SOFC micro-CHP system for small households located in five different climate zones in China. The ability of the micro-CHP to cover the heat and electricity demand of a 70m2...

  5. 天然气燃料动力船燃料加注模式研究%Research on Bunkering Mode of Natural Gas-fuelled Ship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石国政; 张晖; 范洪军

    2013-01-01

    针对天然气燃料加注方案,分析国内外船舶天然气燃料加注的现状、主要加注模式及其特点。结合我国内河水域的特点,提出适合我国天然气燃料动力船加注模式的建议。%The bunkering modes for natural gas fuel were taken as the research object .The bunkering situation on the do-mestic and international ships was analyzed , as well as the current principal bunkering modes and their features .Some sugges-tions on the bunkering modes applying to Chinese natural gas fuelled ships were put forward in light of the special features of Chi -nese inland waterways .

  6. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS OF REAL TIME SECONDARY CO-INJECTION OF WATER – DIETHYL ETHER SOLUTION IN DI-DIESEL ENGINE FUELLED WITH PALM KERNEL METHYL ESTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. V. SATYANARAYANAMURTHY

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation tests were conducted on single cylinder diesel engine fuelled with neat diesel and biodiesel palm kernel methyl ester as a base line fuel with secondary injection of Water-DEE solution through the inlet manifold. A real time control systems consists of electronic unit pump that delivers 5% to 25% vol. Water-DEE solution through injector tip mounted nearer to the inlet manifold under a pressure of 3 kgf/cm2. NOx emissions reduced to a level of 500 ppm with simultaneous reduction of soot especially for PKME. However for 15% vol. of Water-DEE injection the HC emissions are closely tallying with that of neat diesel. A global overview of the results has shown that the 15% Water-DEE solution is the optimal blend based on performance and emission characteristics.

  7. Device for Detecting highly energetic photons

    OpenAIRE

    Chemissani Road, Mokhtar; Álvarez Pastor, José; Sánchez Sánchez, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    A device (10) for detecting highly energetic photons, comprising one or more pixelated solid-state detectors (11) for detecting the highly energetic photons; means for providing a high voltage for polarizing said solid-state detectors; one or more pixelated readout elements (30), a readout element being connected to each of said one or more pixelated solid-state detectors (11); an input/output element (12) connected to said readout elements (30) for data input and output; and a base layer (13...

  8. Effects of fuel processing methods on industrial scale biogas-fuelled solid oxide fuel cell system for operating in wastewater treatment plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhad, Siamak; Yoo, Yeong; Hamdullahpur, Feridun

    The performance of three solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems, fuelled by biogas produced through anaerobic digestion (AD) process, for heat and electricity generation in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is studied. Each system has a different fuel processing method to prevent carbon deposition over the anode catalyst under biogas fuelling. Anode gas recirculation (AGR), steam reforming (SR), and partial oxidation (POX) are the methods employed in systems I-III, respectively. A planar SOFC stack used in these systems is based on the anode-supported cells with Ni-YSZ anode, YSZ electrolyte and YSZ-LSM cathode, operated at 800 °C. A computer code has been developed for the simulation of the planar SOFC in cell, stack and system levels and applied for the performance prediction of the SOFC systems. The key operational parameters affecting the performance of the SOFC systems are identified. The effect of these parameters on the electrical and CHP efficiencies, the generated electricity and heat, the total exergy destruction, and the number of cells in SOFC stack of the systems are studied. The results show that among the SOFC systems investigated in this study, the AGR and SR fuel processor-based systems with electrical efficiency of 45.1% and 43%, respectively, are suitable to be applied in WWTPs. If the entire biogas produced in a WWTP is used in the AGR or SR fuel processor-based SOFC system, the electricity and heat required to operate the WWTP can be completely self-supplied and the extra electricity generated can be sold to the electrical grid.

  9. Electric Vehicle Charging Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Grahn, Pia

    2014-01-01

    With an electrified passenger transportation fleet, carbon dioxide emissions could be reduced significantly depending on the electric power production mix. Increased electric power consumption due to electric vehicle charging demands of electric vehicle fleets may be met by increased amount of renewable power production in the electrical systems. With electric vehicle fleets in the transportation system there is a need for establishing an electric vehicle charging infrastructure that distribu...

  10. Electric Vehicle Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Pam

    2011-01-01

    With President Obama's goal to have one million electric vehicles (EV) on the road by 2015, the electric vehicle technician should have a promising and busy future. "The job force in the car industry is ramping up for a revitalized green car industry," according to Greencareersguide.com. An electric vehicle technician will safely troubleshoot and…

  11. Road-rail vehicle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, J.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    A transport vehicle equipped with a number of first wheel sets, having wheels provided with tires, to which steering means and driving means, if any, are coupled to enable the transport vehicle to be moved over a road surface. The transport vehicle further comprises at least one second wheel set, ha

  12. Electric vehicles: Driving range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, Willett

    2016-09-01

    For uptake of electric vehicles to increase, consumers' driving-range needs must be fulfilled. Analysis of the driving patterns of personal vehicles in the US now shows that today's electric vehicles can meet all travel needs on almost 90% of days from a single overnight charge.

  13. Vehicle chassis monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisu, P.; Soliman, A.; Rizzoni, G. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus (United States). Center for Automotive Research

    2001-07-01

    Fault detection and isolation is becoming one of the most important aspects in vehicle control system design. In order to achieve this FDI schemes, particular vehicle subsystems integrated with a controller have been proposed. This paper introduces a new model-based fault detection and fault diagnosis method for monitoring the vehicle chassis performance. (orig.)

  14. Electric Vehicle Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Pam

    2011-01-01

    With President Obama's goal to have one million electric vehicles (EV) on the road by 2015, the electric vehicle technician should have a promising and busy future. "The job force in the car industry is ramping up for a revitalized green car industry," according to Greencareersguide.com. An electric vehicle technician will safely troubleshoot and…

  15. Automotive vehicle sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheen, S.H.; Raptis, A.C.; Moscynski, M.J.

    1995-09-01

    This report is an introduction to the field of automotive vehicle sensors. It contains a prototype data base for companies working in automotive vehicle sensors, as well as a prototype data base for automotive vehicle sensors. A market analysis is also included.

  16. Investigation on used oil and engine components of vehicles road test using twenty percent Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (B20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihwan Haryono, Muhammad Ma’ruf, Hari Setiapraja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Indonesian government has mandated to utilize biodiesel at the Indonesian market with blend ratio of 20% biodiesel and 80% diesel fuel (B20. This policy bring car manufacturers concerning in using B20 effect on the engine life time. To evaluate the effect of using B20 on engine components, vehicles road test has been done along 40,000 KM. The test was using three brands of vehicles, in which each brand was composed of two identical vehicles fuelled by B20 FAME fuel and pure diesel fuel (B0 (solar. During the road test at certain intervals in accordance with the manufacturer's maintenance recommendations, the vehicles lubricating oil replacement and other routine maintenance were required. At the completion of the test all test vehicles to be dismantled and the engine components inspected. The test results show that the most parameter of used oil lubricants still in the limits. Likewise, the condition of the vehicles engine components did not show significant difference between using the pure diesel or B20.

  17. Combustion Instabilities in Liquid-Fuelled Propulsion Systems: Conference Proceedings of the Propulsion and Energetics Panel (72nd) B specialists Meeting Held in Bath (England) on 6-7 October 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-01

    Vol. 3, pp. 714-757. Dipprey, D.F. (1972) "Liquid Propellant Rockets," in Chemistry in Space Research (R.F. Landel and A. Rem- baum, Ed.), Amnrican...Priemtlanga avec un Tourbillon, La Recherche A~rospatiale, n𔃽, pp. 13,28, 1988. 92 ]HUGHES. W. F., BRIGHTON, J. A. -Fluid Dynamics, Schaums ’ Outlines...Approaches to controlling the combustion instability as well as additional parametric studies of the effects of chemistry are currently being petsued. In

  18. Energetic utilization of dietary fiber in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnen, M.M.J.A.

    2003-01-01

    The energetic utilization of fermentable dietary fiber (fDF) of different fiber sources and its relation to physical activity and housing conditions was studied in three experiments. In all experiments the daily intake of digestible nutrients, nitrogen and energy balances, heat production, and activ

  19. Energetics of the Semiconductor-Electrolyte Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, John A.

    1983-01-01

    The use of semiconductors as electrodes for electrochemistry requires an understanding of both solid-state physics and electrochemistry, since phenomena associated with both disciplines are seen in semiconductor/electrolyte systems. The interfacial energetics of these systems are discussed. (JN)

  20. Error propagation in energetic carrying capacity models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, Aaron T.; Stafford, Joshua D.

    2014-01-01

    Conservation objectives derived from carrying capacity models have been used to inform management of landscapes for wildlife populations. Energetic carrying capacity models are particularly useful in conservation planning for wildlife; these models use estimates of food abundance and energetic requirements of wildlife to target conservation actions. We provide a general method for incorporating a foraging threshold (i.e., density of food at which foraging becomes unprofitable) when estimating food availability with energetic carrying capacity models. We use a hypothetical example to describe how past methods for adjustment of foraging thresholds biased results of energetic carrying capacity models in certain instances. Adjusting foraging thresholds at the patch level of the species of interest provides results consistent with ecological foraging theory. Presentation of two case studies suggest variation in bias which, in certain instances, created large errors in conservation objectives and may have led to inefficient allocation of limited resources. Our results also illustrate how small errors or biases in application of input parameters, when extrapolated to large spatial extents, propagate errors in conservation planning and can have negative implications for target populations.

  1. Energetics of geostrophic adjustment in rotating flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Fang; Rongsheng, Wu

    2002-09-01

    Energetics of geostrophic adjustment in rotating flow is examined in detail with a linear shallow water model. The initial unbalanced flow considered first falls tinder two classes. The first is similar to that adopted by Gill and is here referred to as a mass imbalance model, for the flow is initially motionless but with a sea surface displacement. The other is the same as that considered by Rossby and is referred to as a momentum imbalance model since there is only a velocity perturbation in the initial field. The significant feature of the energetics of geostrophic adjustment for the above two extreme models is that although the energy conversion ratio has a large case-to-case variability for different initial conditions, its value is bounded below by 0 and above by 1 / 2. Based on the discussion of the above extreme models, the energetics of adjustment for an arbitrary initial condition is investigated. It is found that the characteristics of the energetics of geostrophic adjustment mentioned above are also applicable to adjustment of the general unbalanced flow under the condition that the energy conversion ratio is redefined as the conversion ratio between the change of kinetic energy and potential energy of the deviational fields.

  2. ENERGETIC CHARGE OF AN INFORMATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popova T.M.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Main laws of technical thermodynamics are universal and could be applied to processes other than thermodynamic ones. The results of the comparison of peculiarities of irreversible informational and thermodynamic processes are presented in the article and a new term “Infopy” is used. A more precise definition of “infopy” as an energetic charge is given in the article.

  3. Energetic particle instabilities in fusion plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharapov, S. E.; Alper, B.; Berk, H. L.; Borba, D. N.; Breizman, B. N.; Challis, C. D.; Classen, I.G.J.; Edlund, E. M.; Eriksson, J.; Fasoli, A.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Fu, G. Y.; Garcia-Munoz, M.; Gassner, T.; Ghantous, K.; Goloborodko, V.; Gorelenkov, N. N.; Gryaznevich, M. P.; Hacquin, S.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Hellesen, C.; Kiptily, V. G.; Kramer, G. J.; Lauber, P.; Lilley, M. K.; Lisak, M.; Nabais, F.; Nazikian, R.; Nyqvist, R.; Osakabe, M.; C. Perez von Thun,; Pinches, S. D.; Podesta, M.; Porkolab, M.; Shinohara, K.; Schoepf, K.; Todo, Y.; Toi, K.; VanZeeland, M. A.; Voitsekhovich, I.; White, R. B.; Yavorskij, V.; ITPA EP TG Contributors,; JET-EFDA Contributors,

    2013-01-01

    Remarkable progress has been made in diagnosing energetic particle instabilities on present-day machines and in establishing a theoretical framework for describing them. This overview describes the much improved diagnostics of Alfvén instabilities and modelling tools developed world-wide, and discus

  4. Major minority: energetic particles in fusion plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breizman, B. N.; Sharapov, S. E.

    2011-05-01

    This paper describes advances made in the field of energetic-particle physics since the topical review of Alfvén eigenmode observations in toroidal plasmas (Wong 1999 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 41 R1-R56). The development of plasma confinement scenarios with reversed magnetic shear and significant population of energetic particles, and the development of novel energetic-particle diagnostics were the main milestones in the past decade, and these are the main experimental subjects of this review. The theory of Alfvén cascade eigenmodes in reversed-shear tokamaks and its use in magnetohydrodynamic spectroscopy are presented. Based on experimental observations and nonlinear theory of energetic-particle instabilities in the near-threshold regime, the frequency-sweeping events for spontaneously formed phase-space holes and clumps and the evolution of the fishbone oscillations are described. The multi-mode scenarios of enhanced particle transport are discussed and a brief summary is given of several engaging research topics that are beyond the authors' direct involvement.

  5. Complex Nanostructures: Synthesis and Energetic Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Dunwei Wang; Stafford Sheehan; Sa Zhou; Yongjing Lin; Xiaohua Liu

    2010-01-01

    Connected through single crystalline junctions, low dimensional materials such as nanowires and nanorods form complex nanostructures. These new materials exhibit mechanical strengths and electrical conductivities superior to their constituents while maintaining comparable surface areas, an attribute ideal for energetic applications. More efficient solar cells, higher capacity batteries and better performing photoelectrochemical cells have been built using these materials. This article reviews...

  6. Compatibility testing of energetic materials, which technique?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerk, W.P.C. de; Schrader, M.A.; Steen, A.C. van der

    1999-01-01

    Compatibility is an important safety aspect related to the production and storage of energetic materials. To test different combinations of materials a simple test method with clear criteria is advisable. At the last ESTAC the use of microcalorimetry and the vacuum stability test for the

  7. Energetic materials standards – Chemical compatibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuukkanen, I.M.; Bouma, R.H.B.

    2014-01-01

    Subgroup A Energetic Materials Team, SG/A (EMT), develops and maintains standards that are relevant to all life-cycle phases of ammunition/weapon systems. STANAG 4147 is the standard regarding chemical compatibility of explosives with munition components, and is a document of prime importance.

  8. Migration on Wings Aerodynamics and Energetics

    CERN Document Server

    Kantha, Lakshmi

    2012-01-01

    This book is an effort to explore the technical aspects associated with bird flight and migration on wings. After a short introduction on the birds migration, the book reviews the aerodynamics and Energetics of Flight and presents the calculation of the Migration Range. In addition, the authors explains aerodynamics of the formation flight and finally introduces great flight diagrams.

  9. Global Energetics of Large Solar Eruptive Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Brian R.; Chamberlin, P. C.; Emslie, A. G.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Moore, C. S.; Share, G. H.; Shih, A. Y.; Vourlidas, A.; Welsch, B.

    2012-01-01

    We have evaluated the energetics of the larger solar eruptive events recorded with a variety of spacecraft instruments between February 2002 and December 2006. All of the energetically important components of the flares and of the accompanying coronal mass ejections and solar energetic particles have been evaluated as accurately as the observations allow. These components include the following : (1) the total energy in the high temperature plasma determined from the RHESSI thermal X-ray observations; (2) the total energies in accelerated electrons above 20 keV and ions above 1 MeV from RHESSI hard X-ray and gamma-ray observations, respectively; (3) the potential and kinetic energies of the CME from SOHO/LASCO observations; (4) the solar energetic particle (SEP) energy estimates from in situ measurements on ACE, GOES, and SOHO; (5) the total radiated energy from the SORCEITSI measurements where available, and otherwise from the Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM). The results are assimilated and discussed relative to the probable amount of non potential magnetic energy estimated to be available in the flaring active regions from MDI line-of-sight magnetograms.

  10. Space vehicle chassis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judd, Stephen; Dallmann, Nicholas; Seitz, Daniel; Martinez, John; Storms, Steven; Kestell, Gayle

    2017-07-18

    A modular space vehicle chassis may facilitate convenient access to internal components of the space vehicle. Each module may be removable from the others such that each module may be worked on individually. Multiple panels of at least one of the modules may swing open or otherwise be removable, exposing large portions of the internal components of the space vehicle. Such chassis architectures may reduce the time required for and difficulty of performing maintenance or modifications, may allow multiple space vehicles to take advantage of a common chassis design, and may further allow for highly customizable space vehicles.

  11. Enforced Layer-by-Layer Stacking of Energetic Salts towards High-Performance Insensitive Energetic Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaheng; Mitchell, Lauren A; Parrish, Damon A; Shreeve, Jean'ne M

    2015-08-26

    Development of modern high-performance insensitive energetic materials is significant because of the increasing demands for both military and civilian applications. Here we propose a rapid and facile strategy called the "layer hydrogen bonding pairing approach" to organize energetic molecules via layer-by-layer stacking, which grants access to tunable energetic materials with targeted properties. Using this strategy, an unusual energetic salt, hydroxylammonium 4-amino-furazan-3-yl-tetrazol-1-olate, with good detonation performances and excellent sensitivities, was designed, synthesized, and fully characterized. In addition, the expected unique layer-by-layer structure with a high crystal packing coefficient was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray crystallography. Calculations indicate that the layer-stacking structure of this material can absorb the mechanical stimuli-induced kinetic energy by converting it to layer sliding, which results in low sensitivity.

  12. Advanced Vehicle and Power Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-29

    bases.) Qualifying advanced propulsion vehicles for this initiative are battery electric vehicles (BEV), hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), hybrid...hydraulic vehicles (HHV), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) and fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV). The AVPI integrates use of renewable energy at

  13. Energetic statistics of Baleares Islands in 1993. Estatistiques energetiques de les Illes Balears 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    This annual report summarizes the energetic and demand. It is focussed to analyze the energetic fuel (natural gas). The environment, and energetic supplies. Statistical data of energetic production, distribution and consumption in 1992 and 1993 are introduced.

  14. Energetic protons from a disappearing solar filament

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahler, S.W.; Cliver, E.W.; Cane, R.E.; McGuire, H.V.; Stone, R.G.

    1985-01-01

    A solar energetic (E> 50MeV) particle (SEP) event observed at 1 AU began about 1500 UT on 1981 December 5. This event was associated with a fast coronal mass ejection observed with the Solwind coronagraph on the P78-1 satellite. No metric type II or type IV burst was observed, but a weak interplanetary type II burst was observed with the low-frequency radio experimentation ISEE-3 satellite. The mass ejection was associated with the eruption of a large solar quiescent filament that lay well away from any active regions. The eruption resulted in a H-alpha double-ribbon structure which straddled the magnetic inversion line. No impulsive phase was obvious in either the H-alpha or the microwave observations. The event indicates that neither a detectable impulsive phase nor a strong or complex magnetic field is necessary for the production of energetic ions.

  15. Mitochondrial network energetics in the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aon, Miguel A; Cortassa, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    At the core of eukaryotic aerobic life, mitochondrial function like 'hubs' in the web of energetic and redox processes in cells. In the heart, these networks-extending beyond the complex connectivity of biochemical circuit diagrams and apparent morphology-exhibit collective dynamics spanning several spatiotemporal levels of organization, from the cell, to the tissue, and the organ. The network function of mitochondria, i.e., mitochondrial network energetics, represents an advantageous behavior. Its coordinated action, under normal physiology, provides robustness despite failure in a few nodes, and improves energy supply toward a swiftly changing demand. Extensive diffuse loops, encompassing mitochondrial-cytoplasmic reaction/transport networks, control and regulate energy supply and demand in the heart. Under severe energy crises, the network behavior of mitochondria and associated glycolytic and other metabolic networks collapse, thereby triggering fatal arrhythmias.

  16. Formation of energetic materials using supercritical fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teipel, U.; Kroeber, H.; Krause, H.H. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Chemische Technologie (ICT), Pfinztal (Germany)

    2001-10-01

    A new field of applications of compressed gases is the formation of solid particles with well-defined properties, e.g. the particle size, the particle size distribution, the particle shape, the specific surface area and free of solvent inclusions. It is possible to process moderately solids like energetic materials which are difficult to comminute due to their sensitivity to mechanical or thermal stress. The characteristics of compressed gases allow to vary the morphology of solid particles in a wide range. A pilot plant is presented, which has been built to prepare fine particles by the rapid expansion of supercritical solutions (RESS process) and precipitation by a compressed fluid antisolvent (PCA process). In this contribution the micronization of different energetic materials by the RESS and PCA processes will be under investigation. (orig.)

  17. HAWC and Solar Energetic Transient Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, A.; Ryan, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) observatory is being constructed at the volcano Sierra Negra (4100 m a.s.l.) in Mexico. HAWC's primary purpose is the study of both galactic and extra-galactic sources of high energy gamma rays. The HAWC instrument will consist of 300 large water Cherenkov detectors whose counting rate will be sensitive to cosmic rays with energies above the geomagnetic cutoff of the site ( ˜ 8 GV). In particular, HAWC will detect solar energetic particles known as Ground Level Enhancements (GLEs), and the effect of Coronal Mass Ejections on the galactic cosmic rays, known as Forbush Decreases (FDs). The Milagro experiment, the HAWC predecessor, successfully observed GLEs and the HAWC engineering array "VAMOS" already observed a FD. HAWC will be sensitive to γ rays and neutrons produced during large solar flares. In this work, we present the instrument and discuss its capability to observe solar energetic events. i. e., flares and CMEs.

  18. Assessment of CRBR core disruptive accident energetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theofanous, T.G.; Bell, C.R.

    1984-03-01

    The results of an independent assessment of core disruptive accident energetics for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor are presented in this document. This assessment was performed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission under the direction of the CRBR Program Office within the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation. It considered in detail the accident behavior for three accident initiators that are representative of three different classes of events; unprotected loss of flow, unprotected reactivity insertion, and protected loss of heat sink. The primary system's energetics accommodation capability was realistically, yet conservatively, determined in terms of core events. This accommodation capability was found to be equivalent to an isentropic work potential for expansion to one atmosphere of 2550 MJ or a ramp rate of about 200 $/s applied to a classical two-phase disassembly.

  19. Energetic oxygen atom material degradation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caledonia, George E.; Krech, Robert H.

    1987-01-01

    As part of a study designed to test potential Shuttle surface materials for the extents of degradation and mass loss expected to be suffered in space from the velocity impacts of ambient oxygen atoms, a novel technique was developed for generation of a high flux of energetic oxygen atoms. The generation technique involves laser-induced breakdown of molecular oxygen followed by a rapid expansion of energetic oxygen atoms. The high-velocity streams developed in an evacuated hypersonic nozzle have average O-atom velocities of about 5 to 13 km/s, with an estimated total production of 10 to the 18th atoms per pulse over pulse durations of several microseconds. Results on preliminary material degradation tests conducted with this test facility have been reported by Caledonia et al. (1987). Diagrams of the experimental setup are included.

  20. Exploratory analysis of Spanish energetic mining accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanmiquel, Lluís; Freijo, Modesto; Rossell, Josep M

    2012-01-01

    Using data on work accidents and annual mining statistics, the paper studies work-related accidents in the Spanish energetic mining sector in 1999-2008. The following 3 parameters are considered: age, experience and size of the mine (in number of workers) where the accident took place. The main objective of this paper is to show the relationship between different accident indicators: risk index (as an expression of the incidence), average duration index for the age and size of the mine variables (as a measure of the seriousness of an accident), and the gravity index for the various sizes of mines (which measures the seriousness of an accident, too). The conclusions of this study could be useful to develop suitable prevention policies that would contribute towards a decrease in work-related accidents in the Spanish energetic mining industry.

  1. Energetics of nanocrystalline TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranade, M. R.; Navrotsky, A.; Zhang, H. Z.; Banfield, J. F.; Elder, S. H.; Zaban, A.; Borse, P. H.; Kulkarni, S. K.; Doran, G. S.; Whitfield, H. J.

    2002-01-01

    The energetics of the TiO2 polymorphs (rutile, anatase, and brookite) were studied by high temperature oxide melt drop solution calorimetry. Relative to bulk rutile, bulk brookite is 0.71 ± 0.38 kJ/mol (6) and bulk anatase is 2.61 ± 0.41 kJ/mol higher in enthalpy. The surface enthalpies of rutile, brookite, and anatase are 2.2 ± 0.2 J/m2, 1.0 ± 0.2 J/m2, and 0.4 ± 0.1 J/m2, respectively. The closely balanced energetics directly confirm the crossover in stability of nanophase polymorphs inferred by Zhang and Banfield (7). An amorphous sample with surface area of 34,600 m2/mol is 24.25 ± 0.88 kJ/mol higher in enthalpy than bulk rutile. PMID:11880610

  2. Electron correlations and silicon nanocluster energetics

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The first-principle prediction of nanocluster stable structure is often hampered by the existence of many isomer configurations with energies close to the ground state. This fact attaches additional importance to many-electron effects going beyond density functional theory (DFT), because their contributions may change a subtle energy order of competitive structures. To analyze this problem, we consider, as an example, the energetics of silicon nanoclusters passivated by hydrogen Si$_{10}$H$_{...

  3. The energetic alpha particle transport method EATM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkpatrick, R.C.

    1998-02-01

    The EATM method is an evolving attempt to find an efficient method of treating the transport of energetic charged particles in a dynamic magnetized (MHD) plasma for which the mean free path of the particles and the Larmor radius may be long compared to the gradient lengths in the plasma. The intent is to span the range of parameter space with the efficiency and accuracy thought necessary for experimental analysis and design of magnetized fusion targets.

  4. Energetic particle instabilities in fusion plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Sharapov, S E; Berk, H L; Borba, D N; Breizman, B N; Challis, C D; Classen, I G J; Edlund, E M; Eriksson, J; Fasoli, A; Fredrickson, E D; Fu, G Y; Garcia-Munoz, M; Gassner, T; Ghantous, K; Goloborodko, V; Gorelenkov, N N; Gryaznevich, M P; Hacquin, S; Heidbrink, W W; Hellesen, C; Kiptily, V G; Kramer, G J; Lauber, P; Lilley, M K; Lisak, M; Nabais, F; Nazikian, R; Nyqvist, R; Osakabe, M; von Thun, C Perez; Pinches, S D; Podesta, M; Porkolab, M; Shinohara, K; Schoepf, K; Todo, Y; Toi, K; Van Zeeland, M A; Voitsekhovich, I; White, R B; Yavorskij, V; TG, ITPA EP; Contributors, JET-EFDA

    2013-01-01

    Remarkable progress has been made in diagnosing energetic particle instabilities on present-day machines and in establishing a theoretical framework for describing them. This overview describes the much improved diagnostics of Alfven instabilities and modelling tools developed world-wide, and discusses progress in interpreting the observed phenomena. A multi-machine comparison is presented giving information on the performance of both diagnostics and modelling tools for different plasma conditions outlining expectations for ITER based on our present knowledge.

  5. Energetics of nearby stellar bow shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Benaglia, Paula

    2012-01-01

    The latest survey of stellar bow shocks (Peri et al. 2012) lists 28 candidates detected at IR wavelengths, associated with massive, early-type stars up to 3 kpc, along with the geometrical parameters of the structures found. I present here some considerations on the energetics involved, after the estimation of stellar wind power, infrared flux, stellar bolometric luminosity and radio flux limits for each source. The best candidates for relativistic particle acceleration are highlighted.

  6. Steering Performance, Tactical Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-29

    NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Automotive Instrumentation Division (TEDT-AT-AD-I) U.S. Army Aberdeen Test Center 400...characterize the on-center vehicle responses of military vehicles for the purposes of influencing vehicle design and ensuring military truck steering... mechanism attached to the test vehicle’s steering wheel (or replaces the steering wheel) that is strain gaged and calibrated to measure the steering effort

  7. Ground Vehicle Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    Ground Vehicle Robotics Jim Parker Associate Director, Ground Vehicle Robotics UNCLASSIFIED: Distribution Statement A. Approved for public...DATE 20 AUG 2013 2. REPORT TYPE Briefing Charts 3. DATES COVERED 09-05-2013 to 15-08-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ground Vehicle Robotics 5a...Willing to take Risk on technology -User Evaluated -Contested Environments -Operational Data Applied Robotics for Installation & Base Ops -Low Risk

  8. Electric Vehicle Propulsion System

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Electric vehicles are being considered as one of the pillar of eco-friendly solutions to overcome the problem of global pollution and radiations due to greenhouse gases. Present thesis work reports the improvement in overall performance of the propulsion system of an electric vehicle by improving autonomy and torque-speed characteristic. Electric vehicle propulsion system consists of supply and traction system, and are coordinated by the monitoring & control system. Case of light electric veh...

