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Sample records for fuel-storage basin superstructure

  1. DEMOLISHING A COLD-WAR-ERA FUEL-STORAGE BASIN SUPERSTRUCTURE LADEN WITH ASBESTOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, E.R.; Orgill, T.K.; Dagan, E.B.

    2008-01-01

    The K East (KE) Basin facilities are located near the north end of the Hanford Site's 100 K area. The facilities were built in 1950 as part of the KE Reactor complex and constructed within 400 meters of the Columbia River, which is the largest river in the Pacific Northwest and by volume the fourth largest river in the United States. The basin, located adjacent to the reactor, was used for the underwater storage of irradiated nuclear fuel discharged from the reactor. The basin was covered by a superstructure comprising steel columns and beams, concrete, and cement asbestos board (CAB) siding. The project's mission was to complete demolition of the structure over the K East basin within six months of tumover from facility deactivation activities. The demolition project team implemented open-air demolition techniques to demolish the facility to slab-on-grade. Several innovative techniques were used to control contamination and maintain contamination control within the confines of the demolition exclusion zone. The techniques, which focused on a defense-in-depth approach, included spraying fixatives on interior and exterior surfaces before demolition began; applying fixatives; misting using a fine spray of water during demolition; and demolishing the facility systematically. Another innovation that aided demolition was to demolish the building with the non-friable CAB remaining in place. The CAB siding covered the exterior of the building, portions of the interior walls, and was an integral part of the multiple layered roof. The project evaluated the risks involved in removing the CAB material in a radiologically contaminated environment and determined that radiological dose rates and exposure to radiological contamination and industrial hazards would be significantly reduced by removing the CAB during demolition using heavy equipment. The ability to perform this demolition safely and without spreading contamination (radiological or asbestos) demonstrates that similar

  2. 100KE/KW fuel storage basin surface volumetric factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conn, K.R.

    1996-01-01

    This Supporting Document presents calculations of surface Volumetric factors for the 100KE and 100KW Fuel Storage Basins. These factors relate water level changes to basin loss or additions of water, or the equivalent water displacement volumes of objects added to or removed from the basin

  3. Control of corrosion in an aqueous nuclear fuel storage basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, C.A.

    1981-01-01

    Observations made during thirty years of experience in operating a nuclear fuel storage basin, used for storing a wide variety of spent nuclear fuels underwater have identified several forms of corrosion such as galvanic, pitting and crevice attack. Examples of some of the forms of corrosion observed and their causes are discussed, along with the measures taken to mitigate the corrosive attack. The paper also describes the procedure used to reduce corrosion by: surveillance of design, selection of materials for application in the basin, and inspection of items in the storage basin

  4. 105-N Fuel Storage Basin dewatering conceptual plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilperoort, D.L.

    1996-11-01

    This conceptual plan discusses the processes that will be used for draining and disposing of water from the 105-N Fuel Storage Basin (N Basin), and includes a description of the activities to control surface contamination and potential high dose rates encountered during dewatering. The 105-N Fuel Storage Basin is located in the 100-N Area of the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The processes for water disposal include water filtration, water sampling and analysis, tanker loading and unloading, surface decontamination and sealing, and clean out and disposal of residual debris and sediments during final pumping to remove the N Basin water. Water disposal is critical for the deactivation of N Reactor. A Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration (ER) Program and DOE Waste Management (WM) Program establishes the 200 East Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) as the final treatment and disposal site for N Basin water and identifies pre-treatment requirements. This MOU states that water delivery will be completed no later than October 31, 1996, and will require a revision due to the current de-watering schedule date. The current MOU requires four micron filtration prior to shipment to ETF. The MOU revision for delivery date extension seeks to have the filtration limit increased to five microns, which eliminates the need for a second filter system and simplifies dewatering. For the purposes of this plan, it will be assumed that five micron filtration will be used

  5. Spent LWR fuel storage costs: reracking, AR basins, and AFR basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Whenever possible, fuel storage requirements will be met by reracking existing reactor basins and/or transfer of fuel to available space in other reactor basins. These alternatives represent not only the lowest cost storage options but also the most timely. They are recognized to face environmental and regulatory obstacles. However, such obstacles should be less severe than those that would be encountered with AR or AFR basin storage. When storage requirements cannot be met by the first two options, the least costly alternative for most utilities will be use of a Federal AFR. Storage costs of $100,000 to $150,000 MTU at a AFR are less costly than charges of up to $320,000/MTU that could be incurred by the use of AR basins. AFR storage costs do not include transportation from the reactor to the AFR. This cost would be paid by the utility separately. Only when a utility requires annual storage capacity for 100 MTU of spent fuel can self-storage begin to compete with AFR costs. The large reactor complexes discharging these fuel quantities are not currently those that require relief from fuel storage problems

  6. Disposal of low-level radioactive waste from a fuel storage basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, D.W.

    1979-01-01

    Contamination of the water in the ICPP fuel storage basin has occurred and various methods of coping with it have been tried. Ion exchange, first after and then before ground release, was used initially, but it was found necessary to remove the leaking stainless steel fuel in order to lower the radioactivity to approx. 10 -3 μCi/mL

  7. Data compilation report: Gas and liquid samples from K West Basin fuel storage canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trimble, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    Forty-one gas and liquid samples were taken from spent fuel storage canisters in the K West Basin during a March 1995 sampling campaign. (Spent fuel from the N Reactor is stored in sealed canisters at the bottom of the K West Basin.) A description of the sampling process, gamma energy analysis data, and quantitative gas mass spectroscopy data are documented. This documentation does not include data analysis

  8. Refinishing contamination floors in Spent Nuclear Fuels storage basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, F.F.; Moore, F.W.

    1997-01-01

    The floors of the K Basins at the Hanford Site are refinished to make decontamination easier if spills occur as the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is being unloaded from the basins for shipment to dry storage. Without removing the contaminated existing coating, the basin floors are to be coated with an epoxy coating material selected on the basis of the results of field tests of several paint products. The floor refinishing activities must be reviewed by a management review board to ensure that work can be performed in a controlled manner. Major documents prepared for management board review include a report on maintaining radiation exposure as low as reasonably achievable, a waste management plan, and reports on hazard classification and unreviewed safety questions. To protect personnel working in the radiation zone, Operational Health Physics prescribed the required minimum protective methods and devices in the radiological work permit. Also, industrial hygiene safety must be analyzed to establish respirator requirements for persons working in the basins. The procedure and requirements for the refinishing work are detailed in a work package approved by all safety engineers. After the refinishing work is completed, waste materials generated from the refinishing work must be disposed of according to the waste management plan

  9. Spent fuel consolidation in the 105KW Building fuel storage basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, B.H.

    1994-01-01

    This study is one element of a larger engineering study effort by WHC to examine the feasibility of irradiated fuel and sludge consolidation in the KW Basin in response to TPA Milestone (target date) M-34-00-T03. The study concludes that up to 11,500 fuel storage canisters could be accommodated in the KW Basin with modifications. These modifications would include provisions for multi-tiered canister storage involving the fabrication and installation of new storage racks and installation of additional decay heat removal systems for control of basin water temperature. The ability of existing systems to control radionuclide concentrations in the basin water is examined. The study discusses requirements for spent nuclear fuel inventory given the proposed multi-tiered storage arrangement, the impact of the consolidated mass on the KW Basin structure, and criticality issues associated with multi-tiered storage

  10. Groundwater monitoring results for the 100-K Area fuel storage basins: January 1 to March 31, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, R.E.

    1994-01-01

    Fuel storage basins associated with the 105-KE and 105-KW reactor buildings are currently being used to store irradiated fuel rods from past operations. Each reactor building contains a basin that holds approximately 1.3 million gal of water. The water provides a radiation shield, as well as a thermal sink for heat generated by the stored fuel. Some of the fuel rods stored in the K-East basin have damaged cladding and are stored in open canisters, allowing contact between the metallic uranium fuel and basin water. The interaction results in radionuclides being released to the basin water. Various exchange columns and filters associated with a closed-circuit circulation system are in place to reduce radionuclide concentrations in basin water. Tritium cannot be removed by these methods and is present in K-East basin water at a concentration of several million pCi/L. In contrast, K-West basin, where only fully encapsulated, undamaged fuel is stored, exhibits tritium concentrations at much lower levels--several hundred thousand pCi/L. The water budget for the basins includes water losses resulting from evaporation and possibly leakage, and the addition of make-up water to maintain a specific level. Water loss calculations are based on water level decreases during time intervals when no make-up water is added. A calculated loss rate beyond what is expected due to evaporation and uncertainty in the calculations, is assumed to be leakage to the soil column. Given sufficiently high leakage rates, and/or a preferential pathway for downward migration through the soil column, basin water may contaminate groundwater flowing beneath the basins

  11. Alternative concepts for spent fuel storage basin expansion at Morris Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, W.A. Jr.; King, C.E.; Miller, G.P.; Shadel, F.H.; Sloat, R.J.

    1980-08-01

    Alternative concepts for increasing basin capabilities for storage of spent fuel at the Morris Operation have been defined in a series of simplified flow diagrams and equipment schematics. Preliminary concepts have been outlined for (1) construction alternatives for an add-on basin, (2) high-density baskets for storage of fuel bundles or possible consolidated fuel rods in the existing or add-on basins, (3) modifications to the existing facility for increasing cask handling and fuel receiving capabilities and (4) accumulation, treatment and disposal of radwastes from storage operations. Preliminary capital and operating costs have been prepared and resource and schedule requirements for implementing the concepts have been estimated. The basin expansion alternatives would readily complement potential dry storage projects at the site in an integrated multi-stage program that could provide a total storage capacity of up to 7000 tonnes of spent fuel

  12. Amplicon Sequencing Reveals Microbiological Signatures in Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher E. Bagwell

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Water quality is an important determinant for the structural integrity of alloy cladded fuels and assemblies during long-term wet storage. Detailed characterization of a water filled storage basin for spent nuclear reactor fuel was performed following the formation and proliferation of an amorphous white flocculent. White precipitant was sampled throughout the storage basin for chemical and spectroscopic characterization, and environmental DNA was extracted for 454 pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene diversity. Accordingly, spectroscopic analyses indicated the precipitant to be primarily amorphous to crystalline aluminum (oxy hydroxides with minor associated elemental components including Fe, Si, Ti, and U. High levels of organic carbon were co-localized with the precipitant relative to bulk dissolved organic concentrations. Bacterial densities were highly variable between sampling locations and with depth within the water filled storage basin; cell numbers ranged from 4 × 103to 4 × 104 cells/mL. Bacterial diversity that was physically associated with the aluminum (oxy hydroxide complexes exceeded an estimated 4,000 OTUs/amplicon library (3% cutoff and the majority of sequences were aligned to the families Burkholderiaceae (23%, Nitrospiraceae (23%, Hyphomicrobiaceae (17%, and Comamonadaceae (6%. We surmise that episodic changes in the physical and chemical properties of the basin contribute to the polymerization of aluminum (oxy hydroxides, which in turn can chemisorb nutrients, carbon ligands and bacterial cells from the surrounding bulk aqueous phase. As such, these precipitants should establish favorable microhabitats for bacterial colonization and growth. Comparative analyses of 16S rRNA gene amplicon libraries across a selection of natural and engineered aquatic ecosystems were performed and microbial community and taxonomic signatures unique to the spent nuclear fuel (SNF storage basin environment were revealed. These insights

  13. Groundwater Monitoring for the 100-K Area Fuel-Storage Basins: July 1996 Through April 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VG Johnson; CJ Chou; MJ Hartman; WD Webber

    1999-01-08

    This report presents the results of groundwater monitoring and summarizes current interpretations of conditions influencing groundwater quality and flow in the 100-K Area. The interpretations build on previous work, and statisticzd evaluations of contaminant concentrations were ptiormed for the period July 1996 through April 1998. No new basin leaks are indicated by data from this period. Tritium from a 1993 leak in the KE Basin has been detected in groundwater and appears to be dissi- pating. Tritium and strontium-90 from inactive injection wells/drain fields are still evident near the KW and KE Basins. These contaminants have increased as a result of infiltration of surface water or a higher- " than-average water table. Inactive condensate cribs near the KW and KE Basins resulted in very high tritium and carbon-14 activities in some wells. Recent tritium decreases are attributed to changes in groundwater-flow direction caused by the higher-than-average river stage in 1996-1998, which caused the contaminant plumes to move away from the monitoring wells. Results of the groundwater-monitoring program were used to identi~ and correct factors that may contribute to contaminant increases. For example, some sources of surface-water infiltration have been diverted. Additional work to reduce infiltration through contaminated sediments is planned for fiscal year 1999. Seismic monitoring was recently initiated in the 1OO-K Area to provide an early warning of earth- quake events that could cause basin leakage. The early warning will alert operators to check water-loss rates and consider the need for immediate action.

  14. Determination of uranium metal concentration in irradiated fuel storage basin sludge using selective dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delegard, C.H.; Sinkov, S.I.; Chenault, J.W.; Schmidt, A.J.; Pool, K.N.; Welsh, T.L.

    2014-01-01

    Irradiated uranium metal fuel was stored underwater in the K East and K West storage basins at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site. The uranium metal under damaged cladding reacted with water to generate hydrogen gas, uranium oxides, and spalled uranium metal particles which intermingled with other particulates to form sludge. While the fuel has been removed, uranium metal in the sludge remains hazardous. An expeditious routine method to analyze 0.03 wt% uranium metal in the presence of >30 wt% total uranium was needed to support safe sludge management and processing. A selective dissolution method was designed based on the rapid uranium oxide dissolution but very low uranium metal corrosion rates in hot concentrated phosphoric acid. The uranium metal-bearing heel from the phosphoric acid step then is rinsed before the uranium metal is dissolved in hot concentrated nitric acid for analysis. Technical underpinnings of the selective dissolution method, including the influence of sludge components, were investigated to design the steps and define the reagents, quantities, concentrations, temperatures, and times within the selective dissolution analysis. Tests with simulant sludge proved the technique feasible. Tests with genuine sludge showed a 0.0028 ± 0.0037 wt% (at one standard deviation) uranium metal analytical background, a 0.011 wt% detection limit, and a 0.030 wt% quantitation limit in settled (wet) sludge. In tests using genuine K Basin sludge spiked with uranium metal at concentrations above the 0.030 wt% ± 25 % (relative) quantitation limit, uranium metal recoveries averaged 99.5 % with a relative standard deviation of 3.5 %. (author)

  15. Fire barrier evaluation of the wall between spent nuclear fuel storage basins and reactor areas, 105KE and 105KW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, B.H.

    1994-01-01

    This evaluation is intended to provide a comprehensive assessment of the risks from fire and fire related perils for the fire barriers between spent nuclear fuel storage basins and reactor areas, 105KE and 105KW. As a result of this fire barrier evaluation the present walls and the components thereof are not a true listed fire rated assembly. However, due to the construction of these barriers and the components thereof, these barriers will provide an equivalent level of protection provided the recommendations in Section 8.0 of this report are completed. These recommended upgrades are based upon sound engineering practice by a Registered Fire Protection Engineer. The construction of the barrier are substantial enough to provide the required 2-hr fire resistance rating. The primary concern is the numerous penetrations in the barrier. There are many penetrations that are adequate and no additional work is required. These penetrations are the ones that were poured-in-place at the time of construction. The penetrations that are of concern are some of the doors, the HVAC ducts, and the unsealed piping and conduit penetrations. There are several metal doors that should be replaced because the existing doors have either a non-approved window or louver that will not limit the spread of fire to one side of the barrier. All unsealed piping and conduit penetrations should be firestopped with an approved firestopping material. The existing non-active ducts that pass through the barrier should be disconnected at the barrier and the opening sealed with an approved firestopping method

  16. Transfer of Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant and N Reactor irradiated fuel for storage at the 105-KE and 105-KW fuel storage basins, Hanford Site, Richland Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) needs to remove irradiated fuel from the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant and N Reactor at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington, to stabilize the facilities in preparation for decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) and to reduce the cost of maintaining the facilities prior to D ampersand D. DOE is proposing to transfer approximately 3.9 metric tons (4.3 short tons) of unprocessed irradiated fuel, by rail, from the PUREX Plant in the 200 East Area and the 105 N Reactor (N Reactor) fuel storage basin in the 100 N Area, to the 105-KE and 105-KW fuel storage basins (K Basins) in the 100 K Area. The fuel would be placed in storage at the K Basins, along with fuel presently stored, and would be dispositioned in the same manner as the other existing irradiated fuel inventory stored in the K Basins. The fuel transfer to the K Basins would consolidate storage of fuels irradiated at N Reactor and the Single Pass Reactors. Approximately 2.9 metric tons (3.2 short tons) of single-pass production reactor, aluminum clad (AC) irradiated fuel in four fuel baskets have been placed into four overpack buckets and stored in the PUREX Plant canyon storage basin to await shipment. In addition, about 0.5 metric tons (0.6 short tons) of zircaloy clad (ZC) and a few AC irradiated fuel elements have been recovered from the PUREX dissolver cell floors, placed in wet fuel canisters, and stored on the canyon deck. A small quantity of ZC fuel, in the form of fuel fragments and chips, is suspected to be in the sludge at the bottom of N Reactor's fuel storage basin. As part of the required stabilization activities at N Reactor, this sludge would be removed from the basin and any identifiable pieces of fuel elements would be recovered, placed in open canisters, and stored in lead lined casks in the storage basin to await shipment. A maximum of 0.5 metric tons (0.6 short tons) of fuel pieces is expected to be recovered

  17. LESSONS LEARNED FROM CLEANING OUT THE SLUDGE FROM THE SPENT FUEL STORAGE BASINS AT HANFORD ICEM-07

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KNOLLMEYER PM

    2007-08-31

    Until 2004, the K Basins at Hanford, in southeastern Washington State, held the largest collection of spent nuclear fuel in the United States Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The K East and K West Basins are massive pools each holding more than 4 million liters of water - that sit less than 450 meters from the Columbia River. In a significant multi-year campaign that ended in 2004, Fluor Hanford removed all of the fuel from the two Basins, over 2,300 metric tons (4.6 million pounds), dried it, and then placed it into dry storage in a specially designed facility away from the River. Removing the fuel, however, did not finish the cleanup work at the K Basins. The years of underwater storage had corroded the metallic uranium fuel, leaving behind a thick and sometimes hard-packed layer of sludge that coated the walls, floors and equipment inside the Basins. In places, the depth of the sludge was measured in feet rather than inches, and its composition was definitely not uniform. Together the Basins held an estimated 50 cubic meters of sludge (42 cubic meters in K East and 8 cubic meters in K West). The K East sludge retrieval and transfer work was completed in May 2007. Vacuuming up the sludge into large underwater containers in each of the Basins and then consolidating it all in containers in the K West Basin have presented significant challenges, some unexpected. This paper documents some of those challenges and presents the lessons learned so that other nuclear cleanup projects can benefit from the experience at Hanford.

  18. LESSONS LEARNED FROM CLEANING OUT THE SLUDGE FROM THE SPENT FUEL STORAGE BASINS AT HANFORD ICEM-07

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KNOLLMEYER PM

    2007-01-01

    Until 2004, the K Basins at Hanford, in southeastern Washington State, held the largest collection of spent nuclear fuel in the United States Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The K East and K West Basins are massive pools each holding more than 4 million liters of water - that sit less than 450 meters from the Columbia River. In a significant multi-year campaign that ended in 2004, Fluor Hanford removed all of the fuel from the two Basins, over 2,300 metric tons (4.6 million pounds), dried it, and then placed it into dry storage in a specially designed facility away from the River. Removing the fuel, however, did not finish the cleanup work at the K Basins. The years of underwater storage had corroded the metallic uranium fuel, leaving behind a thick and sometimes hard-packed layer of sludge that coated the walls, floors and equipment inside the Basins. In places, the depth of the sludge was measured in feet rather than inches, and its composition was definitely not uniform. Together the Basins held an estimated 50 cubic meters of sludge (42 cubic meters in K East and 8 cubic meters in K West). The K East sludge retrieval and transfer work was completed in May 2007. Vacuuming up the sludge into large underwater containers in each of the Basins and then consolidating it all in containers in the K West Basin have presented significant challenges, some unexpected. This paper documents some of those challenges and presents the lessons learned so that other nuclear cleanup projects can benefit from the experience at Hanford

  19. Sampling and analysis plan for sludge located in fuel storage canisters of the 105-K West basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, R.B.

    1997-01-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) provides direction for the first sampling of sludge from the K West Basin spent fuel canisters. The specially developed sampling equipment removes representative samples of sludge while maintaining the radioactive sample underwater in the basin pool (equipment is described in WHC-SD-SNF-SDD-004). Included are the basic background logic for sample selection, the overall laboratory analyses required and the laboratory reporting required. These are based on requirements put forth in the data quality objectives (WHC-SD-SNF-DQO-012) established for this sampling and characterization activity

  20. Technology Development And Deployment Of Systems For The Retrieval And Processing Of Remote-Handled Sludge From Hanford K-West Fuel Storage Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, R.E.

    2011-01-01

    In 2011, significant progress was made in developing and deploying technologies to remove, transport, and interim store remote-handled sludge from the 105-K West Fuel Storage Basin on the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. The sludge in the 105-K West Basin is an accumulation of degraded spent nuclear fuel and other debris that collected during long-term underwater storage of the spent fuel. In 2010, an innovative, remotely operated retrieval system was used to successfully retrieve over 99.7% of the radioactive sludge from 10 submerged temporary storage containers in the K West Basin. In 2011, a full-scale prototype facility was completed for use in technology development, design qualification testing, and operator training on systems used to retrieve, transport, and store highly radioactive K Basin sludge. In this facility, three separate systems for characterizing, retrieving, pretreating, and processing remote-handled sludge were developed. Two of these systems were successfully deployed in 2011. One of these systems was used to pretreat knockout pot sludge as part of the 105-K West Basin cleanup. Knockout pot sludge contains pieces of degraded uranium fuel ranging in size from 600 μm to 6350 μm mixed with pieces of inert material, such as aluminum wire and graphite, in the same size range. The 2011 pretreatment campaign successfully removed most of the inert material from the sludge stream and significantly reduced the remaining volume of knockout pot product material. Removing the inert material significantly minimized the waste stream and reduced costs by reducing the number of transportation and storage containers. Removing the inert material also improved worker safety by reducing the number of remote-handled shipments. Also in 2011, technology development and final design were completed on the system to remove knockout pot material from the basin and transport the material to an onsite facility for interim storage. This system is scheduled

  1. Guidebook on spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The Guidebook summarizes the experience and information in various areas related to spent fuel storage: technological aspects, the transport of spent fuel, economical, regulatory and institutional aspects, international safeguards, evaluation criteria for the selection of a specific spent fuel storage concept, international cooperation on spent fuel storage. The last part of the Guidebook presents specific problems on the spent fuel storage in the United Kingdom, Sweden, USSR, USA, Federal Republic of Germany and Switzerland

  2. Nuclear fuel storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Takashi; Isaka, Shinji.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the spent fuel storage capacity and reduce the installation cost in a nuclear fuel storage facility. Constitution: Fuels handled in the nuclear fuel storage device of the present invention include the following four types: (1) fresh fuels, (2) 100 % reactor core charged fuels, (3) spent fuels just after taking out and (4) fuels after a certain period (for example one half-year) from taking out of the reactor. Reactivity is high for the fuels (1), and some of fuels (2), while low in the fuels (3) (4), Source intensity is strong for the fuels (3) and some of the fuels (2), while it is low for the fuels (1) and (4). Taking notice of the fact that the reactivity, radioactive source intensity and generated after heat are different in the respective fuels, the size of the pool and the storage capacity are increased by the divided storage control. While on the other hand, since the division is made in one identical pool, the control method becomes important, and the working range is restricted by means of a template, interlock, etc., the operation mode of the handling machine is divided into four, etc. for preventing errors. (Kamimura, M.)

  3. IAEA spent fuel storage glossary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    The aim of this glossary is to provide a basis for improved international understanding of terms used in the important area of spent fuel storage technology. The glossary is the product of an IAEA Consultant Group with valuable input from a substantial list of reviewers. The glossary emphasizes fuel storage relevant to power reactors, but is also widely applicable to research reactors. The intention is to define terms from current technologies. Terms are limited to those directly related to spent fuel storage

  4. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed

  5. Corrosion surveillance in spent fuel storage pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    In mid-1991, corrosion of aluminum-clad spent nuclear fuel was observed in the light-water filled basins at the Savannah River site. A corrosion surveillance program was initiated in the P, K, L-Reactor basins and in the Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuels (RBOF). This program verified the aggressive nature of the pitting corrosion and provided recommendations for changes in basin operations to permit extended longer term interim storage. The changes were implemented during 1994--1996 and have resulted in significantly improved basin water quality with conductivity in the 1--3 microS/cm range. Under these improved conditions, no new pitting has been observed over the last three years. This paper describes the corrosion surveillance program at SRS and what has been learned about the corrosion of aluminum-clad in spent fuel storage pools

  6. Spent nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanato, Luiz Sergio

    2005-01-01

    When a country becomes self-sufficient in part of the nuclear cycle, as production of fuel that will be used in nuclear power plants for energy generation, it is necessary to pay attention for the best method of storing the spent fuel. Temporary storage of spent nuclear fuel is a necessary practice and is applied nowadays all over the world, so much in countries that have not been defined their plan for a definitive repository, as well for those that already put in practice such storage form. There are two main aspects that involve the spent fuels: one regarding the spent nuclear fuel storage intended to reprocessing and the other in which the spent fuel will be sent for final deposition when the definitive place is defined, correctly located, appropriately characterized as to several technical aspects, and licentiate. This last aspect can involve decades of studies because of the technical and normative definitions at a given country. In Brazil, the interest is linked with the storage of spent fuels that will not be reprocessed. This work analyses possible types of storage, the international panorama and a proposal for future construction of a spent nuclear fuel temporary storage place in the country. (author)

  7. WWER spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bower, C.C.; Lettington, C.

    1994-01-01

    Selection criteria for PAKS NPP dry storage system are outlined. They include the following: fuel temperature in storage; sub-criticality assurance (avoidance of criticality for fuel in the unirradiated condition without having to take credit for burn-up); assurance of decay heat removal; dose uptake to the operators and public; protection of environment; volume of waste produced during operation and decommissioning; physical protection of stored irradiated fuel assemblies; IAEA safeguards assurance; storage system versus final disposal route; cost of construction and extent of technology transfer to Hungarian industry. Several available systems are evaluated against these criteria, and as a result the GEC ALSTHOM Modular Vault Dry Store (MVDS) system has been selected. The MVDS is a passively cooled dry storage facility. Its most important technical, safety, licensing and technology transfer characteristics are outlined. On the basis of the experience gained some key questions and considerations related to the East European perspective in the field of spent fuel storage are discussed. 8 figs

  8. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed. (ATT)

  9. Near surface spent fuel storage: environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, I.C.; Shipler, D.B.; McKee, R.W.; Glenn, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    Interim storage of spent fuel appears inevitable because of the lack of reprocessing plants and spent fuel repositories. This paper examines the environmental issues potentially associated with management of spent fuel before disposal or reprocessing in a reference scenario. The radiological impacts of spent fuel storage are limited to low-level releases of noble gases and iodine. Water needed for water basin storage of spent fuel and transportation accidents are considered; the need to minimize the distance travelled is pointed out. Resource commitments for construction of the storage facilities are analyzed

  10. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-H-6:2, 105-H Reactor Ancillary Support Areas, Below-Grade Structures, and Underlying Soils; the 118-H-6:3, 105-H Reactor Fuel Storage Basin and Underlying Soils; The 118-H-6:3 Fuel Storage Basin Deep Zone Side Slope Soils; the 100-H-9, 100-H-10, and 100-H-13 French Drains; the 100-H-11 and 100-H-12 Expansion Box French Drains; and the 100-H-14 and 100-H-31 Surface Contamination Zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. J. Appel

    2006-06-29

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of removal actions for the 105-H Reactor Ancillary Support Areas, Below-Grade Structures, and Underlying Soils (subsite 118-H-6:2); 105-H Reactor Fuel Storage Basin and Underlying Soils (118-H-6:3); and Fuel Storage Basin Deep Zone Side Slope Soils. This CVP also documents remedial actions for the following seven additional waste sties: French Drain C (100-H-9), French Drain D (100-H-10), Expansion Box French Drain E (100-H-11), Expansion Box French Drain F (100-H-12), French Drain G (100-H-13), Surface Contamination Zone H (100-H-14), and the Polychlorinated Biphenyl Surface Contamination Zone (100-H-31).

  11. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-H-6:2, 105-H Reactor Ancillary Support Areas, Below-Grade Structures, and Underlying Soils; the 118-H-6:3, 105-H Reactor Fuel Storage Basin and Underlying Soils; the 118-H-6:6 Fuel Storage Basin Deep Zone Side Slope Soils; the 100-H-9, 100-H-10, and 100-H-13 French Drains; the 100-H-11 and 100-H-12 Expansion Box French Drains; and the 100-H-14 and 100-H-31 Surface Contamination Zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of removal actions for the 105-H Reactor Ancillary Support Areas, Below-Grade Structures, and Underlying Soils (subsite 118-H-6:2); 105-H Reactor Fuel Storage Basin and Underlying Soils (118-H-6:3); and Fuel Storage Basin Deep Zone Side Slope Soils. This CVP also documents remedial actions for the following seven additional waste sties: French Drain C (100-H-9), French Drain D (100-H-10), Expansion Box French Drain E (100-H-11), Expansion Box French Drain F (100-H-12), French Drain G (100-H-13), Surface Contamination Zone H (100-H-14), and the Polychlorinated Biphenyl Surface Contamination Zone (100-H-31)

  12. Compressed gas fuel storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, John J.; Tiller, Dale B.; Wienhold, Paul D.; Hildebrand, Richard J.

    2001-01-01

    A compressed gas vehicle fuel storage system comprised of a plurality of compressed gas pressure cells supported by shock-absorbing foam positioned within a shape-conforming container. The container is dimensioned relative to the compressed gas pressure cells whereby a radial air gap surrounds each compressed gas pressure cell. The radial air gap allows pressure-induced expansion of the pressure cells without resulting in the application of pressure to adjacent pressure cells or physical pressure to the container. The pressure cells are interconnected by a gas control assembly including a thermally activated pressure relief device, a manual safety shut-off valve, and means for connecting the fuel storage system to a vehicle power source and a refueling adapter. The gas control assembly is enclosed by a protective cover attached to the container. The system is attached to the vehicle with straps to enable the chassis to deform as intended in a high-speed collision.

  13. Cesium removal from the fuel storage water at the Savannah River Site R-Building Disassembly Basin using 3M Empore reg-sign-membrane filter technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oji, L.N.; Thompson, M.C.; Peterson, K.; May, C.; Kafka, T.M.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes results from a seven-day demonstration of the use of 3M Empore membrane filter loaded with ion exchange material (potassium cobalt hexacynoferrate (CoHex)) for cesium uptake from the R-Disassembly Basin at the Savannah River Site. The goal of the demonstration was to evaluate the ability of the Process Absorber Development unit (PADU), a water pre-filtration /CoHex configuration on a skid, to remove cesium from R-Disassembly Basin at a linear processing flow rate of 22.7 liters per minute (1,195.8 liters/minute/m 2 or 29.35 gallons/minute/ft 2 ). Over 210,000 liters (> 55,500 gallons) of R-Disassembly Basin water was processed through the PADU without a cesium breakthrough, that is, the effluent after treatment with CoHex, contained less than detectable amounts of radioactive cesium. Some of the observed advantages of the Empore membrane filter technology over conventional packed column ion exchange systems includes rapid flow rates without channeling effects, low volume secondary waste and fast extraction or rapid kinetics per unit of flow

  14. Spent LWR fuel-storage costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, H.J.

    1981-01-01

    Expanded use of existing storage basins is clearly the most economic solution to the spent fuel storage problem. The use of high-density racks followed by fuel disassembly and rod storage is an order of magnitude cheaper than building new facilities adjacent to the reactor. The choice of a new storage facility is not as obvious; however, if the timing of expenditures and risk allowance are to be considered, then modular concepts such as silos, drywells, and storage casks may cost less than water basins and air-cooled vaults. A comparison of the costs of the various storage techniques without allowances for timing or risk is shown. The impact of allowances for discounting and early resumption of reprocessing is also shown. Economics is not the only issue to be considered in selecting a storage facility. The licensing, environmental impact, timing, and social responses must also be considered. Each utility must assess all of these issues for their particular reactors before the best storage solution can be selected

  15. Costing of spent nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This report deals with economic analysis and cost estimation, based on exploration of relevant issues, including a survey of analytical tools for assessment and updated information on the market and financial issues associated with spent fuel storage. The development of new storage technologies and changes in some of the circumstances affecting the costs of spent fuel storage are also incorporated. This report aims to provide comprehensive information on spent fuel storage costs to engineers and nuclear professionals as well as other stakeholders in the nuclear industry. This report is meant to provide informative guidance on economic aspects involved in selecting a spent fuel storage system, including basic methods of analysis and cost data for project evaluation and comparison of storage options, together with financial and business aspects associated with spent fuel storage. After the review of technical options for spent fuel storage in Section 2, cost categories and components involved in the lifecycle of a storage facility are identified in Section 3 and factors affecting costs of spent fuel storage are then reviewed in the Section 4. Methods for cost estimation and analysis are introduced in Section 5, and other financial and business aspects associated with spent fuel storage are discussed in Section 6.

  16. Criticality impacts on LWR fuel storage efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napolitano, D.

    1992-01-01

    This presentation discusses the criticality impacts throughout storage of fuel onsite including new fuel storage, spent fuel storage, consolidation, and dry storage. The general principles for criticality safety are also be discussed. There is first an introduction which explains today's situation for criticality safety concerns. This is followed by a discussion of criticality safety Regulatory Guides, safety limits and fundamental principles. Design objectives for criticality safety in the 1990's include higher burnups, longer cycles, and higher enrichments which impact the criticality safety design. Criticality safety for new fuel storage, spent fuel storage, fuel consolidation, and dry storage are followed by conclusions. Today's situation is one in which the US does not reprocess, and does not have an operating MRS facility or repository. High density fuel storage rack designs of the 1980s, are filling up. Dry cask storage systems for spent fuel storage are being utilized. Enrichments continue to increase PWR fuel assemblies with enrichments of 4.5 to 5.0 weight percent U-235 and BWR fuel assemblies with enrichments of 3.25 to 3.5 weight percent U-235 are common. Criticality concerns affect the capacity and the economics of light water reactor (LWR) fuel storage arrays by dictating the spacing of fuel assemblies in a storage system, or the use of poisons or exotic materials in the storage system design

  17. ACRR fuel storage racks criticality safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodette, D.E.; Naegeli, R.E.

    1997-10-01

    This document presents the criticality safety analysis for a new fuel storage rack to support modification of the Annular Core Research Reactor for production of molybdenum-99 at Sandia National Laboratories, Technical Area V facilities. Criticality calculations with the MCNP code investigated various contingencies for the criticality control parameters. Important contingencies included mix of fuel element types stored, water density due to air bubbles or water level for the over-moderated racks, interaction with existing fuel storage racks and fuel storage holsters in the fuel storage pool, neutron absorption of planned rack design and materials, and criticality changes due to manufacturing tolerances or damage. Some limitations or restrictions on use of the new fuel storage rack for storage operations were developed through the criticality analysis and are required to meet the double contingency requirements of criticality safety. As shown in the analysis, this system will remain subcritical under all credible upset conditions. Administrative controls are necessary for loading, moving, and handling the storage rack as well as for control of operations around it. 21 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs

  18. Advanced compressed hydrogen fuel storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeary, B.

    2000-01-01

    Dynetek was established in 1991 by a group of private investors, and since that time efforts have been focused on designing, improving, manufacturing and marketing advanced compressed fuel storage systems. The primary market for Dynetek fuel systems has been Natural Gas, however as the automotive industry investigates the possibility of using hydrogen as the fuel source solution in Alternative Energy Vehicles, there is a growing demand for hydrogen storage on -board. Dynetek is striving to meet the needs of the industry, by working towards developing a fuel storage system that will be efficient, economical, lightweight and eventually capable of storing enough hydrogen to match the driving range of the current gasoline fueled vehicles

  19. Regional spent fuel storage facility (RSFSF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyck, H.P.

    1999-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of the meetings held on the technology and safety aspects of regional spent fuel storage facilities. The questions of technique, economy and key public and political issues will be covered as well as the aspects to be considered for implementation of a regional facility. (author)

  20. Operation of spent fuel storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This Safety Guide was prepared as part of the IAEA's programme on safety of spent fuel storage. This is for interim spent fuel storage facilities that are not integral part of an operating nuclear power plant. Following the introduction, Section 2 describes key activities in the operation of spent fuel storage facilities. Section 3 lists the basic safety considerations for storage facility operation, the fundamental safety objectives being subcriticality, heat removal and radiation protection. Recommendations for organizing the management of a facility are contained in Section 4. Section 5 deals with aspects of training and qualification; Section 6 describes the phases of the commissioning of a spent fuel storage facility. Section 7 describes operational limits and conditions, while Section 8 deals with operating procedures and instructions. Section 9 deals with maintenance, testing, examination and inspection. Section 10 presents recommendations for radiation and environmental protection. Recommendations for the quality assurance (QA) system are presented in Section 11. Section 12 describes the aspects of safeguards and physical protection to be taken into account during operations; Section 13 gives guidance for decommissioning. 15 refs, 5 tabs

  1. Final safety analysis report for the irradiated fuels storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingham, G.E.; Evans, T.K.

    1976-01-01

    A fuel storage facility has been constructed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant to provide safe storage for spent fuel from two commercial HTGR's, Fort St. Vrain and Peach Bottom, and from the Rover nuclear rocket program. The new facility was built as an addition to the existing fuel storage basin building to make maximum use of existing facilities and equipment. The completed facility provides dry storage for one core of Peach Bottom fuel (804 elements), 1 1 / 2 cores of Fort St. Vrain fuel (2200 elements), and the irradiated fuel from the 20 reactors in the Rover program. The facility is designed to permit future expansion at a minimum cost should additional storage space for graphite-type fuels be required. A thorough study of the potential hazards associated with the Irradiated Fuels Storage Facility has been completed, indicating that the facility is capable of withstanding all credible combinations of internal accidents and pertinent natural forces, including design basis natural phenomena of a 10,000 year flood, a 175-mph tornado, or an earthquake having a bedrock acceleration of 0.33 g and an amplification factor of 1.3, without a loss of integrity or a significant release of radioactive materials. The design basis accident (DBA) postulated for the facility is a complete loss of cooling air, even though the occurrence of this situation is extremely remote, considering the availability of backup and spare fans and emergency power. The occurrence of the DBA presents neither a radiation nor an activity release hazard. A loss of coolant has no effect upon the fuel or the facility other than resulting in a gradual and constant temperature increase of the stored fuel. The temperature increase is gradual enough that ample time (28 hours minimum) is available for corrective action before an arbitrarily imposed maximum fuel centerline temperature of 1100 0 F is reached

  2. Design of spent fuel storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This Safety Guide is for interim spent fuel storage facilities that are not integral part of an operating nuclear power plant. Following the introduction, Section 2 describes the general safety requirements applicable to the design of both wet and dry spent fuel storage facilities; Section 3 deals with the design requirements specific to either wet or dry storage. Recommendations for the auxiliary systems of any storage facility are contained in Section 4; these are necessary to ensure the safety of the system and its safe operation. Section 5 provides recommendations for establishing the quality assurance system for a storage facility. Section 6 discusses the requirements for inspection and maintenance that must be considered during the design. Finally, Section 7 provides guidance on design features to be considered to facilitate eventual decommissioning. 18 refs

  3. Safety assessment for spent fuel storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This Safety Practice has been prepared as part of the IAEA's programme on the safety assessment of interim spent fuel storage facilities which are not an integral part of an operating nuclear power plant. This report provides general guidance on the safety assessment process, discussing both deterministic and probabilistic assessment methods. It describes the safety assessment process for normal operation and anticipated operational occurrences and also related to accident conditions. 10 refs, 2 tabs

  4. Spent fuel storage for ISER plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Takasuke; Kimura, Yuzi

    1987-01-01

    ISER is an intrinsically safe reactor basing its safety only on physical laws, and uses a steel reactor vessel in order to be economical. For such a new type reactor, it is essentially important to be accepted by the society by showing that the reactor is more profitable than conventional reactors to the public in both technical and economic viewpoint. It is also important that the reactor raises no serious problem in the total fuel cycle. Reprocessing seems one of the major worldwide fuel cycle issues. Spent fuel storage is also one of the key technologies for fuel cycle back end. Various systems for ISER spent fuel storages are examined in the present report. Spent fuel specifications of ISER are similar to those of LWR and therefore, most of LWR spent fuel technologies are basically applicable to ISER spent fuel. Design requirements and examples of storage facilities are also discussed. Dry storage seems to be preferable for the relatively long cooling time spent fuel like ISER's one from economical viewpoint. Vault storage will possibly be the most advantageous for large storage capacity. Another point for discussion is the location and international collaboration for spent fuel storages: ISER expected to be a worldwide energy source and therefore, international spent fuel management seems to be fairly attractive way for an energy recipient country. (Nogami, K.)

  5. Commentary on spent fuel storage at Morris operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eger, K.J.; Zima, G.E.

    1979-10-01

    The General Electric Company is providing technical support to Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories in the analysis of the design, operation, and maintenance experience in the handling of nuclear fuel at the Independent Spent Fuel Storage Facility. The purpose of this report is to provide a description of spent fuel handling activities and systems, and an analysis of the storage performance as developed over the seven year operational history of the Morris Operation. Design considerations and performance are analyzed for both the basin and key supporting systems. The bases for this analysis are the provisions for containing radioactive by-product materials, for shielding from the radiation they emit, and for preventing the formation of a critical array. These provisions have been met effectively over the history of storage at Morris. The release of radioactive materials is minimized by the protection of the cladding integrity, the containment of the basin water, the removal of radioactive and other contaminants from the water, and by filtering and then dispersing the basin air. Four auxiliary systems are provided to accomplish this, the basin leak detection system, the filter, the coolers, and the building ventilation system. This successful history notwithstanding, action to reduce personnel exposure, to improve fuel handling reliability and to lessen the potential for accidents continues to be taken

  6. Laser surveillance systems for fuel storage pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, H.

    1985-06-01

    A Laser Surveillance System (LASSY) as a new safeguards device has been developed under the IAEA research contract No. 3458/RB at the Atominstitut Wien using earlier results by S. Fiarman. This system is designed to act as a sheet of light covering spent fuel assemblies in spent fuel storage pools. When movement of assemblies takes place, LASSY detects and locates the position of the movement in the pool and when interrogated, presents a list of pool positions and times of movement to the safeguards inspector. A complete prototype system was developed and built. Full scale tests showed the principal working capabilities of a LASSY underwater

  7. Spent Fuel Storage Operation - Lessons Learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-12-01

    Experience gained in planning, constructing, licensing, operating, managing and modifying spent fuel storage facilities in some Member States now exceeds 50 years. Continual improvement is only achieved through post-project review and ongoing evaluation of operations and processes. This publication is aimed at collating and sharing lessons learned. Hopefully, the information provided will assist Member States that already have a developed storage capability and also those considering development of a spent nuclear fuel storage capability in making informed decisions when managing their spent nuclear fuel. This publication is expected to complement the ongoing Coordinated Research Project on Spent Fuel Performance Assessment and Research (SPAR-III); the scope of which prioritizes facility operational practices in lieu of fuel and structural components behaviour over extended durations. The origins of the current publication stem from a consultants meeting held on 10-12 December 2007 in Vienna, with three participants from the IAEA, Slovenia and USA, where an initial questionnaire on spent fuel storage was formulated (Annex I). The resultant questionnaire was circulated to participants of a technical meeting, Spent Fuel Storage Operations - Lessons Learned. The technical meeting was held in Vienna on 13-16 October 2008, and sixteen participants from ten countries attended. A consultants meeting took place on 18-20 May 2009 in Vienna, with five participants from the IAEA, Slovenia, UK and USA. The participants reviewed the completed questionnaires and produced an initial draft of this publication. A third consultants meeting took place on 9-11 March 2010, which six participants from Canada, Hungary, IAEA, Slovenia and the USA attended. The meeting formulated a second questionnaire (Annex II) as a mechanism for gaining further input for this publication. A final consultants meeting was arranged on 20-22 June 2011 in Vienna. Six participants from Hungary, IAEA, Japan

  8. Spent-fuel storage: a private sector option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.A.; Ross, S.R.

    1983-01-01

    The investigation was performed to delineate the legal and financial considerations for establishing private sector support for the planning and development of an independent spent-fuel storage facility (ISFSF). The preferred institutional structure was found to be one in which a not-for-profit corporation contracts with a limited partnership to handle the spent fuel. The limited partnership acquires the necessary land and constructs the ISFSF facility and then leases the facility to the not-for-profit corporation, which acquires spent-fuel rods from the utilities. The DOE must agree to purchase the spent-fuel rods at the expiration of term and warrant continued operation of the facility if policy changes at the federal level force the removal of the rods prior to completion of the contracted storage cycle. The DOE planning base estimate of spent-fuel storage requirements indicates a market potential adequate to support 10,000 MTU or more of spent-fuel storage prior to the time a government repository is available to accept spent fuel around the turn of the century. The estimated construction cost of a 5000-MTU water basin facility is $552 million. The total capital requirements to finance such a facility are estimated to be $695 million, based on an assumed capital structure of 70 percent debt and 30 percent equity. The estimated total levelized cost of storage, including operating costs, for the assumed 17-year life of the facility is $223 per kilogram of uranium. This is equivalent to a slightly less than one mill per kilowatt-hour increase in nuclear fuel costs at the nuclear power station that was the source of the spent fuel. In conclusion, within the context of the new Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, the study points to both the need for and the advantages of private sector support for one or more ISFSFs and establishes a workable mechanism for the recovery of the costs of owning and operating such facilities. 3 figures, 4 tables

  9. Long term wet spent nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    The meeting showed that there is continuing confidence in the use of wet storage for spent nuclear fuel and that long-term wet storage of fuel clad in zirconium alloys can be readily achieved. The importance of maintaining good water chemistry has been identified. The long-term wet storage behaviour of sensitized stainless steel clad fuel involves, as yet, some uncertainties. However, great reliance will be placed on long-term wet storage of spent fuel into the future. The following topics were treated to some extent: Oxidation of the external surface of fuel clad, rod consolidation, radiation protection, optimum methods of treating spent fuel storage water, physical radiation effects, and the behaviour of spent fuel assemblies of long-term wet storage conditions. A number of papers on national experience are included

  10. Interim dry fuel storage for magnox reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, N.; Ealing, C.

    1985-01-01

    In the UK the practice of short term buffer storage in water ponds prior to chemical reprocessing had already been established on the early gas cooled reactors in Calder Hall. Thus the choice of water pond buffer storage for MGR power plants logically followed the national policy decision to reprocess. The majority of the buffer storage period would take place at the reprocessing plant with only a nominal of 100 days targeted at the station. Since Magnox clad fuel is not suitable for long term pond storage, alternative methods of storage on future stations was considered desirable. In addition to safeguards considerations the economic aspects of the fuel cycle has influenced the conclusion that today the purchase of a MGR power plant with dry spent fuel storage and without commitment to reprocess would be a rational decision for a country initiating a nuclear programme. Dry storage requirements are discussed and two designs of dry storage facilities presented together with a fuel preparation facility

  11. Spent fuel storage requirements 1993--2040

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    Historical inventories of spent fuel are combined with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) projections of future discharges from commercial nuclear reactors in the United States to provide estimates of spent fuel storage requirements through the year 2040. The needs are estimated for storage capacity beyond that presently available in the reactor storage pools. These estimates incorporate the maximum capacities within current and planned in-pool storage facilities and any planned transshipments of spent fuel to other reactors or facilities. Existing and future dry storage facilities are also discussed. The nuclear utilities provide historical data through December 1992 on the end of reactor life are based on the DOE/Energy Information Administration (EIA) estimates of future nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges

  12. Spent fuel storage requirements, 1990--2040

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walling, R.; Bierschbach, M.

    1990-11-01

    Historical inventories of spent fuel are combined with US Department of Energy (DOE) projections of future discharges from commercial nuclear reactors in the United States to provide estimates of spent fuel storage requirements over the next 51 years, through the year 2040. The needs for storage capacity beyond that presently available in the pools are estimated. These estimates incorporate the maximum capacities within current and planned in-pool storage facilities and any planned transshipments of fuel to other reactors or facilities. Existing and future dry storage facilities are also discussed. Historical data through December 1989 are derived from the 1990 Form RW-859 data survey of nuclear utilities. Projected discharges through the end of reactor life are based on DOE estimates of future nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges. 15 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs

  13. Cost analysis methodology of spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The report deals with the cost analysis of interim spent fuel storage; however, it is not intended either to give a detailed cost analysis or to compare the costs of the different options. This report provides a methodology for calculating the costs of different options for interim storage of the spent fuel produced in the reactor cores. Different technical features and storage options (dry and wet, away from reactor and at reactor) are considered and the factors affecting all options defined. The major cost categories are analysed. Then the net present value of each option is calculated and the levelized cost determined. Finally, a sensitivity analysis is conducted taking into account the uncertainty in the different cost estimates. Examples of current storage practices in some countries are included in the Appendices, with description of the most relevant technical and economic aspects. 16 figs, 14 tabs

  14. Corrosion assessment of dry fuel storage containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, C.E.

    1994-09-01

    The structural stability as a function of expected corrosion degradation of 75 dry fuel storage containers located in the 200 Area Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds was evaluated. These containers include 22 concrete burial containers, 13 55-gal (208-l) drums, and 40 Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) transport/storage casks. All containers are buried beneath at least 48 in. of soil and a heavy plastic tarp with the exception of 35 of the EBR-II casks which are exposed to atmosphere. A literature review revealed that little general corrosion is expected and pitting corrosion of the carbon steel used as the exterior shell for all containers (with the exception of the concrete containers) will occur at a maximum rate of 3.5 mil/yr. Penetration from pitting of the exterior shell of the 208-l drums and EBR-II casks is calculated to occur after 18 and 71 years of burial, respectively. The internal construction beneath the shell would be expected to preclude containment breach, however, for the drums and casks. The estimates for structural failure of the external shells, large-scale shell deterioration due to corrosion, are considerably longer, 39 and 150 years respectively for the drums and casks. The concrete burial containers are expected to withstand a service life of 50 years.

  15. Spent fuel storage options: a critical appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, K.P.; Bale, M.G.

    1990-01-01

    The delayed decisions on nuclear fuel reprocessing strategies in the USA and other countries have forced the development of new long-term irradiated fuel storage techniques, to allow a larger volume of fuel to be held on the nuclear station site after removal from the reactor. The nuclear power industry has responded to the challenge by developing several viable options for long-term onsite storage, which can be employed individually or in tandem. They are: densification of storage in the existing spent fuel pool; building another fuel pool facility at the plant site; onsite cask park, and on site vault clusters. Desirable attributes of a storage option are: Safety: minimise the number of fuel handling steps; Economy: minimise total installed, and O and M cost; Security: protection from anti-nuclear protesters; Site adaptability: available site space, earthquake characteristics of the region and so on; Non-intrusiveness: minimise required modifications to existing plant systems; Modularisation: afford the option to adapt a modular approach for staged capital outlays; and Maturity: extent of industry experience with the technology. A critical appraisal is made of each of the four aforementioned storage options in the light of these criteria. (2 figures, 1 table, 4 references) (Author)

  16. Nanoparticle assemblies and superstructures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kotov, Nicholas A

    2006-01-01

    ... building blocks of larger and more complex systems. Therefore, the present challenge of nanoscale science is to shift from making certain building blocks to organizing them in one-, two-, and three-dimensional structures. Such assemblies and superstructures are the next logical step in the development of nanoscience and nanotechnology. In this re...

  17. Studies and research concerning BNFP: LWR spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shallo, F.A.

    1978-08-01

    This report describes potential spent fuel storage expansion programs using the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant--Fuel Receiving and Storage Station (BNFP-FRSS) as a model. Three basic storage arrangements are evaluated with cost and schedule estimates being provided for each configuration. A general description of the existing facility is included with emphasis on the technical and equipment requirements which would be necessary to achieve increased spent fuel storage capacity at BNFP-FRSS

  18. Comparison of concepts for independent spent fuel storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Held, Ch.; Hintermayer, H.P.

    1978-01-01

    The design and the construction costs of independent spent fuel storage facilities show significant differences, reflecting the fuel receiving rate (during the lifetime of the power plant or within a very short period), the individual national policies and the design requirements in those countries. Major incremental construction expenditures for storage facilities originate from the capacity and the type of the facilities (casks or buildings), the method of fuel cooling (water or air), from the different design of buildings, the redundancy of equipment, an elaborate quality assurance program, and a single or multipurpose design (i.e. interim or long-term storage of spent fuel, interim storage of high level waste after fuel storage). The specific costs of different designs vary by a factor of 30 to 60 which might in the high case increase the nuclear generating costs remarkably. The paper also discusses the effect of spent fuel storage on fuel cycle alternatives with reprocessing or disposal of spent fuel. (author)

  19. Decontamination of FAST (CPP-666) fuel storage area stainless steel fuel storage racks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessinger, G.F.

    1993-10-01

    The purpose of this report was to identify and evaluate alternatives for the decontamination of the RSM stainless steel that will be removed from the Idaho Chemical Processing plant (ICPP) fuel storage area (FSA) located in the FAST (CPP-666) building, and to recommend decontamination alternatives for treating this material. Upon the completion of a literature search, the review of the pertinent literature, and based on the review of a variety of chemical, mechanical, and compound (both chemical and mechanical) decontamination techniques, the preliminary results of analyses of FSA critically barrier contaminants, and the data collected during the FSA Reracking project, it was concluded that decontamination and beneficial recycle of the FSA stainless steel produced is technically feasible and likely to be cost effective as compared to burying the material at the RWMC. It is recommended that an organic acid, or commercial product containing an organic acid, be used to decontaminate the FSA stainless steel; however, it is also recommended that other surface decontamination methods be tested in the event that this method proves unsuitable. Among the techniques that should be investigated are mechanical techniques (CO 2 pellet blasting and ultra-high pressure water blasting) and chemical techniques that are compatible with present ICPP waste streams

  20. Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installations (ISFSI). Annual report, FY 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zima, G.E.

    1979-03-01

    The prime objective of the subject program is the identification of technical aspects of the design, operation and maintenance of independent spent fuel storage installations which could contribute to technical bases for Regulations and Regulatory Guides issued by NRC for these facilities. Activities on the various tasks of the program for the FY 1978 period are discussed in this report

  1. Commercial solutions [for dry spent fuel storage casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, W.F.; Pennington, C.W.; Hobbs, J.; Lee, W.; Thomas, B.D.; Dibert, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    In the aftermath of the termination of the DOE's MPC (Multi-Purpose Canister) programme, commercial suppliers are coming forward with new or updated systems to meet utility needs. Leading vendors describe the advantages of their systems for dry spent fuel storage and transport. (Author)

  2. A COMPARISON OF CHALLENGES ASSOCIATED WITH SLUDGE REMOVAL & TREATMENT & DISPOSAL AT SEVERAL SPENT FUEL STORAGE LOCATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PERES, M.W.

    2007-01-09

    Challenges associated with the materials that remain in spent fuel storage pools are emerging as countries deal with issues related to storing and cleaning up nuclear fuel left over from weapons production. The K Basins at the Department of Energy's site at Hanford in southeastern Washington State are an example. Years of corrosion products and piles of discarded debris are intermingled in the bottom of these two pools that stored more 2,100 metric tons (2,300 tons) of spent fuel. Difficult, costly projects are underway to remove radioactive material from the K Basins. Similar challenges exist at other locations around the globe. This paper compares the challenges of handling and treating radioactive sludge at several locations storing spent nuclear fuel.

  3. Superstructure high efficiency photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, M.; So, L. C.; Leburton, J. P.

    1987-01-01

    A novel class of photovoltaic cascade structures is introduced which features multijunction upper subcells. These superstructure high efficiency photovoltaics (SHEP's) exhibit enhanced upper subcell spectral response because of the additional junctions which serve to reduce bulk recombination losses by decreasing the mean collection distance for photogenerated minority carriers. Two possible electrical configurations were studied and compared: a three-terminal scheme that allows both subcells to be operated at their individual maximum power points and a two-terminal configuration with an intercell ohmic contact for series interconnection. The three-terminal devices were found to be superior both in terms of beginning-of-life expectancy and radiation tolerance. Realistic simulations of three-terminal AlGaAs/GaAs SHEP's show that one sun AMO efficiencies in excess of 26 percent are possible.

