WorldWideScience

Sample records for fuel vehicle choice

  1. TAFV Alternative Fuels and Vehicles Choice Model Documentation; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    A model for predicting choice of alternative fuel and among alternative vehicle technologies for light-duty motor vehicles is derived. The nested multinomial logit (NML) mathematical framework is used. Calibration of the model is based on information in the existing literature and deduction based on assuming a small number of key parameters, such as the value of time and discount rates. A spreadsheet model has been developed for calibration and preliminary testing of the model

  2. Does habitual behavior affect the choice of alternative fuel vehicles?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valeri, Eva; Cherchi, Elisabetta

    2016-01-01

    Because of the recent improvements in the electrification process of cars, several types of alternative fuel vehicles are appearing in the car market. However, these new engine technologies are not easily penetrating the market around the world and the conventional ones are still the leaders....... A vast literature has explored the reasons for such low market penetration, due mainly to car's features. Using a hybrid choice model approach, in this research we study if, and to which extent, habitual car use influences individual propensity to buy a specific type of engine technology. We found...... of a conventional one. The importance of taking into account this latent construct is demonstrated also with the results of the simulated elasticity measures. In fact, the exclusion of latent habitual effect significantly underestimates the elasticity of diesel and hybrid cars and overestimates the elasticity...

  3. A Choice Experiment on Alternative Fuel Vehicle Preferences of Private Car Owners in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoen, A.; Koetse, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents results of an online stated choice experiment on preferences of Dutch private car owners for alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and their characteristics. Results show that negative preferences for alternative fuel vehicles are large, especially for the electric and fuel cell car,

  4. The demand for clean-fuel vehicles by Dutch local authorities. A stated choice analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen, P.

    2012-08-15

    Previous research showed that the era of cheap fossil fuels is over. Also, 23% of the worldwide emission of CO2 is produced by road transport. These problems demand a change in the propulsion of vehicles. Because the diffusion of clean-fuel vehicles is not happening at this moment, something has to change. Rogers' diffusion of innovation theory is used to state that a critical mass of vehicles is needed to stimulate the diffusion of these vehicles. Due to public procurement Dutch local authorities (DLA's) can help stimulating this diffusion. Unfortunately these DLA's are not purchasing clean-fuel vehicles yet. To gain insight in what is hampering the diffusion of these vehicles by DLA's, a discrete choice experiment was created about the preferences by these DLA's. Six vehicle attributes were used to describe each vehicle. The results showed that the initial purchase price and the amount of local emission were experienced as the most important attributes by DLA's, where initial purchase price has a negative influence and local emission a positive influence in the choice for a new vehicle. Next, fuel price, range and availability of the fuel were found evenly important. Fuel price had a negative influence and both range and availability of fuel had a positive influence on the choice for a new vehicle. Finally, time to refuel/recharge was found least important and also negatively influencing the choice.

  5. Vehicle type choice under the influence of a tax reform and rising fuel prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mabit, Stefan Lindhard

    2014-01-01

    change in new vehicle purchases toward more diesel vehicles and more fuel-efficient vehicles. The paper analyses to what extent a vehicle tax reform similar to the Danish 2007 reform may explain changes in purchasing behaviour. The paper investigates the effects of a tax reform, fuel price changes......, and technological development on vehicle type choice using a mixed logit model. The model allows a simulation of the effect of car price changes that resemble those induced by the tax reform. This effect is compared to the effects of fuel price changes and technology improvements. The simulations show...... that the effect of the tax reform on fuel efficiency is similar to the effect of rising fuel prices while the effect of technological development is much larger. The conclusion is that while the tax reform appeared in the same year as a large increase in fuel efficiency, it seems likely that it only explains...

  6. Fuel choices for fuel-cell vehicles : well-to-wheel energy and emission impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, M.

    2002-01-01

    Because of their high energy efficiencies and low emissions, fuel-cell vehicles (FCVs) are undergoing extensive research and development. While hydrogen will likely be the ultimate fuel to power fuel-cell vehicles, because of current infrastructure constraints, hydrogen-carrying fuels are being investigated as transitional fuel-cell fuels. A complete well-to-wheels (WTW) evaluation of fuel-cell vehicle energy and emission effects that examines (1) energy feedstock recovery and transportation; (2) fuel production, transportation, and distribution; and (3) vehicle operation must be conducted to assist decision makers in selecting the fuel-cell fuels that achieve the greatest energy and emission benefits. A fuel-cycle model developed at Argonne National Laboratory--called the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model--was used to evaluate well-to-wheels energy and emission impacts of various fuel-cell fuels. The results show that different fuel-cell fuels can have significantly different energy and greenhouse gas emission effects. Therefore, if fuel-cell vehicles are to achieve the envisioned energy and emission reduction benefits, pathways for producing the fuels that power them must be carefully examined.

  7. Fleet Conversion in Local Government: Determinants of Driver Fuel Choice for Bi-Fuel Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Kimberly D.; Khovanova, Kseniya M.; Welch, Eric W.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the conversion of one local government's fleet from gasoline to bi-fuel E-85, compressed natural gas, and liquid propane gas powered vehicles at the midpoint of a 10-year conversion plan. This study employs a behavioral model based on the theory of reasoned action to explore factors that influence an individual's perceived and…

  8. A forecast of household ownership and use of alternative fuel vehicles: A multiple discrete-continuous choice approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Jiwoon [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Naeson 2-dong, Uiwang-si, Gyeonggi-do, 437-713 (Korea); Jeong, Gicheol [Technology Management, Economics and Policy Program, 37-402, College of Engineering, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Sillim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, 151-744 (Korea); Kim, Yeonbae [Technology Management, Economics and Policy Program, 37-318, College of Engineering, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Sillim-dong, Gwanak-gu, South Seoul, 151-744 (Korea)

    2008-09-15

    The paper analyzes how adding alternative fuel passenger cars to the market will affect patterns in demand for passenger cars. We use conjoint analysis and a multiple discrete-continuous choice model to estimate consumer preferences regarding alternative fuel vehicles, and based on the estimates we conduct a simulation to analyze changing rates of ownership and use of variously fueled passenger cars under the effect of the introduction of alternative fuel passenger cars. In addition, we estimate changes in overall fuel consumption and the emission of pollutants. The results show that gasoline-fueled cars will still be most consumers' first choice, but alternative fuel passenger cars will nevertheless compete and offer a substitute for the purchase and use of gasoline-fueled or diesel-fueled cars. Finally, results show that adding alternative fuel cars to the market would effectively lower gasoline and diesel fuel consumption and the emission of pollutants. (author)

  9. A forecast of household ownership and use of alternative fuel vehicles: A multiple discrete-continuous choice approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Jiwoon; Jeong, Gicheol; Kim, Yeonbae

    2008-01-01

    The paper analyzes how adding alternative fuel passenger cars to the market will affect patterns in demand for passenger cars. We use conjoint analysis and a multiple discrete-continuous choice model to estimate consumer preferences regarding alternative fuel vehicles, and based on the estimates we conduct a simulation to analyze changing rates of ownership and use of variously fueled passenger cars under the effect of the introduction of alternative fuel passenger cars. In addition, we estimate changes in overall fuel consumption and the emission of pollutants. The results show that gasoline-fueled cars will still be most consumers' first choice, but alternative fuel passenger cars will nevertheless compete and offer a substitute for the purchase and use of gasoline-fueled or diesel-fueled cars. Finally, results show that adding alternative fuel cars to the market would effectively lower gasoline and diesel fuel consumption and the emission of pollutants. (author)

  10. Advanced Technology and Alternative Fuel Vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuttle, J.

    2001-01-01

    This fact sheet provides a basic overview of today's alternative fuel choices--including biofuels, biodiesel, electricity, and hydrogen--alternative fuel vehicles, and advanced vehicle technology, such as hybrid electric vehicles, fuel cells and advanced drive trains

  11. Fuel and vehicle technology choices for passenger vehicles in achieving stringent CO2 targets: connections between transportation and other energy sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahn, M; Azar, C; Williander, M I; Anderson, J E; Mueller, S A; Wallington, T J

    2009-05-01

    The regionalized Global Energy Transition (GET-R 6.0) model has been modified to include a detailed description of light-duty vehicle options and used to investigate the potential impact of carbon capture and storage (CCS) and concentrating solar power (CSP) on cost-effective fuel/vehicle technologies in a carbon-constrained world. Total CO2 emissions were constrained to achieve stabilization at 400-550 ppm, by 2100, at lowesttotal system cost The dominantfuel/vehicle technologies varied significantly depending on CO2 constraint future cost of vehicle technologies, and availability of CCS and CSP. For many cases, no one technology dominated on a global scale. CCS provides relatively inexpensive low-CO2 electricity and heatwhich prolongs the use of traditional ICEVs. CSP displaces fossil fuel derived electricity, prolongs the use of traditional ICEVs, and promotes electrification of passenger vehicles. In all cases considered, CCS and CSP availability had a major impact on the lowest cost fuel/vehicle technologies, and alternative fuels are needed in response to expected dwindling oil and natural gas supply potential by the end of the century.

  12. Comparison of Vehicle Choice Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Thomas S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Levinson, Rebecca S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brooker, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Liu, Changzheng [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lin, Zhenhong [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Birky, Alicia [Energetics Incorporated, Columbia, MD (United States); Kontou, Eleftheria [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-31

    Five consumer vehicle choice models that give projections of future sales shares of light-duty vehicles were compared by running each model using the same inputs, where possible, for two scenarios. The five models compared — LVCFlex, MA3T, LAVE-Trans, ParaChoice, and ADOPT — have been used in support of the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Vehicle Technologies Office in analyses of future light-duty vehicle markets under different assumptions about future vehicle technologies and market conditions. The models give projections of sales shares by powertrain technology. Projections made using common, but not identical, inputs showed qualitative agreement, with the exception of ADOPT. ADOPT estimated somewhat lower advanced vehicle shares, mostly composed of hybrid electric vehicles. Other models projected large shares of multiple advanced vehicle powertrains. Projections of models differed in significant ways, including how different technologies penetrated cars and light trucks. Since the models are constructed differently and take different inputs, not all inputs were identical, but were the same or very similar where possible. Projections by all models were in close agreement only in the first few years. Although the projections from LVCFlex, MA3T, LAVE-Trans, and ParaChoice were in qualitative agreement, there were significant differences in sales shares given by the different models for individual powertrain types, particularly in later years (2030 and later). For example, projected sales shares of conventional spark-ignition vehicles in 2030 for a given scenario ranged from 35% to 74%. Reasons for such differences are discussed, recognizing that these models were not developed to give quantitatively accurate predictions of future sales shares, but to represent vehicles markets realistically and capture the connections between sales and important influences. Model features were also compared at a high level, and suggestions for further comparison

  13. Comparison of Vehicle Choice Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Thomas S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Levinson, Rebecca S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brooker, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Liu, Changzheng [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lin, Zhenhong [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Birky, Alicia [Energetics Incorporated, Columbia, MD (United States); Kontou, Eleftheria [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Five consumer vehicle choice models that give projections of future sales shares of light-duty vehicles were compared by running each model using the same inputs, where possible, for two scenarios. The five models compared — LVCFlex, MA3T, LAVE-Trans, ParaChoice, and ADOPT — have been used in support of the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Vehicle Technologies Office in analyses of future light-duty vehicle markets under different assumptions about future vehicle technologies and market conditions. The models give projections of sales shares by powertrain technology. Projections made using common, but not identical, inputs showed qualitative agreement, with the exception of ADOPT. ADOPT estimated somewhat lower advanced vehicle shares, mostly composed of hybrid electric vehicles. Other models projected large shares of multiple advanced vehicle powertrains. Projections of models differed in significant ways, including how different technologies penetrated cars and light trucks. Since the models are constructed differently and take different inputs, not all inputs were identical, but were the same or very similar where possible.

  14. Hydrogen vehicle fueling station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daney, D.E.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Daugherty, M.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Hydrogen fueling stations are an essential element in the practical application of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel, and a number of issues such as safety, efficiency, design, and operating procedures can only be accurately addressed by a practical demonstration. Regardless of whether the vehicle is powered by an internal combustion engine or fuel cell, or whether the vehicle has a liquid or gaseous fuel tank, the fueling station is a critical technology which is the link between the local storage facility and the vehicle. Because most merchant hydrogen delivered in the US today (and in the near future) is in liquid form due to the overall economics of production and delivery, we believe a practical refueling station should be designed to receive liquid. Systems studies confirm this assumption for stations fueling up to about 300 vehicles. Our fueling station, aimed at refueling fleet vehicles, will receive hydrogen as a liquid and dispense it as either liquid, high pressure gas, or low pressure gas. Thus, it can refuel any of the three types of tanks proposed for hydrogen-powered vehicles -- liquid, gaseous, or hydride. The paper discusses the fueling station design. Results of a numerical model of liquid hydrogen vehicle tank filling, with emphasis on no vent filling, are presented to illustrate the usefulness of the model as a design tool. Results of our vehicle performance model illustrate our thesis that it is too early to judge what the preferred method of on-board vehicle fuel storage will be in practice -- thus our decision to accommodate all three methods.

  15. Consumer Vehicle Choice Model Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Changzheng [ORNL; Greene, David L [ORNL

    2012-08-01

    In response to the Fuel Economy and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions standards, automobile manufacturers will need to adopt new technologies to improve the fuel economy of their vehicles and to reduce the overall GHG emissions of their fleets. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed the Optimization Model for reducing GHGs from Automobiles (OMEGA) to estimate the costs and benefits of meeting GHG emission standards through different technology packages. However, the model does not simulate the impact that increased technology costs will have on vehicle sales or on consumer surplus. As the model documentation states, “While OMEGA incorporates functions which generally minimize the cost of meeting a specified carbon dioxide (CO2) target, it is not an economic simulation model which adjusts vehicle sales in response to the cost of the technology added to each vehicle.” Changes in the mix of vehicles sold, caused by the costs and benefits of added fuel economy technologies, could make it easier or more difficult for manufacturers to meet fuel economy and emissions standards, and impacts on consumer surplus could raise the costs or augment the benefits of the standards. Because the OMEGA model does not presently estimate such impacts, the EPA is investigating the feasibility of developing an adjunct to the OMEGA model to make such estimates. This project is an effort to develop and test a candidate model. The project statement of work spells out the key functional requirements for the new model.

  16. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Anton Francesch, Judit

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogen is an especially attractive transportation fuel. It is the least polluting fuel available, and can be produced anywhere there is water and a clean source of electricity. A fuel cycle in which hydrogen is produced by solar-electrolysis of water, or by gasification of renewably grown biomass, and then used in a fuel-cell powered electric-motor vehicle (FCEV), would produce little or no local, regional, or global pollution. Hydrogen FCEVs would combine the best features of bat...

  17. Fuel Cell Vehicle Basics | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuel Cell Vehicle Basics Fuel Cell Vehicle Basics Researchers are developing fuel cells that can be silver four-door sedan being driven on a roadway and containing the words "hydrogen fuel cell electric" across the front and rear doors. This prototype hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicle was

  18. Environment and fuel choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellerman, A.D.

    1992-01-01

    The efficacy of environmental regulation as a determinant of fossil fuel choice is examined, with a focus on coal and natural gas in the United States market. It is thought that with the current concern over greenhouse gas emissions, gas would become the fuel of choice and would benefit from measures such as emission trading and carbon taxes. In the USA, in spite of environmental regulations set forth in the Clean Air Act, coal consumption has not decreased with respect to gas because coal is successfully competing on an economic and environmental level. Coal mine productivity has increased over the past 15 years and significant progress has been made in both reducing the emission forming materials in coal through better processing and reducing stack emissions via pollution control devices. An economic analysis of the premium that should attach to natural gas as compared to coal for power generation shows that an emissions trading premium on gas is not sufficient to compensate for the lower cost of coal. The advantages of natural gas for power generation lie in the lower capital and operating costs for combined cycle generation technology and the good prospects for a low, long-term equilibrium price for natural gas. Lower wellhead prices and combined cycle technology will cause gas to have a larger share of the electric utility market than coal in areas where transport economics are favorable. However, the economics of existing coal-fired plants favor continued use of coal, and the increase in gas use will depend on the rate at which new plants are built. 4 figs

  19. ADOPT: A Historically Validated Light Duty Vehicle Consumer Choice Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooker, A.; Gonder, J.; Lopp, S.; Ward, J.

    2015-05-04

    The Automotive Deployment Option Projection Tool (ADOPT) is a light-duty vehicle consumer choice and stock model supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Vehicle Technologies Office. It estimates technology improvement impacts on U.S. light-duty vehicles sales, petroleum use, and greenhouse gas emissions. ADOPT uses techniques from the multinomial logit method and the mixed logit method estimate sales. Specifically, it estimates sales based on the weighted value of key attributes including vehicle price, fuel cost, acceleration, range and usable volume. The average importance of several attributes changes nonlinearly across its range and changes with income. For several attributes, a distribution of importance around the average value is used to represent consumer heterogeneity. The majority of existing vehicle makes, models, and trims are included to fully represent the market. The Corporate Average Fuel Economy regulations are enforced. The sales feed into the ADOPT stock model. It captures key aspects for summing petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions This includes capturing the change in vehicle miles traveled by vehicle age, the creation of new model options based on the success of existing vehicles, new vehicle option introduction rate limits, and survival rates by vehicle age. ADOPT has been extensively validated with historical sales data. It matches in key dimensions including sales by fuel economy, acceleration, price, vehicle size class, and powertrain across multiple years. A graphical user interface provides easy and efficient use. It manages the inputs, simulation, and results.

  20. Preferences for alternative fuel vehicles by Dutch local governments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnsoever, F.J. van; Hagen, P.; Willems, M

    2013-01-01

    Using a choice model, we estimate the preferences for alternative fuel vehicles by Dutch local governments. The analysis shows that local governments are willing to pay between 25% and 50% extra for an alternative fuel vehicle without a serious loss of utility. Further, local emissions are an

  1. Fuel cell vehicles: technological solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Martinez, J. M.

    2004-01-01

    Recently it takes a serious look at fuel cell vehicles, a leading candidate for next-generation vehicle propulsion systems. The green house effect and air quality are pressing to the designers of internal combustion engine vehicles, owing to the manufacturers to find out technological solutions in order to increase the efficiency and reduce emissions from the vehicles. On the other hand, energy source used by currently propulsion systems is not renewable, the well are limited and produce CO 2 as a product from the combustion process. In that situation, why fuel cell is an alternative of internal combustion engine?

  2. A comparison of hydrogen, methanol and gasoline as fuels for fuel cell vehicles: implications for vehicle design and infrastructure development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Joan M.; Steinbugler, Margaret M.; Kreutz, Thomas G.

    All fuel cells currently being developed for near term use in electric vehicles require hydrogen as a fuel. Hydrogen can be stored directly or produced onboard the vehicle by reforming methanol, or hydrocarbon fuels derived from crude oil (e.g., gasoline, diesel, or middle distillates). The vehicle design is simpler with direct hydrogen storage, but requires developing a more complex refueling infrastructure. In this paper, we present modeling results comparing three leading options for fuel storage onboard fuel cell vehicles: (a) compressed gas hydrogen storage, (b) onboard steam reforming of methanol, (c) onboard partial oxidation (POX) of hydrocarbon fuels derived from crude oil. We have developed a fuel cell vehicle model, including detailed models of onboard fuel processors. This allows us to compare the vehicle performance, fuel economy, weight, and cost for various vehicle parameters, fuel storage choices and driving cycles. The infrastructure requirements are also compared for gaseous hydrogen, methanol and gasoline, including the added costs of fuel production, storage, distribution and refueling stations. The delivered fuel cost, total lifecycle cost of transportation, and capital cost of infrastructure development are estimated for each alternative. Considering both vehicle and infrastructure issues, possible fuel strategies leading to the commercialization of fuel cell vehicles are discussed.

  3. Hydrogen as a fuel for fuel cell vehicles: A technical and economic comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogden, J.; Steinbugler, M.; Kreutz, T. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Center for Energy and Environmental Studies

    1997-12-31

    All fuel cells currently being developed for near term use in vehicles require hydrogen as a fuel. Hydrogen can be stored directly or produced onboard the vehicle by reforming methanol, ethanol or hydrocarbon fuels derived from crude oil (e.g., Diesel, gasoline or middle distillates). The vehicle design is simpler with direct hydrogen storage, but requires developing a more complex refueling infrastructure. In this paper, the authors compare three leading options for fuel storage onboard fuel cell vehicles: compressed gas hydrogen storage; onboard steam reforming of methanol; onboard partial oxidation (POX) of hydrocarbon fuels derived from crude oil. Equilibrium, kinetic and heat integrated system (ASPEN) models have been developed to estimate the performance of onboard steam reforming and POX fuel processors. These results have been incorporated into a fuel cell vehicle model, allowing us to compare the vehicle performance, fuel economy, weight, and cost for various fuel storage choices and driving cycles. A range of technical and economic parameters were considered. The infrastructure requirements are also compared for gaseous hydrogen, methanol and hydrocarbon fuels from crude oil, including the added costs of fuel production, storage, distribution and refueling stations. Considering both vehicle and infrastructure issues, the authors compare hydrogen to other fuel cell vehicle fuels. Technical and economic goals for fuel cell vehicle and hydrogen technologies are discussed. Potential roles for hydrogen in the commercialization of fuel cell vehicles are sketched.

  4. Vehicle choice in aging population: Some insights from a stated preference survey for California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavalec, C.

    1999-07-01

    This paper investigates the potential effects that an aging baby boomer generation will have on gasoline use through their vehicle choice decisions. The study uses stated preference data for both conventional and alternative fuel vehicles, and measures the impact of age of survey respondent on the perceived value of vehicle characteristics such as fuel economy, performance, and body style (e.g., car vs. truck). The results suggest the possibility that average fleet fuel economy may improve in the next few years, if survey preferences translate to actual purchase behavior. No clear implications can be drawn regarding the demand for alternative fuel vehicles.

  5. Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Evaluations | Hydrogen and Fuel Cells | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electric Vehicle Evaluations Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Evaluations NREL's technology validation team analyzes hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) operating in a real-world setting to include commercial FCEVs for the first time. Current fuel cell electric vehicle evaluations build on the

  6. Sensor system for fuel transport vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Dennis Duncan; McIntyre, Timothy J.; West, David L.

    2016-03-22

    An exemplary sensor system for a fuel transport vehicle can comprise a fuel marker sensor positioned between a fuel storage chamber of the vehicle and an access valve for the fuel storage chamber of the vehicle. The fuel marker sensor can be configured to measure one or more characteristics of one or more fuel markers present in the fuel adjacent the sensor, such as when the marked fuel is unloaded at a retail station. The one or more characteristics can comprise concentration and/or identity of the one or more fuel markers in the fuel. Based on the measured characteristics of the one or more fuel markers, the sensor system can identify the fuel and/or can determine whether the fuel has been adulterated after the marked fuel was last measured, such as when the marked fuel was loaded into the vehicle.

  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural Gas Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center : Natural Gas Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative

  8. Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Composite Data Products | Hydrogen and Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cells | NREL Vehicle Composite Data Products Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Composite Data Products The following composite data products (CDPs) focus on current fuel cell electric vehicle evaluations Cell Operation Hour Groups CDP FCEV 39, 2/19/16 Comparison of Fuel Cell Stack Operation Hours and Miles

  9. Guide to alternative fuel vehicle incentives and laws: September 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, C.; O' Connor, K.

    1998-12-22

    This guide provides information in support of the National Clean Cities Program, which will assist one in becoming better informed about the choices and options surrounding the use of alternative fuels and the purchase of alternative fuel vehicles. The information printed in this guide is current as of September 15, 1998. For recent additions or more up-to-date information, check the Alternative Fuels Data Center Web site at http://www.afdc.doe.gov

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    . A wide variety of hybrid electric vehicle models is currently available. Although HEVs are often -go traffic), further improving fuel economy. Mild hybrid systems cannot power the vehicle using Hybrid Electric Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid Electric

  11. Sustainable Mobility: Using a Global Energy Model to Inform Vehicle Technology Choices in a Decarbonized Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Wallington

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of CO2 emissions associated with vehicle use is an important element of a global transition to sustainable mobility and is a major long-term challenge for society. Vehicle and fuel technologies are part of a global energy system, and assessing the impact of the availability of clean energy technologies and advanced vehicle technologies on sustainable mobility is a complex task. The global energy transition (GET model accounts for interactions between the different energy sectors, and we illustrate its use to inform vehicle technology choices in a decarbonizing economy. The aim of this study is to assess how uncertainties in future vehicle technology cost, as well as how developments in other energy sectors, affect cost-effective fuel and vehicle technology choices. Given the uncertainties in future costs and efficiencies for light-duty vehicle and fuel technologies, there is no clear fuel/vehicle technology winner that can be discerned at the present time. We conclude that a portfolio approach with research and development of multiple fuel and vehicle technology pathways is the best way forward to achieve the desired result of affordable and sustainable personal mobility. The practical ramifications of this analysis are illustrated in the portfolio approach to providing sustainable mobility adopted by the Ford Motor Company.

  12. Development of a lightweight fuel cell vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, J. J.; Wang, D. Y.; Shih, N. C.

    This paper described the development of a fuel cell system and its integration into the lightweight vehicle known as the Mingdao hydrogen vehicle (MHV). The fuel cell system consists of a 5-kW proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), a microcontroller and other supported components like a compressed hydrogen cylinder, blower, solenoid valve, pressure regulator, water pump, heat exchanger and sensors. The fuel cell not only propels the vehicle but also powers the supporting components. The MHV performs satisfactorily over a hundred-kilometer drive thus validating the concept of a fuel cell powered zero-emission vehicle. Measurements further show that the fuel cell system has an efficiency of over 30% at the power consumption for vehicle cruise, which is higher than that of a typical internal combustion engine. Tests to improve performance such as speed enhancement, acceleration and fuel efficiency will be conducted in the future work. Such tests will consist of hybridizing with a battery pack.

  13. Advances in fuel cell vehicle design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Jennifer

    Factors such as global warming, dwindling fossil fuel reserves, and energy security concerns combine to indicate that a replacement for the internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle is needed. Fuel cell vehicles have the potential to address the problems surrounding the ICE vehicle without imposing any significant restrictions on vehicle performance, driving range, or refuelling time. Though there are currently some obstacles to overcome before attaining the widespread commercialization of fuel cell vehicles, such as improvements in fuel cell and battery durability, development of a hydrogen infrastructure, and reduction of high costs, the fundamental concept of the fuel cell vehicle is strong: it is efficient, emits zero harmful emissions, and the hydrogen fuel can be produced from various renewable sources. Therefore, research on fuel cell vehicle design is imperative in order to improve vehicle performance and durability, increase efficiency, and reduce costs. This thesis makes a number of key contributions to the advancement of fuel cell vehicle design within two main research areas: powertrain design and DC/DC converters. With regards to powertrain design, this research first analyzes various powertrain topologies and energy storage system types. Then, a novel fuel cell-battery-ultracapacitor topology is presented which shows reduced mass and cost, and increased efficiency, over other promising topologies found in the literature. A detailed vehicle simulator is created in MATLAB/Simulink in order to simulate and compare the novel topology with other fuel cell vehicle powertrain options. A parametric study is performed to optimize each powertrain and general conclusions for optimal topologies, as well as component types and sizes, for fuel cell vehicles are presented. Next, an analytical method to optimize the novel battery-ultracapacitor energy storage system based on maximizing efficiency, and minimizing cost and mass, is developed. This method can be applied

  14. Demand for alternative-fuel vehicles when registration taxes are high

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mabit, Stefan Lindhard; Fosgerau, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the potential futures for alternative-fuel vehicles in Denmark, where the vehicle registration tax is very high and large tax rebates can be given. A large stated choice dataset has been collected concerning vehicle choice among conventional, hydrogen, hybrid, bio......-diesel, and electric vehicles. We estimate a mixed logit model that improves on previous contributions by controlling for reference dependence and allowing for correlation of random effects. Both improvements are found to be important. An application of the model shows that alternative-fuel vehicles with present...... technology could obtain fairly high market shares given tax regulations possible in the present high-tax vehicle market....

  15. Predicting vehicle fuel consumption patterns using floating vehicle data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yiman; Wu, Jianping; Yang, Senyan; Zhou, Liutong

    2017-09-01

    The status of energy consumption and air pollution in China is serious. It is important to analyze and predict the different fuel consumption of various types of vehicles under different influence factors. In order to fully describe the relationship between fuel consumption and the impact factors, massive amounts of floating vehicle data were used. The fuel consumption pattern and congestion pattern based on large samples of historical floating vehicle data were explored, drivers' information and vehicles' parameters from different group classification were probed, and the average velocity and average fuel consumption in the temporal dimension and spatial dimension were analyzed respectively. The fuel consumption forecasting model was established by using a Back Propagation Neural Network. Part of the sample set was used to train the forecasting model and the remaining part of the sample set was used as input to the forecasting model. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Endogenous vehicle-type choices in a monocentric city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Jinwon

    2012-01-01

    inconvenience in the choice of vehicle sizes, and the resulting commuting cost is a function of residential density. This vehicle-type choice problem is embedded in an otherwise standardmonocentric city model. A convenience-related advantage in less-dense areas makes our bid–rent curve flatter than...

  17. Weakened regulation and fuel choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowe, J.F. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The restructuring of the electric power industry will fundamentally affect every aspect of its relationship with the natural gas industry. The electric power industry is being restructered far more rapidly than most stategists expected even a year ago; competition at all levels of the electric power industry is here. Uncertainty itself is stifling strategic planning; long-term commitments are becoming extremely risky and therefore unattractive in the face of uncertainty concerning the electric utility industry's future. For many electric power industry participants, the prospect of industry restructuring is frightening, because it is driven by irresistible forces that they can barely influence; for natural gas industry players, it is frightening because it means pervasive change in the industry's best hope for growth. While working their way through the upheavals produced by restructuring, electric utilities and non-utility generators alike will be timid and tenative when it comes to making substantial new commitments to gas, particularly for new base- and intermediate load capacity. Competition is likely to force efficiencies that suppress overall demand for new generating capacity in many regions for quite some time, and change the nature of the challenges the gas industry must face in competing for market share with other power generation fuels. Concepts like open-quotes long termclose quotes, open-quotes fixed priceclose quotes and open-quotes assured cost recoveryclose quotes will become quaint memories, and once the dust has settled, gas will have its share of opportunities to fuel power generation resources, but will have to share far more of the risk facing power generators than it has thus far

  18. Market penetration scenarios for fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C.E.; James, B.D.; Lomax, F.D. Jr. [Directed Technologies, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Fuel cell vehicles may create the first mass market for hydrogen as an energy carrier. Directed Technologies, Inc., working with the US Department of Energy hydrogen systems analysis team, has developed a time-dependent computer market penetration model. This model estimates the number of fuel cell vehicles that would be purchased over time as a function of their cost and the cost of hydrogen relative to the costs of competing vehicles and fuels. The model then calculates the return on investment for fuel cell vehicle manufacturers and hydrogen fuel suppliers. The model also projects the benefit/cost ratio for government--the ratio of societal benefits such as reduced oil consumption, reduced urban air pollution and reduced greenhouse gas emissions to the government cost for assisting the development of hydrogen energy and fuel cell vehicle technologies. The purpose of this model is to assist industry and government in choosing the best investment strategies to achieve significant return on investment and to maximize benefit/cost ratios. The model can illustrate trends and highlight the sensitivity of market penetration to various parameters such as fuel cell efficiency, cost, weight, and hydrogen cost. It can also illustrate the potential benefits of successful R and D and early demonstration projects. Results will be shown comparing the market penetration and return on investment estimates for direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles compared to fuel cell vehicles with onboard fuel processors including methanol steam reformers and gasoline partial oxidation systems. Other alternative fueled vehicles including natural gas hybrids, direct injection diesels and hydrogen-powered internal combustion hybrid vehicles will also be analyzed.