  9. Consumer Convenience and the Availability of Retail Stations as a Market Barrier for Alternative Fuel Vehicles: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, M.; Bremson, J.; Solo, K.

    2013-01-01

    The availability of retail stations can be a significant barrier to the adoption of alternative fuel light-duty vehicles in household markets. This is especially the case during early market growth when retail stations are likely to be sparse and when vehicles are dedicated in the sense that they can only be fuelled with a new alternative fuel. For some bi-fuel vehicles, which can also fuel with conventional gasoline or diesel, limited availability will not necessarily limit vehicle sales but can limit fuel use. The impact of limited availability on vehicle purchase decisions is largely a function of geographic coverage and consumer perception. In this paper we review previous attempts to quantify the value of availability and present results from two studies that rely upon distinct methodologies. The first study relies upon stated preference data from a discrete choice survey and the second relies upon a station clustering algorithm and a rational actor value of time framework. Results from the two studies provide an estimate of the discrepancy between stated preference cost penalties and a lower bound on potential revealed cost penalties.

  10. Energetic Particles Dynamics in Mercury's Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Brian M.; Ryou, A.S.; Sibeck, D. G.; Alexeev, I. I.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the drift paths of energetic particles in Mercury's magnetosphere by tracing their motion through a model magnetic field. Test particle simulations solving the full Lorentz force show a quasi-trapped energetic particle population that gradient and curvature drift around the planet via "Shabansky" orbits, passing though high latitudes in the compressed dayside by equatorial latitudes on the nightside. Due to their large gyroradii, energetic H+ and Na+ ions will typically collide with the planet or the magnetopause and will not be able to complete a full drift orbit. These simulations provide direct comparison for recent spacecraft measurements from MESSENGER. Mercury's offset dipole results in an asymmetric loss cone and therefore an asymmetry in particle precipitation with more particles precipitating in the southern hemisphere. Since the planet lacks an atmosphere, precipitating particles will collide directly with the surface of the planet. The incident charged particles can kick up neutrals from the surface and have implications for the formation of the exosphere and weathering of the surface

  11. Calculation of the energetics of chemical reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunning, T.H. Jr.; Harding, L.B.; Shepard, R.L.; Harrison, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    To calculate the energetics of chemical reactions we must solve the electronic Schroedinger equation for the molecular conformations of importance for the reactive encounter. Substantial changes occur in the electronic structure of a molecular system as the reaction progresses from reactants through the transition state to products. To describe these changes, our approach includes the following three elements: the use of multiconfiguration self-consistent field wave functions to provide a consistent zero-order description of the electronic structure of the reactants, transition state, and products; the use of configuration interaction techniques to describe electron correlation effects needed to provide quantitative predictions of the reaction energetics; and the use of large, optimized basis sets to provide the flexibility needed to describe the variations in the electronic distributions. With this approach we are able to study reactions involving as many as 5--6 atoms with errors of just a few kcal/mol in the predicted reaction energetics. Predictions to chemical accuracy, i.e., to 1 kcal/mol or less, are not yet feasible, although continuing improvements in both the theoretical methodology and computer technology suggest that this will soon be possible, at least for reactions involving small polyatomic species. 4 figs.

  12. Sol-Gel Manufactured Energetic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Randall L.; Lee, Ronald S.; Tillotson, Thomas M.; Hrubesh, Lawrence W.; Swansiger, Rosalind W.; Fox, Glenn A.

    2005-05-17

    Sol-gel chemistry is used for the preparation of energetic materials (explosives, propellants and pyrotechnics) with improved homogeneity, and/or which can be cast to near-net shape, and/or made into precision molding powders. The sol-gel method is a synthetic chemical process where reactive monomers are mixed into a solution, polymerization occurs leading to a highly cross-linked three dimensional solid network resulting in a gel. The energetic materials can be incorporated during the formation of the solution or during the gel stage of the process. The composition, pore, and primary particle sizes, gel time, surface areas, and density may be tailored and controlled by the solution chemistry. The gel is then dried using supercritical extraction to produce a highly porous low density aerogel or by controlled slow evaporation to produce a xerogel. Applying stress during the extraction phase can result in high density materials. Thus, the sol-gel method can be used for precision detonator explosive manufacturing as well as producing precision explosives, propellants, and pyrotechnics, along with high power composite energetic materials.

  13. Energetic particle investigation using the ERNE instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Torsti

    Full Text Available During solar flares and coronal mass ejections, nuclei and electrons accelerated to high energies are injected into interplanetary space. These accelerated particles can be detected at the SOHO satellite by the ERNE instrument. From the data produced by the instrument, it is possible to identify the particles and to calculate their energy and direction of propagation. Depending on variable coronal/interplanetary conditions, different kinds of effects on the energetic particle transport can be predicted. The problems of interest include, for example, the effects of particle properties (mass, charge, energy, and propagation direction on the particle transport, the particle energy changes in the transport process, and the effects the energetic particles have on the solar-wind plasma. The evolution of the distribution function of the energetic particles can be measured with ERNE to a better accuracy than ever before. This gives us the opportunity to contribute significantly to the modeling of interplanetary transport and acceleration. Once the acceleration/transport bias has been removed, the acceleration-site abundance of elements and their isotopes can be studied in detail and compared with spectroscopic observations.

  14. Highly Energetic, Low Sensitivity Aromatic Peroxy Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamage, Nipuni-Dhanesha H; Stiasny, Benedikt; Stierstorfer, Jörg; Martin, Philip D; Klapötke, Thomas M; Winter, Charles H

    2016-02-18

    The synthesis, structure, and energetic materials properties of a series of aromatic peroxy acid compounds are described. Benzene-1,3,5-tris(carboperoxoic) acid is a highly sensitive primary energetic material, with impact and friction sensitivities similar to those of triacetone triperoxide. By contrast, benzene-1,4-bis(carboperoxoic) acid, 4-nitrobenzoperoxoic acid, and 3,5-dinitrobenzoperoxoic acid are much less sensitive, with impact and friction sensitivities close to those of the secondary energetic material 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene. Additionally, the calculated detonation velocities of 3,5-dinitrobenzoperoxoic acid and 2,4,6-trinitrobenzoperoxoic acid exceed that of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene. The solid-state structure of 3,5-dinitrobenzoperoxoic acid contains intermolecular O-H⋅⋅⋅O hydrogen bonds and numerous N⋅⋅⋅O, C⋅⋅⋅O, and O⋅⋅⋅O close contacts. These attractive lattice interactions may account for the less sensitive nature of 3,5-dinitrobenzoperoxoic acid.

  15. Radiation Hydrodynamics Modeling of Hohlraum Energetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mehul V.; Mauche, Christopher W.; Jones, Ogden S.; Scott, Howard A.

    2015-11-01

    Attempts to model the energetics in NIF Hohlraums have been made with varying degrees of success, with discrepancies of 0-25% being reported for the X-ray flux (10-25% for the NIC ignition platform hohlraums). To better understand the cause(s) of these discrepancies, the effects of uncertainties in modeling thermal conduction, laser-plasma interactions, atomic mixing at interfaces, and NLTE kinetics of the high-Z wall plasma must be quantified. In this work we begin by focusing on the NLTE kinetics component. We detail a simulation framework for developing an integrated HYDRA hohlraum model with predefined tolerances for energetics errors due to numerical discretization errors or statistical fluctuations. Within this framework we obtain a model for a converged 1D spherical hohlraum which is then extended to 2D. The new model is used to reexamine physics sensitivities and improve estimates of the energetics discrepancy. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  16. Nonadditive Compositional Curvature Energetics of Lipid Bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodt, A. J.; Venable, R. M.; Lyman, E.; Pastor, R. W.

    2016-09-01

    The unique properties of the individual lipids that compose biological membranes together determine the energetics of the surface. The energetics of the surface, in turn, govern the formation of membrane structures and membrane reshaping processes, and thus they will underlie cellular-scale models of viral fusion, vesicle-dependent transport, and lateral organization relevant to signaling. The spontaneous curvature, to the best of our knowledge, is always assumed to be additive. We describe observations from simulations of unexpected nonadditive compositional curvature energetics of two lipids essential to the plasma membrane: sphingomyelin and cholesterol. A model is developed that connects molecular interactions to curvature stress, and which explains the role of local composition. Cholesterol is shown to lower the number of effective Kuhn segments of saturated acyl chains, reducing lateral pressure below the neutral surface of bending and favoring positive curvature. The effect is not observed for unsaturated (flexible) acyl chains. Likewise, hydrogen bonding between sphingomyelin lipids leads to positive curvature, but only at sufficient concentration, below which the lipid prefers negative curvature.

  17. Fundamental energetic limits of radio communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudais, Jean-Yves

    2017-02-01

    The evaluation of the energy consumption of a radiocommunication requires to analyse the life cycle of the elements used. However, this analysis does not specify the energetic limits. Theoretical approaches allow one to draw these limits, which are known in multiple cases of information transmission. However, the answers are not always satisfactory, in particular in the case of time-varying channels. After a brief presentation of the notion of energetic limits of a radiocommunication, and beginning with a global approach, we show that, contrary to the published results, the energetic limits always differ from zero if the physical constraints are correctly expressed. xml:lang="fr" Cependant, les réponses ne sont pas toujours satisfaisantes, particulièrement dans le cas de canaux variants dans le temps. Après une rapide présentation des notions d'énergie limite d'une radiocommunication, et en commençant par une approche globale du problème, nous montrons que, contrairement aux résultats publiés, les limites énergétiques sont toujours différentes de zéro si les contraintes physiques sont correctement exprimées.

  18. Computational survey of representative energetic materials as propellants for microthruster applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Brian; Stec, Daniel, III

    2007-04-01

    Microthrusters are critical for the development of terrestrial micromissiles and nano air vehicles for reconnaissance, surveillance, and sensor emplacement. With the maturation of MEMS manufacturing technology, the physical components of the thrusters can be readily fabricated. The thruster type that is the most straightforward is chemical combustion of a propellant that is ignited by a heating element giving a single shot thrust. Arrays of MEMS manufactured thrusters can be ganged to give multiple firings. The basic model for such a system is a solid rocket motor. The desired elements for the propellant of a chemical thruster are high specific impulse (I sp), high temperature and pressure, and low molecular weight combustion gases. Since the combustion chamber of a microthruster is extremely small, the propellant material must be able to ignite, sustain and complete its burn inside the chamber. The propellant can be either a solid or a liquid. There are a large number of energetic materials available as candidates for a propellant for microthrusters. There has been no systematic evaluation of the available energetic materials as propellant candidates for microthrusters. This report summarizes computations done on a series of energetic materials to address their suitabilities as microthruster propellants.

  19. Electric vehicle propulsion alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secunde, R. R.; Schuh, R. M.; Beach, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Propulsion technology development for electric vehicles is summarized. Analytical studies, technology evaluation, and the development of technology for motors, controllers, transmissions, and complete propulsion systems are included.

  20. Macroeconomic analysis of road vehicles related environmental pollution in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Török, Árpád; Török, Ádám

    2014-06-01

    The article aims to examine the relationship between road transport and macro economy, especially the use of fossil energy in transport sector. Nowadays environmental pollution is a key issue on the EU level as well as in Hungary. Lots of effort have been already done in order to decrease emissions in road transport, but a lot more need to be done. The article aims to prove that the only possible solution is technological innovation in order to reach emission reduction target without decline of the GDP. The basic idea is to ensure sustainable development, to decrease environmental pollution in road transport without harming the economy. In the EU and in Hungary road vehicles are powered by fossil fuelled internal combustion engines. This paper aims to analyse the role of the fossil fuel-based road transport sector within the economy with the usage of constant elasticity substitution (CES) production functions. Authors have built CES production function for Hungary. Parameters were calculated based on the validated model.

  1. 75 FR 76692 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ..., and 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety AGENCY... passenger vehicles, trucks, buses, trailers, incomplete vehicles, motorcycles, and motor vehicle...

  2. Mammalian energetics. Flexible energetics of cheetah hunting strategies provide resistance against kleptoparasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scantlebury, David M; Mills, Michael G L; Wilson, Rory P; Wilson, John W; Mills, Margaret E J; Durant, Sarah M; Bennett, Nigel C; Bradford, Peter; Marks, Nikki J; Speakman, John R

    2014-10-03

    Population viability is driven by individual survival, which in turn depends on individuals balancing energy budgets. As carnivores may function close to maximum sustained power outputs, decreased food availability or increased activity may render some populations energetically vulnerable. Prey theft may compromise energetic budgets of mesopredators, such as cheetahs and wild dogs, which are susceptible to competition from larger carnivores. We show that daily energy expenditure (DEE) of cheetahs was similar to size-based predictions and positively related to distance traveled. Theft at 25% only requires cheetahs to hunt for an extra 1.1 hour per day, increasing DEE by just 12%. Therefore, not all mesopredators are energetically constrained by direct competition. Other factors that increase DEE, such as those that increase travel, may be more important for population viability. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. Mammalian energetics. Instantaneous energetics of puma kills reveal advantage of felid sneak attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Terrie M; Wolfe, Lisa; Davis, Tracy; Kendall, Traci; Richter, Beau; Wang, Yiwei; Bryce, Caleb; Elkaim, Gabriel Hugh; Wilmers, Christopher C

    2014-10-03

    Pumas (Puma concolor) live in diverse, often rugged, complex habitats. The energy they expend for hunting must account for this complexity but is difficult to measure for this and other large, cryptic carnivores. We developed and deployed a physiological SMART (species movement, acceleration, and radio tracking) collar that used accelerometry to continuously monitor energetics, movements, and behavior of free-ranging pumas. This felid species displayed marked individuality in predatory activities, ranging from low-cost sit-and-wait behaviors to constant movements with energetic costs averaging 2.3 times those predicted for running mammals. Pumas reduce these costs by remaining cryptic and precisely matching maximum pouncing force (overall dynamic body acceleration = 5.3 to 16.1g) to prey size. Such instantaneous energetics help to explain why most felids stalk and pounce, and their analysis represents a powerful approach for accurately forecasting resource demands required for survival by large, mobile predators.

  4. Performance improvement of direct internal reforming solid oxide fuel cell fuelled by H2S-contaminated biogas with paper-structured catalyst technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiratori, Y.; Sakamoto, M.

    2016-11-01

    Direct internal reforming (DIR) operation of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is a very attractive concept for downsizing and cost reduction of SOFC systems. This study aimed to develop stable operation of a DIR-SOFC fuelled by biogas. The current-voltage (I-V) curves of 2 × 2 cm2 planar SOFCs (anode- and electrolyte-supported cells, ASC and ESC, respectively.) were measured at 800 °C in the direct feed of a simulated biogas mixture (CH4/CO2 = 1), and the flexible structured catalyst material (paper-structured catalyst (PSC)) was applied on the anode material for performance enhancement. By applying a hydrotalcite (HT)-dispersed PSC (HT-PSC), the sulfur tolerance of the SOFC in the DIR operation was remarkably improved. By the effect of the HT-PSC, for both ASC and ESC, a stable cell voltage higher than 800 mV was obtained over 200 h at 0.2 A cm-2 in the direct feed of simulated biogas under 5 ppm H2S poisoning.

  5. Experimental investigation into the oxidation reactivity and nanostructure of particulate matter from diesel engine fuelled with diesel/polyoxymethylene dimethyl ethers blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hao; Li, Xinghu; Wang, Yan; Mu, Mingfei; Li, Xuehao; Kou, Guiyue

    2016-11-01

    This paper focuses on oxidation reactivity and nanostructural characteristics of particulate matter (PM) emitted from diesel engine fuelled with different volume proportions of diesel/polyoxymethylene dimethyl ethers (PODEn) blends (P0, P10 and P20). PM was collected using a metal filter from the exhaust manifold. The collected PM samples were characterized using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy. The TGA results indicated that the PM produced by P20 had the highest moisture and volatility contents and the fastest oxidation rate of solid carbon followed by P10 and P0 derived PM. SEM analysis showed that PM generated from P20 was looser with a lower mean value than PM emitted from P10 and P0. Quantitative analysis of high-resolution TEM images presented that fringe length was reduced along with increased separation distance and tortuosity with an increase in PODEn concentration. These trends improved the oxidation reactivity. According to Raman spectroscopy data, the intensity, full width at half-maximum and intensity ratio of the bands also changed demonstrating that PM nanostructure disorder was correlated with a faster oxidation rate. The results show the use of PODEn affects the oxidation reactivity and nanostructure of PM that is easier to oxidize.

  6. INVESTIGATION OF COMBUSTION, PERFORMANCE AND EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS OF SPARK IGNITION ENGINE FUELLED WITH BUTHANOL – GASOLINE MIXTURE AND A HYDROGEN ENRICHED AIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredas Rimkus

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, spark ignition engine fuelled with buthanol-gasoline mixture and a hydrogen-enriched air was investigated. Engine performance, emissions and combustion characteristics were investigated with different buthanol (10% and 20% by volume gasoline mixtures and additionally supplied oxygen and hydrogen (HHO gas mixture (3.6 l/min in the sucked air. Hydrogen, which is in the HHO gas, improves gasoline and gasoline-buthanol mixture combustion, increases indicated pressure during combustion phase and decreases effective specific fuel consumption. Buthanol addition decreases the rate of heat release, the combustion temperature and pressure are lower which have an influence on lower nitrous oxide (NOx emission in exhaust gases. Buthanol lowers hydrocarbon (HC formation, but it increases carbon monoxide (CO concentration and fuel consumption. Combustion process analysis was carried out using AVL BOOST software. Experimental research and combustion process numerical simulation showed that using balanced buthanol and hydrogen addition, optimal efficient and ecological parameters could be achieved when engine is working with optimal spark timing, as it would work on gasoline fuel.

  7. Evaluation of the subsidy scheme for heat pumps, pellet-fuelled fireplaces and control systems; Evaluering av tilskuddsordningen til varmepumper, pelletskaminer og styringssystemer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoernstad, Even; Grande, Jorunn; Sand, Roar; Wendelborg, Christian

    2005-07-01

    Enova's subsidy scheme for energy economising in households was carried out in 2003. Subsidies were given to investments in heat pumps, pellet-fuelled fireplaces and electric energy management systems. The primary objective for this evaluation is to build knowledge about the effect of such subsidy schemes, and determine if they contribute to the reduction of electricity consumption in households. Questions that are addressed include Enova's administration of the subsidy scheme, the effects on households, the effects on the energy market, prices and technology. It is concluded that the scheme had a varied effect for the three technologies entitled to subsidies, and heat pump applications got 92,5 percent of the total sum. The households that received subsidies are in general positive, and the households that did not are in general not so satisfied with the service. It is concluded Enova has administered the subsidy scheme well, especially considering the time-frame and the changed economical conditions given (ml)

  8. Optimal design and operation of a syngas-fuelled SOFC micro CHP system for residential applications in different climate zones in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Wenyuan; Zhao, Yingru; Liso, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    to determine the optimal match between the energy demand of the household for different climates across China and the energy supply of the micro-CHP during the whole year. Moreover, criteria for sizing the system components of the micro-CHP are specifically addressed. The developed methodology can be applied...... under difference climate conditions to ensure that it is well matched with the local heat-to-power ratio. The aim of this study is to investigate the optimal design and operation of a syngas-fuelled SOFC micro-CHP system for small households located in five different climate zones in China. The ability...... of the micro-CHP to cover the heat and electricity demand of a 70 m2 single-family apartment with an average number of occupants of 3 is evaluated. A detailed model of the micro-CHP unit coupled with a hot water storage tank and an auxiliary boiler is developed. System design trade-offs are discussed...

  9. Coal-fuelled systems for peaking power with 100% CO2 capture through integration of solid oxide fuel cells with compressed air energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nease, Jake; Adams, Thomas A.

    2014-04-01

    In this study, a coal-fuelled integrated solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and compressed air energy storage (CAES) system in a load-following power production scenario is discussed. Sixteen SOFC-based plants with optional carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) and syngas shifting steps are simulated and compared to a state-of-the-art supercritical pulverised coal (SCPC) plant. Simulations are performed using a combination of MATLAB and Aspen Plus v7.3. It was found that adding CAES to a SOFC-based plant can provide load-following capabilities with relatively small effects on efficiencies (1-2% HHV depending on the system configuration) and levelized costs of electricity (∼0.35 ¢ kW-1 h-1). The load-following capabilities, as measured by least-squares metrics, show that this system may utilize coal and achieve excellent load-tracking that is not adversely affected by the inclusion of CCS. Adding CCS to the SOFC/CAES system reduces measurable direct CO2 emission to zero. A seasonal partial plant shutdown schedule is found to reduce fuel consumption by 9.5% while allowing for cleaning and maintenance windows for the SOFC stacks without significantly affecting the performance of the system (∼1% HHV reduction in efficiency). The SOFC-based systems with CCS are found to become economically attractive relative to SCPC above carbon taxes of 22 ton-1.

  10. Vehicle usage verification system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scanlon, William G.; McQuiston, Jonathan; Cotton, Simon L.

    2012-01-01

    EN)A computer-implemented system for verifying vehicle usage comprising a server capable of communication with a plurality of clients across a communications network. Each client is provided in a respective vehicle and with a respective global positioning system (GPS) by which the client can determi

  11. Electric Vehicle Battery Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    A serious drawback to electric vehicles [batteries only] is the idle time needed to recharge their batteries. In this challenge, students can develop ideas and concepts for battery change-out at automotive service stations. Such a capability would extend the range of electric vehicles.

  12. The Electric Vehicle Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jingyu; Liu, Yingqi; Kokko, Ari

    2014-01-01

    In order to respond to the energy crisis and environment problem, countries carry out their research and promotion about electric vehicles. As the ten cities one thousand new energy buses started in 2009, the new energy vehicles have been greatly developed in China, while the development of elect...

  13. Vehicle Routing Problem Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonči Carić

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Vehicle Routing Problem cannot always be solved exactly,so that in actual application this problem is solved heuristically.The work describes the concept of several concrete VRPmodels with simplified initial conditions (all vehicles are ofequal capacity and start from a single warehouse, suitable tosolve problems in cases with up to 50 users.

  14. Motor Vehicle Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to prevent these crashes is one part of motor vehicle safety. Here are some things you can do to be safer on the road: Make sure your vehicle is safe and in working order Use car seats for children Wear your seat belt Don' ...

  15. Electric Vehicle Battery Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    A serious drawback to electric vehicles [batteries only] is the idle time needed to recharge their batteries. In this challenge, students can develop ideas and concepts for battery change-out at automotive service stations. Such a capability would extend the range of electric vehicles.

  16. Whither electric vehicles?

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, AK

    2002-01-01

    In the late 1890s, at the dawn of the automobile era, steam, gasoline and electric vehicles all competed to become the dominant automobile technology. By the early 1900s, the battle was over and Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles (ICEVs) were poised to become the prime movers of the twentieth century.

  17. Methods for measurements of energy and emissions related to motor vehicles: Identification of needs for improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karl-Erik Egebaeck, K.E. [Luleaa Univ. of Technology, Luleaa (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Technology; Karlsson, Hua L. [MTC AB, Haninge (Sweden); Westerholm, R. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Analytical Chemistry

    2002-01-01

    The official methods in use today for emission testing of vehicles and engines were primarily developed for the characterisation of exhaust emissions from motor vehicles fuelled with petrol or diesel oil. The setting of new lower emission standards will make it difficult to obtain sufficient accuracy, using the present systems, for the quantification of exhaust emissions in the future. Development of new emission control technology and improved fuels has made it possible to meet these more stringent standards. Consequently new emission standards will lead to a need for new and improved methodologies and new instrumentation for the characterisation of the emissions from vehicles/engines/fuels. The present report comprises a discussion and comments on questions related to improved methods for emission measurements. The report is based on a study of the literature, site visits to laboratories and research institutes etc in the US and a meeting with representatives of the EU Commission, carried out during the spring of 2001. The conclusions and recommendations in the pre-study report are summarised in sub titles: General, regulated emissions, unregulated emissions, greenhouse gases and fuel consumption. Since the questions and problems discussed have an international connection they should be discussed in an international forum. However, before such discussions can be organised the problems related to measurement of emissions and fuel consumption must be more extensively studied than in this pre-study.

  18. Intelligent Vehicle Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Deidre E.; Trevino, Luis; Watson, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    As a part of the overall goal of developing Integrated Vehicle Health Management systems for aerospace vehicles, the NASA Faculty Fellowship Program (NFFP) at Marshall Space Flight Center has performed a pilot study on IVHM principals which integrates researched IVHM technologies in support of Integrated Intelligent Vehicle Management (IIVM). IVHM is the process of assessing, preserving, and restoring system functionality across flight and ground systems (NASA NGLT 2004). The framework presented in this paper integrates advanced computational techniques with sensor and communication technologies for spacecraft that can generate responses through detection, diagnosis, reasoning, and adapt to system faults in support of INM. These real-time responses allow the IIVM to modify the affected vehicle subsystem(s) prior to a catastrophic event. Furthermore, the objective of this pilot program is to develop and integrate technologies which can provide a continuous, intelligent, and adaptive health state of a vehicle and use this information to improve safety and reduce costs of operations. Recent investments in avionics, health management, and controls have been directed towards IIVM. As this concept has matured, it has become clear the INM requires the same sensors and processing capabilities as the real-time avionics functions to support diagnosis of subsystem problems. New sensors have been proposed, in addition, to augment the avionics sensors to support better system monitoring and diagnostics. As the designs have been considered, a synergy has been realized where the real-time avionics can utilize sensors proposed for diagnostics and prognostics to make better real-time decisions in response to detected failures. IIVM provides for a single system allowing modularity of functions and hardware across the vehicle. The framework that supports IIVM consists of 11 major on-board functions necessary to fully manage a space vehicle maintaining crew safety and mission

  19. Automated Vehicles Symposium 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Beiker, Sven

    2016-01-01

    This edited book comprises papers about the impacts, benefits and challenges of connected and automated cars. It is the third volume of the LNMOB series dealing with Road Vehicle Automation. The book comprises contributions from researchers, industry practitioners and policy makers, covering perspectives from the U.S., Europe and Japan. It is based on the Automated Vehicles Symposium 2015 which was jointly organized by the Association of Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) and the Transportation Research Board (TRB) in Ann Arbor, Michigan, in July 2015. The topical spectrum includes, but is not limited to, public sector activities, human factors, ethical and business aspects, energy and technological perspectives, vehicle systems and transportation infrastructure. This book is an indispensable source of information for academic researchers, industrial engineers and policy makers interested in the topic of road vehicle automation.

  20. Automated Vehicles Symposium 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Beiker, Sven; Road Vehicle Automation 2

    2015-01-01

    This paper collection is the second volume of the LNMOB series on Road Vehicle Automation. The book contains a comprehensive review of current technical, socio-economic, and legal perspectives written by experts coming from public authorities, companies and universities in the U.S., Europe and Japan. It originates from the Automated Vehicle Symposium 2014, which was jointly organized by the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) and the Transportation Research Board (TRB) in Burlingame, CA, in July 2014. The contributions discuss the challenges arising from the integration of highly automated and self-driving vehicles into the transportation system, with a focus on human factors and different deployment scenarios. This book is an indispensable source of information for academic researchers, industrial engineers, and policy makers interested in the topic of road vehicle automation.

  1. Hydrogen vehicle fueling station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daney, D.E.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Daugherty, M.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Hydrogen fueling stations are an essential element in the practical application of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel, and a number of issues such as safety, efficiency, design, and operating procedures can only be accurately addressed by a practical demonstration. Regardless of whether the vehicle is powered by an internal combustion engine or fuel cell, or whether the vehicle has a liquid or gaseous fuel tank, the fueling station is a critical technology which is the link between the local storage facility and the vehicle. Because most merchant hydrogen delivered in the US today (and in the near future) is in liquid form due to the overall economics of production and delivery, we believe a practical refueling station should be designed to receive liquid. Systems studies confirm this assumption for stations fueling up to about 300 vehicles. Our fueling station, aimed at refueling fleet vehicles, will receive hydrogen as a liquid and dispense it as either liquid, high pressure gas, or low pressure gas. Thus, it can refuel any of the three types of tanks proposed for hydrogen-powered vehicles -- liquid, gaseous, or hydride. The paper discusses the fueling station design. Results of a numerical model of liquid hydrogen vehicle tank filling, with emphasis on no vent filling, are presented to illustrate the usefulness of the model as a design tool. Results of our vehicle performance model illustrate our thesis that it is too early to judge what the preferred method of on-board vehicle fuel storage will be in practice -- thus our decision to accommodate all three methods.