  4. Existing and near future practices of spent fuel storage in Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizov, J.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper existing and near future practices of spent fuel storage in Slovak Republic are discussed: (1) Reactor operation and spent fuel production; (2) Past policy in spent fuel storage; (3) Away-from-reactor (AFR) storage facility at Bohunice NPP site; (4) Present policy in spent fuel storage; (5) Final disposal of spent fuel

  5. Corrosion of aluminum-clad alloys in wet spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, J.P.

    1995-09-01

    Large quantities of Defense related spent nuclear fuels are being stored in water basins around the United States. Under the non-proliferation policy, there has been no processing since the late 1980's and these fuels are caught in the pipeline awaiting processing or other disposition. At the Savannah River Site, over 200 metric tons of aluminum clad fuel are being stored in four water filled basins. Some of this fuel has experienced significant pitting corrosion. An intensive effort is underway at SRS to understand the corrosion problems and to improve the basin storage conditions for extended storage requirements. Significant improvements have been accomplished during 1993-1995, but the ultimate solution is to remove the fuel from the basins and to process it to a more stable form using existing and proven technology. This report presents a discussion of the fundamentals of aluminum alloy corrosion as it pertains to the wet storage of spent nuclear fuel. It examines the effects of variables on corrosion in the storage environment and presents the results of corrosion surveillance testing activities at SRS, as well as other fuel storage basins within the Department of Energy production sites

  6. Spent fuel storage at Prairie Island: January 1995 status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Closs, J.; Kress, L.

    1995-01-01

    The disposal of spent nuclear fuel has been an issue for the US since the inception of the commercial nuclear power industry. In the past decade, it has become a critical factor in the continued operation of some nuclear power plants, including the two units at Prairie Island. As the struggles and litigation over storage alternatives wage on, spent fuel pools continue to fill and plants edge closer to premature shutdown. Due to the delays in the construction of a federal repository, many nuclear power plants have had to seek interim storage alternatives. In the case of Prairie Island, the safest and most feasible option is dry cask storage. This paper discusses the current status of the Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) Project at Prairie Island. It provides a historical background to the project, discusses the notable developments over the past year, and presents the projected plans of the Northern States Power Company (NSP) in regards to spent fuel storage

  7. Projection of US LWR spent fuel storage requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, J.F.; Cole, B.M.; Purcell, W.L.; Rau, R.G.

    1982-11-01

    The spent fuel storage requirements projection is based on data supplied for each operating or planned nuclear power power plant by the operting utilities. The data supplied by the utilities encompassed details of plant operating history, past records of fuel discharges, current inventories in reactor spent fuel storage pools, and projections of future discharge patterns. Data on storage capacity of storage pools and on characterization of the discharged fuel are also included. The data supplied by the utilities, plus additional data from other appropriate sources, are maintained on a computerized data base by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The spent fuel requirements projection was based on utility data updated and verified as of December 31, 1981

  8. Super Phenix fuel storage tank investigations concerning the sodium leak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaix, J.C.; Archer, J.; Foucher, N.; Escaravage

    1989-01-01

    Following the detection of a sodium leak from the fuel storage drum of the Super Phenix LMFBR reactor, investigations have been undertaken in order to: check again that the design of the storage main vessel was right, make an assessment of the vessel behavior under the actual loadings supported during its two first years of life, check the mechanical properties of materials (in purchase and present conditions), find whether the leak could be explained by design failure or unexpected material properties

  9. Spent fuel storage pool and reactor well pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchisawa, Hiroshi.

    1996-01-01

    An overflow device is disposed to a water draining channel communicating a spent fuel storage pool, a well pool and a cask cleaning pit, and a cleaning treatment system is connected to the cask cleaning pit. In addition, a tank chamber having an overflow device communicating with the well pool is disposed to the inside of the spent fuel storage pool, and a cleaning system is connected to the tank chamber. Namely, water overflow from the spent fuel storage pool and the well pool flows down to the cask cleaning pit directly, the water level can be kept to a predetermined value without disposing a skimmer serge tank, and the overflow water is transported to and cleaned in the cleaning treatment system. In addition, the overflow water flow to the tank chamber directly is transferred to and cleaned in the cleaning treatment system. The cost for the reactor building can be reduced, and interference with the building and adjustment for the steps upon installation of the skimmer serge tank are no more necessary to shorten the terms for the building construction. (N.H.)

  10. Evaluation of economics of spent fuel storage techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaji, Kenji; Nagano, Koji

    1988-01-01

    Various spent fuel storage techniques are evaluated in terms of required costs. The unit storage cost for each spent fuel storage scenario is calculated based on the total cost required for the scenario including capital expenditure, operation cost, maintenance cost and transport cost. Intermediate storage may be performed in relatively small facilities in the plant or in independent large-scale facilities installed away from the plant. Dry casks or water pools are assumed to be used in in-plant storage facilities while vaults may also be employed in independent facilities. Evaluation is made for these different cases. In in-plant facilities, dry cask storage is found to be more economical in all cases than water pool storage, especially when large-sized casks are employed. In independent facilities, on the other hand, the use of vaults is the most desirable because the required capital expenditure is the lowest due to the effect of scale economics. Dry cask storage is less expensive than water pool storage also in independent facilities. The annual discount rate has relatively small influence on the unit cost for storage. An estimated unit cost for storage in independent storage facilities is shown separately for facilities with a capacity of 1,000 tons, 3,000 tons or 5,000 tons. The report also outlines the economics of spent fuel storage in overseas facilities (Finland, Sweden and U.S.A.). (Nogami, K.)

  11. Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning reference independent spent fuel storage installations. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwick, J D; Moore, E B

    1984-01-01

    Safety and cost information is developed for the conceptual decommissioning of five different types of reference independent spent fuel storage installations (ISFSIs), each of which is being given consideration for interim storage of spent nuclear fuel in the United States. These include one water basin-type ISFSI (wet) and four dry ISFSIs (drywell, silo, vault, and cask). The reference ISFSIs include all component parts necessary for the receipt, handling and storage of spent fuel in a safe and efficient manner. Three decommissioning alternatives are studied to obtain comparisons between costs (in 1981 dollars), occupational radiation doses, and potential radiation doses to the public. The alternatives considered are: DECON (immediate decontamination), SAFSTOR (safe storage followed by deferred decontamination), and ENTOMB (entombment followed by long-term surveillance).

  12. Fuel Storage Facility Final Safety Analysis Report. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linderoth, C.E.

    1984-03-01

    The Fuel Storage Facility (FSF) is an integral part of the Fast Flux Test Facility. Its purpose is to provide long-term storage (20-year design life) for spent fuel core elements used to provide the fast flux environment in FFTF, and for test fuel pins, components and subassemblies that have been irradiated in the fast flux environment. This Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) and its supporting documentation provides a complete description and safety evaluation of the site, the plant design, operations, and potential accidents.

  13. Risk analysis for nuclear spent fuel storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dina, Dumitru; Andrei, Veronica; Ghita, Sorin; Glodeanu, Florin

    2004-01-01

    In June 2003, the first capacity of the Intermediate Dry Spent Fuel Storage Facility (DICA) was commissioned at Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant (Cernavoda NPP). The facility is a dry system type facility; its designed lifetime is for a minimum of 50 years and capacity for two nuclear power units' lifetime. The storage structures are monolith reinforced concrete modules offering a very good isolation of the spent fuel from the environment. The spent fuel is confined by a system of double barriers that prevents radioactive emissions and ensures protection of the population and environment. The security functions of the facility are operational through passive means. In Romania, the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control, CNCAN, is the authority that licenses the nuclear activities. CNCAN issued the commissioning and operating licenses for DICA following a complex process. The Final Nuclear Safety Report represents basic documentation for licensing and one of its main chapters presents the risk analysis results. The risk analysis performed for DICA covers normal operational regimes and accident cases considered as design basis events (DBE). The results of risk analysis for Cernavoda NNP DICA demonstrates that risks for the population and environment are much lower than the authorization limits established by CNCAN and in agreement with values for proven safe spent fuel storage technologies from European Union and worldwide. (authors)

  14. Bulk Fuel Storage Requirements for Maintenance, Repair, and Environmental Projects at Fort Hood, Texas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carros, Deborah

    2000-01-01

    This report is one in a series that addresses the accuracy and reliability of maintenance, repair, environmental, and construction requirements for bulk fuel storage and delivery systems infrastructure...

  15. Survey of wet and dry spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-07-01

    Spent fuel storage is one of the important stages in the nuclear fuel cycle and stands among the most vital challenges for countries operating nuclear power plants. Continuous attention is being given by the IAEA to the collection, analysis and exchange of information on spent fuel management. Its role in this area is to provide a forum for exchanging information and for coordinating and encouraging closer co-operation among Member States. Spent fuel management is recognized as a high priority IAEA activity. In 1997, the annual spent fuel arising from all types of power reactors worldwide amounted to about 10,500 tonnes heavy metal (t HM). The total amount of spent fuel accumulated worldwide at the end of 1997 was about 200,000 t HM of which about 130,000 t HM of spent fuel is presently being stored in at-reactor (AR) or away-from-reactor (AFR) storage facilities awaiting either reprocessing or final disposal and 70,000 t HM has been reprocessed. Projections indicate that the cumulative amount generated by 2010 may surpass 340,000 t HM and by the year 2015 395,000 t HM. Part of the spent fuel will be reprocessed and some countries took the option to dispose their spent fuel in a repository. Most countries with nuclear programmes are using the deferral of a decision approach, a 'wait and see' strategy with interim storage, which provides the ability to monitor the storage continuously and to retrieve the spent fuel later for either direct disposal or reprocessing. Some countries use different approaches for different types of fuel. Today the worldwide reprocessing capacity is only a fraction of the total spent fuel arising and since no final repository has yet been constructed, there will be an increasing demand for interim storage. The present survey contains information on the basic storage technologies and facility types, experience with wet and dry storage of spent fuel and international experience in spent fuel transport. The main aim is to provide spent fuel

  16. Information handbook on independent spent fuel storage installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raddatz, M.G.; Waters, M.D.

    1996-12-01

    In this information handbook, the staff of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission describes (1) background information regarding the licensing and history of independent spent fuel storage installations (ISFSIs), (2) a discussion of the licensing process, (3) a description of all currently approved or certified models of dry cask storage systems (DCSSs), and (4) a description of sites currently storing spent fuel in an ISFSI. Storage of spent fuel at ISFSIs must be in accordance with the provisions of 10 CFR Part 72. The staff has provided this handbook for information purposes only. The accuracy of any information herein is not guaranteed. For verification or for more details, the reader should refer to the respective docket files for each DCSS and ISFSI site. The information in this handbook is current as of September 1, 1996

  17. Method of assembling spent nuclear fuel storage rack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Ryokichi; Hasegawa, Hidenobu.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the safety of a spent fuel storage rack by stably installing the spent fuel in a pool without using supporting beams. Constitution: A restricted unit is composed of a plurality of spuare cylinders. A plurality of such restricted units are aligned in a direction perpendicularly to the arraying direction of the cylinders in the respective restricted units, are coupled with long connecting plates, and are fixed by welding on a common small base, thereby forming a restricted body. According to such assembling method, a plurality of restricted bodies are connected in a direction that the respective restricted bodies are readily overturned, and are secured to the common base. Accordingly, the restricted bodies can be stably installed in a pool without using supporting beams as the conventional one. (Sekiya, K.)

  18. Spent nuclear fuel storage pool thermal-hydraulic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, R.R.

    1984-01-01

    Storage methods and requirements for spent nuclear fuel at U.S. commercial light water reactors are reviewed in Section 1. Methods of increasing current at-reactor storage capabilities are also outlined. In Section 2 the development of analytical methods for the thermal-hydraulic analysis of spent fuel pools is chronicled, leading up to a discussion of the GFLOW code which is described in Section 3. In Section 4 the verification of GFLOW by comparisons of the code's predictions to experimental data taken inside the fuel storage pool at the Maine Yankee nuclear power plant is presented. The predictions of GFLOW using 72, 224, and 1584 node models of the storage pool are compared to each other and to the experimental data. An example of thermal licensing analysis for Maine Yankee using the GFLOW code is given in Section 5. The GFLOW licensing analysis is compared to previous licensing analysis performed by Yankee Atomic using the RELAP-4 computer code

  19. Life Prediction of Spent Fuel Storage Canister Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballinger, Ronald

    2018-04-16

    The original purpose of this project was to develop a probabilistic model for SCC-induced failure of spent fuel storage canisters, exposed to a salt-air environment in the temperature range 30-70°C for periods up to and exceeding 100 years. The nature of this degradation process, which involves multiple degradation mechanisms, combined with variable and uncertain environmental conditions dictates a probabilistic approach to life prediction. A final report for the original portion of the project was submitted earlier. However, residual stress measurements for as-welded and repair welds could not be performed within the original time of the project. As a result of this, a no-cost extension was granted in order to complete these tests. In this report, we report on the results of residual stress measurements.

  20. Risk assessment in spent fuel storage and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandimani, S.

    1989-01-01

    Risk assessment in various stages of nuclear fuel cycle is still an active area of Nuclear safety studies. From the results of risk assessment available in literature, it can be determined that the risk resulting from shipments of plutonium and spent-fuel are much greater than that resulting from the transport of other materials within the nuclear fuel cycle. In India spent fuels are kept in Spent Fuel Storage Pool (SFSP) for about 240-400 days, which is relatively a longer period compared to the usual 120 days as recommended by regulatory authorities. After cooling spent fuels are transported to the reprocessing sites which are mostly situated close to the plants. India has two high level waste treatment facilities, one PREFRE (Plutonium Reprocessing and Fuel Recycling) at Tarapur and the other one, a unit of Nuclear Fuel Complex at Hyderabad. This paper presents the risk associated with spent fuel storage and transportation for the Indian conditions. All calculations are based on a typical CANDU reactor system. Simple fault tree models are evolved for SFSP and for Transportation Accident Mode (TAM) for both road and rail. Fault tree quantification and risk assessment are done to each of these models. All necessary data for SFSP are taken mostly from Reactor Safety Study, (1975). Similarly, the data for rail TAM are taken from Annual Statistical Statements, (1987-8) and that for road TAM from Special Issue on Motor Vehicle Accident Statistics in India, (1986). Simulation method is used wherever necessary. Risk is also estimated for normal/accident free transport

  1. Conceptual design report for the away from reactor spent fuel storage facility, Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) requested that Du Pont prepare a conceptual design and appraisal of cost for Federal budget planning for an away from reactor spent fuel storage facility that could be ready to store fuel by December 1982. This report describes the basis of the appraisal of cost in the amount of $270,000,000 for all facilities. The proposed action is to provide a facility at the Savannah River Plant. The facility will have an initial storage capacity of 5000 metric tons of spent fuel and will be capable of receiving 1000 metric tons per year. The spent fuel will be stored in water-filled concrete basins that are lined with stainless steel. The modular construction of the facility will allow future expansion of the storage basins and auxiliary services in a cost-effective manner. The facility will be designed to receive, handle, decontaminate and reship spent fuel casks; to remove irradiated fuel from casks; to place the fuel in a storage basin; and to cool and control the quality of the water. The facility will also be designed to remove spent fuel from storage basins, load the spent fuel into shipping casks, decontaminated loaded casks and ship spent fuel. The facility requires a license by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Features of the design, construction and operations that may affect the health and safety of the workforce and the public will conform with NRC requirements. The facility would be ready to store fuel by January 1983, based on normal Du Pont design and construction practices for DOE. The schedule does not include the effect of licensing by the NRC. To maintain this option, preparation of the documents and investigation of a site at the Savannah River Plant, as required for licensing, were started in FY '78

  2. 77 FR 9591 - List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: HI-STORM 100, Revision 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ... Fuel Storage Casks: HI-STORM 100, Revision 8 AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Proposed... spent fuel storage cask regulations by revising the Holtec International HI-STORM 100 dry cask storage... Amendment No. 8 to CoC No. 1014 and does not include other aspects of the HI-STORM 100 dry storage cask...

  3. 78 FR 69460 - Proposed License Renewal of the Prairie Island Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ... Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft environmental...-specific Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) located in Red Wing, Goodhue County, Minnesota... impact (FONSI) in accordance with NRC regulations. The NRC is requesting public comments on the draft EA...

  4. 75 FR 77017 - Nextera Energy Seabrook, LLC Seabrook Station Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    ... COMMISSION Nextera Energy Seabrook, LLC Seabrook Station Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation; Exemption 1.0 Background NextEra Energy Seabrook, LLC (NextEra, the licensee) is the holder of Facility..., subpart K, a general license is issued for the storage of spent fuel in an independent spent fuel storage...

  5. A COMPARISON OF CHALLENGES ASSOCIATED WITH SLUDGE REMOVAL, TREATMENT and DISPOSAL AT SEVERAL SPENT FUEL STORAGE LOCATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PERES, M.W.

    2007-01-01

    Challenges associated with the materials that remain in spent fuel storage pools are emerging as countries deal with issues related to storing and cleaning up nuclear fuel left over from weapons production. The K Basins at the Department of Energy's site at Hanford in southeastern Washington State are an example. Years of corrosion products and piles of discarded debris are intermingled in the bottom of these two pools that stored more 2,100 metric tons (2,300 tons) of spent fuel. Difficult, costly projects are underway to remove radioactive material from the K Basins. Similar challenges exist at other locations around the globe. This paper compares the challenges of handling and treating radioactive sludge at several locations storing spent nuclear fuel

  6. Optimization of time and location dependent spent nuclear fuel storage capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macek, V.

    1977-01-01

    A linear spent fuel storage model is developed to identify cost-effective spent nuclear fuel storage strategies. The purpose of this model is to provide guidelines for the implementation of the optimal time-dependent spent fuel storage capacity expansion in view of the current economic and regulatory environment which has resulted in phase-out of the closed nuclear fuel cycle. Management alternatives of the spent fuel storage backlog, which is created by mismatch between spent fuel generation rate and spent fuel disposition capability, are represented by aggregate decision variables which describe the time dependent on-reactor-site and off-site spent fuel storage capacity additions, and the amount of spent fuel transferred to off-site storage facilities. Principal constraints of the model assure determination of cost optimal spent fuel storage expansion strategies, while spent fuel storage requirements are met at all times. A detailed physical and economic analysis of the essential components of the spent fuel storage problem, which precedes the model development, assures its realism. The effects of technological limitations on the on-site spent fuel storage expansion and timing of reinitiation of the spent fuel reprocessing on optimal spent fuel storage capacity expansion are investigated. The principal results of the study indicate that (a) expansion of storage capacity beyond that of currently planned facilities is necessary, and (b) economics of the post-reactor fuel cycle is extremely sensitive to the timing of reinitiation of spent fuel reprocessing. Postponement of reprocessing beyond mid-1982 may result in net negative economic liability of the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle

  7. Extending Spent Fuel Storage until Transport for Reprocessing or Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsen, Brett; Chiguer, Mustapha; Grahn, Per; Sampson, Michele; Wolff, Dietmar; Bevilaqua, Arturo; Wasinger, Karl; Saegusa, Toshiari; Seelev, Igor

    2016-09-01

    Spent fuel (SF) must be stored until an end point such as reprocessing or geologic disposal is imple-mented. Selection and implementation of an end point for SF depends upon future funding, legisla-tion, licensing and other factors that cannot be predicted with certainty. Past presumptions related to the availability of an end point have often been wrong and resulted in missed opportunities for properly informing spent fuel management policies and strategies. For example, dry cask storage systems were originally conceived to free up needed space in reactor spent fuel pools and also to provide SFS of up to 20 years until reprocessing and/or deep geological disposal became available. Hundreds of dry cask storage systems are now employed throughout the world and will be relied upon well beyond the originally envisioned design life. Given present and projected rates for the use of nuclear power coupled with projections for SF repro-cessing and disposal capacities, one concludes that SF storage will be prolonged, potentially for several decades. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has recently considered 300 years of storage to be appropriate for the characterization and prediction of ageing effects and ageing management issues associated with extending SF storage and subsequent transport. This paper encourages addressing the uncertainty associated with the duration of SF storage by de-sign – rather than by default. It suggests ways that this uncertainty may be considered in design, li-censing, policy, and strategy decisions and proposes a framework for safely extending spent fuel storage until SF can be transported for reprocessing or disposal – regardless of how long that may be. The paper however is not intended to either encourage or facilitate needlessly extending spent fuel storage durations. Its intent is to ensure a design and safety basis with sufficient margin to accommodate the full range of potential future scenarios. Although the focus is primarily on

  8. Device for sealing and shielding a nuclear fuel storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masaki, Gengo.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To provide a shield device for opening and closing a great opening in a relay-storage-tank within a hot cell for temporarily storing a nuclear fuel, in which the device is simplified in construction and which can perform the opening and closing operation in simple, positive and quick manner. Structure: A biological shield is positioned upwardly of an opening of a nuclear fuel storage tank to render an actuator inoperative. A sealing plate, which is pivotally supported by a plurality of support rod devices from the biological shield for parallel movement with respect to the biological shield, comes in contact with a resilient seal disposed along the entire peripheral edge of the opening to form an air-tight seal therebetween. In order to release the opening, the actuator is first actuated and the end of the sealing plate is horizontally pressed by a piston rod thereof. Then, the sealing plate is moved along the line depicted by the end of the support rod in the support rod devices and as a consequence, the plate is moved away from the resilient seal in the peripheral edge of the opening. When a driving device is actuated to travel the plate along the aforesaid line while maintaining the condition as described, the biological device moves along the guide. (Kamimura, M.)

  9. Irradiation of Microbes from Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Pool Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breckenridge, C.R.; Watkins, C.S.; Bruhn, D.F.; Roberto, F.F.; Tsang, M.N.; Pinhero, P.J.; Brey, R.F.; Wright, R.N.; Windes, W.F.

    1999-01-01

    Microbes have been isolated and identified from spent nuclear fuel storage pools at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Included among these are Corynebacterium aquaticum, Pseudomonas putida, Comamonas acidovorans, Gluconobacter cerinus, Micrococcus diversus, Rhodococcus rhodochrous, and two strains of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). We examined the sensitivity of these microbes to a variety of total exposures of radiation generated by a 6-MeV linear accelerator (LINAC). The advantage of using a LINAC is that it provides a relatively quick screen of radiation tolerance. In the first set of experiments, we exposed each of the aforementioned microbes along with four additional microbes, pseudomonas aeruginosa, Micrococcus luteus, Escherchia coli, and Deinococcus radiodurans to exposures of 5 x 10 3 and 6 x 10 4 rad. All microbial specimens withstood the lower exposure with little or no reduction in cell population. Upon exposing the microbes to the larger dose of 6 x 10 4 rad, we observed two distinct groupings: microbes that demonstrate resistance to radiation, and microbes that display intolerance through a dramatic reduction from their initial population. Microbes in the radiation tolerant grouping were exposed to 1.1 x 10 5 rad to examine the extent of their resistance. We observe a correlation between radiation resistance and gram stain. The gram-positive species we examined seem to demonstrate a greater radiation resistance

  10. Irradiation of Microbes from Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Pool Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breckenridge, C.R.; Watkins, C.S.; Bruhn, D.F.; Roberto, F.F.; Tsang, M.N.; Pinhero, P.J. [INEEL (US); Brey, R.F. [ISU (US); Wright, R.N.; Windes, W.F.

    1999-09-03

    Microbes have been isolated and identified from spent nuclear fuel storage pools at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Included among these are Corynebacterium aquaticum, Pseudomonas putida, Comamonas acidovorans, Gluconobacter cerinus, Micrococcus diversus, Rhodococcus rhodochrous, and two strains of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). We examined the sensitivity of these microbes to a variety of total exposures of radiation generated by a 6-MeV linear accelerator (LINAC). The advantage of using a LINAC is that it provides a relatively quick screen of radiation tolerance. In the first set of experiments, we exposed each of the aforementioned microbes along with four additional microbes, pseudomonas aeruginosa, Micrococcus luteus, Escherchia coli, and Deinococcus radiodurans to exposures of 5 x 10{sup 3} and 6 x 10{sup 4} rad. All microbial specimens withstood the lower exposure with little or no reduction in cell population. Upon exposing the microbes to the larger dose of 6 x 10{sup 4} rad, we observed two distinct groupings: microbes that demonstrate resistance to radiation, and microbes that display intolerance through a dramatic reduction from their initial population. Microbes in the radiation tolerant grouping were exposed to 1.1 x 10{sup 5} rad to examine the extent of their resistance. We observe a correlation between radiation resistance and gram stain. The gram-positive species we examined seem to demonstrate a greater radiation resistance.

  11. Implementing Composite Superstructures in Large Passenger Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karatzas, Vasileios; Berggreen, Christian; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the structural response of the part of the superstructure of a RoPax ferry that has been redesigned using composite materials. The composite superstructure is presented and subsequently compared to the existing steel design considering different loading conditions by the use...

  12. Criticality and Its Uncertainty Analysis of Spent Fuel Storage Rack for Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Tae Young; Park, Chang Je; Lee, Byung Chul

    2011-01-01

    For evaluating the criticality safety of spent fuel storage rack in an open pool type research reactor, a permissible upper limit of criticality should be determined. It can be estimated from the criticality upper limit presented by the regulatory guide and an uncertainty of criticality calculation. In this paper, criticalities for spent fuel storage rack are carried out at various conditions. The calculation uncertainty of MCNP system is evaluated from the calculation results for the benchmark experiments. Then, the upper limit of criticality is determined from the uncertainties and the calculated criticality of the spent fuel storage rack is evaluated

  13. Proceedings of the international workshop on irradiated fuel storage: operating experience and development programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqvi, S.J.; Frost, C.R.

    1984-01-01

    Irradiated fuel storage was discussed under the following major topic headings: irradiated fuel management strategies, water pool storage, dry storage technology and engineering studies, dry storage economics, standards and licensing, dry storage - fuel behaviour, and dry storage - the future

  14. Bulk Fuel Storage and Delivery Systems Infrastructure Military Construction Requirements for Japan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Padgett, Gary

    2000-01-01

    This report is one in a series that addresses the accuracy and reliability of maintenance, repair, and environmental and construction requirements for bulk fuel storage and delivery systems infrastructure...

  15. Spent nuclear fuel storage: Legal, technical and political considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blake, E.L. Jr.; Buren, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    In 1982, Congress enacted the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA), assigning responsibility to the Department of Energy (DOE) for the development and implementation of a comprehensive national nuclear waste management program. The NWPA makes clear that the generators and owners of commercially-generated spent nuclear fuel (SNF) have the primary responsibility to provide for, and pay the costs of, the interim storage of such SNF until it is accepted by the DOE under the provisions of the NWPA. The shift in responsibility was expected to begin in 1998, the date specified in the NWPA and the DOE's contracts with the utilities, at which time the NWPA anticipated commencement of operations of a geologic repository and/or a monitored retrievable storage facility (MRS). Unfortunately, despite a mid-course correction to the NWPA mandated by Congress in 1987 in an effort to streamline and accelerate the program, DOE is way behind schedule. DOE's last published program schedule indicates the commencement of repository operations in 2010, a date many feel is overly optimistic. In repeated statements during the early 1990s, DOE sought to reassure utility companies and their regulatory commissions that it could still commence SNF acceptance in 1998 for storage at an MRS if such a facility were sited through a voluntary process by the end of 1992. That date has now come and gone. Although DOE is still nominally seeking a voluntary MRS host jurisdiction, the prospects for MRS operation by 1998 are dim. Putting aside for the moment the question of DOE's ability to bring the repository on line, the immediate problem facing domestic utilities is the need to augment their onsite SNF storage capacity. In addition to providing a brief overview of the Federal independent spent fuel storage installation (ISFSI) licensing process, the author provides some insight of what the real issues are in ISFSI licensing

  16. BWR spent fuel storage cask performance test. Volume 1. Cask handling experience and decay heat, heat transfer, and shielding data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinnon, M.A.; Doman, J.W.; Tanner, J.E.; Guenther, R.J.; Creer, J.M.; King, C.E.

    1986-02-01

    This report documents a heat transfer and shielding performance test conducted on a Ridihalgh, Eggers and Associates REA 2023 boiling water reactor (BWR) spent fuel storage cask. The testing effort consisted of three parts: pretest preparations, performance testing, and post-test activities. Pretest preparations included conducting cask handling dry runs and characterizing BWR spent fuel assemblies from Nebraska Public Power District's Cooper Nuclear Station. The performance test matrix included 14 runs consisting of two loadings, two cask orientations, and three backfill environments. Post-test activities included calorimetry and axial radiation scans of selected fuel assemblies, in-basin sipping of each assembly, crud collection, video and photographic scans, and decontamination of the cask interior and exterior

  17. Superstructures: First Cold Test and Future Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Sekutowicz; C Albrecht; V Ayvazyan; R Bandelmann; T Buttner; P Castro; S Choroba; J Eschke; B Faatz; A Gossel; K Honkavaara; B Horst; J Iverson; K Jensch; H Kaiser; R Kammering; G Kreps; D Kostin; J Lorkiewicz; R Lange; A Matheisen; W -D Moller; H -B Peters; D Proch; K Rehlich; H Schlarb; S Schrieber; D Reschke; S Simrock; W Singer; X Singer; K Twarowski; T Weichert; M Wojtkiewicz; G Wendt; K Zapfe; M Liepe; M Huening; M Ferrario; E Plawski; C Pagani; P Kneisel; G Wu; N Baboi; C Thomas; H Chen; W Huang; C Tang; S Zheng

    2003-01-01

    Superstructures, chains of superconducting multi-cell cavities (subunits) connected by e/2 long tube(s) have been proposed as an alternative layout for the TESLA main accelerator [1]. After three years of preparation, two superstructures, each made of two weakly coupled superconducting 7-cell subunits driven by a single Fundamental Power Coupler (FPC), have been installed in the Tesla Test Facility linac for beam tests. Energy stability, HOM damping, frequency and field adjustment methods were tested. The measured results confirme Superstructures, chains of superconducting multi-cell cavities (subunits) connected by e/2 long tube(s) have been proposed as an alternative layout for the TESLA main accelerator [1]. After three years of preparation, two superstructures, each made of two weakly coupled superconducting 7-cell subunits driven by a single Fundamental Power Coupler (FPC), have been installed in the Tesla Test Facility linac for beam tests. Energy stability, HOM damping, frequency and field adjustment methods were tested. The measured results confirmed expectation on the superstructure performance and proved that an alternative layout for the 800 GeV upgrade of the TESLA collider is feasible. We report on the test and give here an overview of its results. The tests confirmed very good damping of HOMs in superstructures and thus has opened a possible new application of this concept to high current energy recovery machines. We have built two 1.5 GHz copper models of two superstructures: 2x5-cells and 2x2-cells to prove further improvement of HOM damping. This contribution presents also measured results on these models. d expectations on the superstructure performance and proved that an alternative layout for the 800 GeV upgrade of the TESLA collider is feasible. We report on the test and give here an overview of its results

  18. Microbial degradation processes in radioactive waste repository and in nuclear fuel storage areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfram, J.H.; Rogers, R.D.; Gazso, L.G.

    1997-01-01

    The intent of the workshop organizers was to convene experts in the fields of corrosion and spent nuclear fuels. The major points which evolved from the interaction of microbiologists, material scientists, and fuel storage experts are as follows: Corrosion of basin components as well as fuel containers or cladding is occurring; Water chemistry monitoring, if done in the storage facility does not take into account the microbial component; Microbial influenced corrosion is an area that many have not considered to be an important contributor in the aging of metallurgical materials especially those exposed to a radiation field; Many observations indicate that there is a microbial or biological presence in the storage facilities but these observations have not been correlated with any deterioration or aging phenomena taking place in the storage facility; The sessions on the fundamentals of microbial influenced corrosion and biofilm pointed out that these phenomena are real, occurring on similar materials in other industries and probably are occurring in the wet storage of spent fuel; All agreed that more monitoring, testing, and education in the field of biological mediate processes be performed and financially supported; Loosing the integrity of fuel assemblies can only cause problems, relating to the future disposition of the fuel, safety concerns, and environmental issues; In other rad waste scenarios, biological processes may be playing a role, for instance in the mobility of radionuclides in soil, decomposition of organic materials of the rad waste, gas production, etc. The fundamental scientific presentations discussed the full gamut of microbial processes that relate to biological mediated effects on metallic and non-metallic materials used in the storage and containment of radioactive materials

  19. Technical framework to facilitate foreign spent fuel storage and geologic disposal in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardine, L.J.; Halsey, W.G.; Cmith, C.F.

    2000-01-01

    The option of storage and eventual geologic disposal in Russia of spent fuel of US origin used in Taiwan provides a unique opportunity that can benefit many parties. Taiwan has a near term need for a spent fuel storage and geologic disposal solution, available financial resources, but limited prospect for a timely domestic solution. Russia has significant spent fuel storage and transportation management experience, candidate storage and repository sites, but limited financial resources available for their development. The US has interest in Taiwan energy security, national security and nonproliferation interests in Russian spent fuel storage and disposal and interest in the US origin fuel. While it is understood that such a project includes complex policy and international political issues as well as technical issues, the goal of this paper is to begin the discussion by presenting a technical path forward to establish the feasibility of this concept for Russia

  20. Development of operational criteria for the interim spent fuel storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, M. H.; Kim, J. C.; Kim, D. K.; Cho, D. K.; Bae, K. M.

    1997-03-01

    The final objective is to develop the technical criteria for the facility operation of the interim spent fuel storage facility. For this purpose, elementary technical issues are evaluated for the wet storage of spent fuels and status of operation in foreign counties are examined. Urgent objective of this study is to provide technical back data for the development of operational criteria. For the back data for the development of operational criteria, domestic technical data for the wet storages are collected as well as standards and criteria related to the spent fuel storage. Operational stutus of spent fuel storages in foreign countries CLAB in Sweden and MRS in the United States are studied. Dry storage concept is also studied in order to find the characteristics of wet storage concept. Also basic technical issues are defined and studied in order to build a draft of operational criteria

  1. Baseline descriptions for LWR spent fuel storage, handling, and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyer, J.W.; Sonnier, C.S.

    1978-04-01

    Baseline descriptions for the storage, handling, and transportation of reactor spent fuel are provided. The storage modes described include light water reactor (LWR) pools, away-from-reactor basins, dry surface storage, reprocessing-facility interim storage pools, and deep geologic storage. Land and water transportation are also discussed. This work was sponsored by the Department of Energy/Office of Safeguards and Security as part of the Sandia Laboratories Fixed Facility Physical Protection Program. 45 figs, 4 tables

  2. Criticality safety analysis of spent fuel storage for NPP Mochovce using MCNP5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, G.; Hascik, J.; Lueley, J.; Vrban, B.; Petriska, M.; Slugen, V.; Urban, P.

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents results of nuclear criticality safety analysis of spent fuel storage for the first and second unit of NPP Mochovce. The spent fuel storage pool (compact and reserve grid) was modeled using the Monte Carlo code MCNP5. Conservative approach was applied and calculation of k eff values was performed for normal and various postulated emergency conditions in order to evaluate the final maximal k eff values. The requirement of current safety regulations to ensure 5% subcriticality was met except one especially conservative case. (Authors)

  3. Seismic testing of the base-isolated PWR spent-fuel storage rack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Katsuhisa; Tanaka, Mamoru; Nakamura, Masaaki; Tsujikura, Yonezo.

    1990-01-01

    The present paper aims to verify the seismic safety of the base-isolated spent-fuel storage rack. A series of seismic tests has been conducted using a three-dimensional shaking table. A sliding-type base-isolation system was employed for the prototype rack considering environmental conditions in an actual plant. A non linear seismic response analysis was also performed, and it is verified that the prototype of a base-isolated spent-fuel storage rack has a sufficient seismic safety margin for design seismic conditions from the viewpoint of seismic response. (author)

  4. Operation and maintenance of spent fuel storage and transportation casks/containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Member States have a growing need for casks for spent fuel storage and transportation. A variety of casks has been developed and is in use at an increasing number of sites. This has resulted in an accumulation of experience that will provide valuable information for other projects in spent fuel management. This publication provides a comprehensive review of information on the cask operation and maintenance associated with spent fuel storage. It draws upon generic knowledge from industrial experience and applications and is intended to serve as a basis for better planning and implementation in future projects

  5. Test of two Nb superstructure prototypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sekutowicz

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An alternative layout of the TESLA linear collider (Technical Design Report, DESY Report No. 2001-011, 2001, based on weakly coupled multicell superconducting structures (superstructures, significantly reduces the investment cost due to a simplification in the rf system of the main accelerator. In January 1999, preparation of the beam test of the superstructure began in order to prove the feasibility of this layout. Progress in the preparation was reported frequently in Proceedings of TESLA Collaboration Meetings. Last year, two superstructures were installed in the Tesla Test Facility linac at DESY to experimentally verify methods to balance the accelerating gradient in a weakly coupled system, the stability of the energy gain for the entire train of bunches in macropulses, and the damping of higher order modes. We present results of the first cold and beam test of these two Nb prototypes.

  6. 76 FR 17037 - List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: HI-STORM Flood/Wind Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    ...-0007] RIN 3150-AI90 List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: HI-STORM Flood/Wind Addition AGENCY... or the Commission) is proposing to amend its spent fuel storage cask regulations to add the HI-STORM...: June 13, 2011. SAR Submitted by: Holtec International, Inc. SAR Title: Safety Analysis Report on the HI...

  7. 75 FR 18242 - Florida Power and Light, St. Lucie Units 1 and 2; Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ...)(2)(i)(A), 72.212(b)(7), and 72.214, and would allow them to load spent fuel into the TN NUHOMS... and Light, St. Lucie Units 1 and 2; Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation; Environmental... Davis, Senior Project Manager, Division of Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation, Office of Nuclear...

  8. Applying x-ray digital imaging to the verification of cadmium in fuel-storage components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabbs, R.D.; Cook, D.H.

    1997-01-01

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor utilizes large underwater fuel-storage arrays to stage irradiated fuel before it is shipped from the facility. Cadmium is required as a thermal neutron absorber in these fuel-storage arrays to produce an acceptable margin of nuclear subcriticality during both normal and off-normal operating conditions. Due to incomplete documentation from the time of their fabrication, the presence of cadmium within two stainless-steel parts of fuel-storage arrays must be experimentally verified before they are reused in new fuel-storage arrays. A cadmium-verification program has been developed in association with the Waste Examination and Assay Facility located at the Oak Ridge national Laboratory to nondestructively examine these older shroud assemblies. The program includes the following elements (1) x-ray analog imaging, (2) x-ray digital imaging, (3) prompt-gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements, and (4) neutron-transmission measurements. X-ray digital imaging utilizes an analog-to-digital convertor to record attenuated x-ray intensities observed on a fluorescent detector by a video camera. These x-ray intensities are utilized in expressions for cadmium thickness based upon x-ray attenuation theory

  9. Spent fuel storage practices and perspectives for WWER fuel in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takats, F.

    1999-01-01

    In this lecture the general issues and options in spent fuel management and storage are reviewed. Quantities of spent fuel world-wide and spent fuel amounts in storage as well as spent fuel capacities are presented. Selected examples of typical spent fuel storage facilities are discussed. The storage technologies applied for WWER fuel is presented. Description of other relevant storage technologies is included

  10. 78 FR 56944 - Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Humboldt Bay Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ... process waste at the Humboldt Bay ISFSI will not significantly affect the quality of the human environment... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. 72-27; NRC-2011-0115] Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Humboldt Bay Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION...

  11. Classification of transportation packaging and dry spent fuel storage system components according to importance to safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyacke, M.J.; McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Ayers, A.L. Jr.; O'Connor, S.C.; Jankovich, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory prepared a technical report for the Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, entitled Classification of Transportation Packaging and Dry Spent Fuel Storage System Components According to Importance to Safety, NUREG/CR-6407. This paper provides the results of that report. It also presents the graded approach for classification of components used in transportation packagings and dry spent fuel storage systems. This approach provides a method for identifying the classification of components according to importance to safety within transportation packagings and dry spent fuel storage systems. Record retention requirements are discussed to identify the documentation necessary to validate that the individual components were fabricated in accordance with their assigned classification. A review of the existing regulations pertaining to transportation packagings and dry storage systems was performed to identify current requirements. The general types of transportation packagings and dry storage systems are identified. The methodology used in this paper is based on Regulatory Guide 7.10, Establishing Quality Assurance Programs for Packaging Used in the Transport of Radioactive Material. This paper also includes a list of generic components for each of the general types of transportation packagings and spent fuel storage systems, with a classification category assigned to each component. Several examples concerning the safety importance of components are presented

  12. 75 FR 60147 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... Storage and Transportation, Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards, Mail Stop EBB-3D-02M, U.S..., LLC; Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation; Notice of Issuance of Amendment to Materials License... Materials License No. SNM- 2505 DATES: A request for a hearing must be filed by November 29, 2010. FOR...

  13. Detection of fission products release in the research reactor 'RA' spent fuel storage pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matausek, M.V.; Vukadin, Z.; Pavlovic, S.; Maksin, T.; Idakovic, Z.; Marinkovic, N.

    1997-05-01

    Spent fuel resulting from 25 years of operating the 6.5/10 MW thermal heavy water moderated and cooled research reactor RA at the VINCA Institute is presently all stored in the temporary spent fuel storage pool in the basement of the reactor building. In 1984, the reactor was shut down for refurbishment, which for a number of reasons has not yet been completed. Recent investigations show that independent of the future status of the research reactor, safe disposal of the so far irradiated fuel must be the subject of primary concern. The present status of the research reactor RA spent fuel storage pool at the VINCA Institute presents a serious safety problem. Action is therefore initiated in two directions. First, safety of the existing spent fuel storage should be improved. Second, transferring spent fuel into another, presumably dry storage space should be considered. By storing the previously irradiated fuel of the research reactor RA in a newly built storage space, sufficient free space will be provided in the existing spent fuel storage pool for the newly irradiated fuel when the reactor starts operation again. In the case that it would be decided to decommission the research reactor RA, the newly built storage space would provide safe disposal for the fuel irradiated so far

  14. Good Practices for Water Quality Management in Research Reactors and Spent Fuel Storage Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    for water chemistry control in research reactors; defines parameters recommended, techniques applicable, sampling procedures and sampling frequency to monitor water quality in RRs, and describes the importance of a quality assurance programme, and the implementation of a corrosion surveillance programme (CSP) as part of the water management programme. Whenever applicable, considerations are made for primary cooling system, spent fuel storage basins, secondary cooling system, emergency cooling systems, make-up systems and water reservoirs of RRs.

  15. Super-structure and building performance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The super-structure consists predominantly of the load- and no-load-bearing walls-including all doors and windows and suspended floor slabs. The building envelope plays a significant role in the performance of a building, especially with regard...

  16. Information on the feasibility study for the reracking in the fuel storage pools of the Juragua Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, J.M.; Rodriguez, I.; Lopez, D.; Guerra, R.; Rodriguez, M.; Garcia, F.

    1995-01-01

    During 1993, in the Juragua Nuclear Power Plants as engineering evaluation programme was initiated in the storage area of irradiated nuclear fuel, where work in order to determine the feasibility of capacity increase for storage of irradiated nuclear fuel at the fuel storage pools using poisoned compact close racks instead of the originally designed racks. The feasibility study is a fundamental activity of this programme for the 1994-1995 period. According to this study the prospects of assimilation of compact storage conditions in the fuel storage pools in unit number one and prolonged fuel storage pool are investigated

  17. A systems evaluation model for selecting spent nuclear fuel storage concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postula, F.D.; Finch, W.C.; Morissette, R.P.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes a system evaluation approach used to identify and evaluate monitored, retrievable fuel storage concepts that fulfill ten key criteria for meeting the functional requirements and system objectives of the National Nuclear Waste Management Program. The selection criteria include health and safety, schedules, costs, socio-economic factors and environmental factors. The methodology used to establish the selection criteria, develop a weight of importance for each criterion and assess the relative merit of each storage system is discussed. The impact of cost relative to technical criteria is examined along with experience in obtaining relative merit data and its application in the model. Topics considered include spent fuel storage requirements, functional requirements, preliminary screening, and Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) system evaluation. It is concluded that the proposed system evaluation model is universally applicable when many concepts in various stages of design and cost development need to be evaluated

  18. Engineering program in order to increase the irradiated fuel storage capacity in pool facilities of Juragua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez R, J.

    1996-01-01

    In 1993, a technical program in the spent fuel storage area of Nuclear Plant Juragua was launched. Such a program tries to carry out an engineering assessment of the possibility of increasing the spent fuel storage capacity in pool storage facilities by using high density racks (re-racking) instead of the original (non-compact) ones. The purpose of the above-mentioned program is to evaluate possible solutions that can be applied to the construction works prior to plant operation. The first stage of the program for the 1994-95 period is an ongoing Engineering-Economic Feasibility Study (EEFS), which endeavors to examine the capabilities of the reloading pool in Unit-1 Reactor building and long-term storage pool in auxiliary building in high density storage conditions. Technical details of the EEFS and reached results and difficulties are described. (author). 5 refs., 2 figs

  19. Facility effluent monitoring plan for K area spent fuel storage basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunacek, G.S.

    1996-01-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the U.S. Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400. 1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document was prepared using the specific guidelines identified in WHC-EP-0438-1, A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, and assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan is the second revision to the original annual report. Long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring system shall be ensured with updates of this report whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated at a minimum of every three years

  20. Bulk Fuel Storage Facility Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida. Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    Implementation of best management practices during construction of the new facility would ameliorate potential negative impacts on the geology and soils... Matrix ..................................5-1 vii FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR BULK FUEL STORAGE FACILITY CAPE CANAVERAL AFS, FLORIDA...N SI TE .APPROVAL APPLICATION DESC FUEL DEPOT PROJEC T NO N/A PROJECT SON: N00-10248937 SCALE· DATE· AS SHOW N 18 NOV 2005 PLN >INER: DRN’TER

  1. Integrated management platform of nuclear fuel storage and transportation based on RFID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Yafeng; Ma Yanqin; Chen Liyu; Jiang Yong; Wu Jianlei; Yang Haibo; Zhang Haiyan

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes integrated system model to improve work efficiency and optimize control measures of nuclear fuel storage and transportation, RFID and information integration technology is introduced, traditional management processes are innovated in data acquisition and monitoring fields as well, system solutions and design model are given by emphasizing on the following key technologies: cascade protection of information system, security protocol of RFID information, algorithm of collision. (authors)

  2. Spent nuclear fuel storage. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning spent nuclear fuel storage technologies, facilities, sites, and assessment. References review wet and dry storage, spent fuel casks and pools, underground storage, monitored and retrievable storage systems, and aluminum-clad spent fuels. Environmental impact, siting criteria, regulations, and risk assessment are also discussed. Computer codes and models for storage safety are covered. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  3. Spent fuel storage requirements. An update of DOE/RL-85-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    Utility projections of spent fuel storage capacities indicate that some commercial light water reactors (LWRs) have inadequate capacity to handle projected spent fuel discharges. This report presents estimates of potential near-term requirements for additional LWR spent fuel storage capacity, based on information supplied by utilities operating commercial nuclear power plants. These estimates provide information needed for planning the Department of Energy's (DOE) activities to be carried out under the DOE's Commercial Spent Fuel Management (CSFM) Program, in conjunction with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. This report is the latest in a series published by the DOE on LWR spent fuel storage requirements. The estimates in this report cover the period from the present through the year 2000. Although the DOE objective is to begin accepting spent fuel for final disposal in 1998, types of fuel and the receipt rates to be shipped are not yet known. Hence, this report makes no assumption regarding such fuel shipments. The report also assesses the possible impacts of increased fuel exposure and spent fuel transshipment on the requirements for additional storage capacity

  4. Criticality and shielding study for reracking of the spent fuel storage of NPP Jaragua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra Valdes, Ramiro; Lopez Aldama, Daniel; Rodriguez Gual, Maritza; Garcia Yip, Fernando; Alvarez Cardona, Caridad

    1996-01-01

    Annually one third of the fuel assemblies are discharged from VVER-440 reactor core. After 2 years of decay in the refueling pool, these assemblies are transferred to the spent fuel storage pool. With two units in operation, it would exhaust its storage capability in about 10 years. According to the trend of extending the interim storage period, the reracking of the spent fuel storage pool has become a viable option to enlarge storage capability at the nuclear power plant. The present paper deals with the criticality and shielding analysis for reracking of the spent fuel storage pool of NPP Juragua. The WIMS/D4 lattice code is used for the criticality study. For doses calculations, the source strength is estimated with ORIGEN 2 and the shielding problem is solved with the combination of the code ANISN and the multigroup library CASK. It is shown that it is possible to compact the storage rack in a factor of 1.98 using 3 mm thick boron steel clads. While the source is nearly doubled in the pool, the doses in its boundaries are increased approximately in only 1.24 times. (author)

  5. Superstructure of stapes. An analysis by HRCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horiuchi, Yasuharu; Hunai, Hiroaki; Ichimura; Keiiti; Iinuma, Toshitaka; Oyama, Kazuyuki

    1989-03-01

    High-resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) of the temporal bone has now become a routine test for the diagnosis of various temporal bone lesions. Correct assessment of such minute structures as ossicles, especially stapes, is important in the pre-operative HRCT evaluation. On the other hand, analysis for the reliability of HRCT findings has not been done, including the superstructure of the stapes. A retrospectively study was done in order to assess the availability of HRCT findings in axial overlapping scans in 226 ears, with respect to the superstructures of stapes. The study was concerned with the analysis of HRCTs of 148 normal ears, 71 ears of chronic otitis media and 7 ears of ossicular abnormalities. HRCT findings were compared to those of surgeries in pathological cases. The present study revealed that the superstructures of stapes are noted in 70% when the stapes is surrounded by air. The major limitations in the proper analysis of stapes by HRCT are partial volume averaging and effects of soft tissue silhouetting, this is especially so when the stapes is surrounded by soft tissue density.

  6. Dental implant superstructures by superplastic forming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, R.V.; Garriga-Majo, D.; Soo, S.; Pagliaria, D. [Kings Coll., London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Dental Biomaterials Science; Juszczyk, A.S.; Walter, J.D. [Kings Coll., London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Prosthetic Dentistry

    2001-07-01

    A novel application of superplastic forming is described for the production of fixed-bridge dental implant superstructures. Finite element analysis (FEA) has shown that Ti-6Al-4V sheet would be a suitable candidate material for the design of a fixed-bridge dental implant superstructure. Traditionally superstructures are cast in gold alloy onto pre-machined gold alloy cylinders but castings are often quite bulky and 25% of castings do not fit accurately (1) which means that sectioning and soldering is required to obtain a fit that is clinically acceptable and will not prejudice the integrity of the commercially pure cp-titanium implants osseointegrated with the bone. Superplastic forming is shown to be a forming technique that would allow the production of strong, light-weight components of thin section with low residual stress that could be suitable for such applications. Considerable cost savings over traditional dental techniques can be achieved using a low-cost ceramic die material. The properties of these die materials are optimised so that suitable components can be produced. Satisfactory hot strength is demonstrated and thermal properties are matched to those of the titanium alloy for accurate fit of the prosthesis. (orig.)

  7. The experiences from interim spent fuel storage operation with CASTOR 440/84 CASKS in NPP Dukovany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuba, S.

    1999-01-01

    In this lecture are presented: principles of the CASTOR 440/84 design; design development works; commissioning of interim spent fuel storage facility; international transports of spent fuel utilising CASTOR 440/84 casks

  8. Evaluating Fuel Leak and Aging Infrastructure at Red Hill, Hawaii, the Largest Underground Fuel Storage Facility in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about how EPA Region 9, Hawaii’s Department of Health, U.S. Navy, and Defense Logistics Agency are working tprotect human health and the environment at the Red Hill Bulk Fuel Storage Facility in Hawaii.

  9. Fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, C.; Alvarez-Miranda, A.

    2009-01-01

    ENSA is a well known manufacturer of multi-system primary components for the nuclear industry and is totally prepared to satisfy future market requirements in this industry. At the same time that ENSA has been gaining a reputation world wider for the supply of primary components, has been strengthening its commitment and experience in supplying spent fuel components, either pool racks or storage and transportation casks, and offers not only fabrication but also design capabilities for its products. ENSA has supplied Spent Fuel Pool Racks, in spain, Finland, Taiwan, Korea, China, and currently it is in the process of licensing its own rack design in the United States of America for the ESBWR along with Ge-Hitachi. ENSA has supplied racks for 20 pools and 22 different reactors and it has also manufactured racks under all available technologies and developed a design known as Interlock Cell Matrix whose main features are outlined in this article. Another ENSA achievement in rack technology is the use of remote control for re-racking activities instead of using divers, which improves the ALARA requirements. Regarding casks for storage and transportation, ENSA also has al leading worldwide position, with exports prevailing over the Spanish market where ENSA has supplied 16 storage and transportation casks to the Spanish nuclear power Trillo. In some cases, ENSA acts as subcontractor for other clients. Foreign markets are still a major challenge for ENSA. ENSA-is well known for its manufacturing capabilities in the nuclear industry, but has been always involved in design activities through its engineering division, which carries out different tasks: components Design; Tooling Design; Engineering and Documentation; Project Engineering; Calculations, Design and Development Engineering. (Author)

  10. Proliferation resistance assessment of various methods of spent nuclear fuel storage and disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollar, Lenka

    Many countries are planning to build or already are building new nuclear power plants to match their growing energy needs. Since all nuclear power plants handle nuclear materials that could potentially be converted and used for nuclear weapons, they each present a nuclear proliferation risk. Spent nuclear fuel presents the largest build-up of nuclear material at a power plant. This is a proliferation risk because spent fuel contains plutonium that can be chemically separated and used for a nuclear weapon. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards spent fuel in all non-nuclear weapons states that are party to the Non-Proliferation Treaty. Various safeguards methods are in use at nuclear power plants and research is underway to develop safeguards methods for spent fuel in centralized storage or underground storage and disposal. Each method of spent fuel storage presents different proliferation risks due to the nature of the storage method and the safeguards techniques that are utilized. Previous proliferation resistance and proliferation risk assessments have mainly compared nuclear material through the whole fuel cycle and not specifically focused on spent fuel storage. This project evaluates the proliferation resistance of the three main types of spent fuel storage: spent fuel pool, dry cask storage, and geological repository. The proliferation resistance assessment methodology that is used in this project is adopted from previous work and altered to be applicable to spent fuel storage. The assessment methodology utilizes various intrinsic and extrinsic proliferation-resistant attributes for each spent fuel storage type. These attributes are used to calculate a total proliferation resistant (PR) value. The maximum PR value is 1.00 and a greater number means that the facility is more proliferation resistant. Current data for spent fuel storage in the United States and around the world was collected. The PR values obtained from this data are 0.49 for

  11. Selection of away-from-reactor facilities for spent fuel storage. A guidebook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-09-01

    This publication aims to provide information on the approaches and criteria that would have to be considered for the selection of away-from-reactor (AFR) type spent fuel storage facilities, needs for which have been growing in an increasing number of Member States producing nuclear power. The AFR facilities can be defined as a storage system functionally independent of the reactor operation providing the role of storage until a further destination such as a disposal) becomes available. Initially developed to provide additional storage space for spent fuel, some AFR storage options are now providing additional spaces for extended storage of spent fuel with a prospect for long term storage, which is becoming a progressive reality in an increasing number of Member States due to the continuing debate on issues associated with the endpoints for spent fuel management and consequent delays in the implementation of final steps, such as disposal. The importance of AFR facilities for storage of spent fuel has been recognized for several decades and addressed in various IAEA publications in the area of spent fuel management. The Guidebook on Spent Fuel Storage (Technical Reports Series No. 240 published in 1984 and revised in 1991) discusses factors to be considered in the evaluation of spent fuel storage options. A technical committee meeting (TCM) on Selection of Dry Spent Fuel Storage Technologies held in Tokyo in 1995 also deliberated on this issue. However, there has not been any stand-alone publication focusing on the topic of selection of AFR storage facilities. The selection of AFR storage facilities is in fact a critical step for the successful implementation of spent fuel management programmes, due to the long operational periods required for storage and fuel handling involved with the additional implication of subsequent penalties in reversing decisions or changing the option mid-stream especially after the construction of the facility. In such a context, the long

  12. A nuclear fuel cycle system dynamic model for spent fuel storage options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinton, Samuel; Kazimi, Mujid

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Used nuclear fuel management requires a dynamic system analysis study due to its socio-technical complexity. • Economic comparison of local, regional, and national storage options is limited due to the public financial information. • Local and regional options of used nuclear fuel management are found to be the most economic means of storage. - Abstract: The options for used nuclear fuel storage location and affected parameters such as economic liabilities are currently a focus of several high level studies. A variety of nuclear fuel cycle system analysis models are available for such a task. The application of nuclear fuel cycle system dynamics models for waste management options is important to life-cycle impact assessment. The recommendations of the Blue Ribbon Committee on America’s Nuclear Future led to increased focus on long periods of spent fuel storage [1]. This motivated further investigation of the location dependency of used nuclear fuel in the parameters of economics, environmental impact, and proliferation risk. Through a review of available literature and interactions with each of the programs available, comparisons of post-reactor fuel storage and handling options will be evaluated based on the aforementioned parameters and a consensus of preferred system metrics and boundary conditions will be provided. Specifically, three options of local, regional, and national storage were studied. The preliminary product of this research is the creation of a system dynamics tool known as the Waste Management Module (WMM) which provides an easy to use interface for education on fuel cycle waste management economic impacts. Initial results of baseline cases point to positive benefits of regional storage locations with local regional storage options continuing to offer the lowest cost

  13. Department of Energy report on fee for spent nuclear fuel storage and disposal services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-10-01

    Since the July 1978 publication of an estimated fee for storage and disposal, several changes have occurred in the parameters which impact the spent fuel fee. DOE has mounted a diversified program of geologic investigations that will include locating and characterizing a number of potential repository sites in a variety of different geologic environments with diverse rock types. As a result, the earliest operation date of a geologic repository is now forecast for 1997. Finally, expanded spent fuel storage capabilities at reactors have reduced the projected quantities of fuel to be stored and disposed of. The current estimates for storage and disposal are presented. This fee has been developed from DOE program information on spent fuel storage requirements, facility availability, facility cost estimates, and research and development programs. The discounted cash flow technique has used the most recent estimates of cost of borrowing by the Federal Government. This estimate has also been used in calculating the Federal charge for uranium enrichment services. A prepayment of a percentage of the storage portion of the fee is assumed to be required 5 years before spent fuel delivery. These funds and the anticipated $300 million in US Treasury borrowing authority should be sufficient to finance the acquisition of storage facilities. Similarly, a prepayment of a percentage of the disposal portion would be collected at the same time and would be used to offset disposal research and development expenditures. The balance of the storage and disposal fees will be collected upon spent fuel delivery. If disposal costs are different from what was estimated, there will be a final adjustment of the disposal portion of the fee when the spent fuel is shipped from the AFR for permanent disposal. Based on current spent fuel storage requirements, at least a 30 percent prepayment of the fee will be required

  14. Shielding analysis of the LMR in-vessel fuel storage experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucholz, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    The In-Vessel Fuel Storage (IVFS) experiments analyzed in this paper were conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Tower Shielding Reactor (TSR) as part of the Japanese-American Shielding Program for Experimental Research (JASPER). These IVFS experiments were designed to study source multiplication and three-dimensional effects related to in-vessel storage of spent fuel elements in liquid metal reactor (LMR) systems. The present paper describes the 2- and 3-D calculations and results corresponding to a limited subset of those IVFS experiments in which the US LMR program had a particular interest

  15. Neutron field characterization at the independent spent fuel storage installation of the Trillo nuclear power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Xandra; Méndez, Roberto; Embid, Miguel; Ortego, Alberto; Novo, Manuel; Sanz, Javier

    2018-05-01

    Neutron fields inside and outside the independent spent fuel storage installation of Trillo Nuclear Power Plant are characterized exhaustively in terms of neutron spectra and ambient dose equivalent, measured by Bonner sphere system and LB6411 monitor. Measurements are consistent with storage casks and building shield characteristics, and also with casks distribution inside the building. Outer values at least five times lower than dose limit for free access area are found. Measurements with LB6411 and spectrometer are consistent with each other. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Multidimensional shielding analysis of the JASPER in-vessel fuel storage experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucholz, J.A.