  19. User choices regarding vehicle-driving automation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchau, V.A.W.J.; Molin, E.J.E.; Heijden, R.E.C.M. van der; Breddia, C.A.; Wadhwa, L.C.

    2004-01-01

    The introduction of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) in motor vehicles is expected to improve traffic efficiency and safety significantly. These systems support the driver in controlling his vehicle applying advanced sensing, computing and controlling devices. Successful implementation of

  20. An economic analysis of transportation fuel policies in Brazil: Fuel choice, land use, and environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuñez, Hector M.; Önal, Hayri

    2016-01-01

    Brazil uses taxes, subsidies, and blending mandates as policy instruments to manage and stabilize its transportation fuel markets. The fuel sector has been very dynamic in recent years due to frequent policy adjustments and variable market conditions. In this paper, we use a price endogenous economic simulation model to analyze the impacts of such policy adjustments under various challenging conditions in the global ethanol and sugar markets. Our analysis specifically focuses on Brazilian producers' supply responses, consumers' driving demand and fuel choice, ethanol trade, land use, greenhouse gas emissions, and social welfare. The model results show that (i) under a low ethanol blending rate, conventional vehicles would be driven significantly less while flex-fuel and ethanol-dedicated vehicles would not be affected significantly; (ii) lowering the fuel taxes adversely affects the competitiveness of sugarcane ethanol against gasoline blends, thus lowering producers' surplus; and (iii) while a reduction in fuel taxes is advantageous in terms of overall social welfare, it has serious environmental impacts by increasing the GHG emissions from transportation fuels consumed in Brazil. - Highlights: • We examine the economic and environmental impacts of Brazilian fuel policies. • We also analyze impacts under different sugar and ethanol markets conditions. • Lowering blending rate reduces distance driven by conventional cars. • Lowering fuel tax rates affects competitiveness of ethanol against gasoline blend. • Reducing fuel tax rates has dramatic environmental impacts by increasing emissions.

  1. 40 CFR 79.33 - Motor vehicle diesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle diesel fuel. 79.33... diesel fuel. (a) The following fuels commonly or commercially known or sold as motor vehicle diesel fuel are hereby individually designated: (1) Motor vehicle diesel fuel, grade 1-D; (2) Motor vehicle diesel...

  2. Vehicle technologies, fuel-economy policies, and fuel-consumption rates of Chinese vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo Hong; He Kebin; Wang, Michael; Yao Zhiliang

    2012-01-01

    One of the principal ways to reduce transport-related energy use is to reduce fuel-consumption rates of motor vehicles (usually measured in liters of fuel per 100 km). Since 2004, China has implemented policies to improve vehicle technologies and lower the fuel-consumption rates of individual vehicles. Policy evaluation requires accurate and adequate information on vehicle fuel-consumption rates. However, such information, especially for Chinese vehicles under real-world operating conditions, is rarely available from official sources in China. For each vehicle type we first review the vehicle technologies and fuel-economy policies currently in place in China and their impacts. We then derive real-world (or on-road) fuel-consumption rates on the basis of information collected from various sources. We estimate that the real-world fuel-consumption rates of vehicles in China sold in 2009 are 9 L/100 km for light-duty passenger vehicles, 11.4 L/100 km for light-duty trucks, 22 L/100 km for inter-city transport buses, 40 L/100 km for urban transit buses, and 24.9 L/100 km for heavy-duty trucks. These results aid in understanding the levels of fuel consumption of existing Chinese vehicle fleets and the effectiveness of policies in reducing on-road fuel consumption, which can help in designing and evaluating future vehicle energy-efficiency policies. - Highlights: ► Vehicle fuel-consumption rate (VFCR) data are rarely available in China. ► We review the fuel-economy policies currently in place in China and their impacts. ► We derive real-world VFCRs on the basis of information collected from various sources. ► Results aid in understanding the fuel consumption levels of Chinese vehicle fleets. ► Results help in designing and evaluating future vehicle energy-efficiency policies.

  3. Potential demand for household alternative fuelled vehicles in Hamilton, Canada : a stated choices experiment and survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potoglou, D.; Kanaroglou, P.S. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). Centre for Spatial Analysis]|[McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). School of Geography and Earth Science

    2005-07-01

    Alternative fuelled vehicle (AFV) technologies are a key strategy towards improved air quality and sustainable development. These fuel-efficient, low- or zero-emission vehicles have the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and other negative externalities linked with the transportation sector. They include battery electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles, and hybrid electric vehicles with internal combustion engines. This paper discussed AFVs development trends and modelling the demand for AFVs. It was noted that before creating policy measures that promote new vehicle technologies, one should first evaluate the demand for AFVs and the effectiveness of incentives and marketing promotions. This paper discussed the design and application of a stated choices experiment in which urban level surveys were conducted on the Internet to obtain data and public opinion on the demand for AFVs. A Choice Internet Based Experiment for Research on Cars (CIBER-CARS) was designed. This self-administered online questionnaire was used in Hamilton, Ontario. The survey design was described in detail and its implementation and data collection procedures were reviewed. Measures for evaluating the efficiency of the Internet survey were also highlighted and the characteristics of the collected information were summarized with emphasis on the profiles of respondents and households. The purpose was to determine the impact of vehicle attributes and household characteristics to the actual choice of certain vehicles. 28 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  4. Ansaldo programs on fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcenaro, B.G.; Federici, F. [Ansaldo Ricerche Srl, Genova (Italy)

    1996-12-31

    The growth in traffic and the importance of maintaining a stable ecology at the global scale, particularly with regard to atmospheric pollution, raises the necessity to realize a new generation of vehicles which are more efficient, more economical and compatible with the environment. At European level, the Car of Tomorrow task force has identified fuel cells as a promising alternative propulsion system. Ansaldo Ricerche has been involved in the development of fuel cell vehicles since the early nineties. Current ongoing programs relates to: (1) Fuel cell bus demonstrator (EQHEPP BUS) Test in 1996 (2) Fuel cell boat demonstrator (EQHHPP BOAT) Test in 1997 (3) Fuel cell passenger car prototype (FEVER) Test in 1997 (4) 2nd generation Fuel cell bus (FCBUS) 1996-1999 (5) 2nd generation Fuel cell passenger car (HYDRO-GEN) 1996-1999.

  5. Fuel choice, nuclear energy, climate and carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shpyth, A.

    2012-01-01

    For the second time since the start of commercial nuclear electricity generation, an accident has the world wondering if uranium will be among the future fuel choices in electricity production. Unfortunate when one considers the low-carbon footprint of this energy option. An accident involving a nuclear power plant, or more appropriately the perceived risks associated with an accident at a nuclear power plant, is but one of the issues that makes the impact assessment process related to nuclear energy projects challenging. Other aspects, including the time scales associated with their siting, licensing, operation and decommissioning, also contribute to the challenge. Strategic environmental assessments for future fuel choices in electricity generation, particularly ones that consider the use of life cycle assessment information, would allow for the effective evaluation of the issues identified above. But more importantly from an impact assessment perspective, provide for a comparative assertion for public disclosure on the environmental impacts of fuel choice. This would provide the public and government decision makers with a more complete view of the role nuclear energy may be able to play in mitigating the climate and carbon impacts of increased electricity production, and place issues of cost, complexity and scale in a more understandable context.

  6. Technology Roadmap: Fuel Economy of Road Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    This roadmap explores the potential improvement of existing technologies to enhance the average fuel economy of motorised vehicles; the roadmap’s vision is to achieve a 30% to 50% reduction in fuel use per kilometre from new road vehicles including 2-wheelers, LDV s and HDV s) around the world in 2030, and from the stock of all vehicles on the road by 2050. This achievement would contribute to significant reductions in GHG emissions and oil use, compared to a baseline projection. Different motorised modes are treated separately, with a focus on LDV s, HDV s and powered two-wheelers. A section on in-use fuel economy also addresses technical and nontechnical parameters that could allow fuel economy to drastically improve over the next decades. Technology cost analysis and payback time show that significant progress can be made with low or negative cost for fuel-efficient vehicles over their lifetime use. Even though the latest data analysed by the IEA for fuel economy between 2005 and 2008 showed that a gap exists in achieving the roadmap’s vision, cutting the average fuel economy of road motorised vehicles by 30% to 50% by 2030 is achievable, and the policies and technologies that could help meet this challenge are already deployed in many places around the world.

  7. Alternative Fuel Vehicle Forecasts : Final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Federal and state fuel taxes account for the largest share of the Texas State Highway Fund at 48 percent and 29 percent, respectively, in Fiscal Year 2015. These taxes are levied on a per-gallon basis, meaning that as vehicles get more fuel efficient...

  8. 16 CFR 309.10 - Alternative vehicle fuel rating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alternative vehicle fuel rating. 309.10... LABELING REQUIREMENTS FOR ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND ALTERNATIVE FUELED VEHICLES Requirements for Alternative Fuels Duties of Importers, Producers, and Refiners of Non-Liquid Alternative Vehicle Fuels (other Than...

  9. Vehicles with fuel cells: dream or reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van den Broeck, H; Hovestreydt, G

    1979-01-01

    Elenco N.V. is developing a hydrogen/potassium hydroxide/air fuel cell system of 10-50 kw with a specific performance of 72 mw/sq cm and a practical operating life of 5000 hr, which will be available in 1981-82. A comparative cost study was performed for vehicles with 100% fuel cells, 100% batteries, hybrid systems of fuel cells combined with batteries that provide high power for acceleration, hydrogen combustion engines, and conventional diesel engines, for city bus fleets, light commercial vehicles, forklifts, and trucks in Holland and Belgium. Hybrid systems give the best economy and they should become competitive with diesel engines after 1990.

  10. A dynamic simulation tool for the battery-hybrid hydrogen fuel cell vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, R.M. [Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, University of Hawaii, Manoa (United States); Ramaswamy, S.; Cunningham, J.M. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States); Hauer, K.H. [xcellvision, Major-Hirst-Strasse 11, 38422 Wolfsburg (Germany)

    2006-10-15

    This paper describes a dynamic fuel cell vehicle simulation tool for the battery-hybrid direct-hydrogen fuel cell vehicle. The emphasis is on simulation of the hybridized hydrogen fuel cell system within an existing fuel cell vehicle simulation tool. The discussion is focused on the simulation of the sub-systems that are unique to the hybridized direct-hydrogen vehicle, and builds on a previous paper that described a simulation tool for the load-following direct-hydrogen vehicle. The configuration of the general fuel cell vehicle simulation tool has been previously presented in detail, and is only briefly reviewed in the introduction to this paper. Strictly speaking, the results provided in this paper only serve as an example that is valid for the specific fuel cell vehicle design configuration analyzed. Different design choices may lead to different results, depending strongly on the parameters used and choices taken during the detailed design process required for this highly non-linear and n-dimensional system. The primary purpose of this paper is not to provide a dynamic simulation tool that is the ''final word'' for the ''optimal'' hybrid fuel cell vehicle design. The primary purpose is to provide an explanation of a simulation method for analyzing the energetic aspects of a hybrid fuel cell vehicle. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  11. Evaluation of connected vehicle impact on mobility and mode choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Minelli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Connected vehicle is emerging as a solution to exacerbating congestion problems in urban areas. It is important to understand the impacts of connected vehicle on network and travel behavior of road users. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the impact of connected vehicle on the mode choice and mobility of transportation networks. An iterative methodology was used in this paper where demands for various modes were modified based on the changes in travel time between each origin-destination (OD pair caused by introduction of connected vehicle. Then a traffic assignment was performed in a micro-simulation model, which was able to accurately simulate vehicle-to-vehicle communication. It is assumed that vehicles are equipped with a dynamic route guidance technology to choose their own route using real-time traffic information obtained through communication. The travel times obtained from the micro-simulation model were compared with a base scenario with no connected vehicle. The methodology was tested for a portion of Downtown Toronto, Ontario, Canada. In order to quantify changes in mode share with changes in travel time associated with each OD pair, mode choice models were developed for auto, transit, cycling and pedestrians using data mainly from the Transportation Tomorrow Survey. The impact of connected vehicle on mode choice was evaluated for different market penetrations of connected vehicle. The results of this study show that average travel times for the whole auto mode will generally increase, with the largest increase from connected vehicles. This causes an overall move away from the auto mode for high market penetrations if a dynamic route guidance algorithm is implemented.

  12. Fuel cell usage in motor vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vellone, R.

    1998-01-01

    Much interest has been aroused by fuel cell usage in motor vehicles, since this technology seems to overcome the conventional limits by other kinds of drive, i.e. the high environmental impact of internal-combustion engines and the drawbacks of electric battery vehicles in terms of maximum operating range and battery recharge time. After 2010 its costs are expected to fall in competitive levels with internal-combustion engines [it

  13. Modeling of hybrid vehicle fuel economy and fuel engine efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei

    "Near-CV" (i.e., near-conventional vehicle) hybrid vehicles, with an internal combustion engine, and a supplementary storage with low-weight, low-energy but high-power capacity, are analyzed. This design avoids the shortcoming of the "near-EV" and the "dual-mode" hybrid vehicles that need a large energy storage system (in terms of energy capacity and weight). The small storage is used to optimize engine energy management and can provide power when needed. The energy advantage of the "near-CV" design is to reduce reliance on the engine at low power, to enable regenerative braking, and to provide good performance with a small engine. The fuel consumption of internal combustion engines, which might be applied to hybrid vehicles, is analyzed by building simple analytical models that reflect the engines' energy loss characteristics. Both diesel and gasoline engines are modeled. The simple analytical models describe engine fuel consumption at any speed and load point by describing the engine's indicated efficiency and friction. The engine's indicated efficiency and heat loss are described in terms of several easy-to-obtain engine parameters, e.g., compression ratio, displacement, bore and stroke. Engine friction is described in terms of parameters obtained by fitting available fuel measurements on several diesel and spark-ignition engines. The engine models developed are shown to conform closely to experimental fuel consumption and motored friction data. A model of the energy use of "near-CV" hybrid vehicles with different storage mechanism is created, based on simple algebraic description of the components. With powertrain downsizing and hybridization, a "near-CV" hybrid vehicle can obtain a factor of approximately two in overall fuel efficiency (mpg) improvement, without considering reductions in the vehicle load.

  14. Fuel economy of hybrid fuel-cell vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Wang, X.; Rousseau, A.

    The potential improvement in fuel economy of a mid-size fuel-cell vehicle by combining it with an energy storage system has been assessed. An energy management strategy is developed and used to operate the direct hydrogen, pressurized fuel-cell system in a load-following mode and the energy storage system in a charge-sustaining mode. The strategy places highest priority on maintaining the energy storage system in a state where it can supply unanticipated boost power when the fuel-cell system alone cannot meet the power demand. It is found that downsizing a fuel-cell system decreases its efficiency on a drive cycle which is compensated by partial regenerative capture of braking energy. On a highway cycle with limited braking energy the increase in fuel economy with hybridization is small but on the stop-and-go urban cycle the fuel economy can improve by 27%. On the combined highway and urban drive cycles the fuel economy of the fuel-cell vehicle is estimated to increase by up to 15% by hybridizing it with an energy storage system.

  15. Alcohol-fueled vehicles: An alternative fuels vehicle, emissions, and refueling infrastructure technology assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, G.A.; Kerstetter, J.; Lyons, J.K. [and others

    1993-06-01

    Interest in alternative motor vehicle fuels has grown tremendously over the last few years. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, the National Energy Policy Act of 1992 and the California Clean Air Act are primarily responsible for this resurgence and have spurred both the motor fuels and vehicle manufacturing industries into action. For the first time, all three U.S. auto manufacturers are offering alternative fuel vehicles to the motoring public. At the same time, a small but growing alternative fuels refueling infrastructure is beginning to develop across the country. Although the recent growth in alternative motor fuels use is impressive, their market niche is still being defined. Environmental regulations, a key driver behind alternative fuel use, is forcing both car makers and the petroleum industry to clean up their products. As a result, alternative fuels no longer have a lock on the clean air market and will have to compete with conventional vehicles in meeting stringent future vehicle emission standards. The development of cleaner burning gasoline powered vehicles has signaled a shift in the marketing of alternative fuels. While they will continue to play a major part in the clean vehicle market, alternative fuels are increasingly recognized as a means to reduce oil imports. This new role is clearly defined in the National Energy Policy Act of 1992. The Act identifies alternative fuels as a key strategy for reducing imports of foreign oil and mandates their use for federal and state fleets, while reserving the right to require private and municipal fleet use as well.

  16. Light and Heavy Tactical Wheeled Vehicle Fuel Consumption Evaluations Using Fuel Efficient Gear Oils (FEGO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    UNCLASSIFIED LIGHT AND HEAVY TACTICAL WHEELED VEHICLE FUEL CONSUMPTION EVALUATIONS USING FUEL EFFICIENT GEAR OILS (FEGO) FINAL... HEAVY TACTICAL WHEELED VEHICLE FUEL CONSUMPTION EVALUATIONS USING FUEL EFFICIENT GEAR OILS (FEGO) FINAL REPORT TFLRF No. 477 by Adam C...August 2014 – March 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE LIGHT AND HEAVY TACTICAL WHEELED VEHICLE FUEL CONSUMPTION EVALUATIONS USING FEUL EFFICIENT GEAR OILS

  17. Choice of teenagers' vehicles and views on vehicle safety: survey of parents of novice teenage drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellinga, Laurie A; McCartt, Anne T; Haire, Emily R

    2007-01-01

    To examine parental decisions about vehicles driven by teenagers and parental knowledge of vehicle safety. About 300 parents were interviewed during spring 2006 in Minnesota, North Carolina, and Rhode Island while teenagers took their first on-road driving tests. Fewer than half of parents surveyed said teenagers would be the primary drivers of the chosen vehicles. Parents most often cited safety, existing family vehicle, and reliability when explaining the choices for their teenagers' vehicles. About half of the vehicles intended for teenagers were small/mini/sports cars, pickups, or SUVs - vehicles considered less safe for teenagers than midsize/large cars or minivans. A large majority of vehicles were 2001 models or earlier. Vehicles purchased in anticipation of adding a new driver to the family were more likely to be the sizes/types considered less safe than vehicles already owned. Few parents insisted on side airbags or electronic stability control, despite strong evidence of their safety benefits. Even when asked to identify ideal vehicles for their teenagers to drive, about half of parents identified less safe vehicle sizes/types. Most parents knew that midsize/large vehicles are safer than small vehicles, and at least half of parents said SUVs and pickups are not safe for teenage drivers, citing instability. The majority of parents understood some of the important criteria for choosing safe vehicles for their teenagers. However, parents actually selected many vehicles for teenagers that provide inferior crash protection. Vehicle safety varies substantially by vehicle size, type, and safety features. Many teenagers are driving inferior vehicles in terms of crashworthiness and crash avoidance.

  18. Sustainable vehicle fuels - Do they exist?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerjesson, Paal; Ericsson, Karin; Di Lucia, Lorenzo; Nilsson, Lars J.; Aahman, Max

    2009-03-15

    Our aim with this report is to discuss vehicle fuels from a wide perspective of sustainability. Biofuels and electricity are analyzed and compared to fossil vehicle fuels. Our goal is to try to point out the circumstances under which vehicle fuels can be reasonably perceived as sustainable, and which systems we should develop and which we should avoid. The all-embracing conclusion of this study is that one can not establish how sustainable fuels will develop in the future without simultaneously taking into consideration both scale and pace of growth. Today's biofuels produced in Sweden are sustainable, given the present production volume, and promote further development of new fuel systems. However, in the case of increased production volumes, exact requirements should be established for the energy- and climate efficiency of the entire fuel chain (from cultivation to tank). High priority should be given to the development of fuel-efficient cars. In this field hybrid electric technology and electric cars will grow in importance. Any long-term strategy for biofuels should include investments in technology for both thermal gasification and biological conversion methods of lignocellulose, since these are complementing as much as competing technologies, both increasing the flexibility as well as decreasing the risk of conflicts. Biogas from waste products has great environmental advantages and the sector can be expanded with only small risks of conflicts. Certification (if correctly formulated) is an important and necessary tool on the way towards more sustainable vehicle fuels and increased production volumes, but certification systems should not be overrated since they can not cover all sustainability aspects. Socio-economic aspects such as working conditions, local rural development etc. must be dealt with through general measures such as national laws, distribution policies, programs and plans, all of which should be supported by international agreements and

  19. What Fleets Need to Know About Alternative Fuel Vehicle Conversions, Retrofits, and Repowers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, K.; Gonzales, J.

    2017-10-02

    Many fleet managers have opted to incorporate alternative fuels and advanced vehicles into their lineup. Original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) offer a variety of choices, and there are additional options offered by aftermarket companies. There are also a myriad of ways that existing vehicles can be modified to utilize alternative fuels and other advanced technologies. Vehicle conversions and retrofit packages, along with engine repower options, can offer an ideal way to lower vehicle operating costs. This can result in long term return on investment, in addition to helping fleet managers achieve emissions and environmental goals. This report summarizes the various factors to consider when pursuing a conversion, retrofit, or repower option.

  20. What Fleets Need to Know About Alternative Fuel Vehicle Conversions, Retrofits, and Repowers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Kay L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gonzales, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-17

    Many fleet managers have opted to incorporate alternative fuels and advanced vehicles into their lineup. Original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) offer a variety of choices, and there are additional options offered by aftermarket companies. There are also a myriad of ways that existing vehicles can be modified to utilize alternative fuels and other advanced technologies. Vehicle conversions and retrofit packages, along with engine repower options, can offer an ideal way to lower vehicle operating costs. This can result in long term return on investment, in addition to helping fleet managers achieve emissions and environmental goals. This report summarizes the various factors to consider when pursuing a conversion, retrofit, or repower option.

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Diesel Vehicles Using Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center : Diesel Vehicles Using Biodiesel to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Diesel Vehicles Using Biodiesel on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Diesel Vehicles Using Biodiesel

  2. Airport electric vehicle powered by fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontela, Pablo; Soria, Antonio; Mielgo, Javier; Sierra, José Francisco; de Blas, Juan; Gauchia, Lucia; Martínez, Juan M.

    Nowadays, new technologies and breakthroughs in the field of energy efficiency, alternative fuels and added-value electronics are leading to bigger, more sustainable and green thinking applications. Within the Automotive Industry, there is a clear declaration of commitment with the environment and natural resources. The presence of passenger vehicles of hybrid architecture, public transport powered by cleaner fuels, non-aggressive utility vehicles and an encouraging social awareness, are bringing to light a new scenario where conventional and advanced solutions will be in force. This paper presents the evolution of an airport cargo vehicle from battery-based propulsion to a hybrid power unit based on fuel cell, cutting edge batteries and hydrogen as a fuel. Some years back, IBERIA (Major Airline operating in Spain) decided to initiate the replacement of its diesel fleet for battery ones, aiming at a reduction in terms of contamination and noise in the surrounding environment. Unfortunately, due to extreme operating conditions in airports (ambient temperature, intensive use, dirtiness, …), batteries suffered a very severe degradation, which took its toll in terms of autonomy. This reduction in terms of autonomy together with the long battery recharge time made the intensive use of this fleet impractical in everyday demanding conditions.

  3. NREL Fuels and Engines Research: Maximizing Vehicle Efficiency and

    Science.gov (United States)

    chemistry, conversion, and combustion to the evaluation of advanced fuels in actual engines and vehicles . With fuel chemistry, our scientific discoveries start out small. We use quantum mechanical modeling to explore how fuels with varying chemistry interact with engine and vehicle design. At our Fuel Combustion

  4. Methane as a Vehicle Fuel in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maedge, M.

    2014-01-01

    NGVA Europe is aware of the importance of the promotion of Natural Gas and biomethane as an important vehicle fuels in Europe. The European Commission has recently adopted the Clean Power for Transport package including a Directive for deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure for CNG and LNG. Currently, the Member States have to report in their National Policy Frameworks, in a period of 24 months, their natural gas filling station development plans and fuel strategy in the nearest future. The European Union has a new transport infrastructure policy that connects the continent between East and West, North and South (TEN-T) and alternatives fuels will be taken into consideration for reducing the CO2 emissions, improve the air quality in urban areas, reduce the dependence with oil and enhance the competitiveness of the European industry. All of these researches have to be focus in the Horizon 2020, in which clean vehicles with CNG and LNG will be used to create 'smart cities and communities'. For achieving this idea, we are involved in the LNG Blue Corridor Project to demonstrate that the LNG is a real alternative for medium and long distance transport through the creation of new fuel stations in different countries such as Spain, France or Portugal. (author).

  5. Alternative Fuels Data Center: How Do Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    vehicles. Hydrogen car image Key Components of a Hydrogen Fuel Cell Electric Car Battery (auxiliary): In an Using Hydrogen? Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles Work Using Hydrogen? to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: How Do Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles Work Using Hydrogen? on Facebook Tweet about

  6. California's experience with alternative fuel vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, C.

    1993-01-01

    California is often referred to as a nation-state, and in many aspects fits that description. The state represents the seventh largest economy in the world. Most of California does not have to worry about fuel to heat homes in the winter. What we do worry about is fuel for our motor vehicles, approximately 24 million of them. In fact, California accounts for ten percent of new vehicle sales in the United States each year, much of it used in the transportation sector. The state is the third largest consumer of gasoline in the world, only exceeded by the United States as a whole and the former Soviet Union. California is also a leader in air pollution. Of the nine worst ozone areas in the country cited in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, two areas the Los Angeles Basin and San Diego are located in California. Five of California's cities made the top 20 smoggiest cities in the United States. In reality, all of California's major metropolitan areas have air quality problems. This paper will discuss the beginnings of California's investigations of alternative fuels use in vehicles; the results of the state's demonstration programs; and future plans to improve California's air quality and energy security in the mobile sector

  7. Prospects for the application of fuel cells in electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adcock, P L; Newbold, A [Loughborough Univ. of Technology (United Kingdom). Dept. of Transport Technology; Barton, R T; Dudfield, C D; Mitchell, P J; Naylor, P [Loughborough Univ. of Technology (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry

    1992-01-01

    For a hybrid vehicle the use pattern has large effect on the vehicle design. If the vehicle is to be used extensively on the motorway then a continuous high power is required. For the case of a fuel cell battery hybrid vehicle this would require a large fuel cell (> 30 kW) to meet the sustained high power demand. The current high materials and fabrication cost of most fuel cells prohibits the commercial development of such a system. Consequently if fuel cell vehicles are to enter a 'clean car' market, earlier rather than later, alternative configurations must be sought and compromises in terms of performance are inevitable. (orig.).

  8. 40 CFR 69.51 - Motor vehicle diesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle diesel fuel. 69.51... (CONTINUED) SPECIAL EXEMPTIONS FROM REQUIREMENTS OF THE CLEAN AIR ACT Alaska § 69.51 Motor vehicle diesel... motor vehicle diesel fuel standards and dye provisions under 40 CFR 80.520 and associated requirements...

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Yellowstone Park Recycles Vehicle Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    for Solar Power Yellowstone Park Recycles Vehicle Batteries for Solar Power to someone by E -mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Yellowstone Park Recycles Vehicle Batteries for Solar Power on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Yellowstone Park Recycles Vehicle Batteries

  10. Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles: Paving the Way to Commercial Success -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Continuum Magazine | NREL Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles: Paving the Way to Commercial Success Powered by a fuel cell system with light-weight, high-pressure hydrogen tanks, an electric motor, a nickel -metal-hydride battery, and a power-control unit, the Toyota fuel cell electric vehicle has zero tailpipe

  11. 75 FR 29605 - Clean Alternative Fuel Vehicle and Engine Conversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... Part II Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR Parts 85 and 86 Clean Alternative Fuel Vehicle and...-0299; FRL-9149-9] RIN 2060-AP64 Clean Alternative Fuel Vehicle and Engine Conversions AGENCY... streamline the process by which manufacturers of clean alternative fuel conversion systems may demonstrate...

  12. Outlook on Standardization of Alternative Vehicle Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehnlund, B [Atrax Energi AB (Sweden)

    2008-10-15

    The use of fossil but in first hand biobased alternative fuels in transportation has increased over the last decades. This change is primarily driven by concerns about climate change that is caused by emissions of fossil carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, but also by the impact on health and environment, caused by emissions of regulated as well as non-regulated emissions from the transport sector. Most alternative fuels will help to reduce the emissions of regulated and non-regulated emissions, while alternative fuels based on biomass also will contribute to reduced net emissions of carbon dioxide. Since the mid 1990s, the use of biomass based fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel has reached levels high enough in for example Europe, Brazil and the U.S. to motivate national or regional specifications/standards. Especially from the vehicle/engine manufacturer's point of view standards are of high importance. From early 2000 onwards, the international trade of biofuels (for example from Brazil to the U.S. and Europe) has grown, and this has created a need for common international specifications/standards. This report presents information about national and regional standards for alternative fuels, but also, when existing and reported, standards on a global level are described and discussed. Ongoing work concerning new or revised standards on alternative fuels on national, regional or global level is also discussed. In this report we have covered standards on all kind of alternative fuels, exemplified below. However, the focus is on liquid biofuels for diesel engines and Otto engines. 1) Liquid fuels for diesel engines (compression ignition engines), such as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME), Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters (FAEE), alcohols, alcohol derivates and synthetic diesel fuels. 2) Liquid fuels for Otto engines (spark ignition engines), such as alcohols, ethers and synthetic gasoline. 3) Liquefied fossil petroleum gas (LPG). 4) Di-Methyl Ether (DME). 5) Fossil

  13. Outlook on Standardization of Alternative Vehicle Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehnlund, B. [Atrax Energi AB (Sweden)

    2008-10-15

    The use of fossil but in first hand biobased alternative fuels in transportation has increased over the last decades. This change is primarily driven by concerns about climate change that is caused by emissions of fossil carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, but also by the impact on health and environment, caused by emissions of regulated as well as non-regulated emissions from the transport sector. Most alternative fuels will help to reduce the emissions of regulated and non-regulated emissions, while alternative fuels based on biomass also will contribute to reduced net emissions of carbon dioxide. Since the mid 1990s, the use of biomass based fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel has reached levels high enough in for example Europe, Brazil and the U.S. to motivate national or regional specifications/standards. Especially from the vehicle/engine manufacturer's point of view standards are of high importance. From early 2000 onwards, the international trade of biofuels (for example from Brazil to the U.S. and Europe) has grown, and this has created a need for common international specifications/standards. This report presents information about national and regional standards for alternative fuels, but also, when existing and reported, standards on a global level are described and discussed. Ongoing work concerning new or revised standards on alternative fuels on national, regional or global level is also discussed. In this report we have covered standards on all kind of alternative fuels, exemplified below. However, the focus is on liquid biofuels for diesel engines and Otto engines. 1) Liquid fuels for diesel engines (compression ignition engines), such as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME), Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters (FAEE), alcohols, alcohol derivates and synthetic diesel fuels. 2) Liquid fuels for Otto engines (spark ignition engines), such as alcohols, ethers and synthetic gasoline. 3) Liquefied fossil petroleum gas (LPG). 4) Di-Methyl Ether (DME). 5

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    . Fueling and Driving Options Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle batteries can be charged by an outside sized hybrid electric vehicle. If the vehicle is driven a shorter distance than its all-electric range drives the wheels almost all of the time, but the vehicle can switch to work like a parallel hybrid at

  15. Light-Duty Vehicle CO2 and Fuel Economy Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report provides data on the fuel economy, carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, and technology trends of new light-duty vehicles (cars, minivans, sport utility vehicles, and pickup trucks) for model years 1975 to present in the United States.