  2. An Ag(I) energetic metal-organic framework assembled with the energetic combination of furazan and tetrazole: synthesis, structure and energetic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xiao-Ni; Zhang, Sheng; Wang, Bo-Zhou; Yang, Qi; Han, Jing; Wei, Qing; Xie, Gang; Chen, San-Ping

    2016-04-28

    A novel Ag(I) energetic MOF [Ag16(BTFOF)9]n·[2(NH4)]n () assembled with Ag(iI ions and a furazan derivative, 4,4'-oxybis[3,3'-(1H-5-tetrazol)]furazan (H2BTFOF) was successfully synthesized and structurally characterized, featuring a three-dimensional porous structure incorporating ammonium cations. The thermal stability and energetic properties were determined, revealing that the 3D energetic MOF had an outstanding insensitivity (IS > 40 J), an ultrahigh detonation pressure (P) of 65.29 GPa and a detonation velocity (D) of 11.81 km cm(-3). In addition, the self-accelerating decomposition temperature (TSADT) and the critical temperature of thermal explosion (Tb) are also discussed in detail. The finding exemplifies that the assembly strategy plays a decisive role in the density and energetic properties of MOF-based energetic materials.

  3. Dose spectra from energetic particles and neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwadron, Nathan; Bancroft, Chris; Bloser, Peter; Legere, Jason; Ryan, James; Smith, Sonya; Spence, Harlan; Mazur, Joe; Zeitlin, Cary

    2013-10-01

    spectra from energetic particles and neutrons (DoSEN) are an early-stage space technology research project that combines two advanced complementary radiation detection concepts with fundamental advantages over traditional dosimetry. DoSEN measures not only the energy but also the charge distribution (including neutrons) of energetic particles that affect human (and robotic) health in a way not presently possible with current dosimeters. For heavy ions and protons, DoSEN provides a direct measurement of the lineal energy transfer (LET) spectra behind shielding material. For LET measurements, DoSEN contains stacks of thin-thick Si detectors similar in design to those used for the Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation. With LET spectra, we can now directly break down the observed spectrum of radiation into its constituent heavy-ion components and through biologically based quality factors that provide not only doses and dose rates but also dose equivalents, associated rates, and even organ doses. DoSEN also measures neutrons from 10 to 100 MeV, which requires enough sensitive mass to fully absorb recoil particles that the neutrons produce. DoSEN develops the new concept of combining these independent measurements and using the coincidence of LET measurements and neutron detection to significantly reduce backgrounds in each measurement. The background suppression through the use of coincidence allows for significant reductions in size, mass, and power needed to provide measurements of dose, neutron dose, dose equivalents, LET spectra, and organ doses. Thus, we introduce the DoSEN concept: a promising low-mass instrument that detects the full spectrum of energetic particles, heavy ions, and neutrons to determine biological impact of radiation in space.

  4. Solar Energetic Particle Studies with PAMELA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravar, U.; Christian, E. R.; deNolfo, Georgia; Ryan, J. M.; Stochaj, S.

    2011-01-01

    The origin of the high-energy solar energetic particles (SEPs) may conceivably be found in composition signatures that reflect the elemental abundances of the low corona and chromosphere vs. the high corona and solar wind. The presence of secondaries, such as neutrons and positrons, could indicate a low coronal origin of these particles. Velocity dispersion of different species and over a wide energy range can be used to determine energetic particle release times at the Sun. Together with multi-wavelength imaging, in- situ observations of a variety of species, and coverage over a wide energy range provide a critical tool in identifying the origin of SEPs, understanding the evolution of these events within the context of solar active regions, and constraining the acceleration mechanisms at play. The Payload for Antimatter Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics (PAMELA)instrument, successfully launched in 2006 and expected to remain operational until at least the beginning of 2012, measures energetic particles in the same energy range as ground-based neutron monitors, and lower energies as well. It thus bridges the gap between low energy in-situ observations and ground-based Ground Level Enhancements (GLE) observations. It can measure the charge (up to Z=6) and atomic number of the detected particles, and it can identify and measure positrons and detect neutrons-an unprecedented array of data channels that we can bring to bear on the origin of high-energy SEPs. We present prelimiary results on the for the 2006 December 13 solar flare and GLE and the 2011 March 21 solar flare, both registering proton and helium enhancements in PAMELA. Together with multi- spacecraft contextual data and modeling, we discuss the PAMELA results in the context of the different acceleration mechanisms at play.

  5. Synthesis of a new energetic nitrate ester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, David E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Nitrate esters have been known as useful energetic materials since the discovery of nitroglycerin by Ascanio Sobrero in 1846. The development of methods to increase the safety and utility of nitroglycerin by Alfred Nobel led to the revolutionary improvement in the utility of nitroglycerin in explosive applications in the form of dynamite. Since then, many nitrate esters have been prepared and incorporated into military applications such as double-based propellants, detonators and as energetic plasticizers. Nitrate esters have also been shown to have vasodilatory effects in humans and thus have been studied and used for treatments of ailments such as angina. The mechanism of the biological response towards nitrate esters has been elucidated recently. Interestingly, many of the nitrate esters used for military purposes are liquids (ethylene glycol dinitrate, propylene glycol dinitrate, etc). Pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) is one of the only solid nitrate esters, besides nitrocellulose, that is used in any application. Unfortunately, PETN melting point is above 100 {sup o}C, and thus must be pressed as a solid for detonator applications. A more practical material would be a melt-castable explosive, for potential simplification of manufacturing processes. Herein we describe the synthesis of a new energetic nitrate ester (1) that is a solid at ambient temperatures, has a melting point of 85-86 {sup o}C and has the highest density of any known nitrate ester composed only of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen. We also describe the chemical, thermal and sensitivity properties of 1 as well as some preliminary explosive performance data.

  6. Energetics of Synchronization in Coupled Oscillators

    CERN Document Server

    Izumida, Yuki; Seifert, Udo

    2016-01-01

    We formulate the energetics of synchronization in coupled oscillators by unifying the nonequilibrium aspects with the nonlinear dynamics via stochastic thermodynamics. We derive a concise and universal expression of the energy dissipation rate using nonlinear-dynamics quantities characterizing synchronization, and elucidate how synchronization/desynchronization between the oscillators affects it. We apply our theory to hydrodynamically-coupled Stokes spheres rotating on circular trajectories that may be interpreted as the simplest model of synchronization of coupled oscillators in a biological system, revealing that the oscillators gain the ability to do more work on the surrounding fluid as the degree of phase synchronization increases.

  7. The energetic potential of bioethanol in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Károly Lakatos

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The basis of the bioethanol production is the agriculture, mostly the corn and wheat growing. With the analysis of their domesticharvest results, the process of the starch formation and the chemical-thermodynamical processes of the alcohol’s fermantation,we calculate the annual amount of the producible bioethanol on average and it’s energy. We determine the specific values of the CO2cycle. We examine the energetic possibilities of total substitution of the 2 billion litres of domestic petrol consumption with bioethanol.

  8. The Energetic Particle Experiment (EPE) on THOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert; Vainio, Rami; Steinhagen, Jan

    2016-07-01

    THOR is one of the remaining three candidate mission for ESA's M4 launch in 2026. The Energetic Particle Experiment (EPE) will measure electrons (ions) from 20 keV (20 keV/nuc) to 700 keV (20 MeV) with excellent pitch-angle resolution and a very high cadence. This will allow us to understand how turbulence dissipates and how particles are energized in this process, thus shedding light on this ubiquitous astrophysical process. We will present the design and current status of EPE.

  9. Complex Nanostructures: Synthesis and Energetic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunwei Wang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Connected through single crystalline junctions, low dimensional materials such as nanowires and nanorods form complex nanostructures. These new materials exhibit mechanical strengths and electrical conductivities superior to their constituents while maintaining comparable surface areas, an attribute ideal for energetic applications. More efficient solar cells, higher capacity batteries and better performing photoelectrochemical cells have been built using these materials. This article reviews this exciting new class of materials and covers topics from controlled syntheses to applications in photovoltaics, chemical energy conversion and electrical charge storage. Mechanisms responsible for the improved performance are discussed. The prospect of their applications in a broader energy-related field is analyzed.

  10. Nanostructured energetic materials using sol-gel methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tillotson, T M; Simpson, R L; Hrubesh, L W; Gash, A E; Thomas, I M; Poco, J F

    2000-09-27

    The fundamental differences between energetic composites and energetic materials made from a monomolecular approach are the energy density attainable and the energy release rates. For the past 4 years, we have been exploiting sol-gel chemistry as a route to process energetic materials on a microstructural scale. At the last ISA conference, we described four specific sol-gel approaches to fabricating energetic materials and presented our early work and results on two methods - solution crystallization and powder addition. Here, we detail our work on a third approach, energetic nanocomposites. Synthesis of thermitic types of energetic nanocomposites are presented using transition and main group metal-oxide skeletons. Results on characterization of structure and performance will also be given.

  11. Environmentally compatible next generation green energetic materials (GEMs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talawar, M B; Sivabalan, R; Mukundan, T; Muthurajan, H; Sikder, A K; Gandhe, B R; Rao, A Subhananda

    2009-01-30

    This paper briefly reviews the literature work reported on the environmentally compatible green energetic materials (GEMs) for defence and space applications. Currently, great emphasis is laid in the field of high-energy materials (HEMs) to increase the environmental stewardship along with the deliverance of improved performance. This emphasis is especially strong in the areas of energetic materials, weapon development, processing, and disposal operations. Therefore, efforts are on to develop energetic materials systems under the broad concept of green energetic materials (GEMs) in different schools all over the globe. The GEMs program initiated globally by different schools addresses these challenges and establishes the framework for advances in energetic materials processing and production that promote compliance with environmental regulations. This review also briefs the principles of green chemistry pertaining to HEMs, followed by the work carried out globally on environmentally compatible green energetic materials and allied ingredients.

  12. Energetics of hydrogen bonding in proteins: a model compound study.

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    Differences in the energetics of amide-amide and amide-hydroxyl hydrogen bonds in proteins have been explored from the effect of hydroxyl groups on the structure and dissolution energetics of a series of crystalline cyclic dipeptides. The calorimetrically determined energetics are interpreted in light of the crystal structures of the studied compounds. Our results indicate that the amide-amide and amide-hydroxyl hydrogen bonds both provide considerable enthalpic stability, but that the amide-...

  13. Biocidal Energetic Materials for the Destruction of Spore Forming Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    L R E P O R T DTRA-TR-13-52 Biocidal Energetic Materials for the Destruction of Spore Forming Bacteria Distribution Statement A...Z39.18 00-07-2015 Technical N/A Biocidal Energetic Materials for the Destruction of Spore Forming Bacteria HDTRA1-10-1-0108 Emily M. Hunt, Ph.D. West...understand the interaction between spore forming bacteria and thermite reactions and products and to exploit energetic material reactions with

  14. High Strain Rate Experiments of Energetic Material Binder

    OpenAIRE

    Rangel Mendoza, Roberto; Harr, Michael; Chen, Weinong

    2016-01-01

    Energetic materials, in particular HMX, is widely used in many applications as polymer bonded explosives (PBX) and rocket propellant. However, when damaged, HMX is known to be an unstable substance which renders it a hazardous material and in some cases unreliable. Finding critical mechanical conditions at high rates that render various forms of energetic materials as unreliable would be vital to understand the effects that vibrations and compression forces have on energetic materials. A bett...

  15. Cumulative Vehicle Routing Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Kara, &#;mdat; Kara, Bahar Yeti&#;; Yeti&#;, M. Kadri

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a new objective function and corresponding formulations for the vehicle routing problem. The new cost function defined as the product of the distance of the arc and the flow on that arc. We call a vehicle routing problem with this new objective function as the Cumulative Vehicle Routing Problem (CumVRP). Integer programming formulations with O(n2) binary variables and O(n2) constraints are developed for both collection and delivery cases. We show that the CumVRP is a gener...

  16. Blast resistant vehicle seat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ripley, Edward B

    2013-02-12

    Disclosed are various seats for vehicles particularly military vehicles that are susceptible to attack by road-bed explosive devices such as land mines or improvised explosive devices. The seats often have rigid seat shells and may include rigid bracing for rigidly securing the seat to the chassis of the vehicle. Typically embodiments include channels and particulate media such as sand disposed in the channels. A gas distribution system is generally employed to pump a gas through the channels and in some embodiments the gas is provided at a pressure sufficient to fluidize the particulate media when an occupant is sitting on the seat.

  17. Multidimensional DDT modeling of energetic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, M.R.; Hertel, E.S.; Bell, R.L.

    1995-07-01

    To model the shock-induced behavior of porous or damaged energetic materials, a nonequilibrium mixture theory has been developed and incorporated into the shock physics code, CTH. The foundation for this multiphase model is based on a continuum mixture formulation given by Baer and Nunziato. This multiphase mixture model provides a thermodynamic and mathematically-consistent description of the self-accelerated combustion processes associated with deflagration-to-detonation and delayed detonation behavior which are key modeling issues in safety assessment of energetic systems. An operator-splitting method is used in the implementation of this model, whereby phase diffusion effects are incorporated using a high resolution transport method. Internal state variables, forming the basis for phase interaction quantities, are resolved during the Lagrangian step requiring the use of a stiff matrix-free solver. Benchmark calculations are presented which simulate low-velocity piston impact on a propellant porous bed and experimentally-measured wave features are well replicated with this model. This mixture model introduces micromechanical models for the initiation and growth of reactive multicomponent flow that are key features to describe shock initiation and self-accelerated deflagration-to-detonation combustion behavior. To complement one-dimensional simulation, two-dimensional numerical calculations are presented which indicate wave curvature effects due to the loss of wall confinement. This study is pertinent for safety analysis of weapon systems.

  18. Energetics of Windmill in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (Experimental Investigations, Stalling Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Grechihin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers an environmental influence on working high speed mill as a component of vortex heat pump. Experimental investigations of small high speed mill have been carried out in the aerator mode. The paper has determined conditions when the high speed mill is acting as a heat pump. It has been shown that the high speed mill has a maximum transformation ratio not more than 3.5. 

  19. Vehicle Dynamics and Control

    CERN Document Server

    Rajamani, Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    Vehicle Dynamics and Control provides a comprehensive coverage of vehicle control systems and the dynamic models used in the development of these control systems. The control system applications covered in the book include cruise control, adaptive cruise control, ABS, automated lane keeping, automated highway systems, yaw stability control, engine control, passive, active and semi-active suspensions, tire-road friction coefficient estimation, rollover prevention, and hybrid electric vehicle. In developing the dynamic model for each application, an effort is made to both keep the model simple enough for control system design but at the same time rich enough to capture the essential features of the dynamics. A special effort has been made to explain the several different tire models commonly used in literature and to interpret them physically. In the second edition of the book, chapters on roll dynamics, rollover prevention and hybrid electric vehicles have been added, and the chapter on electronic stability co...

  20. Hybrid vehicle control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shallvari, Iva; Velnati, Sashidhar; DeGroot, Kenneth P.

    2015-07-28

    A method and apparatus for heating a catalytic converter's catalyst to an efficient operating temperature in a hybrid electric vehicle when the vehicle is in a charge limited mode such as e.g., the charge depleting mode or when the vehicle's high voltage battery is otherwise charge limited. The method and apparatus determine whether a high voltage battery of the vehicle is incapable of accepting a first amount of charge associated with a first procedure to warm-up the catalyst. If it is determined that the high voltage battery is incapable of accepting the first amount of charge, a second procedure with an acceptable amount of charge is performed to warm-up the catalyst.

  1. Hybrid vehicle control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shallvari, Iva; Velnati, Sashidhar; DeGroot, Kenneth P.

    2015-07-28

    A method and apparatus for heating a catalytic converter's catalyst to an efficient operating temperature in a hybrid electric vehicle when the vehicle is in a charge limited mode such as e.g., the charge depleting mode or when the vehicle's high voltage battery is otherwise charge limited. The method and apparatus determine whether a high voltage battery of the vehicle is incapable of accepting a first amount of charge associated with a first procedure to warm-up the catalyst. If it is determined that the high voltage battery is incapable of accepting the first amount of charge, a second procedure with an acceptable amount of charge is performed to warm-up the catalyst.

  2. Aerodynamics of Small Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Thomas J.

    In this review we describe the aerodynamic problems that must be addressed in order to design a successful small aerial vehicle. The effects of Reynolds number and aspect ratio (AR) on the design and performance of fixed-wing vehicles are described. The boundary-layer behavior on airfoils is especially important in the design of vehicles in this flight regime. The results of a number of experimental boundary-layer studies, including the influence of laminar separation bubbles, are discussed. Several examples of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in this regime are described. Also, a brief survey of analytical models for oscillating and flapping-wing propulsion is presented. These range from the earliest examples where quasi-steady, attached flow is assumed, to those that account for the unsteady shed vortex wake as well as flow separation and aeroelastic behavior of a flapping wing. Experiments that complemented the analysis and led to the design of a successful ornithopter are also described.

  3. Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the United Parcel Service (UPS) have developed a hydraulic hybrid delivery vehicle to explore and demonstrate the environmental benefits of the hydraulic hybrid for urban pick-up and delivery fleets.

  4. TRACKED VEHICLE Rev 75

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-05-08

    Revision 75 of the Tracked Vehicle software is a soft real-time simulation of a differentially steered, tracked mobile robot, which, because of the track flippers, resembles the iRobot PackBot (http://www.irobot.com/). Open source libraries are used for the physics engine (http://www.ode.org/), the display and user interface (http://www.mathies.com/cpw/), and the program command line and configuration file parameters (http://www.boost.org/). The simulation can be controlled by a USB joystick or the keyboard. The configuration file contains demonstration model parameters of no particular vehicle. This simulation can be used as a starting point for those doing tracked vehicle simulations. This simulation software is essentially a research tool which can be modified and adapted for certain types of tracked vehicle research. An open source license allows an individual researchers to tailor the code to their specific research needs.

  5. Handbook of Intelligent Vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The Handbook of Intelligent Vehicles provides a complete coverage of the fundamentals, new technologies, and sub-areas essential to the development of intelligent vehicles; it also includes advances made to date, challenges, and future trends. Significant strides in the field have been made to date; however, so far there has been no single book or volume which captures these advances in a comprehensive format, addressing all essential components and subspecialties of intelligent vehicles, as this book does. Since the intended users are engineering practitioners, as well as researchers and graduate students, the book chapters do not only cover fundamentals, methods, and algorithms but also include how software/hardware are implemented, and demonstrate the advances along with their present challenges. Research at both component and systems levels are required to advance the functionality of intelligent vehicles. This volume covers both of these aspects in addition to the fundamentals listed above.

  6. Abandoned vehicles REMINDER

    CERN Document Server

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  7. Abandoned vehicles - Reminder

    CERN Document Server

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  8. Abandonned vehicles - REMINDER

    CERN Document Server

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  9. Peak exposures to main components of ash and gaseous diesel exhausts in closed and open ash loading stations at biomass-fuelled power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laitinen, Juha; Koponen, Hanna; Sippula, Olli; Korpijärvi, Kirsi; Jumpponen, Mika; Laitinen, Sirpa; Aatamila, Marjaleena; Tissari, Jarkko; Karhunen, Tommi; Ojanen, Kari; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Korpinen, Leena

    2017-10-01

    Fly and bottom ashes are collected at power plants to reduce the environmental effects of energy production. However, handling the ashes causes health problems for operators, maintenance workers and truck drivers at the power plants. Hence, we evaluated ash loaders' peak inhalation exposures to the chemical components of ash and diesel exhausts in open and closed ash loading stations at biomass-fuelled combined heat and power plants. We also carried out chemical and morphological analyses of the ashes to evaluate their health hazard potential in order to find practical technical measures to reduce workers' exposure. On the basis of X-ray diffraction analyses, the main respirable crystalline ash compounds were SiO2, CaSO4, CaO, Ca2Al2SiO7, NaCl and Ca3Al2O6 in the fly ashes and SiO2, KAlSi3O8, NaAlSi3O8 and Ca2Al2SiO7 in the bottom ashes. The short-term exposure levels of respirable crystalline silica, inhalable inorganic dust, Cr, Mn, Ni and nitric oxide exceeded their Finnish eight hours occupational exposure limit values in the closed ash loading station. According to our observations, more attention should be paid to the ash-moistening process, the use of tank trucks instead of open cassette flatbed trucks, and the sealing of the loading line from the silo to the truck which would prevent spreading the ash into the air. The idling time of diesel trucks should also be limited, and ash loading stations should be equipped with exhaust gas ventilators. If working conditions make it impossible to keep to the OEL values, workers must use respirators and protect their eyes and skin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. SCR in biomass and waste fuelled plants. Benchmarking of Swedish and European plants; SCR i biobraensle- och avfallseldade anlaeggningar. Erfarenheter fraan svenska och europeiska anlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, Barbara; Olsson, Henrik; Lindstroem, Erica

    2010-11-15

    In this report the state-of-art of SCR technology in biomass and waste fired plants is investigated. The aim of the investigation is to answer the question why new Swedish biomass combustion and co-combustion plants often prefer SNCR technology, whilst European waste combustion plants often choose SCR technology. In the report positives and negatives of various types of SCR installations are discussed, high-dust versus tail-end, 'normal' SCR versus low-temperature SCR, etc. Experiences, e g catalyst lifetime, deactivation and maintenance requirement, are discussed. The investigation is based partly on literature, but mainly on interviews with plant owners and with suppliers of SCR installations. The interviewed suppliers are mentioned in the reference list and the interviewed plant owners are mentioned in appendix A and B. The experiences from the Swedish and European plants are quite similar. Tail-end SCR is often operated without serious problems in both biomass and waste fuelled plants. The catalyst lifetimes are as long or even longer than for coal fired plants with high-dust SCR. In waste incineration plants high-dust SCR causes big problems and these plants are almost always equipped with tail-end SCR. In co-combustion boilers, where coal and biomass is co-combusted, high-dust SCR is more common, especially if the boilers were originally coal fired. In plants with both SNCR and high-dust SCR, i.e. slip-SCR, the SCR installation is considered to be much less of a problem. Although the activity loss of the catalyst is as quick as in conventional high-dust SCR, the catalyst can be changed less often. This is due to the fact that installed slip-SCR catalysts often are as large as conventional SCR catalysts, although less NO{sub x} reduction is required after the initial SNCR step. Thus, the catalyst lifetime is prolonged.

  11. Nuclear air cushion vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    This paper serves several functions. It identifies the 'state-of-the-art' of the still-conceptual nuclear air cushion vehicle, particularly the nuclear powerplant. Using mission studies and cost estimates, the report describes some of the advantages of nuclear power for large air cushion vehicles. The paper also summarizes the technology studies on mobile nuclear powerplants and conceptual ACV systems/missions studies that have been performed at NASA Lewis Research Center.

  12. Ground Vehicle Robotics Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    Mr. Jim Parker Associate Director Ground Vehicle Robotics Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release Report Documentation Page...Briefing 3. DATES COVERED 01-07-2012 to 01-08-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ground Vehicle Robotics Presentation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...ABSTRACT Provide Transition-Ready, Cost-Effective, and Innovative Robotics and Control System Solutions for Manned, Optionally-Manned, and Unmanned

  13. HYBRID VEHICLE CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dvadnenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid vehicle control system includes a start–stop system for an internal combustion engine. The system works in a hybrid mode and normal vehicle operation. To simplify the start–stop system, there were user new possibilities of a hybrid car, which appeared after the conversion. Results of the circuit design of the proposed system of basic blocks are analyzed.

  14. Electric vehicles in action

    OpenAIRE

    Wikström, Martina

    2015-01-01

    This thesis analyses the political and practical conditions for introducing electric vehicles in Swedish public authorites and discusses the potential for using electric vehicles in public transport and public fleets. The work has been carried out using an interdisciplinary research approach. Such an approach brings new insights to energy studies; the combination of technical methods and methods from social science allows the technology to be studied in its societal context. Local self-govern...

  15. Vehicle Based Vector Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-28

    300001 1 of 16 VEHICLE-BASED VECTOR SENSOR STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST [0001] The invention described herein may be manufactured and...unmanned underwater vehicle that can function as an acoustic vector sensor . (2) Description of the Prior Art [0004] It is known that a propagating...mechanics. An acoustic vector sensor measures the particle motion via an accelerometer and combines Attorney Docket No. 300001 2 of 16 the

  16. Vehicle Routing in Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Hasle, Geir

    2010-01-01

    Solving the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) is a key to efficiency in transportation and supply chain management. The VRP is a computationally hard problem that comes in many guises. The VRP literature contains thousands of papers, and VRP research is regarded as one of the great successes of OR. In industry and the public sector, vehicle routing tools provide substantial savings every day. An industry of routing tool vendors has emerged. Exact optimization methods of today cannot consistently ...

  17. The Energetics of Gravity Driven Faulting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrows, L.

    2007-12-01

    Faulting can result from either of two different mechanisms. These involve fundamentally different energetics. In displacement-bounded faulting, locked-in elastic strain energy is transformed into seismic waves plus work done in the fault zone. Elastic rebound is an example of displacement-bounded faulting. In force-driven faulting, the forces that create the stress on the fault supply work or energy to the faulting process. Half of this energy is transformed into seismic waves plus work done in the fault zone and half goes into an increase in locked-in elastic strain. In displacement-bounded faulting the locked-in elastic strain drives slip on the fault. In force-driven faulting it stops slip on the fault. Tectonic stress is reasonably attributed to gravity acting on topography and the Earth's lateral density variations. This includes the thermal convection that ultimately drives plate tectonics. The gravity collapse seismic mechanism assumes the fault fails and slips in direct response to the gravitational tectonic stress. Gravity collapse is an example of force-driven faulting. In the simplest case, energy that is released from the gravitational potential of the topography and internal stress-causing density variations is equally split between the seismic waves plus work done in the fault zone and the increase in locked-in elastic strain. The release of gravitational potential energy requires a change in the Earth's density distribution. Gravitational body forces are solely dependent on density so a change in the density distribution requires a change in the body forces. This implies the existence of volumetric body-force displacements. The volumetric body-force displacements are in addition to displacements generated by slip on the fault. They must exist if gravity participates in the energetics of the faulting process. From the perspective of gravitational tectonics, the gravity collapse mechanism is direct and simple. The related mechanics are a little more

  18. Electric/Hybrid Vehicle Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slusser, R. A.; Chapman, C. P.; Brennand, J. P.

    1985-01-01

    ELVEC computer program provides vehicle designer with simulation tool for detailed studies of electric and hybrid vehicle performance and cost. ELVEC simulates performance of user-specified electric or hybrid vehicle under user specified driving schedule profile or operating schedule. ELVEC performs vehicle design and life cycle cost analysis.

  19. The minimal energetic requirement of sustained awareness after brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Johan; Mortensen, Kristian Nygaard; Thibaut, Aurore

    2016-01-01

    % of normal cortical activity represents the minimal energetic requirement for the presence of conscious awareness. Overall, the cerebral metabolic rate accounted for the current level, or imminent return, of awareness in 94% of the patient population, suggesting a global energetic threshold effect...

  20. Energetic materials: crystallization, characterization and insensitive plastic bonded explosives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, A.E.D.M. van der; Creyghton, Y.L.M.; Marino, E.; Bouma, R.H.B.; Scholtes, G.J.H.G.; Duvalois, W.; Roelands, C.P.M.