    1993-03-01

    The In-Vessel Fuel Storage (IVFS) experiments analyzed in this report were conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Tower Shielding Reactor (TSR) as part of the Japanese-American Shielding Program for Experimental Research (JASPER). These IVFS experiments were designed to study source multiplication and three-dimensional effects related to in-vessel storage of spent fuel elements in liquid metal reactor (LMR) systems. The present report describes the 2-D and 3-D models, analyses, and calculated results corresponding to a limited subset of those IVFS experiments in which the US LMR program has a particular interest.

  17. Uses of the waste heat from the interim fuel storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehrum, A.

    It was the objective of this study to investigate the possibilities of a convenient use of the waste heat from the designed interim fuel storage at Ahaus. In this sense the following possibilities have been investigated: district heating, heat for industrial processes, fish-production, green house-heating, production of methane from original waste, agrotherm (agricultur field heating). It has been shown, that an economical behaviour for nearly all variations is not given without the financial help of the government, because of the high costs for heat transport and out-put. The most economical project is the intensive fish production plant. (orig.) [de

  18. The Spent Fuel Management in Finland and Modifications of Spent Fuel Storages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maaranen, Paeivi

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this presentation is to share the Finnish regulator's (STUK) experiences on regulatory oversight of the enlargement of a spent fuel interim storage. An overview of the current situation of spent fuel management in Finland will also be given. In addition, the planned modifications and requirements set for spent fuel storages due to the Fukushima accident are discussed. In Finland, there are four operating reactors, one under construction and two reactors that have a Council of State's Decision-in-Principle to proceed with the planning and licensing of a new reactor. In Olkiluoto, the two operating ASEA-Atom BWR units and the Areva EPR under construction have a shared interim storage for the spent fuel. The storage was designed and constructed in 1980's. The option for enlarging the storage was foreseen in the original design. Considering three operating units to produce their spent fuel and the final disposal to begin in 2022, extra space in the spent fuel storage is estimated to be needed in around 2014. The operator decided to double the number of the spent fuel pools of the storage and the construction began in 2010. The capacity of the enlarged spent fuel storage is considered to be sufficient for the three Olkiluoto units. The enlargement of the interim storage was included in Olkiluoto NPP 1 and 2 operating license. The licensing of the enlargement was conducted as a major plant modification. The operator needed the approval from STUK to conduct the enlargement. Prior to the construction of this modification, the operator was required to submit the similar documentation as needed for applying for the construction license of a nuclear facility. When conducting changes in an old nuclear facility, the new safety requirements have to be followed. The major challenge in the designing the enlargement of the spent fuel storage was to modify it to withstand a large airplane crash. The operator chose to cover the pools with protecting slabs and also to

  19. Expansion of storage capacity of interim spent fuel storage (MSVP) Bohunice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilat, P.; Fridrich, V.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes modifications of Interim spent fuel storage, performed with aim of storage capacity expansion, seismic stability enhancement, and overall increase of service life as well as assuring of MSVP safe operation. Uniqueness of adopted technical solutions is based upon the fact that mentioned innovations and modifications were performed without any changes, neither in ground plan nor architecture of MSVP structure. It also important to mention that all modifications were performed during continual operation of MSVP without any breaks of limits or operational regulations. Reconstruction and innovation of existing construction and technological systems of MSVP has assured required quality standard comparable with actual trends. (authors)

  20. Technology transfer and design conversion of a dry spent fuel storage system in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, R.C.; Marcelli, D.G.

    1998-01-01

    A number of unique issues surfaced in the technology transfer and design conversion of a US dry spent fuel storage technology in Ukraine. Unique challenges were encountered in the areas of nuclear design conversion, technical codes and standards, material selection and qualification, fabrication, construction and testing, quality assurance, documentation, and translation and verification processes. Technology transfer and design conversion were undertaken for both concrete and steel components for the project. The overall effort presented significant technical and cultural challenges to both the US and Ukrainian side, but technical exchange and design improvements to achieve a common goal have been reached. (author)

  1. Hydrothermal synthesis and photoluminescent properties of stacked indium sulfide superstructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yan; Zhang, Hongjie; Song, Shuyan; Feng, Jing; Lei, Yongqian; Zhao, Lijun; Li, Meiye

    2008-03-28

    Unusual hierarchical stacked superstructures of cubic beta-In2S3 were fabricated via a facile hydrothermal process in the presence of a surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide CTAB; the 3D superstructures were developed by helical propagation of surface steps from microflakes of 10-20 nm thickness.

  2. Switching Colloidal Superstructures by Critical Casimir Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Truc A; Newton, Arthur; Veen, Sandra J; Kraft, Daniela J; Bolhuis, Peter G; Schall, Peter

    2017-09-01

    Recent breakthroughs in colloidal synthesis promise the bottom-up assembly of superstructures on nano- and micrometer length scales, offering molecular analogues on the colloidal scale. However, a structural control similar to that in supramolecular chemistry remains very challenging. Here, colloidal superstructures are built and controlled using critical Casimir forces on patchy colloidal particles. These solvent-mediated forces offer direct analogues of molecular bonds, allowing patch-to-patch binding with exquisite temperature control of bond strength and stiffness. Particles with two patches are shown to form linear chains undergoing morphological changes with temperature, resembling a polymer collapse under poor-solvent conditions. This reversible temperature switching carries over to particles with higher valency, exhibiting a variety of patch-to-patch bonded structures. Using Monte Carlo simulations, it is shown that the collapse results from the growing interaction range favoring close-packed configurations. These results offer new opportunities for the active control of complex structures at the nano and micrometer scale, paving the way to novel temperature-switchable materials. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Improving of spent fuel monitoring in condition of Slovak wet interim spent fuel storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miklos, M.; Krsjak, V.; Bozik, M.; Vasina, D.

    2008-01-01

    Monitoring of WWER fuel assemblies condition in Slovakia is presented in the paper. The leak tightness results of fuel assemblies used in Slovak WWER units in last 20 years are analyzed. Good experiences with the 'Sipping system' are described. The Slovak wet interim spent fuel storage facility in NPP Jaslovske Bohunice was build and put in operation in 1986. Since 1999, leak tests of WWER-440 fuel assemblies are provided by special leak tightness detection system 'Sipping in Pool' delivered by Framatome-ANP facility with external heating for the precise detection of active specimens. Another system for monitoring of fuel assemblies condition was implemented in December 2006 under the name 'SVYPP-440'. First non-active tests started at February 2007 and are described in the paper. Although those systems seems to be very effective, the detection time of all fuel assemblies in one storage pool is too long (several months). Therefore, a new 'on-line' detection system, based on new sorbent KNiFC-PAN for effective 134 Cs and 137 Cs activity was developed. This sorbent was compared with another type of sorbent NIFSIL and results are presented. The design of this detection system and its possible application in the Slovak wet spent fuel storage facility is discussed. For completeness, the initial results of the new system are also presented. (authors)

  4. Status and current spent fuel storage practices in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lake, W.H.

    1999-01-01

    Brief discussions are presented on the history and state of spent fuel generation by utilities that comprise the United States commercial nuclear power industry, the current situation regarding the Federal government's nuclear waste policy, and evolving spent fuel storage practices. These evolving spent fuel storage practices are the result of private sector initiatives, but appear to be influenced by various external factors. The paper is not intended to provide a comprehensive appraisal of the storage initiatives being conducted by the private sector. The focus, instead, is on the Federal government's role and activities related to spent fuel management. Although the Federal government has adopted a policy calling for deep geological disposal of spent fuel, the US Congress has recently begun to consider expanding that policy to include a centralized interim storage facility. In the absence of such an expanded policy, the Department of Energy has performed some preliminary activities that would expedite development of a centralized interim storage facility, if Congress were to enact such a policy. The Department's current activities with regard to developing a centralized interim storage facility, which are consistent with the current policy, are described in the paper. The paper also describes two important technical development activities that have been conducted by the Department of Energy to support improved efficiency in spent fuel management. The Department's activities regarding development of a burnup credit methodology, and a dry transfer system are summarized. (author)

  5. Sensitivity Analysis of Depletion Parameters for Heat Load Evaluation of PWR Spent Fuel Storage Pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In Young; Lee, Un Chul

    2011-01-01

    As necessity of safety re-evaluation for spent fuel storage facility has emphasized after the Fukushima accident, accuracy improvement of heat load evaluation has become more important to acquire reliable thermal-hydraulic evaluation results. As groundwork, parametric and sensitivity analyses of various storage conditions for Kori Unit 4 spent fuel storage pool and spent fuel depletion parameters such as axial burnup effect, operation history, and specific heat are conducted using ORIGEN2 code. According to heat load evaluation and parametric sensitivity analyses, decay heat of last discharged fuel comprises maximum 80.42% of total heat load of storage facility and there is a negative correlation between effect of depletion parameters and cooling period. It is determined that specific heat is most influential parameter and operation history is secondly influential parameter. And decay heat of just discharged fuel is varied from 0.34 to 1.66 times of average value and decay heat of 1 year cooled fuel is varied from 0.55 to 1.37 times of average value in accordance with change of specific power. Namely depletion parameters can cause large variation in decay heat calculation of short-term cooled fuel. Therefore application of real operation data instead of user selection value is needed to improve evaluation accuracy. It is expected that these results could be used to improve accuracy of heat load assessment and evaluate uncertainty of calculated heat load.

  6. COBRA-SFS [Spent Fuel Storage]: A thermal-hydraulic analysis computer code: Volume 3, Validation assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardo, N.J.; Cuta, J.M.; Michener, T.E.; Rector, D.R.; Wheeler, C.L.

    1986-12-01

    This report presents the results of the COBRA-SFS (Spent Fuel Storage) computer code validation effort. COBRA-SFS, while refined and specialized for spent fuel storage system analyses, is a lumped-volume thermal-hydraulic analysis computer code that predicts temperature and velocity distributions in a wide variety of systems. Through comparisons of code predictions with spent fuel storage system test data, the code's mathematical, physical, and mechanistic models are assessed, and empirical relations defined. The six test cases used to validate the code and code models include single-assembly and multiassembly storage systems under a variety of fill media and system orientations and include unconsolidated and consolidated spent fuel. In its entirety, the test matrix investigates the contributions of convection, conduction, and radiation heat transfer in spent fuel storage systems. To demonstrate the code's performance for a wide variety of storage systems and conditions, comparisons of code predictions with data are made for 14 runs from the experimental data base. The cases selected exercise the important code models and code logic pathways and are representative of the types of simulations required for spent fuel storage system design and licensing safety analyses. For each test, a test description, a summary of the COBRA-SFS computational model, assumptions, and correlations employed are presented. For the cases selected, axial and radial temperature profile comparisons of code predictions with test data are provided, and conclusions drawn concerning the code models and the ability to predict the data and data trends. Comparisons of code predictions with test data demonstrate the ability of COBRA-SFS to successfully predict temperature distributions in unconsolidated or consolidated single and multiassembly spent fuel storage systems

  7. K Basin safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porten, D.R.; Crowe, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this accident safety analysis is to document in detail, analyses whose results were reported in summary form in the K Basins Safety Analysis Report WHC-SD-SNF-SAR-001. The safety analysis addressed the potential for release of radioactive and non-radioactive hazardous material located in the K Basins and their supporting facilities. The safety analysis covers the hazards associated with normal K Basin fuel storage and handling operations, fuel encapsulation, sludge encapsulation, and canister clean-up and disposal. After a review of the Criticality Safety Evaluation of the K Basin activities, the following postulated events were evaluated: Crane failure and casks dropped into loadout pit; Design basis earthquake; Hypothetical loss of basin water accident analysis; Combustion of uranium fuel following dryout; Crane failure and cask dropped onto floor of transfer area; Spent ion exchange shipment for burial; Hydrogen deflagration in ion exchange modules and filters; Release of Chlorine; Power availability and reliability; and Ashfall

  8. Technologies for gas cooled reactor decommissioning, fuel storage and waste disposal. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-09-01

    Gas cooled reactors (GCRs) and other graphite moderated reactors have been important part of the world's nuclear programme for the past four decades. The wide diversity in status of this very wide spectrum of plants from initial design to decommissioning was a major consideration of the International Working group on Gas Cooled Reactors which recommended IAEA to convene a Technical Committee Meeting dealing with GCR decommissioning, including spent fuel storage and radiological waste disposal. This Proceedings includes papers 25 papers presented at the Meeting in three sessions entitled: Status of Plant Decommissioning Programmes; Fuels Storage Status and Programmes; waste Disposal and decontamination Practices. Each paper is described here by a separate abstract

  9. Non covalent assembly of coordination superstructures

    CERN Document Server

    Khlobystov, A N

    2002-01-01

    The main topic of this work is the design of discrete and polymeric multi-component coordination structures using non-covalent interactions between organic and inorganic molecular components. All of the structures described herein are based on transition metal cations and N-donor heterocyclic bis-exodentate ligands with different geometries and various spacer functionalities. The predominant method used for the structural characterisation of the complexes was single crystal X-ray crystallography. X-ray powder diffraction, IR and NMR spectroscopies and TEM and AFM imaging were used to characterise the bulk products from the reactions. Chapter 1 is a comparative review of non-covalent interactions relevant to coordination superstructures and covers the latest developments in the area of crystal engineering and supramolecular chemistry. The nature, geometry and relative energy of the non-covalent interactions are considered in detail in order to reveal their influence on the structure and properties of complexes...

  10. A study on radiation shielding design in MACSTOR-400(CANDU spent fuel storage facility)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yoon Hee

    2006-02-01

    Since the spent fuel pool will be saturated in the near future, spent fuel storage facilities are urgently needed. Because of high radiation and decay heat, spent fuel management is difficult and important. In this study, the shielding thickness of MACSTOR-400 that satisfies the general surface dose rate limit has been investigated. And the radiation shielding safety at site boundary has also been evaluated. IAEA recommends the safety series as a guideline and the U.S. follows the NUREG guide for spent fuel storage facility design. In Japan, the regulation for internal transfer is applied to the spent fuel storage. In Korea, the ACT notification for radiation protection is considered. As a shielding design requirement, it is stated that the occupational exposure dose rate must not exceed 1 mSv/week. From this value, it is assumed that the surface dose rate limit is 25 μSv/hr. And for multi unit operation in same site, the dose rate limit at the controlled area boundary is 0.25 mSv/yr. MCNP code and Microshield program were used for calculating the surface dose rate and the dose rate at site boundary respectively. The shielding should be at least 90 cm thick except the air inlet to follow the surface dose rate limit. Additional shielding is needed on air inlet because the dose rate on air inlet is higher than the dose rate on concrete surface. Without the shielding structure, the shielding thickness should be at least 127 cm. In order to satisfy the surface dose rate limit with maintaining the same concrete thickness on air inlet, shielding structure is required on air inlet. The optimum shielding structure has been proposed in this study. The allowable number of MACSTORs with considering other nuclear facilities in Wolsung site is calculated at 60. It is expected that the required number of MACSTORs are 28 in order to store the total amount of spent fuel generated during NPP operation in Wolsung. Therefore, it seems to be safe in radiation point at site boundary

  11. A study on radiation shielding design in MACSTOR-400(CANDU spent fuel storage facility)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yoon Hee

    2006-02-15

    Since the spent fuel pool will be saturated in the near future, spent fuel storage facilities are urgently needed. Because of high radiation and decay heat, spent fuel management is difficult and important. In this study, the shielding thickness of MACSTOR-400 that satisfies the general surface dose rate limit has been investigated. And the radiation shielding safety at site boundary has also been evaluated. IAEA recommends the safety series as a guideline and the U.S. follows the NUREG guide for spent fuel storage facility design. In Japan, the regulation for internal transfer is applied to the spent fuel storage. In Korea, the ACT notification for radiation protection is considered. As a shielding design requirement, it is stated that the occupational exposure dose rate must not exceed 1 mSv/week. From this value, it is assumed that the surface dose rate limit is 25 μSv/hr. And for multi unit operation in same site, the dose rate limit at the controlled area boundary is 0.25 mSv/yr. MCNP code and Microshield program were used for calculating the surface dose rate and the dose rate at site boundary respectively. The shielding should be at least 90 cm thick except the air inlet to follow the surface dose rate limit. Additional shielding is needed on air inlet because the dose rate on air inlet is higher than the dose rate on concrete surface. Without the shielding structure, the shielding thickness should be at least 127 cm. In order to satisfy the surface dose rate limit with maintaining the same concrete thickness on air inlet, shielding structure is required on air inlet. The optimum shielding structure has been proposed in this study. The allowable number of MACSTORs with considering other nuclear facilities in Wolsung site is calculated at 60. It is expected that the required number of MACSTORs are 28 in order to store the total amount of spent fuel generated during NPP operation in Wolsung. Therefore, it seems to be safe in radiation point at site boundary

  12. Technical, economic and institutional aspects of regional spent fuel storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-11-01

    A particular challenge facing countries with small nuclear programmes is the preparation for extended interim storage and then disposal of their spent nuclear fuel. The costs and complications of providing for away-from-reactor storage facilities and/or geological repositories for relatively small amounts of spent fuel may be prohibitively high, motivating interest in regional solutions. This publication addresses the technical, economic and institutional aspects of regional spent fuel storage facilities (RSFSF) and is based on the results of a series of meetings on this topic with participants from IAEA Member States. Topics discussed include safety criteria and standards, safeguards and physical protection, fuel acceptance criteria, long term stability of systems and stored fuel, selection of site, infrastructure aspects, storage technology, licensing, operations, transport, decommissioning, as well as research and development. Furthermore the publication comprises economic, financial and institutional considerations including organizations and legal aspects followed by political and public acceptance and ethical considerations. Approaches and processes for implementation are discussed, as well as the overall benefits and risks of implementing a regional facility. It is illustrated that implementing a RSFSF facility would involve simultaneously addressing a wide range of diverse challenges. The appendix to this report tabulates the numerous issues that have been touched upon in the study. It appears, however, from the discussions that the challenges can in principle be met; the RSFSF concept is technically feasible and potentially economically viable. The technical committees producing this report did not identify any obvious institutional deficiencies that would prevent completion of such a project. Storing spent fuel in a few safe, reliable, secure facilities could enhance safeguards, physical protection and non-proliferation benefits. The committee also

  13. ELABORATION OF THE SUPERSTRUCTURE OF THE BULGARIAN HOTEL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya Dabeva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to suggest some terms of reference for the elaboration of the superstructure of the Bulgarian hotel industry. The suggestions are based on the analysis of the superstructure at present. Its capacity, main types of accommodation establishments and their distribution by categories and territory are examined. An analysis is made of some resulting indices such as overnight stays and average stay. The main positive, respectively negative features of the superstructure have been analyzed. Concrete terms of reference have been given in order to overcome the problems specified.

  14. Fast facility spent-fuel and waste assay instrument. [Fluorinel Dissolution and Fuel Storage (FAST) Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eccleston, G.W.; Johnson, S.S.; Menlove, H.O.; Van Lyssel, T.; Black, D.; Carlson, B.; Decker, L.; Echo, M.W.

    1983-01-01

    A delayed-neutron assay instrument was installed in the Fluorinel Dissolution and Fuel Storage Facility at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The dual-assay instrument is designed to measure both spent fuel and waste solids that are produced from fuel processing. A set of waste standards, fabricated by Los Alamos using uranium supplied by Exxon Nuclear Idaho Company, was used to calibrate the small-sample assay region of the instrument. Performance testing was completed before installation of the instrument to determine the effects of uranium enrichment, hydrogenous materials, and neutron poisons on assays. The unit was designed to measure high-enriched uranium samples in the presence of large neutron backgrounds. Measurements indicate that the system can assay low-enriched uranium samples with moderate backgrounds if calibrated with proper standards.

  15. Spent fuel storage requirements for nuclear utilities and OCRWM [Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, T.W.

    1990-03-01

    Projected spent fuel generation at US power reactors exceeds estimated aggregate pool storage capacity by approximately 30,000 metric tons of uranium (MTU). Based on the current repository schedule, little of the spent fuel inventory will be disposed of prior to shutdown of existing reactors, and a large additional capacity for surface storage of spent fuel will be required, either at reactors or at a centralized DOE storage site. Allocation of this storage requirement across the utility-DOE interface, and the resulting implications for reactor sites and the performance of the federal waste management system, were studied during the DOE MRS System Study and again subsequent to the reassessment of the repository schedule. Spent fuel logistics and cost results from these analyses will be used in definition of spent fuel storage capacity requirements for the federal system. 9 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  16. Relative risk measure suitable for comparison of design alternatives of interim spent nuclear fuel storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferjencik, M.

    1997-01-01

    Accessible reports on risk assessment of interim spent nuclear fuel storage facilities presume that only releases of radioactive substances represent undesired consequences. However, only certain part of the undesired consequences is represented by them. Many other events are connected with safety and are able to cause losses to the operating company. The following two presumptions are pronounced based on this. 1. Any event causing a disturbance of a safety function of the storage facility is an incident event. 2. Any disturbance of a safety function is an undesired consequence. If the facility safety functions are identified and if the severity of their disturbances is quantified, then it is possible to combine consequence severity quantifications and event frequencies into a risk measure. Construction and application of such a risk measure is described in this paper. The measure is shown to be a tool suitable for comparison of interim storage technology design alternatives. (author)

  17. Partition wall structure in spent fuel storage pool and construction method for the partition wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izawa, Masaaki

    1998-01-01

    A partitioning wall for forming cask pits as radiation shielding regions by partitioning inside of a spent fuel storage pool is prepared by covering both surface of a concrete body by shielding metal plates. The metal plate comprises opposed plate units integrated by welding while sandwiching a metal frame as a reinforcing material for the concrete body, the lower end of the units is connected to a floor of a pool by fastening members, and concrete is set while using the metal plate of the units as a frame to form the concrete body. The shielding metal plate has a double walled structure formed by welding a lining plate disposed on the outer surface of the partition wall and a shield plate disposed to the inner side. Then the term for construction can be shortened, and the capacity for storing spent fuels can be increased. (N.H.)

  18. Postulated licensing schedule for an independent spent-fuel-storage installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwick, J.D.

    1982-11-01

    A review of licensing requirements, processes, and anticipated actions for independent spent fuel storage installations (ISFSIs) was conducted in order to develop an estimated schedule and sequence of events for licensing a new ISFSI. This estimate will be useful to potential ISFSI owners in planning for the licensing of their facilities. It is concluded that, although many uncertainties exist with respect to such things as legal appeals, about 29 months are estimated to elapse between license application and license issuance for an ISFSI. This estimate is in reasonable agreement with a previous time estimate for licensing an ISFSI, and, taking into account the special circumstances involved, with the actual licensing schedule for the GE-Morris ISFSI. However, individual portions of the licensing schedule from each case studied sometimes vary significantly

  19. Analysis of ICPP fuel storage rack inner tie and corner tie substructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitzel, M.E.; Rahl, R.G.

    1996-01-01

    Finite element models were developed and analyses performed for the tie plate, inner tie block assembly, and corner tie block assembly of a 25 port fuel rack assembly designed for installation in Pool 1 of Building 666 at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. These models were specifically developed to investigate the adequacy of certain welds joining components of the fuel storage rack assembly. The work scope for the task was limited to an investigation of the stress levels in the subject subassemblies when subjected to seismic loads. Structural acceptance criteria used for the elastic calculations performed were as found in the overall rack design report as issued by the rack`s designer, Holtec International. Structural acceptance criteria used for the plastic calculations performed as part of this effort were as defined in Subsection NF and Appendix F of the ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code. The results of the analyses will also apply to the 30 port fuel storage rack design that is also scheduled for installation in Pool 1 of ICPP 666. The results obtained from the analyses performed for this task indicate that the welds joining the inner tie block and corner tie block to the surrounding rack structure meet the acceptance criteria. Further, the structural members (plates and blocks) were also found to be within the allowable stress limits established by the acceptance criteria. The separate analysis performed on the inner tie plate confirmed the structural adequacy for both the inner tie plate, corner tie plate, and tie block bolts. The analysis results verified that the inner tie and corner tie block should be capable of transferring the expected seismic load without structural failure.

  20. Criticality analysis of PWR spent fuel storage facilities inside nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuber, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes some of the main features of the actinide plus fission product burnup credit methodology used by Siemens for criticality safety design analysis of wet PWR storage pools with soluble boron in the pool water. Application of burnup credit requires knowledge of the isotopic inventory of the irradiated fuel for which burnup credit is taken. This knowledge is gained by using depletion codes. The results of the depletion analysis are a necessary input to the criticality analysis. Siemens performs depletion calculations for PWR fuel burnup credit applications with the aid of the Siemens standard design procedure SAV90. The quality of this procedure relies on statistics on the differences between calculation and measurement extracted from in-core measurement data and chemical assay data. Siemens performs criticality safety calculations with the aid of the criticality calculation modules of the SCALE code package. These modules are verified many times with the aid of various kinds of critical experiments and configurations: Application of these modules to spent LWR fuel assembly storage pools was verified by analyzing critical experiments simulating such storage pools. Actinide plus fission product burnup credit applications of these modules were verified by analyzing PWR reactor critical configurations. The result of performing a burnup credit analysis is the determination of a burnup, credit loading curve for the spent fuel storage racks designed for burnup credit. This curve specifies the loading criterion by indicating the minimum burnup necessary for the fuel assembly with a specific initial enrichment to be placed in the storage racks designed for burnup credit. The loading of the spent fuel storage racks designed for burnup credit requires the implementation of controls to ensure that the loading curve is met. The controls include the determination of fuel assembly burnup based on reactor records. (author)

  1. Design, fabrication and operating experience of Monju ex-vessel fuel storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokota, Yoshio; Yamagishi, Yoshiaki; Kuroha, Mitsuo; Inoue, Tatsuya

    1995-01-01

    In FBRs there are two methods of storing and cooling the spent fuel - the in-vessel storage and the ex-vessel storage. Because of the sodium leaks through the tank at the beginning of pre-operation, the utilization of the ex-vessel fuel storage tank (EVST) of some FBR plant has been changed from the ex-vessel fuel storage to the interim fuel transfer tank. This led to reactor designers focusing on the material, structure and fabrication of the carbon steel sodium storage tanks worldwide. The Monju EVST was at the final stage of the design, when the leaks occurred. The lesson learned from that experience and the domestic fabrication technology are reflected to the design and fabrication of the Monju EVST. This paper describes the design, fabrication and R and D results for the tank, and operating experience in functional test. The items to be examined are as follows: (1) Overall structure of the tank and design philosophy on the function, (2) Structure of the cover shielding plug and its design philosophy, (3) Structures of the rotating rack and its bearings, and their design philosophy, (4) Cooling method and its design philosophy, (5) Structure and fabrication of the cooling coil support inside EVST with comparison of leaked case, (6) R and D effort for items above. The fabrication of the Monju EVST started in August 1986 and it was shipped to the site in March 1990. Installation was completed in November 1990, and sodium fill after pre-heating started in 1991. The operation has been continued since September 1992. In 1996 when the first spent fuel is stored, its total functions will be examined. (author)

  2. Analysis of ICPP fuel storage rack inner tie and corner tie substructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitzel, M.E.; Rahl, R.G.

    1996-01-01

    Finite element models were developed and analyses performed for the tie plate, inner tie block assembly, and corner tie block assembly of a 25 port fuel rack assembly designed for installation in Pool 1 of Building 666 at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. These models were specifically developed to investigate the adequacy of certain welds joining components of the fuel storage rack assembly. The work scope for the task was limited to an investigation of the stress levels in the subject subassemblies when subjected to seismic loads. Structural acceptance criteria used for the elastic calculations performed were as found in the overall rack design report as issued by the rack's designer, Holtec International. Structural acceptance criteria used for the plastic calculations performed as part of this effort were as defined in Subsection NF and Appendix F of the ASME Boiler ampersand Pressure Vessel Code. The results of the analyses will also apply to the 30 port fuel storage rack design that is also scheduled for installation in Pool 1 of ICPP 666. The results obtained from the analyses performed for this task indicate that the welds joining the inner tie block and corner tie block to the surrounding rack structure meet the acceptance criteria. Further, the structural members (plates and blocks) were also found to be within the allowable stress limits established by the acceptance criteria. The separate analysis performed on the inner tie plate confirmed the structural adequacy for both the inner tie plate, corner tie plate, and tie block bolts. The analysis results verified that the inner tie and corner tie block should be capable of transferring the expected seismic load without structural failure

  3. Studies and research concerning BNFP: life of project operating expenses for away-from-reactor (AFR) spent fuel storage facility. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shallo, F.A.

    1979-09-01

    Life of Project operating expenses for a licensed Away-From-Reactor (AFR) Spent Fuel Storage Facility are developed in this report. A comprehensive business management structure is established and the functions and responsibilities for the facility organization are described. Contractual provisions for spent fuel storage services are evaluated

  4. An industrialized construction approach to concrete superstructures for bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop drawings for a specific site or sites that incorporated the best concepts of industrialized bridge superstructure construction, that is, great emphasis was placed upon the use of modular design and assembly ...

  5. 76 FR 33121 - List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: HI-STORM Flood/Wind Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... Storage Casks: HI-STORM Flood/Wind Addition AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Direct final... regulations to add the Holtec HI-STORM Flood/Wind cask system to the ``List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage... Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Section 72.214 to add the Holtec HI- STORM Flood/Wind cask...

  6. 76 FR 17019 - List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: HI-STORM Flood/Wind Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    ... Storage Casks: HI-STORM Flood/Wind Addition AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Direct final... regulations to add the HI-STORM Flood/Wind cask system to the ``List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks... cask designs. Discussion This rule will add the Holtec HI-STORM Flood/Wind (FW) cask system to the list...

  7. 10 CFR 51.61 - Environmental report-independent spent fuel storage installation (ISFSI) or monitored retrievable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING AND RELATED REGULATORY FUNCTIONS National Environmental Policy Act-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental report-independent spent fuel storage...

  8. Manufacturing of the Floor Valve (6-connect type) of Ex-Vessel Fuel Storage Tank for 'Monju'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Takaaki; Funato, Hisao; Takeyama, Satoshi; Maezono, Shinya

    1996-01-01

    Fuji Electric developed and supply the 6-connect type Floor Valve for Ex-Vessel Fuel Storage Tank of 'Monju' for Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. Which aimed the improvement of the operational performance. This paper introduces a part of the development of this equipment. (author)

  9. Integral ceramic superstructure evaluation using time domain optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinescu, Cosmin; Bradu, Adrian; Topala, Florin I.; Negrutiu, Meda Lavinia; Duma, Virgil-Florin; Podoleanu, Adrian G.

    2014-02-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive low coherence interferometry technique that includes several technologies (and the corresponding devices and components), such as illumination and detection, interferometry, scanning, adaptive optics, microscopy and endoscopy. From its large area of applications, we consider in this paper a critical aspect in dentistry - to be investigated with a Time Domain (TD) OCT system. The clinical situation of an edentulous mandible is considered; it can be solved by inserting 2 to 6 implants. On these implants a mesostructure will be manufactured and on it a superstructure is needed. This superstructure can be integral ceramic; in this case materials defects could be trapped inside the ceramic layers and those defects could lead to fractures of the entire superstructure. In this paper we demonstrate that a TD-OCT imaging system has the potential to properly evaluate the presence of the defects inside the ceramic layers and those defects can be fixed before inserting the prosthesis inside the oral cavity. Three integral ceramic superstructures were developed by using a CAD/CAM technology. After the milling, the ceramic layers were applied on the core. All the three samples were evaluated by a TD-OCT system working at 1300 nm. For two of the superstructures evaluated, no defects were found in the most stressed areas. The third superstructure presented four ceramic defects in the mentioned areas. Because of those defects the superstructure may fracture. The integral ceramic prosthesis was send back to the dental laboratory to fix the problems related to the material defects found. Thus, TD-OCT proved to be a valuable method for diagnosing the ceramic defects inside the integral ceramic superstructures in order to prevent fractures at this level.

  10. Test plan for K Basin Sludge Canister and Floor Sampling Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meling, T.A.

    1995-01-01

    This document provides the test plan and procedure forms for conducting the functional and operational acceptance testing of the K Basin Sludge Canister and Floor Sampling Device(s). These samplers samples sludge off the floor of the 100K Basins and out of 100K fuel storage canisters

  11. Spent fuel storage cask testing and operational experience at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eslinger, L.E.; Schmitt, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    Spent-fuel storage cask research, development, and demonstration activities are being performed for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) as a part of the storage cask testing program. The cask testing program at federal sites and other locations supports the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) and DOE objectives for cooperative demonstrations with the cask vendors and utilities for development of at-reactor dry cask storage capabilities for spent nuclear fuel assemblies. One research and development program for the storage cask performance testing of metal storage cask was initiated through a cooperative agreement between Virginia Power and DOE in 1984. The performance testing was conducted for the DOE and the Electric Power Research Institute by the Pacific Northwest laboratory, operated for DOE by Battelle Memorial Institute, and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), operated for DOE by EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc. In 1988 a cooperative agreement was entered into by DOE with Pacific Sierra Nuclear Associates (PSN) for performance testing of the PSN concrete Ventilated Storage Cask. Another closely related activity involving INEL is a transportable storage cask project identified as the Nuclear Fuel Services Spent-Fuel Shipping/Storage Cask Demonstration Project. The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility of packing, transporting, and storing commercial spent fuel in dual-purpose transport/storage casks

  12. Castor-1C spent fuel storage cask decay heat, heat transfer, and shielding analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rector, D.R.; McCann, R.A.; Jenquin, U.P.; Heeb, C.M.; Creer, J.M.; Wheeler, C.L.

    1986-12-01

    This report documents the decay heat, heat transfer, and shielding analyses of the Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear Services (GNS) CASTOR-1C cask used in a spent fuel storage demonstration performed at Preussen Elektra's Wurgassen nuclear power plant. The demonstration was performed between March 1982 and January 1984, and resulted in cask and fuel temperature data and cask exterior surface gamma-ray and neutron radiation dose rate measurements. The purpose of the analyses reported here was to evaluate decay heat, heat transfer, and shielding computer codes. The analyses consisted of (1) performing pre-look predictions (predictions performed before the analysts were provided the test data), (2) comparing ORIGEN2 (decay heat), COBRA-SFS and HYDRA (heat transfer), and QAD and DOT (shielding) results to data, and (3) performing post-test analyses if appropriate. Even though two heat transfer codes were used to predict CASTOR-1C cask test data, no attempt was made to compare the two codes. The codes are being evaluated with other test data (single-assembly data and other cask data), and to compare the codes based on one set of data may be premature and lead to erroneous conclusions.

  13. Optimization of a Dry, Mixed Nuclear Fuel Storage Array for Nuclear Criticality Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranko, Benjamin T.

    A dry storage array of used nuclear fuel at the Idaho National Laboratory contains a mixture of more than twenty different research and test reactor fuel types in up to 636 fuel storage canisters. New analysis demonstrates that the current arrangement of the different fuel-type canisters does not minimize the system neutron multiplication factor (keff), and that the entire facility storage capacity cannot be utilized without exceeding the subcritical limit (ksafe) for ensuring nuclear criticality safety. This work determines a more optimal arrangement of the stored fuels with a goal to minimize the system keff, but with a minimum of potential fuel canister relocation movements. The solution to this multiple-objective optimization problem will allow for both an improvement in the facility utilization while also offering an enhancement in the safety margin. The solution method applies stochastic approximation and a Tabu search metaheuristic to an empirical model developed from supporting MCNP calculations. The results establish an optimal relocation of between four to sixty canisters, which will allow the current thirty-one empty canisters to be used for storage while reducing the array keff by up to 0.018 +/- 0.003 relative to the current arrangement.

  14. Welding issues associated with design, fabrication and loading of spent fuel storage casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battige, C.K. Jr.; Howe, A.G.; Sturz, F.C.

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has observed a number of welding issues associated with design, fabrication, and loading of spent fuel storage casks. These emerging welding-related issues involving a certain dry cask storage system have challenged the safety basis for which NRC approved the casks for storage of spent nuclear fuel. During closure welding, problems have been encountered with cracking. Although the cracks have been attributed to several causes including material suitability, joint restraint and residual stresses, NRC believes hydrogen-induced cracking is the most likely explanation. In light of these cracking events and the potential for flaws in any welding process, NRC sought verification of the corrective actions and the integrity of the lid closure welds before allowing additional casks to be loaded. As a result, the affected utility companies modified the closure welding procedures and developed an acceptable ultrasonic inspection (UT) method. In addition, the casks already loaded at three power reactor sites will require additional non-destructive examinations (NDE) to determine their suitability for continued use. NRC plans to evaluate the generic implications of this issue for current designs and for those in the licensing process. (author)

  15. Castor-1C spent fuel storage cask decay heat, heat transfer, and shielding analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rector, D.R.; McCann, R.A.; Jenquin, U.P.; Heeb, C.M.; Creer, J.M.; Wheeler, C.L.

    1986-12-01

    This report documents the decay heat, heat transfer, and shielding analyses of the Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear Services (GNS) CASTOR-1C cask used in a spent fuel storage demonstration performed at Preussen Elektra's Wurgassen nuclear power plant. The demonstration was performed between March 1982 and January 1984, and resulted in cask and fuel temperature data and cask exterior surface gamma-ray and neutron radiation dose rate measurements. The purpose of the analyses reported here was to evaluate decay heat, heat transfer, and shielding computer codes. The analyses consisted of (1) performing pre-look predictions (predictions performed before the analysts were provided the test data), (2) comparing ORIGEN2 (decay heat), COBRA-SFS and HYDRA (heat transfer), and QAD and DOT (shielding) results to data, and (3) performing post-test analyses if appropriate. Even though two heat transfer codes were used to predict CASTOR-1C cask test data, no attempt was made to compare the two codes. The codes are being evaluated with other test data (single-assembly data and other cask data), and to compare the codes based on one set of data may be premature and lead to erroneous conclusions

  16. Monitoring and Leak testig of wwer-440 fuel assemblies in Slovak wet interim spent fuel storage facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Božik

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An accelerated monitoring system designed for the Slovak wet interim spent fuel storage facility in NPP Jaslovské Bohunice bases on the newly designed “cesium detectors” is presented in the paper. Since 1999, leak tests of WWER-440 fuel assemblies are provided by a special leak tightness detection system “Sipping in Pool” delivered by the Framatome-anp with external heating for the precise defects determination. Although this system seems to be very effective, the detection time of all fuel assemblies in one storage pool is too long. Therefore, a new “on-line” detection system, based on the new sorbent NIFSIL for an effective 134Cs and 137Cs activity was developed. The design of this detection system and its application possibility in Slovak wet interim spent fuel storage facility as well as preliminary results are presented.

  17. Superstructure optimization of biodiesel production from microalgal biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizwan, Muhammad; Lee, Jay H.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we propose a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) model for superstructure based optimization of biodiesel production from microalgal biomass. The proposed superstructure includes a number of major processing steps for the production of biodiesel from microalgal biomass...... for the production of biodiesel from microalgae. The proposed methodology is tested by implementing on a specific case study. The MINLP model is implemented and solved in GAMS using a database built in Excel. The results from the optimization are analyzed and their significances are discussed....

  18. Laboratory Evaluation of Underwater Grouting of CPP-603 Basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, V.J.; Pao, J.H.; Demmer, R.L.; Tripp, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    A project is underway to deactivate a Fuel Storage Basin. The project specifies the requirements and identifies the tasks that will be performed for deactivation of the CPP- 603 building at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The Fuel Receiving and Storage Building (CPP- 603) was originally used to receive and store spent nuclear fuel from various facilities. The area to undergo deactivation includes the three spent nuclear fuel storage basins and a transfer canal (1.5 million gallons of water storage). Deactivation operations at the task site include management of the hot storage boxes and generic fuel objects, removal of the fuel storage racks, basin sludge, water evaporation and basin grouting, and interior equipment, tanks, and associated components. This includes a study to develop a grout formulation and placement process for this deactivation project. Water will be allowed to passively evaporate to r educe the spread of contamination from the walls of the basin. The basins will be filled with grout, underwater, as the water evaporates to maintain the basin water at a safe level. The objective of the deactivation project is to eliminate potential exposure to hazardous and radioactive materials and eliminate potential safety hazards associated with the CPP-603 building

  19. Summary engineering description of underwater fuel storage facility for foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlke, H.J.; Johnson, D.A.; Rawlins, J.K.; Searle, D.K.; Wachs, G.W.

    1994-10-01

    This document is a summary description for an Underwater Fuel Storage Facility (UFSF) for foreign research reactor (FRR) spent nuclear fuel (SNF). A FRR SNF environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is being prepared and will include both wet and dry storage facilities as storage alternatives. For the UFSF presented in this document, a specific site is not chosen. This facility can be sited at any one of the five locations under consideration in the EIS. These locations are the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Savannah River Site, Hanford, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Nevada Test Site. Generic facility environmental impacts and emissions are provided in this report. A baseline fuel element is defined in Section 2.2, and the results of a fission product analysis are presented. Requirements for a storage facility have been researched and are summarized in Section 3. Section 4 describes three facility options: (1) the Centralized-UFSF, which would store the entire fuel element quantity in a single facility at a single location, (2) the Regionalized Large-UFSF, which would store 75% of the fuel element quantity in some region of the country, and (3) the Regionalized Small-UFSF, which would store 25% of the fuel element quantity, with the possibility of a number of these facilities in various regions throughout the country. The operational philosophy is presented in Section 5, and Section 6 contains a description of the equipment. Section 7 defines the utilities required for the facility. Cost estimates are discussed in Section 8, and detailed cost estimates are included. Impacts to worker safety, public safety, and the environment are discussed in Section 9. Accidental releases are presented in Section 10. Standard Environmental Impact Forms are included in Section 11.

  20. Evaluation of burnup credit for fuel storage analysis -- Experience in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conde, J.M.; Recio, M.

    1995-01-01

    Several Spanish light water reactor commercial nuclear power plants are close to maximum spent-fuel pool storage capacity. The utilities are working on the implementation of state-of-the-art methods to increase the storage capacity, including both changes in the pool design (recracking) and the implementation of new analysis approaches with reduced conservation (burnup credit). Burnup credit criticality safety analyses have been approved for two pressurized water reactor plants (four units) and one boiling water reactor (BWR); an other BWR storage analysis is being developed at this moment. The elimination of the ''fresh fuel assumption'' increases the complexity of the criticality analysis to be performed, sometimes putting into question the capability of the analytic tools to properly describe this new situation and increasing the scope of the scenarios to be analyzed. From a regulatory perspective, the reactivity reduction associated with burnup of the fuel can be given credit only if the exposure of each fuel bundle can be known with enough accuracy. Subcriticality of spent-fuel storage depends mainly on the initial fuel enrichment, storage geometry, fuel exposure history, and cooling time. The last two aspects introduced new uncertainties in the criticality analysis that should be quantified in an adequate way. In addition, each and every fuel bundle has its own specific exposure history, so that strong assumptions and simplified calculational schemes have to be developed to undertake the analysis. The Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear (CSN), Spanish regulatory authority on the matter of nuclear safety and radiation protection, plays an active role in the development of analysis methods to support burnup credit, making proposals that may be beneficial in terms of risk and cost while keeping the widest safety margins possible

  1. Superstructure for a super tokamak: Alcator C-MOD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballinger, R.; Becker, H.; Hwang, I.; Titus, P.; Fisher, K.; Werber, K.

    1989-01-01

    ALCATOR C-MOD is a compact high performance tokamak presently being constructed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under contract to the US Department of Energy. The purpose of the program is to study the production, confinement, heating, and control of strongly shaped, fully diverted, high density plasmas. The high toroidal magnetic field produces extremely large forces on the magnet conductors. Those loads are reacted by an external superstructure. The machine will be operated in a pulsed mode, with a design life of 50,000 cycles. That combination places exceptional requirements on the design, materials processing, and fabrication of the superstructure components. The superstructure consists of a large forged AISI 316LN pressure vessel that is assembled with alloy 718 fasteners. The chemistries and thermomechanical processing techniques were selected to provide the necessary mechanical properties at both room temperature and at the 77K operating temperature. This presentation addresses the superstructure design, stress analysis, materials processing, static and fatigue properties, components fabrication, and inspection. 13 refs., 2 tabs

  2. Construction of prestressed concrete single-tee bridge superstructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    This report discusses in detail the construction of the first five precast, prestressed concrete, single-tee beam bridge superstructures to be let to contract in Virginia. The data suggest that this single-tee beam enables efficient construction of t...

  3. Provisional polymer-based CAD/CAM implant superstructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbad, A

    2014-01-01

    The prosthetic restoration of implants to obtain an esthetically balanced outcome is an extremely complex process--especially in terms of effective soft-tissue management. So-called hybrid abutment crowns, which can be made from polymer milling blocks in an uncomplicated process and used for immediate provisional restoration, represent an advance in the efficient production of superstructures.

  4. Accident mitigation for spent fuel storage in the upper pool of a Mark III containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yen-Shu; Yuann, Yng-Ruey

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The upper pool is a possible choice to store spent fuels. • The Kuosheng plant plans to store fuel discharged 15 years ago in the upper pool. • The loss-of-coolant accident for the Kuosheng upper pool is analyzed using GOTHIC. • The leakage, spray effect, and air ventilation are included in the model. • The spray activation ensures the safety of the spent fuel in the upper pool. - Abstract: The upper pool (UP) is a specific design of the Mark III containments. Basically, no fuel can be stored in the UP when the reactor criticality is achieved. The Kuosheng plant in Taiwan has two BWR/6 units with Mark III containments. The spent fuel storage capacity of this plant will become insufficient in coming years. Unfortunately, the license application for the dry cask storage has not been approved. Taiwan Power Company has a temporary solution to store spent fuel with cooling time of 15 years in the UP. Heat up mitigation for the UP by spray is also planned. In this study, the loss-of-coolant accident of the UP is analyzed using GOTHIC. The calculated results show that the pool spray can make up the UP inventory against small leakage. The spent fuel is sufficiently cooled if the spray mitigation maintains the pool level above the fuel. On the contrary, large leakage resulting in drainage of the entire pool allows airflow entering the fuel region to enhance the cooling effect. The case with the highest fuel cladding temperature occurs with a medium sized leakage because the partially uncovered fuels cannot be adequately cooled by either water or air. With 200-gpm spray, the calculated highest peak cladding temperature is 472.9 °C which is well below the threshold causing significant fission product release. The capability of the spray mitigation to maintain the pool level determines whether the spent fuel will be heated up. Based on the results, the activation of spray can ensure the thermal safety of the spent fuel in the UP during a loss

  5. Challenges associated with extending spent fuel storage until reprocessing or disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsen, Brett; Saegusa, Toshiari; Wasinger, Karl; Grahn, Per; Wolff, Dietmar; Waters, Michael; Bevilacqua, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    Existing spent fuel storage (SFS) practices are the result of the past presumptions that an end point, e.g. sufficient reprocessing and/or disposal capacity, would be available within the short term (approximately 50 years). Consequently, long term storage (between approximately 50 and 100 years) considerations have not been included in planning the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle. The present reality shows that no country has yet neither licensed nor built nor operated a deep geological repository for spent fuel (SF) and/or high level waste (HLW). Further, present and projected SF generation rates - more than 10 000 metric tons of heavy metal (MTHM) a year - far exceed the current capacity for disposal - 0 MTHM - or reprocessing - 4 800 MTHM a year - and will continue to do so for the rest of this decade. As a result, the SFS periods will extend. Moreover, as the SFM end point - reprocessing and/or disposal - is not presently defined with certainty in most countries, SFS periods will extend over periods within or beyond the long term in those countries. The IAEA has started in October 2010 a programmatic activity to consider challenges associated with extending SFS durations. After four consultants meetings and two technical meetings, a need has been identified for a SFS framework based on renewable storage periods - with as many renewals as may be needed - to ensure safe and secure SFS until sufficient reprocessing and/or disposal capacity is implemented. Over the course of the technical meetings, the consultants have worked with delegates of 36 Member States and 2 International Organizations to emphasize the importance of establishing programs that can provide sufficient confidence that age-related degradation will be recognized and addressed to effectively prevent unacceptable consequences. This paper considers a number of topics from the perspective of assuring safe and effective SFS as storage periods extend including: SFS concepts, packaging of SF

  6. Neutron Absorbing Ability Variation in Neutron Absorbing Material Caused by the Neutron Irradiation in Spent Fuel Storage Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Hee Dong; Han, Seul Gi; Lee, Sang Dong; Kim, Ki Hong; Ryu, Eag Hyang; Park, Hwa Gyu

    2014-01-01

    In spent fuel storage facility like high density spent fuel storage racks and dry storage casks, spent fuels are stored with neutron absorbing materials installed as a part of those facilities, and they are used for absorbing neutrons emitted from spent fuels. Usually structural material with neutron absorbing material of racks and casks are located around spent fuels, so it is irradiated by neutrons for long time. Neutron absorbing ability could be changed by the variation of nuclide composition in neutron absorbing material caused by the irradiation of neutrons. So, neutron absorbing materials are continuously faced with spent fuels with boric acid solution or inert gas environment. Major nuclides in neutron absorbing material are Al 27 , C 12 , B 11 , B 10 and they are changed to numerous other ones as radioactive decay or neutron absorption reaction. The B 10 content in neutron absorbing material dominates the neutron absorbing ability, so, the variation of nuclide composition including the decrease of B 10 content is the critical factor on neutron absorbing ability. In this study, neutron flux in spent fuel, the activation of neutron absorbing material and the variation of nuclide composition are calculated. And, the minimum neutron flux causing the decrease of B 10 content is calculated in spent fuel storage facility. Finally, the variation of neutron multiplication factor is identified according to the one of B 10 content in neutron absorbing material. The minimum neutron flux to impact the neutron absorbing ability is 10 10 order, however, usual neutron flux from spent fuel is 10 8 order. Therefore, even though neutron absorbing material is irradiated for over 40 years, B 10 content is little decreased, so, initial neutron absorbing ability could be kept continuously

  7. Vision and framework for technical and management support to facilitate foreign spent fuel storage and geologic disposal in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsey, W.G.; Jardine, L.J.; Smith, C.F.

    1999-01-01

    This 'Technical and Management Support' program would facilitate the transfer of spent fuel from commercial power plants in Taiwan to a storage and geologic repository site near Krasnoyarsk, Russia. This program resolves issues of disposition of Taiwan spent fuel (including US origin fuel) and provides revenue for Russia to develop an integrated spent fuel storage and radioactive waste management system including a geologic repository. LLNL has ongoing contracts and collaborations with all the principal parties and is uniquely positioned to facilitate the development of such a program. A three-phase approach over 20 years is proposed: namely, an initial feasibility investigation followed by an engineering development phase, and then implementation

  8. Intervention in independent spent fuel storage facility license application proceedings for storage on the power plant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, J.

    1992-01-01

    This presentation summarizes the intervention in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensing process for currently operating Independent Spent fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) projects at Carolina Power and Light's Company's H.B. Robinson, Duke Power Company's Oconee, and Virginia Power Company's Surry. In addition, intervention at dry storage facilities that are currently under development are also described. The utilities and reactors include Baltimore Gas and Electric Company's Calvert Cliffs, Public Service Company of Colorado's Fort St. Vrain plant, Northern States Power Company's Prairie Island, Wisconsin Electric Power Company's Point Beach, and Consumers Power Company's Palisades

  9. Operational experience with ultrasonic bolt seals for safeguards containment of multielement bottles in THORP spent-fuel storage ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatt, C.D.; Reynolds, A.F.; Jeffrey, A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the operational experience gained by British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL) at the THORP spent-fuel storage facility in the application and verification of ultra-sonic bolt seals to light water reactor fuel containers and multielement bottles while in the storage ponds. Additionally, it discusses BNFL's cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency, Euratom, and Joint Research Council-Ispra to facilitate the development and design modifications of the remote-handling tools used. Finally, it summarizes the benefits, from an operator's point of view, of using the bolt seals as a safeguards/containment device

  10. Systems analysis of spent fuel management in Japan. (2). Methodologies for economic analyses of spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagano, Koji

    2003-01-01

    Analytical methods for economic analyses of spent fuel storage are categorized in three layers; (1) static engineering-economic cost estimates, (2) dynamic strategy analyses, and (3) specific project financing assessments. After describing recent legal and institutional evolution in spent fuel management and storage in Japan, the report summarizes each of the three methods with numerical examples of applications. As a conclusion, the author maintains that users should choose the most suitable type of method or calculating tool in accordance with their specific purposes. General guidelines of choosing methodologies are elaborated as the conclusion. (author)

  11. Criticality safety assessment on the RSG-GAS spent fuel storage for anticipating the next core conversion program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sembiring, Tagor Malem; Kuntoro, Iman; Zuhair; Liem, Peng Hong

    2003-01-01

    Criticality assessment on the spent fuel storage racks of the RSG-GAS multipurpose reactor has been conducted to support the undergoing core conversion program, in which higher uranium fuel densities of silicide (up to 4.8 gU.cm -3 ) and molybdenum (up to 8.3 gU.cm -3 ) fuel elements are adopted to enhance the reactor performance, core cycle length and reactor utilization. In the assessment, the k eff of the rack as a function of fuel density is calculated for fresh fuel elements which is a very conservative approach recommended by IAEA. Besides fuel densities, effects of water densities due to pool water temperature variation, and the fuel elements' orientation on the k eff are analyzed as well. The criticality calculations are all carried out by using MNCP4B2 Monte Carlo code with ENDF/B-VI library. For the library sensitivity, JENDL-3.3 library is also used and compared. The calculation results show the most reactive condition is for the case when the spent fuel racks are filled with fresh U-6Mo fuel element with meat density of 8.30 gU.cm -3 . For all fuel types, density and operating condition, the calculated k eff with 3 times standard deviations are confirmed less than the allowable value of 0.95. It can be concluded that the existing spent fuel storage racks can be safely used for storing the planned high density uranium fuels. (author)

  12. SELF-ORGANIZATION OF LEAD SULFIDE QUANTUM DOTS INTO SUPERSTRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Ushakova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The method of X-ray structural analysis (X-ray scattering at small angles is used to show that the structures obtained by self-organization on a substrate of lead sulfide (PbS quantum dots are ordered arrays. Self-organization of quantum dots occurs at slow evaporation of solvent from a cuvette. The cuvette is a thin layer of mica with teflon ring on it. The positions of peaks in SAXS pattern are used to calculate crystal lattice of obtained ordered structures. Such structures have a primitive orthorhombic crystal lattice. Calculated lattice parameters are: a = 21,1 (nm; b = 36,2 (nm; c = 62,5 (nm. Dimensions of structures are tens of micrometers. The spectral properties of PbS QDs superstructures and kinetic parameters of their luminescence are investigated. Absorption band of superstructures is broadened as compared to the absorption band of the quantum dots in solution; the luminescence band is slightly shifted to the red region of the spectrum, while its bandwidth is not changed much. Luminescence lifetime of obtained structures has been significantly decreased in comparison with the isolated quantum dots in solution, but remained the same for the lead sulfide quantum dots close-packed ensembles. Such superstructures can be used to produce solar cells with improved characteristics.