  16. Emission Control Cost-Effectiveness of Alternative-Fuel Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Quanlu; Sperling, Daniel; Olmstead, Janis

    1993-01-01

    Although various legislation and regulations have been adopted to promote the use of alternative-fuel vehicles for curbing urban air pollution problems, there is a lack of systematic comparisons of emission control cost-effectiveness among various alternative-fuel vehicle types. In this paper, life-cycle emission reductions and life-cycle costs were estimated for passenger cars fueled with methanol, ethanol, liquified petroleum gas, compressed natural gas, and electricity. Vehicle emission es...

  17. Alternative fuels for vehicles; Alternative drivmidler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-02-15

    Up until 2020 and onwards the analysis indicates that especially electricity, biogas and natural gas as propellants is economically attractive compared to conventional gasoline and diesel while other fuels have the same or higher costs for petrol and diesel. Especially biogas and electricity will also offer significant reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions, but also hydrogen, methanol, DME and to a lesser extent the second generation bioethanol and most of the other alternative fuels reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Use of the traditional food-based first generation biofuels involves, at best, only modest climate benefits if land use changes are counted, and at worst, significant negative climate effects. Natural gas as a propellant involves a moderate climate gain, but may play a role for building infrastructure and market for gaseous fuels in large fleets, thereby contributing to the phasing in of biogas for transport. The electric-based automotive fuels are the most effective due to a high efficiency of the engine and an increasing proportion of wind energy in the electricity supply. The methanol track also has a relatively high efficiency. Among the others, the track based on diesel engines (biodiesel) is more effective than the track based on gasoline/Otto engines (gas and ethanol) as a result of the diesel engine's better efficiency. For the heavy vehicles all the selected alternative fuels to varying degrees reduce emissions of CO{sub 2}, particularly DME based on wood. The only exception to this is - as for passenger cars - the propellant synthetic diesel based on coal. (LN).

  18. Optimum Performance of Direct Hydrogen Hybrid Fuel Cell Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Hengbing; Burke, Andy

    2009-01-01

    Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology is one of the most attractive candidates for transportation applications due to its inherently high efficiency and high power density. However, the fuel cell system efficiency can suffer because of the need for forced air supply and water-cooling systems. Hence the operating strategy of the fuel cell system can have a significant impact on the fuel cell system efficiency and thus vehicle fuel economy. The key issues are how the fuel cell b...

  19. Consumer preferences for alternative fuel vehicles: Comparing a utility maximization and a regret minimization model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chorus, Caspar G.; Koetse, Mark J.; Hoen, Anco

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a utility-based and a regret-based model of consumer preferences for alternative fuel vehicles, based on a large-scale stated choice-experiment held among company car leasers in The Netherlands. Estimation and application of random utility maximization and random regret minimization discrete choice models shows that while the two models achieve almost identical fit with the data and differ only marginally in terms of predictive ability, they generate rather different choice probability-simulations and policy implications. The most eye-catching difference between the two models is that the random regret minimization model accommodates a compromise-effect, as it assigns relatively high choice probabilities to alternative fuel vehicles that perform reasonably well on each dimension instead of having a strong performance on some dimensions and a poor performance on others. - Highlights: • Utility- and regret-based models of preferences for alternative fuel vehicles. • Estimation based on stated choice-experiment among Dutch company car leasers. • Models generate rather different choice probabilities and policy implications. • Regret-based model accommodates a compromise-effect

  20. Optimization of Fuel Cell System Operating Conditions for Fuel Cell Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Hengbing; Burke, Andy

    2008-01-01

    Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology for use in fuel cell vehicles and other applications has been intensively developed in recent decades. Besides the fuel cell stack, air and fuel control and thermal and water management are major challenges in the development of the fuel cell for vehicle applications. The air supply system can have a major impact on overall system efficiency. In this paper a fuel cell system model for optimizing system operating conditions was developed wh...

  1. Emissions from ethanol- and LPG-fueled vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitstick, M.E.

    1995-01-01

    This paper addresses the environmental concerns of using neat ethanol and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as transportation fuels in the United States. Low-level blends of ethanol (10%) with gasoline have been used as fuels in the United States for more than a decade, but neat ethanol (85% or more) has only been used extensively in Brazil. LPG, which consists mostly of propane, is already used extensively as a vehicle fuel in the United States, but its use has been limited primarily to converted fleet vehicles. Increasing U.S. interest in alternative fuels has raised the possibility of introducing neat-ethanol vehicles into the market and expanding the number of LPG vehicles. Use of such vehicles, and increased production and consumption of fuel ethanol and LPG, will undoubtedly have environmental impacts. If the impacts are determined to be severe, they could act as barriers to the introduction of neat-ethanol and LPG vehicles. Environmental concerns include exhaust and evaporative emissions and their impact on ozone formation and global warming, toxic emissions from fuel combustion and evaporation, and agricultural impacts from production of ethanol. The paper is not intended to be judgmental regarding the overall attractiveness of ethanol or LPG as compared with other transportation fuels. The environmental concerns are reviewed and summarized, but only conclusion reached is that there is no single concern that is likely to prevent the introduction of neat-ethanol-fueled vehicles or the increase in LPG-fueled vehicles

  2. USING OF NON-CONVENTIONAL FUELS IN HYBRID VEHICLE DRIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalibor Barta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Electric or hybrid vehicles are becoming increasingly common on roads. While electric vehicles are still more or less intended for city traffic, hybrid vehicles allow normal use due to wider driving range. The use of internal combustion engines in hybrid drives is still an inspiration to find the way to reduce the produc-tion of emissions. Numbers of alternative energy resources were studied as a substitution of conventional fuels for hybrid vehicles drives worldwide. The paper deals with the possibility of using alternative fuels as CNG, LPG and LNG in combination with hybrid drive of a midibus with the capacity of 20 passengers. Various aspects and techniques of hybrid vehicles from energy management system, propulsion system and using of various alternative fuels are explored in this paper. Other related fields of hybrid vehicles such as changes of vehicle weight or influence of electric energy sources on the total vehicle emission production are also included.

  3. Biomethane: A Renewable Resource as Vehicle Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Cucchiella

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The European Union (EU has set a mandatory target for renewable fuels of 10% for each member state by 2020. Biomethane is a renewable energy representing an alternative to the use of fossil fuels in the transport sector. This resource is a solution to reach this target. Furthermore, it contributes to reducing carbon dioxide emissions, gives social benefits and increases the security supply. Sustainability is reached also when the economic opportunities are verified. This work studies the profitability of small plants of biomethane, which is sold as vehicle fuel using the Net Present Value (NPV and Discounted Payback Time (DPBT. The paper shows in detail the method used for the economic assessment of two typologies of feedstock recovered: (i municipal solid waste and (ii agricultural waste. Detailed information about the various parameters that affect the profitability of biomethane is given, and several case studies are analyzed as a function of two variables: subsidies and selling price. The results support the commercialization of small-scale plants, reducing also several environmental issues. The role of subsidies is strategic, and the profitability is verified only in some case studies

  4. Firing the furnace? An econometric analysis of utilities' fuel choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauchmann, H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper attempts to estimate how the fuel mix of German electricity producers does react to fuel price changes. The empirical analysis is based on panel data (1968-1998) of major utilities. Two different aspects of fuel choice are distinguished: at the one hand, the construction of usually fuel-specific capacities for electric power generation, i.e. investment decisions that determine the fuel mix in the long run; at the other, fuel use conditional on existing generation capacities, i.e. short-run inter-fuel substitution. According to the results from panel unit root tests, both the econometric models which describe these two aspects are specified in changes rather than levels. The partly discrete nature of investment decisions is taken into account, by constructing a discrete model of capacity adjustment. Our estimation results suggest that the fuel mix of electric utilities is price inelastic either if long-term investment or short-term inter-fuel substitution is considered. Finally, the empirical results are used to predict the potential impacts of CO 2 emissions trading on fuel choice in the German electric power industry

  5. Firing the furnace? An econometric analysis of utilities' fuel choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauchmann, H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper attempts to estimate how the fuel mix of German electricity producers does react to fuel price changes. The empirical analysis is based on panel data (1968-1998) of major utilities. Two different aspects of fuel choice are distinguished: at the one hand, the construction of usually fuel-specific capacities for electric power generation, i.e. investment decisions that determine the fuel mix in the long run; at the other, fuel use conditional on existing generation capacities, i.e. short-run inter-fuel substitution. According to the results from panel unit root tests, both the econometric models which describe these two aspects are specified in changes rather than levels. The partly discrete nature of investment decisions is taken into account, by constructing a discrete model of capacity adjustment. Our estimation results suggest that the fuel mix of electric utilities is price inelastic either if long-term investment or short-term inter-fuel substitution is considered. Finally, the empirical results are used to predict the potential impacts of CO 2 emissions trading on fuel choice in the German electric power industry. (Author)

  6. 76 FR 19829 - Clean Alternative Fuel Vehicle and Engine Conversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Amy Bunker, Compliance and Innovative Strategies Division, U.S. Environmental Protection... Vehicle/Engine Selection D. Mixed-Fuel and Dual-Fuel Conversions E. Vehicle/Engine Labels, Packaging Labels, and Marketing F. Compliance 1. Emission Standards a. Light-Duty and Heavy-Duty Chassis Certified...

  7. Study questions environmental impact of fuel-cell vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Ned

    2015-09-01

    Fuel-cell electric vehicles are seen by many as an environmentally friendly technology that can reduce greenhousegas emissions by producing no harmful emissions. But a new study has found that overall a fuel cell electric vehicle has about the same negative environmental impact as a luxury sports car.

  8. Fifty years of fuel quality and vehicle emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, K. [CONCAWE, Brussels (Belgium)

    2013-04-01

    In the late 1970s, with growing emphasis on urban air quality in Europe, CONCAWE embarked on new research related to fuels and vehicles. After only a few years, it became clear that fuel properties and specifications would be increasingly important to the future of the European refining industry, and considerable research was completed in the 1970s to better understand the impact of fuel composition on vehicle performance and emissions. This early work led to the formation of the first Fuels and Emissions Management Group (FEMG) in 1982, almost 20 years after the formation of the CONCAWE Association. Since these early days, FEMG has been responsible for ensuring CONCAWE's strategic outlook on future vehicle and fuel developments, monitoring regulatory and vehicle developments, and overseeing a diverse portfolio of fuel quality and vehicle emissions research. Since the 1980s, tremendous progress has been made in improving European air quality, in part by reducing emissions from road transport and other sectors, and major improvements in European fuel qualities have contributed to these reductions. Nevertheless, many challenges are still ahead, especially further reductions in pollutant emissions from vehicles while also reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from transport. In the near-term, these GHG reductions will largely come from improvements in engine and vehicle fuel consumption and by blending of GHG-reducing bio-blending components. Dealing with these challenges to fuel quality and performance will require a continuing focus on CONCAWE's founding principles: sound science, cost effectiveness and transparency.

  9. Techno-economic assessment of fuel cell vehicles for India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manish S; Rangan Banerjee

    2006-01-01

    This paper compares four alternative vehicle technologies for a typical small family car in India (Maruti 800) - two conventional i) Petrol driven internal combustion (IC) engine, ii) Compressed natural gas (CNG) driven IC engine and two based on proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells with different storage iii) Compressed hydrogen storage and iv) Metal hydride (FeTi) storage. Each technology option is simulated in MATLAB using a backward facing algorithm to calculate the force and power requirement for the Indian urban drive cycle. The storage for the CNG and the fuel cell vehicles is designed to have driving range of 50% of the existing petrol vehicle. The simulation considers the part load efficiency vs. load characteristics for the computed ratings of the IC engine and the fuel cell. The analysis includes the transmission efficiency, motor efficiency and storage efficiencies. The comparison criteria used are the primary energy consumption (MJ/km), the cost (Rs./km) obtained by computing the annualized life cycle cost and dividing this by the annual vehicle travel and carbon dioxide emissions (g/km). For the primary energy analysis the energy required for extraction, processing of the fuel is also included. For the fuel cell vehicles, it is assumed that hydrogen is produced from natural gas through steam methane reforming. It is found that the fuel cell vehicles have the lowest primary energy consumption (1.3 MJ/km) as compared to the petrol and CNG vehicles (2.3 and 2.5 MJ/km respectively). The cost analysis is done based on existing prices in India and reveals that the CNG vehicle has the lowest cost (2.3 Rs./km) as compared to petrol (4.5 Rs./km). The fuel cell vehicles have a higher cost of 26 Rs./km mainly due to the higher fuel cell system cost (93% of the total cost). The CO 2 emissions are lowest for the fuel cell vehicle with compressed hydrogen storage (98 g/km) as compared to the petrol vehicle (162 g/km). If the incremental annual cost of the fuel

  10. A comparative evaluation of energy storage systems for a fuel cell vehicle. Paper no. IGEC-1-142

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, J.; Kazerani, M.

    2005-01-01

    The widespread operation of internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles has today become a great cause for concern due to the uncertainty of fossil fuel reserves, energy security issues, and numerous adverse environmental effects. Alternatives such as fuel cell vehicles, electric vehicles, hybrid vehicles, and biodiesel vehicles provide the possibility to ease some or all of these concerns. The fuel cell vehicle, however, offers an excellent combination of reducing ICE vehicle problems while maintaining the performance, driving range, and convenience that consumers require. This paper documents a comparative evaluation of an extremely important facet of the fuel cell vehicle: the energy storage system (ESS). Batteries and ultracapacitors, the two most common choices for an ESS, are compared qualitatively to illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of each. Also, a quantitative comparison is made to choose the best technology for a small fuel cell-powered SUV having the design objectives of high performance and high efficiency. Practical issues such as availability and cost are also considered. The results of the analysis indicate that a battery ESS provides the best combination of efficiency, performance, and cost for a present-day fuel cell vehicle design. Yet, if the anticipated cost reductions and improvements in the energy storage capabilities of ultracapacitors do occur, ultracapacitors will become a very strong contender for energy storage solutions of future fuel cell vehicles. (author)

  11. Impact of Vehicle Hybridization on Fuel Consumption Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Rezaei, Javad

    2018-01-01

    Air pollution, limited number of knownpetroleum resources and increasing of greenhouse gases have led the governmentsand researchers to have more investigation on Hybrid Electric Vehicles.Considering technical availability and manufacturing facilities with regardingto the final vehicle price, hybridization of conventional vehicles could be abetter choice than designing and manufacturing a new hybrid electric car.Parallel-Series hybrid electric vehicles(power-split) which is used in this study...

  12. Analyzing the Impacts of a Biogas-to-Electricity Purchase Incentive on Electric Vehicle Deployment with the MA3T Vehicle Choice Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podkaminer, Kara [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Xie, Fei [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lin, Zhenhong [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-01

    In 2014, the EPA approved a biogas-to-electricity pathway under the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS). However, no specific applications for this pathway have been approved to date. This analysis helps understand the impact of the pathway by representing the biogas-to-electricity pathway as a point of purchase incentive and tests the impact of this incentive on EV deployment using a vehicle consumer choice model.

  13. Update on the Vancouver Fuel Cell Vehicle Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothwell, B.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' The Vancouver Fuel Cell Vehicle Program (VFCVP) is a $5.8 million initiative designed to test four Ford Focus Fuel Cell Vehicles for three years in the Lower Mainland of British Columbia. The project is the first of its kind in Canada and is led by Fuel Cells Canada (FCC), the Ford Motor Company (Ford), and the Governments of Canada and British Columbia. This presentation will provide program details and an update on activities leading up to currently planned delivery to Vancouver in November 2004. The VFCVP will test the performance, durability and reliability of the Ford fuel cell vehicle cars in real-world conditions and will examine fuelling issues and solutions, the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and public acceptance of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. The program will generate data to help evolve the technology and develop international codes and standards E cents Epnd the implementation and adoption of fuel cell technology. (author)

  14. Bio-methanol: Fuel of choice?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neill, D.R.; Yu, C.; Ho, T.; Tang, D.; Lee, M.

    1991-01-01

    The Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) is working on four programs related to methanol: Biomass production, hydrogen, biomass conversion and transportation fuel demonstration. The biomass production program started eight years ago when the first Pacific Basin Biomass Workshop set forth a plan of action. Since then, much progress had been made toward implementing this plan. With support from the US Department of Energy (USDOE) through SERI, HNEI has been implementing a biomass production program that includes a resource assessment and computerized mapping of all agricultural lands, various field trials of promising species and research of harvesting and conversion technologies. Five to six percent of Hawaii's land area could yield sufficient feed-stock to replace all of the state's gasoline and diesel fuel from imported oil

  15. Alternative transportation fuels in the USA: government hydrogen vehicle programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, J.S.

    1993-01-01

    The linkage between natural gas-based transportation and hydrogen-based transportation strategies, two clean burning gaseous fuels, provides a strong policy rationale for increased government sponsorship of hydrogen vehicle research and demonstration programs. Existing federal and state government hydrogen vehicle projects are discussed in this paper: research at the NREL, alternate-fueled buses, Renewable Hydrogen for the State of Hawaii program, New York state alternative transportation fuels program, Colorado program. 9 refs

  16. Fuel cells show promise as vehicle power source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Fuel-cell-powered vehicles appear to offer great promise for energy-saving, high-efficiency transportation. Fuel cells are both highly efficient (50% thermal efficiency has been demonstrated by some) and non-polluting (water being the main by-product). Dramatic improvements in performance have occurred recently due to aerospace and utility RandD efforts. The primary vehicle considered at workshops of laboratory and industrial investigators was a fuel cell/battery hybrid, in which fuel cells are paralleled by batteries. Fuel cells are used for cruising power and battery recharge, while batteries supply transient power for acceleration and starting

  17. Motor vehicle fuel economy, the forgotten HC control stragegy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deluchi, M.; Wang, Quanlu; Greene, D.L.

    1992-06-01

    Emissions of hydrocarbons from motor vehicles are recognized as major contributors to ozone pollution in urban areas. Petroleum-based motor fuels contain volatile organic compounds (VOC) which, together with oxides of nitrogen, promote the formation of ozone in the troposphere via complex photochemical reactions. VOC emissions from the tailpipe and evaporation from the fuel and engine systems of highway vehicles are believed to account for about 40% of total VOC emissions in any region. But motor fuels also generate emissions throughout the fuel cycle, from crude oil production to refining, storage, transportation, and handling, that can make significant contributions to the total inventory of VOC emissions. Many of these sources of emissions are directly related to the quantity of fuel produced and handled throughout the fuel cycle. It is, therefore, reasonable to expect that a reduction in total fuel throughput might result in a reduction of VOC emissions. In particular, reducing vehicle fuel consumption by increasing vehicle fuel economy should reduce total fuel throughput, thereby cutting total emissions of VOCS. In this report we identify the sources of VOC emissions throughout the motor fuel cycle, quantify them to the extent possible, and describe their dependence on automobile and light truck fuel economy.

  18. Alternate-Fuel Vehicles and Their Application in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taggart, Chip

    1991-01-01

    Alternative fuels are becoming increasingly attractive from environmental, energy independence, and economic perspectives. Addresses the following topics: (1) federal and state legislation; (2) alternative fuels and their attributes; (3) practical experience with alternative-fuel vehicles in pupil transportation; and (4) options for school…

  19. Dynamic behavior of gasoline fuel cell electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, William; Bowers, Brian J.; Garnier, Christophe; Boudjemaa, Fabien

    As we begin the 21st century, society is continuing efforts towards finding clean power sources and alternative forms of energy. In the automotive sector, reduction of pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions from the power plant is one of the main objectives of car manufacturers and innovative technologies are under active consideration to achieve this goal. One technology that has been proposed and vigorously pursued in the past decade is the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell, an electrochemical device that reacts hydrogen with oxygen to produce water, electricity and heat. Since today there is no existing extensive hydrogen infrastructure and no commercially viable hydrogen storage technology for vehicles, there is a continuing debate as to how the hydrogen for these advanced vehicles will be supplied. In order to circumvent the above issues, power systems based on PEM fuel cells can employ an on-board fuel processor that has the ability to convert conventional fuels such as gasoline into hydrogen for the fuel cell. This option could thereby remove the fuel infrastructure and storage issues. However, for these fuel processor/fuel cell vehicles to be commercially successful, issues such as start time and transient response must be addressed. This paper discusses the role of transient response of the fuel processor power plant and how it relates to the battery sizing for a gasoline fuel cell vehicle. In addition, results of fuel processor testing from a current Renault/Nuvera Fuel Cells project are presented to show the progress in transient performance.

  20. Legacy Vehicle Fuel System Testing with Intermediate Ethanol Blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, G. W.; Hoff, C. J.; Borton, Z.; Ratcliff, M. A.

    2012-03-01

    The effects of E10 and E17 on legacy fuel system components from three common mid-1990s vintage vehicle models (Ford, GM, and Toyota) were studied. The fuel systems comprised a fuel sending unit with pump, a fuel rail and integrated pressure regulator, and the fuel injectors. The fuel system components were characterized and then installed and tested in sample aging test rigs to simulate the exposure and operation of the fuel system components in an operating vehicle. The fuel injectors were cycled with varying pulse widths during pump operation. Operational performance, such as fuel flow and pressure, was monitored during the aging tests. Both of the Toyota fuel pumps demonstrated some degradation in performance during testing. Six injectors were tested in each aging rig. The Ford and GM injectors showed little change over the aging tests. Overall, based on the results of both the fuel pump testing and the fuel injector testing, no major failures were observed that could be attributed to E17 exposure. The unknown fuel component histories add a large uncertainty to the aging tests. Acquiring fuel system components from operational legacy vehicles would reduce the uncertainty.

  1. Fuel economy and life-cycle cost analysis of a fuel cell hybrid vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Kwi Seong; Oh, Byeong Soo

    The most promising vehicle engine that can overcome the problem of present internal combustion is the hydrogen fuel cell. Fuel cells are devices that change chemical energy directly into electrical energy without combustion. Pure fuel cell vehicles and fuel cell hybrid vehicles (i.e. a combination of fuel cell and battery) as energy sources are studied. Considerations of efficiency, fuel economy, and the characteristics of power output in hybridization of fuel cell vehicle are necessary. In the case of Federal Urban Driving Schedule (FUDS) cycle simulation, hybridization is more efficient than a pure fuel cell vehicle. The reason is that it is possible to capture regenerative braking energy and to operate the fuel cell system within a more efficient range by using battery. Life-cycle cost is largely affected by the fuel cell size, fuel cell cost, and hydrogen cost. When the cost of fuel cell is high, hybridization is profitable, but when the cost of fuel cell is less than 400 US$/kW, a pure fuel cell vehicle is more profitable.

  2. Fuel-cycle greenhouse gas emissions impacts of alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, M. Q.

    1998-12-16

    At an international conference on global warming, held in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997, the United States committed to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 7% over its 1990 level by the year 2012. To help achieve that goal, transportation GHG emissions need to be reduced. Using Argonne's fuel-cycle model, I estimated GHG emissions reduction potentials of various near- and long-term transportation technologies. The estimated per-mile GHG emissions results show that alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies can help significantly reduce transportation GHG emissions. Of the near-term technologies evaluated in this study, electric vehicles; hybrid electric vehicles; compression-ignition, direct-injection vehicles; and E85 flexible fuel vehicles can reduce fuel-cycle GHG emissions by more than 25%, on the fuel-cycle basis. Electric vehicles powered by electricity generated primarily from nuclear and renewable sources can reduce GHG emissions by 80%. Other alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas, offer limited, but positive, GHG emission reduction benefits. Among the long-term technologies evaluated in this study, conventional spark ignition and compression ignition engines powered by alternative fuels and gasoline- and diesel-powered advanced vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by 10% to 30%. Ethanol dedicated vehicles, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel-cell vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by over 40%. Spark ignition engines and fuel-cell vehicles powered by cellulosic ethanol and solar hydrogen (for fuel-cell vehicles only) can reduce GHG emissions by over 80%. In conclusion, both near- and long-term alternative fuels and advanced transportation technologies can play a role in reducing the United States GHG emissions.

  3. Fuel-cycle greenhouse gas emissions impacts of alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, M. Q.

    1998-01-01

    At an international conference on global warming, held in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997, the United States committed to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 7% over its 1990 level by the year 2012. To help achieve that goal, transportation GHG emissions need to be reduced. Using Argonne's fuel-cycle model, I estimated GHG emissions reduction potentials of various near- and long-term transportation technologies. The estimated per-mile GHG emissions results show that alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies can help significantly reduce transportation GHG emissions. Of the near-term technologies evaluated in this study, electric vehicles; hybrid electric vehicles; compression-ignition, direct-injection vehicles; and E85 flexible fuel vehicles can reduce fuel-cycle GHG emissions by more than 25%, on the fuel-cycle basis. Electric vehicles powered by electricity generated primarily from nuclear and renewable sources can reduce GHG emissions by 80%. Other alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas, offer limited, but positive, GHG emission reduction benefits. Among the long-term technologies evaluated in this study, conventional spark ignition and compression ignition engines powered by alternative fuels and gasoline- and diesel-powered advanced vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by 10% to 30%. Ethanol dedicated vehicles, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel-cell vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by over 40%. Spark ignition engines and fuel-cell vehicles powered by cellulosic ethanol and solar hydrogen (for fuel-cell vehicles only) can reduce GHG emissions by over 80%. In conclusion, both near- and long-term alternative fuels and advanced transportation technologies can play a role in reducing the United States GHG emissions

  4. Near-optimal operation of dual-fuel launch vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardema, M.D.; Chou, H.C.; Bowles, J.V.

    1994-01-01

    Current studies of single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) launch vehicles are focused on all-rocket propulsion systems. One option for such vehicles is the use of dual-fuel (liquid hydrocarbon and liquid hydrogen (LH 2 )), for a portion of the mission. As compared with LH 2 , hydrocarbon fuel has higher density and produces higher thrust-to-weight, but has lower specific impulse. The advantages of hydrocarbon fuel are important early in the ascent trajectory, and its use may be expected to lead to reduced vehicle size and weight. Because LH 2 is also needed for cooling purposes, in the early portion of the trajectory both fuels must be burned simultaneously. Later in the ascent, when vehicle weight is lower, specific impulse is the key parameter, indicating single-fuel LH 2 use

  5. Fuel cell mining vehicles: design, performance and advantages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betournay, M.C.; Miller, A.R.; Barnes, D.L.

    2003-01-01

    The potential for using fuel cell technology in underground mining equipment was discussed with reference to the risks associated with the operation of hydrogen vehicles, hydrogen production and hydrogen delivery systems. This paper presented some of the initiatives for mine locomotives and fuel cell stacks for underground environments. In particular, it presents the test results of the first applied industrial fuel cell vehicle in the world, a mining and tunneling locomotive. This study was part of an international initiative managed by the Fuel Cell Propulsion Institute which consists of several mining companies, mining equipment manufacturers, and fuel cell technology developers. Some of the obvious benefits of fuel cells for underground mining operations include no exhaust gases, lower electrical costs, significantly reduced maintenance, and lower ventilation costs. Another advantage is that the technology can be readily automated and computer-based for tele-remote operations. This study also quantified the cost and operational benefits associated with fuel cell vehicles compared to diesel vehicles. It is expected that higher vehicle productivity could render fuel cell underground vehicles cost-competitive. 6 refs., 1 tab

  6. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle Fuel Economy Testing at the U.S. EPA National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory (SAE Paper 2004-01-2900)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The introduction of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles and their new technology has created the need for development of new fuel economy test procedures and safety procedures during testing. The United States Environmental Protection Agency-National Vehicle Fuels and Emissions Laborato...

  7. Evaluation of fuel cell hybrid electric light commercial vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, G.M.

    2002-07-01

    This report summarised the results of tests both in the laboratory and in operation on the roads in London carried out to determine the performance of the Zetek Fuel Cell Vehicle operated by Westminster County Council. Details are given of the vehicle's data logging system, and measurement of its acceleration and power, driveability, vehicle range, and the energy efficiency of the fuel cell, and its environmental performance. The frequent shutdowns of the fuel cell system and the problems with the DC/DC converter are discussed.

  8. Effects of ambient conditions on fuel cell vehicle performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraldsson, K.; Alvfors, P.

    Ambient conditions have considerable impact on the performance of fuel cell hybrid vehicles. Here, the vehicle fuel consumption, the air compressor power demand, the water management system and the heat loads of a fuel cell hybrid sport utility vehicle (SUV) were studied. The simulation results show that the vehicle fuel consumption increases with 10% when the altitude increases from 0 m up to 3000 m to 4.1 L gasoline equivalents/100 km over the New European Drive Cycle (NEDC). The increase is 19% on the more power demanding highway US06 cycle. The air compressor is the major contributor to this fuel consumption increase. Its load-following strategy makes its power demand increase with increasing altitude. Almost 40% of the net power output of the fuel cell system is consumed by the air compressor at the altitude of 3000 m with this load-following strategy and is thus more apparent in the high-power US06 cycle. Changes in ambient air temperature and relative humidity effect on the fuel cell system performance in terms of the water management rather in vehicle fuel consumption. Ambient air temperature and relative humidity have some impact on the vehicle performance mostly seen in the heat and water management of the fuel cell system. While the heat loads of the fuel cell system components vary significantly with increasing ambient temperature, the relative humidity did not have a great impact on the water balance. Overall, dimensioning the compressor and other system components to meet the fuel cell system requirements at the minimum and maximum expected ambient temperatures, in this case 5 and 40 °C, and high altitude, while simultaneously choosing a correct control strategy are important parameters for efficient vehicle power train management.