    2008-01-01

    The product quality of energetic materials is predominantly determined by the crystallization process applied to produce these materials. It has been demonstrated in the past that the higher the product quality of the solid energetic ingredients, the less sensitive a plastic bonded explosive contain

  1. Particle coating – a novel trend in energetic materials engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abadjieva, E.; Heijden, A.E.D.M. van der; Creyghton, Y.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    The development of new energetic materials with enhanced blast properties requires better understanding of factors as particle type, size and particle/matrix distribution. The ability of growing a coating on particles opens new possibilities in energetic materials engineering. Functionalities as

  2. Synthesis and Characterization of Mixed Metal Oxide Nanocomposite Energetic Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gash, A; Pantoya, M; Jr., J S; Zhao, L; Shea, K; Simpson, R; Clapsaddle, B

    2003-11-18

    In the field of composite energetic materials, properties such as ingredient distribution, particle size, and morphology, affect both sensitivity and performance. Since the reaction kinetics of composite energetic materials are typically controlled by the mass transport rates between reactants, one would anticipate new and potentially exceptional performance from energetic nanocomposites. We have developed a new method of making nanostructured energetic materials, specifically explosives, propellants, and pyrotechnics, using sol-gel chemistry. A novel sol-gel approach has proven successful in preparing metal oxide/silicon oxide nanocomposites in which the metal oxide is the major component. Two of the metal oxides are tungsten trioxide and iron(III) oxide, both of which are of interest in the field of energetic materials. Furthermore, due to the large availability of organically functionalized silanes, the silicon oxide phase can be used as a unique way of introducing organic additives into the bulk metal oxide materials. As a result, the desired organic functionality is well dispersed throughout the composite material on the nanoscale. By introducing a fuel metal into the metal oxide/silicon oxide matrix, energetic materials based on thermite reactions can be fabricated. The resulting nanoscale distribution of all the ingredients displays energetic properties not seen in its microscale counterparts due to the expected increase of mass transport rates between the reactants. The synthesis and characterization of these metal oxide/silicon oxide nanocomposites and their performance as energetic materials will be discussed.

  3. Energetic materials: crystallization, characterization and insensitive plastic bonded explosives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, A.E.D.M. van der; Creyghton, Y.L.M.; Marino, E.; Bouma, R.H.B.; Scholtes, G.J.H.G.; Duvalois, W.; Roelands, C.P.M.

    2008-01-01

    The product quality of energetic materials is predominantly determined by the crystallization process applied to produce these materials. It has been demonstrated in the past that the higher the product quality of the solid energetic ingredients, the less sensitive a plastic bonded explosive

  4. Shear initiated reactions in energetic and reactive materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuken, B.; Martinez Pacheco, M.; Verbeek, H.J.; Bouma, R.H.B.; Katgerman, L.

    2006-01-01

    Deformation of energetic materials may cause undesired reactions and therefore hazardous situations. The deformation of an energetic material and in particular shear deformation is studied in this paper. Understanding of the phenomena leading to shear initiation is not only necessary to explain for

  5. Shear initiated reactions in energetic and reactive materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuken, B.; Martinez Pacheco, M.; Verbeek, H.J.; Bouma, R.H.B.; Katgerman, L.

    2006-01-01

    Deformation of energetic materials may cause undesired reactions and therefore hazardous situations. The deformation of an energetic material and in particular shear deformation is studied in this paper. Understanding of the phenomena leading to shear initiation is not only necessary to explain for

  6. Energetic Quantum Limit in Large-Scale Interferometers

    OpenAIRE

    Braginsky, Vladimir B.; Gorodetsky, Mikhail L.; Khalili, Farid Ya.; Thorne, Kip S.

    1999-01-01

    For each optical topology of an interferometric gravitational wave detector, quantum mechanics dictates a minimum optical power (the ``energetic quantum limit'') to achieve a given sensitivity. For standard topologies, when one seeks to beat the standard quantum limit by a substantial factor, the energetic quantum limit becomes impossibly large. Intracavity readout schemes may do so with manageable optical powers.

  7. Energetic adaptations persist after bariatric surgery in severely obese adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energetic adaptations induced by bariatric surgery have not been studied in adolescents or for extended periods postsurgery. Energetic, metabolic, and neuroendocrine responses to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery were investigated in extremely obese adolescents. At baseline and at 1.5, 6, and...

  8. Utilization of FEP energetics. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederking, T.H.K.; Abbassi, P.; Afifi, F.; Khandhar, P.K.; Ono, D.Y.; Chen, W.E.W.

    1987-12-01

    The research and development work on Fountain Effect Pump Systems (FEP systems) has been of interest in the competition between mechanical pumps for He II and FEP units. The latter do not have moving parts. In the course of the work, the energetics have been addressed using one part of a simple four-changes-of-state cycle. One option is the FEP ideal change of state at constant chemical potential (mu). The other option is the two-state sequence mu-P with a d mu=0 state change followed by an isobar. Questions of pump behavior, of flow rate response to temperature difference at the hot end, and related questions of thermodynamic cycle completion and heat transfer have been addressed. Porous media data obtained elucidate differences between vapor-liquid phase separation (VLPS) and Zero Net Mass Transfer (ZNMF).

  9. ENERGETIC PARTICLE ANISOTROPIES AT THE HELIOSPHERIC BOUNDARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florinski, V.; Le Roux, J. A. [Department of Space Sciences, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Jokipii, J. R. [Department of Planetary Sciences and Lunar and Planetary Lab, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Alouani-Bibi, F. [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States)

    2013-10-20

    In 2012 August the Voyager 1 space probe entered a distinctly new region of space characterized by a virtual absence of heliospheric energetic ions and magnetic fluctuations, now interpreted as a part of the local interstellar cloud. Prior to their disappearance, the ion distributions strongly peaked at a 90° pitch angle, implying rapid escape of streaming particles along the magnetic field lines. Here we investigate the process of particle crossing from the heliosheath into the interstellar space, using a kinetic approach that resolves scales of the particle's cyclotron radius and smaller. It is demonstrated that a 'pancake' pitch-angle distribution naturally arises at a tangential discontinuity separating a weakly turbulent plasma from a laminar region with a very low pitch-angle scattering rate. The relatively long persistence of gyrating ions is interpreted in terms of field line meandering facilitating their cross-field diffusion within the depletion region.

  10. Forces and energetics of intermittent swimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floryan, Daniel; Van Buren, Tyler; Smits, Alexander J.

    2017-08-01

    Experiments are reported on intermittent swimming motions. Water tunnel experiments on a nominally two-dimensional pitching foil show that the mean thrust and power scale linearly with the duty cycle, from a value of 0.2 all the way up to continuous motions, indicating that individual bursts of activity in intermittent motions are independent of each other. This conclusion is corroborated by particle image velocimetry (PIV) flow visualizations, which show that the main vortical structures in the wake do not change with duty cycle. The experimental data also demonstrate that intermittent motions are generally energetically advantageous over continuous motions. When metabolic energy losses are taken into account, this conclusion is maintained for metabolic power fractions less than 1.

  11. Nonlinear Electromagnetic Interactions in Energetic Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Wood, M A; Moore, D S

    2016-01-01

    We study the scattering of electromagnetic waves in anisotropic energetic materials. Nonlinear light-matter interactions in molecular crystals result in frequency-conversion and polarization changes. Applied electromagnetic fields of moderate intensity can induce these nonlinear effects without triggering chemical decomposition, offering a mechanism for non-ionizing identification of explosives. We use molecular dynamics simulations to compute such two-dimensional Raman spectra in the terahertz range for planar slabs made of PETN and ammonium nitrate. We discuss third-harmonic generation and polarization-conversion processes in such materials. These observed far-field spectral features of the reflected or transmitted light may serve as an alternative tool for stand-off explosive detection.

  12. Energetically Modified Cement (EMC) - Performance Mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronin, Vladimir; Elfgren, Lennart [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden). Centre for High Performance Cement

    2003-03-01

    Energetically Modified Cements, EMC, made of intensively milled cement (50%) and fillers (50%) of quartz or fly ash have been compared to blends of Ordinary Portland Cement, OPC, and fillers. The EMCs have better properties than other blends and are comparable to unblended OPC. This remarkable fact can probably be explained as follows. The grinding process reduces the size of both cement grains and fillers. This combined with the creation of micro defects gives the ground cement a very high degree of hydration. The increased early hydration and a better distribution of hydration products results in an extensive pore size refinement of the hardened binder. This pore size refinement leads to a favorably reduced permeability and diffusivity and very good mechanical properties.

  13. The Two Sources of Solar Energetic Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Reames, Donald V

    2013-01-01

    Evidence for two different physical mechanisms for acceleration of solar energetic particles (SEPs) arose 50 years ago with radio observations of type III bursts, produced by outward streaming electrons, and type II bursts from coronal and interplanetary shock waves. Since that time we have found that the former are related to "impulsive" SEP events from impulsive flares or jets. Here, resonant stochastic acceleration, related to magnetic reconnection involving open field lines, produces not only electrons but 1000-fold enhancements of 3He/4He and of (Z>50)/O. Alternatively, in "gradual" SEP events, shock waves, driven out from the Sun by coronal mass ejections (CMEs), more democratically sample ion abundances that are even used to measure the coronal abundances of the elements. Sometimes residual impulsive suprathermal ions contribute to the seed population for shock acceleration, complicating the abundance picture, but this process has now been modeled theoretically. Initially, impulsive events define a poi...

  14. Energetically Modified Cement (EMC) - Performance Mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronin, Vladimir; Elfgren, Lennart [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden). Centre for High Performance Cement

    2003-03-01

    Energetically Modified Cements, EMC, made of intensively milled cement (50%) and fillers (50%) of quartz or fly ash have been compared to blends of Ordinary Portland Cement, OPC, and fillers. The EMCs have better properties than other blends and are comparable to unblended OPC. This remarkable fact can probably be explained as follows. The grinding process reduces the size of both cement grains and fillers. This combined with the creation of micro defects gives the ground cement a very high degree of hydration. The increased early hydration and a better distribution of hydration products results in an extensive pore size refinement of the hardened binder. This pore size refinement leads to a favorably reduced permeability and diffusivity and very good mechanical properties.

  15. Diabetes: energetics, development and human evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, B C; Cajigal, A

    2001-07-01

    The recent emergence of the thrifty phenotype as an explanation for metabolic efficiency has brought evolutionary perspectives on diabetes, as represented by the thrifty genotype, under scrutiny. However, the logic of natural selection along with evidence from non-human primates supports the role for energetic constraints in the evolution of metabolic efficiency, particularly in skeletal muscle physiology. Environmental fluctuation during human evolution would have provided selective pressures for the development of efficient skeletal muscle starting prenatally and continuing throughout the lifespan. Such mechanisms including, glucose transporters, mitochondrial gene expression, leptin receptors and uncoupling proteins, should be present in all humans, though some living populations may exhibit particular 'thriftier' alleles. A focus on physical activity and the factors underlying efficient muscle physiology has implications for prevention of diabetes in both developing and developed societies. Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  16. Energetic electron spectra in Saturn's plasma sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbary, J. F.; Paranicas, C.; Mitchell, D. G.; Krimigis, S. M.; Krupp, N.

    2011-07-01

    The differential spectra of energetic electrons (27-400 keV) in Saturn's plasma sheet can be characterized by power law or kappa distributions. Using all available fluxes from 2005 to 2010, fits to these distributions reveal a striking and consistent pattern of radial dependence in Saturn's plasma sheet (∣z∣ constant throughout the Cassini mission. Inward of about 10 RS, the presence of the electron radiation belts and losses of lower-energy electrons to the gas and grain environment give rise to the very hard spectra in the inner magnetosphere, while the hard spectra in the outer magnetosphere may derive from auroral acceleration at high latitudes. The gradual softening of the spectra from 20 to 10 RS is explained by inward radial diffusion.

  17. Liquid surface model for carbon nanotube energetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Mathew, Maneesh; Solov'yov, Andrey V.

    2008-01-01

    In the present paper we developed a model for calculating the energy of single-wall carbon nanotubes of arbitrary chirality. This model, which we call as the liquid surface model, predicts the energy of a nanotube with relative error less than 1% once its chirality and the total number of atoms...... are known. The parameters of the liquid surface model and its potential applications are discussed. The model has been suggested for open end and capped nanotubes. The influence of the catalytic nanoparticle, atop which nanotubes grow, on the nanotube stability is also discussed. The suggested model gives...... an important insight in the energetics and stability of nanotubes of different chirality and might be important for the understanding of nanotube growth process. For the computations we use empirical Brenner and Tersoff potentials and discuss their applicability to the study of carbon nanotubes. From...

  18. An energetic basis of equine performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMiken, D F

    1983-04-01

    Although different physiological and behavioural attributes are needed for various types of equine competition, successful racing depends primarily on the animal's metabolic ability to convert chemical energy to mechanical energy--the function of muscle. Components of these energetic processes include the rate, efficiency and interaction of aerobic and anaerobic metabolism in muscle and the supply and utilisation of fuel. In anaerobic work like racing, fatigue processes may be largely regarded as a function of an intramuscular fuel (phosphogen) depletion, despite the fact that substrates are supplied via the circulation. Physical work capacity in the horse depends then mainly on the rate of aerobic metabolism and the capacity of the anaerobic processes to supply energy for continued muscle contraction. Underlying these processes are physiological limitations of the cardiovascular system and the ultrastructure and biochemistry of muscle. A model is proposed whereby prediction of equine performance is based entirely on parameters of energy metabolism.

  19. Energetic Particle Diffusion In Critically Balanced Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Laitinen, T; Kelly, J; Marsh, M; 10.1088/0004-637X/764/2/168

    2013-01-01

    Observations and modelling suggest that the fluctuations in magnetised plasmas exhibit scale-dependent anisotropy, with more energy in the fluctuations perpendicular to the mean magnetic field than in the parallel fluctuations and the anisotropy increasing at smaller scales. The scale-dependence of the anisotropy has not been studied in full-orbit simulations of particle transport in turbulent plasmas so far. In this paper, we construct a model of critically balanced turbulence, as suggested by \\cite{GoSr1995}, and calculate energetic particle spatial diffusion coefficients using full-orbit simulations. The model uses an enveloped turbulence approach, where each 2-dimensional wave mode with wavenumber $k_\\perp$ is packed into envelopes of length $L$ following the critical balance condition, $L\\propto k_\\perp^{-2/3}$, with the wave mode parameters changing between envelopes. Using full-orbit particle simulations, we find that both the parallel and perpendicular diffusion coefficients increase by a factor 2, co...

  20. Towards coherent control of energetic material initiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenfield, Margo T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcgrane, Shawn D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scharff, R Jason [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Moore, David S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Direct optical initiation (DOI) of energetic materials using coherent control of localized energy deposition requires depositing energy into the material to produce a critical size hot spot, which allows propagation of the reaction and thereby initiation, The hot spot characteristics needed for growth to initiation can be studied using quantum controlled initiation (QCI). Achieving direct quantum controlled initiation (QCI) in condensed phase systems requires optimally shaped ultrafast laser pulses to coherently guide the energy flow along the desired paths. As a test of our quantum control capabilities we have successfully demonstrated our ability to control the reaction pathway of the chemical system stilbene. An acousto-optical modulator based pulse shaper was used at 266 nm, in a shaped pump/supercontinuum probe technique, to enhance and suppress th relative yields of the cis- to trans-stilbene isomerization. The quantum control techniques tested in the stilbene experiments are currently being used to investigate QCI of the explosive hexanitroazobenzene (HNAB).

  1. Energetics of the quantum graphity universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Samuel A.; Greentree, Andrew D.

    2014-12-01

    Quantum graphity is a background independent model for emergent geometry, in which space is represented as a dynamical graph. The high-energy pregeometric starting point of the model is usually considered to be the complete graph; however, we also consider the empty graph as a candidate pregeometric state. The energetics as the graph evolves from either of these high-energy states to a low-energy geometric state is investigated as a function of the number of edges in the graph. Analytic results for the slope of this energy curve in the high-energy domain are derived, and the energy curve is determined exactly for small number of vertices N . To study the whole energy curve for larger (but still finite) N , an epitaxial approximation is introduced. This work may open the way to compare predictions from quantum graphity with observations of the early Universe, making the model falsifiable.

  2. Energetics of the Quantum Graphity Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Wilkinson, Samuel A

    2014-01-01

    Quantum graphity is a background independent model for emergent geometry, in which space is represented as a complete graph. The high-energy pre-geometric starting point of the model is usually considered to be the complete graph, however we also consider the empty graph as a candidate pre-geometric state. The energetics as the graph evolves from either of these high-energy states to a low-energy geometric state is investigated as a function of the number of edges in the graph. Analytic results for the slope of this energy curve in the high-energy domain are derived, and the energy curve is plotted exactly for small number of vertices $N$. To study the whole energy curve for larger (but still finite) $N$, an epitaxial approximation is used. It is hoped that this work may open the way for future work to compare predictions from quantum graphity with observations of the early universe, making the model falsifiable.

  3. Energetic materials destruction using molten salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhye, R.S.; Watkins, B.E.; Pruneda, C.O.; Brummond, W.A.

    1994-04-29

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in conjunction with the Energetic Materials Center is developing methods for the safe and environmentally sound destruction of explosives and propellants as a part of the Laboratory`s ancillary demilitarization mission. LLNL has built a small-scale unit to test the destruction of HE using the Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) Process. In addition to the high explosive HMX, destruction has been carried out on RDX, PETN, ammonium picrate, TNT, nitroguanadine, and TATB. Also destroyed was a liquid gun propellant comprising hydroxyammonium nitrate, triethanolammonium nitrate and water. In addition to these pure components, destruction has been carried out on a number of commonly used formulations, such as LX-10, LX-16, LX-17, and PBX-9404.

  4. Characterization of thermally degraded energetic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renlund, A.M.; Miller, J.C.; Trott, W.M.; Erickson, K.L.; Hobbs, M.L.; Schmitt, R.G.; Wellman, G.W.; Baer, M.R.

    1997-12-31

    Characterization of the damage state of a thermally degraded energetic material (EM) is a critical first step in understanding and predicting cookoff behavior. Unfortunately, the chemical and mechanical responses of heated EMs are closely coupled, especially if the EM is confined. The authors have examined several EMs in small-scale experiments (typically 200 mg) heated in both constant-volume and constant-load configurations. Fixtures were designed to minimize free volume and to contain gas pressures to several thousand psi. The authors measured mechanical forces or displacements that correlated to thermal expansion, phase transitions, material creep and gas pressurization as functions of temperature and soak time. In addition to these real-time measurements, samples were recovered for postmortem examination, usually with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and chemical analysis. The authors present results on EMs (HMX and TATB), with binders (e.g., PBX 9501, PBX 9502, LX-14) and propellants (Al/AP/HTPB).

  5. Energetic dose: Beyond fire and flint?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, G.; Rattner, B.; Cohen, J.

    2000-01-01

    Nutritional and bioenergetic interactions influence exposure to environmental chemicals and may affect the risk realized when wildlife are exposed in the field. Here, food-chain analysis focuses on prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) and the evaluation of chemical risks associated with paraquat following 10-d dietary exposures. Reproductive effects were measured in 60-d trials that followed exposures to paraquat-tainted feed: control (untainted feed); 21 mg paraquat/kg feed; 63 mg paraquat/kg feed; and feed-restricted control (untainted feed restricted to 60% baseline consumption). Reproductive success was evaluated in control and treated breeding pairs, and a preliminary bioenergetics analysis was completed in parallel to derive exposure dose. Although reproductive performance differed among groups, feed-restriction appeared to be the dominant treatment effect observed in these 10-d feeding exposure/limited reproductive trials. Exposure dose ranged from 3.70-3.76 to 9.41-11.51 mg parquat/kg BW/day at 21 and 63 mg paraquat/kg feed stock exposures, respectively. Energetic doses as ug paraquat/kcal yielded preliminary estimates of energetic costs associated with paraquat exposure, and were similar within treatments for both sexes, ranging from 4.2-5.5 and 13.1-15.0 ug paraquat/kcal for voles exposed to 21 mg/kg feed stock and 63 mg/kg feed stock, respectively. Given the increasing likelihood that environmental chemicals will be found in wildlife habitat at 'acceptable levels', the critical role that wildlife nutrition plays in evaluating ecological risks should be fully integrated into the assessment process. Tools applied to the analysis of risk must gain higher resolution than the relatively crude methods we currently bring to the process.

  6. Energetic particle perspective of the magnetopause

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, D.J.; Fritz, T.A.; Wilken, B.; Keppler, E.

    1979-11-01

    We present a detailed analysis of energetic (>24 keV) particle data obtained from the Isee satellites during a series of magnetopause crossings which occurred at 0000--0400 hours UT (approx.1030 hours LT) on November 20, 1977. The primary energetic particle data used are the three-dimensional distributions obtained from the Isee A satellite. Correlative magnetic field measurements are used to relate the particle behavior to magnetic field characteristics at and earthward of the magnetopause. We find that to first order the magnetopause can be regarded as a perfectly absorbing boundary for trapped >24-keV particles, that it is nearly alway in motion, and that boundary waves are often present. We find that the observed dayside magnetopause motion is consistent with a large-scale radial motion having an approx.10-min period plus superimposed boundary waves with a 90- to 150-s period. More qualitatively, we find that the data require a third and longer period (approx. 30 min) magnetopause motion upon which the above, shorter-period motions are superimposed. It is concluded that the radial gradient to the magnetopause observed in the directional, >24-keV, dayside, near-equatorial, magnetospherically trapped particle flux is due to internal magnetospheric processes. Just outside the magnetopause in the magnetosheath we observe a broad (approximately hemispherical) field-aligned flow of >24-keV ions away from the magnetosphere. The absolute intensity and spectral characteristics of this flow and its reltion to the magnetopause and the trapped particle population indicate that it is formed by the leakage of trapped particles from the radiation belts onto magnetosheath field lines as their trajectories move to within two gyroradii of the magnetopause.

  7. COAL’S ROLE IN THE WORLD ENERGETIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei ROTH

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The world energy needs are on the rise, and they come from developing economies, especially the emerging ones such as China or India with high demographic and economic growth rates. These countries future demand for energy will shape the world’s energetic system. They will require considerable quantities of energy to fuel their demanding economies. The last decade has shown that the world’s energetic needs are being reoriented from West to East. Coal represents an available, secure and competitive energetic resource which can help the growing need for energy. However it is not that flexible as gas or renewables and it has also a greater impact upon environment due to its greenhouse gas emissions in the context of climate change. For these reasons coal is being less used for the energetic needs of the developed economies. Will the current attributes of coal be sufficient to maintain coal’s place in the world energetic mix?

  8. Nanostructured energetic composites: synthesis, ignition/combustion modeling, and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiang; Torabi, Mohsen; Lu, Jian; Shen, Ruiqi; Zhang, Kaili

    2014-03-12

    Nanotechnology has stimulated revolutionary advances in many scientific and industrial fields, particularly in energetic materials. Powder mixing is the simplest and most traditional method to prepare nanoenergetic composites, and preliminary findings have shown that these composites perform more effectively than their micro- or macro-sized counterparts in terms of energy release, ignition, and combustion. Powder mixing technology represents only the minimum capability of nanotechnology to boost the development of energetic material research, and it has intrinsic limitations, namely, random distribution of fuel and oxidizer particles, inevitable fuel pre-oxidation, and non-intimate contact between reactants. As an alternative, nanostructured energetic composites can be prepared through a delicately designed process. These composites outperform powder-mixed nanocomposites in numerous ways; therefore, we comprehensively discuss the preparation strategies adopted for nanostructured energetic composites and the research achievements thus far in this review. The latest ignition and reaction models are briefly introduced. Finally, the broad promising applications of nanostructured energetic composites are highlighted.

  9. ELECTROMAGNETIC BIOSPHERE POLLUTION BY MOTOR TRANSPORT (VEHICLES, ELECTRIC VEHICLES, HYBRID VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Selivanov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The physics of the electromagnetic field is considered. The analysis of electromagnetic radiation on the human-being, the origin of which is the vehicle the electric vehicle, the hybrid vehicle is being considered. The monitoring of electromagnetic radiation of vehicles is carried out.

  10. Traffic Information Unit, Traffic Information System, Vehicle Management System, Vehicle, and Method of Controlling a Vehicle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papp, Z.; Doodeman, G.J.N.; Nelisse, M.W.; Sijs, J.; Theeuwes, J.A.C.; Driessen, B.J.F.

    2010-01-01

    A traffic information unit (MD1, MD2, MD3) according to the invention comprises a facility (MI) for tracking vehicle state information of individual vehicles present at a traffic infrastructure and a facility (T) for transmitting said vehicle state information to a vehicle (70B, 70E). A traffic

  11. Distributed Propulsion Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Dae

    2010-01-01

    Since the introduction of large jet-powered transport aircraft, the majority of these vehicles have been designed by placing thrust-generating engines either under the wings or on the fuselage to minimize aerodynamic interactions on the vehicle operation. However, advances in computational and experimental tools along with new technologies in materials, structures, and aircraft controls, etc. are enabling a high degree of integration of the airframe and propulsion system in aircraft design. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been investigating a number of revolutionary distributed propulsion vehicle concepts to increase aircraft performance. The concept of distributed propulsion is to fully integrate a propulsion system within an airframe such that the aircraft takes full synergistic benefits of coupling of airframe aerodynamics and the propulsion thrust stream by distributing thrust using many propulsors on the airframe. Some of the concepts are based on the use of distributed jet flaps, distributed small multiple engines, gas-driven multi-fans, mechanically driven multifans, cross-flow fans, and electric fans driven by turboelectric generators. This paper describes some early concepts of the distributed propulsion vehicles and the current turboelectric distributed propulsion (TeDP) vehicle concepts being studied under the NASA s Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project to drastically reduce aircraft-related fuel burn, emissions, and noise by the year 2030 to 2035.

  12. VEHICLES LICENSED IN SWITZERLAND

    CERN Multimedia

    Service des Relations avec les Pays-Hôtes

    2000-01-01

    1.\tVehicle licensinga)\tTime limitsVehicles must have a Swiss registration document and Swiss number plates: -\tif the owner has been residing in Switzerland for more than one year without a break of more than three consecutive months and has been using it for more than one month on Swiss territory, or -\tif the vehicle itself has been on Swiss territory for more than one year without a break of more than three consecutive months. b)\tTechnical details Vehicles belonging to non-Swiss members of the personnel who hold a carte de légitimation issued by the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs (hereinafter referred to as 'DFAE') and who were not permanently resident in Switzerland before taking up their appointment may be licensed in Switzerland with virtually no restrictions provided that their owner produces: -\tthe vehicle registration document and number plates of the country in which the car was previously registered, or -\ta manufacturer's certi...

  13. Methylotroph cloning vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Richard S.; Allen, Larry N.

    1989-04-25

    A cloning vehicle comprising: a replication determinant effective for replicating the vehicle in a non-C.sub.1 -utilizing host and in a C.sub.1 -utilizing host; DNA effective to allow the vehicle to be mobilized from the non-C.sub.1 -utilizing host to the C.sub.1 -utilizing host; DNA providing resistance to two antibiotics to which the wild-type C.sub.1 -utilizing host is susceptible, each of the antibiotic resistance markers having a recognition site for a restriction endonuclease; a cos site; and a means for preventing replication in the C.sub.1 -utilizing host. The vehicle is used for complementation mapping as follows. DNA comprising a gene from the C.sub.1 -utilizing organism is inserted at the restriction nuclease recognition site, inactivating the antibiotic resistance marker at that site. The vehicle can then be used to form a cosmid structure to infect the non-C.sub.1 -utilizing (e.g., E. coli) host, and then conjugated with a selected C.sub.1 -utilizing mutant. Resistance to the other antibiotic by the mutant is a marker of the conjugation. Other phenotypical changes in the mutant, e.g., loss of an auxotrophic trait, is attributed to the C.sub.1 gene. The vector is also used to inactivate genes whose protein products catalyze side reactions that divert compounds from a biosynthetic pathway to a desired product, thereby producing an organism that makes the desired product in higher yields.

  14. Electric vehicle station equipment for grid-integrated vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kempton, Willett; Kiamilev, Fouad; McGee, Rodney; Waite, Nick

    2017-09-05

    Methods, systems, and apparatus transferring power between the grid and an electric vehicle are disclosed. The apparatus may include at least one vehicle communication port for interfacing with electric vehicle equipment (EVE) and a processor coupled to the at least one vehicle communication port to establish communication with the EVE, receive EVE attributes from the EVE, and transmit electric vehicle station equipment (EVSE) attributes to the EVE. Power may be transferred between the grid and the electric vehicle by maintaining EVSE attributes, establishing communication with the EVE, and transmitting the EVSE maintained attributes to the EVE.