  13. Overview of the spent nuclear fuel storage facilities at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conatser, E.R.; Thomas, J.E.

    2000-01-01

    The May 1996 Record of Decision on a Proposed Nuclear Weapons Nonproliferation Policy concerning Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel initiated a 13 year campaign renewing a policy to support the return of spent nuclear fuel containing uranium of U.S. origin from foreign research reactors to the United States. As of December 1999, over 22% of the approximately 13,000 spent nuclear fuel assemblies from participating countries have been returned to the Savannah River Site (SRS). These ∼2650 assemblies are currently stored in two dedicated SRS wet storage facilities. One is the Receiving Basin for Off-site Fuels (RBOF) and the other as L-Basin. RBOF, built in the early 60's to support the 'Atoms for Peace' program, has been receiving off-site fuel for over 35 years. RBOF has received approximately 1950 casks since startup and has the capability of handling all of the casks currently used in the FRR program. However, RBOF is 90% filled to capacity and is not capable of storing all of the fuel to be received in the program. L-Basin was originally used as temporary storage for materials irradiated in SRS's L-Reactor. New storage racks and other modifications were completed in 1996 that improved water quality and allowed the L-Basin to receive, handle and store spent nuclear fuel assemblies and components from off-site. The first foreign cask was received into the L-Area in April 1997 and approximately 105 foreign and domestic casks have been received since that time. This paper provides an overview of activities related to fuel receipt and storage in both the Receiving Basin for Off-site Fuels (RBOF) and L-Basin facilities. It will illustrate each step of the fuel receipt program from arrival of casks at SRS through cask unloading and decontamination. It will follow the fuel handling process, from fuel unloading, through the cropping and bundling stages, and final placement in the wet storage rack. Decontamination methods and equipment will be explained to show

  14. Overview of the spent nuclear fuel storage facilities at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Jay

    1999-01-01

    The May 1996 Record of Decision on a Proposed Nuclear Weapons Nonproliferation Policy concerning Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel initiated a 13 year campaign renewing a policy to support the return of spent nuclear fuel containing uranium of U.S.-origin from foreign research reactors to the United States. As of July 1999, over 18% of the approximately 13,000 spent nuclear fuel assemblies from participating countries have been returned to the Savannah River Site (SRS). These 2400 assemblies are currently stored in two dedicated SRS wet storage facilities. One is the Receiving Basin for Off-site Fuels (RBOF) and the other as L-Basin. RBOF, built in the early 60's to support the 'Atoms for Peace' program, has been receiving off-site fuel for over 35 years. RBOF has received approximately 1950 casks since startup and has the capability of handling all of the casks currently used in the FRR program. However, RBOF is 90% filled to capacity and is not capable of storing all of the fuel to be received in the program. L-Basin was originally used as temporary storage for materials irradiated in SRS's L-Reactor. New storage racks and other modifications were completed in 1996 that improved water quality and allowed L-Basin to receive, handle and store spent nuclear fuel assemblies and components from off-site. The first foreign cask was received into L-Area in April 1997 and approximately 86 foreign and domestic casks have been received since that time. This paper provides an overview of activities related to fuel receipt and storage in both the Receiving Basin for Off-site Fuels (RBOF) and L-Basin facilities. It will illustrate each step of the fuel receipt program from arrival of casks at SRS through cask unloading and decontamination. It will follow the fuel handling process, from fuel unloading, through the cropping and bundling stages, and final placement in the wet storage rack. Decontamination methods and equipment will be explained to show how the empty

  15. Studies of natural convection heat transfer in dry spent fuel storage casks using the cobra-SFS thermal-hydraulic computer code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michener, T. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA (United States); Guttmann, J.; Bajwa, C. [United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, One White Flin North, Rockville MD (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the importance of natural convection cooling within a nuclear dry spent fuel storage system. In the past, applicants submitting requests to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) for a license for a dry spent fuel storage system design did not rigorously treat natural convection within the fuel package of the dry storage system. Typically, the applicant applies heat transfer correlations that raise the thermal conductivity of the materials (gas and solid structures) to account for the impact of convection on the thermal performance of the system. (author)

  16. Hole in the storage tank. Causes of failures and outline of alternative means of insulation. [Fuel storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, G. (Vereinigung der Technischen Ueberwachungsvereine e.V., Essen (Germany, F.R.). Abt. Tankanlagen)

    1980-07-01

    A few years ago, when single-walled steel tanks were provided with inner plastic linings for fuel storage purposes, it turned out that an average 25 to 30% of the tanks were perforated, due to previous corrosion, when sanded. The usual kind of external protection of these tanks to this day has been the enclosure of the tank wall in several layers of bitumen-impregnated fabric. However, in practice this type of insulation has been found to be extremely sensitive to faulty treatment and to influences of the weather before being put in the ground. Also the low chemical stability to the coating are further disadvantages. Coating with epoxy resin is a good and reliable external insulation of underground storage tanks, meeting nearly all requirements of these tanks and being only slightly more expensive than the former system.

  17. Effects of radiation and environmental factors on the durability of materials in spent fuel storage and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-12-01

    This is the second report that addresses results from the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Irradiation Enhanced Degradation of Materials in Spent Fuel Storage Facilities. This second report addresses results of topical studies that are relevant to issues important to materials behaviour in wet storage technology, but also involves topics on materials behaviour in dry storage and repository environments, including effects of radiation. The material is in seven separate papers contributed by the participants in the CRP and contains details of research studies started within the framework of the CRP and in several cases completed well after the CRP was finished. The seven contributions fall into three broad subject areas: Effects of temperature and radiation on aqueous and moist air corrosion of stainless steels; Studies of materials behaviour in wet and dry storage; Effects of gamma radiation on the durability of candidate canister materials for repository applications: carbon steel, titanium, and copper. Each of the papers has been indexed separately

  18. Activity release from damaged fuel during the Paks-2 cleaning tank incident in the spent fuel storage pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hozer, Zoltan; Szabo, Emese; Pinter, Tamas; Varju, Ilona Baracska; Bujtas, Tibor; Farkas, Gabor; Vajda, Nora

    2009-01-01

    During crud removal operations the integrity of 30 fuel assemblies was lost at high temperature at the unit No. 2 of the Paks NPP. Part of the fission products was released from the damaged fuel into the coolant of the spent fuel storage pool. The gaseous fission products escaped through the chimney from the reactor hall. The volatile and non-volatile materials remained mainly in the coolant and were collected on the filters of water purification system. The activity release from damaged fuel rods during the Paks-2 cleaning tank incident was estimated on the basis of coolant activity concentration measurements and chimney activity data. The typical release rate of noble gases, iodine and caesium was 1-3%. The release of non-volatile fission products and actinides was also detected.

  19. Activity release from damaged fuel during the Paks-2 cleaning tank incident in the spent fuel storage pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hozer, Zoltan, E-mail: hozer@aeki.kfki.h [Hungarian Academy of Sciences KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute, H-1525 Budapest 114, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary); Szabo, Emese [Hungarian Academy of Sciences KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute, H-1525 Budapest 114, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary); Pinter, Tamas; Varju, Ilona Baracska; Bujtas, Tibor; Farkas, Gabor [Nuclear Power Plant Paks, H-7031 Paks, P.O. Box 71 (Hungary); Vajda, Nora [Institute of Nuclear Techniques, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, H-1521 Budapest, Muegyetem rakpart 9 (Hungary)

    2009-07-01

    During crud removal operations the integrity of 30 fuel assemblies was lost at high temperature at the unit No. 2 of the Paks NPP. Part of the fission products was released from the damaged fuel into the coolant of the spent fuel storage pool. The gaseous fission products escaped through the chimney from the reactor hall. The volatile and non-volatile materials remained mainly in the coolant and were collected on the filters of water purification system. The activity release from damaged fuel rods during the Paks-2 cleaning tank incident was estimated on the basis of coolant activity concentration measurements and chimney activity data. The typical release rate of noble gases, iodine and caesium was 1-3%. The release of non-volatile fission products and actinides was also detected.

  20. License procedure for spent fuel storage facilities in the Czech Republic from the competent authority point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchacek, V.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The Policy, approved by the Czech Government on 15 May 2002 (Government Resolution No. 487/2002), is the fundamental document defining a strategy of the State and its agencies in spent fuel and radioactive waste management through 2025. The main principles of the Policy for the spent fuel management are: - Spent fuel management is provided by nuclear power plants (NPPs) authorized for operation in the Czech Republic. Spent fuel shall be stored in dry storage facilities at the NPPs, in storage only casks or in transport and storage casks. -Possibilities for spent fuel reprocessing are monitored and assessed, as well as the use of new technologies leading to the reduction of spent fuel volume and toxicity. A deep repository shall be put into operation in 2065. -The costs of activities associated with disposal of spent fuel are paid from the nuclear account, a financial source created by generators of spent fuel in agreement with the Atomic Act and established government Order. The Ministry of Finance manages the nuclear account, as a part of the state financial assets and liabilities. This assures that the costs of disposition for wastes generated now will not be transferred to future generations. - The general public is kept informed about the Policy and about its fulfillment. The license procedure for spent fuel storage facilities is governed by three acts: - Act No. 100/2001 Coll., on assessment of impacts on the environment, - Construction Act (No. 50/1976 Coll.), and - Act No. 18/1997 Coll. (Atomic Act) The procedure consists in practice of four stages: - Assessment of impacts of the planned construction on the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) process, - Siting decision, - Construction permit, and - Operations permit. Interim spent fuel storage facility at Dukovany (ISFSF). The first preparatory works started in May 1991. In October 1992, a public hearing took place to discuss the environmental impact of the ISFSF based on an EIA study. In

  1. Assessment of furnaces including fuel storage facilities according to the 12th Federal Emission Control Ordinance (BImSchV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hensler, G.; Ott, H.; Wunderlich, O.; Mair, K.

    1990-01-01

    Existing quantities of substances pursuant to Annex II of the 12th Federal Emission Control Ordinance in furnaces or in fuel storage facilities do not present a general hazard for fireplaces fired with coal, wood, heavy and light fuel oil within the meaning of the Accident Ordinance. In case of a fire in a storage facility for black coal, brown coal, untreated wood, light and heavy fuel oil, a general hazard on account of the release of developed substances is obviously excluded. Dispersion calculations pursuant to VDI 3783 have shown that concentrations of beryllium, arsenic, nickel, cobalt and mercury compounds in the vicinity of the fire source are so small that a general hazard can be excluded. (orig./DG) [de

  2. K Basins isolation barriers summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strickland, G.C., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-31

    The 105-K East and 105-K West fuel storage basins (105-K Basins) were designed and constructed in the early 1950`s for interim storage of irradiated fuel following its discharge from the reactors. The 105-K- East and 105-K West reactor buildings were constructed first, and the associated storage basins were added about a year later. The construction joint between each reactor building structure and the basin structure included a flexible membrane waterstop to prevent leakage. Water in the storage basins provided both radiation shielding and cooling to remove decay heat from stored fuel until its transfer to the Plutonium Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Facility for chemical processing. The 105-K West Reactor was permanently shut down in February 1970; the 105-K East Reactor was permanently shut down in February 1971. Except for a few loose pieces, fuel stored in the basins at that time was shipped to the PUREX Facility for processing. The basins were then left idle but were kept filled with water. The PUREX Facility was shut down and placed on wet standby in 1972 while N Reactor continued to operate. When the N Reactor fuel storage basin began to approach storage capacity, the decision was made to modify the fuel storage basins at 105-K East and 105-K West to provide additional storage capacity. Both basins were subsequently modified (105-K East in 1975 and 105-K West in 1981) to provide for the interim handling and storage of irradiated N Reactor fuel. The PUREX Facility was restarted in November 1983 to provide 1698 additional weapons-grade plutonium for the United States defense mission. The facility was shut down and deactivated in December 1992 when the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) determined that the plant was no longer needed to support weapons-grade plutonium production. When the PUREX Facility was shut down, approximately 2.1 x 1 06 kg (2,100 metric tons) of irradiated fuel aged 7 to 23 years was left in storage in the 105-K Basins pending a decision on

  3. Brown Fat AKT2 Is a Cold-Induced Kinase that Stimulates ChREBP-Mediated De Novo Lipogenesis to Optimize Fuel Storage and Thermogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez-Gurmaches, Joan; Tang, Yuefeng; Jespersen, Naja Zenius

    2018-01-01

    . The regulation and function of adipocyte DNL and its association with thermogenesis are not understood. We provide evidence suggesting that AKT2 drives DNL in adipocytes by stimulating ChREBPβ transcriptional activity and that cold induces the AKT2-ChREBP pathway in BAT to optimize fuel storage and thermogenesis...

  4. 40 CFR 745.228 - Accreditation of training programs: public and commercial buildings, bridges and superstructures...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accreditation of training programs: public and commercial buildings, bridges and superstructures. 745.228 Section 745.228 Protection of... of training programs: public and commercial buildings, bridges and superstructures. ...

  5. Retrofitting the Superstructure of a Large Passenger Ship Using Composites – A Demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karatzas, Vasileios; Hjørnet, Niels; Berggreen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    conditions as prescribed from the regulations. Additionally, the effects that the composite superstructure has on the weight of the ship have been calculated. Results indicate that there is a large potential for retrofitting and building new passenger ships with composite superstructures as long...

  6. Nonlinear analysis of collapse mechanism in superstructure vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor, M. K. Mohd; Ho, C. S.; Ma'at, N.

    2017-04-01

    The EU directive 2001/85/EC is an official European text which describes the specifications for "single deck class II and III vehicles" required to be approved by the regulation UN/ECE no.66 (R66). To prevent the catastrophic consequences by occupant during an accident, the Malaysian government has reinforced the same regulation upon superstructure construction. This paper discusses collapse mechanism analysis of a superstructure vehicle using a Crash D nonlinear analysis computer program based on this regulation. The analysis starts by hand calculation to define the required energy absorption by the chosen structure. Simple calculations were then performed to define the weakest collapse mechanism after undesirable collapse modes are eliminated. There are few factors highlighted in this work to pass the regulation. Using the selected cross section, Crash D simulation showed a good result. Generally, the deformation is linearly correlates to the energy absorption for the structure with low stiffness. Failure of critical members such as vertical lower side wall must be avoided to sustain safety of the passenger compartment and prevent from severe and fatal injuries to the trapped occupant.

  7. Collapse Mechanism Analysis in the Design of Superstructure Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Nor, M. K.

    2016-11-01

    The EU directive 2001/85/EC is an official European text which describes the specifications for “single deck class II and III vehicles” required to be approved by the regulation UN/ECE no.66 (R66). To prevent the catastrophic consequences by occupant during an accident, the Malaysian government has reinforced the same regulation upon superstructure construction. This paper discusses collapse mechanism analysis of a superstructure vehicle using a Crash D nonlinear analysis computer program based on this regulation. The analysis starts by hand calculation to define the required energy absorption by the chosen structure. Simple calculations were then performed to define the weakest collapse mechanism after undesirable collapse modes are eliminated. There are few factors highlighted in this work to pass the regulation. Using the selected cross section, Crash D simulation showed a good result. Generally, the deformation is linearly correlates to the energy absorption for the structure with low stiffness. Failure of critical members such as vertical lower side wall must be avoided to sustain safety of the passenger compartment and prevent from severe and fatal injuries to the trapped occupant.

  8. Mesoscopic superstructures of flexible porous coordination polymers synthesizedviacoordination replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumida, Kenji; Moitra, Nirmalya; Reboul, Julien; Fukumoto, Shotaro; Nakanishi, Kazuki; Kanamori, Kazuyoshi; Furukawa, Shuhei; Kitagawa, Susumu

    2015-10-01

    The coordination replication technique is employed for the direct conversion of a macro- and mesoporous Cu(OH) 2 -polyacrylamide composite to three-dimensional superstructures consisting of the flexible porous coordination polymers, Cu 2 (bdc) 2 (MeOH) 2 and Cu 2 (bdc) 2 (bpy) (bdc 2- = 1,4-benzenedicarboxylate, bpy = 4,4'-bipyridine). Detailed characterization of the replicated systems reveals that the structuralization plays an important role in determining the adsorptive properties of the replicated systems, and that the immobilization of the crystals within a higher-order architecture also affects its structural and dynamic properties. The polyacrylamide polymer is also found to be crucial for maintaining the structuralization of the monolithic systems, and in providing the mechanical robustness required for manual handling. In all, the results discussed here demonstrate a significant expansion in the scope of the coordination replication strategy, and further confirms its utility as a highly versatile platform for the preparation of functional three-dimensional superstructures of porous coordination polymers.

  9. K East basin sludge volume estimates for integrated water treatment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, K.L.

    1998-01-01

    This document provides estimates of the volume of sludge expected from Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) processing of the fuel elements and in the fuel storage canisters in K East Basin. The original estimates were based on visual observations of fuel element condition in the basin and laboratory measurements of canister sludge density. Revision 1 revised the volume estimates of sludge from processing of the fuel elements based on additional data from evaluations of material from the KE Basin fuel subsurface examinations. A nominal Working Estimate and an upper level Working Bound is developed for the canister sludge and the fuel wash sludge components in the KE Basin

  10. Structural safety evaluation of the K Basin railcar and truck applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkel, B.V.

    1995-08-01

    There are two rail spurs in the storage/transfer areas of both the K East and K West fuel storage basins. These rail spurs both end at the west edge of the basins. To avoid accidental entry of a railcar into a basin, administrative procedures and rail control hardware have been provided. Based upon a combination of historical documentation and existing adminstrative controls, a maximum credible impact accident was established. Using this design basis accident, the existing rail control hardware was evaluated for structural adequacy. The K Basin rail spurs are embedded in concrete, which permits truck/trailer entry into the same area. Safety issues for truck applications are also addressed

  11. Determination of the steam volume fraction in the event of loss of cooling of the spent fuel storage pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sledkov, R. M.; Galkin, I. Yu.; Stepanov, O. E.; Strebnev, N. A.

    2017-01-01

    When one solves engineering problems related to the cooling of fuel assemblies (FAs) in a spent fuel storage pool (SFSP) and the assessment of nuclear safety of FA storage in an SFSP in the initial event of loss of SFSP cooling, it is essential to determine the coolant density and, consequently, steam volume fractions φ in bundles of fuel elements at a pressure of 0.1-0.5 MPa. Such formulas for calculating φ that remain valid in a wide range of operating parameters and geometric shapes of channels and take the conditions of loss of SFSP cooling into account are currently almost lacking. The results of systematization and analysis of the available formulas for φ are reported in the present study. The calculated values were compared with the experimental data obtained in the process of simulating the conditions of FA cooling in an SFSP in the event of loss of its cooling. Six formulas for calculating the steam volume fraction, which were used in this comparison, were chosen from a total of 11 considered relations. As a result, the formulas producing the most accurate values of φ in the conditions of loss of SFSP cooling were selected. In addition, a relation that allows one to perform more accurate calculations of steam volume fractions in the conditions of loss of SFSP cooling was derived based on the Fedorov formula in the two-group approximation.

  12. Development of advanced spent fuel management process / criticality safety analysis for integrated mockup and metallized spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ro, Seong Gy; Shin, Hee Sung; Shin, Young Joon; Bae, Kang Mok

    1999-02-01

    Benchmark calculation for SCALE4.3 CSAS6 module and burnup credit criticality analysis performed by CSAS6 module are described in this report. Calculation biases by the SCALE4.3 CSAS6 module for PWR spent fuel, metallized spent fuel and aqueous nuclear materials have been determined on the basis of the benchmark to be 0.011, 0.023 and 0.010, respectively. The maximum allowable multiplication factor for an integrated mockup and metallized spent fuel storage is conservatively determined to be 0.927. With the aid of this code system, K eff values as a function of metallization ratio for the integrated mockup have been calculated. The maximum values of K eff for normal and hypothetical accident conditions are 0.346 and 0.598, respectively, much less than the maximum allowable multiplication factor of 0.927. Besides, burnup credit criticality analysis has been performed for infinite arrays of square and hexagonal canisters containing metallized spent fuel rods with different canister wall thickness, canister surface-to-surface distance and water content. It is revealed that the effective multiplication factor for canister arrays as mentioned above is well below the subcritical limit regardless of external conditions when its wall thickness is over 9 mm. (Author). 37 refs., 27 tabs., 64 figs

  13. From passive storage to daily waste retrieval; changing the working culture at Sellafield's pile fuel storage pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlisle, Derek

    2013-01-01

    The Pile Fuel Storage Pond (PFSP) was built in 1948/50 to treat materials from the Windscale Piles. Multiple operational regimes over the intervening 60 years have resulted in a complex inventory of spent nuclear fuels, solid and liquid intermediate level wastes. A coordinated programme of work, designed to retrieve and safely dispose of the pond contents, has been implemented to enable the decommissioning of the facility. The long period of passive storage operations which preceded the implementation of the programme meant that the operator was faced with a dual challenge of providing new technical capability and changing a working culture that was inappropriate for the dynamic environment required to successfully deliver the programme. It was recognised that the nature of the programme meant that implementing a standard manufacturing approach to operations would not be appropriate. In order to create a dynamic retrievals focussed working culture, the operator has vigorously embraced change programmes aimed at improving a number of working practices including encouraging innovation, managing integrated but flexible production schedules, and encouraging work-face problem solving. The combined impact of beginning to resolve the technical challenges and focussing on the delivery culture has resulted in the facility making a step change towards becoming fully retrievals operations focussed. (authors)

  14. Superconducting superstructure for the TESLA collider: A concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sekutowicz

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available We discuss a new layout of a cavity chain (called superstructure allowing, we hope, a significant cost reduction due to a simplification of the rf system of the TESLA linear collider. The proposed scheme increases the fill factor and thus makes an effective gradient of the accelerator higher. In this paper computations and preliminary measurements on existing copper models of the TESLA Test Facility accelerating structures are presented. A new copper model of the scheme has been ordered, made of four 7-cell standing wave cavities, which according to the results of computations and measurements seems to be the most promising version. Experiments with a beam will be necessary to prove that the proposed layout can be used for the acceleration.

  15. Abnormal Congenital Location of Stapes’ Superstructure: Clinical and Embryological Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Henriques

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital middle ear malformations are rare. Most part of them are usually associated with other malformations, such as aural atresia, microtia, and dysmorphic craniofacial features. A clinical case of a 24-year-old male with a right-sided conductive hearing loss since his childhood, without craniofacial malformation, is presented. He was proposed for exploratory tympanotomy under the suspicious diagnosis of otosclerosis. The surgery revealed an abnormal location of stapes’ superstructure, which was attached to the promontory and had an isolated and mobile osseous footplate in the oval window. A stapes prosthesis was inserted and resulted in closure of the air-bone gap by 25 dB. A review of the literature was also performed using MEDLINE. Two theories diverge on the embryologic origin of the stapes. Our findings seem to be in favour of the theory that defines two different embryologic origins to the stapes.

  16. K Basins fuel encapsulation and storage hazard categorization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porten, D.R.

    1994-12-01

    This document establishes the initial hazard categorization for K-Basin fuel encapsulation and storage in the 100 K Area of the Hanford site. The Hazard Categorization for K-Basins addresses the potential for release of radioactive and non-radioactive hazardous material located in the K-Basins and their supporting facilities. The Hazard Categorization covers the hazards associated with normal K-Basin fuel storage and handling operations, fuel encapsulation, sludge encapsulation, and canister clean-up and disposal. The criteria categorizes a facility based on total curies per radionuclide located in the facility. Tables 5-3 and 5-4 display the results in section 5.0. In accordance with DOE-STD-1027 and the analysis provided in section 5.0, the K East Basin fuel encapsulation and storage activity and the K West Basin storage are classified as a open-quotes Category 2close quotes Facility

  17. Garden-like perovskite superstructures with enhanced photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Meidan; Wang, Mengye; Zheng, Dajiang; Zhang, Nan; Lin, Changjian; Lin, Zhiqun

    2014-03-01

    By subjecting amorphous flower-like TiO2 to a facile hydrothermal synthesis in the presence of Sr2+, garden-like perovskite SrTiO3 superstructures were achieved. The amorphous TiO2 was preformed using ZnO flowers as templates. Different three-dimensional SrTiO3 architectures were coexisted in the garden, including SrTiO3 flowers composed of several hollow sword-shaped petals, many sheet-shaped petals or numerous flake-shaped petals, and SrTiO3 grass consisting of a number of long blades. These SrTiO3 superstructures were simultaneously grown on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates. On the basis of a comprehensive study on the effects of growth time, temperature, initial concentrations of precursor, and pH, the formation of these various hierarchical architectures was attributed primarily to the dissolution of amorphous TiO2 and precipitation of perovskite crystals, followed by the Ostwald ripening process of perovskite nanocrystals and self-organization of perovskite building blocks. Interestingly, this approach can be readily extended to create other perovskite structures, including dendritic BaTiO3 and nest-like CaTiO3, as well as PbTiO3 transformed from plate-like pyrochlore Pb2Ti2O6 after post-thermal treatment. Garden-like SrTiO3 superstructures showed a superior photocatalytic performance when compared to other as-prepared semiconductors and perovskite materials (i.e., ZnO, TiO2, BaTiO3, CaTiO3 and PbTiO3), probably due to their intrinsic photocatalytic activity and special garden-like features with a coexistence of various structures that significantly facilitated the adsorption and diffusion of methyl blue (MB) molecules and oxygen species in the photochemical reaction of MB degradation.By subjecting amorphous flower-like TiO2 to a facile hydrothermal synthesis in the presence of Sr2+, garden-like perovskite SrTiO3 superstructures were achieved. The amorphous TiO2 was preformed using ZnO flowers as templates. Different three-dimensional SrTiO3

  18. Inspection and Gamma-Ray Dose Rate Measurements of the Annulus of the VSC-17 Concrete Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. L. Winston

    2007-09-01

    The air cooling annulus of the Ventilated Storage Cask (VSC)-17 spent fuel storage cask was inspected using a Toshiba 7 mm (1/4”) CCD video camera. The dose rates observed in the annular space were measured to provide a reference for the activity to which the camera(s) being tested were being exposed. No gross degradation, pitting, or general corrosion was observed.

  19. Engineering study: 105KE to 105KW Basin fuel and sludge transfer. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gant, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    In the last five years, there have been three periods at the 105KE fuel storage basin (KE Basin) where the reported drawdown test rates were in excess of 25 gph. Drawdown rates in excess of this amount have been used during past operations as the primary indicators of leaks in the basin. The latest leak occurred in March, 1993. The reported water loss from the KE Basin was estimated at 25 gph. This engineering study was performed to identify and recommend the most feasible and practical method of transferring canisters of irradiated fuel and basin sludge from the KE Basin to the 105KW fuel storage basin (KW Basin). Six alternatives were identified during the performance of this study as possible methods for transferring the fuel and sludge from the KE Basin to the KW Basin. These methods were then assessed with regard to operations, safety, radiation exposure, packaging, environmental concerns, waste management, cost, and schedule; and the most feasible and practical methods of transfer were identified. The methods examined in detail in this study were based on shipment without cooling water except where noted: Transfer by rail using the previously used transfer system and water cooling; Transfer by rail using the previously used transfer system (without water cooling); Transfer by truck using the K Area fuel transfer cask (K Area cask); Transfer by truck using a DOE shipping cask; Transfer by truck using a commercial shipping cask; and Transfer by truck using a new fuel shipping cask

  20. Safety and engineering aspects of spent fuel storage. Proceedings of an international symposium held in Vienna, 10-14 October 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Spent fuel management is one of the most vital, and common, problems for countries with nuclear reactors. In the closed nuclear fuel cycle, further storage capacity may be required to match the arisings of spent fuel with the available capacity of reprocessing plants. With respect to the once-through cycle, interim storage of spent fuel is required until a final repository has been constructed and is in service. Though present spent fuel storage technologies provide adequate protection to the population and the environment, there is keen interest in seeing whether further improvements can be achieved in the area of spent fuel storage. This Symposium was a co-operative effort between the Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD and the IAEA. Such meetings have been organized once every four years since 1987. The purpose is to: exchange information on the state of the art and on prospects for spent fuel storage; discuss the worldwide situation and the major factors influencing national policies in this field; and identify the most important direction that national efforts and international co-operation should take in this area. Over 140 participants from 39 countries and 4 international organizations attended the Symposium. Thirty-five full papers and 13 posters were presented and are included in these Proceedings. Refs, figs and tabs

  1. The Egg Carton: Theory of a Periodic Superstructure of Some Lipid Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Rüdiger; Helfrich, Wolfgang

    1996-02-01

    A model calculation of the square membrane superstructure of some mixed lipid bilayers is presented. It involves bending elasticity of higher than quadratic order in the principal curvatures and employs Monte Carlo simulation.

  2. Recrystallization-induced self-assembly for the growth of Cu₂O superstructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yang; Shao, Yi-Ming; Zhang, Dong-Feng; Guo, Lin

    2014-10-20

    The assembly of inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) into 3D superstructures with defined morphologies is of particular interest. A novel strategy that is based on recrystallization-induced self-assembly (RISA) for the construction of 3D Cu2O superstructures and employs Cu2O mesoporous spheres with diameters of approximately 300 nm as the building blocks has now been developed. Balancing the hydrolysis and recrystallization rates of the CuCl precursors through precisely adjusting the experimental parameters was key to success. Furthermore, the geometry of the superstructures can be tuned to obtain either cubes or tetrahedra and was shown to be dependent on the growth behavior of bulk CuCl. The overall strategy extends the applicability of recrystallization-based processes for the guided construction of assemblies and offers unique insights for assembling larger particles into complicated 3D superstructures. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Large-scale laboratory observations of wave forces on a highway bridge superstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    The experimental setup and data are presented for a laboratory experiment conducted to examine realistic wave forcing on a highway bridge : superstructure. The experiments measure wave conditions along with the resulting forces, pressures, and struct...

  4. Analysis of sludge from Hanford K East Basin canisters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makenas, B.J. [ed.] [comp.] [DE and S Hanford, Inc., Richland, WA (United States); Welsh, T.L. [B and W Protec, Inc. (United States); Baker, R.B. [DE and S Hanford, Inc., Richland, WA (United States); Hoppe, E.W.; Schmidt, A.J.; Abrefah, J.; Tingey, J.M.; Bredt, P.R.; Golcar, G.R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-09-12

    Sludge samples from the canisters in the Hanford K East Basin fuel storage pool have been retrieved and analyzed. Both chemical and physical properties have been determined. The results are to be used to determine the disposition of the bulk of the sludge and to assess the impact of residual sludge on dry storage of the associated intact metallic uranium fuel elements. This report is a summary and review of the data provided by various laboratories. Although raw chemistry data were originally reported on various bases (compositions for as-settled, centrifuged, or dry sludge) this report places all of the data on a common comparable basis. Data were evaluated for internal consistency and consistency with respect to the governing sample analysis plan. Conclusions applicable to sludge disposition and spent fuel storage are drawn where possible.

  5. Neutron analysis of spent fuel storage installation using parallel computing and advance discrete ordinates and Monte Carlo techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shedlock, D.; Haghighat, A.

    2005-01-01

    In the United States, the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 mandated centralised storage of spent nuclear fuel by 1988. However, the Yucca Mountain project is currently scheduled to start accepting spent nuclear fuel in 2010. Since many nuclear power plants were only designed for ∼10 y of spent fuel pool storage, >35 plants have been forced into alternate means of spent fuel storage. In order to continue operation and make room in spent fuel pools, nuclear generators are turning towards independent spent fuel storage installations (ISFSIs). Typical vertical concrete ISFSIs are ∼6.1 m high and 3.3 m in diameter. The inherently large system, and the presence of thick concrete shields result in difficulties for both Monte Carlo (MC) and discrete ordinates (S N ) calculations. MC calculations require significant variance reduction and multiple runs to obtain a detailed dose distribution. S N models need a large number of spatial meshes to accurately model the geometry and high quadrature orders to reduce ray effects, therefore, requiring significant amounts of computer memory and time. The use of various differencing schemes is needed to account for radial heterogeneity in material cross sections and densities. Two P 3 , S 12 , discrete ordinate, PENTRAN (parallel environment neutral-particle Transport) models were analysed and different MC models compared. A multigroup MCNP model was developed for direct comparison to the S N models. The biased A 3MCNP (automated adjoint accelerated MCNP) and unbiased (MCNP) continuous energy MC models were developed to assess the adequacy of the CASK multigroup (22 neutron, 18 gamma) cross sections. The PENTRAN S N results are in close agreement (5%) with the multigroup MC results; however, they differ by ∼20-30% from the continuous-energy MC predictions. This large difference can be attributed to the expected difference between multigroup and continuous energy cross sections, and the fact that the CASK library is based on the

  6. JOINT SIMULTANEOUS RECONSTRUCTION OF REGULARIZED BUILDING SUPERSTRUCTURES FROM LOW-DENSITY LIDAR DATA USING ICP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wichmann

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There are many applications for 3D city models, e.g., in visualizations, analysis, and simulations; each one requiring a certain level of detail to be effective. The overall trend goes towards including various kinds of anthropogenic and natural objects therein with ever increasing geometric and semantic details. A few years back, the featured 3D building models had only coarse roof geometry. But nowadays, they are expected to include detailed roof superstructures like dormers and chimneys. Several methods have been proposed for the automatic reconstruction of 3D building models from airborne based point clouds. However, they are usually unable to reliably recognize and reconstruct small roof superstructures as these objects are often represented by only few point measurements, especially in low-density point clouds. In this paper, we propose a recognition and reconstruction approach that overcomes this problem by identifying and simultaneously reconstructing regularized superstructures of similar shape. For this purpose, candidate areas for superstructures are detected by taking into account virtual sub-surface points that are assumed to lie on the main roof faces below the measured points. The areas with similar superstructures are detected, extracted, grouped together, and registered to one another with the Iterative Closest Point (ICP algorithm. As an outcome, the joint point density of each detected group is increased, which helps to recognize the shape of the superstructure more reliably and in more detail. Finally, all instances of each group of superstructures are modeled at once and transformed back to their original position. Because superstructures are reconstructed in groups, symmetries, alignments, and regularities can be enforced in a straight-forward way. The validity of the approach is presented on a number of example buildings from the Vaihingen test data set.

  7. Joint Simultaneous Reconstruction of Regularized Building Superstructures from Low-Density LIDAR Data Using Icp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, Andreas; Kada, Martin

    2016-06-01

    There are many applications for 3D city models, e.g., in visualizations, analysis, and simulations; each one requiring a certain level of detail to be effective. The overall trend goes towards including various kinds of anthropogenic and natural objects therein with ever increasing geometric and semantic details. A few years back, the featured 3D building models had only coarse roof geometry. But nowadays, they are expected to include detailed roof superstructures like dormers and chimneys. Several methods have been proposed for the automatic reconstruction of 3D building models from airborne based point clouds. However, they are usually unable to reliably recognize and reconstruct small roof superstructures as these objects are often represented by only few point measurements, especially in low-density point clouds. In this paper, we propose a recognition and reconstruction approach that overcomes this problem by identifying and simultaneously reconstructing regularized superstructures of similar shape. For this purpose, candidate areas for superstructures are detected by taking into account virtual sub-surface points that are assumed to lie on the main roof faces below the measured points. The areas with similar superstructures are detected, extracted, grouped together, and registered to one another with the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. As an outcome, the joint point density of each detected group is increased, which helps to recognize the shape of the superstructure more reliably and in more detail. Finally, all instances of each group of superstructures are modeled at once and transformed back to their original position. Because superstructures are reconstructed in groups, symmetries, alignments, and regularities can be enforced in a straight-forward way. The validity of the approach is presented on a number of example buildings from the Vaihingen test data set.

  8. Use of Polycrystalline Ice for Assembly of Large Area Au Nanoparticle Superstructures as SERS Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekana, Deribachew; Liu, Rui; Amde, Meseret; Liu, Jing-Fu

    2017-01-11

    It is still a great challenge to develop simple and low-cost methods for preparation of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates with high sensitivity and reproducibility. Taking advantage of the microstructure of polycrystalline ice, we developed a new method to assemble large area gold nanoparticle (AuNP) superstructures as SERS substrates without external templating and aggregating agent. The assembly was conducted by freezing AuNP colloid at -20 °C, which concentrated AuNPs in the ice veins and produced an AuNP superstructure upon thawing the ice. The AuNP superstructures exhibited high SERS activity with enhancement factors on the order of 7.63 × 10 7 owing to the high-density hot spots throughout the superstructures. The SERS activity was found to increase with particle size and aggregate size of AuNP superstructures. Besides, the substrates showed good uniformity and reproducibility with relative standard deviations of 11.9% and 12.4%, respectively. The substrates showed long-term stability, maintaining SERS activity over a period of five months without noticeable change in morphology of the superstructures. The substrates was further used for label-free detection of trace Thiram on apple fruit with high sensitivity down to the concentration of 0.28 ng/cm 2 , offering great potential to monitor Thiram levels in foodstuffs and environmental samples.

  9. Anatomopathology of the Superstructure of the Stapes in Patients with Otosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho, Bettina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Otosclerosis is a disease that causes bone resorption and deposition in the auditory structures, leading to deafness. Many studies have evaluated the histopathology of the stapes footplate in this disease (osteoblasts, osteoclasts, vascular proliferation, fibroblasts, and histiocytes, but we found no studies in the literature involving the histology of the superstructure of the stapes. Objectives To perform an analysis under optical microscopy of histopathologic findings of the superstructure of the stapes from patients with otosclerosis. Methods A contemporary cross-sectional cohort study of pathology analysis of superstructures of the stapes of patients with otosclerosis. Results Fifteen superstructures of stapes in patients with otosclerosis operated in our service and four stapes of cadavers used for dissection (controls were evaluated. No areas of bone resorption or deposition or presence of osteoclasts and osteoblasts in the superstructure of the stapes were found. However, we found in the more distal portions of the crura areas with prominent cementitious lines and woven bone, which was different than the mature trabecular bone found in the head of the stapes or in the controls. Conclusion There were histologic changes in the superstructure of the stapes in patients with otosclerosis operated in our service.

  10. Fuel storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donakowski, T.D.; Tison, R.R.

    1979-08-01

    Storage technologies are characterized for solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels. Emphasis is placed on storage methods applicable to Integrated Community Energy Systems based on coal. Items discussed here include standard practice, materials and energy losses, environmental effects, operating requirements, maintenance and reliability, and cost considerations. All storage systems were found to be well-developed and to represent mature technologies; an exception may exist for low-Btu gas storage, which could have materials incompatability.

  11. Fuel storage rack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollon, L.

    1977-01-01

    Disclosed is a storage rack for spent nuclear fuel elements comprising a multiplicity of elongated hollow containers of uniform cross-section, preferably square,some of said containers having laterally extending continuous flanges extending between adjacent containers and defining continuous elongated chambers therebetween for the reception of neutron absorbing panels. 18 claims, 7 figures

  12. Piecewise Phototuning of Self-Organized Helical Superstructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lang; Gu, Wei; Wei, Jia; Yu, Yanlei

    2018-02-01

    Cholesteric liquid crystals (CLCs) exhibit selective reflection that can be tuned owing to the dynamic control of inherent self-organized helical superstructures. Although phototunable reflection is reported, these systems hitherto suffer from a limitation in that the tuning range is restricted to one narrow period and the optically addressed images have to sacrifice one color in the visible spectrum to serve as the background, resulting from the insufficient variation in helical twisting power of existing photoresponsive chiral switches that are all bistable. Here, delicate patterns of three primary red, green, and blue (RGB) colors with a black background are presented, which is realized based on piecewise reflection tuning of the CLC induced by a newly designed photoresponsive tristable chiral switch. Three stable configurations of the chiral switch endow the CLC with two continuous and adjacent tuning periods of the reflection, covering not only entire visible spectrum, but also one more wide period within near-infrared region. Therefore, the concept of piecewise tuning in CLC system demonstrates a new strategy for phototunable RGB and black reflective display. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Bilateral Congenital Absence of the Stapes Superstructure in Two Siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Ignacio Undabeitia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Middle ear ossicle malformations are an uncommon event. Among them, the congenital absence of the stapes is a very rare condition that is seldom described in the literature. We report the cases of two women, aged 19 and 22 , who presented with a long history of conductive deafness. An exploratory tympanotomy was performed and the absence of the stapes superstructure and an abnormal position of the facial nerve could be observed. A bone anchored hearing aid (BAHA was implanted in both patients with good results. It is believed that stapes agenesis is related to an abnormal development of the facial nerve, which by the 5th to 6th week of gestation would interpose between the otic capsule and the stapes blastema, preventing these structures from contacting. A long history of nonprogressive hearing loss from birth or early childhood is the key to reach a diagnosis. Several treatment options have been described. The authors opted for a hearing aid due to the high risk of facial nerve lesion, with good functional results.

  14. Application of Framework for Integrating Safety, Security and Safeguards (3Ss) into the Design Of Used Nuclear Fuel Storage Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badwan, Faris M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Demuth, Scott F [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-01-06

    Department of Energy’s Office of Nuclear Energy, Fuel Cycle Research and Development develops options to the current commercial fuel cycle management strategy to enable the safe, secure, economic, and sustainable expansion of nuclear energy while minimizing proliferation risks by conducting research and development focused on used nuclear fuel recycling and waste management to meet U.S. needs. Used nuclear fuel is currently stored onsite in either wet pools or in dry storage systems, with disposal envisioned in interim storage facility and, ultimately, in a deep-mined geologic repository. The safe management and disposition of used nuclear fuel and/or nuclear waste is a fundamental aspect of any nuclear fuel cycle. Integrating safety, security, and safeguards (3Ss) fully in the early stages of the design process for a new nuclear facility has the potential to effectively minimize safety, proliferation, and security risks. The 3Ss integration framework could become the new national and international norm and the standard process for designing future nuclear facilities. The purpose of this report is to develop a framework for integrating the safety, security and safeguards concept into the design of Used Nuclear Fuel Storage Facility (UNFSF). The primary focus is on integration of safeguards and security into the UNFSF based on the existing Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approach to addressing the safety/security interface (10 CFR 73.58 and Regulatory Guide 5.73) for nuclear power plants. The methodology used for adaptation of the NRC safety/security interface will be used as the basis for development of the safeguards /security interface and later will be used as the basis for development of safety and safeguards interface. Then this will complete the integration cycle of safety, security, and safeguards. The overall methodology for integration of 3Ss will be proposed, but only the integration of safeguards and security will be applied to the design of the

  15. Simultaneous synthesis and assembly of silver nanoparticles to three-demensional superstructures for sensitive surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanqiong; Wang, Wenqin; Chen, Tao; Chen, Zhong-Ren

    2014-12-10

    Construction of superstructures with controllable morphologies from NPs is of great scientific and technological importance. A one-step method for simultaneous synthesis and assembly of Ag NPs to three-dimensional (3D) nanoporous superstructures is demonstrated. By varying the adsorption time of Ag precursors, an array of well-defined Ag superstructures with different morphologies are harvested. A "hot spot"-rich substrate for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy is established, which exhibits high sensitivity in trace detection of molecules. It is believed that the presented 3D nanoporous Ag superstructures hold great potential for various uses, such as novel multifunctional sensing and monitoring chips or devices.

  16. Influence of superstructure geometry on the mechanical behavior of zirconia implant abutments: a finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geringer, Alexander; Diebels, Stefan; Nothdurft, Frank P

    2014-12-01

    To predict the clinical performance of zirconia abutments, it is crucial to examine the mechanical behavior of different dental implant-abutment connection configurations. The international standard protocol for dynamic fatigue tests of dental implants (ISO 14801) allows comparing these configurations using standardized superstructure geometries. However, from a mechanical point of view, the geometry of clinical crowns causes modified boundary conditions. The purpose of this finite element (FE) study was to evaluate the influence of the superstructure geometry on the maximum stress values of zirconia abutments with a conical implant-abutment connection. Geometry models of the experimental setup described in ISO 14801 were generated using CAD software following the reconstruction of computerized tomography scans from all relevant components. These models served as a basis for an FE simulation. To reduce the numerical complexity of the FE model, the interaction between loading stamp and superstructure geometry was taken into account by defining the boundary conditions with regard to the frictional force. The results of the FE simulations performed on standardized superstructure geometry and anatomically shaped crowns showed a strong influence of the superstructure geometry and related surface orientations on the mechanical behavior of the underlying zirconia abutments. In conclusion, ISO testing of zirconia abutments should be accompanied by load-bearing capacity testing under simulated clinical conditions to predict clinical performance.

  17. Light-Directed Dynamic Chirality Inversion in Functional Self-Organized Helical Superstructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisoyi, Hari Krishna; Li, Quan

    2016-02-24

    Helical superstructures are widely observed in nature, in synthetic polymers, and in supramolecular assemblies. Controlling the chirality (the handedness) of dynamic helical superstructures of molecular and macromolecular systems by external stimuli is a challenging task, but is of great fundamental significance with appealing morphology-dependent applications. Light-driven chirality inversion in self-organized helical superstructures (i.e. cholesteric, chiral nematic liquid crystals) is currently in the limelight because inversion of the handedness alters the chirality of the circularly polarized light that they selectively reflect, which has wide potential for application. Here we discuss the recent developments toward inversion of the handedness of cholesteric liquid crystals enabled by photoisomerizable chiral molecular switches or motors. Different classes of chiral photoresponsive dopants (guests) capable of conferring light-driven reversible chirality inversion of helical superstructures fabricated from different nematic hosts are discussed. Rational molecular designs of chiral molecular switches toward endowing handedness inversion to the induced helical superstructures of cholesteric liquid crystals are highlighted. This Review is concluded by throwing light on the challenges and opportunities in this emerging frontier, and it is expected to provide useful guidelines toward the development of self-organized soft materials with stimuli-directed chirality inversion capability and multifunctional host-guest systems. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Self-assembly of polyhedral metal-organic framework particles into three-dimensional ordered superstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Civan; Imaz, Inhar; Carné-Sánchez, Arnau; Pariente, Jose Angel; Tasios, Nikos; Pérez-Carvajal, Javier; Alonso, Maria Isabel; Blanco, Alvaro; Dijkstra, Marjolein; López, Cefe; Maspoch, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Self-assembly of particles into long-range, three-dimensional, ordered superstructures is crucial for the design of a variety of materials, including plasmonic sensing materials, energy or gas storage systems, catalysts and photonic crystals. Here, we have combined experimental and simulation data to show that truncated rhombic dodecahedral particles of the metal-organic framework (MOF) ZIF-8 can self-assemble into millimetre-sized superstructures with an underlying three-dimensional rhombohedral lattice that behave as photonic crystals. Those superstructures feature a photonic bandgap that can be tuned by controlling the size of the ZIF-8 particles and is also responsive to the adsorption of guest substances in the micropores of the ZIF-8 particles. In addition, superstructures with different lattices can also be assembled by tuning the truncation of ZIF-8 particles, or by using octahedral UiO-66 MOF particles instead. These well-ordered, sub-micrometre-sized superstructures might ultimately facilitate the design of three-dimensional photonic materials for applications in sensing.

  19. Linking experiment and theory for three-dimensional networked binary metal nanoparticle–triblock terpolymer superstructures

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Zihui

    2014-02-21

    © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Controlling superstructure of binary nanoparticle mixtures in three dimensions from self-assembly opens enormous opportunities for the design of materials with unique properties. Here we report on how the intimate coupling of synthesis, in-depth electron tomographic characterization and theory enables exquisite control of superstructure in highly ordered porous three-dimensional continuous networks from single and binary mixtures of metal nanoparticles with a triblock terpolymer. Poly(isoprene-block-styrene-block-(N,N-dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) is synthesized and used as structure-directing agent for ligand-stabilized platinum and gold nanoparticles. Quantitative analysis provides insights into short-and long-range nanoparticle-nanoparticle correlations, and local and global contributions to structural chirality in the networks. Results provide synthesis criteria for next-generation mesoporous network superstructures from binary nanoparticle mixtures for potential applications in areas including catalysis.

  20. A general strategy to superstructured networks and nested self-similar networks of bismuth compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chuan Fei; Zhang, Jianming; Tian, Ye; Liu, Qian

    2012-10-23

    We have reported the synthesis of superstructured nanonetworks of BiOCl and nested nanonetworks of Bi(2)S(3) in a series of lattice-directed topotactic transformations [C. F. Guo et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2011, 138, 8211-8215]. Here we extend the transformations to a much broader system including ordered nanowall networks of BiOCl, BiOBr, Bi(2)O(2)CO(3), β-Bi(2)O(3), and Bi(2)S(3), as well as nested self-similar networks of Bi(2)S(3) and amorphous BiO(x). We suggest even more superstructured networks and nested self-similar networks of bismuth compounds with a lattice parameter of ~2(n/2) × 3.9 Å (n = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4), might also be obtained. The superstructured networks and nested networks are novel architectures that may find applications in electronic devices, sensors, filters, and photocatalysts.

  1. Ab initio study of long-period superstructures in close-packed A3B compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosengaard, N. M.; Skriver, Hans Lomholt

    1994-01-01

    We have performed ab initio calculations of the stability of one-dimensional long-period superstructures in Cu3Pd, Cu3Al, and Ag3Mg by means of an interface Green's function technique based on the linear-muffin-tin-orbitals method within the tight-binding and atomic-sphere approximations......-structure calculations of the structural energy differences for the two short-period superstructures DO22 and DO23. We find that at zero temperature the ground states of Cu3Pd, Cu3Al, and Ag3Mg are one-dimensional superstructures with antiphase boundary separations of 2-5 unit cells of the underlying L1(2) structure....

  2. Investigation of the thermal performance of a vertical two-phase closed thermosyphon as a passive cooling system for a nuclear reactor spent fuel storage pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusuma, Mukhsinun Hadi; Putra, Nandy; Imawan, Ficky Augusta [Heat Transfer Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering Universitas Indonesia, Kampus (Indonesia); Antariksawan, Anhar Riza [Centre for Nuclear Reactor Safety and Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia (BATAN), Kawasan Puspiptek Serpong (Indonesia)

    2017-04-15

    The decay heat that is produced by nuclear reactor spent fuel must be cooled in a spent fuel storage pool. A wickless heat pipe or a vertical two-phase closed thermosyphon (TPCT) is used to remove this decay heat. The objective of this research is to investigate the thermal performance of a prototype model for a large-scale vertical TPCT as a passive cooling system for a nuclear research reactor spent fuel storage pool. An experimental investigation and numerical simulation using RELAP5/MOD 3.2 were used to investigate the TPCT thermal performance. The effects of the initial pressure, filling ratio, and heat load were analyzed. Demineralized water was used as the TPCT working fluid. The cooled water was circulated in the water jacket as a cooling system. The experimental results show that the best thermal performance was obtained at a thermal resistance of 0.22°C/W, the lowest initial pressure, a filling ratio of 60%, and a high evaporator heat load. The simulation model that was experimentally validated showed a pattern and trend line similar to those of the experiment and can be used to predict the heat transfer phenomena of TPCT with varying inputs.

  3. ALGORITHM FOR THE CREATION OF THE WIREFRAME MODEL OF A FIXED ROOF FOR A FUEL STORAGE TANK IN FORM OF GEODESIC DOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamill Santiago Campos Pérez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A geodesic dome is a mesh of bars and nodes arranged along the edges and vertices of a polyhedron on a surface that can be in the form of a sphere, parabola or ellipse. From knowing the advantages of this type of structure, they have been widely used in various constructions such as: housing, commercial offices, greenhouses, fair stand, fixed ceilings fuel storage tanks, among others. Many researchers have studied modeling and geometry of geodesic domes. The purpose of this paper is to present, from the review and compilation of information from several researches, an algorithm for generating a wireframe model of a geodesic dome for fixed roofs of spherical fuel storage tanks, for a further analysis of resistance by the method of finite elements. In this paper, we describe in detail the procedure and geometric expressions that were used. Finally, a computer program was developed in order to evaluate mathematical expressions and the procedure described in this paper and also to have a tool for generating computational model of a geodesic dome.

  4. Ferromagnetism and superstructure in Ca1-xLaxB6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzykin; Gor'kov

    2000-03-06

    We critically investigate the model of a doped excitonic insulator, which has recently been invoked to explain some experimental properties of the ferromagnetic state in Ca1-xLaxB6. We demonstrate that the ground state of this model is intrinsically unstable towards the appearance of a superstructure. In addition, the model would lead to a phase separation of doped carriers into electron-enriched and neutral domains, which may be prevented by Coulomb forces only. Recent experiments indicate that a superstructure may indeed show up in this material.

  5. Optimal processing pathway for the production of biodiesel from microalgal biomass: A superstructure based approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizwan, Muhammad; Lee, Jay H.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2013-01-01

    for the production of biodiesel from microalgae. The proposed methodology is tested by implementing on a specific case with different choices of objective functions. The MINLP model is implemented and solved in GAMS using a database built in Excel. The results from the optimization are analyzed......In this study, we propose a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) model for superstructure based optimization of biodiesel production from microalgal biomass. The proposed superstructure includes a number of major processing steps for the production of biodiesel from microalgal biomass...

  6. K Basin sludge treatment process description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westra, A.G.

    1998-08-28

    The K East (KE) and K West (KW) fuel storage basins at the 100 K Area of the Hanford Site contain sludge on the floor, in pits, and inside fuel storage canisters. The major sources of the sludge are corrosion of the fuel elements and steel structures in the basin, sand intrusion from outside the buildings, and degradation of the structural concrete that forms the basins. The decision has been made to dispose of this sludge separate from the fuel elements stored in the basins. The sludge will be treated so that it meets Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) acceptance criteria and can be sent to one of the double-shell waste tanks. The US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office accepted a recommendation by Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc., to chemically treat the sludge. Sludge treatment will be done by dissolving the fuel constituents in nitric acid, separating the insoluble material, adding neutron absorbers for criticality safety, and reacting the solution with caustic to co-precipitate the uranium and plutonium. A truck will transport the resulting slurry to an underground storage tank (most likely tank 241-AW-105). The undissolved solids will be treated to reduce the transuranic (TRU) and content, stabilized in grout, and transferred to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) for disposal. This document describes a process for dissolving the sludge to produce waste streams that meet the TWRS acceptance criteria for disposal to an underground waste tank and the ERDF acceptance criteria for disposal of solid waste. The process described is based on a series of engineering studies and laboratory tests outlined in the testing strategy document (Flament 1998).

  7. Antiphase boundaries, inversion, and ferroelastic domains in the striped-type superstructure of γ-brass Cu-Al alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Y.; Hatano, M.; Tanimura, M.

    1996-05-01

    Features of the striped-type superstructure in γ-brass Cu-Al alloys have been investigated mainly by transmission electron microscopy in order to understand the role of a rhombohedral distortion in its stability. From dark field images taken from alloys exhibiting the superstructure, it was found that there exist two types of ferroelastic rhombohedral domains, which are in a twin relation. In other words, the superstructure is characterized by a periodic array of the ferroelastic domains as well as inversion antiphase boundaries. Because charge density waves should be responsible for the formation of the superstructure, as suggested in our previous paper [Phys. Rev. B 40, 5378 (1989)], the rhombohedral distortion must play a crucial role in their appearance. Presumably the distortion enlarges parallel portions of the Fermi surface. On the basis of the present experimental data, the interplay between the striped-type superstructure and the rhombohedral γ-brass structure is also discussed.

  8. Basis for category B designation for K basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    This Supporting Document analyzes the various fissile material configurations in the 105-K East and K West fuel storage basins to determine the proper firefighting category. Firefighting categories are assigned to fissionable material facilities to provide guidance to firefighters in the allowable uses of water and other extinguishing materials to prevent inadvertent rearrangement of fissile materials or addition of neutron moderators which could lead to a criticality. This document concludes the appropriate category is B, which does not impose any restrictions on the use of water for firefighting purposes

  9. Design criteria document, Fire Protection Task, K Basin Essential Systems Recovery, Project W-405

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, B.H.

    1994-01-01

    The K Basin were constructed in the early 1950's with a 20 year design life. The K Basins are currently in their third design life and are serving as a near term storage facility for irradiated N Reactor fuel until an interim fuel storage solution can be implemented. In April 1994, Project W-405, K Basin Essential Systems Recovery, was established to address (among other things) the immediate fire protection needs of the 100K Area. A Fire Barrier Evaluation was performed for the wall between the active and inactive areas of the 105KE and 105KW buildings. This evaluation concludes that the wall is capable of being upgraded to provide an equivalent level of fire resistance as a qualified barrier having a fire resistance rating of 2 hours. The Fire Protection Task is one of four separate Tasks included within the scope of Project W405, K Basin Essential systems Recovery. The other three Tasks are the Water Distribution System Task, the Electrical System Task, and the Maintenance Shop/Support Facility Task. The purpose of Project W-405's Fire Protection Task is to correct Life Safety Code (NFPA 101) non-compliances and to provide fire protection features in Buildings 105KE, 105KW and 190KE that are essential for assuring the safe operation and storage of spent nuclear fuel at the 100K Area Facilities' Irradiated Fuel Storage Basins (K Basins)

  10. Design criteria document, Fire Protection Task, K Basin Essential Systems Recovery, Project W-405

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, B.H.