  9. Direct hydrogen fuel cell systems for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Wang, X.

    Hybridizing a fuel cell system with an energy storage system offers an opportunity to improve the fuel economy of the vehicle through regenerative braking and possibly to increase the specific power and decrease the cost of the combined energy conversion and storage systems. Even in a hybrid configuration it is advantageous to operate the fuel cell system in a load-following mode and use the power from the energy storage system when the fuel cell alone cannot meet the power demand. This paper discusses an approach for designing load-following fuel cell systems for hybrid vehicles and illustrates it by applying it to pressurized, direct hydrogen, polymer-electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) systems for a mid-size family sedan. The vehicle level requirements relative to traction power, response time, start-up time and energy conversion efficiency are used to select the important parameters for the PEFC stack, air management system, heat rejection system and the water management system.

  10. Fuel options for the fuel cell vehicle: hydrogen, methanol or gasoline?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, C.E.; James, B.D.; Lomax, F.D. Jr.; Kuhn, I.F. Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Fuel cell vehicles can be powered directly by hydrogen or, with an onboard chemical processor, other liquid fuels such as gasoline or methanol. Most analysts agree that hydrogen is the preferred fuel in terms of reducing vehicle complexity, but one common perception is that the cost of a hydrogen infrastructure would be excessive. According to this conventional wisdom, the automobile industry must therefore develop complex onboard fuel processors to convert methanol, ethanol or gasoline to hydrogen. We show here, however, that the total fuel infrastructure cost to society including onboard fuel processors may be less for hydrogen than for either gasoline or methanol, the primary initial candidates currently under consideration for fuel cell vehicles. We also present the local air pollution and greenhouse gas advantages of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles compared to those powered by gasoline or methanol. (Author)

  11. Establishing bonds between vehicle certification data and real-world vehicle fuel consumption – A Vehicle Specific Power approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, G.O.; Gonçalves, G.A.; Baptista, P.C.; Farias, T.L.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Innovative methodology to estimate VSP fuel consumption based on public available data. • Model validation with accurate fuel consumption results (absolute deviation from 4.7% to 9.2%). • Best-selling vehicles in Portugal case study was developed for different driving cycles. - Abstract: A method to perform the energy characterization of a vehicle according to the specific power required while driving was developed using public vehicle certification data. Using a portable emission measurement system, fuel consumption was quantified in a second-by-second basis under on-road conditions for 19 vehicles (spark-ignition, compression-ignition and hybrids). This data allowed building generic curves of fuel consumption as a function of the specific power, according to Vehicle Specific Power methodology. Comparing on-road measurements and the model estimates, a R 2 higher than 0.9 for conventional and hybrid vehicles was obtained regarding modal fuel consumption. Comparing the fuel consumption measured on the drive cycles performed by each vehicle and the correspondent estimates, an absolute deviation of 9.2% ± 9.2% was found for conventional vehicles and 4.7% ± 1.8% for hybrids vehicles. This methodology was validated and applied to estimate the energy impacts of the best-selling vehicles in Portugal for different driving cycles. This prompt method, that does not require vehicle monitoring, can estimate curves of fuel consumption in g/s, as a function of specific power, which allows quantifying the absolute fuel use for any driving cycle

  12. Fuel Cells: A Real Option for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Propulsion

    OpenAIRE

    González_Espasandín, Oscar; Leo Mena, Teresa de Jesus; Navarro Arevalo, Emilio

    2013-01-01

    The possibility of implementing fuel cell technology in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) propulsion systems is considered. Potential advantages of the Proton Exchange Membrane or Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEMFC) and Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC), their fuels (hydrogen and methanol), and their storage systems are revised from technical and environmental standpoints. Some operating commercial applications are described. Main constraints for these kinds of fuel cells are analyzed in order t...

  13. Electric utility fuel choice behavior in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joskow, P.L.; Mishkin, F.S.

    1977-10-01

    Electric utility fuel choice behavior is analyzed by a conditional logit model to determine the effects of changing oil prices of five plants. Three of the plants faced favorable expected coal prices and, like many areas of the country, were insensitive to changing oil prices. This was not the case at the New England plant, however, where relatively small price increases would decrease the likelihood of choosing oil as an alternative fuel for new plants. The modeling of utility behavior in fuel decisions is felt to be applicable to other industries where a continuum of decision possibilities does not reasonably characterize choice alternatives. New behavior models are urged in order to obtain better predictions of the effects of a changing economic environment. 10 references.

  14. Advanced nuclear fuel cycles - Main challenges and strategic choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Biez, V.; Machiels, A.; Sowder, A.

    2013-01-01

    A graphical conceptual model of the uranium fuel cycles has been developed to capture the present, anticipated, and potential (future) nuclear fuel cycle elements. The once-through cycle and plutonium recycle in fast reactors represent two basic approaches that bound classical options for nuclear fuel cycles. Chief among these other options are mono-recycling of plutonium in thermal reactors and recycling of minor actinides in fast reactors. Mono-recycling of plutonium in thermal reactors offers modest savings in natural uranium, provides an alternative approach for present-day interim management of used fuel, and offers a potential bridging technology to development and deployment of future fuel cycles. In addition to breeder reactors' obvious fuel sustainability advantages, recycling of minor actinides in fast reactors offers an attractive concept for long-term management of the wastes, but its ultimate value is uncertain in view of the added complexity in doing so,. Ultimately, there are no simple choices for nuclear fuel cycle options, as the selection of a fuel cycle option must reflect strategic criteria and priorities that vary with national policy and market perspectives. For example, fuel cycle decision-making driven primarily by national strategic interests will likely favor energy security or proliferation resistance issues, whereas decisions driven primarily by commercial or market influences will focus on economic competitiveness

  15. Advanced nuclear fuel cycles - Main challenges and strategic choices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Biez, V. [Corps des Mines, 35 bis rue Saint-Sabin, F-75011 Paris (France); Machiels, A.; Sowder, A. [Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. 3420, Hillview Avenue, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    A graphical conceptual model of the uranium fuel cycles has been developed to capture the present, anticipated, and potential (future) nuclear fuel cycle elements. The once-through cycle and plutonium recycle in fast reactors represent two basic approaches that bound classical options for nuclear fuel cycles. Chief among these other options are mono-recycling of plutonium in thermal reactors and recycling of minor actinides in fast reactors. Mono-recycling of plutonium in thermal reactors offers modest savings in natural uranium, provides an alternative approach for present-day interim management of used fuel, and offers a potential bridging technology to development and deployment of future fuel cycles. In addition to breeder reactors' obvious fuel sustainability advantages, recycling of minor actinides in fast reactors offers an attractive concept for long-term management of the wastes, but its ultimate value is uncertain in view of the added complexity in doing so,. Ultimately, there are no simple choices for nuclear fuel cycle options, as the selection of a fuel cycle option must reflect strategic criteria and priorities that vary with national policy and market perspectives. For example, fuel cycle decision-making driven primarily by national strategic interests will likely favor energy security or proliferation resistance issues, whereas decisions driven primarily by commercial or market influences will focus on economic competitiveness.

  16. Effect of Intake Air Filter Condition on Vehicle Fuel Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norman, Kevin M [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL

    2009-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) jointly maintain a fuel economy website (www.fueleconomy.gov), which helps fulfill their responsibility under the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to provide accurate fuel economy information [in miles per gallon (mpg)] to consumers. The site provides information on EPA fuel economy ratings for passenger cars and light trucks from 1985 to the present and other relevant information related to energy use such as alternative fuels and driving and vehicle maintenance tips. In recent years, fluctuations in the price of crude oil and corresponding fluctuations in the price of gasoline and diesel fuels have renewed interest in vehicle fuel economy in the United States. (User sessions on the fuel economy website exceeded 20 million in 2008 compared to less than 5 million in 2004 and less than 1 million in 2001.) As a result of this renewed interest and the age of some of the references cited in the tips section of the website, DOE authorized the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Fuels, Engines, and Emissions Research Center (FEERC) to initiate studies to validate and improve these tips. This report documents a study aimed specifically at the effect of engine air filter condition on fuel economy. The goal of this study was to explore the effects of a clogged air filter on the fuel economy of vehicles operating over prescribed test cycles. Three newer vehicles (a 2007 Buick Lucerne, a 2006 Dodge Charger, and a 2003 Toyota Camry) and an older carbureted vehicle were tested. Results show that clogging the air filter has no significant effect on the fuel economy of the newer vehicles (all fuel injected with closed-loop control and one equipped with MDS). The engine control systems were able to maintain the desired AFR regardless of intake restrictions, and therefore fuel consumption was not increased. The carbureted engine did show a decrease in

  17. Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle Transitions: Optimization, Modeling Choices, and Disruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Robert W.

    Many nuclear fuel cycle simulators have evolved over time to help understan the nuclear industry/ecosystem at a macroscopic level. Cyclus is one of th first fuel cycle simulators to accommodate larger-scale analysis with it liberal open-source licensing and first-class Linux support. Cyclus also ha features that uniquely enable investigating the effects of modeling choices o fuel cycle simulators and scenarios. This work is divided into thre experiments focusing on optimization, effects of modeling choices, and fue cycle uncertainty. Effective optimization techniques are developed for automatically determinin desirable facility deployment schedules with Cyclus. A novel method fo mapping optimization variables to deployment schedules is developed. Thi allows relationships between reactor types and scenario constraints to b represented implicitly in the variable definitions enabling the usage o optimizers lacking constraint support. It also prevents wasting computationa resources evaluating infeasible deployment schedules. Deployed power capacit over time and deployment of non-reactor facilities are also included a optimization variables There are many fuel cycle simulators built with different combinations o modeling choices. Comparing results between them is often difficult. Cyclus flexibility allows comparing effects of many such modeling choices. Reacto refueling cycle synchronization and inter-facility competition among othe effects are compared in four cases each using combinations of fleet of individually modeled reactors with 1-month or 3-month time steps. There are noticeable differences in results for the different cases. The larges differences occur during periods of constrained reactor fuel availability This and similar work can help improve the quality of fuel cycle analysi generally There is significant uncertainty associated deploying new nuclear technologie such as time-frames for technology availability and the cost of buildin advanced reactors

  18. Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles for the 3rd millenniums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahmy, F.H.

    2006-01-01

    As the world population increases, so does the demand for transportation. Automobiles, being the most common means of transportation are on of the main sources pollution. Therefore, in order to meet the needs of society and to protect the environment, scientists began looking for a new solution to this problem. Before they suggested any answers, the scientists first looked at all aspects surrounding the issue. Fuel cell can be promoted energy diversity and a transition to renewable energy sources. This paper presents a new friendly environmental vehicles. The fuel of this vehicles is a renewable sources, solar radiation, PV arrays, electrolyzer, hydrogen and fuel cell. All the results show the capability of vehicle's design with all the details of each main component for several varieties of vehicles for transportation. This new idea realizes clean and healthy environment vehicles

  19. Fuels demand by light vehicles and motorcycles In Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, Jose Manoel Antelo [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the consumption of gasoline, alcohol and natural gas vehicle (NGV) by light vehicles and motorcycles in Brazil. Through the estimation of fleets per consumption class, in an environment influenced by a new engine technology (flex-fuel), this exercise estimates the fleet-elasticity of cars (and motorcycles) powered by gasoline, hydrated alcohol, natural gas vehicle (NGV) and flex-fuel, in addition to the income elasticity within the period from January, 2000 to December, 2008. This paper uses an alternative variable as income proxy and estimates the five different fleets through the combination of vehicles sales and scrapping curves. This paper's conclusion is that given specific issues of the Brazilian fuel market, in special prices and technological innovations, the fleets' equations for the consumption of the three fuels represent in a more significant manner the relationships expected between supply and demand variables than the commonly used functions of prices and income. (author)

  20. Alternative fuels and advanced technology vehicles : issues in Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-13

    Alternative fuels and advanced technology vehicles are seen by proponents as integral to improving urban air quality, decreasing dependence on foreign oil, and reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. However, major barriers especially economics curre...

  1. Alternative Fuel Vehicles: How Do They Really Measure Up?

    Science.gov (United States)

    similar to that of comparable gasoline vehicles. The publication is available in .pdf format through DOE's Alternative Fuels Data Center home page on the World Wide Web. For a hard copy, call the National Alternative

  2. The performances of the LPG-fueled vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    Todays, LPG-fueled vehicles are simply equipped with transformed classical petrol engines. The LPG consumption is greater but the emission of pollutants is greatly reduced (from 40 to 98% for the CO and from 30 to 80% for the HC and NOx, depending on the temperature of use). This short paper summarizes the environmental advantages of the LPG-fueled vehicles and the forthcoming technological evolutions expected in Europe, Japan and the USA. (J.S.)

  3. Estimating Vehicle Fuel Consumption and Emissions Using GPS Big Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Zihan; Tang, Luliang; Kwan, Mei-Po; Zhang, Xia

    2018-03-21

    The energy consumption and emissions from vehicles adversely affect human health and urban sustainability. Analysis of GPS big data collected from vehicles can provide useful insights about the quantity and distribution of such energy consumption and emissions. Previous studies, which estimated fuel consumption/emissions from traffic based on GPS sampled data, have not sufficiently considered vehicle activities and may have led to erroneous estimations. By adopting the analytical construct of the space-time path in time geography, this study proposes methods that more accurately estimate and visualize vehicle energy consumption/emissions based on analysis of vehicles' mobile activities ( MA ) and stationary activities ( SA ). First, we build space-time paths of individual vehicles, extract moving parameters, and identify MA and SA from each space-time path segment (STPS). Then we present an N-Dimensional framework for estimating and visualizing fuel consumption/emissions. For each STPS, fuel consumption, hot emissions, and cold start emissions are estimated based on activity type, i.e., MA , SA with engine-on and SA with engine-off. In the case study, fuel consumption and emissions of a single vehicle and a road network are estimated and visualized with GPS data. The estimation accuracy of the proposed approach is 88.6%. We also analyze the types of activities that produced fuel consumption on each road segment to explore the patterns and mechanisms of fuel consumption in the study area. The results not only show the effectiveness of the proposed approaches in estimating fuel consumption/emissions but also indicate their advantages for uncovering the relationships between fuel consumption and vehicles' activities in road networks.

  4. Alternative Fuel Fleet Vehicle Evaluations | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    delivery, transit, and freight vehicles. Although biodiesel is the most commonly used alternative fuel in Diesel and Biodiesel Renewable diesel is a conventional petroleum diesel substitute produced from alternative to conventional diesel and does not require any vehicle modifications. Biodiesel is an oxygenated

  5. 40 CFR 80.581 - What are the batch testing and sample retention requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... retention requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel fuel, and ECA marine fuel? 80.581 Section...) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel... requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel fuel, and ECA marine fuel? (a) Beginning on June 1...

  6. Strategic alliances for the development of fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruo, Kanehira [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Section of Science and Technology Studies

    1998-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore and describe the current stage of fuel cell vehicle development in the world. One can write three possible future scenarios - an optimistic, a realistic, and a pessimistic scenario: - The optimistic scenario -- The Daimler/Ballard/Ford alliance continues to develop fuel cell stacks and fuel cell vehicle systems as eagerly as they have been doing in recent years. Daimler(/Chrysler)-Benz continues to present its Necar 4, Necar 5, and so on, as planned, and thus keeps Toyota and Honda under severe pressure. Toyota`s and Honda`s real motivation seems to be not to allow Daimler-Benz to be the first to market. Their investment in fuel cell technology will be very large. At the same time, governments and other stake-holders will quickly and in a timely fashion build up infrastructures. We will then see many fuel cell vehicles by 2004. A paradigm shift in automotive technology will have taken place. - The realistic scenario -- Fuel cell vehicles will reach the same level of development by 2004/2005 as pure electric vehicles were at in 1997/1998. This means that fuel cell vehicles will be produced at the rate of several hundred vehicles per year per manufacturer and cost about $40,000 or more, which is still considerably more expensive than ordinary gasoline cars. These fuel cell vehicles will have a performance similar to today`s advanced electric vehicles, e.g., Toyota`s RAV4/EV and Honda`s EV Plus. To go further from this stage to the mass-production stage strong government incentives will be needed. - The pessimistic scenario -- It turns out that fuel cells are not as pure or efficient as in theory and in laboratory experiments. Prices of gasoline and diesel gas continue to be very low. The Californian 10% ZEV Requirement that has been meant to be valid at least ten years from 2003 through 2012 will be suspended or greatly modified. Daimler-Benz, Toyota, and Honda slow down their fuel cell vehicle development activities. No one is

  7. Hydrogen plant module (HPM) and vehicle fueled by same.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    The goal / objective of the project was to design and fabricate hydrogen plant module (HPM) that is capable of producing : hydrogen fuel onboard a vehicle and that obviates one or more of the present issues related to compressed hydrogen fuel : stora...

  8. 40 CFR 80.531 - How are motor vehicle diesel fuel credits generated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are motor vehicle diesel fuel... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel... are motor vehicle diesel fuel credits generated? (a) Generation of credits from June 1, 2006 through...

  9. Fuel cells: a real option for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles propulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Espasandín, Óscar; Leo, Teresa J; Navarro-Arévalo, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    The possibility of implementing fuel cell technology in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) propulsion systems is considered. Potential advantages of the Proton Exchange Membrane or Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEMFC) and Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC), their fuels (hydrogen and methanol), and their storage systems are revised from technical and environmental standpoints. Some operating commercial applications are described. Main constraints for these kinds of fuel cells are analyzed in order to elucidate the viability of future developments. Since the low power density is the main problem of fuel cells, hybridization with electric batteries, necessary in most cases, is also explored.

  10. Fuel Cells: A Real Option for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The possibility of implementing fuel cell technology in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) propulsion systems is considered. Potential advantages of the Proton Exchange Membrane or Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEMFC) and Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC), their fuels (hydrogen and methanol), and their storage systems are revised from technical and environmental standpoints. Some operating commercial applications are described. Main constraints for these kinds of fuel cells are analyzed in order to elucidate the viability of future developments. Since the low power density is the main problem of fuel cells, hybridization with electric batteries, necessary in most cases, is also explored. PMID:24600326

  11. Fuel Cells: A Real Option for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Propulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar González-Espasandín

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of implementing fuel cell technology in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV propulsion systems is considered. Potential advantages of the Proton Exchange Membrane or Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEMFC and Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC, their fuels (hydrogen and methanol, and their storage systems are revised from technical and environmental standpoints. Some operating commercial applications are described. Main constraints for these kinds of fuel cells are analyzed in order to elucidate the viability of future developments. Since the low power density is the main problem of fuel cells, hybridization with electric batteries, necessary in most cases, is also explored.

  12. Regulation on the transport of nuclear fuel materials by vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The regulations applying to the transport of nuclear fuel materials by vehicles, mentioned in the law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors. The transport is for outside of the factories and the site of enterprises by such modes of transport as rail, trucks, etc. Covered are the following: definitions of terms, places of fuel materials handling, loading methods, limitations on mix loading with other cargo, radiation dose rates concerning the containers and the vehicles, transport indexes, signs and indications, limitations on train linkage during transport by rail, security guards, transport of empty containers, etc. together with ordinary rail cargo and so on. (Mori, K.)

  13. Fuel-Efficient Road Vehicle Non-Engine Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The need to address global energy issues, i.e. energy security and climate change, is more urgent than ever. Road vehicles dominate global oil consumption and are one of the fastest growing energy end-uses. This paper studies policies and measures to improve on-road fuel efficiency of vehicles by focusing on energy efficiency of automobile components not generally considered in official fuel efficiency test, namely tyres, cooling technologies and lightings. In this paper, current policies and industry activities on these components are reviewed, fuel saving potential by the components analysed and possible policies to realise the potential recommended.

  14. Possibilities of Using Hydrogen as Motor Vehicle Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravko Bukljaš

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen is the fuel of the future, since it is the element ofwater (H20 whichsun·ounds us and the resources of which areunlimited. First water is divided into hydrogen and oxygen. Thepaper presents the laboratory and industrial methods of obtain·ing hydrogen, types of fuel cells for various purposes, hydrogen-propelled motor vehicles, as well as advantages and drawbacksof hydrogen used as fuel under the conditions that haveto be met in order to use it as propulsion energy for motor vehicles.

  15. Development of wireless vehicle remote control for fuel lid operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, N.; Jadin, M. S.; Najib, M. S.; Mustafa, M.; Azmi, S. N. F.

    2018-04-01

    Nowadays, the evolution of the vehicle technology had made the vehicle especially car to be equipped with a remote control to control the operation of the locking and unlocking system of the car’s door and rear’s bonnet. However, for the fuel or petrol lid, it merely can be opened from inside the car’s cabin by handling the fuel level inside the car’s cabin to open the fuel lid. The petrol lid can be closed by pushing the lid by hand. Due to the high usage of using fuel lever to open the fuel lid when refilling the fuel, the car driver might encounter the malfunction of fuel lid (fail to open) when pushing or pulling the fuel lever. Thus, the main aim of the research is to enhance the operation of an existing car remote control where the car fuel lid can be controlled using two techniques; remote control-based and smartphone-based. The remote control is constructed using Arduino microcontroller, wireless sensors and XCTU software to set the transmitting and receiving parameters. Meanwhile, the smartphone can control the operation of the fuel lid by communicating with Arduino microcontroller which is attached to the fuel lid using Bluetooth sensor to open the petrol lid. In order to avoid the conflict of instruction between wireless systems with the existing mechanical-based system, the servo motor will be employed to release the fuel lid merely after receiving the instruction from Arduino microcontroller and smartphone. As a conclusion, the prototype of the multipurpose vehicle remote control is successfully invented, constructed and tested. The car fuel lid can be opened either using remote control or smartphone in a sequential manner. Therefore, the outcome of the project can be used to serve as an alternative solution to solve the car fuel lid problem even though the problem rarely occurred.

  16. On board fuel processing for using in electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paez, Daniel E.; Marquez, Marco A.

    1999-01-01

    The increase in vehicle population, the emission effects upon the environment, and the growing concern of industrialized nations to reduce oil dependency, are the arguments for the new developments that may change the automobile revolution within the next decades. However, the electricity to move the future vehicles must come from the processing of liquid fuels on board. Liquid fuels such as gasoline have the advantage of having good on-site system for distribution and supply directly to the vehicle and will compete for staying as the energy source of the future. What are the opportunities in R and D and how to take advantage of them are analyzed in this document. Liquid fuel processing technologies and fuel options are also described by PDVSA-INTEVEP

  17. Alternative Fuel Vehicles: The Case of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Vehicles in California Households

    OpenAIRE

    Abbanat, Brian A.

    2001-01-01

    Compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles have been used internationally by fleets and households for decades. The use of CNG vehicles results in less petroleum consumption, and fewer air pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions in most applications. In the United States, the adoption of CNG technology has been slowed by the availability of affordable gasoline and diesel fuel. This study addresses the potential market for CNG vehicles at the consumer level in California. Based on semi-structured pe...

  18. Estimating Vehicle Fuel Consumption and Emissions Using GPS Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zihan Kan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The energy consumption and emissions from vehicles adversely affect human health and urban sustainability. Analysis of GPS big data collected from vehicles can provide useful insights about the quantity and distribution of such energy consumption and emissions. Previous studies, which estimated fuel consumption/emissions from traffic based on GPS sampled data, have not sufficiently considered vehicle activities and may have led to erroneous estimations. By adopting the analytical construct of the space-time path in time geography, this study proposes methods that more accurately estimate and visualize vehicle energy consumption/emissions based on analysis of vehicles’ mobile activities (MA and stationary activities (SA. First, we build space-time paths of individual vehicles, extract moving parameters, and identify MA and SA from each space-time path segment (STPS. Then we present an N-Dimensional framework for estimating and visualizing fuel consumption/emissions. For each STPS, fuel consumption, hot emissions, and cold start emissions are estimated based on activity type, i.e., MA, SA with engine-on and SA with engine-off. In the case study, fuel consumption and emissions of a single vehicle and a road network are estimated and visualized with GPS data. The estimation accuracy of the proposed approach is 88.6%. We also analyze the types of activities that produced fuel consumption on each road segment to explore the patterns and mechanisms of fuel consumption in the study area. The results not only show the effectiveness of the proposed approaches in estimating fuel consumption/emissions but also indicate their advantages for uncovering the relationships between fuel consumption and vehicles’ activities in road networks.

  19. The effect of attitudes on reference-dependent preferences: Estimation and validation for the case of alternative-fuel vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mabit, Stefan Lindhard; Cherchi, Elisabetta; Jensen, Anders Fjendbo

    2015-01-01

    reference-dependent preferences and attitudes together may explain individual choices. In a modelling framework based on a hybrid choice model allowing for both concepts, we investigate how attitudes and reference-dependent preferences interact and how they affect willingness-to-pay measures and demand...... elasticities. Using a data set with stated choices among alternative-fuel vehicles, we see that allowing for reference-dependent preferences improves our ability to explain the stated choices in the data and that the attitude (appreciation of car features) explains part of the preference heterogeneity across...... with varying attitudes and reference values will act differently when affected by policy instruments related to the demand for alternative-fuel vehicles, e.g. subsidies....

  20. 40 CFR 80.592 - What records must be kept by entities in the motor vehicle diesel fuel and diesel fuel additive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in the motor vehicle diesel fuel and diesel fuel additive distribution systems? 80.592 Section 80.592... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA... the motor vehicle diesel fuel and diesel fuel additive distribution systems? (a) Records that must be...

  1. Gas detection for alternate-fuel vehicle facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferree, Steve

    2003-05-01

    Alternative fuel vehicles' safety is driven by local, state, and federal regulations in which fleet owners in key metropolitan [table: see text] areas convert much of their fleet to cleaner-burning fuels. Various alternative fuels are available to meet this requirement, each with its own advantages and requirements. This conversion to alternative fuels leads to special requirements for safety monitoring in the maintenance facilities and refueling stations. A comprehensive gas and flame monitoring system needs to meet the needs of both the user and the local fire marshal.

  2. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. Hybrid Electric Vehicles Icon cost and emissions with a conventional vehicle. Select Fuel/Technology Electric Hybrid Electric Plug-in Hybrid Electric Natural Gas (CNG) Flex Fuel (E85) Biodiesel (B20) Propane (LPG) Next Vehicle Cost

  3. Effects of vehicle type and fuel quality on real world toxic emissions from diesel vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Peter F.; Tibbett, Anne R.; Day, Stuart J.

    Diesel vehicles are an important source of emissions of air pollutants, particularly oxides of nitrogen (NO x), particulate matter (PM), and toxic compounds with potential health impacts including volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as benzene and aldehydes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Current developments in engine design and fuel quality are expected to reduce these emissions in the future, but many vehicles exceed 10 years of age and may make a major contribution to urban pollutant concentrations and related health impacts for many years. In this study, emissions of a range of toxic compounds are reported using in-service vehicles which were tested using urban driving cycles developed for Australian conditions. Twelve vehicles were chosen from six vehicle weight classes and, in addition, two of these vehicles were driven through the urban drive cycle using a range of diesel fuel formulations. The fuels ranged in sulphur content from 24 to 1700 ppm, and in total aromatics from 7.7 to 33 mass%. Effects of vehicle type and fuel composition on emissions are reported. The results show that emissions of these toxic species were broadly comparable to those observed in previous dynamometer and tunnel studies. Emissions of VOCs and smaller PAHs such as naphthalene, which are derived largely from the combustion process, appear to be related, and show relatively little variability when compared with the variability in emissions of aldehydes and larger PAHs. In particular, aldehyde emissions are highly variable and may be related to engine operating conditions. Fuels of lower sulphur and aromatic content did not have a significant influence on emissions of VOCs and aldehydes, but tended to result in lower emissions of PAHs. The toxicity of vehicle exhaust, as determined by inhalation risk and toxic equivalency factor (TEF)-weighted PAH emissions, was reduced with fuels of lower aromatic content.

  4. Advanced PEFC development for fuel cell powered vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawatsu, Shigeyuki

    Vehicles equipped with fuel cells have been developed with much progress. Outcomes of such development efforts include a Toyota fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) using hydrogen as the fuel which was developed and introduced in 1996, followed by another Toyota FCEV using methanol as the fuel, developed and introduced in 1997. In those Toyota FCEVs, a fuel cell system is installed under the floor of each RAV4L, to sports utility vehicle. It has been found that the CO concentration in the reformed gas of methanol reformer can be reduced to 100 ppm in wide ranges of catalyst temperature and gas flow rate, by using the ruthenium (Ru) catalyst as the CO selective oxidizer, instead of the platinum (Pt) catalyst known from some time ago. It has been also found that a fuel cell performance equivalent to that with pure hydrogen can be ensured even in the reformed gas with the carbon monoxide (CO) concentration of 100 ppm, by using the Pt-Ru (platinum ruthenium alloy) electrocatalyst as the anode electrocatalyst of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC), instead of the Pt electrocatalyst known from some time ago.

  5. 40 CFR 80.532 - How are motor vehicle diesel fuel credits used and transferred?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are motor vehicle diesel fuel... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel....532 How are motor vehicle diesel fuel credits used and transferred? (a) Credit use stipulations. Motor...

  6. Oxygen Source for Underwater Vehicle Fuel Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Batton, William

    2002-01-01

    Four successful tests were conducted to demonstrate the usefulness of lithium oxide as a catalyst and manganese as a fuel for the release of oxygen by the decomposition of lithium perchlorate at low temperature...

  7. Calculating the price trajectory of adoption of fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, K.-A. [Technical University of Berlin (Germany). Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Research Centre

    2005-03-01

    How do you model consumer behaviour for disruptive technologies? Technologies that potentially have no antecedents and that, by their very definition, change consumer behaviour patterns? This paper outlines a methodology and results employed during a study to model the consumer willingness to pay for fuel cell vehicles, a potential disruptive innovation (DI). The first part of the study provides a short overview on DI highlighting why the fuel cell family of technologies may represent an upcoming DI. From the post ante study of successful historical disruptive innovations a number of initial rules of adoption' can be sketched. Further narrowing of the focus on economic reasons for adoption provides a framework for which the willingness to pay for the new disruptive technology, such as, here, fuel cell vehicles, can be analysed during different phases of the market. This economic framework is then applied to the potential future market of fuel cell vehicles using information from a model that was built from vehicles during the build years 1994-2002 in the subcompact, compact and luxury class. The results presented in this paper concentrate on the subcompact and compact class of vehicle and supersede the initial results previously published. Finally, there is a short discussion on different pathways that this can be taken forward and used to help in policy decisions. (author)

  8. Alternative Fuel Vehicle Publications | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    vehicle evaluations. Biodiesel Regional Transit District Effect of B20 and Low Aromatic Diesel on Transit Buses Operated on Biodiesel Blends. Kenneth Proc, Robb Barnitt, Robert Hayes, Matthew Ratcliff, and Robert McCormick. (2006) Operating Experience and Teardown Analysis for Engines Operated on Biodiesel

  9. Heel and toe driving on fuel cell vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Tayoung; Chen, Dongmei

    2012-12-11

    A system and method for providing nearly instantaneous power in a fuel cell vehicle. The method includes monitoring the brake pedal angle and the accelerator pedal angle of the vehicle, and if the vehicle driver is pressing both the brake pedal and the accelerator pedal at the same time and the vehicle is in a drive gear, activating a heel and toe mode. When the heel and toe mode is activated, the speed of a cathode compressor is increased to a predetermined speed set-point, which is higher than the normal compressor speed for the pedal position. Thus, when the vehicle brake is removed, the compressor speed is high enough to provide enough air to the cathode, so that the stack can generate nearly immediate power.