  15. Overpressure wave generated by the pneumatic explosion of a solid propellant-fuelled propeller; Onde de surpression generee par l`explosion pneumatique d`un propulseur a propergol solide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolland, C.; Roussille, A. [DGA, Direction des Missiles et de l`Espace, Centre d`Achevement et d`Essais des Propulseurs et Engins, 33 - Saint Medard en Jalles (France)

    1996-12-31

    The CAEPE, the French Centre of Propellers and Engines Completion and Testing is in charge of the static tests of solid propellant fuelled propellers. In order to evaluate the risks linked with the explosion of such propellers, an analytical method is proposed which allows to determine the energy, impulses and overpressure due to an explosion occurring at any time of the firing process. This method is based on the exploitation of the shock tube equations. Concerning the overpressure wave propagation, several laws are compared to full scale tests performed at the CAEPE. (J.S.) 14 refs.

  16. Rail vehicle dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Knothe, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    This book on the dynamics of rail vehicles is developed from the manuscripts for a class with the same name at TU Berlin. It is directed mainly to master students with pre-knowledge in mathematics and mechanics and engineers that want to learn more. The important phenomena of the running behaviour of rail vehicles are derived and explained. Also recent research results and experience from the operation of rail vehicles are included. One focus is the description of the complex wheel-rail contact phenomena that are essential to understand the concept of running stability and curving. A reader should in the end be able to understand the background of simulation tools that are used by the railway industry and universities today.

  17. Dynamics of aerospace vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, David K.

    1991-01-01

    The focus of this research was to address the modeling, including model reduction, of flexible aerospace vehicles, with special emphasis on models used in dynamic analysis and/or guidance and control system design. In the modeling, it is critical that the key aspects of the system being modeled be captured in the model. In this work, therefore, aspects of the vehicle dynamics critical to control design were important. In this regard, fundamental contributions were made in the areas of stability robustness analysis techniques, model reduction techniques, and literal approximations for key dynamic characteristics of flexible vehicles. All these areas are related. In the development of a model, approximations are always involved, so control systems designed using these models must be robust against uncertainties in these models.

  18. Advanced Tracking of Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Li, K.-J.; Pakalnis, Stardas

    2005-01-01

    With the continued advances in wireless communications, geo-location technologies, and consumer electronics, it is becoming possible to accurately track the time-varying location of each vehicle in a population of vehicles. This paper reports on ongoing research that has as it objective to develop...... efficient tracking techniques. More specifically, while almost all commercially available tracking solutions simply offer time-based sampling of positions, this paper's techniques aim to offer a guaranteed tracking accuracy for each vehicle at the lowest possible costs, in terms of network traffic...... and server-side updates. This is achieved by designing, prototyping, and testing novel tracking techniques that exploit knowledge of the road network and past movement. These resulting tracking techniques are to support mobile services that rely on the existence of a central server that continuously tracks...

  19. Fuelling fortress America : a report on the Athabasca Tar Sands and U.S. demands for Canada's energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCullum, H.

    2006-07-01

    The economic, ecological, and social costs at stake in developing the Athabasca tar sands were examined in order to stimulate public discussion, debate, and action towards a new made-in-Canada energy policy and strategy. The report is organized according to five lines of inquiry. It first looks at the United States empire and its demands for energy security. This includes the growing dependence of the United States on foreign oil; how Canada exports its oil and natural gas to the U.S.; the growth and threat of China's energy needs; and how this relates to the global depletion of fossil fuels and Canada's future energy security. The report also looks at the role that Canada plays as a United States energy satellite. Topics that are covered include the nature and scope of the Athabasca tar sands as a major source of oil; the existing projects and rapidly growing developments; the kind of extraction processes used; the energy intensity of the process and the role played by natural gas; the proposed Mackenzie Valley pipeline to bring gas from the High Arctic; and, the emerging continental energy corridor. In addition, the report examines the environmental costs of this new energy corridor and looks at the fuelling of the United States military-industrial complex. Last, the report discusses the social impacts of the tar sands and pipeline including how the fast pace of development combines with a lack of vision or industrial strategy in Alberta; the issue of royalties and financing social needs; the moves to use non-unionized and cheap foreign labour in the tar sands projects; and the impacts on First Nations. The report concludes with a set of recommendations on what needs to be done to stimulate new policies and strategies on three fronts including further development of the Athabasca tar sands and the construction of the accompanying Mackenzie Valley and Alaska natural gas pipelines; a made-in-Canada national energy policy and strategy; and, short- and long

  20. Feasibility study and techno-economic analysis of an SOFC/battery hybrid system for vehicle applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, P.; Brett, D. J. L.; Brandon, N. P.

    A feasibility study and techno-economic analysis for a hybrid power system intended for vehicular traction applications has been performed. The hybrid consists of an intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell (IT-SOFC) operating at 500-800 °C and a sodium-nickel chloride (ZEBRA) battery operating at 300 °C. Such a hybrid system has the benefits of extended range and fuel flexibility (due to the IT-SOFC), high power output and rapid response time (due to the battery). The above hybrid has been compared to a fuel cell-only, a battery-only and an ICE vehicle. It is shown that the capital cost associated with a fuel cell-only vehicle is still much higher than that of any other power source option and that a battery-only option would potentially encounter weight and volume limitations, particularly for long drive times. It is concluded that increasing drive time per day decreases substantially the payback time in relation to an ICE vehicle running on gasoline and thus that the hybrid vehicle is an economically attractive option for commercial vehicles with long drive times. In the case where the battery has reached volume production prices at £70 kWh -1 and current fuel duty values remain unchanged then a payback time gasoline equivalent fuel economy of 25.1 km L -1, almost twice that of a gasoline fuelled ICE vehicle of the same size, and CO 2 emissions of 71.6 g km -1, well below any new technology target set so far. It is therefore recommended that a SOFC/ZEBRA demonstration be built to further explore its viability.

  1. Hybrid electric vehicles TOPTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-06-21

    This one-day TOPTEC session began with an overview of hybrid electric vehicle technology. Updates were given on alternative types of energy storage, APU control for low emissions, simulation programs, and industry and government activities. The keynote speech was about battery technology, a key element to the success of hybrids. The TOPEC concluded with a panel discussion on the mission of hybrid electric vehicles, with a perspective from industry and government experts from United States and Canada on their view of the role of this technology.

  2. Algorithms for vehicle navigation

    OpenAIRE

    Storandt, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, navigation systems are integral parts of most cars. They allow the user to drive to a preselected destination on the shortest or quickest path by giving turn-by-turn directions. To fulfil this task the navigation system must be aware of the current position of the vehicle at any time, and has to compute the optimal route to the destination on that basis. Both of these subproblems have to be solved frequently, because the navigation system must react immediately if the vehicle leaves...

  3. Affordable Vehicle Avionics Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockrell, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Public and private launch vehicle developers are reducing the cost of propulsion for small commercial launchers, but conventional high-performance, high-reliability avionics remain the disproportionately high cost driver for launch. AVA technology performs as well or better than conventional launch vehicle avionics, but with a fraction of the recurring costs. AVA enables small launch providers to offer affordable rides to LEO to nano-satellites as primary payloads meaning, small payloads can afford to specify their own launch and orbit parameters

  4. Options for refuelling hydrogen fuel cell vehicles in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercuri, R.; Bauen, A.; Hart, D.

    Hydrogen fuel cell vehicle (H 2 FCV) trials are taking place in a number of cities around the world. In Italy, Milan and Turin are the first to have demonstration projects involving hydrogen-fuelled vehicles, in part to satisfy increasing consumer demand for improved environmental performance. The Italian transport plan specifically highlights the potential for FCVs to enter into the marketplace from around 2005. A scenario for FCV penetration into Italy, developed using projected costs for FCV and hydrogen fuel, suggests that by 2015, 2 million Italian cars could be powered by fuel cells. By 2030, 60% of the parc could be FCVs. To develop an infrastructure to supply these vehicles, a variety of options is considered. Large-scale steam reforming, on-site reforming and electrolysis options are analysed, with hydrogen delivered both in liquid and gaseous form. Assuming mature technologies, with over 10,000 units produced, on-site steam reforming provides the most economic hydrogen supply to the consumer, at US 2.6/kg. However, in the early stages of the infrastructure development there is a clear opportunity for on-site electrolysis and for production of hydrogen at centralised facilities, with delivery in the form of liquid hydrogen. This enables additional flexibility, as the hydrogen may also be used for fuel refining or for local power generation. In the current Italian context, energy companies could have a significant role to play in developing a hydrogen infrastructure. The use of hydrogen FCVs can substantially reduce emissions of regulated pollutants and greenhouse gases. Using externality costs for regulated pollutants, it is estimated that the use of hydrogen fuel cell buses in place of 5% of diesel buses in Milan could avoid US 2 million per year in health costs. The addition of even very low externality costs to fuel prices makes the use of untaxed hydrogen in buses and cars, which is slightly more expensive for the motorist than untaxed gasoline or

  5. Fuelling the future with LNG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anonymous

    2013-01-01

    It is important to be able to quantify risks in order to determine LNG behaviour and to ensure its containment. This facilitates comprehensive safety management. Quantitative risk assessments are necessary to enable the selection of preventive and protective measures that suit the situation. Every s

  6. Fuelling innovation in building design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2012-08-01

    Established in 2005 on a 78-acre site near Watford by a research-based consultancy, testing, and training organisation with a reputation for independence and impartiality, the BRE's Watford Innovation Park is today home to a broad range of research, consultancy, and testing activities, for the built environment. HEJ editor, Jonathan Baillie, met with BRE director of Strategic Research, Peter Ball, to learn about the organisation's history and current-day activities, and tour of some of the key facilities where staff undertake cutting-edge research, consultancy, and testing, to improve the performance, efficiency, and sustainability, of a wide range of buildings.

  7. LNG fuelling for mine trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melanson, B.E.; Hodgins, K.B. [Westport Innovations Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Diesel-powered mine haul trucks consume large amounts of fuel. The diesel engines provide the trucks with the flexibility to readily move material while optimizing speed and efficiency. However, the high cost for diesel fuel has prompted the need for lower-cost solutions. Since many mining regions have access to low-cost liquefied natural gas (LNG) feedstock through indigenous natural gas resources and coal mine methane, the use of LNG for mine haul trucks offers a solution to lower operating costs. In addition to reducing the reliance on petroleum resources, the use of LNG would also contribute to a reduction in noise, air pollutants, and greenhouse gas emissions. This presentation demonstrated that significant fuel cost savings can be realized in regions where LNG has cost advantage to diesel fuel. High pressure direct injection (HPDI) of natural gas in a compression ignition engine offers the high performance and efficiency characteristics of diesel engines while reducing particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides and greenhouse gases. HPDI has been demonstrated in on-road Class 8 trucks since 2001 and mine haul trucks are now considered a prime target for implementing change to lower-carbon gaseous fuels. The supply of LNG fuel will be a necessary aspect of the introduction of HPDI to mining. LNG can be transported to mine sites or it can be produced on or near mining operations that have access to methane sources or pipelines. It was concluded that HPDI powered mine trucks offer a safe, economic and environmentally progressive solution for mine operators. 2 figs.

  8. Fuelling the future with LNG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anonymous

    2013-01-01

    It is important to be able to quantify risks in order to determine LNG behaviour and to ensure its containment. This facilitates comprehensive safety management. Quantitative risk assessments are necessary to enable the selection of preventive and protective measures that suit the situation. Every

  9. Environmentally Responsible Energetic Materials: Another Look at the Styphnates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Adam; Angliss, Timothy; Proud, William

    2009-06-01

    Lead Styphnate (lead 2,4,6-trinitroresorcinate) has many applications as a primary explosive, most notably in priming compositions. Its largest drawback, however, is the toxicity of lead. Heavy metals often feature in primary explosives, providing favourable density, bonding, and reaction products; but, the toxic nature of heavy metals makes these explosives of limited use. Current research efforts are being made to design new energetic materials (such as those based around the 5-nitrotetrazole molecule), but familiar energetics can still be of use. The styphnate anion provides many favourable energetic qualities (such as a ring structure and nitro groups), and while the lead salt has proven its usefulness, other metallic styphnates also provide a range of energetic qualities. This paper reports on ignition thresholds, energetic output, and thermal properties of the following salts of trinitroresorcinol: Barium, Bismuth, Calcium, Copper, Lithium, and Lead. Such information provides a list of characterized energetic materials, but also insight into how metal cations can control measurable energetic effects at the molecular and crystal level.

  10. Bond graph modeling, simulation, and reflex control of the Mars planetary automatic vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amara, Maher; Friconneau, Jean Pierre; Micaelli, Alain

    1993-01-01

    The bond graph modeling, simulation, and reflex control study of the Planetary Automatic Vehicle are considered. A simulator derived from a complete bond graph model of the vehicle is presented. This model includes both knowledge and representation models of the mechanical structure, the floor contact, and the Mars site. The MACSYMEN (French acronym for aided design method of multi-energetic systems) is used and applied to study the input-output power transfers. The reflex control is then considered. Controller architecture and locomotion specificity are described. A numerical stage highlights some interesting results of the robot and the controller capabilities.

  11. Environmental Evaluation of New Generation Vehicles and Vehicle Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schexnayder, S.M.

    2002-02-06

    This report documents assessments that address waste issues and life cycle impacts associated with the vehicle materials and vehicle technologies being developed under the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) program. We refer to these vehicles as 3XVs, referring to the PNGV goal that their fuel mileage be three times better than the baseline vehicle. To meet the program's fuel consumption goals, these vehicles substitute lightweight materials for heavier materials such as steel and iron that currently dominate the composition of vehicles, and use engineering and power system changes. Alternative power systems being developed through the PNGV program include batteries for hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cells. With respect to all these developments, it is imperative to learn what effects they will have on the environment before adopting these designs and technologies on a large-scale basis.

  12. Energetic pathway sampling in a protein interaction domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hultqvist, Greta; Haq, S. Raza; Punekar, Avinash S.;

    2013-01-01

    The affinity and specificity of protein-ligand interactions are influenced by energetic crosstalk within the protein domain. However, the molecular details of such intradomain allostery are still unclear. Here, we have experimentally detected and computationally predicted interaction pathways...... changes may reshape energetic signaling. The results were analyzed in the context of other members of the PDZ family, which were found to contain distinct interaction pathways for different peptide ligands. The data reveal a fascinating scenario whereby several energetic pathways are sampled within one...

  13. Voyager 1: energetic ions and electrons in the jovian magnetosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, R E; Cook, W R; Cummings, A C; Garrard, T L; Gehrels, N; Stone, E C; Trainor, J H; Schardt, A W; Conlon, T; Lal, N; McDonald, F B

    1979-06-01

    The observations of the cosmic-ray subsystem have added significantly to our knowledge of Jupiter's magnetosphere. The most surprising result is the existence of energetic sulfur, sodium, and oxygen nuclei with energies above 7 megaelectron volts per nucleon which were found inside of Io's orbit. Also, significant fluxes of similarly energetic ions reflecting solar cosmic-ray composition were observed throughout the magnetosphere beyond 11 times the radius of Jupiter. It was also found that energetic protons are enhanced by 30 to 70 percent in the active hemisphere. Finally, the first observations were made of the magnetospheric tail in the dawn direction out to 160 Jupiter radii.

  14. Internal Transport Barrier Driven by Redistribution of Energetic Ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.L. Wong; W.W. Heidbrink; E. Ruskov; C.C. Petty; C.M. Greenfield; R. Nazikian; R. Budny

    2004-11-12

    Alfven instabilities excited by energetic ions are used as a means to reduce the central magnetic shear in a tokamak via redistribution of energetic ions. When the central magnetic shear is low enough, ballooning modes become stable for any plasma pressure gradient and an internal transport barrier (ITB) with a steep pressure gradient can exist. This mechanism can sustain a steady-state ITB as demonstrated by experimental data from the DIII-D tokamak. It can also produce a shear in toroidal and poloidal plasma rotation. Possible application of this technique to use the energetic alpha particles for improvement of burning plasma performance is discussed.

  15. Chemical Conversion of Energetic Materials to Higher Value Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, A R; Hsu, P C; Coburn, M D; Schmidt, R D; Pagoria, P F; Lee, G S

    2005-04-19

    The objective of this program is to develop new processes for the disposal of surplus energetic materials. Disposal through open burning/open detonation (OB/OD) is considered less attractive today due to environmental, cost and safety concerns. The use of energetic materials as chemical feedstocks for higher value products can provide environmentally sound and cost-effective alternatives to OB/OD. Our recent studies on the conversion of surplus energetic materials (Explosive D, TNT) to higher value products will be described.

  16. Study of Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs) Using Largely Separated Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-31

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2016-0102 Study of solar energetic particles (SEPs) using largely separated spacecraft Jinhye Park KYUNG HEE UNIVERSITY, RESEARCH...energetic particles (SEPs) using largely separated spacecraft 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA2386-13-1-4066 5c.  PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F...Release 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Solar energetic particles (SEPs) are one of the main activities in terms of space weather forecast. SEPs could

  17. Multiple environment unmanned vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobart, Clinton G.; Morse, William D.; Bickerstaff, Robert James

    2017-02-28

    A MEUV that is able to navigate aerial, aquatic, and terrestrial environments through the use of different mission mobility attachments is disclosed. The attachments allow the MEUV to be deployed from the air or through the water prior to any terrestrial navigation. The mobility attachments can be removed or detached by and from the vehicle during a mission.

  18. Vehicle recycling regulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smink, Carla

    2007-01-01

    The number of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) in the EU is increasing continously. Around 75 percent of an ELV are recyclable metals. The forecast growth in the number of ELVs calls for regulation that aims to minimise the environmental impact of a car. Using Denmark as an example, this article...

  19. Experimental Autonomous Vehicle Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ole; Andersen, Nils Axel

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes the requirements for and a prototype configuration of a software architecture for control of an experimental autonomous vehicle. The test bed nature of the system is emphasised in the choice of architecture making re-configurability, data logging and extendability simple...

  20. The Electric Vehicle Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a design activity that provides students with a solid understanding of the many issues involved with alternate energy system design. In this activity, students will be able to learn about electric vehicles and have the opportunity to design a way to recharge the batteries while the cars are parked in a commuter garage. The…

  1. Communication Technologies for Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinel, Alexey

    This book constitutes the proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Communication Technologies for Vehicles, Nets4Cars/Nets4Trains/Nets4Aircraft 2015, held in Sousse, Tunisia, in May 2015. The 20 papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 27 submissions...

  2. 2011 Combat Vehicles Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    Capability-Platform (JBC-P) • Light-weight Crew-served Weapons • Joint Capability Release ( JCR ) • Combat Vehicle Improvements Mr. Scott Davis PEO...WIN-T INC 3 JTRS CREW V2 Relocation/V3 CS 11-12 OoC ( JCR ) BFT II VRC 103 & 104 CS 13-14 MSS Duke TI OSRVT (Rover 6) Nett

  3. The Vehicle Rescheduling Problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Spliet (Remy); A.F. Gabor (Adriana); R. Dekker (Rommert)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe capacitated vehicle routing problem is to find a routing schedule describing the order in which geographically dispersed customers are visited to satisfy demand by supplying goods stored at the depot, such that the traveling costs are minimized. In many practical applications, a long

  4. The Special Purpose Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomcenco, Alex

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate whether the situation where two companies appear as originators or sponsors behind a Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) can be described as a merger, although on micro scale. Are the underlying grounds behind the creation of an SPV much different than thos...

  5. The Electric Vehicle Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a design activity that provides students with a solid understanding of the many issues involved with alternate energy system design. In this activity, students will be able to learn about electric vehicles and have the opportunity to design a way to recharge the batteries while the cars are parked in a commuter garage. The…

  6. Implementing Vehicle Routing Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-09-01

    Multiple Depot Vehicle Dispatch Problem," presented at the URSA/TIMS meeting San Juan, Puerto Rico, Oct. 1974. 28. Gillett, B., and Miller, L., " A Heuristic Algorithm for...45. Lam, T., "Comments on a Heuristic Algorithm for the Multiple Terminal Delivery Problem," Transportation Science, Vol. 4, No. 4, Nov. 1970, p. 403

  7. Autonomous Vehicle Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-31

    obtain the new estimate of vehicle position and position uncertainty. 13. Matti Pietikainen and David Harwood, "Edge Information in Color Images Based on...of correspondence. 10. Matti Pietik:inen and David Harwood, "Multiple-Camera Contour Stereo." CAR-TR-151. CS-TR-1559. September 1985. ABSTRACT: A

  8. Hybrid Turbine Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    Hybrid electric power trains may revolutionize today's ground passenger vehicles by significantly improving fuel economy and decreasing emissions. The NASA Lewis Research Center is working with industry, universities, and Government to develop and demonstrate a hybrid electric vehicle. Our partners include Bowling Green State University, the Cleveland Regional Transit Authority, Lincoln Electric Motor Division, the State of Ohio's Department of Development, and Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical. The vehicle will be a heavy class urban transit bus offering double the fuel economy of today's buses and emissions that are reduced to 1/10th of the Environmental Protection Agency's standards. At the heart of the vehicle's drive train is a natural-gas-fueled engine. Initially, a small automotive engine will be tested as a baseline. This will be followed by the introduction of an advanced gas turbine developed from an aircraft jet engine. The engine turns a high-speed generator, producing electricity. Power from both the generator and an onboard energy storage system is then provided to a variable-speed electric motor attached to the rear drive axle. An intelligent power-control system determines the most efficient operation of the engine and energy storage system.

  9. TARDEC Ground Vehicle Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED 10 Optionally Manned Vehicles OMV can be driven by a soldier; OMV can drive a soldier; OMV can be remotely operated; OMV can be...all missions for OMV (i.e. shared driving) (i.e. remotely operated) 2 m od al iti es Mission Payloads UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED 11 Ground

  10. Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Report summarizes results of test on "near-term" electrochemical batteries - (batteries approaching commercial production). Nickel/iron, nickel/zinc, and advanced lead/acid batteries included in tests and compared with conventional lead/acid batteries. Batteries operated in electric vehicles at constant speed and repetitive schedule of accerlerating, coasting, and braking.

  11. Energetic costs of calcification under ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalding, Christopher; Finnegan, Seth; Fischer, Woodward W.

    2017-05-01

    Anthropogenic ocean acidification threatens to negatively impact marine organisms that precipitate calcium carbonate skeletons. Past geological events, such as the Permian-Triassic Mass Extinction, together with modern experiments generally support these concerns. However, the physiological costs of producing a calcium carbonate skeleton under different acidification scenarios remain poorly understood. Here we present an idealized mathematical model to quantify whole-skeleton costs, concluding that they rise only modestly (up to ˜10%) under acidification expected for 2100. The modest magnitude of this effect reflects in part the low energetic cost of inorganic, calcium carbonate relative to the proteinaceous organic matrix component of skeletons. Our analysis does, however, point to an important kinetic constraint that depends on seawater carbonate chemistry, and we hypothesize that the impact of acidification is more likely to cause extinctions within groups where the timescale of larval development is tightly constrained. The cheapness of carbonate skeletons compared to organic materials also helps explain the widespread evolutionary convergence upon calcification within the metazoa.

  12. Temporal Evolution of Solar Energetic Particle Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Donald J.; Dalla, Silvia

    2016-08-01

    During solar flares and coronal mass ejections, Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs) may be released into the interplanetary medium and near-Earth locations. The energy spectra of SEP events at 1 AU are typically averaged over the entire event or studied in a few snapshots. In this article we analyze the time evolution of the energy spectra of four large selected SEP events using a large number of snapshots. We use a multi-spacecraft and multi-instrument approach for the observations, obtained over a wide SEP energy range. We find large differences in the spectra at the beginning of the events as measured by different instruments. We show that over time, a wave-like structure is observed traveling through the spectra from the highest energies to the lowest energies, creating an "arch" shape that then straightens into a power law later in the event, after times on the order of 10 hours. We discuss the processes that determine SEP intensities and their role in shaping the spectral time evolution.

  13. PLASMA ENERGETIC PARTICLES SIMULATION CENTER (PEPSC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berk, Herbert L.

    2014-05-23

    The main effort of the Texas group was to develop theoretical and simplified numerical models to understand chirping phenomena often seen for Alfven and geodesic acoustic waves in experimental plasmas such as D-III-D, NSTX and JET. Its main numerical effort was to modify the AEGIS code, which was originally developed as an eigenvalue solver. To apply to the chirping problem this code has to be able to treat the linear response to the continuum and the response of the plasma to external drive or to an internal drive that comes from the formation of phase space chirping structures. The theoretical underpinning of this investigation still needed to be more fully developed to understand how to best formulate the theoretical problem. Considerable progress was made on this front by B.N. Breizman and his collaborators and a new reduced model was developed by H. L. Berk and his PhD student, G. Wang which can be uses as simplified model to describe chirping in a large aspect ratio tokamak. This final report will concentrate on these two directions that were developed as well as results that were found in the work with the AEGIS code and in the progress in developing a novel quasi-linear formulation for a description of Alfvenic modes destabilized by energetic particles, such as alpha particles in a burning plasma.

  14. The energetic characterization of pineapple crown leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, R M; Queiroga, T S; Calixto, G Q; Almeida, H N; Melo, D M A; Melo, M A F; Freitas, J C O; Curbelo, F D S

    2015-12-01

    Energetic characterization of biomass allows for assessing its energy potential for application in different conversion processes into energy. The objective of this study is to physicochemically characterize pineapple crown leaves (PC) for their application in energy conversion processes. PC was characterized according to ASTM E871-82, E1755-01, and E873-82 for determination of moisture, ash, and volatile matter, respectively; the fixed carbon was calculated by difference. Higher heating value was determined by ASTM E711-87 and ash chemical composition was determined by XRF. The thermogravimetric and FTIR analyses were performed to evaluate the thermal decomposition and identify the main functional groups of biomass. PC has potential for application in thermochemical processes, showing high volatile matter (89.5%), bulk density (420.8 kg/m(3)), and higher heating value (18.9 MJ/kg). The results show its energy potential justifying application of this agricultural waste into energy conversion processes, implementing sustainability in the production, and reducing the environmental liabilities caused by its disposal.

  15. Energetic characteristics of transition metal complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojewódka, Andrzej; Bełzowski, Janusz; Wilk, Zenon; Staś, Justyna

    2009-11-15

    Ten transition metal nitrate and perchlorate complexes of hydrazine and ethylenediamine were synthesized, namely [Cu(EN)(2)](ClO(4))(2), [Co(EN)(3)](ClO(4))(3), [Ni(EN)(3)](ClO(4))(2), [Hg(EN)(2)](ClO(4))(2), [Cr(N(2)H(4))(3)](ClO(4))(3), [Cd(N(2)H(4))(3)](ClO(4))(2), [Ni(N(2)H(4))(3)](NO(3))(2), [Co(N(2)H(4))(3)](NO(3))(3), [Zn(N(2)H(4))(3)](NO(3))(2), and [Cd(N(2)H(4))(3)](NO(3))(2) based on the lines of the literature reported methods. All of them were tested with applying underwater detonation test and further compared to the typical blasting explosives: RDX, HMX, TNT and PETN. From the above presented complexes [Ni(N(2)H(4))(3)](NO(3))(2) (called NHN) and [Co(N(2)H(4))(3)](NO(3))(3) (called CoHN) are known as primary explosives and can be used as the standard explosives. Explosion parameters, such as shock wave overpressure, shock wave energy equivalent and bubble energy equivalent, were determined. Evaluated energetic characteristics of the tested compounds are comparable to those of the classic high explosives and are even enhanced in some cases.

  16. Energetics of ascent: insects on inclines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Full, R J; Tullis, A

    1990-03-01

    Small animals use more metabolic energy per unit mass than large animals to run on a level surface. If the cost to lift one gram of mass one vertical meter is constant, small animals should require proportionally smaller increases in metabolic cost to run uphill. To test this hypothesis on very small animals possessing an exceptional capacity for ascending steep gradients, we measured the metabolic cost of locomotion in the cockroach, Periplaneta americana, running at angles of 0, 45 and 90 degrees to the horizontal. Resting oxygen consumption (VO2rest) was not affected by incline angle. Steady-state oxygen consumption (VO2ss) increased linearly with speed at all angles of ascent. The minimum cost of locomotion (the slope of the VO2ss versus speed function) increased with increasing angle of ascent. The minimum cost of locomotion on 45 and 90 degrees inclines was two and three times greater, respectively, than the cost during horizontal running. The cockroach's metabolic cost of ascent greatly exceeds that predicted from the hypothesis of a constant efficiency for vertical work. Variations in stride frequency and contact time cannot account for the high metabolic cost, because they were independent of incline angle. An increase in the metabolic cost or amount of force production may best explain the increase in metabolic cost. Small animals, such as P. americana, can easily scale vertical surfaces, but the energetic cost is considerable.