    1994-12-14

    The K Basin were constructed in the early 1950`s with a 20 year design life. The K Basins are currently in their third design life and are serving as a near term storage facility for irradiated N Reactor fuel until an interim fuel storage solution can be implemented. In April 1994, Project W-405, K Basin Essential Systems Recovery, was established to address (among other things) the immediate fire protection needs of the 100K Area. A Fire Barrier Evaluation was performed for the wall between the active and inactive areas of the 105KE and 105KW buildings. This evaluation concludes that the wall is capable of being upgraded to provide an equivalent level of fire resistance as a qualified barrier having a fire resistance rating of 2 hours. The Fire Protection Task is one of four separate Tasks included within the scope of Project W405, K Basin Essential systems Recovery. The other three Tasks are the Water Distribution System Task, the Electrical System Task, and the Maintenance Shop/Support Facility Task. The purpose of Project W-405`s Fire Protection Task is to correct Life Safety Code (NFPA 101) non-compliances and to provide fire protection features in Buildings 105KE, 105KW and 190KE that are essential for assuring the safe operation and storage of spent nuclear fuel at the 100K Area Facilities` Irradiated Fuel Storage Basins (K Basins).

  11. Systematic network synthesis and design: Problem formulation, superstructure generation, data management and solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quaglia, Alberto; Gargalo, Carina L.; Chairakwongsa, Siwanat

    2015-01-01

    is still limited by the complexity associated with the mathematical formulation of some problems. In particular, the tasks of design space definition and representation as superstructure, as well as the data collection, validation and handling may become too complex and cumbersome to execute, especially...

  12. Cryo-transmission electron microscopy of a superstructure of fluid dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klösgen, B; Helfrich, W

    1997-01-01

    Using cryo-transmission electron microscopy, we have obtained abundant and reproducible evidence for a superstructure of dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) bilayers. Dispersions of vesicles were prepared by gentle shaking of a 2% suspension of DOPC in water followed in part by extrusion through...

  13. Globalisation in Africa: Reflecting on Peter Jarvis's Superstructure and Substructure Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Julia

    2017-01-01

    This paper reflects on Peter Jarvis' book "Globalisation, lifelong learning and the learning society," volume 2--in which he describes human learning within a global context and factors contributing to globalisation. He describes the relationship of power between countries manifested as the superstructure and sub structure. The paper…

  14. Adjusting the Metrics of 1-D Helical Gold Nanoparticle Superstructures Using Multivalent Peptide Conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merg, Andrea D; Slocik, Joseph; Blaber, Martin G; Schatz, George C; Naik, Rajesh; Rosi, Nathaniel L

    2015-09-01

    The properties of nanoparticle superstructures depend on many factors, including the structural metrics of the nanoparticle superstructure (particle diameter, interparticle distances, etc.). Here, we introduce a family of gold-binding peptide conjugate molecules that can direct nanoparticle assembly, and we describe how these molecules can be systematically modified to adjust the structural metrics of linear double-helical nanoparticle superstructures. Twelve new peptide conjugates are prepared via linking a gold-binding peptide, AYSSGAPPMPPF (PEP(Au)), to a hydrophobic aliphatic tail. The peptide conjugates have 1, 2, or 3 PEP(Au) headgroups and a C12, C14, C16, or C18 aliphatic tail. The soft assembly of these peptide conjugates was studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Several peptide conjugates assemble into 1-D twisted fibers having measurable structural parameters such as fiber width, thickness, and pitch that can be systematically varied by adjusting the aliphatic tail length and number of peptide headgroups. The linear soft assemblies serve as structural scaffolds for arranging gold nanoparticles into double-helical superstructures, which are examined via TEM. The pitch and interparticle distances of the gold nanoparticle double helices correspond to the underlying metrics of the peptide conjugate soft assemblies, illustrating that designed peptide conjugate molecules can be used to not only direct the assembly of gold nanoparticles but also control the metrics of the assembled structure.

  15. A generic methodology for processing route synthesis and design based on superstructure optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertran, Maria-Ona; Frauzem, Rebecca; Sanchez-Arcilla, Ana Sofia

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a systematic framework for novel and sustainable synthesis-design of processing routes is presented along with the associated computer-aided methods and tools. In Stage 1, superstructure optimization is used to determine the optimal processing route(s). In Stage 2, the design issue...

  16. Role of Steric Hindrance in the Crystal Packing of Z′ = 4 Superstructure of Trimethyltin Hydroxide

    KAUST Repository

    Dey, S.

    2018-01-22

    The roomerature crystal structure of trimethyltin hydroxide, (CH)SnOH, has been described by Anderson et al. [Cryst. Growth Des. 2011, 11, 820-826] as a 2a × 2b × 8c, 32-fold superstructure. We report a a × b × 8c, eight-fold superstructure with orthorhombic P2cn symmetry and Z′ = 4. Structured diffuse scattering observed at the positions of presumed superlattice reflections along a∗ and b∗ might have appeared as Bragg reflections in the experiment by Anderson et al. Alternatively, Anderson et al. and the present work might have studied different polymorphs of (CH)SnOH. Crystalline (CH)SnOH constitutes polymeric chains arranged parallel to c. In the eight-fold superstructure at 220 K, the polymeric chains possess a distorted zigzag arrangement of linked linear O-Sn-O units with bent angle at oxygen of ∼139.2°. This structure is essentially different from the 8-helical arrangement in the published 32-fold superstructure model. The origin of the distorted zigzag structure is explained by steric hindrance between hydrogen atoms of adjacent hydroxy groups and (CH)Sn groups. Frustration in the packing of the chains is determined by steric hindrance between methyl groups of neighboring chains, which prevents the formation of interchain C-H···O hydrogen bonds.

  17. Optically Reconfigurable Chiral Microspheres of Self-Organized Helical Superstructures with Handedness Inversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling; Chen, Dong; Gutierrez-Cuevas, Karla G; Bisoyi, Hari Krishna; Fan, Jing; Zola, Rafael S; Li, Guoqiang; Urbas, Augustine M; Bunning, Timothy J; Weitz, David A; Li, Quan

    2017-01-01

    Optically reconfigurable monodisperse chiral microspheres of self-organized helical superstructures with dynamic chirality were fabricated via a capillary-based microfluidic technique. Light-driven handedness-invertible transformations between different configurations of microspheres were vividly observed and optically tunable RGB photonic cross-communications among the microspheres were demonstrated.

  18. Creosote retention levels of timber highway bridge superstructures in Michigan’s Lower Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James P. Wacker; Douglas M. Crawford; Merv O. Eriksson

    2003-01-01

    Environmental concerns about preservative bleeding (or migrating) from timber bridges have increased in recent years. This preliminary study examined the creosote retention levels at six timber highway bridges in Michigan's lower peninsula during the summer of 2000. Several test core samples were removed from the bridge superstructures (four bleeders and two...

  19. Nanomanufacturing of gold nanoparticle superstructures from the "bottom-up"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Tingling

    Gold nanoparticles that can generate surface plasmons under appropriate conditions have attracted significant interest for their potential in optics, photonics, data storage and biological sensors. Developing high fidelity fabrication methods that yield gold nanoparticles with well-defined size, shape, composition and self-assembly allows manipulation of surface plasmonic properties for novel applications as well as revealing new aspects of the underlying science. This dissertation demonstrates multiple techniques that describe cost-effective bottom-up" fabrication methods that yield gold nano-superstructures. In my initial work, I outline the solution conditions for fabricating Janus nanoparticles composed of one gold nanoparticle per micelle. Poly(ethylene oxide)-b-polystyrene (PEO-b-PS) was synthesized and processed into spherical micelles, which served as the template to induce gold nanoparticles growth within the PEO corona in situ. Organic-inorganic hybrid nanoparticle formation was controlled kinetically by manipulating the concentration of both the micelle and reducing agent (HEPES). We also found that under certain condition, PEO-b-PS yielded micelles with pearl-like morphology, which possessed concentrated PEO domains at the interface between two adjacent PS cores. Careful manipulation of reaction conditions afforded gold nanoparticles that grew from the core-shell interface to form 1-dimensional (1-D) periodical gold nanoparticle chains. Based on similar principles, gold-gold dimers were synthesized by growing a second gold nanoparticle from a gold nanoparticle template surface-functionalized with PEO ligands. Gold dimers fabricated with this method exhibited strong enhancement properties via surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Instead of kinetic control, the number of newly grown gold nanoparticles on each particle template heavily relied on the PEO density on the nanoparticle template. As the size of the particle template increased from 10 nm to

  20. Unknown Aspects of Self-Assembly of PbS Microscale Superstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querejeta-Fernández, Ana; Hernández-Garrido, Juan C.; Yang, Hengxi; Zhou, Yunlong; Varela, Aurea; Parras, Marina; Calvino-Gámez, José J.; González-Calbet, Jose M.; Green, Peter F.; Kotov, Nicholas A.

    2012-01-01

    A lot of interesting and sophisticated examples of nanoparticle (NP) self-assembly (SA) are known. From both fundamental and technological standpoints this field requires advancements in three principle directions: a) understanding the mechanism and driving forces of three-dimensional (3D) SA with both nano- and micro-levels of organization; b) understanding of disassembly/deconstruction processes; and c) finding synthetic methods of assembly into continuous superstructures without insulating barriers. From this perspective, we investigated the formation of well-known star-like PbS superstructures and found a number of previously unknown or overlooked aspects that can advance the knowledge of NP self-assembly in these three directions. The primary one is that the formation of large seemingly monocrystalline PbS superstructures with multiple levels of octahedral symmetry can be explained only by SA of small octahedral NPs. We found five distinct periods in the formation PbS hyperbranched stars: 1) nucleation of early PbS NPs with an average diameter of 31 nm; 2) assembly into 100–500 nm octahedral mesocrystals; 3) assembly into 1000–2500 nm hyperbranched stars; 4) assembly and ionic recrystallization into six-arm rods accompanied by disappearance of fine nanoscale structure; 5) deconstruction into rods and cubooctahedral NPs. The switches in assembly patterns between the periods occur due to variable dominance of pattern–determining forces that include vander Waals and electrostatic (charge-charge, dipole-dipole, and polarization) interactions. The superstructure deconstruction is triggered by chemical changes in the deep eutectic solvent (DES) used as the media. PbS superstructures can be excellent models for fundamental studies of nanoscale organization and SA manufacturing of (opto)electronics and energy harvesting devices which require organization of PbS components at multiple scales. PMID:22515512

  1. Evaluation of Effect of Fuel Assembly Loading Patterns on Thermal and Shielding Performance of a Spent Fuel Storage/Transportation Cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuta, Judith M.; Jenquin, Urban P.; McKinnon, Mikal A.

    2001-11-20

    The licensing of spent fuel storage casks is generally based on conservative analyses that assume a storage system being uniformly loaded with design basis fuel. The design basis fuel typically assumes a maximum assembly enrichment, maximum burn up, and minimum cooling time. These conditions set the maximum decay heat loads and radioactive source terms for the design. Recognizing that reactor spent fuel pools hold spent fuel with an array of initial enrichments, burners, and cooling times, this study was performed to evaluate the effect of load pattern on peak cladding temperature and cask surface dose rate. Based on the analysis, the authors concluded that load patterns could be used to reduce peak cladding temperatures in a cask without adversely impacting the surface dose rates.

  2. Safety aspects of the cleaning and conditioning of radioactive sludge from spent fuel storage pool on 'RA' Research reactor in the Vinca Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlovic, R; Pavlovic, S.; Plecas, I.

    1999-01-01

    Spent fuel elements from nuclear reactors in the Vinca Institute have been temporary stored in water filled storage pool. Due to the fact that the water in the spent fuel elements storage pool have not been purified for a long time, all metallic components submerged in the water have been hardly corroded and significant amount of the sludge has been settled on the bottom of the pool. As a first step in improving spent fuel elements storage conditions and slowing down corrosion in the storage spent fuel elements pool we have decided to remove the sludge from the bottom of the pool. Although not high, but slightly radioactive, this sludge had to be treated as radioactive waste material. Some safety aspects and radiation protection measures in the process of the spent fuel storage pool cleaning are presented in this paper

  3. Partial Defect Verification of Spent Fuel Assemblies by PDET: Principle and Field Testing in Interim Spent Fuel Storage Facility (CLAB) in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, Y.S.; Kerr, P.; Sitaraman, S.; Swan, R. [Global Security Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Rossa, R. [SCK-CEN, Mol (Belgium); Liljenfeldt, H. [SKB in Oskarshamn (Sweden)

    2015-07-01

    The need for the development of a credible method and instrument for partial defect verification of spent fuel has been emphasized over a few decades in the safeguards communities as the diverted spent fuel pins can be the source of nuclear terrorism or devices. The need is increasingly more important and even urgent as many countries have started to transfer spent fuel to so called 'difficult-to-access' areas such as dry storage casks, reprocessing or geological repositories. Partial defect verification is required by IAEA before spent fuel is placed into 'difficult-to-access' areas. Earlier, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has reported the successful development of a new, credible partial defect verification method for pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent fuel assemblies without use of operator data, and further reported the validation experiments using commercial spent fuel assemblies with some missing fuel pins. The method was found to be robust as the method is relatively invariant to the characteristic variations of spent fuel assemblies such as initial fuel enrichment, cooling time, and burn-up. Since then, the PDET system has been designed and prototyped for 17x17 PWR spent fuel assemblies, complete with data acquisition software and acquisition electronics. In this paper, a summary description of the PDET development followed by results of the first successful field testing using the integrated PDET system and actual spent fuel assemblies performed in a commercial spent fuel storage site, known as Central Interim Spent fuel Storage Facility (CLAB) in Sweden will be presented. In addition to partial defect detection initial studies have determined that the tool can be used to verify the operator declared average burnup of the assembly as well as intra-assembly burnup levels. (authors)

  4. Highly Ordered Single Crystalline Nanowire Array Assembled Three-Dimensional Nb3O7(OH) and Nb2O5 Superstructures for Energy Storage and Conversion Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haimin; Wang, Yun; Liu, Porun; Chou, Shu Lei; Wang, Jia Zhao; Liu, Hongwei; Wang, Guozhong; Zhao, Huijun

    2016-01-26

    Three-dimensional (3D) metal oxide superstructures have demonstrated great potentials for structure-dependent energy storage and conversion applications. Here, we reported a facile hydrothermal method for direct growth of highly ordered single crystalline nanowire array assembled 3D orthorhombic Nb3O7(OH) superstructures and their subsequent thermal transformation into monoclinic Nb2O5 with well preserved 3D nanowire superstructures. The performance of resultant 3D Nb3O7(OH) and Nb2O5 superstructures differed remarkably when used for energy conversion and storage applications. The thermally converted Nb2O5 superstructures as anode material of lithium-ion batteries (LiBs) showed higher capacity and excellent cycling stability compared to the Nb3O7(OH) superstructures, while directly hydrothermal grown Nb3O7(OH) nanowire superstructure film on FTO substrate as photoanode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) without the need for further calcination exhibited an overall light conversion efficiency of 6.38%, higher than that (5.87%) of DSSCs made from the thermally converted Nb2O5 film. The high energy application performance of the niobium-based nanowire superstructures with different chemical compositions can be attributed to their large surface area, superior electron transport property, and high light utilization efficiency resulting from a 3D superstructure, high crystallinity, and large sizes. The formation process of 3D nanowire superstructures before and after thermal treatment was investigated and discussed based on our theoretical and experimental results.

  5. In situ synthesis of P3HT-capped CdSe superstructures and their application in solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yanling; Song, Guosheng; Hu, Xianghua; He, Guanjie; Chen, Zhigang; Xu, Xiaofeng; Hu, Junqing

    2013-02-26

    Organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells have great potentials to revolutionize solar cells, but their use has been limited by inefficient electron/hole transfer due to the presence of long aliphatic ligands and unsatisfying continuous interpenetrating networks. To solve this problem, herein, we have developed a one-pot route for in situ synthesis of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)-capped CdSe superstructures, in which P3HT acts directly as the ligands. These CdSe superstructures are in fact constructed from numerous CdSe nanoparticles. The presence of P3HT ligands has no obvious adverse effects on the morphologies and phases of CdSe superstructures. Importantly, higher content of P3HT ligands results in stronger photoabsorption and fluorescent intensity of CdSe superstructure samples. Subsequently, P3HT-capped CdSe superstructures prepared with 50 mg P3HT were used as a model material to fabricate the solar cell with a structure of PEDOT:PSS/P3HT-capped CdSe superstructures: P3HT/Al. This cell gives a power conversion efficiency of 1.32%.

  6. Enigmatic cranial superstructures among Chamorro ancestors from the Mariana Islands: gross anatomy and microanatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heathcote, Gary M; Bromage, Timothy G; Sava, Vincent J; Hanson, Douglas B; Anderson, Bruce E

    2014-06-01

    This study focuses on the gross anatomy, anatomic relations, microanatomy, and the meaning of three enigmatic, geographically patterned, and quasi-continuous superstructures of the posterior cranium. Collectively known as occipital superstructures (OSSs), these traits are the occipital torus tubercle (TOT), retromastoid process (PR), and posterior supramastoid tubercle (TSP). When present, TOT, PR, and TSP develop at posterior cranial attachment sites of the upper trapezius, superior oblique, and sternocleidomastoid muscles, respectively. Marked expression and co-occurrence of these OSSs are virtually circumscribed within Oceania and reach highest recorded frequencies in protohistoric Chamorros (CHamoru) of the Mariana Islands. Prior to undertaking scanning electron microscopy (SEM) work, our working multifactorial model for OSS development was that early-onset, long-term, and chronic activity-related microtrauma at enthesis sites led to exuberant reactive or reparative responses in a substantial minority of genetically predisposed (and mostly male) individuals. SEM imaging, however, reveals topographic patterning that questions, but does not negate, activity induction of these superstructures. Although OSSs appear macroscopically as relatively large and discrete phenomena, SEM findings reveal a unique, widespread, and seemingly systemic distribution of structures over the occipital surface that have the appearance of OSS microforms. Nevertheless, apparent genetic underpinnings, anatomic relationships with muscle entheses, and positive correlation of OSS development with humeral robusticity continue to suggest that these superstructures have potential to at once bear witness to Chamorro population history and inform osteobiographical constructions of chronic activity patterns in individuals bearing them. Further work is outlined that would illuminate the proximate and ultimate meanings of OSS. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Study of GaSb and AlSb surface superstructures based on the (100) planes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubyshev, D.I.; Gonzalez-Borrero, P.P.; Marega Junior, E.; La Scala Junior, N.; Basmaji, P

    1995-01-01

    Full text. Surface superstructure (SS) on semiconductor surfaces determines properties like Schottky barrier heights, vacancy densities and surface adatom migration length at the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). In this work we have studied the evolution of surface structures as function of the substrate temperature on the (100) Al Sb and Ga Sb by RHEED analysis. Atomic smooth surfaces were produced by MBE on the (100) Ga As substrates. As the temperature of the Sb-rich surfaces of Al Sb and Ga Sb increases from the room temperature, it is observed that the surface superstructure is changed to the (4 x 2)metal stabilized one. On the Ga Sb (100) surfaces were observed the following number of SS: the (2 x 5)Sb-stabilized, (1 x 3) and (2 x 4)Ga stabilized SS. The phase transition from the (2 x 5)Sb-stabilized SS to (1 x 3) ones goes through unusual changing of superstructure strike positions. This can be explained considering the SS rotation during the phase transition relatively to the bulk lattice. The strike intensities for different azimuths of the (2 x 5)SS are altered in a factor 2, indicating a lower SS ordering across the domain axe (x2). On the Al Sb surfaces the following SS sequence were detected: at low temperature there is a superposition of the (6 x 1) and (2 x 1) SS, at higher temperatures (3 x 1), (3 x 3) and (2 x 4)Al-stabilized structures. We have supposed that the low temperature SS (6 x 1)+(2 x 1) have more than one monolayer coverage by Sb. We have also observed form the first time evidences of mixed surface superstructures (6 x 1)+(2 x 1) and SS (3 x 3). (author)

  8. Superstructure-based Design and Optimization of Batch Biodiesel Production Using Heterogeneous Catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuh, M. Z.; Nasir, N. F.

    2017-08-01

    Biodiesel as a fuel comprised of mono alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from renewable lipid feedstock, such as vegetable oil and animal fat. Biodiesel production is complex process which need systematic design and optimization. However, no case study using the process system engineering (PSE) elements which are superstructure optimization of batch process, it involves complex problems and uses mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP). The PSE offers a solution to complex engineering system by enabling the use of viable tools and techniques to better manage and comprehend the complexity of the system. This study is aimed to apply the PSE tools for the simulation of biodiesel process and optimization and to develop mathematical models for component of the plant for case A, B, C by using published kinetic data. Secondly, to determine economic analysis for biodiesel production, focusing on heterogeneous catalyst. Finally, the objective of this study is to develop the superstructure for biodiesel production by using heterogeneous catalyst. The mathematical models are developed by the superstructure and solving the resulting mixed integer non-linear model and estimation economic analysis by using MATLAB software. The results of the optimization process with the objective function of minimizing the annual production cost by batch process from case C is 23.2587 million USD. Overall, the implementation a study of process system engineering (PSE) has optimized the process of modelling, design and cost estimation. By optimizing the process, it results in solving the complex production and processing of biodiesel by batch.

  9. Overcoming artificial spatial correlations in simulations of superstructure domain growth with parallel Monte Carlo algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleier, W.; Besold, G.; Heinz, K.

    1992-01-01

    The authors study the applicability of parallelized/vectorized Monte Carlo (MC) algorithms to the simulation of domain growth in two-dimensional lattice gas models undergoing an ordering process after a rapid quench below an order-disorder transition temperature. As examples they consider models with 2 x 1 and c(2 x 2) equilibrium superstructures on the square and rectangular lattices, respectively. They also study the case of phase separation ('1 x 1' islands) on the square lattice. A generalized parallel checkerboard algorithm for Kawasaki dynamics is shown to give rise to artificial spatial correlations in all three models. However, only if superstructure domains evolve do these correlations modify the kinetics by influencing the nucleation process and result in a reduced growth exponent compared to the value from the conventional heat bath algorithm with random single-site updates. In order to overcome these artificial modifications, two MC algorithms with a reduced degree of parallelism ('hybrid' and 'mask' algorithms, respectively) are presented and applied. As the results indicate, these algorithms are suitable for the simulation of superstructure domain growth on parallel/vector computers. 60 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  10. Addendum to the Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 321: Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynn Kidman

    2008-10-01

    This document constitutes an addendum to the August 2001, Corrective Action Decision Document / Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 321: Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage as described in the document Recommendations and Justifications for Modifications for Use Restrictions Established under the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (UR Modification document) dated February 2008. The UR Modification document was approved by NDEP on February 26, 2008. The approval of the UR Modification document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR modifications. In conformance with the UR Modification document, this addendum consists of: • This cover page that refers the reader to the UR Modification document for additional information • The cover and signature pages of the UR Modification document • The NDEP approval letter • The corresponding section of the UR Modification document This addendum provides the documentation justifying the cancellation of the UR for CAS 22-99-05, Fuel Storage Area. This UR was established as part of a Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) corrective action and is based on the presence of contaminants at concentrations greater than the action levels established at the time of the initial investigation (FFACO, 1996; as amended August 2006). Since this UR was established, practices and procedures relating to the implementation of risk-based corrective actions (RBCA) have changed. Therefore, this UR was re-evaluated against the current RBCA criteria as defined in the Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels (NNSA/NSO, 2006c). This re-evaluation consisted of comparing the original data (used to define the need for the UR) to risk-based final action levels (FALs) developed using the current Industrial Sites RBCA process. The re-evaluation resulted in a recommendation to remove the UR because

  11. Preliminary Hazards Analysis of K-Basin Fuel Encapsulation and Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strickland, G.C.

    1994-01-01

    This Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) systematically examines the K-Basin facilities and their supporting systems for hazards created by abnormal operating conditions and external events (e.g., earthquakes) which have the potential for causing undesirable consequences to the facility worker, the onsite individual, or the public. The operational activities examined are fuel encapsulation, fuel storage and cooling. Encapsulation of sludges in the basins is not examined. A team of individuals from Westinghouse produced a set of Hazards and Operability (HAZOP) tables documenting their examination of abnormal process conditions in the systems and activities examined in K-Basins. The purpose of this report is to reevaluate and update the HAZOP in the original Preliminary Hazard Analysis of K-Basin Fuel Encapsulation and Storage originally developed in 1991

  12. A model of the dose rate calculation for a spent fuel storage structure by Monte Carlo method using the modulated code system SCALE 4.4a

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantazi, D.; Mateescu, S.; Stanciu, M.; Mete, M.

    2001-01-01

    The modulated code system SCALE is used to perform a standardized shielding analysis for any facility containing spent fuel: handling devices, transport cask, intermediate and final storage facility. The neutron and gamma sources as well as the dose rates can be obtained using either discrete-ordinates or Monte Carlo methods. The shielding analysis control modules (SAS1, SAS2H and SAS4) provide a general procedure for cross-section preparation, fuel depletion/decay calculation and general onedimensional or multi-dimensional shielding analysis. The module SAS4 used in the analysis presented in this paper, is a three-dimensional Monte Carlo shielding analysis module, which uses an automated biasing procedure specialized for a nuclear fuel transport or storage container. The Spent Fuel Interim Storage Facility in our country is projected to be a parallelepiped concrete monolithic module, consisting of an external reinforced concrete structure with vertical storage cylinders (pits) arranged in a rectangular array. A pit is filled with sealed cylindrical baskets of stainless steel arranged in a stack, and with each basket containing spent fuel bundles in vertical position. The pit is closed with a concrete plug. The cylindrical geometry model is used in the shielding evaluation for a spent fuel storage structure (pit), and only the active parts of the superposed bundles is considered. The dose rates have been calculated in both the axial and radial directions using SAS4.(author)

  13. Risk-based determination of design pressure of LNG fuel storage tanks based on dynamic process simulation combined with Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, Yeelyong; Chang, Kwangpil; Seo, Yutaek; Chang, Daejun

    2014-01-01

    This study proposes a new methodology that combines dynamic process simulation (DPS) and Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) to determine the design pressure of fuel storage tanks on LNG-fueled ships. Because the pressure of such tanks varies with time, DPS is employed to predict the pressure profile. Though equipment failure and subsequent repair affect transient pressure development, it is difficult to implement these features directly in the process simulation due to the randomness of the failure. To predict the pressure behavior realistically, MCS is combined with DPS. In MCS, discrete events are generated to create a lifetime scenario for a system. The combination of MCS with long-term DPS reveals the frequency of the exceedance pressure. The exceedance curve of the pressure provides risk-based information for determining the design pressure based on risk acceptance criteria, which may vary with different points of view. - Highlights: • The realistic operation scenario of the LNG FGS system is estimated by MCS. • In repeated MCS trials, the availability of the FGS system is evaluated. • The realistic pressure profile is obtained by the proposed methodology. • The exceedance curve provides risk-based information for determining design pressure

  14. Morphology-controlled hydrothermal synthesis of MnCO3 hierarchical superstructures with Schiff base as stabilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, He; Xu, Jie-yan; Yang, Hong; Liang, Jie; Yang, Shiping; Wu, Huixia

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: MnCO3 microcrystals with hierarchical superstructures were synthesized by using the CO2 in atmosphere as carbonate ions source and Schiff base as shape guiding-agent in water/ethanol system under hydrothermal condition. Highlights: → The most interesting in this work is the use of the greenhouse gases CO 2 in atmosphere as carbonate ions source to precipitate with Mn 2+ for producing MnCO 3 crystals. → This work is the first report related to the small organic molecule Schiff base as shape guiding-agent to produce different MnCO 3 hierarchical superstructures. → We are controllable synthesis of the MnCO 3 hierarchical superstructures such as chrysanthemum, straw-bundle, dumbbell and sphere-like microcrystals. → The as-prepared MnCO 3 could be used precursor to fabricate the Mn 2 O 3 hierarchical superstructures after thermal decomposition at high temperature. -- Abstract: MnCO 3 with hierarchical superstructures such as chrysanthemum, straw-bundle, dumbbell and sphere-like were synthesized in water/ethanol system under environment-friendly hydrothermal condition. In the synthesis process, the CO 2 in atmosphere was used as the source of carbonate ions and Schiff base was used as shape guiding-agent. The different superstructures of MnCO 3 could be obtained by controlling the hydrothermal temperature, the molar ratio of manganous ions to the Schiff base, or the volume ratio of water to ethanol. A tentative growth mechanism for the generation of MnCO 3 superstructures was proposed based on the rod-dumbbell-sphere model. Furthermore, the MnCO 3 as precursor could be further successfully transferred to Mn 2 O 3 microstructure after heating in the atmosphere at 500 o C, and the morphology of the Mn 2 O 3 was directly determined by that of the MnCO 3 precursor.

  15. Evaluation of Cask Drop Criticality Issues at K Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GOLDMANN, L.H.

    2000-01-24

    An analysis of ability of Multi-canister Overpack (MCO) to withstand drops at K Basin without exceeding the criticality design requirements. Report concludes the MCO will function acceptably. The spent fuel currently residing in the 105 KE and 105 KW storage basins will be placed in fuel storage baskets which will be loaded into the MCO cask assembly. During the basket loading operations the MCO cask assembly will be positioned near the bottom of the south load out pit (SLOP). The loaded MCO cask will be lifted from the SLOP transferred to the transport trailer and delivered to the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). In the wet condition there is a potential for criticality problems if significant changes in the designed fuel configurations occur. The purpose of this report is to address structural issues associated with criticality design features for MCO cask drop accidents in the 105 KE and 105 KW facilities.

  16. Criticality and shielding study for reracking of the spent fuel storage of NPP Jaragua; Estudio de la criticalidad y el blindaje del almacen de combustible irradiado de la Central Electronuclear de Juragua para redes compactas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra Valdes, Ramiro; Lopez Aldama, Daniel; Rodriguez Gual, Maritza; Garcia Yip, Fernando; Alvarez Cardona, Caridad [Centro de Tecnologia Nuclear, La Habana (Cuba)

    1996-07-01

    Annually one third of the fuel assemblies are discharged from VVER-440 reactor core. After 2 years of decay in the refueling pool, these assemblies are transferred to the spent fuel storage pool. With two units in operation, it would exhaust its storage capability in about 10 years. According to the trend of extending the interim storage period, the reracking of the spent fuel storage pool has become a viable option to enlarge storage capability at the nuclear power plant. The present paper deals with the criticality and shielding analysis for reracking of the spent fuel storage pool of NPP Juragua. The WIMS/D4 lattice code is used for the criticality study. For doses calculations, the source strength is estimated with ORIGEN 2 and the shielding problem is solved with the combination of the code ANISN and the multigroup library CASK. It is shown that it is possible to compact the storage rack in a factor of 1.98 using 3 mm thick boron steel clads. While the source is nearly doubled in the pool, the doses in its boundaries are increased approximately in only 1.24 times. (author)

  17. Preparation of flowerlike BiOBr/Bi2MoO6 composite superstructures and the adsorption behavior to dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiong; Ni, Yonghong; Ye, Shiyong

    2017-05-01

    Flowerlike BiOBr/Bi2MoO6 composite superstructures were synthesized by a simple solvothermal route with subsequent direct precipitation at room temperature, employing bismuth nitrate, sodium molybdate, and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as the raw materials. The phase and the morphology of the as-prepared products were characterized by SEM, TEM, SAED, XRD and EDS. BET investigation proved the mesoporous structure of flowerlike BiOBr/Bi2MoO6 composite superstructures. It was found that the composite superstructures exhibited higher adsorption ability to methylene blue (MB) and pyronine B (PB) dyes from their solutions than single component (BiOBr or Bi2MoO6). As a case, the adsorption behavior of MB aqueous solution on BiOBr/Bi2MoO6 composite superstructures was detailedly studied, including the adsorption isotherm, kinetics and thermodynamic parameters. The results indicated that flowerlike BiOBr/Bi2MoO6 composite superstructures have potential applications in the field of wastewater treatment.

  18. Polymersomes with asymmetric membranes and self-assembled superstructures using pentablock quintopolymers resolved by electron tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Haataja, J. S.

    2018-01-09

    Polystyrene-block-poly(1,4-isoprene)-block-poly(dimethyl siloxane)-block-poly(tert-butyl methacrylate)-block-poly(2-vinyl pyridine), PS-b-PI-b-PDMS-b-PtBMA-b-P2VP, self-assembles in acetone into polymersomes with asymmetric (directional) PI-b-PDMS membranes. The polymersomes, in turn, self-assemble into superstructures. Analogically to supravesicular structures at a smaller length scale, we refer to them as suprapolymersome structures. Electron tomograms are shown to be invaluable in the structural assessment of such complex self-assemblies.

  19. Experimental Study of Properties of Pervious Concrete used for Bridge Superstructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Mia Schou Møller; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2014-01-01

    One of the main advantages of pervious concrete is its ability to drain water easily. Moreover, ear-lier studies on pervious concrete have shown that it can be designed to perform well in freeze-thaw regions. Bridge superstructures placed in regions where the temperature during winter time varies...... substructure and the wearing course. One pervious concrete mixture contain-ing air entrainment is designed and tested. The tests include investigations of compaction meth-ods, compressive strength, stiffness, frost resistance and permeability....

  20. Global Spent Fuel Logistics Systems Study (GSFLS). Volume 4. Pacific basin spent fuel logistics system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    This report summarizes the conceptual framework for a Pacific Basin Spent Fuel Logistics System (PBSFLS); and preliminarily describes programatic steps that might be taken to implement such a system. The PBSFLS concept is described in terms of its technical and institutional components. The preferred PBSFLS concept embodies the rationale of emplacing a fuel cycle system which can adjust to the technical and institutional non-proliferation solutions as they are developed and accepted by nations. The concept is structured on the basis of initially implementing a regional spent fuel storage and transportation system which can technically and institutionally accommodate downstream needs for energy recovery and long-term waste management solutions.

  1. Global Spent Fuel Logistics Systems Study (GSFLS). Volume 4. Pacific basin spent fuel logistics system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-06-01

    This report summarizes the conceptual framework for a Pacific Basin Spent Fuel Logistics System (PBSFLS); and preliminarily describes programatic steps that might be taken to implement such a system. The PBSFLS concept is described in terms of its technical and institutional components. The preferred PBSFLS concept embodies the rationale of emplacing a fuel cycle system which can adjust to the technical and institutional non-proliferation solutions as they are developed and accepted by nations. The concept is structured on the basis of initially implementing a regional spent fuel storage and transportation system which can technically and institutionally accommodate downstream needs for energy recovery and long-term waste management solutions

  2. Synthesis of micro-sized shell-isolated 3D plasmonic superstructures for in situ single-particle SERS monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Zhao, Jingjing; Ji, Ji; Liu, Baohong

    2016-04-01

    A single-particle SERS system enabling real-time and in situ observation of Au-catalyzed reactions has been developed. Both the catalytic activity and the SERS effect are coupled into a single bi-functional 3D superstructure comprising Au nanosatellites self-assembled onto a shell-insulated Ag microflower core, which eliminates the interference from photocatalysis.A single-particle SERS system enabling real-time and in situ observation of Au-catalyzed reactions has been developed. Both the catalytic activity and the SERS effect are coupled into a single bi-functional 3D superstructure comprising Au nanosatellites self-assembled onto a shell-insulated Ag microflower core, which eliminates the interference from photocatalysis. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of the synthesis and characterization of the Ag@SiO2@Au superstructures (SEM and TEM images, UV/vis and SERS spectra). See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr00278a

  3. Topotactic transformations of superstructures: from thin films to two-dimensional networks to nested two-dimensional networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chuan Fei; Cao, Sihai; Zhang, Jianming; Tang, Haoying; Guo, Shengming; Tian, Ye; Liu, Qian

    2011-06-01

    Design and synthesis of super-nanostructures is one of the key and prominent topics in nanotechnology. Here we propose a novel methodology for synthesizing complex hierarchical superstructures using sacrificial templates composed of ordered two-dimensional (2D) nanostructures through lattice-directed topotactic transformations. The fabricated superstructures are nested 2D orthogonal Bi(2)S(3) networks composed of nanorods. Further investigation indicates that the lattice matching between the product and sacrificial template is the dominant mechanism for the formation of the superstructures, which agrees well with the simulation results based on an anisotropic nucleation and growth analysis. Our approach may provide a promising way toward a lattice-directed nonlithographic nanofabrication technique for making functional porous nanoarchitectures and electronic devices. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  4. Simultaneous neutron and x-ray refinement of Ortho-II superstructure in YBa2Cu3O6.5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadfield, R.A.; Schleger, P.; Casalta, H.

    1994-01-01

    Clearly defined Lorentzian-like profiles of the Ortho-II superstructure diffraction peaks have been observed with neutrons for the first time. The superstructure has been refined by simultaneously fitting neutron and x-ray measurements on the same crystal. The combination of both x-ray and neutron...

  5. In situ synthesis of P3HT-capped CdSe superstructures and their application in solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Yanling; Song, Guosheng; Hu, Xianghua; He, Guanjie; Chen, Zhigang; Xu, Xiaofeng; Hu, Junqing

    2013-01-01

    Organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells have great potentials to revolutionize solar cells, but their use has been limited by inefficient electron/hole transfer due to the presence of long aliphatic ligands and unsatisfying continuous interpenetrating networks. To solve this problem, herein, we have developed a one-pot route for in situ synthesis of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)-capped CdSe superstructures, in which P3HT acts directly as the ligands. These CdSe superstructures are in fact constr...

  6. Historical Development and Applications of Unconventional Structure of Railway Superstructure of the Railway Infrastructure of the Slovak Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ižvolt Libor

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the first part, the paper deals with the origin and reasons to construct an unconventional type of the structure of railway superstructure, which is referred to as a slab track, it is shortly characterized by its development and the possible application of the railway tracks. The second part of the paper deals with the historical development of unconventional structure of railway superstructure in the Slovak Republic, characteristics of the developed and tested structures, and then in the third part of this paper, there are characterized specific structures of slab track applied in the ongoing modernization of the railway infrastructure in the Slovak Republic

  7. Experimental Investigation of a Self-Sensing Hybrid GFRP-Concrete Bridge Superstructure with Embedded FBG Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yanlei; Li, Yunyu; Ran, Jianghua; Cao, Mingmin

    2012-01-01

    A self-sensing hybrid GFRP-concrete bridge superstructure, which consists of two bridge decks and each bridge deck is comprised of four GFRP box sections combined with a thin layer of concrete in the compression zone, was developed by using eight embedded FBG sensors in the top and bottom flanges of the four GFRP box sections at midspan section of one bridge deck along longitudinal direction, respectively. The proposed self-sensing hybrid bridge superstructure was tested in 4-point loading to...

  8. Antipulverization Electrode Based on Low-Carbon Triple-Shelled Superstructures for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Lianhai; Su, Qingmei; Zhu, Feng; Chen, Bingjie; Lu, Huanhuan; Peng, Chengxin; He, Ting; Du, Gaohui; He, Pengfei; Chen, Kai; Yang, Shihe; Yang, Jinhu; Peng, Huisheng

    2017-09-01

    The realization of antipulverization electrode structures, especially using low-carbon-content anode materials, is crucial for developing high-energy and long-life lithium-ion batteries (LIBs); however, this technology remains challenging. This study shows that SnO 2 triple-shelled hollow superstructures (TSHSs) with a low carbon content (4.83%) constructed by layer-by-layer assembly of various nanostructure units can withstand a huge volume expansion of ≈231.8% and deliver a high reversible capacity of 1099 mAh g -1 even after 1450 cycles. These values represent the best comprehensive performance in SnO 2 -based anodes to date. Mechanics simulations and in situ transmission electron microscopy suggest that the TSHSs enable a self-synergistic structure-preservation behavior upon lithiation/delithiation, protecting the superstructures from collapse and guaranteeing the electrode structural integrity during long-term cycling. Specifically, the outer shells during lithiation processes are fully lithiated, preventing the overlithiation and the collapse of the inner shells; in turn, in delithiation processes, the underlithiated inner shells work as robust cores to support the huge volume contraction of the outer shells; meanwhile, the middle shells with abundant pores offer sufficient space to accommodate the volume change from the outer shell during both lithiation and delithiation. This study opens a new avenue in the development of high-performance LIBs for practical energy applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Comparative analysis of cogeneration power plants optimization based on stochastic method using superstructure and process simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Leonardo Rodrigues de [Instituto Federal do Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil)], E-mail: leoaraujo@ifes.edu.br; Donatelli, Joao Luiz Marcon [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil)], E-mail: joaoluiz@npd.ufes.br; Silva, Edmar Alino da Cruz [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA/CTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Azevedo, Joao Luiz F. [Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco (CTA/IAE/ALA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Thermal systems are essential in facilities such as thermoelectric plants, cogeneration plants, refrigeration systems and air conditioning, among others, in which much of the energy consumed by humanity is processed. In a world with finite natural sources of fuels and growing energy demand, issues related with thermal system design, such as cost estimative, design complexity, environmental protection and optimization are becoming increasingly important. Therefore the need to understand the mechanisms that degrade energy, improve energy sources use, reduce environmental impacts and also reduce project, operation and maintenance costs. In recent years, a consistent development of procedures and techniques for computational design of thermal systems has occurred. In this context, the fundamental objective of this study is a performance comparative analysis of structural and parametric optimization of a cogeneration system using stochastic methods: genetic algorithm and simulated annealing. This research work uses a superstructure, modelled in a process simulator, IPSEpro of SimTech, in which the appropriate design case studied options are included. Accordingly, the cogeneration system optimal configuration is determined as a consequence of the optimization process, restricted within the configuration options included in the superstructure. The optimization routines are written in MsExcel Visual Basic, in order to work perfectly coupled to the simulator process. At the end of the optimization process, the system optimal configuration, given the characteristics of each specific problem, should be defined. (author)

  10. Dynamic cholesteric liquid crystal superstructures photoaligned by one-step polarization holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sen-Sen; Shen, Yuan; Chang, Zhen-Ni; Li, Wen-Song; Xu, Yan-Chao; Fan, Xing-Yu; Chen, Lu-Jian

    2017-12-01

    A convenient approach to modulate the fingerprint textures of methyl red (MR) doped cholesteric liquid crystals by asymmetric photoalignment in the green-light waveband is presented, resulting in the generation of voltage-controllable helical superstructures. The interaction between the MR molecules and the incident light polarization determines the initial twisted planar geometry, providing a multivariant control over the stripe directions of fingerprint textures by applying a proper electric field. The key factors for precise manipulation of fingerprint stripes in a predictable and rewritable manner are analyzed theoretically and investigated experimentally, which involves the alignment asymmetry, the ratio of cell gap to natural pitch length, and the chirality of chiral dopant. Dynamic periodic fingerprint textures in shapes of dashed curve and dashed line are further demonstrated by utilizing a facile one-step polarization holography process using two beams with orthogonal circular and orthogonal linear polarizations, respectively. It is believed that the practical approach described in this study would enrich the research contents of self-assembled hierarchical superstructures using soft liquid crystal building blocks.

  11. Solving a superstructure from two-wavelength x-ray powder diffraction data - a simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian-Rong; Gu, Yuan-Xin; Fan, Hai-Fu

    2003-03-01

    Two different kinds of phase ambiguities are intrinsic in two-wavelength x-ray powder diffraction from acentric crystal structures having pseudo-translation symmetry. In a test calculation we have solved the problem for the first time by two different phasing procedures developed originally in single-crystal structure analysis. They are the direct method of breaking enantiomorphous phase ambiguity in protein crystallography and that of breaking translational phase ambiguity for superstructures. An artificial structure was used in the test, which is based on atomic coordinates of the known structure, SHAS (C5H6O5N3K), with the atom K replaced by Rb. The arrangement of Rb atoms possesses a subperiodicity of t = (a + b + c)/2. Two-wavelength synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction data were simulated with lambda1=0.0816nm and lambda2=0.1319nm. Overlapped reflections were uniformly decomposed at the beginning and redecomposed afterward when the partial-structure information became available. The enantiomorphous phase ambiguity was resolved only for reflections with h + k + l even. Phases of reflections with h + k + l odd were derived by the direct method of solving superstructures. A fragment was then obtained, which led to the complete structure in five cycles of Fourier iteration.

  12. Stimuli-Driven Control of the Helical Axis of Self-Organized Soft Helical Superstructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisoyi, Hari Krishna; Bunning, Timothy J; Li, Quan

    2018-03-30

    Supramolecular and macromolecular functional helical superstructures are ubiquitous in nature and display an impressive catalog of intriguing and elegant properties and performances. In materials science, self-organized soft helical superstructures, i.e., cholesteric liquid crystals (CLCs), serve as model systems toward the understanding of morphology- and orientation-dependent properties of supramolecular dynamic helical architectures and their potential for technological applications. Moreover, most of the fascinating device applications of CLCs are primarily determined by different orientations of the helical axis. Here, the control of the helical axis orientation of CLCs and its dynamic switching in two and three dimensions using different external stimuli are summarized. Electric-field-, magnetic-field-, and light-irradiation-driven orientation control and reorientation of the helical axis of CLCs are described and highlighted. Different techniques and strategies developed to achieve a uniform lying helix structure are explored. Helical axis control in recently developed heliconical cholesteric systems is examined. The control of the helical axis orientation in spherical geometries such as microdroplets and microshells fabricated from these enticing photonic fluids is also explored. Future challenges and opportunities in this exciting area involving anisotropic chiral liquids are then discussed. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Dynamic Orthogonal Switching of a Thermoresponsive Self-Organized Helical Superstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lingli; Wang, Ling; Hiremath, Uma S; Bisoyi, Hari Krishna; Nair, Geetha G; Yelamaggad, Channabasaveshwar V; Urbas, Augustine M; Bunning, Timothy J; Li, Quan

    2017-06-01

    Controllable manipulation of self-organized dynamic superstructures of functional molecular materials by external stimuli is an enabling enterprise. Herein, we have developed a thermally driven, self-organized helical superstructure, i.e., thermoresponsive cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC), by integrating a judiciously chosen thermoresponsive chiral molecular switch into an achiral liquid crystalline medium. The CLC in lying state, in both planar and twisted nematic cells, exhibits reversible in-plane orthogonal switching of its helical axis in response to the combined effect of temperature and electric field. Consequently, the direction of the cholesteric grating has been observed to undergo 90° switching in a single cell, enabling non-mechanical beam steering along two orthogonal directions. The ability to reversibly switch the cholesteric gartings along perpendicular directions by appropriately adjusting temperature and electric field strength could facilitate their applications in 2D beam steering, spectrum scanning, optoelectronics and beyond. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Spent fuel storage at KURRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagome, Y.; Fujita, Y.; Kanda, K.

    2004-01-01

    The Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University (KURRI) has more than 200 MTR-type spent fuel elements stored in water pools. The longest pool residence time is 21 years at present. The integrity of spent fuel elements have been confirmed by a visual inspection and a sipping test. The spent fuel elements should be reprocessed in accordance with KURRI's policy. KURRI is now negotiating with a reprocessing plant to make a contract, as considering the consequences in U.S. (author)

  15. HTGR spent fuel storage study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgoyne, R.M.; Holder, N.D.

    1979-04-01

    This report documents a study of alternate methods of storing high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) spent fuel. General requirements and design considerations are defined for a storage facility integral to a fuel recycle plant. Requirements for stand-alone storage are briefly considered. Three alternate water-cooled storage conceptual designs (plug well, portable well, and monolith) are considered and compared to a previous air-cooled design. A concept using portable storage wells in racks appears to be the most favorable, subject to seismic analysis and economic evaluation verification

  16. Spent fuel storage and isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensky, M.S.; Kurzeka, W.J.; Bauer, A.A.; Carr, J.A.; Matthews, S.C.

    1979-02-01

    The principal spent fuel activities conducted within the commercial waste and spent fuel within the Commercial Waste and Spent Fuel Packaging Program are: simulated near-surface (drywell) storage demonstrations at Hanford and the Nevada Test Site; surface (sealed storage cask) and drywell demonstrations at the Nevada Test Site; and spent fuel receiving and packaging facility conceptual design. These investigations are described

  17. High density fuel storage racks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groves, M.D.

    1978-01-01

    An apparatus is described for the safe and compact storage of nuclear fuel assemblies in an array of discrete open-ended neutron absorbing shields for which the theoretical minimum safe separation distance and cell pitch are known. Open-ended stainless steel end fittings are welded to each end of each shield and the end fittings are welded to each other in side-by-side relation, thereby reducing the cell pitch tolerance due to fabrication uncertainties. In addition, a multiplicity of ridges on the sides of each shield having a height equal to one half the theoretical minimum safe separation distance further reduce shield bowing tolerances. The net tolerance reduction permits a significant increase in the number of fuel assemblies that can be safely contained in a storage area of fixed size

  18. On-Particle Rolling Circle Amplification-Based Core-Satellite Magnetic Superstructures for MicroRNA Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Bo; Qiu, Zhen; Ma, Jing

    2018-01-01

    , and it determines the signal intensity in response to a biological/physical stimulation/actuation. Herein, for the first time, we utilize on-particle rolling circle amplification (RCA) to prepare rapidly responsive core-satellite magnetic superstructures with a high load of magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) satellites...

  19. Reversible near-infrared light directed reflection in a self-organized helical superstructure loaded with upconversion nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling; Dong, Hao; Li, Yannian; Xue, Chenming; Sun, Ling-Dong; Yan, Chun-Hua; Li, Quan

    2014-03-26

    Adding external, dynamic control to self-organized superstructures with desired functionalities is an important leap necessary in leveraging the fascinating molecular systems for applications. Here, the new light-driven chiral molecular switch and upconversion nanoparticles, doped in a liquid crystal media, were able to self-organize into an optically tunable helical superstructure. The resulting nanoparticle impregnated helical superstructure was found to exhibit unprecedented reversible near-infrared (NIR) light-guided tunable behavior only by modulating the excitation power density of a continuous-wave NIR laser (980 nm). Upon irradiation by the NIR laser at the high power density, the reflection wavelength of the photonic superstructure red-shifted, whereas its reverse process occurred upon irradiation by the same laser but with the lower power density. Furthermore, reversible dynamic NIR-light-driven red, green, and blue reflections in a single thin film, achieved only by varying the power density of the NIR light, were for the first time demonstrated.

  20. Novel superstructure of the rocksalt type and element distribution in germanium tin antimony tellurides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, Tobias [Department of Chemistry, Ludwig Maximilian University, Butenandtstraße 5-13, 81377 Munich (Germany); Welzmiller, Simon [Institute for Mineralogy, Crystallography and Materials Science, Leipzig University, Scharnhorststraße 20, 04275 Leipzig (Germany); Neudert, Lukas [Department of Chemistry, Ludwig Maximilian University, Butenandtstraße 5-13, 81377 Munich (Germany); Urban, Philipp [Institute for Mineralogy, Crystallography and Materials Science, Leipzig University, Scharnhorststraße 20, 04275 Leipzig (Germany); Fitch, Andy [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, CS40220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Oeckler, Oliver, E-mail: oliver.oeckler@gmx.de [Institute for Mineralogy, Crystallography and Materials Science, Leipzig University, Scharnhorststraße 20, 04275 Leipzig (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    A superstructure of the rocksalt-type observed in quenched CVT-grown single crystals of Ge{sub 3.25(7)}Sn{sub 1.10(3)}Sb{sub 1.10(3)}Te{sub 6} was elucidated by X-ray diffraction using fourfold twinned crystals (space group P3{sup ¯}m1, a=4.280(1) Å, c=20.966(3) Å). The structure is built up of distorted rocksalt-type building blocks typical for long-range ordered GST materials and substitution variants thereof. In contrast to those phases, an exclusive ABC-type cubic stacking sequence of the Te-atom layers is present. High-resolution electron microscopy reveals spheroidal domains with this structure (average diameter 25 nm) whose stacking direction is perpendicular to the 〈1 1 1〉 directions of the basic rocksalt-type structure. Additional slab-like domains with a lateral extension up to 1 µm occasionally result in a hierarchical structure motif. Due to the similar electron counts of the elements involved, resonant diffraction was used in order to elucidate the element distribution in rocksalt-type building blocks of the stable layered compound 39R-Ge{sub 3}SnSb{sub 2}Te{sub 7} (R3{sup ¯}m, a=4.24990(4) Å, c=73.4677(9) Å). Sb tends to occupy the atom site close to the van der Waals gaps while Ge concentrates in the center of the building blocks. - Graphical abstract: High-resolution transmission electron micrograph, SAED pattern and reciprocal lattice section of X-ray single crystal data of Ge{sub 3.25}Sn{sub 1.1}Sb{sub 1.1}Te{sub 6} with an 11P-type superstructure of the rocksalt type. - Highlights: • A novel superstructure of the rocksalt-type in the system Ge–Sn–Sb–Te is elucidated. • It combines the cubic stacking of the HT phase with building blocks of the RT phase. • It indicates the ordering mechanism during the phase transition of GST materials. • A hierarchical structure motif is promising with respect to the reduction of κ{sub L}. • Resonant diffraction reveals the element distribution in 39R-Ge{sub 3}SnSb{sub 2}Te{sub 7}.

  1. Morphology-controlled hydrothermal synthesis of MnCO{sub 3} hierarchical superstructures with Schiff base as stabilizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, He; Xu, Jie-yan; Yang, Hong; Liang, Jie [Department of Chemistry, Shanghai Normal University, No. 100, Guilin Road, Shanghai 200234 (China); Yang, Shiping, E-mail: shipingy@shnu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Shanghai Normal University, No. 100, Guilin Road, Shanghai 200234 (China); Wu, Huixia [Department of Chemistry, Shanghai Normal University, No. 100, Guilin Road, Shanghai 200234 (China)

    2011-11-15

    Graphical abstract: MnCO3 microcrystals with hierarchical superstructures were synthesized by using the CO2 in atmosphere as carbonate ions source and Schiff base as shape guiding-agent in water/ethanol system under hydrothermal condition. Highlights: {yields} The most interesting in this work is the use of the greenhouse gases CO{sub 2} in atmosphere as carbonate ions source to precipitate with Mn{sup 2+} for producing MnCO{sub 3} crystals. {yields} This work is the first report related to the small organic molecule Schiff base as shape guiding-agent to produce different MnCO{sub 3} hierarchical superstructures. {yields} We are controllable synthesis of the MnCO{sub 3} hierarchical superstructures such as chrysanthemum, straw-bundle, dumbbell and sphere-like microcrystals. {yields} The as-prepared MnCO{sub 3} could be used precursor to fabricate the Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} hierarchical superstructures after thermal decomposition at high temperature. -- Abstract: MnCO{sub 3} with hierarchical superstructures such as chrysanthemum, straw-bundle, dumbbell and sphere-like were synthesized in water/ethanol system under environment-friendly hydrothermal condition. In the synthesis process, the CO{sub 2} in atmosphere was used as the source of carbonate ions and Schiff base was used as shape guiding-agent. The different superstructures of MnCO{sub 3} could be obtained by controlling the hydrothermal temperature, the molar ratio of manganous ions to the Schiff base, or the volume ratio of water to ethanol. A tentative growth mechanism for the generation of MnCO{sub 3} superstructures was proposed based on the rod-dumbbell-sphere model. Furthermore, the MnCO{sub 3} as precursor could be further successfully transferred to Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} microstructure after heating in the atmosphere at 500 {sup o}C, and the morphology of the Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} was directly determined by that of the MnCO{sub 3} precursor.

  2. Application of Spatial Data Modeling Systems, Geographical Information Systems (GIS), and Transportation Routing Optimization Methods for Evaluating Integrated Deployment of Interim Spent Fuel Storage Installations and Advanced Nuclear Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mays, Gary T [ORNL; Belles, Randy [ORNL; Cetiner, Sacit M [ORNL; Howard, Rob L [ORNL; Liu, Cheng [ORNL; Mueller, Don [ORNL; Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Peterson, Steven K [ORNL; Scaglione, John M [ORNL

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this siting study work is to support DOE in evaluating integrated advanced nuclear plant and ISFSI deployment options in the future. This study looks at several nuclear power plant growth scenarios that consider the locations of existing and planned commercial nuclear power plants integrated with the establishment of consolidated interim spent fuel storage installations (ISFSIs). This research project is aimed at providing methodologies, information, and insights that inform the process for determining and optimizing candidate areas for new advanced nuclear power generation plants and consolidated ISFSIs to meet projected US electric power demands for the future.