  10. Modeling Fuel Choice among Households in Northern Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Hugues Nlom

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to explore economic and socio-demographic factors that influence a household’s probability to switch from firewood to cleaner fuels (kerosene and LPG in northern Cameroon. The paper employs an ordered probit model to construct cooking patterns and fuel choices. Three main cooking sources are considered: firewood, kerosene, and liquefied petroleum gas. Utilized data are derived from a national survey conducted in 2004 by the Cameroonian National Institute of Statistics. The study analyzes the data related to the Sudano-Sahelian agro-ecological zone, which is one of the most affected by land degradation and decertification. While results indicate that there is a potential for a transition from traditional to cleaner fuels in the studied region, this transition is still in its earlier stage. The research demonstrates that firewood and kerosene prices, age of household heads, educational level of household heads and willingness to have a gas cylinder, as well as type of dwelling have a statistically significant impact on fuel-switching decisions.

  11. Single Fuel Concept for Croatian Army Ground Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Spudić

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available During the process of approaching the European associationsand NATO the Republic of Croatia has accepted the singlefuel concept for all ground vehicles of the Croatian Army.Croatia has also undertaken to insure that all aircraft, motorvehicles and equipment with turbo-engines or with pressurizedfuel injection, for participation in NATO and PfP led operationscan • operate using the kerosene-based aviation fuel(NATO F-34. The paper gives a brief overview and the resultsof the earned out activities in the Armed Forces of the Republicof Croatia, the expected behaviour of the motor vehicle andpossible delays caused by the use of kerosene fuel (NATOF-34 as fuel for motor vehicles. The paper also gives the advantagesand the drawbacks of the single fuel concept. By acquiringnew data in the Croatian Armed Forces and experienceexchange with other nations about the method of using fuelF-34, the development of the technologies of engine manufacturingand its vital parts or by introducing new standards in theproductjon of fuels and additives new knowledge will certainlybe acquired for providing logistics support in the area of operations,and its final implementation will be a big step forward forthe Republic of Croatia towards Europe and NATO.

  12. 77 FR 36423 - Labeling Requirements for Alternative Fuels and Alternative Fueled Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ... delivered to the following address: Federal Trade Commission, Office of the Secretary, Room H-113 (Annex N... cell, advanced lean burn, and hybrid motor vehicles) that were added to the definition of ``alternative... legislation (i.e., lean burn, hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles). No comments opposed this approach. Edison...

  13. 40 CFR 80.550 - What is the definition of a motor vehicle diesel fuel small refiner or a NRLM diesel fuel small...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel... vehicle diesel fuel small refiner or a NRLM diesel fuel small refiner under this subpart? (a) A motor...-operational between January 1, 1999, and January 1, 2000, may apply for motor vehicle diesel fuel small...

  14. Landfill gas as vehicle fuel; Deponigas som fordonsbraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjaminsson, Johan; Johansson, Nina; Karlsvaerd, Johan (Grontmij AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-03-15

    technique). Today there are full-scale plants for the PSA while the distillation technology is under development and expected to be on the market within a year. The product gas can be both CBG and LBG. Because of similarities in the physical properties of methane and nitrogen, the methane losses of landfill gas upgrading is relatively high and amounts to 16-23% depending on technology choices. The methane content in the residual gas flow can be used for energy production, possibly after addition of fuel in case that the methane content is too low. Methane losses and electricity demand of the upgrading process corresponds to 25-30% of the energy content in the incoming landfill gas. With the right conditions it is possible to achieve a cost-effective landfill gas upgrading. It requires relatively large landfill gas flows and an important aspect is the treatment of residual gas flows that can be used for energy production, possibly after addition of fuel. While comparing landfill gas upgrading, heat production and combined heat and power production (CHP), the value of vehicle fuel, heat and electricity are very important for the overall economy of each system. An important parameter is also how much of the generated heat that can be sold over the year. In comparison between landfill gas upgrading and digestion gas upgrading, the investment cost is twice as high for landfill gas upgrading as a result of higher operational and capital costs and higher methane losses. When the raw landfill gas is valued low, there is room for higher upgrading costs since the digester gas has a higher production cost. In an example for a landfill gas flow of 750 Nm3/h with a methane content of 46% ( approx30 GWh/year), the landfill gas upgrading cost is estimated to 0.26 SEK/kWh. The conclusion of the completed investigation is that there is already technology available for landfill gas upgrading and the technologies are under rapid development. Still experience in commercial facilities is

  15. Critical factors affecting life cycle assessments of material choice for vehicle mass reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review examines the use of life-cycle assessments (LCAs) to compare different lightweight materials being developed to improve light-duty vehicle fuel economy. Vehicle manufacturers are designing passenger cars and light-duty trucks using lighter weight materials and design ...

  16. Analyzing public awareness and acceptance of alternative fuel vehicles in China: The case of EV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yong; Yu Yifeng; Zou Bai

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze consumers' awareness towards electric vehicle (EV) and examine the factors that are most likely to affect consumers' choice for EV in China. A comprehensive questionnaire survey has been conducted with 299 respondents from various driving schools in Nanjing. Three binary logistic regression models were used to determine the factors that contribute to consumers' acceptance of EVs, their purchase time and their purchase price. The results suggest that: (1)Whether a consumer chooses an EV is significantly influenced by the number of driver's licenses, number of vehicles, government policies and fuel price. (2)The timing of consumers' purchases of an EV is influenced by academic degree, annual income, number of vehicles, government policies, the opinion of peers and tax incentives. (3)The acceptance of purchase price of EVs is influenced by age, academic degree, number of family members, number of vehicles, the opinion of peers, maintenance cost and degree of safety. These findings will help understand consumer's purchase behavior of EVs and have important policy implications related to the promotions of EVs in China. - Highlights: → We survey 299 respondents from various driving schools in Nanjing. → We analyze consumer's awareness towards electric vehicle (EV). → The factors affecting consumers' choice for EV are examined by three binary logistic models. → Factors contributing to consumers' acceptance of EVs, purchase time and purchase price are indicated.

  17. 40 CFR 600.114-08 - Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy... (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy... fuel economy calculations. This section applies to data used for fuel economy labeling under Subpart D...

  18. Clean Cities: AFLEET Measures Impacts of Vehicles and Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-12-01

    AFLEET is a free tool from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that fleet managers can use to quantify the environmental and economic impacts of new fuels and vehicle technologies. The AFLEET factsheet explains how the tool works and how to access it.

  19. Fuels demand by light vehicles and motorcycles In Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, Jose Manoel Antelo [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the consumption of gasoline, alcohol and natural gas vehicle (NGV) by light vehicles and motorcycles in Brazil. Through the estimation of fleets per consumption class, in an environment influenced by a new engine technology (flex-fuel), this exercise estimates the fleet-elasticity of cars (and motorcycles) powered by gasoline, hydrated alcohol, natural gas vehicle (NGV) and flex-fuel, in addition to the income elasticity within the period from January, 2000 to December, 2008. This paper uses an alternative variable as income proxy and estimates the five different fleets through the combination of vehicles sales and scrapping curves. This paper's conclusion is that given specific issues of the Brazilian fuel market, in special prices and technological innovations, the fleets' equations for the consumption of the three fuels represent in a more significant manner the relationships expected between supply and demand variables than the commonly used functions of prices and income. (author)

  20. The KFB Program on Biobased Fuels for Vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    KFB supports research and demonstration projects for bio-based transport fuels, alcohols and biogas. The program started in 1991 and will continue through 1997. The program focuses on heavy vehicles, e.g. buses for public transportation. Projects and intermediate results are described in the brochure. Information is also available at the KFB homepage. //www.kfb.se

  1. Benefits of recent improvements in vehicle fuel economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    For the past several years, we have calculated (on a monthly basis) the average, sales-weighted fuel economy of all light-duty vehicles (cars, pickup trucks, vans, and SUVs) sold in : the U.S. The results indicate that, from October 2007 to September...

  2. Toxicological and performance aspects of oxygenated motor vehicle fuels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    National Research Council Staff; Commission on Life Sciences; Division on Earth and Life Studies; National Research Council; National Academy of Sciences

    ... COMMITTEE ON TOXICOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE ASPECTS OXYGENATED MOTOR VEHICLE FUELS ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES TOXICOLOGY COMMISSION LIFE SCIENCES NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL AND OF BOARD ON AND ON NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1996 i Copyrightoriginal retained, the be not from cannot book, paper original however, for version formatting, authoritative the t...

  3. Analyzing Vehicle Fuel Saving Opportunities through Intelligent Driver Feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, J.; Earleywine, M.; Sparks, W.

    2012-06-01

    Driving style changes, e.g., improving driver efficiency and motivating driver behavior changes, could deliver significant petroleum savings. This project examines eliminating stop-and-go driving and unnecessary idling, and also adjusting acceleration rates and cruising speeds to ideal levels to quantify fuel savings. Such extreme adjustments can result in dramatic fuel savings of over 30%, but would in reality only be achievable through automated control of vehicles and traffic flow. In real-world driving, efficient driving behaviors could reduce fuel use by 20% on aggressively driven cycles and by 5-10% on more moderately driven trips. A literature survey was conducted of driver behavior influences, and pertinent factors from on-road experiments with different driving styles were observed. This effort highlighted important driver influences such as surrounding vehicle behavior, anxiety over trying to get somewhere quickly, and the power/torque available from the vehicle. Existing feedback approaches often deliver efficiency information and instruction. Three recommendations for maximizing fuel savings from potential drive cycle improvement are: (1) leveraging applications with enhanced incentives, (2) using an approach that is easy and widely deployable to motivate drivers, and (3) utilizing connected vehicle and automation technologies to achieve large and widespread efficiency improvements.

  4. Well-to-wheels analysis of fuel-cell vehicle/fuel systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, M.

    2002-01-01

    Major automobile companies worldwide are undertaking vigorous research and development efforts aimed at developing fuel-cell vehicles (FCVs). Proton membrane exchange (PEM)-based FCVs require hydrogen (H(sub 2)) as the fuel-cell (FC) fuel. Because production and distribution infrastructure for H(sub 2) off board FCVs as a transportation fuel does not exist yet, researchers are developing FCVs that can use hydrocarbon fuels, such as methanol (MeOH) and gasoline, for onboard production of H(sub 2) via fuel processors. Direct H(sub 2) FCVs have no vehicular emissions, while FCVs powered by hydrocarbon fuels have near-zero emissions of criteria pollutants and some carbon dioxide (CO(sub 2)) emissions. However, production of H(sub 2) can generate a large amount of emissions and suffer significant energy losses. A complete evaluation of the energy and emission impacts of FCVs requires an analysis of energy use and emissions during all stages, from energy feedstock wells to vehicle wheels-a so-called ''well-to-wheels'' (WTW) analysis. This paper focuses on FCVs powered by several transportation fuels. Gasoline vehicles (GVs) equipped with internal combustion engines (ICEs) are the baseline technology to which FCVs are compared. Table 1 lists the 13 fuel pathways included in this study. Petroleum-to-gasoline (with 30-ppm sulfur[S] content) is the baseline fuel pathway for GVs

  5. Vehicle choices for teenage drivers: A national survey of U.S. parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelberger, Angela H; Teoh, Eric R; McCartt, Anne T

    2015-12-01

    Previous research has shown that many newly licensed teenagers in the United States are driving vehicles with inferior crash protection. The objective of this study was to update and extend previous research on U.S. parents' choices of vehicles for their teenagers. Telephone surveys were conducted with parents in May 2014 using a random sample of U.S. households likely to include teenagers. Participation was restricted to parents or guardians of teenagers who lived in the household and held either an intermediate or full driver's license. Parents were interviewed about the vehicle their teenager drives, the reason they chose the vehicle for their teenager, and the cost of purchased vehicles. Teenagers most often were driving 2000-06 model year vehicles (41%), with 30% driving a more recent model year and 19% driving an older model year. Teenagers most often were driving midsize or large cars (27%), followed by SUVs (22%), mini or small cars (20%), and pickups (14%). Far fewer were driving minivans (6%) or sports cars (1%). Forty-three percent of the vehicles driven by teenagers were purchased when the teenager started driving or later. A large majority (83%) were used vehicles. The median cost of the vehicles purchased was $5300, and the mean purchase price was $9751. Although parents report that the majority of teenagers are driving midsize or larger vehicles, many of these vehicles likely do not have key safety features, such as electronic stability control, which would be especially beneficial for teenage drivers. Many teenagers were driving older model year vehicles or vehicle types or sizes that are not ideal for novice drivers. Parents, and their teenage drivers, may benefit from consumer information about optimal vehicle choices for teenagers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of reformulated fuels on motor vehicle emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchstetter, Thomas

    Motor vehicles continue to be an important source of air pollution. Increased vehicle travel and degradation of emission control systems have offset some of the effects of increasingly stringent emission standards and use of control technologies. A relatively new air pollution control strategy is the reformulation of motor vehicle fuels, both gasoline and diesel, to make them cleaner- burning. Field experiments in a heavily traveled northern California roadway tunnel revealed that use of oxygenated gasoline reduced on-road emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) by 23 +/- 6% and 19 +/- 8%, respectively, while oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions were not significantly affected. The introduction of reformulated gasoline (RFG) in California led to large changes in gasoline composition including decreases in alkene, aromatic, benzene, and sulfur contents, and an increase in oxygen content. The combined effects of RFG and fleet turnover between summers 1994 and 1997 were decreases in on-road vehicle exhaust emissions of CO, non-methane VOC, and NOx by 31 +/- 5, 43 +/- 8, and 18 +/- 4%, respectively. Although it was difficult to separate the fleet turnover and RFG contributions to these changes, it was clear that the effect of RFG was greater for VOC than for NOx. The RFG effect on exhaust emissions of benzene was a 30-40% reduction. Use of RFG reduced the reactivity of liquid gasoline and gasoline headspace vapors by 23 and 19%, respectively. Increased use of methyl tert-butyl ether in gasoline led to increased concentrations of highly reactive formaldehyde and isobutene in vehicle exhaust. As a result, RFG reduced the reactivity of exhaust emissions by only about 5%. Per unit mass of fuel burned, heavy-duty diesel trucks emit about 25 times more fine particle mass and 15-20 times the number of fine particles compared to light-duty vehicles. Exhaust fine particle emissions from heavy-duty diesels contain more black carbon than particulate

  7. A choice experiment on fuel taxation and earmarking in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saelen, Haakon; Kallbekken, Steffen

    2010-07-01

    Pigouvian taxes are efficient - but unpopular among voters. Earmarking of revenues has been widely reported to increase support for taxes, but this practice represents a deviation from optimal policy design. This trade-off between efficiency and political feasibility is the inspiration for this paper's attempt to quantify the effect of earmarking on voter support for fuel tax rises. Another aim of the paper is to investigate why earmarking increases support. The study estimates models of voter preferences for fuel taxes based on data are collected through a choice experiment conducted on a sample of 1177 respondents representative of the Norwegian voter population, and fitted using logistic regression models. The results show that earmarking the revenues for environmental measures has a substantial effect on voter support for fuel tax increases, garnering a majority for increases of up to 20 per cent above present levels. Earmarking the additional revenue for income redistribution does not result in a majority for any increase. Further analysis indicates that a prime reason why earmarking for environmental measures is popular is that it increases the perceived environmental effectiveness of the tax, and hence its legitimacy as an environmental rather than a fiscal policy. (Author)

  8. 40 CFR 80.524 - What sulfur content standard applies to motor vehicle diesel fuel downstream of the refinery or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to motor vehicle diesel fuel downstream of the refinery or importer? 80.524 Section 80.524 Protection... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel Standards and Requirements § 80.524 What sulfur content standard...

  9. Primer on Motor Fuel Excise Taxes and the Role of Alternative Fuels and Energy Efficient Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Alex [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-08-26

    Motor fuel taxes were established to finance our nation’s transportation infrastructure, yet evolving economic, political, and technological influences are constraining this ability. At the federal level, the Highway Trust Fund (HTF), which is primarily funded by motor fuel taxes, has become increasingly dependent on general fund contributions and short-term reauthorizations to prevent insolvency. As a result, there are discussions at both the federal and state levels in which stakeholders are examining the future of motor fuel excise taxes as well as the role of electric and alternative fuel vehicles in that future. On July 1, 2015, six states increased their motor fuel tax rates.

  10. Gasoline Ultra Efficient Fuel Vehicle with Advanced Low Temperature Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Confer, Keith [Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC, Troy, MI (United States)

    2014-12-18

    The objective of this program was to develop, implement and demonstrate fuel consumption reduction technologies which are focused on reduction of friction and parasitic losses and on the improvement of thermal efficiency from in-cylinder combustion. The program was executed in two phases. The conclusion of each phase was marked by an on-vehicle technology demonstration. Phase I concentrated on short term goals to achieve technologies to reduce friction and parasitic losses. The duration of Phase I was approximately two years and the target fuel economy improvement over the baseline was 20% for the Phase I demonstration. Phase II was focused on the development and demonstration of a breakthrough low temperature combustion process called Gasoline Direct- Injection Compression Ignition (GDCI). The duration of Phase II was approximately four years and the targeted fuel economy improvement was 35% over the baseline for the Phase II demonstration vehicle. The targeted tailpipe emissions for this demonstration were Tier 2 Bin 2 emissions standards.

  11. The importance of vehicle costs, fuel prices, and fuel efficiency to HEV market success.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santini, D. J.; Patterson, P. D.; Vyas, A. D.

    1999-12-08

    Toyota's introduction of a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) named ''Prius'' in Japan and Honda's proposed introduction of an HEV in the United States have generated considerable interest in the long-term viability of such fuel-efficient vehicles. A performance and cost projection model developed entirely at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is used here to estimate costs. ANL staff developed fuel economy estimates by extending conventional vehicle (CV) modeling done primarily under the National Cooperative Highway Research Program. Together, these estimates are employed to analyze dollar costs vs. benefits of two of many possible HEV technologies. We project incremental costs and fuel savings for a Prius-type low-performance hybrid (14.3 seconds zero to 60 mph acceleration, 260 time) and a higher-performance ''mild'' hybrid vehicle, or MHV (11 seconds 260 time). Each HEV is compared to a U.S. Toyota Corolla with automatic transmission (11 seconds 260 time). The base incremental retail price range, projected a decade hence, is $3,200-$3,750, before considering battery replacement cost. Historical data are analyzed to evaluate the effect of fuel price on consumer preferences for vehicle fuel economy, performance, and size. The relationship between fuel price, the level of change in fuel price, and consumer attitude toward higher fuel efficiency is also evaluated. A recent survey on the value of higher fuel efficiency is presented and U.S. commercial viability of the hybrids is evaluated using discount rates of 2090 and 870. Our analysis, with our current HEV cost estimates and current fuel savings estimates, implies that the U.S. market for such HEVS would be quite limited.

  12. 40 CFR 69.52 - Non-motor vehicle diesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Non-motor vehicle diesel fuel. 69.52... (CONTINUED) SPECIAL EXEMPTIONS FROM REQUIREMENTS OF THE CLEAN AIR ACT Alaska § 69.52 Non-motor vehicle diesel... NRLM diesel fuel. (5) Exempt NRLM diesel fuel and heating oil must be segregated from motor vehicle...

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Signage for Plug-In Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Signage for Plug-In Electric Vehicle Charging Stations to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Signage for Plug-In Electric Vehicle Charging Stations on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Signage for Plug-In Electric Vehicle

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center: How Do Diesel Vehicles Work Using Biodiesel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesel Vehicles Work Using Biodiesel? to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: How Do Diesel Vehicles Work Using Biodiesel? on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: How Do Diesel Vehicles Work Using Biodiesel? on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: How Do

  15. 77 FR 47043 - Work Group on Measuring Systems for Electric Vehicle Fueling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ... Systems for Electric Vehicle Fueling AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology, Commerce... electric vehicle fuel. There is no cost for participating in the Work Group. No proprietary information... and sell electricity dispensed as a vehicle fuel) and to ensure that the prescribed methodologies and...

  16. Taxation on vehicle fuels: its impacts on switching to cleaner fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, W.-T.

    2006-01-01

    Vehicular consumption of fossil fuel contributes over 90% of air pollution in Hong Kong. A key strategy to improve Hong Kong's air quality is to discourage dirty fuels (e.g., leaded petrol and high-sulphur diesel) and to promote the use of clean fuels (e.g., low-sulphur diesel and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)). This paper presents the empirical evidence on the effectiveness of the Government's clean fuel programs that offer tax subsidy to lower the consumption cost of such fuels. For the cases of unleaded petrol and ultra-low-sulphur diesel, lower fuel duties were offered so that the prices of these fuels were below those of leaded petrol and conventional diesel. Conventional petrol and diesel were phased out. In order to decide on the level of fuel duty concessions required to introduce LPG for taxis and bio-diesel for other vehicles, various Government-run trial programs were introduced to obtain cost estimates of using these alternative cleaner fuels. LPG using vehicles were subsequently exempted from the fuel duty in order to attract taxi and light bus operators to switch to LPG. It is apparent that the higher the subsidy, the faster is the rate at which switching to cleaner fuels takes place

  17. Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles: Drivers and Impacts of Adoption.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levinson, Rebecca Sobel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); West, Todd H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Manley, Dawn K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-11-01

    We present scenario and parametric analyses of the US light duty vehicle (LDV) stock, sim- ulating the evolution of the stock in order to assess the potential role and impacts of fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs). The analysis probes the competition of FCEVs with other LDVs and the effects of FCEV adoption on LDV fuel use and emissions. We parameterize commodity and technology prices in order to explore the sensitivities of FCEV sales and emissions to oil, natural gas, battery technology, fuel cell technology, and hydrogen produc- tion prices. We additionally explore the effects of vehicle purchasing incentives for FCEVs, identifying potential impacts and tipping points. Our analyses lead to the following conclu- sions: (1) In the business as usual scenario, FCEVs comprise 7% of all new LDV sales by 2050. (2) FCEV adoption will not substantially impact green house gas emissions without either policy intervention, significant increases in natural gas prices, or technology improve- ments that motivate low carbon hydrogen production. (3) FCEV technology cost reductions have a much greater potential for impact on FCEV sales than hydrogen fuel cost reductions. (4) FCEV purchasing incentives must be both substantial and sustained in order to motivate lasting changes to FCEV adoption.

  18. Emissions deterioration for three alternative fuel vehicle types: Natural gas, ethanol, and methanol vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winebrake, J.J.; Deaton, M.L.

    1997-01-01

    Although there have been several studies examining emissions from in-use alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), little is known about the deterioration of these emissions over vehicle lifetimes and how this deterioration compares with deterioration from conventional vehicles (CVs). This paper analyzes emissions data from 70 AFVs and 70 CVs operating in the federal government fleet to determine whether AFV emissions deterioration differs significantly from CV emissions deterioration. The authors conduct the analysis on three alternative fuel types (natural gas, methanol, and ethanol) and on five pollutants (carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, total hydrocarbons, non-methane hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides). They find that for most cases they studied, deterioration differences are not statistically significant; however, several exceptions suggest that air quality planners and regulators must further analyze AFV emissions deterioration in order to properly include these technologies into broader air quality management schemes

  19. Emissions from Diesel and Gasoline Vehicles Fuelled by Fischer-Tropsch Fuels and Similar Fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ulrik; Lundorff, Peter; Ivarsson, Anders

    2007-01-01

    The described investigation was carried out under the umbrella of IEA Advanced Motor Fuels Agreement. The purpose was to evaluate the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from...... vehicles fuelled by Fischer Tropsch (FT) based diesel and gasoline fuel, compared to the emissions from ordinary diesel and gasoline. The comparison for diesel fuels was based on a literature review, whereas the gasoline comparison had to be based on our own experiments, since almost no references were...... found in this field. In this context measurement according to the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) and the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) were carried out on a chassis dynamometer with a directly injected gasoline vehicle. Experiments were carried out with a reference fuel, a fuel based 70% on FT...

  20. Gasoline-fueled hybrid vs. conventional vehicle emissions and fuel economy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, J.; Bharathan, D.; He, J.; Plotkin, S.; Santini, D.; Vyas, A.

    1999-06-18

    This paper addresses the relative fuel economy and emissions behavior, both measured and modeled, of technically comparable, contemporary hybrid and conventional vehicles fueled by gasoline, in terms of different driving cycles. Criteria pollutants (hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides) are discussed, and the potential emissions benefits of designing hybrids for grid connection are briefly considered. In 1997, Toyota estimated that their grid-independent hybrid vehicle would obtain twice the fuel economy of a comparable conventional vehicle on the Japan 10/15 mode driving cycle. This initial result, as well as the fuel economy level (66 mpg), made its way into the U.S. press. Criteria emissions amounting to one-tenth of Japanese standards were cited, and some have interpreted these results to suggest that the grid-independent hybrid can reduce criteria emissions in the U.S. more sharply than can a conventional gasoline vehicle. This paper shows that the potential of contemporary grid-independent hybrid vehicle technology for reducing emissions and fuel consumption under U.S. driving conditions is less than some have inferred. The importance (and difficulty) of doing test and model assessments with comparable driving cycles, comparable emissions control technology, and comparable performance capabilities is emphasized. Compared with comparable-technology conventional vehicles, grid-independent hybrids appear to have no clear criteria pollutant benefits (or disbenefits). (Such benefits are clearly possible with grid-connectable hybrids operating in zero emissions mode.) However, significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions (i.e., fuel consumption) are possible with hybrid vehicles when they are used to best advantage.

  1. Test analysis and research on static choice reaction ability of commercial vehicle drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lingchao; Wei, Lang; Qiao, Jie; Tian, Shun; Wang, Shengchang

    2017-03-01

    Drivers' choice reaction ability has a certain relation with safe driving. It has important significance to research its influence on traffic safety. Firstly, the paper uses a choice reaction detector developed by research group to detect drivers' choice reaction ability of commercial vehicles, and gets 2641 effective samples. Then by using mathematical statistics method, the paper founds that average reaction time from accident group has no difference with non-accident group, and then introduces a variance rate of reaction time as a new index to replace it. The result shows that the test index choice reaction errors and variance rate of reaction time have positive correlations with accidents. Finally, according to testing results of the detector, the paper formulates a detection threshold with four levels for helping transportation companies to assess commercial vehicles drivers.

  2. Traffic Safety and Vehicle Choice: Quantifying the Effects of the "Arms Race" on American Roads

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Shanjun

    2009-01-01

    The increasing market share of light trucks in the U.S. in recent years has been characterized as an “arms race” where individual purchase of light trucks for better self-protection in collisions nevertheless leads to worse traffic safety for the society. This paper investigates the interrelation between traffic safety and vehicle choice by quantifying the effects of the arms race on vehicle demand, producer performance, and traffic safety. The empirical analysis shows that the accident exter...

  3. Effects of Fuel Type and Fuel Delivery System on Pollutant Emissions of Pride and Samand Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Sarhadi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to study the effect of the type of fuel delivery system (petrol, dedicated or bifuel, the type of consumed fuel (petrol or gas, the portion of consumed fuel and also the duration of dual-fuelling in producing carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and unburned hydrocarbons from Pride and Samand. According to research objectives, data gathering from 2000 vehicles has been done by visiting Hafiz Vehicle Inspection Center every day for 2 months. The results of this survey indicated that although there is no significant difference between various fuel delivery systems in terms of producing the carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and unburned hydrocarbons by Samand, considering the emission amount of carbon dioxide, the engine performance of Pride in bifuel and dedicated state in GTXI and 132 types is more unsatisfactory than that of petrol state by 0.3 and 0.4%, respectively. On the other hand, consuming natural gas increases the amount of carbon monoxide emission in dual- fuel Pride by 0.18% and decreases that in dual-fuel Samand by 1.2%, which signifies the better design of Samand in terms of fuel pumps, used kit type and other engine parts to use this alternative fuel compared to Pride. Since the portion of consumed fuel and also duration of dual-fuelling does not have a significant effect on the amount of output pollutants from the studied vehicles, it can be claimed that the output substances from the vehicle exhaust are more related to the vehicle’s condition than the fuel type.

  4. Incorporating social impact on new product adoption in choice modeing: A case study in green vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Lin; Wang, Mingxian; Chen, Wei; Conzelmann, Guenter

    2014-10-01

    While discrete choice analysis is prevalent in capturing consumer preferences and describing their choice behaviors in product design, the traditional choice modeling approach assumes that each individual makes independent decisions, without considering the social impact. However, empirical studies show that choice is social - influenced by many factors beyond engineering performance of a product and consumer attributes. To alleviate this limitation, we propose a new choice modeling framework to capture the dynamic influence from social networks on consumer adoption of new products. By introducing social influence attributes into a choice utility function, social network simulation is integrated with the traditional discrete choice analysis in a three-stage process. Our study shows the need for considering social impact in forecasting new product adoption. Using hybrid electric vehicles as an example, our work illustrates the procedure of social network construction, social influence evaluation, and choice model estimation based on data from the National Household Travel Survey. Our study also demonstrates several interesting findings on the dynamic nature of new technology adoption and how social networks may influence hybrid electric vehicle adoption. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved

  5. Electric Vehicles - Promoting Fuel Efficiency and Renewable Energy in Danish Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of electric vehicles as energy carrier for renewable energy and fossil fuels, including comparisons with other energy carriers (hydrogen, bio-fuels)......Analysis of electric vehicles as energy carrier for renewable energy and fossil fuels, including comparisons with other energy carriers (hydrogen, bio-fuels)...

  6. 40 CFR 600.006-87 - Data and information requirements for fuel economy vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., motor controller, battery configuration, or other components performed within 2,000 miles prior to fuel... fuel economy vehicles. 600.006-87 Section 600.006-87 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel...

  7. 40 CFR 600.006-08 - Data and information requirements for fuel economy vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... controller, battery configuration, or other components performed within 2,000 miles prior to fuel economy... fuel economy vehicles. 600.006-08 Section 600.006-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel...