  17. Running Economy from a Muscle Energetics Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared R. Fletcher

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The economy of running has traditionally been quantified from the mass-specific oxygen uptake; however, because fuel substrate usage varies with exercise intensity, it is more accurate to express running economy in units of metabolic energy. Fundamentally, the understanding of the major factors that influence the energy cost of running (Erun can be obtained with this approach. Erun is determined by the energy needed for skeletal muscle contraction. Here, we approach the study of Erun from that perspective. The amount of energy needed for skeletal muscle contraction is dependent on the force, duration, shortening, shortening velocity, and length of the muscle. These factors therefore dictate the energy cost of running. It is understood that some determinants of the energy cost of running are not trainable: environmental factors, surface characteristics, and certain anthropometric features. Other factors affecting Erun are altered by training: other anthropometric features, muscle and tendon properties, and running mechanics. Here, the key features that dictate the energy cost during distance running are reviewed in the context of skeletal muscle energetics.

  18. Neutronization and Energetics of Type Ia Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitenzahl, I. R.; Peng, F.; Townsley, D. M.; Calder, A. C.

    2005-12-01

    Type Ia supernovae are critical distance indicators for cosmology. The lightcurves are powered by the decay of radioactive nickel and cobalt isotopes. The amount of nickel produced in the supernova event depends on the detailed trajectories of the hydrodynamic evolution of the explosion. A key ingredient in numerical simulations of the deflagration phase of Type Ia supernovae is the nuclear flame model. A realistic model must accurately describe the nuclear energy released, the timescale on which the energy release occurs, and the changes in composition that constitute the burning. Once the flame has passed, the hot products of the burning constitute a nuclear statistical equilibrium (NSE) abundance distribution. Since the NSE abundances, and hence derived quantities such as the mean binding energy per nucleon, are functions of the density, temperature and electron fraction, it is important to continuously adjust the NSE state of the ashes during the hydrodynamic evolution of the star. Weak interactions influence the energetics and evolution via the change in degeneracy pressure due to captured electrons, the energy losses carried away by neutrinos, and the readjustment of the NSE state following a change in the electron fraction. We have developed a NSE-based model, which implements these features for a hydrodynamical evolution code.

  19. Large gradual solar energetic particle events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Mihir; Giacalone, Joe

    2016-12-01

    Solar energetic particles, or SEPs, from suprathermal (few keV) up to relativistic (˜ few GeV) energies are accelerated near the Sun in at least two ways: (1) by magnetic reconnection-driven processes during solar flares resulting in impulsive SEPs, and (2) at fast coronal-mass-ejection-driven shock waves that produce large gradual SEP events. Large gradual SEP events are of particular interest because the accompanying high-energy ({>}10s MeV) protons pose serious radiation threats to human explorers living and working beyond low-Earth orbit and to technological assets such as communications and scientific satellites in space. However, a complete understanding of these large SEP events has eluded us primarily because their properties, as observed in Earth orbit, are smeared due to mixing and contributions from many important physical effects. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the current state of knowledge of these important phenomena, and summarizes some of the key questions that will be addressed by two upcoming missions—NASA’s Solar Probe Plus and ESA’s Solar Orbiter. Both of these missions are designed to directly and repeatedly sample the near-Sun environments where interplanetary scattering and transport effects are significantly reduced, allowing us to discriminate between different acceleration sites and mechanisms and to isolate the contributions of numerous physical processes occurring during large SEP events.

  20. Energetics of Solar Coronal Mass Ejections

    CERN Document Server

    Subramanian, P; Subramanian, Prasad; Vourlidas, Angelos

    2007-01-01

    Aims: To investigate if solar coronal mass ejections are driven mainly by coupling to the ambient solar wind, or through the release of internal magnetic energy. Methods: We examine the energetics of 39 flux-rope like coronal mass ejections (CMEs) from the Sun using data in the distance range $\\sim$ 2--20 $R_{{\\o}dot}$ from the Large Angle Spectroscopic Coronograph (LASCO) aboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). This comprises a complete sample of the best examples of flux-rope CMEs observed by LASCO in 1996-2001. Results: We find that 69% of the CMEs in our sample experience a clearly identifiable driving power in the LASCO field of view. For these CMEs which are driven, we examine if they might be deriving most of their driving power by coupling to the solar wind. We do not find conclusive evidence in favor of this hypothesis. On the other hand, we find that their internal magnetic energy is a viable source of the required driving power. We have estimated upper and lower limits on the power th...

  1. Linking energetics and overwintering in temperate insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Brent J

    2015-12-01

    Overwintering insects cannot feed, and energy they take into winter must therefore fuel energy demands during autumn, overwintering, warm periods prior to resumption of development in spring, and subsequent activity. Insects primarily consume lipids during winter, but may also use carbohydrate and proteins as fuel. Because they are ectotherms, the metabolic rate of insects is temperature-dependent, and the curvilinear nature of the metabolic rate-temperature relationship means that warm temperatures are disproportionately important to overwinter energy use. This energy use may be reduced physiologically, by reducing the slope or elevation of the metabolic rate-temperature relationship, or because of threshold changes, such as metabolic suppression upon freezing. Insects may also choose microhabitats or life history stages that reduce the impact of overwinter energy drain. There is considerable capacity for overwinter energy drain to affect insect survival and performance both directly (via starvation) or indirectly (for example, through a trade-off with cryoprotection), but this has not been well-explored. Likewise, the impact of overwinter energy drain on growing-season performance is not well understood. I conclude that overwinter energetics provides a useful lens through which to link physiology and ecology and winter and summer in studies of insect responses to their environment.

  2. Energetics, lifestyle, and reproduction in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibly, Richard M; Witt, Christopher C; Wright, Natalie A; Venditti, Chris; Jetz, Walter; Brown, James H

    2012-07-03

    Theoretical and empirical studies of life history aim to account for resource allocation to the different components of fitness: survival, growth, and reproduction. The pioneering evolutionary ecologist David Lack [(1968) Ecological Adaptations for Breeding in Birds (Methuen and Co., London)] suggested that reproductive output in birds reflects adaptation to environmental factors such as availability of food and risk of predation, but subsequent studies have not always supported Lack's interpretation. Here using a dataset for 980 bird species (Dataset S1), a phylogeny, and an explicit measure of reproductive productivity, we test predictions for how mass-specific productivity varies with body size, phylogeny, and lifestyle traits. We find that productivity varies negatively with body size and energetic demands of parental care and positively with extrinsic mortality. Specifically: (i) altricial species are 50% less productive than precocial species; (ii) species with female-only care of offspring are about 20% less productive than species with other methods of parental care; (iii) nonmigrants are 14% less productive than migrants; (iv) frugivores and nectarivores are about 20% less productive than those eating other foods; and (v) pelagic foragers are 40% less productive than those feeding in other habitats. A strong signal of phylogeny suggests that syndromes of similar life-history traits tend to be conservative within clades but also to have evolved independently in different clades. Our results generally support both Lack's pioneering studies and subsequent research on avian life history.

  3. Kinetic transport simulation of energetic particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, He; Waltz, R. E.

    2016-05-01

    A kinetic transport code (EPtran) is developed for the transport of the energetic particles (EPs). The EPtran code evolves the EP distribution function in radius, energy, and pitch angle phase space (r, E, λ) to steady state with classical slowing down, pitch angle scattering, as well as radial and energy transport of the injected EPs (neutral beam injection (NBI) or fusion alpha). The EPtran code is illustrated by treating the transport of NBI fast ions from high-n ITG/TEM micro-turbulence and EP driven unstable low-n Alfvén eigenmodes (AEs) in a well-studied DIII-D NBI heated discharge with significant AE central core loss. The kinetic transport code results for this discharge are compared with previous study using a simple EP density moment transport code ALPHA (R.E. Waltz and E.M. Bass 2014 Nucl. Fusion 54 104006). The dominant EP-AE transport is treated with a local stiff critical EP density (or equivalent pressure) gradient radial transport model modified to include energy-dependence and the nonlocal effects EP drift orbits. All previous EP transport models assume that the EP velocity space distribution function is not significantly distorted from the classical ‘no transport’ slowing down distribution. Important transport distortions away from the slowing down EP spectrum are illustrated by a focus on the coefficient of convection: EP energy flux divided by the product of EP average energy and EP particle flux.

  4. Green Vehicle Guide Data Downloads

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Green Vehicle Guide provides vehicle ratings based on emissions and fuel economy. The downloadable data are available in...

  5. Hybrid-Vehicle Transmission System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, G.; Dotti, G.

    1985-01-01

    Continuously-variable transmission system for hybrid vehicles couples internal-combustion engine and electric motor section, either individually or in parallel, to power vehicle wheels during steering and braking.

  6. Household vehicles energy consumption 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-09

    The purpose of this report is to provide information on the use of energy in residential vehicles in the 50 States and the District of Columbia. Included are data about: the number and type of vehicles in the residential sector, the characteristics of those vehicles, the total annual Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT), the per household and per vehicle VMT, the vehicle fuel consumption and expenditures, and vehicle fuel efficiencies. The data for this report are based on the household telephone interviews from the 1991 RTECS, conducted during 1991 and early 1992. The 1991 RTECS represents 94.6 million households, of which 84.6 million own or have access to 151.2 million household motor vehicles in the 50 States and the District of Columbia.

  7. Hybrid-Vehicle Transmission System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, G.; Dotti, G.

    1985-01-01

    Continuously-variable transmission system for hybrid vehicles couples internal-combustion engine and electric motor section, either individually or in parallel, to power vehicle wheels during steering and braking.

  8. Atomic and magnetic configurational energetics by the generalized perturbation method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruban, Andrei V.; Shallcross, Sam; Simak, S.I.

    2004-01-01

    It is shown that, using the generalized perturbation method (GPM) with screened Coulomb interactions that ensures its consistency with the force theorem, one is able to obtain effective interactions that yield an accurate and physically transparent description of configurational energetics...

  9. The effect of solar energetic particles on the Martian ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Omar Hussain Al; Lillis, Robert; Fillingim, Matthew; Lee, Christina

    2016-10-01

    The precipitation of Solar Energetic Particles (SEP) into the Martian atmosphere causes several effects, one of the most important of which is ionization. However, the importance of this process to the global structure and dynamics for the Martian ionosphere is currently not well understood. The MAVEN spacecraft carries instrumentation which allow us to examine this process. The Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer (NGIMS) measures the densities of planetary ions in the Mars ionosphere (O+,CO2+ and O2+). The Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) detector measures the fluxes of energetic protons and electrons. In this project, we examine the degree to which the density of ions in the Martian ionosphere is affected by the precipitation of energetic particles, under conditions of different SEP ion and electron fluxes and at various solar zenith angles. We will present statistical as well as case studies.

  10. Quantifying the energetics of cooperativity in a ternary protein complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter S; Schuck, Peter; Sundberg, Eric J

    2002-01-01

    The formation of complexes involving more than two proteins is critical for many cellular processes, including signal transduction, transcriptional control, and cytoskeleton remodeling. Energetically, these interactions cannot always be described simply by the additive effects of the individual b...

  11. Method of steering a vehicle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Della Penna, M.; Van Passen, M.M.; Abbink, D.A.; Mulder, M.

    2011-01-01

    Vehicle and method of steering such a vehicle, wherein the vehicle has a steering wheel and steerable driving wheels and a transfer system for converting steering wheel actions to a steering angle of the steerable driving wheels, and wherein the transfer system is provided with a predefined stiffnes

  12. Electric vehicle - near or far

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laiho, Y.

    1997-11-01

    Traffic is rapidly becoming the number one environmental problem, especially in metropolitan areas. Electric vehicles have many important advantages to offer. Air quality would be improved, since electric vehicles do not pollute the environment. The improvement obtained might be equated with that resulting from the introduction of district heat for the heating of residential buildings. Electric vehicles also present considerable potential for energy conservation

  13. Knowledge Navigation for Virtual Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Julian E.

    2004-01-01

    A virtual vehicle is a digital model of the knowledge surrounding a potentially real vehicle. Knowledge consists not only of the tangible information, such as CAD, but also what is known about the knowledge - its metadata. This paper is an overview of technologies relevant to building a virtual vehicle, and an assessment of how to bring those technologies together.

  14. Investigations of Novel Energetic Materials to Stabilize Rocket Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-04-30

    and various additives were developed in the second half of the 20th Century. The earliest such propellants were asphalt -based developed at GALCIT with...Decomposition of Energetic Materials 74. Volatile Metal Isocyanates from Flash Pyrolysis of Metal-NTO and Metal-Picrate Salts and an Application Hypothesis...B. Brill, T. L. Zhang and B. C. Tappan, Thermal Decomposition of Energetic Materials 74. Volatile Metal Isocyanates from Flash Pyrolysis of Metal-NTO

  15. Cascaded Soliton Compression of Energetic Femtosecond Pulses at 1030 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Morten; Zhou, Binbin

    2012-01-01

    We discuss soliton compression with cascaded second-harmonic generation of energetic femtosecond pulses at 1030 nm. We discuss problems encountered with soliton compression of long pulses and show that sub-10 fs compressed pulses can be achieved.......We discuss soliton compression with cascaded second-harmonic generation of energetic femtosecond pulses at 1030 nm. We discuss problems encountered with soliton compression of long pulses and show that sub-10 fs compressed pulses can be achieved....

  16. THE ENERGETIC AGGREGATION AND RELEASE IN THE HEAVY RAIN REGION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Hai-guang; LIU Hai-tao; LIU Yan-ying

    2006-01-01

    Using the new formula of moist available energy (MAE), the value of the MAE's key terms of three heavy rainfall cases in Guangdong province in 1998 was calculated. The energetic aggregation and energetic discharge are analyzed. It shows that the value of the key terms in the formula appears different feature clearly in the different precipitation period, as well as the function of each term presents in the heavy rain region.

  17. Synthesis and Characterization of Mixed Metal Oxide Nanocomposite Energetic Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clapsaddle, B; Gash, A; Plantier, K; Pantoya, M; Jr., J S; Simpson, R

    2004-04-27

    In the field of composite energetic materials, properties such as ingredient distribution, particle size, and morphology affect both sensitivity and performance. Since the reaction kinetics of composite energetic materials are typically controlled by the mass transport rates between reactants, one would anticipate new and potentially exceptional performance from energetic nanocomposites. We have developed a new method of making nanostructured energetic materials, specifically explosives, propellants, and pyrotechnics, using sol-gel chemistry. A novel sol-gel approach has proven successful in preparing metal oxide/silicon oxide nanocomposites in which the metal oxide is the major component. By introducing a fuel metal, such as aluminum, into the metal oxide/silicon oxide matrix, energetic materials based on thermite reactions can be fabricated. Two of the metal oxides are tungsten trioxide and iron(III) oxide, both of which are of interest in the field of energetic materials. In addition, due to the large availability of organically functionalized silanes, the silicon oxide phase can be used as a unique way of introducing organic additives into the bulk metal oxide materials. These organic additives can cause the generation of gas upon ignition of the materials, therefore resulting in a composite material that can perform pressure/volume work. Furthermore, the desired organic functionality is well dispersed throughout the composite material on the nanoscale with the other components, and is therefore subject to the same increased reaction kinetics. The resulting nanoscale distribution of all the ingredients displays energetic properties not seen in its microscale counterparts due to the expected increase of mass transport rates between the reactants. The synthesis and characterization of iron(III) oxide/organosilicon oxide nanocomposites and their performance as energetic materials will be discussed.

  18. Effect of Energetic Ion on Spatial Distribution of Recombining Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, A.; Daibo, A.; Kitajima, S.; Kumagai, T.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, T.; Tsubota, S.

    Spatial distribution of electron density is considered. By using a one-dimensional recombining plasma model, effects of transient energetic ion flux are investigated. The time response of the system against the transient flux is dominated by the recombination frequency. The magnitude of modification of the spatial distribution is determined by the ratio between the ionization due to the energetic ion and the recombination of the bulk plasma.

  19. Mitochondria and Energetic Depression in Cell Pathophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Zierz

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial dysfunction is a hallmark of almost all diseases. Acquired or inherited mutations of the mitochondrial genome DNA may give rise to mitochondrial diseases. Another class of disorders, in which mitochondrial impairments are initiated by extramitochondrial factors, includes neurodegenerative diseases and syndromes resulting from typical pathological processes, such as hypoxia/ischemia, inflammation, intoxications, and carcinogenesis. Both classes of diseases lead to cellular energetic depression (CED, which is characterized by decreased cytosolic phosphorylation potential that suppresses the cell’s ability to do work and control the intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis and its redox state. If progressing, CED leads to cell death, whose type is linked to the functional status of the mitochondria. In the case of limited deterioration, when some amounts of ATP can still be generated due to oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS, mitochondria launch the apoptotic cell death program by release of cytochrome c. Following pronounced CED, cytoplasmic ATP levels fall below the thresholds required for processing the ATP-dependent apoptotic cascade and the cell dies from necrosis. Both types of death can be grouped together as a mitochondrial cell death (MCD. However, there exist multiple adaptive reactions aimed at protecting cells against CED. In this context, a metabolic shift characterized by suppression of OXPHOS combined with activation of aerobic glycolysis as the main pathway for ATP synthesis (Warburg effect is of central importance. Whereas this type of adaptation is sufficiently effective to avoid CED and to control the cellular redox state, thereby ensuring the cell survival, it also favors the avoidance of apoptotic cell death. This scenario may underlie uncontrolled cellular proliferation and growth, eventually resulting in carcinogenesis.

  20. University of Rochester, Laboratory for Laser Energetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    In FY86 the Laboratory has produced a list of accomplishments in which it takes pride. LLE has met every laser-fusion program milestone to date in a program of research for direct-drive ultraviolet laser fusion originally formulated in 1981. LLE scientists authored or co-authored 135 scientific papers during 1985 to 1986. The collaborative experiments with NRL, LANL, and LLNL have led to a number of important ICF results. The cryogenic target system developed by KMS Fusion for LLE will be used in future high-density experiments on OMEGA to demonstrate the compression of thermonuclear fuel to 100 to 200 times that of solid (20 to 40 g/cm) in a test of the direct-drive concept, as noted in the National Academy of Sciences' report. The excellence of the advanced technology efforts at LLE is illustrated by the establishment of the Ultrafast Science Center by the Department of Defense through the Air Force Office of Scientific Research. Research in the Center will concentrate on bridging the gap between high-speed electronics and ultrafast optics by providing education, research, and development in areas critical to future communications and high-speed computer systems. The Laboratory for Laser Energetics continues its pioneering work on the interaction of intense radiation with matter. This includes inertial-fusion and advanced optical and optical electronics research; training people in the technology and applications of high-power, short-pulse lasers; and interacting with the scientific community, business, industry, and government to promote the growth of laser technology.

  1. Energetic aspects of boring tools wear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarová Edita

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available In the process of rock desintegration a boring tool is subjected to the wear. From a viewpoint of the bit wear, changes on the contact of operating tool with rock at its one-shot and rerun load or overload by external forces are technically significant. Theis change results in the degradation of bit working properties and the output of desintegration also decreases. In the major part of cases, together with the bit wear, the contact area of a tool with a rock massifs enhanced and this fact causes an increase of fines (dust creation during the desintegration. The wear is always connected with a friction, forces action, deformation, damage, and the increased mechanical work consumption. As to energetic aspects of bit wear, the wear was observed as a function of bore length and in the most of cases as a dependence of the operating time. A linear dependence between the wear intensity (bit wear per unit of bore length and the specific energy of desintegration (energy consumed per volume unit of desintegrated rock was experimentally verified. Thus, the changes of bit wear can be implicitly observed by monitoring the specific energy. At the same time, the specific energy is a function of input parameters of the desintegration process and in the field of applicable external forces it shows an extreme (minimum. Therefore, the specific energy is useful for the extreme optimisation of the rock desintegration process from the viewpoint of the bit wear. It was mathematically proven that the tool output at the desintegration exponentially decreases with the amount of work consumed in the rock desintegration. The derivation of this knowledge comes out from the Krendelev equation.

  2. Cavitation Bubble Nucleation by Energetic Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, C.D.

    1998-12-01

    In the early sixties, experimental measurements using a bubble chamber confirmed quantitatively the thermal spike theory of bubble nucleation by energetic particles: the energy of the slow, heavy alpha decay recoils used in those experiments matched the calculated bubble nucleation energy to within a few percent. It was a triumph, but was soon to be followed by a puzzle. Within a couple of years, experiments on similar liquids, but well below their normal boiling points, placed under tensile stress showed that the calculated bubble nucleation energy was an order of magnitude less than the recoil energy. Why should the theory work so well in the one case and so badly in the other? How did the liquid, or the recoil particle, "know" the difference between the two experiments? Another mathematical model of the same physical process, introduced in 1967, showed qualitatively why different analyses would be needed for liquids with high and low vapor pressures under positive or negative pressures. But, the quantitative agreement between the calculated nucleation energy and the recoil energy was still poor--the former being smaller by a factor of two to three. In this report, the 1967 analysis is extended and refined: the qualitative understanding of the difference between positive and negative pressure nucleation, "boiling" and "cavitation" respectively, is retained, and agreement between the negative pressure calculated to be needed for nucleation and the energy calculated to be available is much improved. A plot of the calculated negative pressure needed to induce bubble formation against the measured value now has a slope of 1.0, although there is still considerable scatter in the individual points.

  3. MESSENGER observations of energetic electron acceleration in Mercury's magnetotail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, Ryan; Slavin, James A.; Baker, Daniel; Raines, Jim; Lawrence, David

    2016-10-01

    Energetic particle bursts within Mercury's magnetosphere have been a source of curiosity and controversy since Mariner 10's flybys. Unfortunately, instrumental effects prevent an unambiguous determination of species, flux, and energy spectrum for the Mariner 10 events. MESSENGER data taken by the Energetic Particle Spectrometer (EPS) have now shown that these energetic particle bursts are composed entirely of electrons. EPS made directional measurements of these electrons from ~30 to 300 keV at 3 s resolution, and while the energy of these electrons sometimes exceeded 200 keV, the energy distributions usually exhibited a cutoff near 100 keV. The Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) has also provided measurements of these electron events, at higher time resolution (10 ms) and energetic threshold (> 50 keV) compared to EPS. We focus on GRS electron events near the plasma sheet in Mercury's magnetotail to identify reconnection-associated acceleration mechanisms. We present observations of acceleration associated with dipolarization events (betratron acceleration), flux ropes (Fermi acceleration), and tail loading/unloading (X-line acceleration). We find that the most common source of energetic electron events in Mercury's magnetosphere are dipolarization events similar to those first observed by Mariner 10. Further, a significant dawn-dusk asymmetry is found with dipolarization-associated energetic particle bursts being more common on the dawn side of the magnetotail.

  4. Appendix J - GPRA06 vehicle technologies program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The target market for the Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) program include light vehicles (cars and light trucks) and heavy vehicles (trucks more than 10,000 pounds Gross Vehicle Weight).

  5. Miniature Autonomous Robotic Vehicle (MARV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feddema, J.T.; Kwok, K.S.; Driessen, B.J.; Spletzer, B.L.; Weber, T.M.

    1996-12-31

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has recently developed a 16 cm{sup 3} (1 in{sup 3}) autonomous robotic vehicle which is capable of tracking a single conducting wire carrying a 96 kHz signal. This vehicle was developed to assess the limiting factors in using commercial technology to build miniature autonomous vehicles. Particular attention was paid to the design of the control system to search out the wire, track it, and recover if the wire was lost. This paper describes the test vehicle and the control analysis. Presented in the paper are the vehicle model, control laws, a stability analysis, simulation studies and experimental results.

  6. The Special Purpose Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomcenco, Alex

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate whether the situation where two companies appear as originators or sponsors behind a Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) can be described as a merger, although on micro scale. Are the underlying grounds behind the creation of an SPV much different than thos...... in a merger situation? What is actually happening when two enterprises originate an SPV? And what distinguishes an SPV from a joint venture, or is it the same thing?...

  7. 2006 Combat Vehicles Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-25

    and Agreements Supply Chain Management Logistics Solutions for the Warfighter Guam & Saipan Diego Garcia Mediterranean SS KOCAK MV PHILLIPS MV...BUTTON MV LOPEZ USNS STOCKHAM SS PLESS MV HAUGE MV LUMMUS MV ANDERSON MV BONNYMAN USNS MARTIN SS OBREGON MV BAUGH MV WILLIAMS MV BOBO USNS WHEAT MPS...importantly it delivers the most valuable weapon on the battlefield – a soldier. LTC Erik Kurilla CDR, 1-24 Infantry Stryker Vehicles are 312 pieces

  8. Military Hybrid Vehicle Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    Furthermore, a standard duty cycle that is accepted for measuring fuel economy does not exist nor does a focus towards a particular technology. This...expanded into mild hybrid with the addition of a clutch connecting the generator to the transmission and additional energy storage [16-17...speed control and one for engine/generator torque [35]. Urban, Highway, Composite 33%, 27.9%, 49% General vehicle simulation [30]. Urban 19.0

  9. Vehicle Tracking and Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorer, A. G.

    1998-09-01

    This paper covers the wide area and short range locational technologies that are available for vehicle tracking in particular and mobile user security in general. It also summarises the radio communications services that can deliver information to the user. It considers the use that can be made of these technologies, when combined with procedures for delivering a response, in the security field, notably in relation to personal security, high-value load protection and the after-theft tracking markets.

  10. Industrial Vehicle Routing

    OpenAIRE

    Hasle, Geir

    2008-01-01

    Solving the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) is a key to efficiency in transportation and supply chain management. The VRP is a computationally hard problem that comes in many guises. The VRP literature contains thousands of papers, and VRP research is regarded as one of the great successes of OR. An industry of routing tool vendors has emerged. Exact optimization methods of today cannot consistently solve VRP instances with more than 50-100 customers in reasonable time, which is generally a sma...

  11. Evaluation of diesel fleet emissions and control policies from plume chasing measurements of on-road vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Chui Fong; Rakowska, Agata; Townsend, Thomas; Brimblecombe, Peter; Chan, Tat Leung; Yam, Yat Shing; Močnik, Griša; Ning, Zhi

    2015-12-01

    Vehicle emissions are an important source of urban air pollution. Diesel fuelled vehicles, although constituting a relatively small fraction of fleet population in many cities, are significant contributors to the emission inventory due to their often long mileage for goods and public transport. Recent classification of diesel exhaust as carcinogenic by the World Health Organization also raises attention to more stringent control of diesel emissions to protect public health. Although various mandatory and voluntary based emission control measures have been implemented in Hong Kong, there have been few investigations to evaluate if the fleet emission characteristics have met desired emission reduction objectives and if adoption of an Inspection/Maintenance (I/M) programme has been effective in achieving these objectives. The limitations are partially due to the lack of cost-effective approaches for the large scale characterisation of fleet based emissions to assess the effectiveness of control measures and policy. This study has used a plume chasing method to collect a large amount of on-road vehicle emission data of Hong Kong highways and a detailed analysis was carried out to provide a quantitative evaluation of the emission characteristics in terms of the role of high and super-emitters in total emission reduction, impact of after-treatment on the multi-pollutants reduction strategy and the trend of NO2 emissions with newer emission standards. The study revealed that not all the high-emitters are from those vehicles of older Euro emission standards. Meanwhile, there is clear evidence that high-emitters for one pollutant may not be a high-emitter for another pollutant. Multi-pollutant control strategy needs to be considered in the enactment of the emission control policy which requires more comprehensive retrofitting technological solutions and matching I/M programme to ensure the proper maintenance of fleets. The plume chasing approach used in this study also

  12. Vehicle state estimator based regenerative braking implementation on an electric vehicle to improve lateral vehicle stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.T.H.; Boekel, J.J.P. van; Iersel, S.S. van; Besselink, I.J.M.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2013-01-01

    The driving range of electric vehicles can be extended using regenerative braking. Regenerative braking uses the elctric drive system, and therefore only the driven wheels, for decelerating the vehicle. Braking on one axle affects the stability of the vehicle, especially for road conditions with

  13. Modular Robotic Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borroni-Bird, Christopher E. (Inventor); Vitale, Robert L. (Inventor); Lee, Chunhao J. (Inventor); Ambrose, Robert O. (Inventor); Bluethmann, William J. (Inventor); Junkin, Lucien Q. (Inventor); Lutz, Jonathan J. (Inventor); Guo, Raymond (Inventor); Lapp, Anthony Joseph (Inventor); Ridley, Justin S. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A modular robotic vehicle includes a chassis, driver input devices, an energy storage system (ESS), a power electronics module (PEM), modular electronic assemblies (eModules) connected to the ESS via the PEM, one or more master controllers, and various embedded controllers. Each eModule includes a drive wheel containing a propulsion-braking module, and a housing containing propulsion and braking control assemblies with respective embedded propulsion and brake controllers, and a mounting bracket covering a steering control assembly with embedded steering controllers. The master controller, which is in communication with each eModule and with the driver input devices, communicates with and independently controls each eModule, by-wire, via the embedded controllers to establish a desired operating mode. Modes may include a two-wheel, four-wheel, diamond, and omni-directional steering modes as well as a park mode. A bumper may enable docking with another vehicle, with shared control over the eModules of the vehicles.