  3. Template-free synthesis of beta-In2S3 superstructures and their photocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amutha, R; Akilandeswari, S; Ahmmad, Bashir; Muruganandham, M; Sillanpää, Mika

    2010-12-01

    In this article, we have successfully fabricated various morphological beta-Indium sulfide (In2S3) superstructures by using indium thiocyanate complex at acidic pH. All the synthesis has been performed by a template-free, hydrothermal method at 195 degrees C for 3 h. The photocatalytic activity of synthesized In2S3 have been investigated by using UV-B (lamda = 365 nm) light with Methyl Orange dye as a model pollutant. The synthesized photocatalyst was characterized by using XRD, FE-SEM, HR-TEM, DRS spectra and nitrogen adsorption analysis. The influence of indium precursors and solvents on the morphology as well as the surface properties has also been discussed. The XRD result shows that cubic phase beta-In2S3 formed under all experimental conditions. A plausible mechanism of the In2S3 microsphere formation has been discussed based on experimental observations.

  4. A generic methodology for the design of sustainable carbon dioxide utilization processes using superstructure optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frauzem, Rebecca; Gani, Rafiqul

    Global warming and other environmental concerns are fueling increased focus on sustainability resulting in new and stringent guidelines, especially with regard to emissions [1]. Greenhouse gases are prevalent and among harmful emissions that are targeted to be reduced; carbon dioxide (CO2...... of feedstock [4], in this case carbon dioxide. This stage contains three steps, each incorporating relevant methods and tools. First, with the help of user specifications, the problem is specified. Then, the processing routes linking feed and product are represented via a superstructure. This is performed....... This database contains information on the raw material (including different carbon dioxide emission conditions), the products and the reactions linking these. With this help of the database it is possible to quickly compare utilization processes for a specific problem as the information is easily accessible...

  5. Unsupervised Performance Evaluation Strategy for Bridge Superstructure Based on Fuzzy Clustering and Field Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yubo Jiao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance evaluation of a bridge is critical for determining the optimal maintenance strategy. An unsupervised bridge superstructure state assessment method is proposed in this paper based on fuzzy clustering and bridge field measured data. Firstly, the evaluation index system of bridge is constructed. Secondly, a certain number of bridge health monitoring data are selected as clustering samples to obtain the fuzzy similarity matrix and fuzzy equivalent matrix. Finally, different thresholds are selected to form dynamic clustering maps and determine the best classification based on statistic analysis. The clustering result is regarded as a sample base, and the bridge state can be evaluated by calculating the fuzzy nearness between the unknown bridge state data and the sample base. Nanping Bridge in Jilin Province is selected as the engineering project to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  6. Synthesis of noble metal nanoparticles and their superstructures; Darstellung von Edelmetallnanopartikeln und deren Ueberstrukturen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigall, Nadja-Carola

    2009-08-18

    A modified synthesis procedure for citrate-stabilized gold nanoparticles in aqueous solution is transferred under application of equal concentrations to the systems silver, platinum, and palladium. The nanoparticles are analyzed by means of absorption spectroscopy and electron microscopy. Ordered superstructures of the noble-metal nanoparticles can be synthesized by infiltration of templates of block-copolymer films with aqueous nanoparticle solution. In dependence on the pre-treatment of the polymer films either two-dimensional periodical arrangements with a periodicity of less than 30 nm or fingerprint-like arrangements with a groove distance in the same order of magnitude. By removal of the polymer one- respectively two-dimensional arrangements of platinum nanowires respectively nanoparticles on a silicon waver arise.

  7. Unsupervised performance evaluation strategy for bridge superstructure based on fuzzy clustering and field data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yubo; Liu, Hanbing; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Xianqiang; Wei, Haibin

    2013-01-01

    Performance evaluation of a bridge is critical for determining the optimal maintenance strategy. An unsupervised bridge superstructure state assessment method is proposed in this paper based on fuzzy clustering and bridge field measured data. Firstly, the evaluation index system of bridge is constructed. Secondly, a certain number of bridge health monitoring data are selected as clustering samples to obtain the fuzzy similarity matrix and fuzzy equivalent matrix. Finally, different thresholds are selected to form dynamic clustering maps and determine the best classification based on statistic analysis. The clustering result is regarded as a sample base, and the bridge state can be evaluated by calculating the fuzzy nearness between the unknown bridge state data and the sample base. Nanping Bridge in Jilin Province is selected as the engineering project to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  8. Growth and Transfer of Monolithic Horizontal ZnO Nanowire Superstructures onto Flexible Substrates

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Sheng

    2010-04-28

    A method of fabricating horizontally aligned ZnO nanowire (NW) arrays with full control over the width and length is demonstrated. A cross-sectional view of the NWs by transmission electron microscopy shows a "mushroom-like" structure. Novel monolithic multisegment superstructures are fabricated by making use of the lateral overgrowth. Ultralong horizontal ZnO NWs of an aspect ratio on the order often thousand are also demonstrated. These horizontal NWs are lifted off and transferred onto a flexible polymer substrate, which may have many great applications in horizontal ZnO NW-based nanosensor arrays, light-emitting diodes, optical gratings, integrated circuit interconnects, and high-output-power alternating-current nanogenerators. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  9. Synthesis and study of strontium ferromolybdate nanopowders with high degree of superstructural ordering for spintronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yarmolich M. V.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The metal oxide compounds Sr2FeMoO6-δ systems with an ordered double perovskite structure due to their unique and extremely important magnetotransport and magnetic properties are among the most promising materials for spintronic devices. In the present work, we investigated the correlation between the citrate-gel synthesis conditions (pH of initial solutions and annealing temperature and the microstructure, phase transformations and magnetic properties of the Sr2FeMoO6-δ nanopowders. According to the results the average grain size of the powders in the dispersion grows from 250 to 550 nm with increasing of pH values. Single-phase nanosized Sr2FeMoO6-δ powders had various degrees of superstructural ordering of Fe3+ and Mo5+ (P = 65% for pH = 4, P = 51% for pH = 6 and P = 20 % for pH = 9. With increasing of pH, the Fe2+ concentration increases from 63% to 72%, and the Fe+3 concentration drops from 37% to 28%. According to the results of investigations of magnetization temperature dependence in Sr2FeMoO6-δ powders a metastable superparamagnetic state was established at TS<19 K in low-dimensional grains. An optimized synthesis procedure, based on an initial solution of pH = 4, has allowed obtaining a single-phase Sr2FeMoO6-δ compound having grain size in the range of 50-120 nm and a superstructural ordering of iron and molybdenum cations of 88%. The optimum conditions of synthesis of nanopowders strontium ferromolybdate allow for the directional change of the phase composition of the synthesized nanosized ceramic with reproducible physical and chemical properties.

  10. Prevention of Cutaneous Tissue Contracture During Removal of Craniofacial Implant Superstructures for CT and MRI Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen Sullivan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Head and neck cancer patients who have lost facial parts following surgical intervention frequently require craniofacial implant retained facial prostheses for restoration. Many craniofacial implant patients require computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans as part of their long-term follow-up care. Consequently removal of implant superstructures and peri-abutment tissue management is required for those studies. The purpose of the present paper was to describe a method for eliminating cranial imaging artifacts in patients with craniofacial implants.Material and Methods: Three patients wearing extraoral implant retained facial prostheses needing either computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging studies were discussed. Peri-implant soft tissues contracture after removal of percutaneous craniofacial implant abutments during computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies was prevented using a method proposed by authors. The procedure involves temporary removal of the supra-implant components prior to imaging and filling of the tissue openings with polyvinyl siloxane dental impression material.Results: Immediately after filling of the tissue openings with polyvinyl siloxane dental impression material patients were sent for the imaging studies, and were asked to return for removal of the silicone plugs and reconnection of all superstructure hardware after imaging procedures were complete. The silicone plugs were easily removed with a dental explorer. The percutaneous abutments were immediately replaced and screwed into the implants which were at the bone level.Conclusions: Presented herein method eliminates the source of artifacts and prevents contracture of percutaneous tissues upon removal of the implant abutments during imaging.

  11. FY 1998 annual report on the fuel/storage working group. 19th R and D activity report; 1998 nendo nenryo chozo gijutsu bunkakai. Dai 19 kai jigyo hokokukai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    Summarized herein are the FY 1998 R and D activities by the fuel/storage working group, extracted from the 19th R and D activity report by NEDO. Mr. Kadoi, a NEDO's director, outlined the R and D activities for development of techniques for fuel cell power generation, development of decentralized cell power storage systems, demonstration of new load-leveling techniques, development of techniques for superlow-loss type power system components, development of techniques for ceramic gas turbines, pioneer R and D for MGC superhigh-efficiency turbine system techniques, demonstration tests for establishing centralized load controlling systems, development of techniques for network systems utilizing wide-area energy, development of techniques for application of superconductor-aided power systems, R and D for power storage aided by a high-temperature, superconducting flywheel, R and D for basic techniques for applying superconductors, and pioneer R and D for basic techniques for AC superconducting power equipment. The individual NEDO's researchers reported their results, which include outline of the fuel/storage technique development group, and current statuses of fuel cell technique development, new cell-aided power storage technique development, and superconductor technique development. (NEDO)

  12. Simultaneous measurement of temperature and tensile loading using superstructure FBGs developed by laser direct writing of periodic on-fiber metallic films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alemohammad, Hamidreza; Toyserkani, Ehsan

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the development of superstructure fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) by laser-assisted direct writing of on-fiber metallic films. A novel laser direct write method is characterized to fabricate periodic films of silver nanoparticles on the non-planar surface of as-fabricated FBGs. Silver films with a thickness of 9 µm are fabricated around a Bragg grating optical fiber. The performance of the superstructure FBG is studied by applying temperature and tensile stress on the fiber. An opto-mechanical model is also developed to predict the optical response of the synthesized superstructure FBG under thermal and structural loadings. The results show that the reflectivity of sidebands in the reflection spectrum can be tuned up to 20% and 37% under thermal and structural loadings, respectively. In addition, the developed superstructure FBG is used for simultaneous measurement of force and temperature to eliminate the inherent limitation of regular FBGs in multi-parameter sensing

  13. Analysis of connection element classes and locations and of some structural requirements for the mounting of different superstructure types on transport vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Zoran Đ. Majkić; Novak S. Vukčević

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents the basic requirements for transport vehicles. A special request regarding the adaptation of transport vehicles for the transport of various types of cargo was taken into consideration. Superstructures and the situation arising after mounting superstructures on wheeled transport vehicles were analyzed and the following was described: console coupling, stirrups, simplex elastic coupling, two-way elastic and rigid connection elements. Vehicle torsional elasticity is provided ...

  14. Management Of Hanford KW Basin Knockout Pot Sludge As Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, R. E. [CH2M HIll Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Evans, K. M. [AREVA, Avignon (France)

    2012-10-22

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) and AREVA Federal Services, LLC (AFS) have been working collaboratively to develop and deploy technologies to remove, transport, and interim store remote-handled sludge from the 10S-K West Reactor Fuel Storage Basin on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, WA, USA. Two disposal paths exist for the different types of sludge found in the K West (KW) Basin. One path is to be managed as Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) with eventual disposal at an SNF at a yet to be licensed repository. The second path will be disposed as remote-handled transuranic (RH-TRU) waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, NM. This paper describes the systems developed and executed by the Knockout Pot (KOP) Disposition Subproject for processing and interim storage of the sludge managed as SNF, (i.e., KOP material).

  15. Management Of Hanford KW Basin Knockout Pot Sludge As Spent Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, R. E.; Evans, K. M.

    2012-01-01

    CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) and AREVA Federal Services, LLC (AFS) have been working collaboratively to develop and deploy technologies to remove, transport, and interim store remote-handled sludge from the 10S-K West Reactor Fuel Storage Basin on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, WA, USA. Two disposal paths exist for the different types of sludge found in the K West (KW) Basin. One path is to be managed as Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) with eventual disposal at an SNF at a yet to be licensed repository. The second path will be disposed as remote-handled transuranic (RH-TRU) waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, NM. This paper describes the systems developed and executed by the Knockout Pot (KOP) Disposition Subproject for processing and interim storage of the sludge managed as SNF, (i.e., KOP material)

  16. Egg albumin-assisted preparation, characterization and influencing factors of Dumbbell-shaped BaCO{sub 3} superstructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni Yonghong, E-mail: niyh@mail.ahnu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Anhui Key Laboratory of Functional Molecular Solids, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241000 (China); Li Xiaolong [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Anhui Key Laboratory of Functional Molecular Solids, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241000 (China); Hong Jianming; Ma Xiang [Centers of Modern Analysis, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2010-03-15

    Dumbbell-shaped barium carbonate superstructures were successfully synthesized in the aqueous system containing egg albumin and ethylenediaminetetraacetate disodium (EDTA-2Na), employing BaCl{sub 2}, NaHCO{sub 3} and NH{sub 3}.H{sub 2}O as the starting reagents. The as-prepared product was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Some factors influencing the morphology of BaCO{sub 3} crystals, such as the time, the amounts of egg albumin and EDTA-2Na, were studied. Experimental facts showed that a proper amount of egg albumin and EDTA-2Na played crucial roles in the formation of dumbbell-shaped BaCO{sub 3} superstructures.

  17. The Effects on the Operating Condition of a Passenger Ship Retro-fitted with a Composite Superstructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karatzas, Vasileios; Hjørnet, N. K.; Kristensen, Hans Otto Holmegaard

    2016-01-01

    As sustainability and climate change have come on the politi-cal agenda, the shipping industry will have to be operating energy efficient ships. An appealing step to achieve this goal is by designing superstructures made out of Fiber Reinforced Plastics (FRP) aiming at the reduction of the ship’s...... on the stability and the fuel consumption of the retrofitted ship com-pared to the original design....

  18. Stimuli-Directed Dynamic Reconfiguration in Self-Organized Helical Superstructures Enabled by Chemical Kinetics of Chiral Molecular Motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian; Lan, Ruochen; Gao, Yanzi; Wang, Meng; Zhang, Wanshu; Wang, Ling; Zhang, Lanying; Yang, Zhou; Yang, Huai

    2018-02-01

    Dynamic controllability of self-organized helical superstructures in spatial dimensions is a key step to promote bottom-up artificial nanoarchitectures and functional devices for diverse applications in a variety of areas. Here, a light-driven chiral overcrowded alkene molecular motor with rod-like substituent is designed and synthesized, and its thermal isomerization reaction exhibits an increasing structural entropy effect on chemical kinetic analysis in anisotropic achiral liquid crystal host than that in isotropic organic liquid. Interestingly, the stimuli-directed angular orientation motion of helical axes in the self-organized helical superstructures doped with the chiral motors enables the dynamic reconfiguration between the planar (thermostationary) and focal conic (photostationary) states. The reversible micromorphology deformation processes are compatible with the free energy fluctuation of self-organized helical superstructures and the chemical kinetics of chiral motors under different conditions. Furthermore, stimuli-directed reversible nonmechanical beam steering is achieved in dynamic hidden periodic photopatterns with reconfigurable attributes prerecorded with a corresponding photomask and photoinduced polymerization.

  19. Investigation of Dispersion, Interaction and Superstructure Formation in PTMEG/MWCNT Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Pishdad

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Formation of polymer/CNT nanocomposites enhances the physical and mechanical properties of polymer matrices. Basically, the mechanical properties are investigated by means of polymer/filler interactions. The other properties such as the rheological and electrical properties are examined by particle distribution and dispersion in the polymer matrices. Due to the variety of industrial applications of polyurethane and the need to improve their properties, in the current work, the improvements of PTMEG with carbon nanotubes have been studied. The particles were acid treated in a mixture of sulfuric/nitric acid, providing uniform dispersion of the nanotubes in the polymer matrix. The rheological measurements have been used to obtain the optimum degree of MWCNT dispersion, and the formation of nanoparticles superstructure were quantified by two percolation thresholds (Ф*,Ф** at low deformation rates. The critical percolation for PTMEG/MWCNT was estimated at 0.25-0.5 wt%. A significant improvement in the rheological characteristics was observed due to the agglomeration of particles at Ф* and continuous network of clusters at Ф**. The interfacial interaction of composites was also measured by means of relaxation time spectra and showed high improvement at Ф** (0.5 wt%. Considering the FE-SEM images of specimens, it was found that there is a nanotube network or cluster agglomeration at the concentration 0.75 wt% of MWCNT in the polymeric matrix.

  20. Presenting a Multi-level Superstructure Optimization Approach for Mechatronic System Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole; Bech, Michael Møller

    2010-01-01

    Synergism and integration in the design process is what sets apart a Mechatronic System from a traditional, multidisciplinary system. However the typical design approach has been to divide the design problem into sub problems for each technology area (mechanics, electronics and control) and descr......Synergism and integration in the design process is what sets apart a Mechatronic System from a traditional, multidisciplinary system. However the typical design approach has been to divide the design problem into sub problems for each technology area (mechanics, electronics and control......) and describe the interface between the technologies, whereas the lack of well-established, systematic engineering methods to form the basic set-off in analysis and design of complete mechatronic systems has been obvious. The focus of the current paper is therefore to present an integrated design approach...... for mechatronic system design, utilizing a multi-level superstructure optimization based approach. Finally two design examples are presented and the possibilities and limitations of the approach are outlined....

  1. Solution Construction of Multigeometry Nanoparticles and Multicompartment Superstructures from Block Copolymer Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiahua; Zhang, Shiyi; Wooley, Karen; Pochan, Darrin

    2013-03-01

    Novel soft objects with both compositional and geometric complexity at nanoscale have been constructed through solution supramolecular assembly from block copolymer mixtures due to their non-ergodic character. The mixture is composed of two block copolymers with distinctive hydrophobic blocks but the same poly(acrylic acid) hydrophilic block. First, multigeometry nanoparticles, due to segregation of unlike block copolymer molecules into multiple subdomains trapped within the same micelle-like structures, have been assembled in tetrahydrofuran/water solution. Through carefully designed molecular architecture, mixing ratio and pathway kinetics, both size and shape of subdomains can be controlled to produce a novel class of multigeometry nanoparticles, including sphere-sphere, sphere-cylinder, cylinder-cylinder, cylinder-disk, and sphere-disk hybrid nanoparticles. Second, hierarchical multicompartment superstructures including particle chains, rings and other nano to micro cluster formations, have been built up from pre-formed multigeometry nanoparticles by taking advantage of their surface anisotropy and the controlled particle-particle association. The interparticle association can be achieved via either covalent or non-covalent bindings due to different post-polymerization chemical modifications with hydroxyethyl acrylate or crown ether functionalities, respectively.

  2. Superstructure ZrV2O7nanofibres: thermal expansion, electronic and lithium storage properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qidong; Zhao, Yanming; Kuang, Quan; Fan, Qinghua; Dong, Youzhong; Liu, Xudong

    2016-11-30

    ZrV 2 O 7 has attracted much attention as a negative thermal expansion (NTE) material due to its isotropic negative structure. However, rarely has investigation of the lithium storage behaviors been carried out except our first report on it. Meanwhile, the electrochemical behaviors and energy storage characteristics have not been studied in depth and will be explored in this article. Herein, we report on the synthesis, characterization and lithium intercalation mechanism of superstructure ZrV 2 O 7 nanofibres that were prepared through a facile solution-based method with a subsequent annealing process. The thermal in situ XRD technique combined with the Rietveld refinement method is adopted to analyze the change in the temperature-dependent crystal structure. Benefiting from the nanostructured morphology and relatively high electronic conductivity, it presents acceptable cyclic stability and rate capability. According to the operando evolution of the XRD patterns obtained from electrochemical in situ measurements, the Li intercalation mechanism of the solid solution process with a subsequent conversion reaction can be concluded. Finally, the amorphous state of the electrodes after the initial fully discharged state can effectively enhance the electrochemical performances.

  3. (Dahomey) Basin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    13 km maximum width in the onshore at the basin axis along Nigerian and Republic of Benin boundary. This narrows westwards and eastwards to about 5 km (Coker and Ejedawe, 1987; Coker,. 2002). Detailed geology, evolution, stratigraphy and hydrocarbon occurrence of the basin have been described by Jones and ...

  4. Bone-repair properties of biodegradable hydroxyapatite nano-rod superstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Elía, Noelia L.; Mathieu, Colleen; Hoemann, Caroline D.; Laiuppa, Juan A.; Santillán, Graciela E.; Messina, Paula V.

    2015-11-01

    Nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HAp) materials show an analogous chemical composition to the biogenic mineral components of calcified tissues and depending on their topography they may mimic the specific arrangement of the crystals in bone. In this work, we have evaluated the potential of four synthesized nano-HAp superstructures for the in vitro conditions of bone-repair. Experiments are underway to investigate the effects of the material microstructure, surface roughness and hydrophilicity on their osseo-integration, osteo-conduction and osteo-induction abilities. Materials were tested in the presence of both, rat primary osteoblasts and rabbit mesenchymal stem cells. The following aspects are discussed: (i) cytotoxicity and material degradation; (ii) rat osteoblast spreading, proliferation and differentiation; and (iii) rabbit mesenchymal stem cell adhesion on nano-HAp and nano-HAp/collagen type I coatings. We effectively prepared a material based on biomimetic HAp nano-rods displaying the appropriate surface topography, hydrophilicity and degradation properties to induce the in vitro desired cellular responses for bone bonding and healing. Cells seeded on the selected material readily attached, proliferated and differentiated, as confirmed by cell viability, mitochondrial metabolic activity, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and cytoskeletal integrity analysis by immunofluorescence localization of alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) protein. These results highlight the influence of material's surface characteristics to determine their tissue regeneration potential and their future use in engineering osteogenic scaffolds for orthopedic implants.Nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HAp) materials show an analogous chemical composition to the biogenic mineral components of calcified tissues and depending on their topography they may mimic the specific arrangement of the crystals in bone. In this work, we have evaluated the potential of four synthesized nano-HAp superstructures

  5. Optomagnetic Detection of MicroRNA Based on Duplex-Specific Nuclease-Assisted Target Recycling and Multilayer Core-Satellite Magnetic Superstructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Bo; Ma, Jing; Qiu, Zhen

    2017-01-01

    Superstructural assembly of magnetic nanoparticles enables approaches to biosensing by combining specially tailored properties of superstructures and the particular advantages associated with a magnetic or optomagnetic read-out such as low background signal, easy manipulation, cost-efficiency, an......Superstructural assembly of magnetic nanoparticles enables approaches to biosensing by combining specially tailored properties of superstructures and the particular advantages associated with a magnetic or optomagnetic read-out such as low background signal, easy manipulation, cost......RNA and DSN-assisted target recycling, the core-satellite magnetic superstructures release their "satellites" to the suspension, which subsequently can be quantified accurately in a low-cost and user-friendly optomagnetic setup. Target miRNAs are preserved in the cleaving reaction and can thereby trigger more...... cleavage and release of "satellites". For singleplex detection of let-7b, a linear detection range between 10 fM and 10 nM was observed, and a detection limit of 4.8 fM was obtained within a total assay time of 70 min. Multiplexing was achieved by releasing nanoparticles of different sizes in the presence...

  6. Studies on growth mechanism and physical properties of hydrothermally synthesized CdS with novel hierarchical superstructures and their photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamble, Shweta N.; Ghoderao, Karuna P.; Kale, Rohidas B.

    2018-03-01

    A simple, facile and organic-free hydrothermal method was utilized to synthesize cadmium sulfide (CdS) superstructures. The cadmium chloride and thiourea used as a Cd2+ and S2- ion sources for the growth of CdS superstructures. The reaction was carried out at different time and temperatures. The X-ray diffraction studies confirmed that the obtained products were highly crystalline with hexagonal phase. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy images reveal a monodisperse dendrite-like CdS superstructure. It consisted of a central long trunk with secondary branches, lying parallel to each other and making a certain angle with the central trunk, and small ternary branches grew out of the secondary branches. The selected area electron diffraction altogether with high-resolution electron microscopy patterns depicted that the leaves of dendrite were single crystalline in nature and preferentially grown along (111) direction. The UV-vis absorbance and photoluminescence study illustrated that the hierarchically grown CdS superstructures revealed the good quality of optical properties. A probable growth mechanism for the formation of CdS dendritic superstructures was also discussed and demonstrated by experimental results. The photocatalytic activity of CdS superstructures was studied with the photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) in an aqueous solution, under the visible light irradiation. The results showed that the degradation ratio of MB could reach 94.93% in 220 min. Based on the results, the possible mechanism of the photocatalytic reaction of MB with CdS dendrites is useful for visible light photocatalytic applications.

  7. Controllable topological transformation from BiOCl hierarchical microspheres to Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} superstructures in the Bi–W–Cl–O system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Jiao [National Engineering Research Center for Manufacturing Equipment Digitization, Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), No. 1037, Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430074 (China); State Key Laboratory of Materials Processing and Die & Mould Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, No. 1037, Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430074 (China); Shi, Songxin, E-mail: shisx@hust.edu.cn [National Engineering Research Center for Manufacturing Equipment Digitization, Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), No. 1037, Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430074 (China); Tang, Tengteng [State Key Laboratory of Materials Processing and Die & Mould Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, No. 1037, Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430074 (China); Tian, Shouqin [State Key Laboratory of Materials Processing and Die & Mould Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, No. 1037, Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430074 (China); Nanomaterials and Smart Sensors Research Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, No. 1037, Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430074 (China); Yang, Wenjuan [State Key Laboratory of Materials Processing and Die & Mould Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, No. 1037, Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430074 (China); Zeng, Dawen [Nanomaterials and Smart Sensors Research Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, No. 1037, Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2015-09-15

    Graphical abstract: The three-dimensional (3D) Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} superstructures assembled by nanosheets were directly transformed topologically from BiOCl hierarchical microspheres via a facile one-pot solvothermal method. Furthermore, the crystal growth of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} superstructure was confirmed to occur at the exposed plane (0 0 1) of BiOCl nanosheets with WO{sub 6}{sup 6−} units replacing the interlaminar Cl atoms. Their similar layered structures favored the controllable transformation of BiOCl to Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} through the substitution process. And this topological transformation may provide a new prospective to the synthesis of other 3D compounds. - Highlights: • Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} superstructures were prepared by topological transformation of BiOCl assembly. • Transformation process experienced three stages of BiOCl, BiOCl/Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} and Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}. • Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} superstructures grew at the exposed (0 0 1) facets of BiOCl nanosheets. • The growth mechanism was revealed from thermodynamic and kinetic dynamic aspects. - Abstract: In this work, three-dimensional (3D) Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} superstructures assembled by nanosheets were prepared using the topological transformation of BiOCl hierarchical microspheres via a facile one-pot solvothermal method. Interestingly, it was found that the transformation process experienced three stages including BiOCl, BiOCl/Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} composites and Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} with increasing solvothermal time at 150 °C, which was confirmed by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Raman spectrometer and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) results. Importantly, the crystal growth of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} superstructures occurred at the exposed (0 0 1) facets of BiOCl nanosheets with WO{sub 6}{sup 6−} units replacing the interlaminar Cl atoms. Also, the growth mechanism was revealed and discussed in the thermodynamic and kinetic dynamic aspects. Compared with BiOCl superstructures, the Bi

  8. Underwater Coatings Testing for INEEL Fuel Basin Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julia L. Tripp

    2004-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is deactivating several fuel storage basins. Airborne contamination is a concern when the sides of the basins are exposed and allowed to dry during water removal. One way of controlling this airborne contamination is to fix the contamination in place while the pool walls are still submerged. There are many underwater coatings available on the market that are used in marine, naval and other applications. A series of tests were run to determine whether the candidate underwater fixatives are easily applied and adhere well to the substrates (pool wall materials) found in INEEL fuel pools. The four pools considered included (1) Test Area North (TAN-607) with epoxy painted concrete walls; (2) Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) (CPP-603) with bare concrete walls; (3) Materials Test Reactor (MTR) Canal with stainless steel lined concrete walls; and (4) Power Burst Facility (PBF-620) with stainless steel lined concrete walls on the bottom and epoxy painted carbon steel lined walls on the upper portions. Therefore, the four materials chosen for testing included bare concrete, epoxy painted concrete, epoxy painted carbon steel, and stainless steel. The typical water temperature of the pools varies from 55 F to 80 F dependent on the pool and the season. These tests were done at room temperature.

  9. Curvature aided efficient axial field emission from carbon nanofiber–reduced graphene oxide superstructures on tungsten wire substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, Arunava [School of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India); Roy, Rajarshi; Sen, Dipayan [Thin Film and Nanoscience Laboratory, Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India); Chattopadhyay, Kalyan K., E-mail: kalyan_chattopadhyay@yahoo.com [School of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India); Thin Film and Nanoscience Laboratory, Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India)

    2016-03-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Efficient axial field emitter was fabricated through deposition of thin RGO layer by Langmuir–Blodgett method. • Tungsten wire substrate was used. • The CNF–RGO superstructure produced better field emission characteristics compared to bare CNF. - Abstract: Field emission characteristics found in reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and RGO based composite systems have always been an area of research interest mainly due to presence of prolific quasi aligned edges working as emitter sites. However, the specific role and extent of edge curvature geometry in RGO systems in regards to the enhancement of field emission has not discussed thoroughly prior to this work. In this work we demonstrate enhanced axial field emission due to top assembly of thin RGO layer over a quasi-vertically aligned carbon nanofiber thin film supported on a tungsten wire substrate. Furthermore, simulation analysis for our RGO based hybrid system using finite element modeling showed that two-stage local field amplification in RGO is responsible for the overall improvement of field emission characteristics. In support of our findings, a tentative explanation has been proposed based on the additional emission from RGO edges in between the CNF network resulting to the enhancement of axial field emission in the nanocomposite superstructure.

  10. Failure behavior of concrete pile and super-structure dynamic response as a result of soil liquefaction during earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneda, Shogo; Hayashi, Kazuhiro; Hachimori, Wataru; Tamura, Shuji; Saito, Taiki

    2017-10-01

    In past earthquake disasters, numerous building structure piles were damaged by soil liquefaction occurring during the earthquake. Damage to these piles, because they are underground, is difficult to find. The authors aim to develop a monitoring method of pile damage based on superstructure dynamic response. This paper investigated the relationship between the damage of large cross section cementitious piles and the dynamic response of the super structure using a centrifuge test apparatus. A dynamic specimen used simple cross section pile models consisting of aluminum rod and mortar, a saturated soil (Toyoura sand) of a relative density of 40% and a super structure model of a natural period of 0.63sec. In the shaking table test under a 50G field (length scale of 1/50), excitation was a total of 3 motions scaled from the Rinkai wave at different amplitudes. The maximum acceleration of each of the excitations was 602gal, 336gal and 299gal. The centrifuge test demonstrated the liquefaction of saturated soil and the failure behavior of piles. In the test result, the damage of piles affected the predominant period of acceleration response spectrum on the footing of the superstructure.

  11. Numerical Analysis of the Behavior of an IPM Bridge According to Super-Structure and Sub-Structure Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mincheol Park

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A bridge with an integrated and pile-bent abutment with a mechanically stabilized earth-wall (IPM was developed by separating earth pressure from the abutment to overcome the problems typically faced by integral abutment bridges. Also, the IPM bridge removes expansion joints and bearing by integrating the super-structure and the abutment and does not need many piles because it separates the earth pressure from backfills. Therefore, it is superior in cost, durability, and maintainability to traditional bridges and is sustainable due to using less material. A numerical analysis was conducted to ascertain the behavior of the IPM bridge according to its super-structural and sub-structural characteristics. Based on the analysis results, the behaviors of the IPM bridge are as follows: The bending moments ( M y of the pre-stressed concrete (PSC girder and the steel-plate girder of the bridge were influenced by the presence of the time-dependent loads. The contraction behavior in the PSC girder is largely due to the time-dependent loads, whereas the expansion behavior in the steel-plate girder is large due to its greater thermal expansion coefficient and temperature range compared with those of the PSC girder. In general, the suggested bridge length limit for PSC girders in both the integral abutment bridge and the IPM bridge is larger than that in a steel bridge. This needs to be reviewed again with consideration of the long-term and seasonal behaviors.

  12. Analysis of connection element classes and locations and of some structural requirements for the mounting of different superstructure types on transport vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Đ. Majkić

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the basic requirements for transport vehicles. A special request regarding the adaptation of transport vehicles for the transport of various types of cargo was taken into consideration. Superstructures and the situation arising after mounting superstructures on wheeled transport vehicles were analyzed and the following was described: console coupling, stirrups, simplex elastic coupling, two-way elastic and rigid connection elements. Vehicle torsional elasticity is provided by a proper choice of the type of connection between the superstructure and the vehicle chassis. Applying the instructions of vehicle manufacturers for using appropriate connections between the truck superstructure and the vehicle chassis provides positive torsional elasticity of the vehicle. The paper gives the general recommendations of the Volvo, Mercedes and Renault transport vehicle producers for the use of particular connection types of locations as well as structural requirements for the mounting of concrete mixers, tippers and truck tanks on their vehicles. Introduction Achieving a high level of transport effectiveness depends on a number of factors. One of the most important ones is the possibility to increase the payload share in the gross vehicle weight. This share depends on the net vehicle weight, a method of coupling the truck superstructure with the chassis frame as well as on the truck superstructure construction. Realization of this requirement is of significant importance, particularly for large business systems since it results in the reduction of number of necessary vehicles, more economic fleet maintenance and the fleet capacity increase. It is also relatively easy to adapt the vehicle for the transportation of other loads, depending on user's current needs. The adaptation is correctly performed if manufacturer's recommendations are followed during the mounting of the superstructure on the chassis. This paper gives the analysis of the

  13. The corrosion of aluminum-clad spent nuclear fuel in wet basin storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, J.P.; Burke, S.D.

    1996-01-01

    Large quantities of Defense related spent nuclear fuels are being stored in water basins around the United States. Under the non-proliferation policy, there has been no processing since the late 1980's and these fuels are caught in the pipeline awaiting stabilization or other disposition. At the Savannah River Site, over 200 metric tons of aluminum clad fuel are being stored in four water filled basins. Some of this fuel has experienced visible pitting corrosion. An intensive effort is underway at SRS to understand the corrosion problems and to improve the basin storage conditions for extended storage requirements. Significant improvements have been accomplished during 1993-1996. This paper presents a discussion of the fundamentals of aluminum alloy corrosion as it pertains to the wet storage of spent nuclear fuel. It examines the effects of variables on corrosion in the storage environment and presents the results of corrosion surveillance testing activities at SRS, as well as discussions of fuel storage basins at other production sites of the Department of Energy

  14. The corrosion of aluminum-clad spent nuclear fuel in wet basin storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, J.P.; Burke, S.D.

    1996-02-20

    Large quantities of Defense related spent nuclear fuels are being stored in water basins around the United States. Under the non-proliferation policy, there has been no processing since the late 1980`s and these fuels are caught in the pipeline awaiting stabilization or other disposition. At the Savannah River Site, over 200 metric tons of aluminum clad fuel are being stored in four water filled basins. Some of this fuel has experienced visible pitting corrosion. An intensive effort is underway at SRS to understand the corrosion problems and to improve the basin storage conditions for extended storage requirements. Significant improvements have been accomplished during 1993-1996. This paper presents a discussion of the fundamentals of aluminum alloy corrosion as it pertains to the wet storage of spent nuclear fuel. It examines the effects of variables on corrosion in the storage environment and presents the results of corrosion surveillance testing activities at SRS, as well as discussions of fuel storage basins at other production sites of the Department of Energy.

  15. Substitution-induced superstructures in Cu(1)-doped YBa2(Cu/sub 1-x/M/sub x/)3O7 ceramic (M=trivalent cation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrostatic calculations and conceptual arguments are presented that indicate that a (3 x 3) ordered oxygen-atom superstructure in the Cu(1)-O plane may play an important role in attaining tetragonal symmetry when +3 cations favoring six coordination are selectively substituted in Cu(1)-doped YBa 2 (Cu/sub 1-x/M/sub x/) 3 O 7 ceramics

  16. Ag on Ge(111): 2D x-ray structure analysis of the #sq root#3 x #sq root#3 superstructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dornisch, D.; Moritz, W.; Schulz, H.

    1992-01-01

    We have studied the Ag/Ge(111) square-root 3 x square-root 3 superstructure by grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction. In our structural analysis we find striking similarities to the geometry of Au on Si(111). The Ag atoms form trimer clusters with an Ag-Ag distance of 2.94 +/- 0.04 angstrom...

  17. A novel high-temperature commensurate superstructure in a natural bariopyrochlore: A structural study by means of a multiphase crystal structure refinement

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bindi, L.; Petříček, Václav; Withers, R. L.; Zoppi, M.; Bonazzi, P.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 179, - (2006), s. 716-725 ISSN 0022-4596 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/03/0430 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : pyrochlore * superstructure * X-ray data * multiphase structure refinement * TEM study Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.107, year: 2006

  18. Residual basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Elboux, C.V.; Paiva, I.B.

    1980-01-01

    Exploration for uranium carried out over a major portion of the Rio Grande do Sul Shield has revealed a number of small residual basins developed along glacially eroded channels of pre-Permian age. Mineralization of uranium occurs in two distinct sedimentary units. The lower unit consists of rhythmites overlain by a sequence of black shales, siltstones and coal seams, while the upper one is dominated by sandstones of probable fluvial origin. (Author) [pt

  19. Hierarchical assembly of inorganic nanostructure building blocks to octahedral superstructures-a true template-free self-assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchibhatla, Satyanarayana V N T; Karakoti, Ajay S; Seal, Sudipta

    2007-01-01

    A room temperature, template-free, wet chemical synthesis of ceria nanoparticles and their long term ageing characteristics are reported. High resolution transmission electron microscopy and UV-visible spectroscopy techniques are used to observe the variation in size, structure and oxidation state, respectively as a function of time. The morphology variation and the hierarchical assembly (octahedral superstructure) of nanostructures are imputed to the inherent structural aspects of cerium oxide. It is hypothesized that the 3-5 nm individual building blocks will undergo an intra-agglomerate re-orientation to attain the low energy configuration. This communication also emphasizes the need for long term ageing studies of nanomaterials in various solvents for multiple functionalities

  20. Oxygen-ordering superstructures in underdoped YBa2Cu3O6+x studied by hard X-ray diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann, M. Von; Schneider, J.R.; Frello, T.

    2003-01-01

    High-energy x-ray diffraction is used to investigate the bulk oxygen-ordering properties of YBa(2)Cu(3)O(6+x). Four different superstructures of Cu-O chains aligned along the b axis and ordered with periodicity ma, along the a axis have been observed. For x... is ortho-II with m=2. At room temperature, we find ortho-III (m=3) for 0.72less than or equal toxless than or equal to0.82, ortho-V (m=5) in a mixed state with ortho-II at x=0.62, and ortho-VIII (m=8) at x=0.67. Ortho-II is a three-dimensional ordered structural phase, the remaining ones are essentially...

  1. Tunable superstructure fiber Bragg grating with chirp-distribution modulation based on the effect of external stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yize; Li, Yi; Zhu, Huiqun; Tong, Guoxiang; Fang, Baoying; Li, Liu; Shen, Yujian; Zheng, Qiuxin; Liang, Qian; Yan, Meng; Wang, Feng; Qin, Yuan; Ding, Jie; Wang, Xiaohua

    2012-09-15

    We report an external stress modulation method for producing a superstructure fiber Bragg grating (FBG) with approximate cascaded resonant cavities composed of different index chirp distributions. The 15 mm uncoated apodized uniform-period FBG is pressed by the vertical stress from the upper 11 pieces of the pattern plate controlled by a piezoelectric ceramic actuator. The piece length is 1 mm, and the interval of the adjacent pieces is 0.4 mm. The reflectivity of the modulated FBG gradually shows six obvious multichannel 75%-85% reflection peaks with the increase of the vertical stress of each pattern-plate piece from 0 to 30 N. The channel spacing is steady at about 10 GHz for a C-band wavelength division multiplexing system.

  2. Topotactic epitaxy of SrTiO{sub 3} mesocrystal superstructures with anisotropic construction for efficient overall water splitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Peng; Fujitsuka, Mamoru; Majima, Tetsuro [The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research (SANKEN), Osaka University (Japan); Ochi, Tomoya [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kobe University (Japan); Kobori, Yasuhiro [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kobe University (Japan); Molecular Photoscience Research Center, Kobe University (Japan); Tachikawa, Takashi [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kobe University (Japan); Molecular Photoscience Research Center, Kobe University (Japan); PRESTO, Science and Technology Agency (JST), Saitama (Japan)

    2017-05-02

    The higher-order structures of semiconductor-based photocatalysts play crucial roles in their physicochemical properties for efficient light-to-energy conversion. A novel perovskite SrTiO{sub 3} mesocrystal superstructure with well-defined orientation of assembled cubic nanocrystals was synthesized by topotactic epitaxy from TiO{sub 2} mesocrystals through a facile hydrothermal treatment. The SrTiO{sub 3} mesocrystal exhibits three times the efficiency for the hydrogen evolution of conventional disordered systems in alkaline aqueous solution. It also exhibits a high quantum yield of 6.7 % at 360 nm in overall water splitting and even good durability up to 1 day. Temporal and spatial spectroscopic observations revealed that the synergy of the efficient electron flow along the internal nanocube network and efficient collection at the larger external cubes produces remarkably long-lived charges for enhanced photocatalysis. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Topotactic epitaxy of SrTiO3 mesocrystal superstructures with anisotropic construction for efficient overall water splitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Peng; Fujitsuka, Mamoru; Majima, Tetsuro; Ochi, Tomoya; Kobori, Yasuhiro; Tachikawa, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    The higher-order structures of semiconductor-based photocatalysts play crucial roles in their physicochemical properties for efficient light-to-energy conversion. A novel perovskite SrTiO 3 mesocrystal superstructure with well-defined orientation of assembled cubic nanocrystals was synthesized by topotactic epitaxy from TiO 2 mesocrystals through a facile hydrothermal treatment. The SrTiO 3 mesocrystal exhibits three times the efficiency for the hydrogen evolution of conventional disordered systems in alkaline aqueous solution. It also exhibits a high quantum yield of 6.7 % at 360 nm in overall water splitting and even good durability up to 1 day. Temporal and spatial spectroscopic observations revealed that the synergy of the efficient electron flow along the internal nanocube network and efficient collection at the larger external cubes produces remarkably long-lived charges for enhanced photocatalysis. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Diamondlike carbon coating as a galvanic corrosion barrier between dental implant abutments and nickel-chromium superstructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkomur, Ahmet; Erbil, Mehmet; Akova, Tolga

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the galvanic corrosion behavior between titanium and nickel-chromium (Ni-Cr) alloy, to investigate the effect of diamondlike carbon (DLC) coating over titanium on galvanic corrosion behavior between titanium and Ni-Cr alloy, and to evaluate the effect of DLC coating over titanium abutments on the fit and integrity of prosthetic assemblies by scanning electron microcopy (SEM). Five Ni-Cr and 10 titanium disks with a diameter of 5 mm and thickness of 3 mm were prepared. DLC coating was applied to five titanium disks. Electrode samples were prepared, and open circuit potential measurements, galvanic current measurements over platinum electrodes, and potentiodynamic polarization tests were carried out. For the SEM evaluation, 20 Ni-Cr alloy and 10 gold alloy superstructures were cast and prepared over 30 abutments. DLC coating was applied to 10 of the abutments. Following the fixation of prosthetic assemblies, the samples were embedded in acrylic resin and cross sectioned longitudinally. Internal fit evaluations were carried out through examination of the SEM images. Titanium showed more noble and electrochemically stable properties than Ni-Cr alloy. DLC coating over the cathode electrode served as an insulating film layer over the surface and prevented galvanic coupling. Results of the SEM evaluations indicated that the DLC-coated and titanium abutments showed no statistically significant difference in fit. Hence, no adverse effects on the adaptation of prosthetic components were found with the application of DLC coating over abutment surfaces. DLC coating might serve as a galvanic corrosion barrier between titanium abutments and Ni-Cr superstructures.

  5. Final environmental impact statement for the construction and operation of an independent spent fuel storage installation to store the Three Mile Island Unit 2 spent fuel at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Docket Number 72-20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-03-01

    This Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) contains an assessment of the potential environmental impacts of the construction and operation of an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) for the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) fuel debris at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental laboratory (INEEL). US Department of Energy-Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) is proposing to design, construct, and operate at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). The TMI-2 fuel debris would be removed from wet storage, transported to the ISFSI, and placed in storage modules on a concrete basemat. As part of its overall spent nuclear fuel (SNF) management program, the US DOE has prepared a final programmatic environmental impact statement (EIS) that provides an overview of the spent fuel management proposed for INEEL, including the construction and operation of the TMI-2 ISFSI. In addition, DOE-ID has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) to describe the environmental impacts associated with the stabilization of the storage pool and the construction/operation of the ISFSI at the ICPP. As provided in NRC's NEPA procedures, a FEIS of another Federal agency may be adopted in whole or in part in accordance with the procedures outlined in 40 CFR 1506.3 of the regulations of the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ). Under 40 CFR 1506.3(b), if the actions covered by the original EIS and the proposed action are substantially the same, the agency adopting another agency's statement is not required to recirculate it except as a final statement. The NRC has determined that its proposed action is substantially the same as actions considered in DOE's environmental documents referenced above and, therefore, has elected to adopt the DOE documents as the NRC FEIS

  6. San Mateo Creek Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    The San Mateo Creek Basin comprises approximately 321 square miles within the Rio San Jose drainage basin in McKinley and Cibola counties, New Mexico. This basin is located within the Grants Mining District (GMD).

  7. Hierarchical super-structure identified by polarized light microscopy, electron microscopy and nanoindentation: Implications for the limits of biological control over the growth mode of abalone sea shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider Andreas S

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mollusc shells are commonly investigated using high-resolution imaging techniques based on cryo-fixation. Less detailed information is available regarding the light-optical properties. Sea shells of Haliotis pulcherina were embedded for polishing in defined orientations in order to investigate the interface between prismatic calcite and nacreous aragonite by standard materialographic methods. A polished thin section of the interface was prepared with a defined thickness of 60 μm for quantitative birefringence analysis using polarized light and LC-PolScope microscopy. Scanning electron microscopy images were obtained for comparison. In order to study structural-mechanical relationships, nanoindentation experiments were performed. Results Incident light microscopy revealed a super-structure in semi-transparent regions of the polished cross-section under a defined angle. This super-structure is not visible in transmitted birefringence analysis due to the blurred polarization of small nacre platelets and numerous organic interfaces. The relative orientation and homogeneity of calcite prisms was directly identified, some of them with their optical axes exactly normal to the imaging plane. Co-oriented "prism colonies" were identified by polarized light analyses. The nacreous super-structure was also visualized by secondary electron imaging under defined angles. The domains of the super-structure were interpreted to consist of crystallographically aligned platelet stacks. Nanoindentation experiments showed that mechanical properties changed with the same periodicity as the domain size. Conclusions In this study, we have demonstrated that insights into the growth mechanisms of nacre can be obtained by conventional light-optical methods. For example, we observed super-structures formed by co-oriented nacre platelets as previously identified using X-ray Photo-electron Emission Microscopy (X-PEEM [Gilbert et al., Journal of the

  8. Characterization of basin concrete in support of structural integrity demonstration for extended storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, A. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC (United States)

    2014-09-30

    Concrete core samples from C basin were characterized through material testing and analysis to verify the design inputs for structural analysis of the L Basin and to evaluate the type and extent of changes in the material condition of the concrete under extended service for fuel storage. To avoid the impact on operations, core samples were not collected from L area, but rather, several concrete core samples were taken from the C Basin prior to its closure. C basin was selected due to its similar environmental exposure and service history compared to L Basin. The microstructure and chemical composition of the concrete exposed to the water was profiled from the water surface into the wall to evaluate the impact and extent of exposure. No significant leaching of concrete components was observed. Ingress of carbonation or deleterious species was determined to be insignificant. No evidence of alkali-silica reactions (ASR) was observed. Ettringite was observed to form throughout the structure (in air voids or pores); however, the sulfur content was measured to be consistent with the initial concrete that was used to construct the facility. Similar ettringite trends were observed in the interior segments of the core samples. The compressive strength of the concrete at the mid-wall of the basin was measured, and similar microstructural analysis was conducted on these materials post compression testing. The microstructure was determined to be similar to near-surface segments of the core samples. The average strength was 4148 psi, which is well-above the design strength of 2500 psi. The analyses showed that phase alterations and minor cracking in a microstructure did not affect the design specification for the concrete.

  9. Unreviewed safety question evaluation of 100K East and 100K West in-basin fuel characterization program activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alwardt, L.D.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide the basis for answers to an Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) safety evaluation of the 105K East (KE) and 105K West (KW) in-basin activities associated with the fuel characterization program as described in the characterization shipping plan. The significant activities that are common to both 105 KE and 105 KW basins are the movement of canisters from their main basin storage locations (or potentially from the 105 KE Tech View Pit if a dump table is available) to the south loadout pit transfer channel, hydrogen generation testing in the single element fuel container, loading the single element fuel container into the shipping cask, loading of the shipping cask onto a flat-bed trailer, return of the test fuel elements or element pieces from the 327 facility, placement of the fuel elements back into Mark 2 canisters, and placement of the canisters in the main storage basin. Decapping of canisters in the south loadout pit transfer channel and re-encapsulation of canisters are activities specific to the 105 KW basin. The scope of this safety evaluation includes only those characterization fuel shipment activities performed in the 105 KE and 105 KW fuel storage basin structures up to installation of the overpack. The packaging safety evaluation report governs the shipment of the fuel elements. The K Basins Plant Review Committee has determined that the in-basin activities associated with the fuel characterization program fuel shipments are bounded by the current safety envelop and do not constitute an unreviewed safety question. This determination is documented on Attachment 1

  10. Nuclear fuel storage apparatus for seismic areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    An earthquake resistant apparatus is claimed for storing nuclear fuel within a water-filled pool wherein a structural grid which supports the fuel is in turn supported by cables from an upper elevation. The grid is located below the water level and spaced from the walls of the pool an amount, preferably at least equal to the anticipated earthquake displacement. The grid is located below the water level a sufficient depth for radiation shielding during fuel handling and storage, and tension members are preferably ten times the design earthquake displacement. A horizontal baffle is located around the periphery of the pool at an elevation above the grid

  11. Concrete encapsulation for spent nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischer, L.R.; Gunasekaran, M.

    1981-01-01

    Concrete systems, mixtures and methods for encapsulating and storing spent nuclear fuel. Fuel discharged from nuclear reactors in the form of rods or multi-rod assemblies is completely and contiguously enclosed in concrete having incorporated therein metallic fibers to increase thermal conductivity and polymers to decrease fluid permeability. The metallic fibers and the polymers can be distributed in a single concrete layer, or separate contiguous layers can be utilized for the conductivity and impermeability characteristics

  12. Report by the committee assessing fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, W.W.

    1977-11-01

    Various concepts for interim storage of spent nuclear fuel have been considered. Preliminary design studies and cost estimates have been prepared for the following concepts: two with water cooling - prolonged pool storage at a generating station and pool storage at a central site - , three with air cooling at a central site - ''canister'', ''convection vault'', and ''conduction vault'' - and one underground storage scheme in rock salt. Costs (1972 dollars) were estimated including transportation and a perpetual care fund for maintenance and periodical renewal of the storage facility. Part 2 provides details of the concepts and costing methods. All concepts gave moderate costs providing a contribution of about 0.1 m$/kWh to the total unit energy cost. Advantages and disadvantages of the respective schemes are compared. (author)

  13. Borated concrete for ZPPR fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasidlo, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Fuel handling at the Zero Power Plutonium Reactor (ZPPR) led to two requirements for storage of ZPPR fuel: a low neutron multiplication and shielded storage to minimize personnel doses. Boron-poisoned concrete was chosen as the storge medium with boron frit as the poisoning agent. The calculated effects of water content and boron concentration led to specifying a concrete with a water content that was higher than ordinary concrete. The finite size of the boron frit particles caused concern about reduced effectiveness due to self-shielding. The self-shielding was evaluated using optical path lengths for spheres and tabulated self-shielding for slabs. The results showed that the finite-sized particles were at least 80% as effective as infinitely dilute absorption. Neutron and gamma dose rates measured in the vault verified that personnel could work in the vault on a regular basis without exceeding personnel dose limits. 4 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs

  14. Concrete spent fuel storage casks dose rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bace, M.; Jecmenica, R.; Trontl, K.

    1998-01-01

    Our intention was to model a series of concrete storage casks based on TranStor system storage cask VSC-24, and calculate the dose rates at the surface of the casks as a function of extended burnup and a prolonged cooling time. All of the modeled casks have been filled with the original multi-assembly sealed basket. The thickness of the concrete shield has been varied. A series of dose rate calculations for different burnup and cooling time values have been performed. The results of the calculations show rather conservative original design of the VSC-24 system, considering only the dose rate values, and appropriate design considering heat rejection.(author)

  15. Spent fuel storage and transportation - ANSTO experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irwin, Tony

    2002-01-01

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) has operated the 10 MW DIDO class High Flux Materials Test Reactor (HIFAR) since 1958. Refuelling the reactor produces about 38 spent fuel elements each year. Australia has no power reactors and only one operating research reactor so that a reprocessing plant in Australia is not an economic proposition. The HEU fuel for HIFAR is manufactured at Dounreay using UK or US origin enriched uranium. Spent fuel was originally sent to Dounreay, UK for reprocessing but this plant was shutdown in 1998. ANSTO participates in the US Foreign Research Reactor Spent Fuel Return program and also has a contract with COGEMA for the reprocessing of non-US origin fuel

  16. The cost of spent fuel storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez S, J. R.; Palacios H, J. C.; Badillo, V.; Alonso, G., E-mail: ramon.ramirez@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2011-11-15

    Spent fuel is one of the most important issues in the nuclear industry, currently spent fuel management is been cause of great amount of research, investments, constructing repositories or constructing the necessary facilities to reprocess the fuel, and later to recycle the plutonium recovered in thermal reactors. What is the best solution?, or What is the best technology for an specific solution? Many countries have deferred the decision on selecting an option, while others works actively constructing repositories and others implementing the reprocessing facilities to recycle the plutonium obtained from nuclear spent fuel. In Mexico the nuclear power is limited to two reactors BWR type and medium size. So the nuclear spent fuel discharged has been accommodated at reactor's spent fuel pools. Originally these pools have enough capacity to accommodate spent fuel for the 40 years of designed plant operation. However currently, the plants are under a process for extended power up-rate to 20% of original power and also there are plans to extended operational life for 20 more years. Under these conditions there will not be enough room for spent fuel in the pools. (Author)

  17. Subproject plan for demonstration of 3M technology for treatment of N Basin water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plastino, J.C.

    1996-02-01

    A dissolved radionuclides removal demonstration is being conducted at the 105-N Basin as part of the 100-N Area Projects' policy of aggressively integrating innovative technologies to achieve more cost effective, faster, and/or safer deactivation operations. This subproject plan demonstrates new technology (marketed by the 3M trademark Company) that absorbs specific ions from water. The demonstration will take place at the spent fuel basin at the N Reactor facility. The 105-N Basin contains 1 million gal of water consisting of approximately 32 Ci of dissolved 90 Sr at a concentration of 8.4 uCi/L and 7.3 Ci of dissolved 137 Cs at a concentration of 1.92 uCi/L. The Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement [Ecology et al. 1990]) Milestone M-16-01E-T2 requires the initiation of pretreatment and removal of all N Reactor fuel storage basin waters by September 30, 1996, pursuant to the N Reactor Deactivation Program Plan (WHC 1993). 105-N Basin dewatering is on the critical path for overall deactivation of N Reactor by March 1997. The 105-N Basin Deactivation Program Plan (BHI 1995) includes removing debris, hardware, algae and sediment from the basin, followed by pretreatment (filtration) and removal of the 1005-N Basin water. Final water removal is currently scheduled for September 30, 1996. The recommended method of the 105-N Basin water is the treatment of the water at the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) in the 200 East Area. The demonstration of the 3M technology could be a feasible treatment alternative to the ETF if the ETF is not available to meet the project schedule or if additional pretreatment is needed to reduce the inventory of radioactive species to be handled at the ETF. Demonstration of this technology could be of value for other fuel basins at the Hanford Site and possibly other US Department of Energy (DOE) sites and non- DOE nuclear power plants

  18. Using Finite Element and Eigenmode Expansion Methods to Investigate the Periodic and Spectral Characteristic of Superstructure Fiber Bragg Gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yue-Jing; Hung, Wei-Chih; Lai, Zhe-Ping

    2016-02-04

    In this study, a numerical simulation method was employed to investigate and analyze superstructure fiber Bragg gratings (SFBGs) with five duty cycles (50%, 33.33%, 14.28%, 12.5%, and 10%). This study focuses on demonstrating the relevance between design period and spectral characteristics of SFBGs (in the form of graphics) for SFBGs of all duty cycles. Compared with complicated and hard-to-learn conventional coupled-mode theory, the result of the present study may assist beginner and expert designers in understanding the basic application aspects, optical characteristics, and design techniques of SFBGs, thereby indirectly lowering the physical concepts and mathematical skills required for entering the design field. To effectively improve the accuracy of overall computational performance and numerical calculations and to shorten the gap between simulation results and actual production, this study integrated a perfectly matched layer (PML), perfectly reflecting boundary (PRB), object meshing method (OMM), and boundary meshing method (BMM) into the finite element method (FEM) and eigenmode expansion method (EEM). The integrated method enables designers to easily and flexibly design optical fiber communication systems that conform to the specific spectral characteristic by using the simulation data in this paper, which includes bandwidth, number of channels, and band gap size.