  8. Using Fuel Cells to Increase the Range of Battery Electric Vehicles | News

    Science.gov (United States)

    | NREL Using Fuel Cells to Increase the Range of Battery Electric Vehicles Using Fuel Cells to significantly lower capital and lifecycle costs than additional battery capacity alone. And while fuel-cell -Duty Battery Electric Vehicles through the Use of Hydrogen Fuel Cells"-presented at the Society of

  9. Emissions from Diesel and Gasoline Vehicles Fuelled by Fischer-Tropsch Fuels and Similar Fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ulrik; Lundorff, Peter; Ivarsson, Anders

    2007-01-01

    and an alkylate fuel (Aspen), which was taken to be the ultimate formula of FT gasoline. FT based diesel generally showed good emission performance, whereas the FT based gasoline not necessary lead to lower emissions. On the other hand, the Aspen fuel did show many advantages for the emissions from the gasoline...... vehicles fuelled by Fischer Tropsch (FT) based diesel and gasoline fuel, compared to the emissions from ordinary diesel and gasoline. The comparison for diesel fuels was based on a literature review, whereas the gasoline comparison had to be based on our own experiments, since almost no references were...

  10. Vehicle Fuel-Efficiency Choices, Emission Externalities, and Urban Sprawl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Jinwon

    This paper shows that the city where both congestion externalities and externalities from greenhouse gas emissions are corrected by efficient policies is more compact than the laissez-faire equilibrium city. Motivated by recent empirical studies showing a positive relationship between population...

  11. How hybrid-electric vehicles are different from conventional vehicles: the effect of weight and power on fuel consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, C; Kandlikar, M

    2007-01-01

    An increasingly diverse set of hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) is now available in North America. The recent generation of HEVs have higher fuel consumption, are heavier, and are significantly more powerful than the first generation of HEVs. We compare HEVs for sale in the United States in 2007 to equivalent conventional vehicles and determine how vehicle weight and system power affects fuel consumption within each vehicle set. We find that heavier and more powerful hybrid-electric vehicles are eroding the fuel consumption benefit of this technology. Nonetheless, the weight penalty for fuel consumption in HEVs is significantly lower than in equivalent conventional internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs). A 100 kg change in vehicle weight increases fuel consumption by 0.7 l/100 km in ICEVs compared with 0.4 l/100 km in HEVs. When the HEVs are compared with their ICEV counterparts in an equivalence model that differentiates between cars and sports-utility vehicles, the average fuel consumption benefit was 2.7 l/100 km. This analysis further reveals that a HEV which is 100 kg heavier than an identical ICEV would have a fuel consumption penalty of 0.15 l/100 km. Likewise, an increase in the HEV's power by 10 kW results in a fuel consumption penalty of 0.27 l/100 km

  12. The impact of the household decision environment on fuel choice behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kroon, B.; Brouwer, R.; van Beukering, P.J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Consumer preferences for fuels and alternative cookstove technologies in Kenya are examined, focusing on household internal and external determinants driving choice behavior in a choice experiment. The potential for a transition towards cleaner and more efficient fuels and technologies is assessed

  13. How hyperbolic discounting preference affects Chinese consumers’ consumption choice between conventional and electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Tian; Shang, Zhe; Tian, Xin; Wang, Shouyang

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical model and addresses several issues related to life cycle cost analysis to illustrate how time-inconsistent preferences affect consumer choice. The particular case study selects involved consumer choice between a vehicle with high initial acquisition cost but low ownership cost (e.g., an Electric Vehicle, EV) and one with a low initial acquisition cost but high ownership cost (e.g., a conventional Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle, ICEV). To test our theoretical analysis, we conduct an empirical study on how time discounting rates affect consumer choice between ICEVs and EVs with different initial cost ratios. From the survey results, we find that individuals with higher present bias showed irrational purchase behavior even when controlling for wealth level. Specifically, people making some “stronger bias to present” decisions chose higher total cost ICEVs with lower initial cost but higher ownership cost over lower total cost EVs with higher initial cost and lower ownership cost. However, people’s long-term discount is not correlated with irrational vehicle purchase behavior. Furthermore, we study the present bias and long-term discount rate in one scenario and found present bias to be correlated with irrational behavior. - Highlights: • Theoretical model and survey based on psychological experiment are used for study. • Time inconsistency preferences may affect consumers' rational purchasing choice. • Present bias is correlated with irrational behavior, but long-term discount is not.

  14. Consumer Views: Fuel Economy, Plug-in Electric Vehicle Battery Range, and Willingness to Pay for Vehicle Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-05-11

    This presentation includes data captured by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to support the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) research efforts. The data capture consumer views on fuel economy, plug-in electric vehicle battery range, and willingness to pay for advanced vehicle technologies.

  15. 78 FR 32223 - Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ...-OAR-2011-0135; FRL-9818-5] RIN 2060-A0 Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor... extension of the public comment period for the proposed rule ``Control of Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards'' (the proposed rule is hereinafter referred to as...

  16. Batteries and fuel cells for emerging electric vehicle markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Zachary P.; Banham, Dustin; Ye, Siyu; Hintennach, Andreas; Lu, Jun; Fowler, Michael; Chen, Zhongwei

    2018-04-01

    Today's electric vehicles are almost exclusively powered by lithium-ion batteries, but there is a long way to go before electric vehicles become dominant in the global automotive market. In addition to policy support, widespread deployment of electric vehicles requires high-performance and low-cost energy storage technologies, including not only batteries but also alternative electrochemical devices. Here, we provide a comprehensive evaluation of various batteries and hydrogen fuel cells that have the greatest potential to succeed in commercial applications. Three sectors that are not well served by current lithium-ion-powered electric vehicles, namely the long-range, low-cost and high-utilization transportation markets, are discussed. The technological properties that must be improved to fully enable these electric vehicle markets include specific energy, cost, safety and power grid compatibility. Six energy storage and conversion technologies that possess varying combinations of these improved characteristics are compared and separately evaluated for each market. The remainder of the Review briefly discusses the technological status of these clean energy technologies, emphasizing barriers that must be overcome.

  17. 40 CFR 600.207-08 - Calculation and use of vehicle-specific 5-cycle-based fuel economy values for vehicle...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year... for each vehicle under § 600.114-08 and as approved in § 600.008-08 (c), are used to determine vehicle... fuel economy value exists for an electric vehicle configuration, all values for that vehicle...

  18. Technical evaluation and assessment of CNG/LPG bi-fuel and flex-fuel vehicle viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinor, J. E.

    1994-05-01

    This report compares vehicles using compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and combinations of the two in bi-fuel or flex-fuel configurations. Evidence shows that environmental and energy advantages can be gained by replacing two-fuel CNG/gasoline vehicles with two-fuel or flex-fuel systems to be economically competitive, it is necessary to develop a universal CNG/LPG pressure-regulator-injector and engine control module to switch from one tank to the other. For flex-fuel CNG/LPG designs, appropriate composition sensors, refueling pumps, fuel tanks, and vaporizers are necessary.

  19. 40 CFR 80.596 - How is a refinery motor vehicle diesel fuel volume baseline calculated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How is a refinery motor vehicle diesel... Requirements § 80.596 How is a refinery motor vehicle diesel fuel volume baseline calculated? (a) For purposes of this subpart, a refinery's motor vehicle diesel fuel volume baseline is calculated using the...

  20. [Fuel substitution of vehicles by natural gas: Summaries of four final technical reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This report contains summary information on three meetings and highlights of a fourth meeting held by the Society of Automotive Engineers on natural gas fueled vehicles. The meetings covered the following: Natural gas engine and vehicle technology; Safety aspects of alternately fueled vehicles; Catalysts and emission control--Meeting the legislative standards; and LNG--Strengthening the links.

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conversions Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicle Conversions to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicle Conversions on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicle Conversions on Twitter Bookmark Alternative

  2. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid and Electric Vehicles Boom Coast to

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coast Hybrid and Electric Vehicles Boom Coast to Coast to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid and Electric Vehicles Boom Coast to Coast on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid and Electric Vehicles Boom Coast to Coast on Twitter Bookmark Alternative

  3. 49 CFR 571.303 - Standard No. 303; Fuel system integrity of compressed natural gas vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... compressed natural gas vehicles. 571.303 Section 571.303 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... system integrity of compressed natural gas vehicles. S1. Scope. This standard specifies requirements for the integrity of motor vehicle fuel systems using compressed natural gas (CNG), including the CNG fuel...

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center: How Do Bi-fuel Natural Gas Vehicles Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    power vehicle electronics/accessories. Electronic control module (ECM) - (gasoline): The ECM controls ; safeguards the engine from abuse; and detects and troubleshoots problems. Electronic control module (ECM sensors: These monitor the pressure of the fuel supply and relay that information to the electronic

  5. Electric vehicles and renewable energy in the transport sector - energy system consequences. Main focus: Battery electric vehicles and hydrogen based fuel cell vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, L.H.; Jørgensen K.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the project is to analyse energy, environmental and economic aspects of integrating electric vehicles in the future Danish energy system. Consequences of large-scale utilisation of electric vehicles are analysed. The aim is furthermore toillustrate the potential synergistic interplay...... between the utilisation of electric vehicles and large-scale utilisation of fluctuating renewable energy resources, such as wind power. Economic aspects for electric vehicles interacting with a liberalisedelectricity market are analysed. The project focuses on battery electric vehicles and fuel cell...... vehicles based on hydrogen. Based on assumptions on the future technical development for battery electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles on hydrogen, and forthe conventional internal combustion engine vehicles, scenarios are set up to reflect expected options for the long-term development of road transport...

  6. Impact of non-petroleum vehicle fuel economy on GHG mitigation potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luk, Jason M; Saville, Bradley A; MacLean, Heather L

    2016-01-01

    The fuel economy of gasoline vehicles will increase to meet 2025 corporate average fuel economy standards (CAFE). However, dedicated compressed natural gas (CNG) and battery electric vehicles (BEV) already exceed future CAFE fuel economy targets because only 15% of non-petroleum energy use is accounted for when determining compliance. This study aims to inform stakeholders about the potential impact of CAFE on life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, should non-petroleum fuel vehicles displace increasingly fuel efficient petroleum vehicles. The well-to-wheel GHG emissions of a set of hypothetical model year 2025 light-duty vehicles are estimated. A reference gasoline vehicle is designed to meet the 2025 fuel economy target within CAFE, and is compared to a set of dedicated CNG vehicles and BEVs with different fuel economy ratings, but all vehicles meet or exceed the fuel economy target due to the policy’s dedicated non-petroleum fuel vehicle incentives. Ownership costs and BEV driving ranges are estimated to provide context, as these can influence automaker and consumer decisions. The results show that CNG vehicles that have lower ownership costs than gasoline vehicles and BEVs with long distance driving ranges can exceed the 2025 CAFE fuel economy target. However, this could lead to lower efficiency CNG vehicles and heavier BEVs that have higher well-to-wheel GHG emissions than gasoline vehicles on a per km basis, even if the non-petroleum energy source is less carbon intensive on an energy equivalent basis. These changes could influence the effectiveness of low carbon fuel standards and are not precluded by the light-duty vehicle GHG emissions standards, which regulate tailpipe but not fuel production emissions. (letter)

  7. Vehicle Routing Problems with Fuel Consumption and Stochastic Travel Speeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanling Feng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional vehicle routing problems (VRP always assume that the vehicle travel speed is fixed or time-dependent on arcs. However, due to the uncertainty of weather, traffic conditions, and other random factors, it is not appropriate to set travel speeds to fixed constants in advance. Consequently, we propose a mathematic model for calculating expected fuel consumption and fixed vehicle cost where average speed is assumed to obey normal distribution on each arc which is more realistic than the existing model. For small-scaled problems, we make a linear transformation and solve them by existing solver CPLEX, while, for large-scaled problems, an improved simulated annealing (ISA algorithm is constructed. Finally, instances from real road networks of England are performed with the ISA algorithm. Computational results show that our ISA algorithm performs well in a reasonable amount of time. We also find that when taking stochastic speeds into consideration, the fuel consumption is always larger than that with fixed speed model.

  8. 40 CFR 80.552 - What compliance options are available to motor vehicle diesel fuel small refiners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to motor vehicle diesel fuel small refiners? 80.552 Section 80.552 Protection of Environment... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Small Refiner Hardship Provisions § 80.552 What compliance options are available to motor vehicle diesel fuel...

  9. 40 CFR 80.593 - What are the reporting requirements for refiners and importers of motor vehicle diesel fuel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for refiners and importers of motor vehicle diesel fuel subject to temporary refiner relief standards... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive... the reporting requirements for refiners and importers of motor vehicle diesel fuel subject to...

  10. 40 CFR 80.520 - What are the standards and dye requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel? 80.520 Section 80.520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel Standards and Requirements § 80.520 What are the standards and dye requirements for motor vehicle diesel...

  11. The implications of power sector trends for fuel choice and fuel markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raschke, M.G.

    1996-01-01

    Two forces are restructuring the world's electricity industry: commercialization and globalization. Commercialization, the focus of this paper, is the introduction of competition into electric generation and the dissolution of existing government or private electric generating monopolies. The winds of change now sweeping through the electric generating business are altering many old assumptions, one of which is the choice of coal as the preferred baseload fuel. In markets where natural gas is available, and both the gas and the electricity industries have been liberalized and opened to competition, there is a growing tendency for independent power producers to choose gas over coal. As well, technological advances have tended to favour the gas industry. Electricity generation by fuel type is discussed for the United States, United Kingdom, Asia and Australia, as well as the implications for the coal industry. (author). 2 tabs., 11 figs

  12. Purifier-integrated methanol reformer for fuel cell vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jaesung; Kim, Il-soo; Choi, Keun-Sup

    We developed a compact, 3-kW, purifier-integrated modular reformer which becomes the building block of full-scale 30-kW or 50-kW methanol fuel processors for fuel cell vehicles. Our proprietary technologies regarding hydrogen purification by composite metal membrane and catalytic combustion by washcoated wire-mesh catalyst were combined with the conventional methanol steam-reforming technology, resulting in higher conversion, excellent quality of product hydrogen, and better thermal efficiency than any other systems using preferential oxidation. In this system, steam reforming, hydrogen purification, and catalytic combustion all take place in a single reactor so that the whole system is compact and easy to operate. Hydrogen from the module is ultrahigh pure (99.9999% or better), hence there is no power degradation of PEMFC stack due to contamination by CO. Also, since only pure hydrogen is supplied to the anode of the PEMFC stack, 100% hydrogen utilization is possible in the stack. The module produces 2.3 Nm 3/h of hydrogen, which is equivalent to 3 kW when PEMFC has 43% efficiency. Thermal efficiency (HHV of product H 2/HHV of MeOH in) of the module is 89% and the power density of the module is 0.77 kW/l. This work was conducted in cooperation with Hyundai Motor Company in the form of a Korean national project. Currently the module is under test with an actual fuel cell stack in order to verify its performance. Sooner or later a full-scale 30-kW system will be constructed by connecting these modules in series and parallel and will serve as the fuel processor for the Korean first fuel cell hybrid vehicle.

  13. Effects of High Octane Ethanol Blends on Four Legacy Flex-Fuel Vehicles, and a Turbocharged GDI Vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, John F [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); West, Brian H [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Huff, Shean P [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is supporting engine and vehicle research to investigate the potential of high-octane fuels to improve fuel economy. Ethanol has very high research octane number (RON) and heat of vaporization (HoV), properties that make it an excellent spark ignition engine fuel. The prospects of increasing both the ethanol content and the octane number of the gasoline pool has the potential to enable improved fuel economy in future vehicles with downsized, downsped engines. This report describes a small study to explore the potential performance benefits of high octane ethanol blends in the legacy fleet. There are over 17 million flex-fuel vehicles (FFVs) on the road today in the United States, vehicles capable of using any fuel from E0 to E85. If a future high-octane blend for dedicated vehicles is on the horizon, the nation is faced with the classic chicken-and-egg dilemma. If today’s FFVs can see a performance advantage with a high octane ethanol blend such as E25 or E30, then perhaps consumer demand for this fuel can serve as a bridge to future dedicated vehicles. Experiments were performed with four FFVs using a 10% ethanol fuel (E10) with 88 pump octane, and a market gasoline blended with ethanol to make a 30% by volume ethanol fuel (E30) with 94 pump octane. The research octane numbers were 92.4 for the E10 fuel and 100.7 for the E30 fuel. Two vehicles had gasoline direct injected (GDI) engines, and two featured port fuel injection (PFI). Significant wide open throttle (WOT) performance improvements were measured for three of the four FFVs, with one vehicle showing no change. Additionally, a conventional (non-FFV) vehicle with a small turbocharged direct-injected engine was tested with a regular grade of gasoline with no ethanol (E0) and a splash blend of this same fuel with 15% ethanol by volume (E15). RON was increased from 90.7 for the E0 to 97.8 for the E15 blend. Significant wide open throttle and thermal efficiency performance

  14. Methane-fueled vehicles: A promising market for coalbed methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deul, M.

    1993-01-01

    The most acceptable alternative fuel for motor vehicles is compressed natural gas (CNG). An important potential source of such gas is coalbed methane, much of which is now being wasted. Although there are no technological impediments to the use of CNG it has not been adequately promoted for a variety of reasons: structural, institutional and for coalbed gas, legal. The benefits of using CNG fuel are manifold: clean burning, low cost, abundant, and usable in any internal combustion engine. Even though more than 30,000 CNG vehicles are now in use in the U.S.A., they are not readily available, fueling stations are not easily accessible, and there is general apathy on the part of the public because of negligence by such agencies as the Department of Energy, the Department of Transportation and the Environmental Protection Agency. The economic benefits of using methane are significant: 100,000 cubic feet of methane is equivalent to 800 gallons of gasoline. Considering the many millions of cubic feet methane wasted from coal mines conservation and use of this resource is a worthy national goal

  15. Life cycle assessment for next generating vehicles. Feasibility study of alternative fuel vehicles and electric vehicles; Jisedai jidosha no life cycle assessment. Daitai nenryo jidosha oyobi denki jidosha no feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanyu, T; Iida, N [Keio University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    To show environmental assessment of introduction of substitute fuel vehicles is important information to formulate the future vehicles policy. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is put forward to simulate such potential, allows us to state the reduction environmental impacts of substitute vehicles on their total life cycle. The purpose of this study is assessment and analysis of the life cycle CO2 emission for substitute fuel vehicles, such as, alternative fuel vehicles, electric vehicles, and hybrid electric vehicles. 8 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. 16 CFR 309.15 - Posting of non-liquid alternative vehicle fuel rating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... rating. (a) If you are a retailer who offers for sale or sells non-liquid alternative vehicle fuel (other... fuel. If you are a retailer who offers for sale or sells electricity to consumers through an electric... vehicle fuel dispensing system, either by letter or on the delivery ticket or other paper, or by a...

  17. Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles: Resources for Fleet Managers (Clean Cities) (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, A.

    2011-04-01

    A discussion of the tools and resources on the Clean Cities, Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center, and the FuelEconomy.gov Web sites that can help vehicle fleet managers make informed decisions about implementing strategies to reduce gasoline and diesel fuel use.

  18. 40 CFR 600.006-86 - Data and information requirements for fuel economy vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... fuel economy vehicles. 600.006-86 Section 600.006-86 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-General Provisions § 600.006-86 Data and...

  19. 40 CFR 600.006-89 - Data and information requirements for fuel economy vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... fuel economy vehicles. 600.006-89 Section 600.006-89 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-General Provisions § 600.006-89 Data and...

  20. Safety Issues with Hydrogen as a Vehicle Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. C. Cadwallader; J. S. Herring

    1999-09-01

    This report is an initial effort to identify and evaluate safety issues associated with the use of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel in automobiles. Several forms of hydrogen have been considered: gas, liquid, slush, and hydrides. The safety issues have been discussed, beginning with properties of hydrogen and the phenomenology of hydrogen combustion. Safety-related operating experiences with hydrogen vehicles have been summarized to identify concerns that must be addressed in future design activities and to support probabilistic risk assessment. Also, applicable codes, standards, and regulations pertaining to hydrogen usage and refueling have been identified and are briefly discussed. This report serves as a safety foundation for any future hydrogen safety work, such as a safety analysis or a probabilistic risk assessment.

  1. Safety Issues with Hydrogen as a Vehicle Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwallader, Lee Charles; Herring, James Stephen

    1999-10-01

    This report is an initial effort to identify and evaluate safety issues associated with the use of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel in automobiles. Several forms of hydrogen have been considered: gas, liquid, slush, and hydrides. The safety issues have been discussed, beginning with properties of hydrogen and the phenomenology of hydrogen combustion. Safety-related operating experiences with hydrogen vehicles have been summarized to identify concerns that must be addressed in future design activities and to support probabilistic risk assessment. Also, applicable codes, standards, and regulations pertaining to hydrogen usage and refueling have been identified and are briefly discussed. This report serves as a safety foundation for any future hydrogen safety work, such as a safety analysis or a probabilistic risk assessment.

  2. Calibrating the social value of prospective new goods: The case of hydrogen fuel cell electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topel, Robert H.

    2018-01-01

    Economic studies of the value of a new good or product innovation are typically retrospective: after a new good has been developed and marketed to consumers, data on prices and consumer choices can be used to estimate welfare gains. This paper calibrates the prospective welfare gains in the United States from a nascent vehicle platform, fuel cell electric vehicles (FCVs), that may or may not succeed in competition with existing vehicle platforms. Prospective gains are due to three main sources: (1) possibly reduced carbon emissions compared to existing vehicle alternatives; (2) the monopsony benefit to the U.S. from reducing world oil demand and hence the price of oil; (3) national security benefits due to reduced "oil dependence", mitigating the impact of oil price shocks on national income. I find that the benefits of reduced carbon emissions are likely to be quite small because reduced oil demand in the U.S. as only a small impact on world oil consumption and carbon emissions. Net monopsony benefits to U.S. consumers are much larger.

  3. Polymers for hydrogen infrastructure and vehicle fuel systems :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barth, Rachel Reina; Simmons, Kevin L.; San Marchi, Christopher W.

    2013-10-01

    This document addresses polymer materials for use in hydrogen service. Section 1 summarizes the applications of polymers in hydrogen infrastructure and vehicle fuel systems and identifies polymers used in these applications. Section 2 reviews the properties of polymer materials exposed to hydrogen and/or high-pressure environments, using information obtained from published, peer-reviewed literature. The effect of high pressure on physical and mechanical properties of polymers is emphasized in this section along with a summary of hydrogen transport through polymers. Section 3 identifies areas in which fuller characterization is needed in order to assess material suitability for hydrogen service.

  4. Routing strategies for efficient deployment of alternative fuel vehicles for freight delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    With increasing concerns on environmental issues, recent research on Vehicle Routing Problems : (VRP) has added new factors such as greenhouse gas emissions and alternative fuel vehicles into : the models. In this report, we consider one such promisi...

  5. Refueling Infrastructure for Alternative Fuel Vehicles: Lessons Learned for Hydrogen; Workshop Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, M. W.; McQueen, S.; Brinch, J.

    2008-07-01

    DOE sponsored the Refueling Infrastructure for Alternative Fuel Vehicles: Lessons Learned for Hydrogen workshop to understand how lessons from past experiences can inform future efforts to commercialize hydrogen vehicles. This report contains the proceedings from the workshop.

  6. Eco-driving : strategic, tactical, and operational decisions of the driver that improve vehicle fuel economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    "This report presents information about the effects of decisions that a driver can make to : influence on-road fuel economy of light-duty vehicles. These include strategic decisions : (vehicle selection and maintenance), tactical decisions (route sel...

  7. Opportunities for PEM fuel cell commercialization : fuel cell electric vehicle demonstration in Shanghai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Z.F. [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ., Shanghai (China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2006-07-01

    The research and development activities devoted to the development of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) were discussed with reference to its application in the fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV). In the past decade, PEMFC technology has been successfully applied in both the automobile and residential sector worldwide. In China, more than one billion RMB yuan has been granted by the Chinese government to develop PEM fuel cell technology over the past 5 years, particularly for commercialization of the fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV). The City of Shanghai has played a significant role in the FCEV demonstration with involvement by Shanghai Auto Industrial Company (SAIC), Tongji University, Shanghai Jiaotong University, and Shanghai Shenli High Tech Co. Ltd. These participants were involved in the development and integration of the following components into the FCEV: fuel cell engines, batteries, FCEV electric control systems, and primary materials for the fuel cell stack. During the course of the next five year-plan (2006-2010), Shanghai will promote the commercialization of FCEV. More than one thousand FCEVs will be manufactured and an FCEV fleet will be in operation throughout Shanghai City by 2010.

  8. Development of a methanol reformer for fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindstroem, Baard

    2003-03-01

    Vehicles powered by fuel cells are from an environmental aspect superior to the traditional automobile using internal combustion of gasoline. Power systems which are based upon fuel cell technology require hydrogen for operation. The ideal fuel cell vehicle would operate on pure hydrogen stored on-board. However, storing hydrogen on-board the vehicle is currently not feasible for technical reasons. The hydrogen can be generated on-board using a liquid hydrogen carrier such as methanol and gasoline. The objective of the work presented in this thesis was to develop a catalytic hydrogen generator for automotive applications using methanol as the hydrogen carrier. The first part of this work gives an introduction to the field of methanol reforming and the properties of a fuel cell based power system. Paper I reviews the catalytic materials and processes available for producing hydrogen from methanol. The second part of this thesis consists of an experimental investigation of the influence of the catalyst composition, materials and process parameters on the activity and selectivity for the production of hydrogen from methanol. In Papers II-IV the influence of the support, carrier and operational parameters is studied. In Paper V an investigation of the catalytic properties is performed in an attempt to correlate material properties with performance of different catalysts. In the third part of the thesis an investigation is performed to elucidate whether it is possible to utilize oxidation of liquid methanol as a heat source for an automotive reformer. In the study which is presented in Paper VI a large series of catalytic materials are tested and we were able to minimize the noble metal content making the system more cost efficient. In the final part of this thesis the reformer prototype developed in the project is evaluated. The reformer which was constructed for serving a 5 k W{sub e} fuel cell had a high performance with near 100 % methanol conversion and CO

  9. Model and algorithm for bi-fuel vehicle routing problem to reduce GHG emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoli, Behroz; MirHassani, Seyed Ali; Hooshmand, Farnaz

    2017-09-01

    Because of the harmful effects of greenhouse gas (GHG) emitted by petroleum-based fuels, the adoption of alternative green fuels such as biodiesel and compressed natural gas (CNG) is an inevitable trend in the transportation sector. However, the transition to alternative fuel vehicle (AFV) fleets is not easy and, particularly at the beginning of the transition period, drivers may be forced to travel long distances to reach alternative fueling stations (AFSs). In this paper, the utilization of bi-fuel vehicles is proposed as an operational approach. We present a mathematical model to address vehicle routing problem (VRP) with bi-fuel vehicles and show that the utilization of bi-fuel vehicles can lead to a significant reduction in GHG emissions. Moreover, a simulated annealing algorithm is adopted to solve large instances of this problem. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated on some random instances.

  10. 40 CFR 80.527 - Under what conditions may motor vehicle diesel fuel subject to the 15 ppm sulfur standard be...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... vehicle diesel fuel subject to the 15 ppm sulfur standard be downgraded to motor vehicle diesel fuel... Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel Standards and Requirements § 80.527 Under what conditions may motor vehicle diesel fuel subject to the 15...

  11. Fuel-Cell-Powered Vehicle with Hybrid Power Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2010-01-01

    Figure 1 depicts a hybrid electric utility vehicle that is powered by hydrogenburning proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) fuel cells operating in conjunction with a metal hydride hydrogen-storage unit. Unlike conventional hybrid electric vehicles, this vehicle utilizes ultracapacitors, rather than batteries, for storing electric energy. This vehicle is a product of continuing efforts to develop the technological discipline known as hybrid power management (HPM), which is oriented toward integration of diverse electric energy-generating, energy-storing, and energy- consuming devices in optimal configurations. Instances of HPM were reported in five prior NASA Tech Briefs articles, though not explicitly labeled as HPM in the first three articles: "Ultracapacitors Store Energy in a Hybrid Electric Vehicle" (LEW-16876), Vol. 24, No. 4 (April 2000), page 63; "Photovoltaic Power Station With Ultracapacitors for Storage" (LEW- 17177), Vol. 27, No. 8 (August 2003), page 38; "Flasher Powered by Photovoltaic Cells and Ultracapacitors" (LEW-17246), Vol. 27, No. 10 (October 2003), page 37; "Hybrid Power Management" (LEW-17520), Vol. 29, No. 12 (December 2005), page 35; and "Ultracapacitor-Powered Cordless Drill" (LEW-18116-1), Vol. 31, No. 8 (August 2007), page 34. To recapitulate from the cited prior articles: The use of ultracapacitors as energy- storage devices lies at the heart of HPM. An ultracapacitor is an electrochemical energy-storage device, but unlike in a conventional rechargeable electrochemical cell or battery, chemical reactions do not take place during operation. Instead, energy is stored electrostatically at an electrode/electrolyte interface. The capacitance per unit volume of an ultracapacitor is much greater than that of a conventional capacitor because its electrodes have much greater surface area per unit volume and the separation between the electrodes is much smaller.

  12. 40 CFR 600.206-86 - Calculation and use of fuel economy values for gasoline-fueled, diesel, and electric vehicle...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... values for gasoline-fueled, diesel, and electric vehicle configurations. 600.206-86 Section 600.206-86...-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year... values for gasoline-fueled, diesel, and electric vehicle configurations. (a) Fuel economy values...

  13. Effects of alternative-fuel vehicles on air quality in Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantor, I.; Fowler, M.; Hajimiragha, A.; Canizares, C.; Elkamel, A.

    2009-01-01

    The economies of the developed world are increasingly including green technologies and processes that consider social, environmental and economic consequences. Hybrid electric vehicles and other fuel-efficient vehicle types can supply consumers with vehicles that decrease their ecological footprint and reduce the cost of fuel. However, one of the societal concerns often overlooked is the impact of alternative-fuel vehicle usage on the air quality in the urban environment. This paper presented a study that assessed the impact on air quality stemming from the operation of alternative fuel vehicles in urban environments. The study specifically focused on the province-wide emissions in Ontario and urban air pollution in the city of Toronto. The paper considered the life-cycle impacts of using alternative fuels for transportation purposes in terms of six major stressors for climate change, acidification and urban air quality. The two types of vehicles that were studied were plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and fuel cell vehicles. Modeling of the penetration rates for both types of vehicles was completed based on the maximum capacity of the electrical grid including planned improvements. The scope of the study and discussion of health effects was first presented followed by data gathering and usage, methodology, results of supportable penetration and vehicle growth, and pollution abatement results. It was concluded that fuel cell vehicles have an advantage over, or near-equality with, PHEVs in almost every aspect of their emissions. 13 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs

  14. Compact gasoline fuel processor for passenger vehicle APU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severin, Christopher; Pischinger, Stefan; Ogrzewalla, Jürgen

    Due to the increasing demand for electrical power in today's passenger vehicles, and with the requirements regarding fuel consumption and environmental sustainability tightening, a fuel cell-based auxiliary power unit (APU) becomes a promising alternative to the conventional generation of electrical energy via internal combustion engine, generator and battery. It is obvious that the on-board stored fuel has to be used for the fuel cell system, thus, gasoline or diesel has to be reformed on board. This makes the auxiliary power unit a complex integrated system of stack, air supply, fuel processor, electrics as well as heat and water management. Aside from proving the technical feasibility of such a system, the development has to address three major barriers:start-up time, costs, and size/weight of the systems. In this paper a packaging concept for an auxiliary power unit is presented. The main emphasis is placed on the fuel processor, as good packaging of this large subsystem has the strongest impact on overall size. The fuel processor system consists of an autothermal reformer in combination with water-gas shift and selective oxidation stages, based on adiabatic reactors with inter-cooling. The configuration was realized in a laboratory set-up and experimentally investigated. The results gained from this confirm a general suitability for mobile applications. A start-up time of 30 min was measured, while a potential reduction to 10 min seems feasible. An overall fuel processor efficiency of about 77% was measured. On the basis of the know-how gained by the experimental investigation of the laboratory set-up a packaging concept was developed. Using state-of-the-art catalyst and heat exchanger technology, the volumes of these components are fixed. However, the overall volume is higher mainly due to mixing zones and flow ducts, which do not contribute to the chemical or thermal function of the system. Thus, the concept developed mainly focuses on minimization of those

  15. 76 FR 54932 - Revisions and Additions to Motor Vehicle Fuel Economy Label; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ...-AK73 Revisions and Additions to Motor Vehicle Fuel Economy Label; Correction AGENCY: Environmental... regarding labeling of cars and trucks with fuel economy and environmental information in the Federal...