  14. Energetic Materials Effects on Essential Soil Processes: Decomposition of Orchard Grass (Dactylis glomerata) Litter in Soil Contaminated with Energetic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    GRASS (DACTYLIS GLOMERATA) LITTER IN SOIL CONTAMINATED WITH ENERGETIC MATERIALS ECBC-TR-1199 Roman G. Kuperman Ronald T. Checkai Michael Simini...of Orchard Grass (Dactylis glomerata) Litter in Soil Contaminated with Energetic Materials 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...soils using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Method 8330A. The results showed that soil contamination with 2,4-DNT or NG can inhibit litter

  15. Household vehicles energy consumption 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1994 reports on the results of the 1994 Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey (RTECS). The RTECS is a national sample survey that has been conducted every 3 years since 1985. For the 1994 survey, more than 3,000 households that own or use some 6,000 vehicles provided information to describe vehicle stock, vehicle-miles traveled, energy end-use consumption, and energy expenditures for personal vehicles. The survey results represent the characteristics of the 84.9 million households that used or had access to vehicles in 1994 nationwide. (An additional 12 million households neither owned or had access to vehicles during the survey year.) To be included in then RTECS survey, vehicles must be either owned or used by household members on a regular basis for personal transportation, or owned by a company rather than a household, but kept at home, regularly available for the use of household members. Most vehicles included in the RTECS are classified as {open_quotes}light-duty vehicles{close_quotes} (weighing less than 8,500 pounds). However, the RTECS also includes a very small number of {open_quotes}other{close_quotes} vehicles, such as motor homes and larger trucks that are available for personal use.

  16. Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garetson, Thomas [The Clarity Group, Incorporated, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2013-03-31

    The objective of the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy's (DOEs) Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation (AVTE) project was to provide test and evaluation services for advanced technology vehicles, to establish a performance baseline, to determine vehicle reliability, and to evaluate vehicle operating costs in fleet operations.Vehicles tested include light and medium-duty vehicles in conventional, hybrid, and all-electric configurations using conventional and alternative fuels, including hydrogen in internal combustion engines. Vehicles were tested on closed tracks and chassis dynamometers, as well as operated on public roads, in fleet operations, and over prescribed routes. All testing was controlled by procedures developed specifically to support such testing.

  17. Vehicle dynamics theory and application

    CERN Document Server

    Jazar, Reza N

    2017-01-01

    This intermediate textbook is appropriate for students in vehicle dynamics courses, in their last year of undergraduate study or their first year of graduate study. It is also appropriate for mechanical engineers, automotive engineers, and researchers in the area of vehicle dynamics for continuing education or as a reference. It addresses fundamental and advanced topics, and a basic knowledge of kinematics and dynamics, as well as numerical methods, is expected. The contents are kept at a theoretical-practical level, with a strong emphasis on application. This third edition has been reduced by 25%, to allow for coverage over one semester, as opposed to the previous edition that needed two semesters for coverage. The textbook is composed of four parts: Vehicle Motion: covers tire dynamics, forward vehicle dynamics, and driveline dynamics Vehicle Kinematics: covers applied kinematics, applied mechanisms, steering dynamics, and suspension mechanisms Vehicle Dynamics: covers applied dynamics, vehicle planar dynam...

  18. Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garetson, Thomas [The Clarity Group, Incorporated, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2013-03-31

    The objective of the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy's (DOEs) Advanced Vehicle Testing and Evaluation (AVTE) project was to provide test and evaluation services for advanced technology vehicles, to establish a performance baseline, to determine vehicle reliability, and to evaluate vehicle operating costs in fleet operations.Vehicles tested include light and medium-duty vehicles in conventional, hybrid, and all-electric configurations using conventional and alternative fuels, including hydrogen in internal combustion engines. Vehicles were tested on closed tracks and chassis dynamometers, as well as operated on public roads, in fleet operations, and over prescribed routes. All testing was controlled by procedures developed specifically to support such testing.

  19. At A Glance: Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-07-01

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. With the range of styles and options available, there is likely one to meet your needs. The vehicles can be divided into three categories: 1) Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), 2) Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and 3) All-electric vehicles (EVs).

  20. At A Glance: Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-07-13

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. With the range of styles and options available, there is likely one to meet your needs. The vehicles can be divided into three categories: 1) Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), 2) Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and 3) All-electric vehicles (EVs).

  1. Early results on energetic particle dynamics and structure from the Energetic Ion Spectrometer (EIS) on the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, I. J.; Mauk, B.; Westlake, J. H.; Anderson, B. J.; Turner, D. L.; Fennell, J. F.; Spence, H. E.; Baker, D. N.; Pollock, C. J.; Torbert, R. B.; Blake, J. B.; Sibeck, D. G.

    2015-12-01

    The cluster of four, formation-flying spacecraft, comprising the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission, launched on 13 March 2015 into near equatorial 1.2 x 12 RE orbits, provides an important new asset for assessing the transport of energy and matter from the distant regions of Earth's magnetosphere into the inner regions. Here we report on early results from the Energetic Ion Spectrometer (EIS) instrument on each of the MMS Spacecraft. EIS provides nearly all-sky energetic ion energy, angle and elemental compositional distributions for 1 MeV. It also measures energetic electrons from 25 keV to > 0.5 MeV in support and coordination with the electron-focused Fly's Eye Energetic Particle Spectrometer (FEEPS). During the early phase of the MMS mission, while the full complement of instruments was being commissioned prior to the prime mission phase beginning 1 September 2015, EIS observed dynamic energetic particle injections at the root of the magnetotail between the post-midnight regions and dawn in association with numerous dipolarization fronts and related processes. Here we report on coordinated measurements between MMS's EIS instrument and EIS's sister instrument on the Van Allen Probes, RBSPICE, to further address the relationship between dynamic injections and depolarization fronts in the magnetotail and injections observed deep within the magnetosphere's ring current regions. We also report preliminary result on using energetic particle gradients and anistotropies to diagnose magnetopause structures near mission-identified reconnection sites.

  2. Launch vehicle selection model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Alex J.

    1990-01-01

    Over the next 50 years, humans will be heading for the Moon and Mars to build scientific bases to gain further knowledge about the universe and to develop rewarding space activities. These large scale projects will last many years and will require large amounts of mass to be delivered to Low Earth Orbit (LEO). It will take a great deal of planning to complete these missions in an efficient manner. The planning of a future Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV) will significantly impact the overall multi-year launching cost for the vehicle fleet depending upon when the HLLV will be ready for use. It is desirable to develop a model in which many trade studies can be performed. In one sample multi-year space program analysis, the total launch vehicle cost of implementing the program reduced from 50 percent to 25 percent. This indicates how critical it is to reduce space logistics costs. A linear programming model has been developed to answer such questions. The model is now in its second phase of development, and this paper will address the capabilities of the model and its intended uses. The main emphasis over the past year was to make the model user friendly and to incorporate additional realistic constraints that are difficult to represent mathematically. We have developed a methodology in which the user has to be knowledgeable about the mission model and the requirements of the payloads. We have found a representation that will cut down the solution space of the problem by inserting some preliminary tests to eliminate some infeasible vehicle solutions. The paper will address the handling of these additional constraints and the methodology for incorporating new costing information utilizing learning curve theory. The paper will review several test cases that will explore the preferred vehicle characteristics and the preferred period of construction, i.e., within the next decade, or in the first decade of the next century. Finally, the paper will explore the interaction

  3. Modelling rock fragmentation of Extremely Energetic Rockfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Blasio, Fabio; Dattola, Giuseppe; Battista Crosta, Giovanni

    2017-04-01

    Extremely energetic rockfalls (EER) are phenomena for which the combination of a large volume (at least some thousands of m ) and a free fall height of hundreds of metres, results in a large released energy. We fix a threshold value of around 1/50 of kilotons to define such a type of events. Documented examples include several events with dif-ferent size in the Alps (Dru, 2005, 2011, 265,000, 59,200 m3; val Fiscalina - Cima Una, 2007, 40,000 m3; Thurwieser 2004, ca 2 Mm3; Cengalo, 2011, 1.5*105 m3 in 2016, in Switzerland; Civetta, 2013, ca 50,000 m3;), in the Apennines (Gran Sasso, 2006, 30,000 m3), Rocky Mountains (Yosemite, Happy Isles, 38,000 m3), and Himalaya. EERs may become more frequent on steep and sharp mountain peaks as a consequence of permafrost thawing at higher altitudes. In contrast to low energy rockfalls where block disintegration is limited, in EERs the impact after free fall causes an immediate and efficient release of energy much like an explosion. The severe disintegration of the rock and the corresponding air blast are capable of snapping trees many hundreds of metres ahead of the fall area. Pulverized rock at high speed can abrade tree logs, and the resulting suspension flow may travel much further the impact zone, blanketing vast surrounding areas. Using both published accounts of some of these events and collecting direct data for some of them, we present some basic models to describe the involved processes based on analogies with explosions and explosive fragmentation. Of the initial energy, one part is used up in the rock disintegration, and the rest is shared between the shock wave and air blast. The fragmentation energy is calculated based on the fitting of the dust size spectrum by using different proba-bilistic distribution laws and the definition of a surface energy and by considering the involved strain rate. We find the fragmentation is around one third of the initial boulder energy. Finally, we evaluate the velocity of the

  4. Microbial Energetics Beneath the Taylor Glacier, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikucki, J. A.; Turchyn, A. V.; Farquhar, J.; Priscu, J. C.; Schrag, D. P.; Pearson, A.

    2007-12-01

    Subglacial microbiology is controlled by glacier hydrology, bedrock lithology, and the preglacial ecosystem. These factors can all affect metabolic function by influencing electron acceptor and donor availability in the subglacial setting leaving biogeochemical signatures that can be used to determine ecosystem processes. Blood Falls, an iron-rich, episodic subglacial outflow from the Taylor Glacier in the McMurdo Dry Valleys Antarctica provides an example of how microbial community structure and function can provide insight into subglacial hydrology. This subglacial outflow contains cryoconcentrated, Pliocene-age seawater salts that pooled in the upper Taylor Valley and was subsequently covered by the advance of the Taylor Glacier. Biogeochemical measurements, culture-based techniques, and genomic analysis were used to characterize microbes and chemistry associated with the subglacial outflow. The isotopic composition of important geochemical substrates (i.e., δ34Ssulfate, Δ33Ssulfate, δ18Osulfate, δ18Owater, Δ14SDIC) were also measured to provide more detail on subglacial microbial energetics. Typically, subglacial systems, when driven to anoxia by the hydrolysis of organic matter, will follow a continuum of redox chemistries utilizing electron acceptors with decreasing reduction potential (e.g., Fe (III), sulfate, CO2). Our data provide no evidence for sulfate reduction below the Taylor Glacier despite high dissolved organic carbon (450 μM C) and measurable metabolic activity. We contend that, in the case of the Taylor Glacier, the in situ bioenergetic reduction potential has been 'short-circuited' at Fe(III)-reduction and excludes sulfate reduction and methanogenesis. Given the length of time that this marine system has been isolated from phototrophic production (~2 Mya) the ability to degrade and consume increasingly recalcitrant organic carbon is likely an important component to the observed redox chemistry. Our work indicates that glacier hydrology

  5. Salt-bridge energetics in halophilic proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnab Nayek

    Full Text Available Halophilic proteins have greater abundance of acidic over basic and very low bulky hydrophobic residues. Classical electrostatic stabilization was suggested as the key determinant for halophilic adaptation of protein. However, contribution of specific electrostatic interactions (i.e. salt-bridges to overall stability of halophilic proteins is yet to be understood. To understand this, we use Adaptive-Poison-Boltzmann-Solver Methods along with our home-built automation to workout net as well as associated component energy terms such as desolvation energy, bridge energy and background energy for 275 salt-bridges from 20 extremely halophilic proteins. We then perform extensive statistical analysis on general and energetic attributes on these salt-bridges. On average, 8 salt-bridges per 150 residues protein were observed which is almost twice than earlier report. Overall contributions of salt-bridges are -3.0 kcal mol-1. Majority (78% of salt-bridges in our dataset are stable and conserved in nature. Although, average contributions of component energy terms are equal, their individual details vary greatly from one another indicating their sensitivity to local micro-environment. Notably, 35% of salt-bridges in our database are buried and stable. Greater desolvation penalty of these buried salt-bridges are counteracted by stable network salt-bridges apart from favorable equal contributions of bridge and background terms. Recruitment of extensive network salt-bridges (46% with a net contribution of -5.0 kcal mol-1 per salt-bridge, seems to be a halophilic design wherein favorable average contribution of background term (-10 kcal mol-1 exceeds than that of bridge term (-7 kcal mol-1. Interiors of proteins from halophiles are seen to possess relatively higher abundance of charge and polar side chains than that of mesophiles which seems to be satisfied by cooperative network salt-bridges. Overall, our theoretical analyses provide insight into halophilic

  6. Solar energetic particle propagation in 3-dimensional heliospheric magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; Qin, G.; Rassoul, H.

    2008-05-01

    We present the first model calculation of solar energetic particle propagation in realistic 3-dimensional heliopsheric magnetic field. The model includes essentially all the particle transport mechanisms: streaming along magnetic fields, convection with the solar wind, pitch-angle diffusion, focusing, perpendicular diffusion, and pitch-angle dependent adiabatic cooling. We solve the Fokker-Planck transport equation with simulation of backward stochastic processes in a fixed reference frame. Here we focus on high-energy E > ~ 10 MeV solar energetic particles that are accelerated and injected near the Sun. The source of solar energetic particles can be either solar flares or coronal mass ejections, both having limited coverage of latitude and longitude on the solar surface. We compute the particle flux and anisotropy profiles at various observation locations in interplanetary space up to 5 AU from the ecliptic to the solar poles. We found that solar energetic particles are observed no matter whether an observer is directly connected to solar source by the magnetic field. Our model calculation results can explain why we often see solar energetic particles reach an almost uniform reservoir in the inner heliosphere a few days after the onset of a solar energetic particle event and then the intensities of particles in a broad range of energies decay uniformly everywhere. This phenomenon can happen without a need of particle diffusion barrier in the outer heliosphere. We will discuss what mechanism is responsible for the formation of such a reservoir and what role the perpendicular diffusion plays in the transport of solar energetic particles.

  7. Synthesis of Energetic Nitrocarbamates from Polynitro Alcohols and Their Potential as High Energetic Oxidizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axthammer, Quirin J; Krumm, Burkhard; Klapötke, Thomas M

    2015-06-19

    A new synthesis strategy for the preparation of energetic carbamates and nitrocarbamates starting from readily available polynitro alcohols is introduced. The efficient synthesis of mainly new carbamates was performed with the reactive chlorosulfonyl isocyanate (CSI) reagent. The carbamates were nitrated using mixed acid to form the corresponding primary nitrocarbamates. The thermal stability of all synthesized compounds was studied using differential scanning calorimetry, and the energies of formation were calculated on the CBS-4 M level of theory. Detonation parameters and propulsion properties were determined with the software package EXPLO5 V6.02. Furthermore, for all new substances single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies were performed and are presented and discussed as Supporting Information.

  8. MULTI-AXLE VEHICLE STABILITY BASED ON WHOLE VEHICLE MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Xuebin; GAO Feng

    2007-01-01

    From the analysis of experiment data of the multi-axle vehicle chassis searching process, it is less accurate to predict multi-axle vehicle dynamic characteristic with simplified two-axle vehicle model. So it is important to find out a more effective modeling method in the study of multi-vehicle stability. In the development of heat transfer fluid(HTF) six-axle vehicle, a whole vehicle multi-body dynamic model is built through collaborate flowchart using Teamcenter Engineering, UG NX3 and MSC. Adams. The modeling method of connected hydragas spring suspension is validated by running test results. Based on this whole vehicle model, a kinematical analysis of suspension is implemented to achieve optimized suspension geometry parameters according to the stable requirement. Then, different handling simulations are carried out with regard to various tire characteristics, driving configurations, and equipments. According to the evaluation of whole vehicle handling characteristic, some design rules are summarized to improve the stability of multi-axle vehicle.

  9. Energetic Particles: From Sun to Heliosphere - and vice versa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Rodriguez-Pacheco, J.; Boden, S.; Boettcher, S. I.; Cernuda, I.; Dresing, N.; Drews, C.; Droege, W.; Elftmann, R.; Espinosa Lara, F.; Gomez-Herrero, R.; Heber, B.; Ho, G. C.; Klassen, A.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Mann, G. J.; Martin-Garcia, C.; Mason, G. M.; Panitzsch, L.; Prieto, M.; Sanchez, S.; Steinhagen, J.; Tammen, J.; Terasa, C.; Yu, J.

    2016-12-01

    Energetic particles in the heliosphere can be measured at their elevated energetic status after three processes: injection, acceleration, and transport. Suprathermal seed particles have speeds well above the fast magnetosonic speed in the solar wind frame of reference and can vary from location to location and within the solar activity cycle. Acceleration sites include reconnecting current sheets in solar flares or magnetspheric boundaries, shocks in the solar corona, heliosphere and a planetary obstacles, as well as planetary magnetospheres. Once accelerated, particles are transported from the acceleration site into and through the heliosphere. Thus, by investigating properties of energetic particles such as their composition, energy spectra, pitch-angle distribution, etc. one can attempt to distinguish their origin or injection and acceleration site. This in turn allows us to better understand transport effects whose underlying microphysics is also a key ingredient in the acceleration of particles. In this presentation we will present some clear examples which link energetic particles from their observing site to their source locations. These include Jupiter electrons, singly-charged He ions from CIRs, and 3He from solar flares. We will compare these examples with the measurement capabilities of the Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) on Solar Orbiter and consider implications for the key science goal of Solar Orbiter and Solar Proble Plus - How the Sun creates and controls the heliosphere.

  10. Highly energetic compositions based on functionalized carbon nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qi-Long; Gozin, Michael; Zhao, Feng-Qi; Cohen, Adva; Pang, Si-Ping

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, research in the field of carbon nanomaterials (CNMs), such as fullerenes, expanded graphite (EG), carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphene, and graphene oxide (GO), has been widely used in energy storage, electronics, catalysts, and biomaterials, as well as medical applications. Regarding energy storage, one of the most important research directions is the development of CNMs as carriers of energetic components by coating or encapsulation, thus forming safer advanced nanostructures with better performances. Moreover, some CNMs can also be functionalized to become energetic additives. This review article covers updated preparation methods for the aforementioned CNMs, with a more specific orientation towards the use of these nanomaterials in energetic compositions. The effects of these functionalized CNMs on thermal decomposition, ignition, combustion and the reactivity properties of energetic compositions are significant and are discussed in detail. It has been shown that the use of functionalized CNMs in energetic compositions greatly improves their combustion performances, thermal stability and sensitivity. In particular, functionalized fullerenes, CNTs and GO are the most appropriate candidate components in nanothermites, solid propellants and gas generators, due to their superior catalytic properties as well as facile preparation methods.

  11. Evaluation of Energetic Plasticisers for Solid Gun Propellant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Damse

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the evaluation of four different energetic plasticisers, viz., glycidyl azidepolymer (GAP, MW = 390, 1,5-diazido-3-nitrazapentane (DANPE, ethylene-glycol-bis-azido-acetate (EGBAA and N-n-butyl-N-(2 nitroxyethyl nitramine (n-Bu-NENA separately into highenergy gun propellant containing 28 per cent NC (13.1 N %, 65 per cent RDX, 6 per cent di-octyl-phthahate (DOP and 1 per cent carbamite.  Four different propellant compositions based on theenergetic plasticiser have been formulated separately with the replacement of non-energeticplasticiser, DOP. The propellants were processed by standard solvent method and evaluatedexperimentally along with the control composition to determine the ballistic parameters, cal-val,sensitivity, thermal characterisation, thermal stability and mechanical properties. The performanceof the propellants containing the energetic plasticiser has  been compared with that of thecontrol composition containing the non-energetic plasticiser, DOP so as to assess the suitabilityof the energetic plasticiser for the futuristic gun propellant formulations. It has been found outthat n-Bu-NENA is the superior plasticiser among the four energetic plasticisers evaluated inthis study.Defence Science Journal, 2008, 58(1, pp.86-93, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.58.1627

  12. Tropic Testing of Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-27

    kilometer track running through tropical forest . The track is a combination of a bauxite/dirt base with grades on the road up to 20 percent and log...TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Test Operations Procedure (TOP) 02-2-817A Tropic Testing of Vehicles 5a...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) U.S. Army Yuma Proving Ground Tropic Regions Test Center (TEDT-YPT) 301 C. Street Yuma, AZ

  13. SMART VEHICLE PARKING

    OpenAIRE

    S.Bharath Ram

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this project is to count the number of empty car parking areas and to display them in a Website. This system consists of sensors attached to several parking areas. These sensors located in different parking area’s detects the presence of vehicle and sends information to Microcontroller, which calculates the number of available empty parking areas and  uploads them in a website. This basically works on the principle of Internet of Things here the sensors are connected to...

  14. Sensors in Unmanned Robotic Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Rohini

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned tracked vehicles are developed for deployment in dangerous zones that are notsafe for human existence. These vehicles are to be fitted with various sensors for safe manoeuvre.Wide range of sensors for vehicle control, vision, and navigation are employed. The main purposeof the sensors is to infer the intended parameter precisely for further utilisation. Software isinseparable part of the sensors and plays major role in scaling, noise reduction, and fusion.Sensor fusion is normally adapted to enhance the decision-making. Vehicle location  andorientation can be sensed through global positioning system, accelerometer, gyroscope, andcompass. The unmanned vehicle can be navigated with the help of CCD camera, radar, lidar,ultrasonic sensor, piezoelectric sensor, microphone, etc.  Proximity sensors like capacitive andRF proximity detectors can detect obstacles in close vicinity.  This paper presents an overviewof sensors normally deployed in unmanned tracked vehicles.

  15. Energy management and vehicle synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czysz, P.; Murthy, S. N. B.

    1995-01-01

    The major drivers in the development of launch vehicles for the twenty-first century are reduction in cost of vehicles and operations, continuous reusability, mission abort capability with vehicle recovery, and readiness. One approach to the design of such vehicles is to emphasize energy management and propulsion as being the principal means of improvements given the available industrial capability and the required freedom in selecting configuration concept geometries. A methodology has been developed for the rational synthesis of vehicles based on the setting up and utilization of available data and projections, and a reference vehicle. The application of the methodology is illustrated for a single stage to orbit (SSTO) with various limits for the use of airbreathing propulsion.

  16. Remote control for motor vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Dale R. (Inventor); Ciciora, John A. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A remote controller is disclosed for controlling the throttle, brake and steering mechanism of a conventional motor vehicle, with the remote controller being particularly advantageous for use by severely handicapped individuals. The controller includes a remote manipulator which controls a plurality of actuators through interfacing electronics. The remote manipulator is a two-axis joystick which controls a pair of linear actuators and a rotary actuator, with the actuators being powered by electric motors to effect throttle, brake and steering control of a motor vehicle adapted to include the controller. The controller enables the driver to control the adapted vehicle from anywhere in the vehicle with one hand with minimal control force and range of motion. In addition, even though a conventional vehicle is adapted for use with the remote controller, the vehicle may still be operated in the normal manner.

  17. NANOSTRUCTURE PATTERNING UNDER ENERGETIC PARTICLE BEAM IRRADIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lumin [Regents of the University of Michigan; Lu, Wei [Regents of the University of Michigan

    2013-01-31

    Energetic ion bombardment can lead to the development of complex and diverse nanostructures on or beneath the material surface through induced self-organization processes. These self-organized structures have received particular interest recently as promising candidates as simple, inexpensive, and large area patterns, whose optical, electronic and magnetic properties are different from those in the bulk materials [1-5]. Compared to the low mass efficiency production rate of lithographic methods, these self-organized approaches display new routes for the fabrication of nanostructures over large areas in a short processing time at the nanoscale, beyond the limits of lithography [1,4]. Although it is believed that surface nanostructure formation is based on the morphological instability of the sputtered surface, driven by a kinetic balance between roughening and smoothing actions [6,7], the fundamental mechanisms and experimental conditions for the formation of these nanostructures has still not been well established, the formation of the 3-D naopatterns beneath the irradiated surface especially needs more exploration. During the last funding period, we have focused our efforts on irradiation-induced nanostructures in a broad range of materials. These structures have been studied primarily through in situ electron microscopy during electron or ion irradiation. In particular, we have performed studies on 3-D void/bubble lattices (in metals and CaF2), embedded sponge-like porous structure with uniform nanofibers in irradiated semiconductors (Ge, GaSb, and InSb), 2-D highly ordered pattern of nanodroplets (on the surface of GaAs), hexagonally ordered nanoholes (on the surface of Ge), and 1-D highly ordered ripple and periodic arrays (of Cu nanoparticles) [3,8-11]. The amazing common feature in those nanopatterns is the uniformity of the size of nanoelements (nanoripples, nanodots, nanovoids or nanofibers) and the distance separating them. Our research focuses on the

  18. MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stepanov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The issues of vehicle safety are considered. The methodology of approach to analyzing and solving the problem of safety management of vehicles and overall traffic is offered. The distinctive features of organization and management of vehicle safety are shown. There has been drawn a conclusion that the methodological approach to solving traffic safety problems is reduced to selection and classification of safety needs.

  19. LM-3B Launch Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RenShufang

    2005-01-01

    LM-3B launch vehicle is a heavy three-stage liquid propellant strap-on launch vehicle, which was developed based on the mature technologies of the LM-3A and LM-2E. It not only has the highest payload capacity to send China's satellites to GTO, but is also one of the most advanced launch vehicles in the world with high reliability, reasonable price and perfect technological design.

  20. Idling Reduction for Personal Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-07

    Fact sheet on reducing engine idling in personal vehicles. Idling your vehicle--running your engine when you're not driving it--truly gets you nowhere. Idling reduces your vehicle's fuel economy, costs you money, and creates pollution. Idling for more than 10 seconds uses more fuel and produces more emissions that contribute to smog and climate change than stopping and restarting your engine does.

  1. Pneumatic vehicle. Research and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokodi Zsolt

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This experimental vehicle was designed for an international competition organized by Bosch Rexroth yearly in Hungary. The purpose of this competition is to design, build and race vehicles with a fuel source of compressed gas. The race consists of multiple events: longest run distance, the smartness track and the best acceleration event. These events test to the limit the capabilities of the designed vehicles.

  2. Hybrid and Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-05-20

    Hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles use electricity either as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. This new generation of vehicles, often called electric drive vehicles, can be divided into three categories: hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles(PHEVs), and all-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, they have great potential to reduce U.S. petroleum use.