  19. DNA-Assembled Core-Satellite Upconverting-Metal-Organic Framework Nanoparticle Superstructures for Efficient Photodynamic Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Liangcan; Brasino, Michael; Mao, Chenchen; Cho, Suehyun; Park, Wounjhang; Goodwin, Andrew P; Cha, Jennifer N

    2017-06-01

    DNA-mediated assembly of core-satellite structures composed of Zr(IV)-based porphyrinic metal-organic framework (MOF) and NaYF 4 ,Yb,Er upconverting nanoparticles (UCNPs) for photodynamic therapy (PDT) is reported. MOF NPs generate singlet oxygen ( 1 O 2 ) upon photoirradiation with visible light without the need for additional small molecule, diffusional photosensitizers such as porphyrins. Using DNA as a templating agent, well-defined MOF-UCNP clusters are produced where UCNPs are spatially organized around a centrally located MOF NP. Under NIR irradiation, visible light emitted from the UCNPs is absorbed by the core MOF NP to produce 1 O 2 at significantly greater amounts than what can be produced from simply mixing UCNPs and MOF NPs. The MOF-UCNP core-satellite superstructures also induce strong cell cytotoxicity against cancer cells, which are further enhanced by attaching epidermal growth factor receptor targeting affibodies to the PDT clusters, highlighting their promise as theranostic photodynamic agents. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Using Finite Element and Eigenmode Expansion Methods to Investigate the Periodic and Spectral Characteristic of Superstructure Fiber Bragg Gratings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue-Jing He

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a numerical simulation method was employed to investigate and analyze superstructure fiber Bragg gratings (SFBGs with five duty cycles (50%, 33.33%, 14.28%, 12.5%, and 10%. This study focuses on demonstrating the relevance between design period and spectral characteristics of SFBGs (in the form of graphics for SFBGs of all duty cycles. Compared with complicated and hard-to-learn conventional coupled-mode theory, the result of the present study may assist beginner and expert designers in understanding the basic application aspects, optical characteristics, and design techniques of SFBGs, thereby indirectly lowering the physical concepts and mathematical skills required for entering the design field. To effectively improve the accuracy of overall computational performance and numerical calculations and to shorten the gap between simulation results and actual production, this study integrated a perfectly matched layer (PML, perfectly reflecting boundary (PRB, object meshing method (OMM, and boundary meshing method (BMM into the finite element method (FEM and eigenmode expansion method (EEM. The integrated method enables designers to easily and flexibly design optical fiber communication systems that conform to the specific spectral characteristic by using the simulation data in this paper, which includes bandwidth, number of channels, and band gap size.

  1. Proposal for the award of an industrial services contract for civil engineering superstructure and internal construction building work

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    This document concerns the award of an Industrial Services contract for civil engineering superstructure and internal construction building work. Following a market survey carried out among 112 firms in fifteen Member States, a call for tenders (IT-2546/ST/Rev.) was sent on 12 April 2001 to eleven consortia, four consisting of four firms, three consisting of three firms and four consisting of two firms, in seven Member States. By the closing date, CERN had received tenders from eight consortia in six Member States. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with the consortium SPIE CITRA SUD-EST(FR)-ANTIRUST TECHNOLOGY (GR), the lowest bidder, for an initial period of three years from 1 January 2002 for an amount not exceeding 15 375 000 Swiss francs, not subject to revision. The contract will include options for two one-year extensions beyond the initial three-year period. The consortium has indicated the following distribution by country of the contract value covered by this ...

  2. Topotactic Epitaxy of SrTiO3 Mesocrystal Superstructures with Anisotropic Construction for Efficient Overall Water Splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Ochi, Tomoya; Fujitsuka, Mamoru; Kobori, Yasuhiro; Majima, Tetsuro; Tachikawa, Takashi

    2017-05-02

    The higher-order structures of semiconductor-based photocatalysts play crucial roles in their physicochemical properties for efficient light-to-energy conversion. A novel perovskite SrTiO 3 mesocrystal superstructure with well-defined orientation of assembled cubic nanocrystals was synthesized by topotactic epitaxy from TiO 2 mesocrystals through a facile hydrothermal treatment. The SrTiO 3 mesocrystal exhibits three times the efficiency for the hydrogen evolution of conventional disordered systems in alkaline aqueous solution. It also exhibits a high quantum yield of 6.7 % at 360 nm in overall water splitting and even good durability up to 1 day. Temporal and spatial spectroscopic observations revealed that the synergy of the efficient electron flow along the internal nanocube network and efficient collection at the larger external cubes produces remarkably long-lived charges for enhanced photocatalysis. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Yb{sub 6}Ir{sub 5}Ga{sub 7} - a MgZn{sub 2} superstructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, Stefan; Poettgen, Rainer [Institut fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, Universitaet Muenster, Corrensstrasse 30, 48149, Muenster (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    The gallide Yb{sub 6}Ir{sub 5}Ga{sub 7} was synthesized by high-frequency melting of the elements in a sealed niobium ampoule. The structure was refined from single-crystal X-ray diffractometer data: Nb{sub 6.4}Ir{sub 4}Al{sub 7.6} type, P6{sub 3}/mcm, a = 930.4(1), c = 843.0(1) pm, wR{sub 2} = 0.0597, 379 F{sup 2} values and 22 variables. Yb{sub 6}Ir{sub 5}Ga{sub 7} adopts a superstructure of the MgZn{sub 2} Laves phase by a complete ordering of the iridium and gallium atoms on the zinc substructure, i.e. the network consists of ordered and condensed Ir{sub 3}Ga and IrGa{sub 3} tetrahedra with Ir-Ga distances ranging from 260 to 265 pm. The crystal chemical details and the underlying group-subgroup scheme are discussed. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Superimposed versus residual basin: The North Yellow Sea Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyong Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The North Yellow Sea Basin is a Mesozoic and Cenozoic basin. Based on basin-margin facies, sedimentary thinning, size and shape of the basin and vitrinite reflectance, North Yellow Sea Basin is not a residual basin. Analysis of the development of the basin’s three structural layers, self-contained petroleum systems, boundary fault activity, migration of the Mesozoic–Cenozoic sedimentation centers, different basin structures formed during different periods, and superposition of a two-stage extended basin and one-stage depression basin, the North Yellow Sea Basin is recognized as a superimposed basin.

  5. A multi-period superstructure optimisation model for the optimal planning of China's power sector considering carbon dioxide mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Dongjie; Ma Linwei; Liu Pei; Zhang Lili; Li Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Power sector is the largest CO 2 emitter in China. To mitigate CO 2 emissions for the power sector is a tough task, which requires implementation of targeted carbon mitigation policies. There might be multiple forms for carbon mitigation policies and it is still unclear which one is the best for China. Applying a superstructure optimisation model for optimal planning of China's power sector built by the authors previously, which was based on real-life plants composition data of China's power sector in 2009, and could incorporate all possible actions of the power sector, including plants construction, decommission, and application of carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) on coal-fuelled plants, the implementation effects of three carbon mitigation policies were studied quantitatively, achieving a conclusion that the so-called “Surplus-Punishment and Deficit-Award” carbon tax policy is the best from the viewpoint of increasing CO 2 reduction effect and also reducing the accumulated total cost. Based on this conclusion, the corresponding relationships between CO 2 reduction objectives (including the accumulated total emissions reduction by the objective year and the annual emissions reduction in the objective year) were presented in detail. This work provides both directional and quantitative suggestions for China to make carbon mitigation policies in the future. - Highlights: ► We study the best form of carbon mitigation policy for China's power sector. ► We gain quantitative relationship between CO 2 reduction goal and carbon tax policy. ► The “Surplus-Punishment and Deficit-Award” carbon tax policy is the best. ► Nuclear and renewable power and CCS can help greatly reduce CO 2 emissions of the power sector. ► Longer objective period is preferred from the viewpoint of policy making.

  6. Superstructural chirality of a periodic system of domains of opposite chirality and π-walls in B.sub.2./sub. phase composed of bent-shaped molecules

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lejček, Lubor

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 83, 10-11 (2010), s. 1001-1013 ISSN 0141-1594 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100911; GA AV ČR(CZ) GA202/09/0047; GA MŠk(CZ) OC10006 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : B 2 phase * bent-shaped molecules * domains of opposite chirality * π-walls * superstructural chirality Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.006, year: 2010

  7. Observation of Vacancies, Faults, and Superstructures in Ln5Mo2O12 (Ln = La, Y, and Lu) Compounds with Direct Mo-Mo Bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colabello, Diane M; Sobalvarro, Elizabeth M; Sheckelton, John P; Neuefeind, Joerg C; McQueen, Tyrel M; Khalifah, Peter G

    2017-11-06

    Among oxide compounds with direct metal-metal bonding, the Y 5 Mo 2 O 12 (A 5 B 2 O 12 ) structural family of compounds has a particularly intriguing low-dimensional structure due to the presence of bioctahedral B 2 O 10 dimers arranged in one-dimensional edge-sharing chains along the direction of the metal-metal bonds. Furthermore, these compounds can have a local magnetic moment due to the noninteger oxidation state (+4.5) of the transition metal, in contrast to the conspicuous lack of a local moment that is commonly observed when oxide compounds with direct metal-metal bonding have integer oxidation states resulting from the lifting of orbital degeneracy typically induced by the metal-metal bonding. Although a monoclinic C2/m structure has been previously proposed for Ln 5 Mo 2 O 12 (Ln = La-Lu and Y) members of this family based on prior single crystal diffraction data, it is found that this structural model misses many important structural features. On the basis of synchrotron powder diffraction data, it is shown that the C2/m monoclinic unit cell represents a superstructure relative to a previously unrecognized orthorhombic Immm subcell and that the superstructure derives from the ordering of interchangeable Mo 2 O 10 and LaO 6 building blocks. The superstructure for this reason is typically highly faulted, as evidenced by the increased breadth of superstructure diffraction peaks associated with a coherence length of 1-2 nm in the c* direction. Finally, it is shown that oxygen vacancies can occur when Ln = La, producing an oxygen deficient stoichiometry of La 5 Mo 2 O 11.55 and an approximately 10-fold reduction in the number of unpaired electrons due to the reduction of the average Mo valence from +4.5 to +4.05, a result confirmed by magnetic susceptibility measurements. This represents the first observation of oxygen vacancies in this family of compounds and provides an important means of continuously tuning the magnetic interactions within the one

  8. DEMONSTRATION OF LONG-TERM STORAGE CAPABILITY FOR SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL IN L BASIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sindelar, R.; Deible, R.

    2011-04-27

    overall conclusion is that the fuel can be stored in L Basin, meeting general safety functions for fuel storage, for an additional 50 years and possibly beyond contingent upon continuation of existing fuel management activities and several augmented program activities. It is concluded that the technical bases and well-founded technologies have been established to store spent nuclear fuel in the L Basin. Methodologies to evaluate the fuel condition and characteristics, and systems to prepare fuel, isolate damaged fuel, and maintain water quality storage conditions have been established. Basin structural analyses have been performed against present NPH criteria. The aluminum fuel storage experience to date, supported by the understanding of the effects of environmental variables on materials performance, demonstrates that storage systems that minimize degradation and provide full retrievability of the fuel up to and greater than 50 additional years will require maintaining the present management programs, and with the recommended augmented/additional activities in this report.

  9. Spent nuclear fuel storage device and spent nuclear fuel storage method using the device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tani, Yutaro

    1998-01-01

    Storage cells attachably/detachably support nuclear fuel containing vessels while keeping the vertical posture of them. A ventilation pipe which forms air channels for ventilating air to the outer circumference of the nuclear fuel containing vessel is disposed at the outer circumference of the nuclear fuel containing vessel contained in the storage cell. A shielding port for keeping the support openings gas tightly is moved, and a communication port thereof can be aligned with the upper portion of the support opening. The lower end of the transporting and containing vessel is placed on the shielding port, and an opening/closing shutter is opened. The gas tightness is kept by the shielding port, the nuclear fuel containing vessel filled with spent nuclear fuels is inserted to the support opening and supported. Then, the support opening is closed by a sealing lid. (I.N.)

  10. Photochemically and Thermally Driven Full-Color Reflection in a Self-Organized Helical Superstructure Enabled by a Halogen-Bonded Chiral Molecular Switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Bisoyi, Hari Krishna; Wang, Ling; Urbas, Augustine M; Bunning, Timothy J; Li, Quan

    2018-02-05

    Supramolecular approaches toward the fabrication of functional materials and systems have been an enabling endeavor. Recently, halogen bonding has been harnessed as a promising supramolecular tool. Herein we report the synthesis and characterization of a novel halogen-bonded light-driven axially chiral molecular switch. The photoactive halogen-bonded chiral switch is able to induce a self-organized, tunable helical superstructure, that is, cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC), when doped into an achiral liquid crystal (LC) host. The halogen-bonded switch as a chiral dopant has a high helical twisting power (HTP) and shows a large change of its HTP upon photoisomerization. This light-driven dynamic modulation enables reversible selective reflection color tuning across the entire visible spectrum. The chiral switch also displays a temperature-dependent HTP change that enables thermally driven red, green, and blue (RGB) reflection colors in the self-organized helical superstructure. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Strength Measurements of Archive K Basin Sludge Using a Soil Penetrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Chenault, Jeffrey W.

    2011-12-06

    Spent fuel radioactive sludge present in the K East and K West spent nuclear fuel storage basins now resides in the KW Basin in six large underwater engineered containers. The sludge will be dispositioned in two phases under the Sludge Treatment Project: (1) hydraulic retrieval into sludge transport and storage containers (STSCs) and transport to interim storage in Central Plateau and (2) retrieval from the STSCs, treatment, and packaging for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. In the years the STSCs are stored, sludge strength is expected to increase through chemical reaction, intergrowth of sludge crystals, and compaction and dewatering by settling. Increased sludge strength can impact the type and operation of the retrieval equipment needed prior to final sludge treatment and packaging. It is important to determine whether water jetting, planned for sludge retrieval from STSCs, will be effective. Shear strength is a property known to correlate with the effectiveness of water jetting. Accordingly, the unconfined compressive strengths (UCS) of archive K Basin sludge samples and sludge blends were measured using a pocket penetrometer modified for hot cell use. Based on known correlations, UCS values can be converted to shear strengths. Twenty-six sludge samples, stored in hot cells for a number of years since last being disturbed, were identified as potential candidates for UCS measurement and valid UCS measurements were made for twelve, each of which was found as moist or water-immersed solids at least 1/2-inch deep. Ten of the twelve samples were relatively weak, having consistencies described as 'very soft' to 'soft'. Two of the twelve samples, KE Pit and KC-4 P250, were strong with 'very stiff' and 'stiff' consistencies described, respectively, as 'can be indented by a thumb nail' or 'can be indented by thumb'. Both of these sludge samples are composites collected from KE Basin floor and

  12. Great Basin insect outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara Bentz; Diane Alston; Ted Evans

    2008-01-01

    Outbreaks of native and exotic insects are important drivers of ecosystem dynamics in the Great Basin. The following provides an overview of range, forest, ornamental, and agricultural insect outbreaks occurring in the Great Basin and the associated management issues and research needs.

  13. Melo carboniferous basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flossdarf, A.

    1988-01-01

    This report is about of the Melo carboniferous basin which limits are: in the South the large and high Tupambae hill, in the west the Paraiso hill and the river mountains, in the North Yaguaron river basin to Candidata in Rio Grande del Sur in Brazil.

  14. SrNi{sub 7.90(8)}In{sub 5.10(8)}. A new superstructure in the NaZn{sub 13} family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Rolf-Dieter; Poettgen, Rainer [Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie and NRW Graduate School of Chemistry, Univ. Muenster (Germany); Muts, Ihor [Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie and NRW Graduate School of Chemistry, Univ. Muenster (Germany); Inorganic Chemistry Dept., Ivan Franko National Univ., Lviv (Ukraine); Zaremba, Vasyl [Inorganic Chemistry Dept., Ivan Franko National Univ., Lviv (Ukraine)

    2009-07-01

    SrNi{sub 7.90(8)}In{sub 5.10(8)} was synthesized by induction melting of the elements in a sealed tantalum tube in a water-cooled silica sample chamber. The structure was refined on the basis of single crystal X-ray diffractometer data: Cccm, a = 1615.2(4), b = 1822.3(4), c = 1238.5(4) pm, wR2 = 0.1481, 4144F{sup 2} values and 150 variables. The striking structural motifs of the SrNi{sub 7.90}In{sub 5.10} structure are one-dimensional [Ni{sub 7} ] cluster units (242-286 pm Ni-Ni) which are surrounded by indium atoms. The structural relationship to the other NaZn{sub 13} superstructures is discussed on the basis of a group-subgroup scheme. (orig.)

  15. Formation of an L10 superstructure in austenite upon the α → γ transformation in the invar alloy Fe-32% Ni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabanova, I. G.; Sagaradze, V. V.; Kataeva, N. V.

    2011-09-01

    Structure of a metastable austenitic invar alloy Fe-32% Ni preliminarily quenched for martensite and subjected to α → γ transformation using slow heating to various temperatures (430-500°C) with the formation of variously oriented nanocrystalline lamellar austenite, which was subjected to an additional annealing at 280°C (below the calculated temperature of ordering of the γ phase), has been studied electron-microscopically. An electron diffraction analysis revealed the presence of an L10 superstructure in the disperse nickel-enriched nanocrystalline γ phase both after annealing at 280°C and in the unannealed alloy immediately after α → γ transformation upon slow heating to 430°C.

  16. Genetic-algorithm discovery of a direct-gap and optically allowed superstructure from indirect-gap Si and Ge semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Avezac, Mayeul; Luo, Jun-Wei; Chanier, Thomas; Zunger, Alex

    2012-01-13

    Combining two indirect-gap materials-with different electronic and optical gaps-to create a direct gap material represents an ongoing theoretical challenge with potentially rewarding practical implications, such as optoelectronics integration on a single wafer. We provide an unexpected solution to this classic problem, by spatially melding two indirect-gap materials (Si and Ge) into one strongly dipole-allowed direct-gap material. We leverage a combination of genetic algorithms with a pseudopotential Hamiltonian to search through the astronomic number of variants of Si(n)/Ge(m)/…/Si(p)/Ge(q) superstructures grown on (001) Si(1-x)Ge(x). The search reveals a robust configurational motif-SiGe(2)Si(2)Ge(2)SiGe(n) on (001) Si(x)Ge(1-x) substrate (x≤0.4) presenting a direct and dipole-allowed gap resulting from an enhanced Γ-X coupling at the band edges.

  17. Application of a generic superstructure-based formulation to the design of wind-pumped-storage hybrid systems on remote islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Cheng-Liang; Chen, Hui-Chu; Lee, Jui-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A rigorous model for hybrid power system (HPS) design to support a remote island. • Use pumped hydro storage to store tentative surplus electricity. • Formulate the HPS design problem as a mixed-integer linear program (MILP). - Abstract: This paper aims to present a mathematical model for the design of a hybrid power system (HPS) to support a remote island with 100 thousand citizens. The goal is to reduce diesel fuel consumption by adequate expansion of wind power supply. Pumped hydroelectric storage (PHS) is used in the HPS to buffer the impact of intermittent behavior of wind energy. A superstructure is proposed for HPS design, considering all possible capital decisions (e.g. the number of wind turbines) and hourly-basis operational variables (such as the amount of surplus electricity in storage and its discharge). The HPS design problem can then be formulated as a mixed-integer linear program (MILP) based on the proposed superstructure. For a given total share of wind power, the optimal mix of diesel-based and wind power supplies as well as the required capacity of PHS are determined using a four-step optimization approach, involving minimizing (i) the consumption of diesel fuel, (ii) the number of wind turbines, (iii) the size of the upper water reservoir, and (iv) the charge/discharge rates of the PHS system. In this sequential optimization, the objective value obtained in a previous step is added as an additional constraint to the next step. The proposed HPS design model is applied to a real case study of the remote K Island on the other side of Taiwan Strait using hourly-basis, year-round historical data. Inclusion of other renewable energy sources, such as photovoltaic cells and biomass-fired power plants, as well as economic perspectives will be considered in future work.

  18. Superstructure formation in PrNi{sub 2}Al{sub 3} and ErPd{sub 2}Al{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eustermann, Fabian; Hoffmann, Rolf-Dieter [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie; Janka, Oliver [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie; Oldenburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Chemie

    2017-09-01

    The intermetallic phase ErPd{sub 2}Al{sub 3} was obtained by arc-melting of the elements and subsequent annealing for crystal growth. The sample was studied by X-ray diffraction on powders and single crystals. The structure of ErPd{sub 2}Al{sub 3} was refined from X-ray diffraction data and revealed a superstructure of PrNi{sub 2}Al{sub 3} - a CaCu{sub 5} derivative (P6/m, a=1414.3(1), c=418.87(3) pm wR=0.0820, 1060 F{sup 2} values, 48 variables). The same superstructure was subsequently found for PrNi{sub 2}Al{sub 3} (P6/m, a=1407.87(4), c=406.19(2) pm, wR=0.0499, 904 F{sup 2} values, 47 variables). In the crystal structure, the aluminium and transition metal atoms form a polyanionic network according to [T{sub 2}Al{sub 3}]{sup δ-}, while rare earth atoms fill cavities within the networks. They are coordinated by six transition metal and twelve aluminum atoms. In contrast to the PrNi{sub 2}Al{sub 3} type structure reported so far, two crystallographic independent rare-earth sites are found of which one (1b) is shifted by 1/2 z, causing a distortion in the structure along with a recoloring of the T and Al atoms in the network.

  19. Wada basin boundaries and basin cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nusse, H.E.; Yorke, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    In dynamical systems examples are common in which two or more attractors coexist, and in such cases the basin boundary is nonempty. We consider a two-dimensional diffeomorphism F (that is, F is an invertible map and both F and its inverse are differentiable with continuous derivatives), which has at

  20. California Air Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Air ResourcesCalifornia Air Resources BoardThe following datasets are from the California Air Resources Board: * arb_california_airbasins - California Air BasinsThe...

  1. BASINS Framework and Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    BASINS enables users to efficiently access nationwide environmental databases and local user-specified datasets, apply assessment and planning tools, and run a variety of proven nonpoint loading and water quality models within a single GIS format.

  2. Watershed Planning Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Watershed Planning Basin layer is part of a larger dataset contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  3. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PECH, S.H.

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report

  4. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PECH, S.H.

    2000-08-23

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  5. K Basins Hazard Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WEBB, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Safety Analysis Report (HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062/Rev.4). This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report

  6. Polymorphism of NaVO2F2: a P2₁/c superstructure with pseudosymmetry of P2₁/m in the subcell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zi-Qun; Wang, Jing-Quan; Huang, Ya-Xi; Botis, Sanda M; Pan, Yuanming; Mi, Jin-Xiao

    2015-06-01

    The ADDSYM routine in the program PLATON [Spek (2015). Acta Cryst. C71, 9-18] has helped researchers to avoid structures of (metal-)organic compounds being reported in an unnecessarily low symmetry space group. However, determination of the correct space group may get more complicated in cases of pseudosymmetric inorganic compounds. One example is NaVO2F2, which was reported [Crosnier-Lopez et al. (1994). Eur. J. Solid State Inorg. Chem. 31, 957-965] in the acentric space group P2₁ based on properties but flagged by ADDSYM as (pseudo)centrosymmetric P2₁/m within default distance tolerances. Herein a systematic investigation reveals that NaVO2F2 exists in at least four polymorphs: P2₁, (I), P2₁/m, (II), P2₁/c, (III), and one or more low-temperature ones. The new centrosymmetric modification, (III), with the space group P2₁/c has a similar atomic packing geometry to phase (I), except for having a doubled c axis. The double-cell of phase (III) arises from atomic shifts from the glide plane c at (x, ¼, z). With increasing temperature, the number of observed reflections decreases. The odd l reflections gradually become weaker and, correspondingly, all atoms shift towards the glide plane, resulting in a gradual second-order transformation of (III) into high-temperature phase (II) (P2₁/m) at below 493 K. At least one first-order enantiotropic phase transition was observed below 139 K from both the single-crystal X-ray diffraction and the differential scanning calorimetry analyses. Periodic first-principles calculations within density functional theory show that both P2₁/c superstructure (III) and P2₁ substructure (I) are more stable than P2₁/m structure (II), and that P2₁/c superstructure (III) is more stable that P2₁ substructure (I).

  7. Synthesis, morphology and microstructure of pomegranate-like hematite ({alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) superstructure with high coercivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadic, Marin, E-mail: marint@vinca.rs [Condensed Matter Physics Laboratory, Vinca Institute, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Citakovic, Nada [Military Academy, Generala Pavla Jurisica Sturma 33, University of Belgrade, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Panjan, Matjaz [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Stanojevic, Boban [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade, University of Belgrade (Serbia); Markovic, Dragana [Condensed Matter Physics Laboratory, Vinca Institute, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Jovanovic, Dorde [Center for Solid State Physics and New Materials, Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, 11080 Belgrade (Serbia); Spasojevic, Vojislav [Condensed Matter Physics Laboratory, Vinca Institute, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2012-12-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found superior magnetic properties of the hematite ({alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TEM and HRTEM images show a pomegranate-like superstructure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic measurements display high coercivity H{sub C} = 4350 Oe at the room temperature. - Abstract: We found novel and superior magnetic properties of the hematite ({alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) that originate from an internal microstructure of particles and strong inter-particle interactions between nanocrystal sub-units. The hematite particles were synthesized by thermal decomposition of iron (III) nitrate without any template or surfactant. The purity, size, crystallinity, morphology, microstructure and magnetic features of the as-prepared particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Raman spectroscopy (RS) and SQUID magnetometry. An XRD study reveals a pure phase of {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} whereas TEM shows {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} spheres with a diameter of about 150 nm. RS also shows high quality and purity of the sample. Moreover, TEM and HRTEM images show a pomegranate-like superstructure and evidence that the spherical particles are composed of individual well-crystallized nanoparticle sub-units (self-assembled nanoparticles) with a size of about 20 nm. Magnetic measurements display hysteretic behavior at the room temperature with remanent magnetization M{sub r} = 0.731 emu/g, saturation magnetization M{sub S} = 6.83 emu/g and coercivity H{sub C} = 4350 Oe, as well as the Morin transition at T{sub M} = 261 K. These results and comparison with those in the literature reveal that the sample has extremely high coercivity. The magnetic properties of the sample are discussed in relation to morphology, internal microstructure, surface

  8. Correlation of High Magnetoelectric Coupling with Oxygen Vacancy Superstructure in Epitaxial Multiferroic BaTiO₃-BiFeO₃ Composite Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Michael; Wagner, Gerald; Lazenka, Vera; Schwinkendorf, Peter; Bonholzer, Michael; Van Bael, Margriet J; Vantomme, André; Temst, Kristiaan; Oeckler, Oliver; Grundmann, Marius

    2016-01-13

    Epitaxial multiferroic BaTiO₃-BiFeO₃ composite thin films exhibit a correlation between the magnetoelectric (ME) voltage coefficient α ME and the oxygen partial pressure during growth. The ME coefficient α ME reaches high values up to 43 V/(cm·Oe) at 300 K and at 0.25 mbar oxygen growth pressure. The temperature dependence of α ME of the composite films is opposite that of recently-reported BaTiO₃-BiFeO₃ superlattices, indicating that strain-mediated ME coupling alone cannot explain its origin. Probably, charge-mediated ME coupling may play a role in the composite films. Furthermore, the chemically-homogeneous composite films show an oxygen vacancy superstructure, which arises from vacancy ordering on the {111} planes of the pseudocubic BaTiO₃-type structure. This work contributes to the understanding of magnetoelectric coupling as a complex and sensitive interplay of chemical, structural and geometrical issues of the BaTiO₃-BiFeO₃ composite system and, thus, paves the way to practical exploitation of magnetoelectric composites.

  9. Correlation of High Magnetoelectric Coupling with Oxygen Vacancy Superstructure in Epitaxial Multiferroic BaTiO3-BiFeO3 Composite Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lorenz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Epitaxial multiferroic BaTiO3-BiFeO3 composite thin films exhibit a correlation between the magnetoelectric (ME voltage coefficient αME and the oxygen partial pressure during growth. The ME coefficient αME reaches high values up to 43 V/(cm·Oe at 300 K and at 0.25 mbar oxygen growth pressure. The temperature dependence of αME of the composite films is opposite that of recently-reported BaTiO3-BiFeO3 superlattices, indicating that strain-mediated ME coupling alone cannot explain its origin. Probably, charge-mediated ME coupling may play a role in the composite films. Furthermore, the chemically-homogeneous composite films show an oxygen vacancy superstructure, which arises from vacancy ordering on the {111} planes of the pseudocubic BaTiO3-type structure. This work contributes to the understanding of magnetoelectric coupling as a complex and sensitive interplay of chemical, structural and geometrical issues of the BaTiO3-BiFeO3 composite system and, thus, paves the way to practical exploitation of magnetoelectric composites.

  10. Correlation of High Magnetoelectric Coupling with Oxygen Vacancy Superstructure in Epitaxial Multiferroic BaTiO3-BiFeO3 Composite Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Michael; Wagner, Gerald; Lazenka, Vera; Schwinkendorf, Peter; Bonholzer, Michael; Van Bael, Margriet J.; Vantomme, André; Temst, Kristiaan; Oeckler, Oliver; Grundmann, Marius

    2016-01-01

    Epitaxial multiferroic BaTiO3-BiFeO3 composite thin films exhibit a correlation between the magnetoelectric (ME) voltage coefficient αME and the oxygen partial pressure during growth. The ME coefficient αME reaches high values up to 43 V/(cm·Oe) at 300 K and at 0.25 mbar oxygen growth pressure. The temperature dependence of αME of the composite films is opposite that of recently-reported BaTiO3-BiFeO3 superlattices, indicating that strain-mediated ME coupling alone cannot explain its origin. Probably, charge-mediated ME coupling may play a role in the composite films. Furthermore, the chemically-homogeneous composite films show an oxygen vacancy superstructure, which arises from vacancy ordering on the {111} planes of the pseudocubic BaTiO3-type structure. This work contributes to the understanding of magnetoelectric coupling as a complex and sensitive interplay of chemical, structural and geometrical issues of the BaTiO3-BiFeO3 composite system and, thus, paves the way to practical exploitation of magnetoelectric composites. PMID:28787843

  11. On the crystal structure of Cr2N precipitates in high-nitrogen austenitic stainless steel. III. Neutron diffraction study on the ordered Cr2N superstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae-Ho; Kim, Sung-Joon; Shin, Eunjoo; Takaki, Setsuo

    2006-12-01

    The ordered structure of Cr(2)N precipitates in high-nitrogen austenitic steel was investigated utilizing high-resolution neutron powder diffractometry (HRPD). On the basis of the Rietveld refinement of neutron diffraction patterns, the ordered Cr2N superstructure was confirmed to be trigonal (space group P31m), with lattice parameters a=4.800 (4) and c=4.472 (5) A, as suggested in previous transmission electron microscopy studies [Lee, Oh, Han, Lee, Kim & Takaki (2005). Acta Cryst. B61, 137-144; Lee, Kim & Takaki (2006). Acta Cryst. B62, 190-196]. The occupancies of the N atoms in four crystallographic sites [1(a), 1(b), 2(d) and 2(c) Wyckoff sites] were determined to be 1.00 (5), 0.0, 0.74 (9) and 0.12 (3), respectively, reflecting a partial disordering of N atoms along the c axis. The position of the metal atom was specified to be x=0.346 (8) and z=0.244 (6), corresponding to a deviation from the ideal position (x=0.333 and z=0.250). This deviation caused the ((1/3 1/3)(0))-type superlattice reflection to appear. A comparison between the ideal and measured crystal structures of Cr2N was performed using a computer simulation of selected-area diffraction patterns.

  12. Genetic-Algorithm Discovery of a Direct-Gap and Optically Allowed Superstructure from Indirect-Gap Si and Ge Semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    d' Avezac, M.; Luo, J. W.; Chanier, T.; Zunger, A.

    2012-01-13

    Combining two indirect-gap materials - with different electronic and optical gaps - to create a direct gap material represents an ongoing theoretical challenge with potentially rewarding practical implications, such as optoelectronics integration on a single wafer. We provide an unexpected solution to this classic problem, by spatially melding two indirect-gap materials (Si and Ge) into one strongly dipole-allowed direct-gap material. We leverage a combination of genetic algorithms with a pseudopotential Hamiltonian to search through the astronomic number of variants of Si{sub n}/Ge{sub m}/.../Si{sub p}/Ge{sub q} superstructures grown on (001) Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x}. The search reveals a robust configurational motif - SiGe{sub 2}Si{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}SiGe{sub n} on (001) Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x} substrate (x {le} 0.4) presenting a direct and dipole-allowed gap resulting from an enhanced {Gamma}-X coupling at the band edges.

  13. Controlling superstructural ordering in the clathrate-I Ba 8 M 16 P 30 (M = Cu, Zn) through the formation of metal–metal bonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolyniuk, J.; Whitfield, P. S.; Lee, K.; Lebedev, O. I.; Kovnir, K.

    2017-01-01

    Order–disorder–order phase transitions in the clathrate-I Ba8Cu16P30 were induced and controlled by aliovalent substitutions of Zn into the framework. Unaltered Ba8Cu16P30 crystallizes in an ordered orthorhombic (Pbcn) clathrate-I superstructure that maintains complete segregation of metal and phosphorus atoms over 23 different crystallographic positions in the clathrate framework. The driving force for the formation of this Pbcn superstructure is the avoidance of Cu–Cu bonds. This superstructure is preserved upon aliovalent substitution of Zn for Cu in Ba8Cu16-xZnxP30 with 0 < x < 1.6 (10% Zn/Mtotal), but vanishes at greater substitution concentrations. Higher Zn concentrations (up to 35% Zn/Mtotal) resulted in the additional substitution of Zn for P in Ba8M16+yP30-y (M = Cu, Zn) with 0 ≤ y ≤ 1. This causes the formation of Cu–Zn bonds in the framework, leading to a collapse of the orthorhombic superstructure into the more common cubic subcell of clathrate-I (Pm[3 with combining macron]n). In the resulting cubic phases, each clathrate framework position is jointly occupied by three different elements: Cu, Zn, and P. Detailed structural characterization of the Ba–Cu–Zn–P clathrates-I via single crystal X-ray diffraction, joint synchrotron X-ray and neutron powder diffractions, pair distribution function analysis, electron diffraction and high-resolution electron microscopy, along with elemental analysis, indicates that local ordering is present in the cubic clathrate framework, suggesting the evolution of Cu–Zn bonds. For the compounds with the highest Zn content, a disorder–order transformation is detected due to the formation of another superstructure with trigonal symmetry and Cu–Zn bonds in the clathrate-I framework. It is shown that small changes in the composition, synthesis, and crystal structure have significant impacts on the structural and transport properties of Zn-substituted Ba8Cu16P30.

  14. Manyame River Basin, Zimbabwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Available on website http://www.wrc.org.za. ISSN 1816-7950 (On-line) = Water SA Vol. 42 No. 1 January 2016. Published under a Creative Commons Attribution Licence. A test of the Lake Habitat Survey method in Cleveland Reservoir and. Lake Chivero (Manyame River Basin, Zimbabwe). Tatenda Dalu1*, Edwin ...

  15. The Mediterranean basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomas, Carmen; Sanchez Sanchez, Juan Jose; Barbaro, A.

    2008-01-01

    genetically from the rest of the populations in the Mediterranean area. This result supports the hypothesis of a low incidence of the south-north genetic interchange at the western shores of the Mediterranean basin. A low genetic distance was found between populations in the Middle East and the western part...

  16. Canada Basin revealed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, David C.; Shimeld, John; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Chian, D; Lebedeva-Ivanova, Nina; Jackson, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    More than 15,000 line-km of new regional seismic reflection and refraction data in the western Arctic Ocean provide insights into the tectonic and sedimentologic history of Canada Basin, permitting development of new geologic understanding in one of Earth's last frontiers. These new data support a rotational opening model for southern Canada Basin. There is a central basement ridge possibly representing an extinct spreading center with oceanic crustal velocities and blocky basement morphology characteristic of spreading centre crust surrounding this ridge. Basement elevation is lower in the south, mostly due to sediment loading subsidence. The sedimentary succession is thickest in the southern Beaufort Sea region, reaching more than 15 km, and generally thins to the north and west. In the north, grabens and half-grabens are indicative of extension. Alpha-Mendeleev Ridge is a large igneous province in northern Amerasia Basin, presumably emplaced synchronously with basin formation. It overprints most of northern Canada Basin structure. The seafloor and sedimentary succession of Canada Basin is remarkably flat-lying in its central region, with little bathymetric change over most of its extent. Reflections that correlate over 100s of kms comprise most of the succession and on-lap bathymetric and basement highs. They are interpreted as representing deposits from unconfined turbidity current flows. Sediment distribution patterns reflect changing source directions during the basin’s history. Initially, probably late Cretaceous to Paleocene synrift sediments sourced from the Alaska and Mackenzie-Beaufort margins. This unit shows a progressive series of onlap unconformities with a younging trend towards Alpha and Northwind ridges, likely a response to contemporaneous subsidence. Sediment source direction appeared to shift to the Canadian Arctic Archipelago margin for the Eocene and Oligocene, likely due to uplift of Arctic islands during the Eurekan Orogeny. The final

  17. Integrated Hydrographical Basin Management. Study Case - Crasna River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visescu, Mircea; Beilicci, Erika; Beilicci, Robert

    2017-10-01

    Hydrographical basins are important from hydrological, economic and ecological points of view. They receive and channel the runoff from rainfall and snowmelt which, when adequate managed, can provide fresh water necessary for water supply, irrigation, food industry, animal husbandry, hydrotechnical arrangements and recreation. Hydrographical basin planning and management follows the efficient use of available water resources in order to satisfy environmental, economic and social necessities and constraints. This can be facilitated by a decision support system that links hydrological, meteorological, engineering, water quality, agriculture, environmental, and other information in an integrated framework. In the last few decades different modelling tools for resolving problems regarding water quantity and quality were developed, respectively water resources management. Watershed models have been developed to the understanding of water cycle and pollution dynamics, and used to evaluate the impacts of hydrotechnical arrangements and land use management options on water quantity, quality, mitigation measures and possible global changes. Models have been used for planning monitoring network and to develop plans for intervention in case of hydrological disasters: floods, flash floods, drought and pollution. MIKE HYDRO Basin is a multi-purpose, map-centric decision support tool for integrated hydrographical basin analysis, planning and management. MIKE HYDRO Basin is designed for analyzing water sharing issues at international, national and local hydrographical basin level. MIKE HYDRO Basin uses a simplified mathematical representation of the hydrographical basin including the configuration of river and reservoir systems, catchment hydrology and existing and potential water user schemes with their various demands including a rigorous irrigation scheme module. This paper analyzes the importance and principles of integrated hydrographical basin management and develop a case

  18. Drainage basins features and hydrological behaviour river Minateda basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso-Sarria, F.

    1991-01-01

    Nine basin variables (shape, size and topology) have been analyzed in four small basins with non-permanent run off (SE of Spain). These geomorphological variables have been selected for their high correlation with the Instantaneous unit hydrograph parameters. It is shown that the variables can change from one small basin to another within a very short area; because of it, generalizations about the behaviour of the run off are not possible. In conclusion, it is stated that the variations in geomorphological aspects between different basins, caused mainly by geological constraints, are a very important factor to be controlled in a study of geoecological change derived from climatic change

  19. Parameters of passive fit using a new technique to mill implant-supported superstructures: an in vitro study of a novel three-dimensional force measurement-misfit method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmaseb, Ali; van de Weijden, J J; Mercelis, Peter; De Clerck, Renaat; Wismeijer, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to describe, in vitro, a novel technique to measure the misfit of digitally designed and manufactured implant-supported frameworks according to a new concept based on computer-guided surgery in combination with previously placed mini-implants. Also, the digitally created framework and an impression-based milled structure were compared using strain gauge measurements. Acrylic resin and plaster models were prepared to represent the edentulous mandible. After insertion of three mini-implants in the acrylic resin model, a cone-beam computed tomographic scan was performed. The data were imported to planning software, where six implants were virtually inserted. A drill guide and titanium framework were designed and milled using a fully digital computer-aided design/computer-assisted machining protocol. Six implants were inserted using the drill guide attached to the mini-implants. After an impression was made of the acrylic resin model with six implants, the second model (plaster model) was prepared. A second milled titanium structure was fabricated following optical scanning of the acrylic resin model. Strain gauge measurements were done on both structures attached to both models. To validate the results, a high-accuracy industrial optical scanning system was used to capture all connection geometry and the measurements were compared. The accuracy of the digital superstructures was 19, 22, and 10 Microm with standard deviations (SD) of 19.2 (17.9), 21.5 (28.3), and 10.3 (10.1) Microm for the x-, y-, and z-axes, respectively. For the impression-based superstructure the measured misfit was 11, 20, and 17 Microm, with SD 11.8 (10.5), 19.7 (11.7), and 16.7 (8.2) Microm for the x-, y-, and z-axes, respectively. The misfit of the digitally designed and produced superstructure on the digitally planned and inserted implants was clinically insignificant.

  20. Wind energy in Mediterranean Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudiosi, G.

    1991-01-01

    In its examination of wind energy potential in the Mediterranean Basin, this paper provides brief notes on the Basin's geography; indicates power production and demand; describes the area's wind characteristics and wind monitoring activities; illustrates wind velocity distributions; estimates local wind power production potential; reviews the Basin's wind energy marketing situation and each bordering country's wind energy programs; surveys installed wind energy farms; and assesses national research and commercialization efforts

  1. Unsteady heat exchange at the dry spent nuclear fuel storage

    OpenAIRE

    Svitlana Alyokhina; Andrii Kostikov

    2017-01-01

    Unsteady thermal processes in storage containers with spent nuclear fuel were modeled. The daily fluctuations of outer ambient temperatures were taken into account. The modeling approach, which is based on the solving of conjugate and inverse heat transfer problems, was verified by comparison of measured and calculated temperatures in outer channels. The time delays in the reaching of maximal temperatures for each spent fuel assembly were calculated. Results of numerical investigations show t...

  2. Spent fuel storage choices: What public opinion polls tell us

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisconti, A.S.

    1995-01-01

    The crux of the issue of spent nuclear fuel for much of the American public is that taking car of our waste now instead of leaving it for future generations is the safe and environmentally responsible think to do. This article summarizes a number of public opinion surveys. Although it is important to recognize that most people are not familiar with specifics, much of the American public has a strong opinions about the fundamental guiding principles for safely managing radioactive waste. First there is clear agreement that we need action. Second, safety means taking the waste to a permanent disposal facility instead of leaving it in many different locations. Third, most of the public would like to keep nuclear energy as a supply option. Fourth, the majority of the public agreed with the statement that the availability of nuclear energy as an option for future energy supply depends on building a national waste storage or disposal facility

  3. Canadian experience with wet and dry fuel storage concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayman, S.A.

    1978-07-01

    Canada has been storing fuel in water-filled pools for 30 years. There have been no significant problems, but until recently little effort has been invested in quantitative assessment of fuel performance under storage conditions. Work is now in progress to provide such information. Storage pools at nuclear generating stations have operated satisfactorily. The Canadian nuclear industry has nevertheless been studying methods for reducing storage costs and/or increasing reliability. Various concepts, using both water and air cooling, have been suggested. One such concept - the air-cooled concrete canister - is presently under test at the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment. (author)

  4. Spent fuel storage at the Rancho Seco Nuclear Generation Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, K.R.; Field, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    The Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) has developed a strategy for the storage and transport of spent nuclear fuel and is now in the process of licensing and manufacturing a Transportable Storage System (TSS). Staff has also engaged in impact limiter testing, non-fuel bearing component reinsertion, storage and disposal of GTCC waste, and site specific upgrades in support of spent fuel dry storage

  5. Safeguards technology development for spent fuel storage and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, K.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on facilities for monitored retrievable storage and geologic repository that will be operating in the US by 1998 and 2010 respectively. The international safeguards approach for these facilities will be determined broadly by the Safeguards Agreement and the IAEA Safeguards Criteria (currently available for 1991-1995) and defined specifically in the General Subsidiary Arrangements and Specific Facility Attachments negotiated under the US/IAEA Safeguards Agreement. Design information for these facilities types, as it is conceptualized, will be essential input to the safeguards approach. Unique design and operating features will translate into equally unique challenges to the application of international safeguards. The development and use of new safeguards technologies offers the greatest potential for improving safeguards. The development and use of new safeguards technologies offers the greatest potential for improving safeguards by enabling efficient and effective application with regard to the operator's interest, US policies, and the IAEA's statutorial obligations. Advanced unattended or remote measurement, authentication of operator's measurement, authentication of operator's measurement data, and integration of monitoring and containment/surveillance potentially are among the most fruitful areas of technology development. During the next year, a long range program plan for international safeguard technology development for monitored retrievable storage and geologic repository will be developed by the International Branch in close coordination with the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. This presentation preliminarily identifies elements of this long range program

  6. Safety criteria for wet and dry spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitkova, M.; Gorinov, I.; Dacheva, D.

    2006-01-01

    An overview of the safety criteria for both type of storage (wet and dry) is presented in this paper. The main criteria - thermal, shielding, radiological - are discussed in details. Some requirement to the materials and the operational regimes are also discussed. An attempt for comparison of the safety criteria and general problems for these both type of storage is made

  7. Discount rate in the spent fuel storage and disposal fee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forster, J.D.; Cohen, S.

    1980-04-01

    After introducing the financial analyses, discount rates, and interest rates involved, the study discusses existing government guidelines for establishing charges for any service provided by the government to be paid by users of those services. Three current government user charges are analyzed including specifically their interest rate policies and how these charges provide precedent for the spent fuel acceptance and disposal fee: uranium enrichment services, the sale of electric power, and the delivery of experiments to orbit by the NASA Space Shuttle. The current DOE policy regarding this storage and disposal fee is stated and discussed. Features of this policy include: the full government cost is borne by users of the services provided; the fee is established and due in full at the time of spent fuel delivery; and the fee is adjusted when spent fuel is transferred from the AFR to the repository. Four evaluation criteria for use in analyzing the applications of discount rates in the spent fuel acceptance fee calculation are discussed. Three outstanding issues are discussed

  8. Analysis of burnup credit on spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, T.; Sasahara, A.

    1999-01-01

    Chemical analyses were carried out on high burnup UO 2 (65 GWd/t) and MOX (45 GWd/t) spent fuel pins. Measured data of the composition of nuclides from 234 U to 242 Pu were used for evaluation of ORIGEN-2/82 code. Criticality calculations were executed for the casks which were being designed to store 52 BWR or 21 PWR spent fuel assemblies. The reactivity biases were evaluated for (1) axial and horizontal profiles of burnup, and void history (BWR), (2) operational histories such as control rod insertion history, BPR insertion history and others, and (3) calculational accuracy of ORIGEN-2/82 code on the composition of nuclides. Present evaluation shows that introduction of burnup credit has a substantial merit in criticality safety analysis of the cask, even if these reactivity biases are considered. The concept of equivalent uniform burnup was adapted for present reactivity bias evaluation and showed a possibility of simplifying the reactivity bias evaluation in burnup credit. Finally, adapting procedures of burnup credit such as the burnup meter were evaluated. (author)

  9. Spent fuel storage - dry storage options and issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akins, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    The increase in the number of nuclear energy power generation facilities will require the ability to store the spent nuclear fuel for a long period until the host countries develop reprocessing or disposal options. Plants have storage pools which are closely associated with the operating units. These are excellent for short term storage, but require active maintenance and operations support which are not desirable for the long term. Over the past 25 years, dry storage options have been developed and implemented throughout the world. In recent years, protection against terrorist attack has become an increasing source of design objectives for these facilities, as well as the main nuclear plant. This paper explores the current design options of dry storage cask systems and examines some of the current design issues for above ground , in-ground, or below-ground storage of spent fuel in dry casks. (author)

  10. Compact Fuel Cell Power Supplies with Safe Fuel Storage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Powell, M. R; Chellappa, A. S; Vencill, T. R

    2004-01-01

    .... Despite its energy-density advantage, this ammonia-based power supply will not likely be deployed in military or commercial markets unless safety concerns related to the possible rapid release of ammonia are resolved...

  11. Rethinking the economics of centralized spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, T.W.; Short, S.M.; Dippold, D.G.; Rod, S.R.; Williams, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    The technology for extended storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF), either at-reactor or in a centralized facility such as a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility, is well-developed and proven from an engineering and safety perspective. The question of whether spent fuel should await its final geologic disposal while at a reactor site or in an MRS facility is essentially an economic one. While intuition and previous results suggest that centralized storage will be more economical than at-reactor storage beyond some break-even quantity of SNF, the incremental costs of pool storage at-reactor are close to zero as long as pool capacity is generally available. Thus, if economics is the prime motivator, the quantity of spent fuel required to warrant centralized storage could be quite large. The economics of centralizing the storage of spent fuel at a single site, as opposed to continued storage at over 100 reactor sites, has been the subject of several recent analyses. Most of these analyses involved calculating the benefits of an MRS facility (in terms of avoided utility costs) with a pre-defined MRS operating scenario (e.g., spent fuel acceptance schedule, storage capacity, and typical storage cycle). While these analyses provided some insight into the economic justification for an MRS facility, even the most favorable scenarios resulted in net costs of hundreds of millions of dollars when evaluated on a discounted cash flow basis

  12. Decontamination of transport casks and of spent fuel storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    The present document provides an analysis of the technical papers presented at the meeting as well as a summary of the panel discussion. Conclusions and Recommendations: The meeting agreed that the primary source of contamination of transport casks is the production of radioactive isotopes in nuclear fuel and activation products of fuel components in nuclear reactors. The type, amount of mechanism for the release of these isotopes depend on the reactor type and fuel handling process. The widespread use of pools for the storage and handling of fuel provides an easy path for the transfer of contamination. Control of pool water conditions is essential for limiting the spread of contamination. For plants where casks are immersed in pools for loading, the immersion times should be minimised. Casks should be designed for ease of decontamination. The meeting discussed the use of stainless steel and suitable paints for coating casks. Designers should consider the appropriate coating for specific applications. The use of pressurized water for decontamination is recommended whenever possible. A number of commercially available reagents exist for decontaminating cask external surfaces. More work, however, is needed to cope with Pressurized Water Reactor crud within casks. Leaking fuel should be identified and isolated before storage in pools. Basic studies of the uptake and release of contamination from cask surfaces should be initiated. Standardization of methods of contamination measurement and instrumentation should be instituted. Refs, figs and tabs

  13. Development of new type concrete for spent fuel storage cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimojo, J.; Mantani, K.; Owaki, E.; Sugihara, Y.; Hata, A.; Shimono, M.; Taniuchi, H.

    2004-01-01

    Heat resistant concrete has been developed to make it possible to design a new type cask that has been designed on the same concept of metal cask technologies for use in high temperature conditions. The allowable temperature of conventional concrete is limited to less than 100 degrees Celsius because most of its moisture is free water and therefore hydrogen, which is effective for neutron shielding, can be easily lost. Our newly developed concrete uses chemically bonded water and as a result can be used under high temperatures

  14. Crude oil and finished fuel storage stability: An annotated review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whisman, M.L.; Anderson, R.P.; Woodward, P.W.; Giles, H.N.

    1991-01-01

    A state-of-the-art review and assessment of storage effects on crude oil and product quality was undertaken through a literature search by computer accessing several data base sources. Pertinent citations from that literature search are tabulated for the years 1980 to the present. This 1990 revision supplements earlier reviews by Brinkman and others which covered stability publications through 1979 and an update in 1983 by Goetzinger and others that covered the period 1952--1982. For purposes of organization, citations are listed in the current revision chronologically starting with the earliest 1980 publications. The citations have also been divided according to primary subject matter. Consequently 11 sections appear including: alternate fuels, gasoline, distillate fuel, jet fuel, residual fuel, crude oil, biodegradation, analyses, reaction mechanisms, containment, and handling and storage. Each section contains a brief narrative followed by all the citations for that category.

  15. Improved Hybrid Modeling of Spent Fuel Storage Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibber, Karl van

    2018-03-21

    Thiswork developed a newcomputational method for improving the ability to calculate the neutron flux in deep-penetration radiation shielding problems that contain areas with strong streaming. The “gold standard” method for radiation transport is Monte Carlo (MC) as it samples the physics exactly and requires few approximations. Historically, however, MC was not useful for shielding problems because of the computational challenge of following particles through dense shields. Instead, deterministic methods, which are superior in term of computational effort for these problems types but are not as accurate, were used. Hybrid methods, which use deterministic solutions to improve MC calculations through a process called variance reduction, can make it tractable from a computational time and resource use perspective to use MC for deep-penetration shielding. Perhaps the most widespread and accessible of these methods are the Consistent Adjoint Driven Importance Sampling (CADIS) and Forward-Weighted CADIS (FW-CADIS) methods. For problems containing strong anisotropies, such as power plants with pipes through walls, spent fuel cask arrays, active interrogation, and locations with small air gaps or plates embedded in water or concrete, hybrid methods are still insufficiently accurate. In this work, a new method for generating variance reduction parameters for strongly anisotropic, deeppenetration radiation shielding studies was developed. This method generates an alternate form of the adjoint scalar flux quantity, y , which is used by both CADIS and FW-CADIS to generate variance reduction parameters for local and global response functions, respectively. The new method, called CADIS- , was implemented in the Denovo/ADVANTG software. Results indicate that the flux generated by CADIS- incorporates localized angular anisotropies in the flux more effectively than standard methods. CADIS- outperformed CADIS in several test problems. This initial work indicates that CADIS- may be highly useful for shielding problems with strong angular anisotropies. This is a benefit to the public by increasing accuracy for lower computational effort for many problems that have energy, security, and economic importance.

  16. Status of Away From Reactor spent fuel storage program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, F.D.

    1979-07-01

    The Away From Reactor (AFR) Spent Fuel Program that the US Department of Energy established in 1977 is intended to preclude the shutting down of commercial nuclear power reactors because of lack of storage space for spent fuel. Legislation now being considered by Congress includes plans to provide storage space for commercial spent fuel beginning in 1983. Utilities are being encouraged to provide as much storage space as possible in their existing storage facilities, but projections indicate that a significant amount of AFR storage will be required. The government is evaluating the use of both existing and new storage facilities to solve this forecasted storage problem for commercial spent fuel

  17. Environmental Assessment for Fuel Storage Tank Removal and Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-10-23

    Protection of Children from Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks...Income Populations); and EO 13045 (Protection of Children from Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks). 1.8 Scope of the Environmental Assessment...pyrene, aluminum, arsenic, beryllium, iron, and thallium . Solid Waste Management Unit (SWMU) 72 SWMU 72 is an inactive coal ash disposal site located

  18. Closure system for a spent fuel storage cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessinger, B.A.

    1987-01-01

    A closure system is described for temporarily sealing a cask base element having a mouth region with first and second steps and for permitting the cask base element to be permanently sealed, the closure system comprising: a primary cover having a bottom side with a first peripheral region configured for placement on the first step and having a top side with a second peripheral region, an upwardly open annular recess being provided in the primary cover at the secondary peripheral region; first means disposed between the first peripheral region and the first step for creating a mechanical seal to seal the cash base element at least temporarily; a generally hand-shaped element which is disposed in the annular recess and which has first and second edges and a curved cross section, the first edge being sealingly affixed to the primary cover and the second edge being sealingly affixed to the cash base element only if the cash base element is to be permanently sealed; a secondary cover having a bottom side with a peripheral region configured for placement on the second step; and second means disposed between the peripheral region of the secondary cover and the second step for creating an additional mechanical seal to seal the cast base element at least temporarily

  19. The development of spent fuel storage process equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Wan Ki; Kim, Ho Dong; Kim, Ki Joon; Kim, Bum Hoe

    1992-02-01

    A nuclear material accounting system were designed to track the transitions of nuclear materials at the spent-fuel technology research facility. It is embedded in a distributed control system real-time structure of the system gives timely on-line accountancy. And performance of AC servo motor with fuzzy logic control and its applicability to spent fuel management were experimentally evaluated. (Author)

  20. Structural Health Monitoring of Nuclear Spent Fuel Storage Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Lingyu

    2018-04-10

    Interim storage of spent nuclear fuel from reactor sites has gained additional importance and urgency for resolving waste-management-related technical issues. To ensure that nuclear power remains clean energy, monitoring has been identified by DOE as a high priority cross-cutting need, necessary to determine and predict the degradation state of the systems, structures, and components (SSCs) important to safety (ITS). Therefore, nondestructive structural condition monitoring becomes a need to be installed on existing or to be integrated into future storage system to quantify the state of health or to guarantee the safe operation of nuclear power plants (NPPs) during their extended life span. In this project, the lead university and the collaborating national laboratory teamed to develop a nuclear structural health monitoring (n-SHM) system based on in-situ piezoelectric sensing technologies that can monitor structural degradation and aging for nuclear spent fuel DCSS and similar structures. We also aimed to identify and quantify possible influences of nuclear spent fuel environment (temperature and radiation) to the piezoelectric sensor system and come up with adequate solutions and guidelines therefore. We have therefore developed analytical model for piezoelectric based n-SHM methods, with considerations of temperature and irradiation influence on the model of sensing and algorithms in acoustic emission (AE), guided ultrasonic waves (GUW), and electromechanical impedance spectroscopy (EMIS). On the other side, experimentally the temperature and irradiation influence on the piezoelectric sensors and sensing capabilities were investigated. Both short-term and long-term irradiation investigation with our collaborating national laboratory were performed. Moreover, we developed multi-modal sensing, validated in laboratory setup, and conducted the testing on the We performed multi-modal sensing development, verification and validation tests on very complex structures including a medium-scale vacuum drying chamber and a small-scale mockup canister available for the desired testing. Our work developed the potential candidate for long term structural health monitoring of spent fuel canister through piezoelectric wafer sensors and provided the sensing methodologies based on AE and GUW methodologies. It overall provides an innovative system and methodology for enhancing the safe operation of nuclear power plant. All major accomplishments planned in the original proposal were successfully achieved.