  16. Light-duty vehicle greenhouse gas emission standards and corporate average fuel economy standards : final rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    Final Rule to establish a National Program consisting of new standards for light-duty vehicles that will reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve fuel economy. This joint : Final Rule is consistent with the National Fuel Efficiency Policy announce...

  17. Impact of Solar Control PVB Glass on Vehicle Interior Temperatures, Air-Conditioning Capacity, Fuel Consumption, and Vehicle Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rugh, J.; Chaney, L.; Venson, T.; Ramroth, L.; Rose, M.

    2013-04-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the impact of Saflex1 S-series Solar Control PVB (polyvinyl butyral) configurations on conventional vehicle fuel economy and electric vehicle (EV) range. The approach included outdoor vehicle thermal soak testing, RadTherm cool-down analysis, and vehicle simulations. Thermal soak tests were conducted at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Vehicle Testing and Integration Facility in Golden, Colorado. The test results quantified interior temperature reductions and were used to generate initial conditions for the RadTherm cool-down analysis. The RadTherm model determined the potential reduction in air-conditioning (A/C) capacity, which was used to calculate the A/C load for the vehicle simulations. The vehicle simulation tool identified the potential reduction in fuel consumption or improvement in EV range between a baseline and modified configurations for the city and highway drive cycles. The thermal analysis determined a potential 4.0% reduction in A/C power for the Saflex Solar PVB solar control configuration. The reduction in A/C power improved the vehicle range of EVs and fuel economy of conventional vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

  18. 40 CFR 1051.650 - What special provisions apply for converting a vehicle to use an alternate fuel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... converting a vehicle to use an alternate fuel? 1051.650 Section 1051.650 Protection of Environment... vehicle to use an alternate fuel? A certificate of conformity is no longer valid for a vehicle if the... applies if such modifications are done to convert the vehicle to run on a different fuel type. Such...

  19. An empirical analysis on the adoption of alternative fuel vehicles: The case of natural gas vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, Sonia

    2007-01-01

    The adoption of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) has been regarded as one of the most important strategies to address the issues of energy dependence, air quality, and, more recently, climate change. Despite decades of effort, we still face daunting challenges to promote wider acceptance of AFVs by the general public. More empirical analyses are needed to understand the technology adoption process associated with different market structures, the effectiveness of regulations and incentives, and the density of infrastructure adequate to reach sustainable commercial application. This paper compares the adoption of natural gas vehicles (NGVs) in eight countries: Argentina, Brazil, China, India, Italy, New Zealand, Pakistan, and the US. It examines the major policies aimed at promoting the use of NGVs, instruments for implementing those policies and targeting likely stakeholders, and a range of factors that influence the adoption of NGVs. The findings in this paper should be applicable to other AFVs

  20. Increasing the Fuel Economy and Safety of New Light-DutyVehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Tom; Ross, Marc

    2006-09-18

    One impediment to increasing the fuel economy standards forlight-duty vehicles is the long-standing argument that reducing vehiclemass to improve fuel economy will inherently make vehicles less safe.This technical paper summarizes and examines the research that is citedin support of this argument, and presents more recent research thatchallenges it. We conclude that the research claiming that lightervehicles are inherently less safe than heavier vehicles is flawed, andthat other aspects of vehicle design are more important to the on-roadsafety record of vehicles. This paper was prepared for a workshop onexperts in vehicle safety and fuel economy, organized by the William andFlora Hewlett Foundation, to discuss technologies and designs that can betaken to simultaneously improve vehicle safety and fuel economy; theworkshop was held in Washington DC on October 3, 2006.

  1. Reforming petroleum-based fuels for fuel cell vehicles : composition-performance relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopasz, J. P.; Miller, L. E.; Ahmed, S.; Devlin, P. R.; Pacheco, M.

    2001-01-01

    Onboard reforming of petroleum-based fuels, such as gasoline, may help ease the introduction of fuel cell vehicles to the marketplace. Although gasoline can be reformed, it is optimized to meet the demands of ICEs. This optimization includes blending to increase the octane number and addition of oxygenates and detergents to control emissions. The requirements for a fuel for onboard reforming to hydrogen are quite different than those for combustion. Factors such as octane number and flame speed are not important; however, factors such as hydrogen density, catalyst-fuel interactions, and possible catalyst poisoning become paramount. In order to identify what factors are important in a hydrocarbon fuel for reforming to hydrogen and what factors are detrimental, we have begun a program to test various components of gasoline and blends of components under autothermal reforming conditions. The results indicate that fuel composition can have a large effect on reforming behavior. Components which may be beneficial for ICEs for their octane enhancing value were detrimental to reforming. Fuels with high aromatic and naphthenic content were more difficult to reform. Aromatics were also found to have an impact on the kinetics for reforming of paraffins. The effects of sulfur impurities were dependent on the catalyst. Sulfur was detrimental for Ni, Co, and Ru catalysts. Sulfur was beneficial for reforming with Pt catalysts, however, the effect was dependent on the sulfur concentration

  2. A Range-Based Vehicle Life Cycle Assessment Incorporating Variability in the Environmental Assessment of Different Vehicle Technologies and Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Messagie

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available How to compare the environmental performance of different vehicle technologies? Vehicles with lower tailpipe emissions are perceived as cleaner. However, does it make sense to look only to tailpipe emissions? Limiting the comparison only to these emissions denies the fact that there are emissions involved during the production of a fuel and this approach gives too much advantage to zero-tailpipe vehicles like battery electric vehicles (BEV and fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV. Would it be enough to combine fuel production and tailpipe emissions? Especially when comparing the environmental performance of alternative vehicle technologies, the emissions during production of the specific components and their appropriate end-of-life treatment processes should also be taken into account. Therefore, the complete life cycle of the vehicle should be included in order to avoid problem shifting from one life stage to another. In this article, a full life cycle assessment (LCA of petrol, diesel, fuel cell electric (FCEV, compressed natural gas (CNG, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG, hybrid electric, battery electric (BEV, bio-diesel and bio-ethanol vehicles has been performed. The aim of the manuscript is to investigate the impact of the different vehicle technologies on the environment and to develop a range-based modeling system that enables a more robust interpretation of the LCA results for a group of vehicles. Results are shown for climate change, respiratory effects, acidification and mineral extraction damage of the different vehicle technologies. A broad range of results is obtained due to the variability within the car market. It is concluded that it is essential to take into account the influence of all the vehicle parameters on the LCA results.

  3. Developments in batteries and fuel cells for electric and hybrid electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, R.

    2013-01-01

    Due to ever increasing threats of climate change, urban air pollution and costly and depleting oil and gas sources a lot of work is being done for the development of electric vehicles. Hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and all electric vehicles are powered by batteries or by hydrogen and fuel cells are the main types of vehicles being developed. Main types of batteries which can be used for electric vehicles are lead-acid, Ni-Cd, Nickel-Metal-Hybrid ( NiMH) and Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries which are discussed and compared. Lithium ion battery is the mostly used battery. Developments in the lithium ion batteries are discussed and reviewed. Redox flow batteries are also potential candidates for electric vehicles and are described. Hybrid electric vehicles can reduce fuel consumption considerably and is a good midterm solution. Electric and hybrid electric vehicles are discussed. Electric vehicles are necessary to mitigate the effects of pollution and dependence on oil. For all the electric vehicles there are two options: batteries and fuel Cells. Batteries are useful for small vehicles and shorter distances but for vehicle range greater than 150 km fuel cells are superior to batteries in terms of cost, efficiency and durability even using natural gas and other fuels in addition to hydrogen. Ultimate solution for electric vehicles are hydrogen and fuel cells and this opinion is also shared by most of the automobile manufacturers. Developments in fuel cells and their applications for automobiles are described and reviewed. Comparisons have been done in the literature between batteries and fuel cells and are described. (author)

  4. Evaluation Framework for Alternative Fuel Vehicles: Sustainable Development Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Shang Chang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Road transport accounts for 72.06% of total transport CO2, which is considered a cause of climate change. At present, the use of alternative fuels has become a pressing issue and a significant number of automakers and scholars have devoted themselves to the study and subsequent development of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs. The evaluation of AFVs should consider not only air pollution reduction and fuel efficiency but also AFV sustainability. In general, the field of sustainable development is subdivided into three areas: economic, environmental, and social. On the basis of the sustainable development perspective, this study presents an evaluation framework for AFVs by using the DEMATEL-based analytical network process. The results reveal that the five most important criteria are price, added value, user acceptance, reduction of hazardous substances, and dematerialization. Price is the most important criterion because it can improve the popularity of AFVs and affect other criteria, including user acceptance. Additional, the energy usage criterion is expected to significantly affect the sustainable development of AFVs. These results should be seriously considered by automakers and governments in developing AFVs.

  5. Improved Accelerated Stress Tests Based on Fuel Cell Vehicle Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, Timothy [Research Engineer; Motupally, Sathya [Research Engineer

    2012-06-01

    UTC will led a top-tier team of industry and national laboratory participants to update and improve DOE’s Accelerated Stress Tests (AST’s) for hydrogen fuel cells. This in-depth investigation will focused on critical fuel cell components (e.g. membrane electrode assemblies - MEA) whose durability represented barriers for widespread commercialization of hydrogen fuel cell technology. UTC had access to MEA materials that had accrued significant load time under real-world conditions in PureMotion® 120 power plant used in transit buses. These materials are referred to as end-of-life (EOL) components in the rest of this document. Advanced characterization techniques were used to evaluate degradation mode progress using these critical cell components extracted from both bus power plants and corresponding materials tested using the DOE AST’s. These techniques were applied to samples at beginning-of-life (BOL) to serve as a baseline. These comparisons advised the progress of the various failure modes that these critical components were subjected to, such as membrane degradation, catalyst support corrosion, platinum group metal dissolution, and others. Gaps in the existing ASTs predicted the degradation observed in the field in terms of these modes were outlined. Using the gaps, new AST’s were recommended and tested to better reflect the degradation modes seen in field operation. Also, BOL components were degraded in a test vehicle at UTC designed to accelerate the bus field operation.

  6. Regional environmental impacts of methanol-fueled vehicles. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belian, T.; Morris, R.E.; Ligocki, M.P.; Whitten, G.Z.

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to obtain, through simulation modeling, preliminary estimates of the regional environmental impacts methanol-fueled vehicles and to estimate the sensitivity of the model to important parameters and assumptions that affect the calculation of the impacts. The regional environmental effects of the use of M85 fuel (85 percent methanol and 15 percent gasoline) and M100 (neat methanol) relative to gasoline (an indoline blend) were estimated using a Lagrangian (trajectory) acid deposition model. The Comprehensive Chemistry Acid Deposition Model (CCADM), contains a detailed treatment of gas-phase and aqueous-phase chemistry and associated mass transfer, but provides for a less comprehensive representation of advection and diffusion. Two different meteorological regimes were analyzed: clear sky conditions and cloudy skies with a rain event. The study also included a review of gas- and aqueous-phase chemistry, with particular emphasis on methanol. The CCADM chemical mechanism was updated to include state-of-the-science (as of 1990) gas- and aqueous-phase chemistry including methanol chemistry. The CCADM was then used to analyze the regional environmental impacts from the use of methanol fuels. In performing such an analysis it was necessary to make several assumptions. The sensitivity of the analysis was examined through a series of simulations that varied key input parameters within their ranges of uncertainty

  7. Fuel conservation and GHG (Greenhouse gas) emissions mitigation scenarios for China’s passenger vehicle fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Han; Wang, Hewu; Ouyang, Minggao

    2011-01-01

    Passenger vehicles are the main consumers of gasoline in China. We established a bottom-up model which focuses on the simulation of energy consumptions and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions growth by China’s passenger vehicle fleet. The fuel conservation and GHG emissions mitigation effects of five measures including constraining vehicle registration, reducing vehicle travel, strengthening fuel consumption rate (FCR) limits, vehicle downsizing and promoting electric vehicle (EV) penetration were evaluated. Based on the combination of these measures, the fuel conservation and GHG emissions mitigation scenarios for China’s passenger vehicle fleet were analyzed. Under reference scenario with no measures implemented, the fuel consumptions and life cycle GHG emissions will reach 520 million tons of oil equivalent (Mtoe) and 2.15 billion tons in 2050, about 8.1 times the level in 2010. However, substantial fuel conservation can be achieved by implementing the measures. By implementing all five measures together, the fuel consumption will reach 138 Mtoe in 2030 and decrease to 126 Mtoe in 2050, which is only 37.1% and 24.3% of the consumption under reference scenario. Similar potential lies in GHG mitigation. The results and scenarios provided references for the Chinese government’s policy-making. -- Highlights: ► We established a bottom-up model to simulate the fuel consumptions and GHG (Greenhouse gas) emissions growth by China’s passenger vehicle fleet. ► Five measures including constraining vehicle registration, reducing vehicle travel, improving fuel efficiency, vehicle downsizing and promoting EV penetration were evaluated. ► The fuel conservation and GHG emissions mitigation scenarios for China’s passenger vehicle fleet were provided as references for policy-making.

  8. Effect of energy taxation on fuel choice and emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leino, P.; Kosunen, P.; Rauhamaeki, J.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the project was to study how various tax models for power plant fuels affect the fuel consumption and emissions of particles, sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen oxide (NO x ) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). First, the development of Finnish energy taxation is discussed, followed by a survey of the energy production structure for 1994. For this purpose, it was necessary to prepare a large boiler database, which covers about 95 % of the fuel consumption of Finnish energy production. The boiler database was used to calculate the emissions of particles, SO 2 , NO x and CO 2 in 1994. The year 2010 selected under review is the year by which the Ministry of Trade and Industry has prepared their primary energy consumption estimates. Four different alternatives were studied as future tax models. In the first alternative taxation would be as it in years 1995-1996 and in the second alternative taxation would be as in January 1997. In the third alternative the Finnish application of EU taxes would be in force in full, i.e., the tax on heavy fuel oil would be 10 US dollars a barrel. In the fourth alternative there would be no taxes on fuels. The boiler database was used to find out how the consumption distribution of the fuels used in 2010 would change in the various tax models. The tax models affect most the position of fuel peat and natural gas in Finland. If the EU alternative, which is favourable for fuel peat and natural gas, comes true, the consumption of fuel peat will grow by two thirds and the consumption of natural gas will more than double from the present level. If the taxation is as 1 January 1997, the consumption of peat will remain the same as today and the consumption of natural gas will grow by about 50 %. However, if there are no taxes on fuels, the consumption of fuel peat will fall by almost a third and the consumption of natural gas will remain the same as expected at the existing and planned plants. The effect of the various tax models on emissions

  9. Direct-hydrogen-fueled proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell system for transportation applications. Hydrogen vehicle safety report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C.E. [Directed Technologies, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1997-05-01

    This report reviews the safety characteristics of hydrogen as an energy carrier for a fuel cell vehicle (FCV), with emphasis on high pressure gaseous hydrogen onboard storage. The authors consider normal operation of the vehicle in addition to refueling, collisions, operation in tunnels, and storage in garages. They identify the most likely risks and failure modes leading to hazardous conditions, and provide potential countermeasures in the vehicle design to prevent or substantially reduce the consequences of each plausible failure mode. They then compare the risks of hydrogen with those of more common motor vehicle fuels including gasoline, propane, and natural gas.

  10. An investigation on the fuel savings potential of hybrid hydraulic refuse collection vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, Frank A., E-mail: bender@isys.uni-stuttgart.de; Bosse, Thomas; Sawodny, Oliver

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Driving cycle acquisition in a refuse collection vehicle. • Vehicle modeling and validation for numerical simulations based on the measured driving cycle. • Fuel consumption analysis for a conventional diesel vehicle and a hybrid hydraulic vehicle. - Abstract: Refuse trucks play an important role in the waste collection process. Due to their typical driving cycle, these vehicles are characterized by large fuel consumption, which strongly affects the overall waste disposal costs. Hybrid hydraulic refuse vehicles offer an interesting alternative to conventional diesel trucks, because they are able to recuperate, store and reuse braking energy. However, the expected fuel savings can vary strongly depending on the driving cycle and the operational mode. Therefore, in order to assess the possible fuel savings, a typical driving cycle was measured in a conventional vehicle run by the waste authority of the City of Stuttgart, and a dynamical model of the considered vehicle was built up. Based on the measured driving cycle and the vehicle model including the hybrid powertrain components, simulations for both the conventional and the hybrid vehicle were performed. Fuel consumption results that indicate savings of about 20% are presented and analyzed in order to evaluate the benefit of hybrid hydraulic vehicles used for refuse collection.

  11. An investigation on the fuel savings potential of hybrid hydraulic refuse collection vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, Frank A.; Bosse, Thomas; Sawodny, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Driving cycle acquisition in a refuse collection vehicle. • Vehicle modeling and validation for numerical simulations based on the measured driving cycle. • Fuel consumption analysis for a conventional diesel vehicle and a hybrid hydraulic vehicle. - Abstract: Refuse trucks play an important role in the waste collection process. Due to their typical driving cycle, these vehicles are characterized by large fuel consumption, which strongly affects the overall waste disposal costs. Hybrid hydraulic refuse vehicles offer an interesting alternative to conventional diesel trucks, because they are able to recuperate, store and reuse braking energy. However, the expected fuel savings can vary strongly depending on the driving cycle and the operational mode. Therefore, in order to assess the possible fuel savings, a typical driving cycle was measured in a conventional vehicle run by the waste authority of the City of Stuttgart, and a dynamical model of the considered vehicle was built up. Based on the measured driving cycle and the vehicle model including the hybrid powertrain components, simulations for both the conventional and the hybrid vehicle were performed. Fuel consumption results that indicate savings of about 20% are presented and analyzed in order to evaluate the benefit of hybrid hydraulic vehicles used for refuse collection

  12. Optimal sizing of plug-in fuel cell electric vehicles using models of vehicle performance and system cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Liangfei; Ouyang, Minggao; Li, Jianqiu; Yang, Fuyuan; Lu, Languang; Hua, Jianfeng

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► An analytical model for vehicle performance and power-train parameters. ► Quantitative relationships between vehicle performance and power-train parameters. ► Optimal sizing rules that help designing an optimal PEM fuel cell power-train. ► An on-road testing showing the performance of the proposed vehicle. -- Abstract: This paper presents an optimal sizing method for plug-in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell and lithium-ion battery (LIB) powered city buses. We propose a theoretical model describing the relationship between components’ parameters and vehicle performance. Analysis results show that within the working range of the electric motor, the maximal velocity and driving distance are influenced linearly by the parameters of the components, e.g. fuel cell efficiency, fuel cell output power, stored hydrogen mass, vehicle auxiliary power, battery capacity, and battery average resistance. Moreover, accelerating time is also linearly dependant on the abovementioned parameters, except of those of the battery. Next, we attempt to minimize fixed and operating costs by introducing an optimal sizing problem that uses as constraints the requirements on vehicle performance. By solving this problem, we attain several optimal sizing rules. Finally, we use these rules to design a plug-in PEM fuel cell city bus and present performance results obtained by on-road testing.

  13. Reducing the fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions of the US vehicle fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandivadekar, Anup; Cheah, Lynette; Evans, Christopher; Groode, Tiffany; Heywood, John; Kasseris, Emmanuel; Kromer, Matthew; Weiss, Malcolm

    2008-01-01

    The unrelenting increase in the consumption of oil in the US light-duty vehicle fleet (cars and light trucks) presents an extremely challenging energy and environmental problem. A variety of propulsion technologies and fuels have the promise to reduce petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions from motor vehicles. Even so, achieving a noticeable reduction on both fronts in the near term will require rapid penetration of these technologies into the vehicle fleet, and not all alternatives can meet both objectives simultaneously. Placing a much greater emphasis on reducing fuel consumption rather than improving vehicle performance can greatly reduce the required market penetration rates. Addressing the vehicle performance-size-fuel consumption trade-off should be the priority for policymakers rather than promoting specific vehicle technologies and fuels

  14. Estimated Bounds and Important Factors for Fuel Use and Consumer Costs of Connected and Automated Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, T. S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gonder, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chen, Yuche [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lin, Z. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Liu, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gohlke, D. [US Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This report details a study of the potential effects of connected and automated vehicle (CAV) technologies on vehicle miles traveled (VMT), vehicle fuel efficiency, and consumer costs. Related analyses focused on a range of light-duty CAV technologies in conventional powertrain vehicles -- from partial automation to full automation, with and without ridesharing -- compared to today's base-case scenario. Analysis results revealed widely disparate upper- and lower-bound estimates for fuel use and VMT, ranging from a tripling of fuel use to decreasing light-duty fuel use to below 40% of today's level. This wide range reflects uncertainties in the ways that CAV technologies can influence vehicle efficiency and use through changes in vehicle designs, driving habits, and travel behavior. The report further identifies the most significant potential impacting factors, the largest areas of uncertainty, and where further research is particularly needed.

  15. 48 CFR 970.5223-5 - DOE motor vehicle fleet fuel efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and Contract Clauses for Management and Operating Contracts 970.5223-5 DOE motor vehicle fleet fuel..., insert the following clause in contracts providing for Contractor management of the motor vehicle fleet... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false DOE motor vehicle fleet...

  16. Control concepts for vehicle drive line to reduce fuel consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ossyra, J.C.

    2005-07-01

    In this work advanced drive line control concepts for off-road vehicles have been developed and investigated to reduce the power losses and finally the fuel consumption of the entire drive system by use of on-line optimization procedure. Two separate closed loop speed controls have been developed for the use on a microcontroller onboard the vehicle: one to control the hydrostatic transmission and the other to control the engine speed. Considering the loss characteristics of the displacement machines in the hydrostatic transmission and the steady state characteristics of the combustion engine by use of pure mathematical approximations of measured curves, a direct optimization strategy is used, which works on-line on a microcontroller. A laboratory hardware-in-the loop test rig has been used to investigate the proposed control concepts. For different typical and desired work cycles of an off-road machine on level ground and uphill a slope the effectiveness of the proposed control concepts have been proven. (orig.)

  17. Life cycle comparison of fuel cell vehicles and internal combustion engine vehicles for Canada and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamel, Nada; Li, Xianguo

    The objective of this study is to put forward a full analysis of the impact of the difference between the Canadian and American energy realities on the life cycle of fuel cell vehicles and internal combustion engine vehicles. Electricity is a major type of energy used in the transportation sector. Electricity is needed in the production of feedstock of fuel, the production of the fuel, the production of the vehicle material and the assembly of the vehicles. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the impact of the electricity mix difference between Canada and the United States. In the analysis, the life cycle of the fuel consists of obtaining the raw material, extracting the fuel from the raw material, transporting and storing the fuel as well as using the fuel in the vehicle. Four different methods of obtaining hydrogen were analyzed; using coal and nuclear power to produce electricity and extract hydrogen through electrolysis and via steam reforming of natural gas in a natural gas plant and in a hydrogen refueling station. It is found that fuel cell vehicle fuelled by hydrogen has lower energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions than internal combustion engine vehicle fuelled by conventional gasoline except for hydrogen production using coal as the primary energy source in Canada and the United States. Using the Canadian electricity mix will result in lower carbon dioxide emissions and energy consumption than using the American electricity mix. For the present vehicles, using the Canadian electricity mix will save up to 215.18 GJ of energy and 20.87 t of CO 2 on a per capita basis and 26.53 GJ of energy and 6.8 t of CO 2 on a per vehicle basis. Similarly, for the future vehicles, using the Canadian electricity mix will lower the total carbon dioxide emissions by 21.15 t and the energy consumed is reduced by 218.49 GJ on a per capita basis and 26.53 GJ of energy and 7.22 t of CO 2 on a per vehicle basis. The well-to-tank efficiencies are higher with the

  18. Analyzing The Impacts of the Biogas-to-Electricity Purchase Incentives on Electric Vehicle Deployment with the MA3T Vehicle Choice Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podkaminer, Kara [U.S. Department of Energy (DOE); Xie, Fei [ORNL; Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    This analysis represents the biogas-to-electricity pathway under the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) as a point of purchase incentive and tests the impact of this incentive on EV deployment using a vehicle consumer choice model. The credit value generated under this policy was calculated in a number of scenarios based on electricity use of each power train choice on a yearly basis over the 15 year vehicle lifetime, accounting for the average electric vehicle miles travelled and vehicle efficiency, competition for biogas-derived electricity among electric vehicles (EVs), the RIN equivalence value and the time value of money. The credit value calculation in each of these scenarios is offered upfront as a point of purchase incentive for EVs using the Market Acceptance of Advanced Automotive Technologies (MA3T) vehicle choice model, which tracks sales, fleet size and energy use over time. The majority of the scenarios use a proposed RIN equivalence value, which increases the credit value as a way to explore the analysis space. Additional model runs show the relative impact of the equivalence value on EV deployment. The MA3T model output shows that a consumer incentive accelerates the deployment of EVs for all scenarios relative to the baseline (no policy) case. In the scenario modeled to represent the current biogas-to-electricity generation capacity (15 TWh/year) with a 5.24kWh/RIN equivalence value, the policy leads to an additional 1.4 million plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and 3.5 million battery electric vehicles (BEVs) in 2025 beyond the no-policy case of 1.3 million PHEVs and 2.1 million BEVs when the full value of the credit is passed on to the consumer. In 2030, this increases to 2.4 million PHEVs and 7.3 million BEVs beyond the baseline. This larger impact on BEVs relative to PHEVs is due in part to the larger credit that BEVs receive in the model based on the greater percentage of electric vehicle miles traveled by BEVs relative to PHEVs. In this

  19. Clean Cities Strategic Planning White Paper: Light Duty Vehicle Fuel Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saulsbury, Bo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hopson, Dr Janet L [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Greene, David [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Gibson, Robert [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Increasing the energy efficiency of motor vehicles is critical to achieving national energy goals of reduced petroleum dependence, protecting the global climate, and promoting continued economic prosperity. Even with fuel economy and greenhouse gas emissions standards and various economic incentives for clean and efficient vehicles, providing reliable and accurate fuel economy information to the public is important to achieving these goals. This white paper reviews the current status of light-duty vehicle fuel economy in the United States and the role of the Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Cities Program in disseminating fuel economy information to the public.

  20. Fuel taxes, motor vehicle emission standards and patents related to the fuel-efficiency and emissions of motor vehicles. Joint Meetings of Tax and Environment Experts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollebergh, H.

    2010-01-01

    Contribution to the project on Taxation, Innovation and the Environment of OECD's Joint Meetings of Tax and Environment Experts. It studies the impacts of motor vehicle fuel taxes and mandatory fuel efficiency standards on relevant car-related innovation activity in selected car-producing countries.

  1. Market Analysis and Consumer Impacts Source Document. Part III. Consumer Behavior and Attitudes Toward Fuel Efficient Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    This source document on motor vehicle market analysis and consumer impacts consists of three parts. Part III consists of studies and reviews on: consumer awareness of fuel efficiency issues; consumer acceptance of fuel efficient vehicles; car size ch...

  2. Estimation of fuel loss due to idling of vehicles at a signalized intersection in Chennai, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasantha Kumar, S.; Gulati, Himanshu; Arora, Shivam

    2017-11-01

    The vehicles while waiting at signalized intersections are generally found to be in idling condition, i.e., not switching off their vehicles during red times. This phenomenon of idling of vehicles during red times at signalized intersections may lead to huge economic loss as lot of fuel is consumed by vehicles when they are in idling condition. The situation may even be worse in countries like India as different vehicle types consume varying amount of fuel. Only limited studies have been reported on estimation of fuel loss due to idling of vehicles in India. In the present study, one of the busy intersections in Chennai, namely, Tidel Park Junction in Rajiv Gandhi salai was considered. Data collection was carried out in one approach road of the intersection during morning and evening peak hours on a typical working day by manually noting down the red timings of each cycle and the corresponding number of two-wheelers, three-wheelers, passenger cars, light commercial vehicles (LCV) and heavy motorized vehicles (HMV) that were in idling mode. Using the fuel consumption values of various vehicles types suggested by Central Road Research Institute (CRRI), the total fuel loss during the study period was found to be Rs. 4,93,849/-. The installation of red timers, synchronization of signals, use of non-motorized transport for short trips and public awareness are some of the measures which government need to focus to save the fuel wasted at signalized intersections in major cities of India.