  3. Superpressure stratospheric vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chocol, C.; Robinson, W.; Epley, L.

    1990-09-15

    Our need for wide-band global communications, earth imaging and sensing, atmospheric measurements and military reconnaissance is extensive, but growing dependence on space-based systems raises concerns about vulnerability. Military commanders require space assets that are more accessible and under local control. As a result, a robust and low cost access to space-like capability has become a national priority. Free floating buoyant vehicles in the middle stratosphere can provide the kind of cost effective access to space-like capability needed for a variety of missions. These vehicles are inexpensive, invisible, and easily launched. Developments in payload electronics, atmospheric modeling, and materials combined with improving communications and navigation infrastructure are making balloon-borne concepts more attractive. The important milestone accomplished by this project was the planned test flight over the continental United States. This document is specifically intended to review the technology development and preparations leading up to the test flight. Although the test flight experienced a payload failure just before entering its assent altitude, significant data were gathered. The results of the test flight are presented here. Important factors included in this report include quality assurance testing of the balloon, payload definition and characteristics, systems integration, preflight testing procedures, range operations, data collection, and post-flight analysis. 41 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Electric-vehicle batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oman, Henry; Gross, Sid

    1995-02-01

    Electric vehicles that can't reach trolley wires need batteries. In the early 1900's electric cars disappeared when owners found that replacing the car's worn-out lead-acid battery costs more than a new gasoline-powered car. Most of today's electric cars are still propelled by lead-acid batteries. General Motors in their prototype Impact, for example, used starting-lighting-ignition batteries, which deliver lots of power for demonstrations, but have a life of less than 100 deep discharges. Now promising alternative technology has challenged the world-wide lead miners, refiners, and battery makers into forming a consortium that sponsors research into making better lead-acid batteries. Horizon's new bipolar battery delivered 50 watt-hours per kg (Wh/kg), compared with 20 for ordinary transport-vehicle batteries. The alternatives are delivering from 80 Wh/kg (nickel-metal hydride) up to 200 Wh/kg (zinc-bromine). A Fiat Panda traveled 260 km on a single charge of its zinc-bromine battery. A German 3.5-ton postal truck traveled 300 km with a single charge in its 650-kg (146 Wh/kg) zinc-air battery. Its top speed was 110 km per hour.

  5. NO{sub x}-abatement in bio-fuelled combustion units through catalytic reburning; Minskning av NO{sub x}-emissioner fraan biobraensleeldade anlaeggningar genom katalytisk reburning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silversand, F.A. [Katator AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2000-03-01

    A study concerning the possibility of using catalytic reburning in the abatement of nitrogen oxides from bio-fuelled combustion units has been accomplished. In catalytic reburning, the fuel is combusted at a low excess-air-ratio to minimize the necessary amount of reburning gas added downstream the combustion chamber. The reburning fuel (a reducing agent, e.g. natural gas or LPG) will react catalytically with oxygen and nitrogen oxides in the reburning catalyst to produce carbon oxides, water and nitrogen. Secondary air is injected downstream the reburning catalyst to facilitate an effective combustion of remaining CO and hydrocarbons in the oxidation catalyst, usually in a tail-end position. Experiments were carried out in a small-scale combustion unit (10-20 kW{sub fuel} for pellets of bio-fuel). The results indicate possible conversion degrees of 90% with respect to nitrogen oxides, without increased emissions of CO and hydrocarbons. The economic evaluation indicates a great sensitivity to the price of the reburning fuel. Problems with uneven flow conditions and concentration gradients are expected to reduce the performance of catalytic reburning. Damages caused by corrosion at low oxygen concentrations are likely to occur in positions with high metal temperatures, e.g. in the super-heater-portion of the flue-gas-channel. Hydrocarbon-SCR is an alternative method to obtain a reasonable reduction of the emissions of nitrogen oxides. Small amounts of certain hydrocarbons (e.g. LPG) are added to the flue-gas-stream at a normal excess-air-ratio to obtain a conversion degree of 50 - 70% over a transition-metal-exchanged zeolite catalyst. Continued experiments should focus on installations in large bio-fuelled appliances, where a detailed technical and economical evaluation is possible. Especially catalyst deactivation needs to be evaluated further.

  6. A preliminary evaluation of post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture performance in a pilot plant test using mono-ethanolamine at a lignite-fuelled power station in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. Artanto; M.I. Attalla; A. Cottrell; J. Jansen; J.M. McGregor; E.E.B. Meuleman; S. Morgan; M. Osborn; P. Pearson; L. Wardhaugh; P.H.M. Feron [CSIRO, Clayton, Vic. (Australia). Division of Energy Technology

    2009-07-01

    CSIRO has developed three PCC pilot plants to be connected to the flue gas of coal-fuelled power stations in Australia. Currently, two pilot plants are in operation. This paper presents results achieved with CSIRO's mobile plant which is fed with real flue gas from a lignite-fuelled power station at Loy Yang, Victoria, Australia. The findings of preliminary pilot plant trials are evaluated through comparison with results derived from WinSim Design II process simulation. The pilot plant operates with a 30% mono-ethanolamine (MEA) solution to capture CO{sub 2} under nominal conditions defined as a flue gas rate of 150 m{sup 3}/h and a solvent rate of 0.34 m{sup 3}/h. These conditions are set as the base-line for further experiments with different conditions. Different flue gas and solvent flow rates (three selected cases) were examined in the pilot plant in order to study the effects on CO{sub 2} recovery, heat reboiler duty, lean solvent loading and temperature profiles in the absorber columns. Gas and liquid sample analyses were used to determine the amount of CO{sub 2} recovered. The CO{sub 2} balance was also calculated in this study. The CO{sub 2} recovered (15-20 kg/h), based on liquid analysis, are below values from simulation modeling. The CO{sub 2} recovery is approximately 95% in simulation, while experiments indicate CO{sub 2} recovery of 60-83%. Preliminary results on comparing temperature profiles in the absorber columns show similar trends. 7 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Effect of energetic oxygen atoms on neutral density models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbaugh, R. P.; Nisbet, J. S.

    1973-01-01

    The dissociative recombination of O2(+) and NO(+) in the F region results in the production of atomic oxygen and atomic nitrogen with substantially greater kinetic energy than the ambient atoms. In the exosphere these energetic atoms have long free paths. They can ascend to altitudes of several thousand kilometers and can travel horizontally to distances of the order of the earth's radius. The distribution of energetic oxygen atoms is derived by means of models of the ion and neutral densities for quiet and disturbed solar conditions. A distribution technique is used to study the motion of the atoms in the collision-dominated region. Ballistic trajectories are calculated in the spherical gravitational field of the earth. The present calculations show that the number densities of energetic oxygen atoms predominate over the ambient atomic oxygen densities above 1000 km under quiet solar conditions and above 1600 km under disturbed solar conditions.

  8. Effect of Energetic Electrons on Quiet Auroral Arc Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Hiroki; Ohno, Nobuaki; Sato, Tetsuya

    2010-11-01

    The theory of feedback instability between the magnetosphere and ionosphere is believed as one of the candidate to explain the formation of quiet auroral arc. Then, some magneto-hydro- dynamics simulations showed the arc formation by this macroscopic instability, while the effect of auroral energetic electrons on the arc formation was neglected or given as a macroscopic parameter in these simulations. On the other hand, because of the recent development of particle simulations, auroral energetic electrons are thought to be produced by the super ion-acoustic double layer that should be created by microscopic instability. To make close investigation of auroral arc formation, it is necessary to consider the interaction with microscopic instability. In this paper, we numerically study the effect of energetic electrons on quiet auroral arc formation by means of the Macro-Micro Interlocked simulation.

  9. Chemical rocket propulsion a comprehensive survey of energetic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Shimada, Toru; Sinditskii, Valery; Calabro, Max

    2017-01-01

    Developed and expanded from the work presented at the New Energetic Materials and Propulsion Techniques for Space Exploration workshop in June 2014, this book contains new scientific results, up-to-date reviews, and inspiring perspectives in a number of areas related to the energetic aspects of chemical rocket propulsion. This collection covers the entire life of energetic materials from their conceptual formulation to practical manufacturing; it includes coverage of theoretical and experimental ballistics, performance properties, as well as laboratory-scale and full system-scale, handling, hazards, environment, ageing, and disposal. Chemical Rocket Propulsion is a unique work, where a selection of accomplished experts from the pioneering era of space propulsion and current technologists from the most advanced international laboratories discuss the future of chemical rocket propulsion for access to, and exploration of, space. It will be of interest to both postgraduate and final-year undergraduate students in...

  10. The source of multi spectral energy of solar energetic electron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herdiwijaya, Dhani [Astronomy Division and Bosscha Observatory, Faculty Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Intitute Technology of Bandung, Ganesha 10, Bandung, Indonesia 40132 dhani@as.itb.ac.id (Indonesia)

    2015-04-16

    We study the solar energetic electron distribution obtained from ACE and GOES satellites which have different altitudes and electron spectral energy during the year 1997 to 2011. The electron spectral energies were 0.038–0.315 MeV from EPAM instrument onboard ACE satellite and >2 MeV from GOES satellite. We found that the low electron energy has no correlation with high energy. In spite of we have corrected to the altitude differences. It implied that they originated from time dependent events with different sources and physical processes at the solar atmosphere. The sources of multi spectral energetic electron were related to flare and CME phenomena. However, we also found that high energetic electron comes from coronal hole.

  11. Energetics of atomic scale structure changes in graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowron, Stephen T; Lebedeva, Irina V; Popov, Andrey M; Bichoutskaia, Elena

    2015-05-21

    The presence of defects in graphene has an essential influence on its physical and chemical properties. The formation, behaviour and healing of defects are determined by energetic characteristics of atomic scale structure changes. In this article, we review recent studies devoted to atomic scale reactions during thermally activated and irradiation-induced processes in graphene. The formation energies of vacancies, adatoms and topological defects are discussed. Defect formation, healing and migration are quantified in terms of activation energies (barriers) for thermally activated processes and by threshold energies for processes occurring under electron irradiation. The energetics of defects in the graphene interior and at the edge is analysed. The effects of applied strain and a close proximity of the edge on the energetics of atomic scale reactions are overviewed. Particular attention is given to problems where further studies are required.

  12. Kinetic Simulation and Energetic Neutral Atom Imaging of the Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fok, Mei-Ching H.

    2011-01-01

    Advanced simulation tools and measurement techniques have been developed to study the dynamic magnetosphere and its response to drivers in the solar wind. The Comprehensive Ring Current Model (CRCM) is a kinetic code that solves the 3D distribution in space, energy and pitch-angle information of energetic ions and electrons. Energetic Neutral Atom (ENA) imagers have been carried in past and current satellite missions. Global morphology of energetic ions were revealed by the observed ENA images. We have combined simulation and ENA analysis techniques to study the development of ring current ions during magnetic storms and substorms. We identify the timing and location of particle injection and loss. We examine the evolution of ion energy and pitch-angle distribution during different phases of a storm. In this talk we will discuss the findings from our ring current studies and how our simulation and ENA analysis tools can be applied to the upcoming TRIO-CINAMA mission.

  13. Hybrid Vehicle Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1984-06-01

    This report summarizes the activities on the Hybrid Vehicle Program. The program objectives and the vehicle specifications are reviewed. The Hybrid Vehicle has been designed so that maximum use can be made of existing production components with a minimum compromise to program goals. The program status as of the February 9-10 Hardware Test Review is presented, and discussions of the vehicle subsystem, the hybrid propulsion subsystem, the battery subsystem, and the test mule programs are included. Other program aspects included are quality assurance and support equipment. 16 references, 132 figures, 47 tables.

  14. Exponential Stabilization of Underactuated Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersen, K.Y.

    1996-12-31

    Underactuated vehicles are vehicles with fewer independent control actuators than degrees of freedom to be controlled. Such vehicles may be used in inspection of sub-sea cables, inspection and maintenance of offshore oil drilling platforms, and similar. This doctoral thesis discusses feedback stabilization of underactuated vehicles. The main objective has been to further develop methods from stabilization of nonholonomic systems to arrive at methods that are applicable to underactuated vehicles. A nonlinear model including both dynamics and kinematics is used to describe the vehicles, which may be surface vessels, spacecraft or autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). It is shown that for a certain class of underactuated vehicles the stabilization problem is not solvable by linear control theory. A new stability result for a class of homogeneous time-varying systems is derived and shown to be an important tool for developing continuous periodic time-varying feedback laws that stabilize underactuated vehicles without involving cancellation of dynamics. For position and orientation control of a surface vessel without side thruster a new continuous periodic feedback law is proposed that does not cancel any dynamics, and that exponentially stabilizes the origin of the underactuated surface vessel. A further issue considered is the stabilization of the attitude of an AUV. Finally, the thesis discusses stabilization of both position and attitude of an underactuated AUV. 55 refs., 28 figs.

  15. Energetic salts with π-stacking and hydrogen-bonding interactions lead the way to future energetic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaheng; Zhang, Qinghua; Vo, Thao T; Parrish, Damon A; Shreeve, Jean'ne M

    2015-02-04

    Among energetic materials, there are two significant challenges facing researchers: 1) to develop ionic CHNO explosives with higher densities than their parent nonionic molecules and (2) to achieve a fine balance between high detonation performance and low sensitivity. We report a surprising energetic salt, hydroxylammonium 3-dinitromethanide-1,2,4-triazolone, that exhibits exceptional properties, viz., higher density, superior detonation performance, and improved thermal, impact, and friction stabilities, then those of its precursor, 3-dinitromethyl-1,2,4-triazolone. The solid-state structure features of the new energetic salt were investigated with X-ray diffraction which showed π-stacking and hydrogen-bonding interactions that contribute to closer packing and higher density. According to the experimental results and theoretical analysis, the newly designed energetic salt also gives rise to a workable compromise in high detonation properties and desirable stabilities. These findings will enhance the future prospects for rational energetic materials design and commence a new chapter in this field.

  16. Electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cell electric vehicles: what in the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maggetto, G.; Van Mierlo, J. [Vrije Universiteit, Brussel (Belgium)

    2000-07-01

    In urban area, due to their beneficial effect on environment, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cell electric vehicles are an important factor for improvement of traffic and more particular for a healthier environment. Moreover, the need for alternative energy source is growing and the price competition of alternatives against oil is becoming more and more realistic. Electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cell electric vehicles are offering the best possibility for the use of new energy sources, because electricity can result from a transformation with high efficiency of these sources and is always used with the highest possible efficiency in systems with electric drives or components. Some basic considerations about the situation today and in a mid and long-term perspective, are presented together with the infrastructure developments.

  17. Origins of energetic ions in the Earth's magnetosheath

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This final report describes activities under NASA contract NAS5-31213 to Lockheed Missiles and Space Company. The report covers the entire contract period from 8 May 1991 to 7 Jun. 1994. This is a contract under the NASA Guest Investigator Program for the analysis and interpretation of the combined scientific data from the Hot Plasma Composition Experiment (HPCE) and the Charge Energy Mass (CHEM) spectrometer on the AMPTE/Charge Composition Explorer (CCE) spacecraft. These combined data sets have been used to survey the energetic ion environment in the earth's magnetosheath to determine the origins and relative strengths of the energetic ion populations found there.

  18. Origins of energetic ions in the Earth's magnetosheath

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    This final report describes activities under NASA contract NAS5-31213 to Lockheed Missiles and Space Company. The report covers the entire contract period from 8 May 1991 to 7 Jun. 1994. This is a contract under the NASA Guest Investigator Program for the analysis and interpretation of the combined scientific data from the Hot Plasma Composition Experiment (HPCE) and the Charge Energy Mass (CHEM) spectrometer on the AMPTE/Charge Composition Explorer (CCE) spacecraft. These combined data sets have been used to survey the energetic ion environment in the earth's magnetosheath to determine the origins and relative strengths of the energetic ion populations found there.

  19. ENERGETIC EXTREMES IN REEF FISH OCCUPYING HARSH HABITATS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, John Fleng

    2009-01-01

    document how relatively small changes in fin morphology has afforded some coral reef fish taxa with exceptional locomotor performance and energetic efficiency, and how this key attribute may have played a key role in the evolution and ecology of several diverse Indo-Pacific reef fish families. Using......-finned counterparts. We discuss how such differences in locomotor efficiency are pivotal to the habitat-use of these fishes, and how eco-energetic models may be used to provide new insights into spatial variations in fish demography and ecology among coral reef habitat zones....

  20. MOISTURE HUMIDITY EQUILIBRIUM OF WOOD CHIPS FROM ENERGETIC CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Barwicki

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Processes occurring during storage of wood chips for energetic or furniture industry purposes were presented. As a result of carried out investigations, dependences of temperature and relative humidity changes of surrounding air were shown. Modified Henderson equation can be utilized for computer simulation of storing and drying processes concerning wood chips for energetic and furniture industry purposes. It reflects also obtained results from experiments carried out with above mentioned material. Using computer simulation program we can examine different wood chips storing conditions to avoid overheating and loss problems.

  1. Electronic Density Approaches to the Energetics of Noncovalent Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Politzer

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: We present an overview of procedures that have been developed to compute several energetic quantities associated with noncovalent interactions. These formulations involve numerical integration over appropriate electronic densities. Our focus is upon the electrostatic interaction between two unperturbed molecules, the effect of the polarization of each charge distribution by the other, and the total energy of interaction. The expression for the latter is based upon the Hellmann-Feynman theorem. Applications to a number of systems are discussed; among them are dimers of uracil and interacting pairs of molecules in the crystal lattice of the energetic compound RDX.

  2. Higher-order-mode fiber optimized for energetic soliton propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Martin E V; Cheng, Ji; Charan, Kriti; Wang, Ke; Xu, Chris; Grüner-Nielsen, Lars; Jakobsen, Dan

    2012-08-15

    We describe the design optimization of a higher-order-mode (HOM) fiber for energetic soliton propagation at wavelengths below 1300 nm. A new HOM fiber is fabricated according to our design criteria. The HOM fiber is pumped at 1045 nm by an energetic femtosecond fiber laser. The soliton self-frequency shift process shifts the center wavelength of the soliton to 1085 nm. The soliton has a temporal duration of 216 fs and a pulse energy of 6.3 nJ. The demonstrated pulse energy is approximately six times higher than the previous record in a solid core fiber at wavelengths below 1300 nm.

  3. Hybrid vehicle potential assessment. Volume 7. Hybrid vehicle review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leschly, K.O.

    1979-09-30

    Review of hybrid vehicles (HVs) built during the past ten years or planned to be built in the near future is presented. An attempt is made to classify and analyze these vehicles to get an overall picture of their key characteristics. The review includes on-road hybrid passenger cars, trucks, vans, and buses.

  4. Hybrid vehicle potential assessment. Volume 7: Hybrid vehicle review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leschly, K. O.

    1979-01-01

    Review of hybrid vehicles built during the past ten years or planned to be built in the near future is presented. An attempt is made to classify and analyze these vehicles to get an overall picture of their key characteristics. The review includes onroad hybrid passenger cars, trucks, vans, and buses.

  5. Disruption management of the vehicle routing problem with vehicle breakdown

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Q; Fu, Z; Lysgaard, Jens

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a new class of problem, the disrupted vehicle routing problem (VRP), which deals with the disruptions that occur at the execution stage of a VRP plan. The paper then focuses on one type of such problem, in which a vehicle breaks down during the delivery and a new routing...

  6. Application of GA, PSO, and ACO Algorithms to Path Planning of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Pourmahmood Aghababa; Mohammad Hossein Amrollahi; Mehdi Borjkhani

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,an underwater vehicle was modeled with six dimensional nonlinear equations of motion,controlled by DC motors in all degrees of freedom.Near-optimal trajectories in an energetic environment for underwater vehicles were computed using a numerical solution of a nonlinear optimal control problem (NOCP).An energy performance index as a cost function,which should be minimized,was defined.The resulting problem was a two-point boundary value problem (TPBVP).A genetic algorithm (GA),particle swarm optimization (PSO),and ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithms were applied to solve the resulting TPBVP.Applying an Euler-Lagrange equation to the NOCE a conjugate gradient penalty method was also adopted to solve the TPBVP.The problem of energetic environments,involving some energy sources,was discussed.Some near-optimal paths were found using a GA,PSO,and ACO algorithms.Finally,the problem of collision avoidance in an energetic environment was also taken into account.

  7. The Vehicle Routing Problem with Limited Vehicle Capacities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Taracena Sanz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The vehicle routing problem (VRP has been an important research topic during the last decades because of his vital role in the productive systems efficiency. Most of the work done in this area has been directed to solve large scale problems which may not apply for small companies which are a very important engine of the world economy. This paper approaches the problem when limited vehicle resources are present and road transportation is used. This study assumes variable customer orders. Variable volume and weight vehicle capacities are considered and the proposed algorithm develops the vehicle delivery routes and the set of customer orders to deliver per vehicle minimizing a cost objective function. In sampling small company’s logistics costs, big cost savings are found when using the proposed method.

  8. Expendable launch vehicle studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainum, Peter M.; Reiss, Robert

    1995-01-01

    Analytical support studies of expendable launch vehicles concentrate on the stability of the dynamics during launch especially during or near the region of maximum dynamic pressure. The in-plane dynamic equations of a generic launch vehicle with multiple flexible bending and fuel sloshing modes are developed and linearized. The information from LeRC about the grids, masses, and modes is incorporated into the model. The eigenvalues of the plant are analyzed for several modeling factors: utilizing diagonal mass matrix, uniform beam assumption, inclusion of aerodynamics, and the interaction between the aerodynamics and the flexible bending motion. Preliminary PID, LQR, and LQG control designs with sensor and actuator dynamics for this system and simulations are also conducted. The initial analysis for comparison of PD (proportional-derivative) and full state feedback LQR Linear quadratic regulator) shows that the split weighted LQR controller has better performance than that of the PD. In order to meet both the performance and robustness requirements, the H(sub infinity) robust controller for the expendable launch vehicle is developed. The simulation indicates that both the performance and robustness of the H(sub infinity) controller are better than that for the PID and LQG controllers. The modelling and analysis support studies team has continued development of methodology, using eigensensitivity analysis, to solve three classes of discrete eigenvalue equations. In the first class, the matrix elements are non-linear functions of the eigenvector. All non-linear periodic motion can be cast in this form. Here the eigenvector is comprised of the coefficients of complete basis functions spanning the response space and the eigenvalue is the frequency. The second class of eigenvalue problems studied is the quadratic eigenvalue problem. Solutions for linear viscously damped structures or viscoelastic structures can be reduced to this form. Particular attention is paid to

  9. String stability of vehicle platoons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, J.; Wouw, N. van de; Nijmeijer, H.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, highway capacity has become a limiting factor, regularly causing traffic jams. Obviously, the road capacity can be increased by decreasing the inter-vehicle following distance di . As a consequence, however, vehicle automation in longitudinal direction is required in order to still

  10. Vehicle rollover sensor test modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCoy, R.W.; Chou, C.C.; Velde, R. van de; Twisk, D.; Schie, C. van

    2007-01-01

    A computational model of a mid-size sport utility vehicle was developed using MADYMO. The model includes a detailed description of the suspension system and tire characteristics that incorporated the Delft-Tyre magic formula description. The model was correlated by simulating a vehicle suspension ki

  11. LM-3A Launch Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RenShufang

    2004-01-01

    The LM-3A launch vehicle is a large three-stage liquidpropellant launch vehicle developed on the basis ot LM-3 ana LM-2C. By incorporating the mature technologies of LM-3 and adding a more powerful improved LOX/LH cryogenic third stage and more capable control system, LM-3A has a

  12. Going Green with Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Walter F., III

    2010-01-01

    There is considerable interest in electric and hybrid cars because of environmental and climate change concerns, tougher fuel efficiency standards, and increasing dependence on imported oil. In this article, the author describes the history of electric vehicles in the automotive world and discusses the components of a hybrid electric vehicle.…

  13. Launch Vehicle Dynamics Demonstrator Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    Launch Vehicle Dynamics Demonstrator Model. The effect of vibration on launch vehicle dynamics was studied. Conditions included three modes of instability. The film includes close up views of the simulator fuel tank with and without stability control. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030984. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

  14. Going Green with Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Walter F., III

    2010-01-01

    There is considerable interest in electric and hybrid cars because of environmental and climate change concerns, tougher fuel efficiency standards, and increasing dependence on imported oil. In this article, the author describes the history of electric vehicles in the automotive world and discusses the components of a hybrid electric vehicle.…

  15. Electric Vehicles and the Customers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Linda

    2011-01-01

    This report is analysing the potential travel behaviour of electric vehicles (EVs) and the need for charging infrastructure which can be derived from the behaviour.......This report is analysing the potential travel behaviour of electric vehicles (EVs) and the need for charging infrastructure which can be derived from the behaviour....

  16. Electric vehicle battery charging controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    to a battery management system in the electric vehicle to charge a battery therein, a first communication unit for receiving a charging message via a communication network, and a control unit for controlling a charging current provided from the charge source to the electric vehicle, the controlling at least...

  17. Vehicle with tilting suspension system

    OpenAIRE

    Festini, Andrea; Tonoli, Andrea; Cavalli, Fabio; Carabelli, Stefano

    2006-01-01

    The patent is relative to the application of a tilting suspension on a snowmobile to improve its drive feeling and safety. At high speed the introduction of the tilting suspension reduce the rollover risk during cornering. The vehicle can tilt as a motorcycle and its lateral dimensions can be reduced not compromising the vehicle stability

  18. 1997 hybrid electric vehicle specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sluder, S.; Larsen, R.; Duoba, M.

    1996-10-01

    The US DOE sponsors Advanced Vehicle Technology competitions to help educate the public and advance new vehicle technologies. For several years, DOE has provided financial and technical support for the American Tour de Sol. This event showcases electric and hybrid electric vehicles in a road rally across portions of the northeastern United States. The specifications contained in this technical memorandum apply to vehicles that will be entered in the 1997 American Tour de Sol. However, the specifications were prepared to be general enough for use by other teams and individuals interested in developing hybrid electric vehicles. The purpose of the specifications is to ensure that the vehicles developed do not present a safety hazard to the teams that build and drive them or to the judges, sponsors, or public who attend the competitions. The specifications are by no means the definitive sources of information on constructing hybrid electric vehicles - as electric and hybrid vehicles technologies advance, so will the standards and practices for their construction. In some cases, the new standards and practices will make portions of these specifications obsolete.

  19. Probabilistic risk assessment of the Space Shuttle. Phase 3: A study of the potential of losing the vehicle during nominal operation. Volume 2: Integrated loss of vehicle model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragola, Joseph R.; Maggio, Gaspare; Frank, Michael V.; Gerez, Luis; Mcfadden, Richard H.; Collins, Erin P.; Ballesio, Jorge; Appignani, Peter L.; Karns, James J.

    1995-01-01

    The application of the probabilistic risk assessment methodology to a Space Shuttle environment, particularly to the potential of losing the Shuttle during nominal operation is addressed. The different related concerns are identified and combined to determine overall program risks. A fault tree model is used to allocate system probabilities to the subsystem level. The loss of the vehicle due to failure to contain energetic gas and debris, to maintain proper propulsion and configuration is analyzed, along with the loss due to Orbiter, external tank failure, and landing failure or error.

  20. Transmissions in vehicles 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Within the international VDI congress 'Gears in vehicles 2010' of the VDI Wissensforum GmbH (Duesseldorf, Federal Republic of Germany) between 22nd and 23rd June, 2010, in Friedrichshafen (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) 8HP70H - The moldhybrid transmission from ZF - Cjallenges and achievements (P. Gutmann); (2) GETRAG boosted range extender - A highly flexible electric powertrain for maximum CO{sub 2} reduction (S. Huepkes); (3) E-Transmission between full-hybrid and E-drive (P. Tenberge); (4) Reducing NO{sub x} and particulate emissions in electrified drivelines (R. Kuberczyk); (5) Simulation aided HEV and EV development: from the component to the whole powertrain (A. Gacometti); (6) Investigations on operating behaviour of the optimized CVT hybrid driveline (B.-R. Hoehn); (7) Customer-oriented dimensioning of electrified drivetrains (M. Eghtessad); (8) Decentralized optimal control strategy for parallel hybrid electric vehicles (A. Frenkel); (9) The new generation 6-speed automatic transmission AF40 (G. Bednarek); (10) Customized mechatronic solutions for integrated transmission control units (M. Wieczorek); (11) The optimal automatic transmission for front-transverse applications - Planetary transmissions or dual clutch transmissions? (G. Gumpoltsberger); (12) The new shift-by-wire gearshift lever for the Audi A8 - Requirements and concept (T. Guttenbergere); (13) The new shift-by-wire gearshift lever for the Audi A8 - Realization (A. Giefer); (14) Fuel-efficient transmissions of the future: Calculation of the efficiency factor for vehicle transmissions (B. Volpert); (15) HT-ACM: A new polymer generation for static and dynamic gearbox sealing solutions (E. Osen); (16) 'Energy efficiency equipped solutions by SKF' for power train applications - A contribution to CO{sub 2} - emission reduction and sustainability (T. Bobke); (17) 6-Ratio planetary shift transmission controlled by 4 external brakes, and design