  1. Sodium leak on the fuel storage drum of Superphenix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acket, C.; Marcon, J.P.; Michoux, H.

    1988-01-01

    SUPERPHENIX the world's largest fast breeder prototype reached its nominal power 1200 MWe in December 1986. In March 1987 a sodium leakage was detected on the 'barillet'. This is a large double walled cylindrical sodium tank (14 m high, 9 m in diameter) made of ferritic steel and filled with 700 tonnes of sodium at a temperature of 200 0 C. Located close to the primary pool it is used in the refuelling process of the plant. The leakage of sodium through the main vessel was confined in the guard vessel. This paper presents the different stages of the operations undertaken: to guarantee and improve the safety until the complete drainage of sodium; to drain the vessels and localize the leakage; to characterise the defect and the presence or not of other similar or different defects; to define the next step between several solutions including the local repair and complete reconstruction. (author)

  2. Study on increasing spent fuel storage capacity at Juragua NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra Valdes, R.; Lopez Aldama, D.; Rodriguez Gual, M.; Garcia Yip, F.

    1999-01-01

    The delay in decision about the final disposal of the spent fuel, led to longer interim storage. The reracking og the storage pools was an economical and feasible option to increase the storage capacity on the site. Reracking of the storage facility led to the analysis of the new conditions for criticality, shielding, residual heat removal and mechanical loads over the structures. This paper includes a summary of the studies on criticality and dose rate changes in the vicinity of the storage pool of Juragua NPP

  3. Rethinking the economics of centralized spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, T.W.; Short, S.M.; Dippold, D.G.; Rod, S.R.; Williams, J.W.

    1991-04-01

    The technology for extended storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF), either at-reactor or in a centralized facility such as a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility, is well-developed and proven from an engineering and safety perspective. The question of whether spent fuel should await its final geologic disposal while at a reactor site or in an MRS facility is essentially an economic one. While intuition and previous results suggest that centralized storage will be more economical than at-reactor storage beyond some break-even quantity of SNF, the incremental costs of pool storage at-reactor are close to zero as long as pool capacity is generally available. Thus, if economics is the prime motivator, the quantity of spent fuel required to warrant centralized storage could be quite large. The economics of centralizing the storage of spent fuel at a single site, as opposed to continued storage at over 100 reactor sites, has been the subject of several recent analyses. Most of these analyses involved calculating the benefits of an MRS facility with a pre-defined MRS operating scenario. This paper reverses this approach to economic analysis of the MRS by seeking the optimal MRS operating scenario (in terms of the parameters listed above) implied by the economic incentives arising from the relative costs of at-reactor storage and centralized storage. This approach treats an MRS as a possible storage location that will be used according to its economic value in system operation. 5 refs., 5 figs

  4. Seismic analysis of submerged spent fuel storage structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, S.J.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to provide structural integrity analysis for the loaded new spent fuel rack arrays against possible seismic excitation. The seismic design calculation is based on the UCRL-15910 spectrum with peak ground acceleration of 0.32g and 5% damping. This spectrum may be considered as an upper bound of the newly developed Oak Ridge site-specific spectrum with 0.29g peak ground acceleration and 5% damping. Both are more conservative than the current design basis seismic acceleration of 0.15g for HFIR. The calculation is carried out by using ABAQUS version 5.2 and the response spectrum option. Since the new racks are to be submerged in HFIR pool, the pool water induced virtual mass has been conservatively taken into consideration. The result shows that if the silo buckling is regarded as failure than, with 95% confidence, the 5% probability of failure ground acceleration is as much as 2.334g. As compared with the design basis of 0.32g, the structure is very safe against earthquake

  5. Contribution to the experimental qualification of PWR fuel storage calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsault, Philippe.

    1980-12-01

    Experiments were carried out on assemblies representative of those used in PWR reactors in a configuration made critical with a driver zone. In this way, certain parameters were able to be measured using current classical techniques. As the multiplication factor for a group of assemblies cannot be determined directly, substitutions were made with an equivalent homogeneous lattice in which Laplacian measurements could be made. The k(infinite) factor was obtained by introducing a migration area which can only be obtained from calculations. Experimental storage studies realized during the CRISTO 1 campaign utilize: 1) a lattice with 4 14x14 pin assemblies immersed in ordinary water; 2) a lattice with 4 14x14 pin assemblies and 3) a regular lattice. The CRISTO experiment enabled criticality calculations to be qualified with these lattices for storage under accidental conditions [fr

  6. Thermal test and analysis of a spent fuel storage cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakawa, H.; Gomi, Y.; Ozaki, S.; Kosaki, A.

    1993-01-01

    A thermal test simulated with full-scale cask model for the normal storage was performed to verify the storage skill of the spent fuels of the cask. The maximum temperature at each point in the test was lower than the allowable temperature. The integrity of the cask was maintained. It was observed that the safety of containment system was also kept according to the check of the seal before and after the thermal test. Therefore it was shown that using the present skill, it is possible to store spent fuels in the dry-type cask safely. Moreover, because of the good agreement between analysis and experimental results, it was shown that the analysis model was successfully established to estimate the temperature distribution of the fuel cladding and the seal portion. (J.P.N.)

  7. Contaminated sediment removal from a spent fuel storage canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geber, K.R.

    1993-01-01

    A leaking underground spent fuel transfer canal between a decommissioned reactor and a radiochemical separations building at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was found to contain RCRA-hazardous and radioactive sediment. Closure of the Part B RCRA permitted facility required the use of an underwater robotic vacuum and a filtration-containment system to separate and stabilize the contaminated sediment. This paper discusses the radiological controls established to maintain contamination and exposures As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) during the sediment removal

  8. Irradiated fuel storage and transport: A Swedish perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mennerdahl, D.

    2001-01-01

    This paper gives the views of the author and may not correspond to the views of the Swedish industry or the licensing authority. The views are based on experience from consultation to the Swedish licensing authority and from participation in international cooperation, in particular in the OECD/NEA NSC Working Group on Burnup Credit. (author)

  9. Integrated spent fuel storage and transportation system using NUHOMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, R.; McConaghy, W.; Rosa, J.

    1990-01-01

    As utilities with nuclear power plants face increasing near term spent fuel store needs, various systems for dry storage such as the NUTECH Horizontal Modular Storage (NUHOMS) system are being implemented to augment existing spent fuel pool storage capacities. These decisions are based on a number of generic and utility specific considerations including both short term and long term economics. Since the US Department of Energy (DOE) is tasked by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act with the future responsibility of transporting spent fuel from commercial nuclear power plants to a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility anchor a permanent geologic repository, the interfaces between the utilities at-reactor dry storage system and the DOE's away-from-reactor transportation system become important. This paper presents a study of the interfaces between the current at-reactor NUHOMS system and the future away-from-reactor DOE transportation system being developed under the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) program. 7 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  10. Multiple oscillatory modes of the Argentine Basin. Part II. The spectral origin of the basin modes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijer, W.; Vevier, F.; Gille, S.T.; Dijkstra, H.A.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the spectrum of barotropic basin modes of the Argentine Basin is shown to be connected to the classical Rossby basin modes of a flat-bottom (constant depth), rectangular basin. First, the spectrum of basin modes is calculated for the Argentine Basin, by performing a normal-mode

  11. Geophysical Investigation of the Raton Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    65 miles wide, the Raton Basin is divided by the Cimarron Arch into the northern Raton Basin and the Las Vegas Basin on the south. The deepest...to the east, the Cimarron Arch on the north, and was linked by a low saddle to the Tucumcari Basin to the south. The Colorado and Rowe-Mora Basins...sedimentary rock thinning near the Apishipa, Cimarron , and Sierra Grande Arches; 2) presence of volcanic rock in the southern portion of the Basin; 3

  12. Superstructure of NiAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozue, Tatsuhiro; Kobayashi, Hisao; Kamimura, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Yasuo

    2001-01-01

    The structural transition in NiAs was studied by neutron diffraction on the single crystalline sample. The crystal structure of NiAs has been reported to be bottom-centered orthorhombic with Cmc2 1 symmetry (niccolite-type). The measurement of temperature dependence of the powder X-ray diffraction revealed that NiAs undergoes a structural transition to the NiAs-type at T t =335 K. In present neutron diffraction experiment at room temperature, we observed the reflections indexed on the basis of the orthorhombic unit cell. The intensities of these reflections are qualitatively explained in terms of the niccolite-type structure with taking account of three domain structures, except for the weak reflections indexed as (001), (003) and (012). Then, the intensities of (001), (002) and (004) reflections were measured in temperature range of 20 to 420 K. The temperature dependences of (002) and (004) reflections qualitatively agree with those of the calculated intensities using the atomic positions of niccolite-type structure. However, the temperature dependence of (001) reflection shows the anomaly around T t , which suggests the symmetry of crystal structure of NiAs is not the Cmc2 1 symmetry. (author)

  13. The ERA of FOLE: Superstructure

    OpenAIRE

    Kent, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the representation of ontologies in the first-order logical environment FOLE (Kent 2013). An ontology defines the primitives with which to model the knowledge resources for a community of discourse (Gruber 2009). These primitives, consisting of classes, relationships and properties, are represented by the ERA (entity-relationship-attribute) data model (Chen 1976). An ontology uses formal axioms to constrain the interpretation of these primitives. In short, an ontology spe...

  14. K-Basins design guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roe, N.R.; Mills, W.C.

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of the design guidelines is to enable SNF and K Basin personnel to complete fuel and sludge removal, and basin water mitigation by providing engineering guidance for equipment design for the fuel basin, facility modifications (upgrades), remote tools, and new processes. It is not intended to be a purchase order reference for vendors. The document identifies materials, methods, and components that work at K Basins; it also Provides design input and a technical review process to facilitate project interfaces with operations in K Basins. This document is intended to compliment other engineering documentation used at K Basins and throughout the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. Significant provisions, which are incorporated, include portions of the following: General Design Criteria (DOE 1989), Standard Engineering Practices (WHC-CM-6-1), Engineering Practices Guidelines (WHC 1994b), Hanford Plant Standards (DOE-RL 1989), Safety Analysis Manual (WHC-CM-4-46), and Radiological Design Guide (WHC 1994f). Documents (requirements) essential to the engineering design projects at K Basins are referenced in the guidelines

  15. Geologic Basin Boundaries (Basins_GHGRP) GIS Layer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is a coverage shapefile of geologic basin boundaries which are used by EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program. For onshore production, the "facility" includes...

  16. Marketing San Juan Basin gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posner, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    Marketing natural gas produced in the San Juan Basin of New Mexico and Colorado principally involves four gas pipeline companies with significant facilities in the basin. The system capacity, transportation rates, regulatory status, and market access of each of these companies is evaluated. Because of excess gas supplies available to these pipeline companies, producers can expect improved take levels and prices by selling gas directly to end users and utilities as opposed to selling gas to the pipelines for system supply. The complexities of transporting gas today suggest that the services of an independent gas marketing company may be beneficial to smaller producers with gas supplies in the San Juan Basin

  17. Great Basin Experimental Range: Annotated bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Durant McArthur; Bryce A. Richardson; Stanley G. Kitchen

    2013-01-01

    This annotated bibliography documents the research that has been conducted on the Great Basin Experimental Range (GBER, also known as the Utah Experiment Station, Great Basin Station, the Great Basin Branch Experiment Station, Great Basin Experimental Center, and other similar name variants) over the 102 years of its existence. Entries were drawn from the original...

  18. River basin management and community : the Great Ouse Basin, 1850–present

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostert, E.

    2017-01-01

    River basins are difficult units to manage. Society is generally not organized on the basis of river basins, yet river basins are important units for society and vice versa. This paper discusses the development and effectiveness of river basin management, using the Great Ouse Basin in the east of

  19. Performance evaluation of 24 ion exchange materials for removing cesium and strontium from actual and simulated N-Reactor storage basin water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, G.N.; Carson, K.J.; DesChane, J.R.; Elovich, R.J.

    1997-09-01

    This report describes the evaluation of 24 organic and inorganic ion exchange materials for removing cesium and strontium from actual and simulated waters from the 100 Area 105 N-Reactor fuel storage basin. The data described in this report can be applied for developing and evaluating ion exchange pre-treatment process flowsheets. Cesium and strontium batch distribution ratios (K{sub d}`s), decontamination factors (DF), and material loadings (mmol g{sup -1}) are compared as a function of ion exchange material and initial cesium concentration. The actual and simulated N-Basin waters contain relatively low levels of aluminum, barium, calcium, potassium, and magnesium (ranging from 8.33E-04 to 6.40E-05 M), with slightly higher levels of boron (6.63E-03 M) and sodium (1.62E-03 M). The {sup 137}Cs level is 1.74E-06 Ci L-{sup 1} which corresponds to approximately 4.87E-10 M Cs. The initial Na/Cs ratio was 3.33E+06. The concentration of total strontium is 4.45E-06 M, while the {sup 90}Sr radioactive component was measured to be 6.13E-06 Ci L{sup -1}. Simulant tests were conducted by contacting 0.067 g or each ion exchange material with approximately 100 mL of either the actual or simulated N-Basin water. The simulants contained variable initial cesium concentrations ranging from 1.00E-04 to 2.57E- 10 M Cs while all other components were held constant. For all materials, the average cesium K{sub d} was independent of cesium concentration below approximately 1.0E-06 M. Above this level, the average cesium K{sub d} values decreased significantly. Cesium K{sub d} values exceeding 1.0E+07 mL g{sup -1} were measured in the simulated N-Basin water. However, when measured in the actual N-Basin water the values were several orders of magnitude lower, with a maximum of 1.24E+05 mL g{sup -1} observed.

  20. Allegheny County Basin Outlines Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This basins dataset was created to initiate regional watershed approaches with respect to sewer rehabilitation. If viewing this description on the Western...

  1. Sustaining Exploration in Mature Basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayo, A.

    2002-01-01

    Exploration is a business like any other business driven by opportunity, resources and expectation of profit. Therefore, exploration will thrive anywhere the opportunities are significant, the resources are available and the outlook for profit (or value creation) is good. To sustain exploration activities anywhere, irrespective of the environment, there must be good understanding of the drivers of these key investment criteria. This paper will examine these investment criteria as they relate to exploration business and address the peculiarity of exploration in mature basin. Mature basins are unique environment that lends themselves a mix of fears, paradigms and realities, particularly with respect to the perception of value. To sustain exploration activities in a mature basin, we need to understand these perceptions relative to the true drivers of profitability. Exploration in the mature basins can be as profitable as exploration in emerging basins if the dynamics of value definition-strategic and fiscal values are understood by operators, regulators and co ventures alike. Some suggestions are made in this presentation on what needs to be done in addressing these dynamic investment parameters and sustaining exploration activities in mature basins

  2. The Heidelberg Basin Drilling Project — basin analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, David C.; Martini, Nicole; Buness, Hermann; Gabriel, Gerald; Krawczyk, Charlotte M.

    2010-05-01

    Within the context of the Heidelberg Basin Project (Gabriel et al. 2008), we present the first results of three-dimensional structural modelling of the basin, based on interpretation of reflection seismics and decompaction using porosity data measured from core material. Firstly, we interpreted six horizons (Base Quaternary, Internal and Base Pliocene, Base Upper Miocene, Internal and Base Mid Miocene Hydrobien beds) from all available industrial (ca. 100 km) and our own reflection seismic sections (ca. 15 km), which lie within a 8 km radius around the Heidelberg UniNord 1/2 boreholes. This data was used to construct a three-dimensional geometrical model of the Heidelberg Basin. Using 300 core samples, we determined the porosity of the Quaternary sediments and constructed an exponential porosity/depth relationship for these rocks, which were then attributed to the model. Lower strata were given values from the literature. The model shows that the Heidelberg basin has a N-S and E-W areal extent of only 10 × 6 km, directly abutting the eastern fault boundary of the Upper Rhine Graben. The strongest synsedimentary tectonic subsidence occurred during the Upper Miocene, Upper Pliocene, and Quarternary. Faults are not seen within the basin at this level, but a NW-SE striking strike-slip structure is recorded to the west of the basin. Furthermore, the sedimentary depocentre shifted 2 km northwards over time to the present location, directly below the city of Heidelberg. We determined that Quaternary sediments have porosities of over 60% at the surface, but at the Base Quaternary porosity is less than 35%. This strong decrease means that 740 m of sediments were compacted to produce the present ca. 500 m thickness of Quaternary strata. Gabriel, G., Ellwanger, D., Hoselmann, C. & Weidenfeller, M. (2008): The Heidelberg Basin Drilling Project. -- Quaternary Science Journal, 57, 3-4, 253-260.

  3. RESERVES IN WESTERN BASINS PART IV: WIND RIVER BASIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Caldwell

    1998-04-01

    Vast quantities of natural gas are entrapped within various tight formations in the Rocky Mountain area. This report seeks to quantify what proportion of that resource can be considered recoverable under today's technological and economic conditions and discusses factors controlling recovery. The ultimate goal of this project is to encourage development of tight gas reserves by industry through reducing the technical and economic risks of locating, drilling and completing commercial tight gas wells. This report is the fourth in a series and focuses on the Wind River Basin located in west central Wyoming. The first three reports presented analyses of the tight gas reserves and resources in the Greater Green River Basin (Scotia, 1993), Piceance Basin (Scotia, 1995) and the Uinta Basin (Scotia, 1995). Since each report is a stand-alone document, duplication of language will exist where common aspects are discussed. This study, and the previous three, describe basin-centered gas deposits (Masters, 1979) which contain vast quantities of natural gas entrapped in low permeability (tight), overpressured sandstones occupying a central basin location. Such deposits are generally continuous and are not conventionally trapped by a structural or stratigraphic seal. Rather, the tight character of the reservoirs prevents rapid migration of the gas, and where rates of gas generation exceed rates of escape, an overpressured basin-centered gas deposit results (Spencer, 1987). Since the temperature is a primary controlling factor for the onset and rate of gas generation, these deposits exist in the deeper, central parts of a basin where temperatures generally exceed 200 F and drill depths exceed 8,000 feet. The abbreviation OPT (overpressured tight) is used when referring to sandstone reservoirs that comprise the basin-centered gas deposit. Because the gas resources trapped in this setting are so large, they represent an important source of future gas supply, prompting studies

  4. Testing for Basins of Wada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daza, Alvar; Wagemakers, Alexandre; Sanjuán, Miguel A F; Yorke, James A

    2015-11-10

    Nonlinear systems often give rise to fractal boundaries in phase space, hindering predictability. When a single boundary separates three or more different basins of attraction, we say that the set of basins has the Wada property and initial conditions near that boundary are even more unpredictable. Many physical systems of interest with this topological property appear in the literature. However, so far the only approach to study Wada basins has been restricted to two-dimensional phase spaces. Here we report a simple algorithm whose purpose is to look for the Wada property in a given dynamical system. Another benefit of this procedure is the possibility to classify and study intermediate situations known as partially Wada boundaries.

  5. The Central European Permian Basins; Rheological and structural controls on basin history and on inter-basin connectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Jeroen; van Wees, Jan-Diederik; Cloetingh, Sierd

    2014-01-01

    We analyse the relative importance of the major crustal-scale fault zones and crustal architecture in controlling basin formation, deformation and the structural connections between basins. The North and South Permian Basins of Central Europe are usually defined by the extend of Rotliegend

  6. Hydrologic Sub-basins of Greenland

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Hydrologic Sub-basins of Greenland data set contains Geographic Information System (GIS) polygon shapefiles that include 293 hydrologic sub-basins of the...

  7. Detention basin alternative outlet design study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This study examines the outlets structures CDOT has historically employed to drain water quality treatment detention basins and flood control basins, presents two new methods of metering the water quality capture volume (WQCV), namely 1) the Elliptic...

  8. 77 FR 45653 - Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group; Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ...; Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project, Yakima, WA AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION... Basin Conservation Advisory Group, Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project, established by the... future projects being funded with Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project funds. The CAG will also...

  9. Canada Basin Acoustic Propagation Experiment (CANAPE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Canada Basin Acoustic Propagation Experiment (CANAPE...about Arctic acoustics during the Cold War is now obsolete. The goal of the Canada Basin Acoustic Propagation Experiment (CANAPE) is to determine the...Canada Basin (McLaughlin et al., 2011). These changing conditions make the Canada Basin an ideal location to test the hypothesis put forward by P

  10. Implementing Integrated River Basin Management in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhorst, D.G.J. te; Smits, A.J.M.; Yu, X.; Lifeng, L.; Lei, G.; Zhang, C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the role of the World Wildlife Fund for Nature China as policy entrepreneur in China. It illustrates the ways in which the World Wildlife Fund for Nature is active in promoting integrated river basin management in the Yangtze River basin and how the efforts at basin level are

  11. Supplementary information on K-Basin sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MAKENAS, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    Three previous documents in this series have been published covering the analysis of: K East Basin Floor and Pit Sludge, K East Basin Canister Sludge, and K West Basin Canister Sludge. Since their publication, additional data have been acquired and analyses performed. It is the purpose of this volume to summarize the additional insights gained in the interim time period

  12. On the significance of ELF basins

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    to complement to chemical intuition (see, e.g., refs. 2, 3). In a mathematically more rigorous way, such regions, ELF basins,4 were defined following the spirit of Bader's Atoms in Molecules (AIM). All points in space which lead to the a given maximum of ELF, by following the gradient of ELF, belong to the same basin. Basins ...

  13. Supplementary information on K-Basin sludges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MAKENAS, B.J.

    1999-03-15

    Three previous documents in this series have been published covering the analysis of: K East Basin Floor and Pit Sludge, K East Basin Canister Sludge, and K West Basin Canister Sludge. Since their publication, additional data have been acquired and analyses performed. It is the purpose of this volume to summarize the additional insights gained in the interim time period.

  14. Proterozoic intracontinental basin: The Vindhyan example

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Vindhyan basin is a classic example of Proterozoic intracontinental basin that developed in the central part of the Indian shield along with several other basins such as Cuddapah,Chattisgarh,etc.The strata are exposed in three major sectors:Son valley,Bundelkhand and Rajasthan. Substantially thick Vindhyan rocks ...

  15. 75 FR 45172 - Withdrawal of Regulatory Guides 3.44 and 3.49

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2010-0266] Withdrawal of Regulatory Guides 3.44 and 3.49 AGENCY...)'' and Regulatory Guide 3.49, ``Design of an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (Water-Basin... (Water-Basin Type),'' dated January 1989 and RG 3.49, ``Design of an Independent Spent Fuel Storage...

  16. BASIN: Beowulf Analysis Symbolic INterface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesperini, Enrico; Goldberg, David M.; McMillan, Stephen L. W.; Dura, James; Jones, Douglas

    2013-08-01

    BASIN (Beowulf Analysis Symbolic INterface) is a flexible, integrated suite of tools for multiuser parallel data analysis and visualization that allows researchers to harness the power of Beowulf PC clusters and multi-processor machines without necessarily being experts in parallel programming. It also includes general tools for data distribution and parallel operations on distributed data for developing libraries for specific tasks.

  17. Great Basin paleoenvironmental studies project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Project goals, project tasks, progress on tasks, and problems encountered are described and discussed for each of the studies that make up the Great Basin Paleoenvironmental Studies Project for Yucca Mountain. These studies are: Paleobotany, Paleofauna, Geomorphology, and Transportation. Budget summaries are also given for each of the studies and for the overall project

  18. Evolution of the Congo Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasmacher, U. A.; Bauer, F. U.; Kollenz, S.; Delvaux, D.

    2012-04-01

    The Congo Basin is one of the largest basins in the World with very little knowledge on the geological evolution as well as the oil and gas potential. In the past, oil seeps are recorded in the central part of the basin. Four sides in the Congo basin have been drilled so far. The cores of the two drill sides Dekese and Samba are located at the Musée royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Belgium. In a reconnaissance survey, we sampled both drill cores in a nearly even spacing of ~ 150 m covering the whole stratigraphy from Albian to Proterozoic. The red and green to grey sandstone samples were prepared by usual heavy minerals separation technique. Most of the samples revealed enough apatite and zircon grains for the two thermochronometric techniques fission track and (U-Th-Sm)/He. The time-temperature (t-T) evolution for the two drill locations were modelled by using the determined thermochronological data within the software code HeFTy. We tested various geological evolutionary constrains. Both techniques provide us information on the thermal and exhumation of the possible source area and on the drill location by themselves.

  19. Coastal inlets and tidal basins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vriend, H.J.; Dronkers, J.; Stive, M.J.F.; Van Dongeren, A.; Wang, J.H.

    2002-01-01

    lecture note: Tidal inlets and their associated basins (lagoons) are a common feature of lowland coasts all around the world. A significant part ofthe world's coastlines is formed by barrier island coasts, and most other tidal coasts are interrupted by estuaries and lagoon inlets. These tidal

  20. The Amazon Basin in transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric A. Davidson; Alessandro C. de Araujo; Paulo Artaxo; Jennifer K. Balch; I. Foster Brown; Mercedes M.C. Bustamente; Michael T. Coe; Ruth S. DeFriess; Michael Keller; Marcos Longo; J. William Munger; Wilfrid Schroeder; Britaldo Soares-Filho; Carlos M. Souza, Jr.; Steven C. Wofsy

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural expansion and climate variability have become important agents of disturbance in the Amazon basin. Recent studies have demonstrated considerable resilience of Amazonian forests to moderate annual drought, but they also show that interactions between deforestation, fire and drought potentially lead to losses of carbon storage and changes in regional...

  1. L-Reactor 186-basin cleaning alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcotte, M.D.S.

    1983-01-01

    Operation of L Reactor will necessitate annual cleaning of the L Area 186 basins. Alternatives are presented for sediment discharge due to 186-basin cleaning activities as a basis for choosing the optimal cleaning method. Current cleaning activities (i.e. removal of accumulated sediments) for the P, C and K-Area 186 basins result in suspended solids concentrations in the effluent waters above the NPDES limits, requiring an exemption from the NPDES permit for these short-term releases. The objective of mitigating the 186-basin cleaning activities is to decrease the suspended solids concentrations to within permit limits while continuing satisfactory operation of the basins

  2. Modelling Forearc Basin Formation and Stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannu, Utsav; Ueda, Kosuke; Willett, Sean; Gerya, Taras; Strasser, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Comparison of synthetic stratigraphy of forearc basins as generated in coupled plate subduction and accretionary wedge models to the stratal patterns observed for forearc basins in nature, could be used to ascertain the dynamic consistency of the interpreted deformational history of the wedge. Additionally, it could help us understand the emergence of stratigraphic patterns in forearc basins as an interplay between sedimentary flux and wedge dynamics. Here we present a simple methodology to generate synthetic stratigraphy by emplacing isochronal surfaces during the evolution of the wedge. We use a dynamic 2D, high-resolution, thermo-mechanical, subduction model coupled to an adaptive irregular surface grid to model the free surface. In this model, we track basin stratigraphy developing in the wedge top basins atop the accretionary prism by emplacing lines of Lagrangian markers at discrete times along the upper surface of the model, which subsequently are buried, transported, and deformed according to the velocity field generated in the model. We conduct numerical experiments to identify the stratigraphic signatures of different forearc basin formation mechanisms. We also study the impact of hinterland and trench sedimentation on the wedge evolution and its impact on forearc basin formation. Forearc basins that form on top of the overriding plate remain passive to the deformation history of the wedge. Forearc basins formed as negative alpha basins remain mostly undeformed. Forearc basins that form due to wedge stabilization exhibit landward tilting of strata with time. We also find that trench sedimentation enhances the landward tilting of the basin by shifting deformation landwards and potentially triggering out-of-sequence-thrust emergence/reactivation. Predicted stratigraphic features in our numerical models agree well with stratigraphic patterns observed in different types of forearc basins in the Nankai Trough, Sunda Strait and Lombok Basin offshore Japan, Java

  3. THE ADVANCED CHEMISTRY BASINS PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Goddard; Peter Meulbroek; Yongchun Tang; Lawrence Cathles III

    2004-04-05

    In the next decades, oil exploration by majors and independents will increasingly be in remote, inaccessible areas, or in areas where there has been extensive shallow exploration but deeper exploration potential may remain; areas where the collection of data is expensive, difficult, or even impossible, and where the most efficient use of existing data can drive the economics of the target. The ability to read hydrocarbon chemistry in terms of subsurface migration processes by relating it to the evolution of the basin and fluid migration is perhaps the single technological capability that could most improve our ability to explore effectively because it would allow us to use a vast store of existing or easily collected chemical data to determine the major migration pathways in a basin and to determine if there is deep exploration potential. To this end a the DOE funded a joint effort between California Institute of Technology, Cornell University, and GeoGroup Inc. to assemble a representative set of maturity and maturation kinetic models and develop an advanced basin model able to predict the chemistry of hydrocarbons in a basin from this input data. The four year project is now completed and has produced set of public domain maturity indicator and maturation kinetic data set, an oil chemistry and flash calculation tool operable under Excel, and a user friendly, graphically intuitive basin model that uses this data and flash tool, operates on a PC, and simulates hydrocarbon generation and migration and the chemical changes that can occur during migration (such as phase separation and gas washing). The DOE Advanced Chemistry Basin Model includes a number of new methods that represent advances over current technology. The model is built around the concept of handling arbitrarily detailed chemical composition of fluids in a robust finite-element 2-D grid. There are three themes on which the model focuses: chemical kinetic and equilibrium reaction parameters, chemical

  4. The sedimentary basins of Tanzania - reviewed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbede, E. I.

    The sedimentary basins of Tanzania have been classified into four morphotectonic groups: the coastal basin, the Karoo rift basins, basins found within the present East African rift valley and the cratonic sag basins. Except for the cratonic sag basins, each of these basin group has been affected by rifting at one time or another. The geology of each basin is discussed, structural evolution is evaluated and the prospectivity is thence looked into. Coal is exploited at Songwe-Kiwira coalfield and is found in potentially economic quantities in other Karoo basins. Prospecting for hydrocarbon resources has been going on since the 50s. Gas has been discovered in Songosongo and Mnazi bay fields, uneconomical quantities of oil have also been reported in Songosongo. Being basically rift basins which have reached different stages of development, source rocks normally associated with Initial-rifting, synrifting as well as post-rifting processes are probably well developed. Reservoir rocks, traps and cap rocks are normally not rare in such tectonic environments. Thermal gradients associated with the rifting stage are normaly high to effect maturation of source rocks even at low sedimentary thicknesses. Studies done so far are still inconclusive, because while testing has mainly been focused on structural traps stratigraphic traps seems to be more promising.

  5. Uranium geochemistry of Orca Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, F.F. Jr.; Sackett, W.M.

    1981-01-01

    Orca Basin, an anoxic, brine-filled depression at a depth of 2200 m in the Northwestern Gulf of Mexico continental slope, has been studied with respect to its uranium geochemistry. Uranium concentration profiles for four cores from within the basin were determined by delayed-neutron counting. Uranium concentrations ranged from 2.1 to 4.1 ppm on a salt-free and carbonate-corrected basis. The highest uranium concentrations were associated with the lowest percentage and delta 13 C organic carbon values. For comparison, cores from the brine-filled Suakin and Atlantis II Deeps, both in the Red Sea, were also analyzed. Uranium concentrations ranged from 1.2 to 2.6 ppm in the Suakin Deep and from 8.0 to 11.0 ppm in the Atlantis II Deep. No significant correlation was found between uranium concentrations and organic carbon concentrations and delta 13 C values for these cores. Although anoxic conditions are necessary for significant uranium uptake by non-carbonate marine sediments, other factors such as dilution by rapidly depositing materials and uranium supply via mixing and diffusion across density gradients may be as important in determining uranium concentrations in hypersaline basin sediments. (author)

  6. K West Basin canister survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitner, A.L.

    1998-01-01

    A survey was conducted of the K West Basin to determine the distribution of canister types that contain the irradiated N Reactor fuel. An underwater camera was used to conduct the survey during June 1998, and the results were recorded on videotape. A full row-by-row survey of the entire basin was performed, with the distinction between aluminum and stainless steel Mark 1 canisters made by the presence or absence of steel rings on the canister trunions (aluminum canisters have the steel rings). The results of the survey are presented in tables and figures. Grid maps of the three bays show the canister lid ID number and the canister type in each location that contained fuel. The following abbreviations are used in the grid maps for canister type designation: IA = Mark 1 aluminum, IS = Mark 1 stainless steel, and 2 = Mark 2 stainless steel. An overall summary of the canister distribution survey is presented in Table 1. The total number of canisters found to contain fuel was 3842, with 20% being Mark 1 Al, 25% being Mark 1 SS, and 55% being Mark 2 SS. The aluminum canisters were predominantly located in the East and West bays of the basin

  7. The geologic history of Margaritifer basin, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, M. R.; Kraft, M. D.; Edwards, Christopher; Christensen, P.R.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the fluvial, sedimentary, and volcanic history of Margaritifer basin and the Uzboi-Ladon-Morava (ULM) outflow channel system. This network of valleys and basins spans more than 8000 km in length, linking the fluvially dissected southern highlands and Argyre Basin with the northern lowlands via Ares Vallis. Compositionally, thermophysically, and morphologically distinct geologic units are identified and are used to place critical relative stratigraphic constraints on the timing of geologic processes in Margaritifer basin. Our analyses show that fluvial activity was separated in time by significant episodes of geologic activity, including the widespread volcanic resurfacing of Margaritifer basin and the formation of chaos terrain. The most recent fluvial activity within Margaritifer basin appears to terminate at a region of chaos terrain, suggesting possible communication between surface and subsurface water reservoirs. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of these observations on our current knowledge of Martian hydrologic evolution in this important region.

  8. Exergetic efficiency of basin type solar still

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layek, Apurba

    2017-06-01

    Simplicity of solar distillation system makes it very attractive, but the yield as well as the thermal efficiency is very low. Different types of absorbing materials e.g. black ink, black dye solution in basin water and black toner on water surface were used to evaluate their effect on the yield. As the absorbing material absorbs more solar radiation and increases basin water temperature, increases yield as well as energy efficiency. To enhance the thermal performance, and to have the insight of thermal losses; exergetic analysis of solar still is done. The maximum energy efficiency obtained for basin water having these absorber material on basin water are about 41.3 %, 43.42 % and 45.79 %, while exergetic efficiency values are 5.91%, 6.34 % and 7.10 % respectively. Exergy destruction from basin liner is the highest compared to that from basin water and glazing.

  9. Reserves in western basins: Part 1, Greater Green River basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, overpressured sandstone reservoirs located below 8,000 feet drill depth in the Greater Green River basin, Wyoming. Total in place resource is estimated at 1,968 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 33 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. Five plays (formations) were included in this study and each was separately analyzed in terms of its overpressured, tight gas resource, established productive characteristics and future reserves potential based on a constant $2/Mcf wellhead gas price scenario. A scheme has been developed to break the overall resource estimate down into components that can be considered as differing technical and economic challenges that must be overcome in order to exploit such resources: in other words, to convert those resources to economically recoverable reserves. Total recoverable reserves estimates of 33 Tcf do not include the existing production from overpressured tight reservoirs in the basin. These have estimated ultimate recovery of approximately 1.6 Tcf, or a per well average recovery of 2.3 Bcf. Due to the fact that considerable pay thicknesses can be present, wells can be economic despite limited drainage areas. It is typical for significant bypassed gas to be present at inter-well locations because drainage areas are commonly less than regulatory well spacing requirements.

  10. Reserve estimates in western basins. Part 2: Piceance Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, sandstone reservoirs of the Mesaverde group in the Piceance Basin, Colorado. Total in place resource is estimated at 307.3 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 5.8 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. About 82.6% of the total evaluated resource is contained within sandstones that have extremely poor reservoir properties with permeabilities considered too low for commerciality using current frac technology. Cost reductions and technology improvements will be required to unlock portions of this enormous resource. Approximately 2.7% of the total resource is contained within sandstone reservoirs which do not respond to massive hydraulic fracture treatments, probably due to their natural lenticular nature. Approximately 6.8% of the total resource is located in deeply buried settings below deepest established production. Approximately 7.9% of the total resource is considered to represent tight reservoirs that may be commercially exploited using today`s hydraulic fracturing technology. Recent technology advances in hydraulic fracturing practices in the Piceance Basin Mesaverde has resulted in a marked improvement in per well gas recovery which, where demonstrated, has been incorporated into the estimates provided in this report. This improvement is so significant in changing the risk-reward relationship that has historically characterized this play, that previously uneconomic areas and resources will graduate to the economically exploitable category. 48 refs., 96 figs., 18 tabs.

  11. Hydroclimatology of the Missouri River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Erika K.; Woodhouse, Connie A.; McCabe, Gregory; Pederson, Gregory T.; St. Jacques, Jeannine-Marie

    2018-01-01

    Despite the importance of the Missouri River for navigation, recreation, habitat, hydroelectric power, and agriculture, relatively little is known about the basic hydroclimatology of the Missouri River basin (MRB). This is of particular concern given the droughts and floods that have occurred over the past several decades and the potential future exacerbation of these extremes by climate change. Here, observed and modeled hydroclimatic data and estimated natural flow records in the MRB are used to 1) assess the major source regions of MRB flow, 2) describe the climatic controls on streamflow in the upper and lower basins , and 3) investigate trends over the instrumental period. Analyses indicate that 72% of MRB runoff is generated by the headwaters in the upper basin and by the lowest portion of the basin near the mouth. Spring precipitation and temperature and winter precipitation impacted by changes in zonal versus meridional flow from the Pacific Ocean play key roles in surface water supply variability in the upper basin. Lower basin flow is significantly correlated with precipitation in late spring and early summer, indicative of Atlantic-influenced circulation variability affecting the flow of moisture from the Gulf of Mexico. Although increases in precipitation in the lower basin are currently overriding the effects of warming temperatures on total MRB flow, the upper basin’s long-term trend toward decreasing flows, reduction in snow versus rain fraction, and warming spring temperatures suggest that the upper basin may less often provide important flow supplements to the lower basin in the future.

  12. New TNX Seepage Basin: Environmental information document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunaway, J.K.W.; Johnson, W.F.; Kingley, L.E.; Simmons, R.V.; Bledsoe, H.W.

    1986-12-01

    The New TNX Seepage Basin has been in operation at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) since 1980 and is located in the southeastern section of the TNX facility. The basin receives waste from pilot scale tests conducted at TNX in support of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and the plant Separations area. The basin is scheduled for closure after the TNX Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) begins operation. The basin will be closed pursuant to all applicable state and federal regulations. A statistical analysis of monitoring data indicates elevated levels of sodium and zinc in the groundwater at this site. Closure options considered for the New TNX Seepage Basin include waste removal and closure, no waste removal and closure, and no action. The two predominant pathways for human exposure to chemical contaminants are through surface, subsurface, and atmospheric transport. Modeling calculations were made to determine the risks to human population via these general pathways for the three postulated closure options for the New TNX Seepage Basin. Cost estimates for each closure option at the basin have also been prepared. An evaluation of the environmental impacts from the New TNX Seepage Basin indicate that the relative risks to human health and ecosystems for the postulated closure options are low. The transport of six chemical and one radionuclide constituents through the environmental pathways from the basin were modeled. The maximum chemical carcinogenic risk and the noncarcinogenic risk for the groundwater pathways were from exposure to trichloromethane and nitrate

  13. Relating petroleum system and play development to basin evolution: West African South Atlantic basins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beglinger, S.E.; Doust, H.; Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.

    2012-01-01

    Sedimentary basins can be classified according to their structural genesis and evolutionary history and the latter can be linked to petroleumsystem and playdevelopment. We propose an approach in which we use the established concepts in a new way: breaking basins down into their natural basin cycle

  14. Fractal basin boundaries generated by basin cells and the geometry of mixing chaotic flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nusse, HE; Yorke, JA

    2000-01-01

    Experiments and computations indicate that mixing in chaotic flows generates certain coherent spatial structures. Lf a two-dimensional basin has a basin cell (a trappings region whose boundary consists of pieces of the stable and unstable manifold of some periodic orbit) then the basin consists of a

  15. Suceava Anthropic Torrential Basin - Prolegomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei-Emil BRICIU

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available One problem discussed by urban hydrology today is the draining influence of the modern cities over the natural drainage systems. The increasing urban areas and of their imperviousness all over theworld is linked to floods shape modifications and unpredicted systemic implications.  Generally, the draining influence of a city over its environment begins when it has a surface great enough to create an anthropic-generated runoff during a rain with enoughprecipitations to provoke waters accumulation into street torrents. The size, imperviousness, precipitations, drainage system and water consumption of the Suceava city are analysed in order to estimate the discharge of the city into Suceava river at various rainfalls. The article is structured as follows:1. Argumentation on the class separation between natural and anthropic torrential basins.2. Placing Suceava city as one of the torrential anthropic basins in Romania using basic arguments.3. Extending one of the argument, the importance of the rainfalls, in more detailed discussions (rainfall characteristics mainly, but also its cumulative effect with the floods on the Suceava river and the consumption of water in the city, with two scenarios. 4. The city is analysed as being integrated into a metropolitan area which can exacerbate the influence of the main city over the surrounding natural drainage basins nearby that area.5. Conclusions, where measures are proposed in order to diminish the potential negative effects on environment and human society.This article is only an introduction to a more detailed analysis which will be complete with further field data.

  16. Delaware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2001-09-28

    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. EPA requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard and must consider inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  17. K Basins Field Verification Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, H.W.

    1994-01-01

    The Field Verification Program establishes a uniform and systematic process to ensure that technical information depicted on selected engineering drawings accurately reflects the actual existing physical configuration. This document defines the Field Verification Program necessary to perform the field walkdown and inspection process that identifies the physical configuration of the systems required to support the mission objectives of K Basins. This program is intended to provide an accurate accounting of the actual field configuration by documenting the as-found information on a controlled drawing

  18. Delaware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. EPA requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard and must consider inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  19. Stratigraphic Signatures of Forearc Basin Formation Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannu, U.; Ueda, K.; Gerya, T.; Willett, S.; Strasser, M.

    2014-12-01

    Forearc basins are loci of active sedimentation above the landward portion of accretionary prisms. Although these basins typically remain separated from the frontal prism by a forearc high, their evolution has a significant impact on the structure and deformation of the entire wedge. Formation of forearc basins has been proposed as a consequence of changes in wedge stability due to an increase of slab dip in subduction zones. Another hypothesis attributes this to higher hinterland sedimentation, which causes the rear of the wedge to stabilize and eventually develop a forearc basin. Basin stratigraphic architecture, revealed by high-resolution reflection seismic data and borehole data allows interpretation of structural development of the accretionary prism and associated basins with the goal of determining the underlying driving mechanism(s) of basin formation. In this study we supplement data interpretation with thermo-mechanical numerical models including high-resolution isochronal surface tracking to visualize the developing stratigraphy of basins that develop in subduction zone and wedge dynamic models. We use a dynamic 2D thermo mechanical model incorporating surface processes, strain weakening and sediment subduction. The model is a modification of I2VIS model, which is based on conservative, fully staggered finite differences and a non-diffusive marker- in-cell technique capable of modelling mantle convection. In the model different driving mechanisms for basin formation can be explored. Stratigraphic simulations obtained by isochronal surface tracking are compared to reflection pattern and stratigraphy of seismic and borehole data, respectively. Initial results from a model roughly representing the Nankai Trough Subduction Zone offshore Japan are compared to available seismic and Integrated Ocean Drilling (IODP) data. A calibrated model predicting forearc basin stratigraphy will be used to discern the underlying process of basins formation and wedge

  20. Basin Assessment Spatial Planning Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-07-26

    The tool is intended to facilitate hydropower development and water resource planning by improving synthesis and interpretation of disparate spatial datasets that are considered in development actions (e.g., hydrological characteristics, environmentally and culturally sensitive areas, existing or proposed water power resources, climate-informed forecasts). The tool enables this capability by providing a unique framework for assimilating, relating, summarizing, and visualizing disparate spatial data through the use of spatial aggregation techniques, relational geodatabase platforms, and an interactive web-based Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Data are aggregated and related based on shared intersections with a common spatial unit; in this case, industry-standard hydrologic drainage areas for the U.S. (National Hydrography Dataset) are used as the spatial unit to associate planning data. This process is performed using all available scalar delineations of drainage areas (i.e., region, sub-region, basin, sub-basin, watershed, sub-watershed, catchment) to create spatially hierarchical relationships among planning data and drainages. These entity-relationships are stored in a relational geodatabase that provides back-end structure to the web GIS and its widgets. The full technology stack was built using all open-source software in modern programming languages. Interactive widgets that function within the viewport are also compatible with all modern browsers.

  1. Fractal basins in an ecological model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Djellit

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Complex dynamics is detected in an ecological model of host-parasitoid interaction. It illustrates fractalization of basins with self-similarity and chaotic attractors. This paper describes these dynamic behaviors, bifurcations, and chaos. Fractals basins are displayed by numerical simulations.

  2. sedimentology, depositional environments and basin evolution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    ABSTRACT: The Inter-Trappean coal and oil shale-bearing sedimentation in the Delbi-Moye Basin took place in tectonically controlled grabens and half-grabens formed by extensional fault systems and accompanied by passive subsidence. The sedimentation history of the basin is related to the tectonic events that affected ...

  3. K-Basin isolation barrier seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruff, E.S.

    1994-10-01

    This report documents various aspects of the design, analysis, procurement, and fabrication of the hydraulic seal on the isolation barriers to be installed in the 100-K Area spent nuclear fuel basin. The isolation barrier is used to keep water in the basin in the event of an earthquake

  4. Attractors and basins of dynamical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Dénes

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available There are several programs for studying dynamical systems, but none of them is very useful for investigating basins and attractors of higher dimensional systems. Our goal in this paper is to show a new algorithm for finding even chaotic attractors and their basins for these systems. We present an implementation and examples for the use of this program.

  5. Sedimentology, depositional environments and basin evolution of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Inter-Trappean coal and oil shale-bearing sedimentation in the Delbi-Moye Basin took place in tectonically controlled grabens and half-grabens formed by extensional fault systems and accompanied by passive subsidence. The sedimentation history of the basin is related to the tectonic events that affected East Africa.

  6. Luminescent gold and silver complexes with the monophosphane 1-(PPh2)-2-Me-C2B10H10 and their conversion to gold micro- and superstructured materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Olga; Díaz, Carlos; O'Dwyer, Colm; Gimeno, M Concepción; Laguna, Antonio; Ospino, Isaura; Valenzuela, Maria Luisa

    2014-07-21

    Gold and silver complexes containing the monophosphane 1-PPh2-2-Me-l,2-C2B10H10 with different coordination numbers (2, 3) have been synthesized: [M(7,8-(PPh2)2-C2B9H10)(1-PPh2-2-Me-C2B10H10)] (M = Ag, Au) and [Au2(μ-1,n-C2B10H10)(1-PPh2-2-Me-C2B10H10)2] (n = 2, 12). Solid-state pyrolysis of [AuCl(1-PPh2-2-Me-C2B10H10)] and [Au2(μ-1,12-C2B10H10)(1-PPh2-2-Me-C2B10H10)2] in air and of solutions of [AuCl(1-PPh2-2-Me-C2B10H10)] deposited on silicon and silica at 800 °C results in single-crystal Au, confirmed by diffraction and SEM-EDS. The morphology of the pyrolytic products depends on the thermolytic conditions, and different novel 3-D superstructures or microcrystals are possible. We also propose a mechanism for the thermal conversion of these precursors to structural crystalline and phase pure materials. The presence of the carborane monophosphane seems to originate quenching of the luminescence at room temperature in the complexes [Au2(μ-1,n-C2B10H10)(1-PPh2-2-Me-C2B10H10)2], in comparison with other [Au2(μ-1,n-C2B10H10)L2] species (L = monophosphane).

  7. Implementing Integrated River Basin Management in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorri G. J. te Boekhorst

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the role of the World Wildlife Fund for Nature China as policy entrepreneur in China. It illustrates the ways in which the World Wildlife Fund for Nature is active in promoting integrated river basin management in the Yangtze River basin and how the efforts at basin level are matched with the advice of the China Council for International Cooperation on Environment and Development task force on integrated river basin management to the national government of China. This article demonstrates that the World Wildlife Fund for Nature uses various strategies of different types to support a transition process towards integrated river basin management. Successful deployment of these strategies for change in environmental policy requires special skills, actions, and attitudes on the part of the policy entrepreneur, especially in China, where the government has a dominant role regarding water management and the position of policy entrepeneurs is delicate.

  8. Delaware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2002-09-21

    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. The EPA environmental standards for the management and disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste are codified in 40 CFR Part 191 (EPA 1993). Subparts B and C of the standard address the disposal of radioactive waste. The standard requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard. This assessment must include the consideration of inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  9. Delaware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2003-09-30

    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. The EPA environmental standards for the management and disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste are codified in 40 CFR Part 191 (EPA 1993). Subparts B and C of the standard address the disposal of radioactive waste. The standard requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard. This assessment must include the consideration of inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  10. Delaware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-09-30

    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. The EPA environmental standards for the management and disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste are codified in 40 CFR Part 191 (EPA 1993). Subparts B and C of the standard address the disposal of radioactive waste. The standard requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard. This assessment must include the consideration of inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  11. Delaware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2004-09-30

    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. The EPA environmental standards for the management and disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste are codified in 40 CFR Part 191 (EPA 1993). Subparts B and C of the standard address the disposal of radioactive waste. The standard requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard. This assessment must include the consideration of inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  12. Deleware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. The EPA environmental standards for the management and disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste are codified in 40 CFR Part 191 (EPA 1993). Subparts B and C of the standard address the disposal of radioactive waste. The standard requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard. This assessment must include the consideration of inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  13. Delaware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. The EPA environmental standards for the management and disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste are codified in 40 CFR Part 191 (EPA 1993). Subparts B and C of the standard address the disposal of radioactive waste. The standard requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard. This assessment must include the consideration of inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  14. Delaware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. The EPA environmental standards for the management and disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste are codified in 40 CFR Part 191 (EPA 1993). Subparts B and C of the standard address the disposal of radioactive waste. The standard requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard. This assessment must include the consideration of inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  15. Delaware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. The EPA environmental standards for the management and disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste are codified in 40 CFR Part 191 (EPA 1993). Subparts B and C of the standard address the disposal of radioactive waste. The standard requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard. This assessment must include the consideration of inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  16. Delaware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. The EPA environmental standards for the management and disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste are codified in 40 CFR Part 191 (EPA 1993). Subparts B and C of the standard address the disposal of radioactive waste. The standard requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard. This assessment must include the consideration of inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  17. East Asia basin Analysis Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terman, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    The United Nations-related Committee for Coordination of Joint Prospecting for Mineral Resources in Asian Offshore Areas (CCOP), in cooperation with the International Union of Geological Sciences and Circum-Pacific Council, is implementing the East Asia Basin Analysis Project. National and regional organizations, principally members of the ASEAN Council of Petroleum, are compiling maps at a scale of 1:2 million and stratigraphic cross sections of basins, with particular initial emphasis on defining and assessing oil and gas plays and with later analytical focus on other sedimentary minerals (e.g., coal, phosphate, evaporites, and uranium). Completion is anticipated in 1988. Two major elements of the project are being contributed from other agencies. (1) Base maps. - The US Geological Survey (USGS) has partly compiled eight sheets covering east Asia that show bathymetry, shorelines, and drainage systems. One sheet also presents topography and selected cultural features. All sheets are scheduled to be completed in 1987. (2) Geotectonic maps. - The Working Group on Studies of East Asian Tectonics and Resources (SEATAR) is now completing 10 transect studies with crustal profiles and strip maps at a scale of 1:1 million. One map for each transect shows a plate tectonic interpretation. Transect coordinators or others will be encouraged to extrapolate between the strips and complete the geotectonic interpretation (on USGS bases) in 1987. The IGCP Project 220 is also compiling on (USGS bases) the tin and tungsten granites of east Asia, emphasizing geochemical data needed to identify predictive models. Other mapping will probably follow mineral-deposit modeling workshops on ophiolotic chromite and regional symposia on oceanic massive sulfide and subvolcanic gold and base metals. Completion may be possible by 1989

  18. Evaporitic minibasins of the Sivas Basin (Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichat, Alexandre; Hoareau, Guilhem; Callot, Jean-Paul; Ringenbach, Jean-Claude; Kavak, Kaan

    2017-04-01

    The Oligo-Miocene Sivas basin (Turkey) was strongly affected by salt tectonics, best expressed in its central part. Halokinesis initiated from a main evaporite layer deposited during the Upper Eocene. Such evaporitic accumulations led to two generations of mini basins filled with continental to marine deposits, and nowadays separated by diapiric gypsum walls or welds. Some mini-basins developed above depleting diapirs, filled by more than 50 % of lacustrine to sebkhaic gypsiferous facies. These evaporitic mini-basins (EMB) developed during periods of limited fluvial input, when diapiric stems were outcropping with insignificant topographic reliefs. Chemical analyses (S, O and Sr) suggest that such evaporites were sourced from the recycling of adjacent salt structures. EMB development above diapirs can be explained by (i) high regional accommodation (Ribes et al., 2016), (ii) erosion of the diapiric crests by the fluvial system preceding evaporite deposition, (iii) deflation of some diapirs in a transtensive setting (Kergaravat, 2015), and (iv) fast sedimentation rate of the evaporites. EMB stand out from other siliciclastic mini-basins of the Sivas Basin by (i) their small dimension (sedimentation rate of the evaporites and (iii) the high density of the gypsum and anhydrite compared to halite. The Great Kavir in Iran could display present day analogues relevant of early-stage EMB. Finally, although EMB have never been identified in other ancient halokinetic settings, they may have developed in arid, continental environments such as in the Precaspian Basin.

  19. Submarine landslides in Arctic sedimentation: Canada Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, David C.; Shimeld, John; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Lebedova-Ivanova, N; Chapman, C.

    2016-01-01

    Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean is the least studied ocean basin in the World. Marine seismic field programs were conducted over the past 6 years using Canadian and American icebreakers. These expeditions acquired more than 14,000 line-km of multibeam bathymetric and multi-channel seismic reflection data over abyssal plain, continental rise and slope regions of Canada Basin; areas where little or no seismic reflection data existed previously. Canada Basin is a turbidite-filled basin with flat-lying reflections correlateable over 100s of km. For the upper half of the sedimentary succession, evidence of sedimentary processes other than turbidity current deposition is rare. The Canadian Archipelago and Beaufort Sea margins host stacked mass transport deposits from which many of these turbidites appear to derive. The stratigraphic succession of the MacKenzie River fan is dominated by mass transport deposits; one such complex is in excess of 132,000 km2 in area and underlies much of the southern abyssal plain. The modern seafloor is also scarred with escarpments and mass failure deposits; evidence that submarine landsliding is an ongoing process. In its latest phase of development, Canada Basin is geomorphologically confined with stable oceanographic structure, resulting in restricted depositional/reworking processes. The sedimentary record, therefore, underscores the significance of mass-transport processes in providing sediments to oceanic abyssal plains as few other basins are able to do.

  20. Damming the rivers of the Amazon basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latrubesse, Edgardo M; Arima, Eugenio Y; Dunne, Thomas; Park, Edward; Baker, Victor R; d'Horta, Fernando M; Wight, Charles; Wittmann, Florian; Zuanon, Jansen; Baker, Paul A; Ribas, Camila C; Norgaard, Richard B; Filizola, Naziano; Ansar, Atif; Flyvbjerg, Bent; Stevaux, Jose C

    2017-06-14

    More than a hundred hydropower dams have already been built in the Amazon basin and numerous proposals for further dam constructions are under consideration. The accumulated negative environmental effects of existing dams and proposed dams, if constructed, will trigger massive hydrophysical and biotic disturbances that will affect the Amazon basin's floodplains, estuary and sediment plume. We introduce a Dam Environmental Vulnerability Index to quantify the current and potential impacts of dams in the basin. The scale of foreseeable environmental degradation indicates the need for collective action among nations and states to avoid cumulative, far-reaching impacts. We suggest institutional innovations to assess and avoid the likely impoverishment of Amazon rivers.