  3. Technology watch of fuel cells for vehicles in 2012; Teknikbevakning av braensleceller foer fordon 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohl, Hans

    2013-03-15

    The report presents results from an international survey covering the status and development of tractionary fuel cells. Interviews, study visits, reports, journals, media coverage and participation in IEA Advanced Fuel Cells Annex 26 have served as main sources of information. The development in Korea has been devoted particular attention this period. The report covers the development during the second part of 2011 and the whole 2012. The transport sector must change to provide mobility for people and goods in a long-term sustainable way. Fuel cell technology offers an important opportunity for the vehicle manufacturer and the vehicle user to maintain the same level of performance, comfort and versatility without compromising the sustainability requirements. Fuel cell vehicles typically use polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC) and pressurized hydrogen. They also use tractionary batteries for about the same reasons as other hybrid electric vehicles. For commercial vehicles fuel cells are developed for the production of auxiliary power, to be used when the vehicles are parked, for example. Until 2015, Hyundai aims at making up to 1,000 fuel cell vehicles. After 2015 the plan is for several thousand every year. Until 2025, Hyundai aims at a total delivery of more than 100,000 fuel cell vehicles and the technology is then expected to be fully competitive. A roadmap shows that Korea until 2015 has established 43 and until 2030, a total of 500 hydrogen refuelling stations are indicated. The Skaane Region has carried out the first Swedish procurement of fuel cell vehicles. Two Hyundai iX35 FCEV were purchased for delivery 2013. In addition, the city of Copenhagen has purchased 15 such vehicles. During the next few years three hydrogen refuelling stations will be established in the Copenhagen area. January 2012, the California Air Resources Board decided the new set of regulations Advanced Clean Cars. It comprises three parts; tailpipe emissions and greenhouse gases, Zero

  4. Toxic emissions from mobile sources: a total fuel-cycle analysis for conventional and alternative fuel vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winebrake, J J; Wang, M Q; He, D

    2001-07-01

    Mobile sources are among the largest contributors of four hazardous air pollutants--benzene, 1,3-butadiene, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde--in urban areas. At the same time, federal and state governments are promoting the use of alternative fuel vehicles as a means to curb local air pollution. As yet, the impact of this movement toward alternative fuels with respect to toxic emissions has not been well studied. The purpose of this paper is to compare toxic emissions from vehicles operating on a variety of fuels, including reformulated gasoline (RFG), natural gas, ethanol, methanol, liquid petroleum gas (LPG), and electricity. This study uses a version of Argonne National Laboratory's Greenhouse Gas, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model, appropriately modified to estimate toxic emissions. The GREET model conducts a total fuel-cycle analysis that calculates emissions from both downstream (e.g., operation of the vehicle) and upstream (e.g., fuel production and distribution) stages of the fuel cycle. We find that almost all of the fuels studied reduce 1,3-butadiene emissions compared with conventional gasoline (CG). However, the use of ethanol in E85 (fuel made with 85% ethanol) or RFG leads to increased acetaldehyde emissions, and the use of methanol, ethanol, and compressed natural gas (CNG) may result in increased formaldehyde emissions. When the modeling results for the four air toxics are considered together with their cancer risk factors, all the fuels and vehicle technologies show air toxic emission reduction benefits.

  5. 40 CFR 80.594 - What are the pre-compliance reporting requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel? 80.594 Section 80.594 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Requirements § 80.594 What are the pre-compliance reporting requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel? (a... June 1, 2005, all refiners and importers planning to produce or import motor vehicle diesel fuel...

  6. Test experiences with the DaimlerChrysler: Fuel cell electric vehicle NECAR

    OpenAIRE

    Friedlmeier Gerardo; Friedrich J.; Panik F.

    2002-01-01

    The DalmlerChrysler fuel cell electric vehicle NECAR 4, a hydrogen-fueled zero-emission compact car based on the A-Class of Mercedes-Benz, is described. Test results obtained on the road and on the dynamometer are presented. These and other results show the high technological maturity reliability and durability already achieved with fuel cell technology.

  7. Motor vehicle fuel economy, the forgotten HC control stragegy. [Hydrocarbon (HC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deluchi, M.; Wang, Quanlu; Greene, D.L.

    1992-06-01

    Emissions of hydrocarbons from motor vehicles are recognized as major contributors to ozone pollution in urban areas. Petroleum-based motor fuels contain volatile organic compounds (VOC) which, together with oxides of nitrogen, promote the formation of ozone in the troposphere via complex photochemical reactions. VOC emissions from the tailpipe and evaporation from the fuel and engine systems of highway vehicles are believed to account for about 40% of total VOC emissions in any region. But motor fuels also generate emissions throughout the fuel cycle, from crude oil production to refining, storage, transportation, and handling, that can make significant contributions to the total inventory of VOC emissions. Many of these sources of emissions are directly related to the quantity of fuel produced and handled throughout the fuel cycle. It is, therefore, reasonable to expect that a reduction in total fuel throughput might result in a reduction of VOC emissions. In particular, reducing vehicle fuel consumption by increasing vehicle fuel economy should reduce total fuel throughput, thereby cutting total emissions of VOCS. In this report we identify the sources of VOC emissions throughout the motor fuel cycle, quantify them to the extent possible, and describe their dependence on automobile and light truck fuel economy.

  8. Test experiences with the DaimlerChrysler: Fuel cell electric vehicle NECAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedlmeier Gerardo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The DalmlerChrysler fuel cell electric vehicle NECAR 4, a hydrogen-fueled zero-emission compact car based on the A-Class of Mercedes-Benz, is described. Test results obtained on the road and on the dynamometer are presented. These and other results show the high technological maturity reliability and durability already achieved with fuel cell technology.

  9. Fuel cells for vehicle applications in cars - bringing the future closer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panik, Ferdinand

    Among all alternative drive systems, the fuel cell electric propulsion system has the highest potential to compete with the internal combustion engine. For this reason, Daimler-Benz AG has entered into a co-operative alliance with Ballard Power Systems, with the objectives of bringing fuel cell vehicles to the market. Apart from the fuel cell itself, fuel cell vehicles require comprehensive system technology to provide fuel and air supply, cooling, energy management, electric and electronic functions. The system technology determines to a large extent the cost, weight, efficiency, performance and overall customer benefit of fuel cell vehicles. Hence, Daimler-Benz and Ballard are pooling their expertise in fuel cell system technology in a joint company, with the aim of bringing their fuel cell vehicular systems to the stage of maturity required for market entry as early as possible. Hydrogen-fuelled zero-emission fuel cell transit `buses' will be the first market segment addressed, with an emphasis on the North American and European markets. The first buses are already scheduled for delivery to customers in late 1997. Since a liquid fuel like methanol is easier to handle in passenger cars, fuel reforming technologies are developed and will shortly be demonstrated in a prototype, as well. The presentation will cover concepts of fuel cell vehicles with an emphasis on system technology, the related testing procedures and results as well as an outline of market entry strategies.

  10. Fuel cell powered vehicles using supercapacitors-device characteristics, control strategies, and simulation results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, H.; Burke, A.F. [Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California (United States)

    2010-10-15

    The fuel cell powered vehicle is one of the most attractive candidates for the future due to its high efficiency and capability to use hydrogen as the fuel. However, its relatively poor dynamic response, high cost and limited life time have impeded its widespread adoption. With the emergence of large supercapacitors (also know as ultracapacitors, UCs) with high power density and the shift to hybridisation in the vehicle technology, fuel cell/supercapacitor hybrid fuel cell vehicles are gaining more attention. Fuel cells in conjunction with supercapacitors can create high power with fast dynamic response, which makes it well suitable for automotive applications. Hybrid fuel cell vehicles with different powertrain configurations have been evaluated based on simulations performed at the Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California-Davis. The following powertrain configurations have been considered: (a)Direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) without energy storage (b)FCVs with supercapacitors directly connected in parallel with fuel cells (c)FCVs with supercapacitors coupled in parallel with fuel cells through a DC/DC converter (d)FCVs with fuel cells connected to supercapacitors via a DC/DC converter. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  11. Policy Pathways: Improving the Fuel Economy of Road Vehicles - A policy package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The transportation sector accounts for approximately one-fifth of global final energy consumption and will account for nearly all future growth in oil use, particularly for road vehicles. The right policy mix can allow countries to improve the fuel economy of road vehicles, which in turn can enhance energy security and reduce CO2 emissions. Improving the Fuel Economy of Road Vehicles highlights lessons learned and examples of good practices from countries with experience in implementing fuel economy policies for vehicles. The report, part of the IEA’s Policy Pathway series, outlines key steps in planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation. It complements the IEA Technology Roadmap: Fuel Economy for Road Vehicles, which outlines technical options, potentials, and costs towards improvement in the near, medium and long term.

  12. Preferences for Alternative Fuel Vehicles of Lease Car Drivers in The Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koetse, M.J.; Hoen, A.

    2012-04-15

    In this paper we aim to get insight into preferences of Dutch lease car drivers for alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and their characteristics. Since AFVs are either not yet available on the market or have only very limited market shares, we have to rely on stated preference research. We perform a state-of-the-art conjoint analysis, based on data obtained through an online choice experiment among Dutch lease car drivers. Results show that under current tax regulations the average lease car driver is indifferent between the conventional technology, flexifuel and the hybrid car, while negative preferences exist for the plug-in hybrid, the electric and the fuel cell car. When current tax regulations would be abolished, strong negative preferences would result for all AFCs, and especially for the electric and fuel cell car. Increases in driving range, reductions in refuelling time, and reductions in additional detour time for reaching an appropriate fuel station, increase AFV preferences substantially. On average the gap between conventional technologies and AFVs remains large, however. We also find that there is considerable heterogeneity in preferences of lease car drivers, and that various market segments and potential early adopters can be identified. In this respect the most interesting finding is that preferences for electric and fuel cell cars decrease substantially, and willingness to pay for driving range increases substantially, when annual mileage increases. Annual mileage also has a substantial impact on sensitivity to monthly costs. We therefore use simulations to assess market shares of electric and fuel cell cars for different annual mileage categories. We find that people with a relatively low annual mileage are more likely to adopt than people with a relatively high annual mileage, regardless of driving range and monthly costs. For the fuel cell car we find similar results, although when driving range is high and cost differences are large, lease car

  13. The relationship between income and personal vehicle fuel efficiency and associated equity concerns for the fuel tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    The fuel tax, which is assessed on the physical amount of fuel purchased by the consumer, is the primary : means of funding roadway development at the state and national level. However, because it is assessed on a : gallon basis, drivers of vehicles ...

  14. New vehicle fuel economy in the UK: Impact of the recession and recent policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadud, Zia

    2014-01-01

    Interests in vehicle fuel economy have increased in the past few years with the implementations of more stringent CAFE standard in USA and mandatory carbon emission standard in the EU. We seek to understand the effects of recent policies such as restructuring of Vehicle Excise Duties and EU standard on new vehicle fuel economy in the UK. In the past few years there have been substantial fluctuations in income and fuel prices, offering an interesting testing ground to understand their impact on the demand for fuel economy in vehicles. We use a monthly dataset to find that the emission standard is the largest driver for fuel economy improvements in recent years. Also, contrary to some recent findings in Europe and in UK, we find that income has an effect and that the recession had some role in improving the fuel economy. The effects of fuel prices were relatively small. Restructuring of the VED also improved new vehicle fuel economy in the UK, but the scrappage scheme had no significant effect. Results indicate that both supply and demand side policies are effective in improving fuel economy, although quantitatively the emission standard appears more effective due to its stringency. It is also important to consider the effects of income while devising demand side policies. - Highlights: • Econometric modelling and simulation of new vehicle fuel economy in UK. • EU carbon standard is the largest reason behind improving fuel economy. • Recession and associated reduction in income also had a role. • Fuel price has some impact on new car fuel economy, but small. • VED restructuring had an impact, but scrappage scheme's impact was insignificant

  15. Evaluating Alternative Fuel Vehicles from Technical, Environmental and Economic Perspectives: Case of Light-Duty Vehicles in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Vahid Aryanpur; Ehsan Shafiei

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an environmental and technoeconomic evaluation of light duty vehicles in Iran. A comprehensive well-to-wheel (WTW) analysis is applied to compare different automotive fuel chains, conventional internal combustion engines and innovative vehicle powertrains. The study examines the competitiveness of 15 various pathways in terms of energy efficiencies, GHG emissions, and levelized cost of different energy carriers. The results indicate that electric vehic...

  16. 78 FR 20881 - Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ...The EPA is announcing two public hearings to be held for the proposed rule ``Control of Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards'' (the proposed rule is hereinafter referred to as ``Tier 3''), which will be published separately in the Federal Register. The hearings will be held in Philadelphia, PA on April 24, 2013 and in Chicago, IL on April 29, 2013. The comment period for the proposed rulemaking will end on June 13, 2013.

  17. Vehicle Technologies and Fuel Cell Technologies Program: Prospective Benefits Assessment Report for Fiscal Year 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, T. S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Taylor, C. H. [TA Engineering, Inc., Catonsville, MD (United States); Moore, J. S. [TA Engineering, Inc., Catonsville, MD (United States); Ward, J. [United States Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

    2016-02-23

    Under a diverse set of programs, the Vehicle Technologies and Fuel Cell Technologies offices of DOE’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy invest in research, development, demonstration, and deployment of advanced vehicle, hydrogen production, delivery and storage, and fuel cell technologies. This report estimates the benefits of successfully developing and deploying these technologies (a “Program Success” case) relative to a base case (the “No Program” case). The Program Success case represents the future with completely successful deployment of Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) and Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) technologies. The No Program case represents a future in which there is no contribution after FY 2016 by the VTO or FCTO to these technologies. The benefits of advanced vehicle, hydrogen production, delivery and storage, and fuel cell technologies were estimated on the basis of differences in fuel use, primary energy use, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from light-, medium- and heavy-duty vehicles, including energy and emissions from fuel production, between the base case and the Program Success case. Improvements in fuel economy of various vehicle types, growth in the stock of fuel cell vehicles and other advanced technology vehicles, and decreased GHG intensity of hydrogen production and delivery in the Program Success case over the No Program case were projected to result in savings in petroleum use and GHG emissions. Benefits were disaggregated by individual program technology areas, which included the FCTO program and the VTO subprograms of batteries and electric drives; advanced combustion engines; fuels and lubricants; materials (for reduction in vehicle mass, or “lightweighting”); and, for medium- and heavy-duty vehicles, reduction in rolling and aerodynamic resistance. Projections for the Program Success case indicate that by 2035, the average fuel economy of on-road, light-duty vehicle stock could be 47% to 76

  18. Procedure for the Design of a Hybrid-Series Vehicle and the Hybridization Degree Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Coccia

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available For years, the interest of the UDR1 research group has focused on the development of a Hybrid Series (HS vehicle, different from the standard one thanks to the use of a Gas Turbine set (GT as a thermal engine. The reason for this choice resides in the opportunity to reduce weight and dimensions, in comparison to a traditional Internal Combustion Engine (ICE. It is not possible to use the GT engine set directly for the vehicle traction, therefore the UDR1 HS configuration shows the GT set connected with the electric generator only. The result is that the traction is purely electric. The resulting engine configuration is a commonly defined Hybrid Series. Many efforts are spent in the definition of a generic scientific method to define the correct ratio (Degree of Hybridization between the installed power of the battery pack and that of the GT electric generator, which simultaneously guarantees the life of the battery pack and the capacity of the vehicle to complete a common mission without lack of energy or stopping. This article reports a method to define the power ratio between battery pack and GT generator, applied to a recent commission for the development of a mini city bus.

  19. Quantitative Effects of Vehicle Parameters on Fuel Consumption for Heavy-Duty Vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lijuan; Kelly, Kenneth; Walkowicz, Kevin; Duran, Adam

    2015-10-16

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Fleet Test and Evaluations team recently conducted chassis dynamometer tests of a class 8 conventional regional delivery truck over the Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT), West Virginia University City (WVU City), and Composite International Truck Local and Commuter Cycle (CILCC) drive cycles. A quantitative study was conducted by analyzing the impacts of various factors on fuel consumption (FC) and fuel economy (FE) by modeling and simulating the truck using NREL's Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator (FASTSim). Factors used in this study included vehicle weight, and the coefficients of rolling resistance and aerodynamic drag. The simulation results from a single parametric study revealed that FC was approximately a linear function of the weight, coefficient of aerodynamic drag, and rolling resistance over various drive cycles. Among these parameters, the truck weight had the largest effect on FC. The study of the impact of two technologies on FE suggested that, depending on the circumstances, it may be more cost effective to reduce one parameter (such as coefficient of aerodynamic drag) to increase fuel economy, or it may be more beneficial to reduce another (such as the coefficient of rolling resistance). It also provided a convenient way to estimate FE by interpolating within the parameter values and extrapolating outside of them. The simulation results indicated that the FC could be reduced from 38.70 L/100 km, 50.72 L/100 km, and 38.42 L/100 km in the baseline truck to 26.78 L/100 km, 43.14 L/100 km and 29.84 L/100 km over the HHDDT, WVU City and CILCC drive cycles, respectively, when the U.S. Department of Energy's three targeted new technologies were applied simultaneously.

  20. Review of Fuel Cell Technologies for Military Land Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    2 3. FUELLING FUEL CELLS ...OEM Original Equipment Manufacturer PEM Proton Exchange Membrane PEMFC Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell SOFC Solid Oxide Fuel Cell TRL Technical...UNCLASSIFIED DSTO-TN-1360 UNCLASSIFIED 4 3. Fuelling Fuel Cells 3.1 Hydrogen Hydrogen, either in its pure form or as reformate from another fuel is

  1. US Department of Energy Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery and Fuel Economy Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karner, Donald; Francfort, James

    The advanced vehicle testing activity (AVTA), part of the US Department of Energy's FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program, has conducted testing of advanced technology vehicles since August 1995 in support of the AVTA goal to provide benchmark data for technology modelling, and research and development programs. The AVTA has tested over 200 advanced technology vehicles including full-size electric vehicles, urban electric vehicles, neighborhood electric vehicles, and internal combustion engine vehicles powered by hydrogen. Currently, the AVTA is conducting a significant evaluation of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) produced by major automotive manufacturers. The results are posted on the AVTA web page maintained by the Idaho National Laboratory. Through the course of this testing, the fuel economy of HEV fleets has been monitored and analyzed to determine the 'real world' performance of their hybrid energy systems, particularly the battery. The initial fuel economy of these vehicles has typically been less than that determined by the manufacturer and also varies significantly with environmental conditions. Nevertheless, the fuel economy and, therefore, battery performance, has remained stable over the life of a given vehicle (160 000 miles).

  2. Alternative fuels for vehicles fleet demonstration program. Final report, volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Alternative Fuels for Vehicles Fleet Demonstration Program (AFV-FDP) was a multiyear effort to collect technical data for use in determining the costs and benefits of alternative-fuel vehicles (AFVs) in typical applications in New York State. This report, Volume 2, includes 13 appendices to Volume 1 that expand upon issues raised therein. Volume 1 provides: (1) Information about the purpose and scope of the AFV-FDP; (2) A summary of AFV-FDP findings organized on the basis of vehicle type and fuel type; (3) A short review of the status of AFV technology development, including examples of companies in the State that are active in developing AFVs and AFV components; and (4) A brief overview of the status of AFV deployment in the State. Volume 3 provides expanded reporting of AFV-FDP technical details, including the complete texts of the brochure Garage Guidelines for Alternative Fuels and the technical report Fleet Experience Survey Report, plus an extensive glossary of AFV terminology. The appendices cover a wide range of issues including: emissions regulations in New York State; production and health effects of ozone; vehicle emissions and control systems; emissions from heavy-duty engines; reformulated gasoline; greenhouse gases; production and characteristics of alternative fuels; the Energy Policy Act of 1992; the Clean Fuel Fleet Program; garage design guidelines for alternative fuels; surveys of fleet managers using alternative fuels; taxes on conventional and alternative fuels; and zero-emission vehicle technology.

  3. A techno-economic analysis of decentralized electrolytic hydrogen production for fuel cell vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prince-Richard, S.; Whale, M.; Djilali, N.

    2000-01-01

    Fueling is a central issue in the development of fuel cell systems, especially for transportation applications. Which fuels will be used to provide the necessary hydrogen and what kind of production / distribution infrastructure will be required are key questions for the large scale market penetration of fuel cell vehicles. Methanol, gasoline and hydrogen are currently the three most seriously considered fuel options. Primarily because of economic considerations, these energy currencies would all be largely produced from fossil fuel sources in the near future. One problem in using fossil fuel sources as a feedstock is their associated emissions, in particular greenhouse gases. This paper presents some elements of a study currently underway to assess the techno-economic prospects of decentralized electrolytic hydrogen production for fuel cell vehicles

  4. Removal of methane from compressed natural gas fueled vehicle exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, S.; Kudla, R.J.; Chattha, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the modes of methane (CH 4 ) removal from simulated compressed natural gas (CNG) fueled vehicle exhaust under net oxidizing, net reducing, and stoichiometric conditions. Model reaction studies were conducted. The results suggest that the oxidation of methane with oxygen contributes to the removal of methane under net oxidizing conditions. In contrast, the oxidation of methane with oxygen as well as nitric oxide contributes to its removal under net reducing conditions. The steam reforming reaction does not significantly contribute to the removal of methane. The methane conversions under net reducing conditions are higher than those observed under net oxidizing conditions. The study shows that the presence of carbon monoxide in the feed gas leads to a gradual decrease in the methane conversion with increasing redox ratio, under net oxidizing conditions. a minimum in methane conversion is observed at a redox ratio of 0. 8. The higher activity for the methane-oxygen reaction resulting from a lowering in the overall oxidation state of palladium and the contribution of the methane-nitric oxide reaction toward the removal of CH 4 appear to account for the higher CH 4 conversions observed under net reducing conditions

  5. 40 CFR 80.530 - Under what conditions can 500 ppm motor vehicle diesel fuel be produced or imported after May 31...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... motor vehicle diesel fuel be produced or imported after May 31, 2006? 80.530 Section 80.530 Protection... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Temporary Compliance Option § 80.530 Under what conditions can 500 ppm motor vehicle diesel...

  6. Meeting U.S. passenger vehicle fuel economy standards in 2016 and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheah, Lynette; Heywood, John

    2011-01-01

    New fuel economy standards require new U.S. passenger vehicles to achieve at least 34.1 miles per gallon (MPG) on average by model year 2016, up from 28.8 MPG today. In this paper, the magnitude, combinations and timings of the changes required in U.S. vehicles that are necessary in order to meet the new standards, as well as a target of doubling the fuel economy within the next two decades are explored. Scenarios of future vehicle characteristics and sales mix indicate that the 2016 mandate is aggressive, requiring significant changes starting from today. New vehicles must forgo horsepower improvements, become lighter, and a greater number will use advanced, more fuel-efficient powertrains, such as smaller turbocharged engines, hybrid-electric drives. Achieving a factor-of-two increase in fuel economy by 2030 is also challenging, but more feasible since the auto industry will have more lead time to respond. A discussion on the feasibility of meeting the new fuel economy mandate is included, considering vehicle production planning realities and challenges in deploying new vehicle technologies into the market. - Research Highlights: → The new 2016 fuel economy standards for passenger vehicles in the U.S. can be met, but are aggressive. → Future vehicles must forgo horsepower improvements, become lighter, and a greater number will use advanced, more fuel efficient powertrains. → The challenge of meeting the fuel economy targets is defined by both the magnitude and the timing of these requirements. → Doubling the fuel economy by 2030 is also challenging, but more feasible since the auto industry will have more lead time to respond.

  7. Method for modeling driving cycles, fuel use, and emissions for over snow vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiangchuan; Frey, H Christopher; Sandhu, Gurdas S; Graver, Brandon M; Bishop, Gary A; Schuchmann, Brent G; Ray, John D

    2014-07-15

    As input to a winter use plan, activity, fuel use, and tailpipe exhaust emissions of over snow vehicles (OSV), including five snow coaches and one snowmobile, were measured on a designated route in Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Engine load was quantified in terms of vehicle specific power (VSP), which is a function of speed, acceleration, and road grade. Compared to highway vehicles, VSP for OSVs is more sensitive to rolling resistance and less sensitive to aerodynamic drag. Fuel use rates increased linearly (R2>0.96) with VSP. For gasoline-fueled OSVs, fuel-based emission rates of carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) typically increased with increasing fuel use rate, with some cases of very high CO emissions. For the diesel OSVs, which had selective catalytic reduction and diesel particulate filters, fuel-based NOx and particulate matter (PM) emission rates were not sensitive to fuel flow rate, and the emission controls were effective. Inter vehicle variability in cycle average fuel use and emissions rates for CO and NOx was substantial. However, there was relatively little inter-cycle variation in cycle average fuel use and emission rates when comparing driving cycles. Recommendations are made regarding how real-world OSV activity, fuel use, and emissions data can be improved.

  8. The simple economics of motor vehicle pollution: A case for fuel tax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montag, Josef

    2015-01-01

    The volume of pollution produced by an automobile is determined by driver's behavior along three margins: (i) vehicle selection, (ii) kilometers driven, and (iii) on-road fuel economy. The first two margins have been studied extensively, however the third has received scant attention. How significant is this ‘intensive margin’? What would be the optimal policies when it is taken into account? The paper develops and analyzes a simple model of the technical and behavioral mechanisms that determine the volume emissions produced by a car. The results show that an optimal fuel tax would provide drivers with appropriate incentives along all three margins and that only public information is needed for a fuel tax to be set optimally. In contrast, an optimal distance tax would require private information. Lastly, relative to the optimal fuel tax, a simple uniform fuel tax is shown to be progressive. Thus, being already deployed worldwide, a uniform fuel tax is an attractive second-best policy. These findings should be accounted for when designing new mechanisms to alleviate motor vehicle pollution. -- Highlights: •The paper analyzes motor vehicle pollution and optimal policy responses. •The intensive margin of vehicle use (on-road fuel consumption) is modeled explicitly. •An optimal fuel tax requires only public information, unlike an optimal distance tax. •Fuel taxes should remain the core instrument for car pollution control. •Other policies, such as a car tax, may complement fuel taxes but are not substitutes

  9. Electric vehicles and renewable energy in the transport sector - energy system consequences. Main focus: Battery electric vehicles and hydrogen based fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, L.H.; Joergensen, K.

    2000-04-01

    The aim of the project is to analyse energy, environmental and economic aspects of integrating electric vehicles in the future Danish energy system. Consequences of large-scale utilisation of electric vehicles are analysed. The aim is furthermore to illustrate the potential synergistic interplay between the utilisation of electric vehicles and large-scale utilisation of fluctuating renewable energy resources, such as wind power. Economic aspects for electric vehicles interacting with a liberalised electricity market are analysed. The project focuses on battery electric vehicles and fuel cell vehicles based on hydrogen. Based on assumptions on the future technical development for battery electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles on hydrogen, and for the conventional internal combustion engine vehicles, scenarios are set up to reflect expected options for the long-term development of road transport vehicles. Focus is put on the Danish fleet of passenger cars and delivery vans. The scenario analysis includes assumptions on market potential developments and market penetration for the alternative vehicles. Vehicle replacement rates in the Danish transport fleet and the size of fleet development are based on data from The Danish Road Directorate. The electricity supply system development assumed is based on the Danish energy plan, Energy 21, The Plan scenario. The time horizon of the analysis is year 2030. Results from the scenario analysis include the time scales involved for the potential transition towards electricity based vehicles, the fleet composition development, the associated developments in transport fuel consumption and fuel substitution, and the potential CO{sub 2}-emission reduction achievable in the overall transport and power supply system. Detailed model simulations, on an hourly basis, have furthermore been carried out for year 2005 that address potential electricity purchase options for electric vehicles in the context of a liberalised electricity market

  10. Electric vehicles and renewable energy in the transport sector - energy system consequences. Main focus: Battery electric vehicles and hydrogen based fuel cell vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, L.H.; Joergensen, K.

    2000-04-01

    The aim of the project is to analyse energy, environmental and economic aspects of integrating electric vehicles in the future Danish energy system. Consequences of large-scale utilisation of electric vehicles are analysed. The aim is furthermore to illustrate the potential synergistic interplay between the utilisation of electric vehicles and large-scale utilisation of fluctuating renewable energy resources, such as wind power. Economic aspects for electric vehicles interacting with a liberalised electricity market are analysed. The project focuses on battery electric vehicles and fuel cell vehicles based on hydrogen. Based on assumptions on the future technical development for battery electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles on hydrogen, and for the conventional internal combustion engine vehicles, scenarios are set up to reflect expected options for the long-term development of road transport vehicles. Focus is put on the Danish fleet of passenger cars and delivery vans. The scenario analysis includes assumptions on market potential developments and market penetration for the alternative vehicles. Vehicle replacement rates in the Danish transport fleet and the size of fleet development are based on data from The Danish Road Directorate. The electricity supply system development assumed is based on the Danish energy plan, Energy 21, The Plan scenario. The time horizon of the analysis is year 2030. Results from the scenario analysis include the time scales involved for the potential transition towards electricity based vehicles, the fleet composition development, the associated developments in transport fuel consumption and fuel substitution, and the potential CO 2 -emission reduction achievable in the overall transport and power supply system. Detailed model simulations, on an hourly basis, have furthermore been carried out for year 2005 that address potential electricity purchase options for electric vehicles in the context of a liberalised electricity market. The

  11. Spent fuel storage choices: What public opinion polls tell us

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisconti, A.S.

    1995-01-01

    The crux of the issue of spent nuclear fuel for much of the American public is that taking car of our waste now instead of leaving it for future generations is the safe and environmentally responsible think to do. This article summarizes a number of public opinion surveys. Although it is important to recognize that most people are not familiar with specifics, much of the American public has a strong opinions about the fundamental guiding principles for safely managing radioactive waste. First there is clear agreement that we need action. Second, safety means taking the waste to a permanent disposal facility instead of leaving it in many different locations. Third, most of the public would like to keep nuclear energy as a supply option. Fourth, the majority of the public agreed with the statement that the availability of nuclear energy as an option for future energy supply depends on building a national waste storage or disposal facility

  12. Effect of interactions between vehicles and pedestrians on fuel consumption and emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Sun, Jian-Qiao

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a study of variations of fuel consumption and emissions of vehicles due to random street crossings of pedestrians. The pedestrian and vehicle movement models as well as the interaction model between the two entities are presented. Extensive numerical simulations of single and multiple cars are carried out to investigate the traffic flow rate, vehicle average speed, fuel consumption, CO, HC and NOx emissions. Generally more noncompliant road-crossings of pedestrians lead to higher level of fuel consumptions and emissions of vehicles, and the traffic situation can be improved by imposing higher vehicle speed limit to some extent. Different traffic characteristics in low and high vehicle density regions are studied. The traffic flow is more influenced by crossing pedestrians in the low vehicle density region, while in the high vehicle density region, the interactions among vehicles dominate. The main contribution of this paper lies in the qualitative analysis of the impact of the interactions between pedestrians and vehicles on the traffic, its energy economy and emissions.

  13. An Efficient Two-Objective Hybrid Local Search Algorithm for Solving the Fuel Consumption Vehicle Routing Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Weizhen; Liu, Feng; Wang, Shengbin

    2016-01-01

    The classical model of vehicle routing problem (VRP) generally minimizes either the total vehicle travelling distance or the total number of dispatched vehicles. Due to the increased importance of environmental sustainability, one variant of VRPs that minimizes the total vehicle fuel consumption has gained much attention. The resulting fuel consumption VRP (FCVRP) becomes increasingly important yet difficult. We present a mixed integer programming model for the FCVRP, and fuel consumption is ...

  14. Unemployment rate and price of gasoline predict the fuel economy of purchased new vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    This study examined the relationship between two economic indicatorsthe : unemployment rate and the price of gasolineand the fuel economy of purchased new : vehicles. A regression analysis was performed on U.S. monthly data from October 2007 : ...

  15. Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel and Advanced Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-08-01

    Today's fleets are increasingly interested in medium-duty and heavy-duty vehicles that use alternative fuels or advanced technologies that can help reduce operating costs, meet emissions requirements, improve fleet sustainability, and support U.S. energy independence. Vehicle and engine manufacturers are responding to this interest with a wide range of options across a steadily growing number of vehicle applications. This guide provides an overview of alternative fuel power systems--including engines, microturbines, electric motors, and fuel cells--and hybrid propulsion systems. The guide also offers a list of individual medium- and heavy-duty vehicle models listed by application, along with associated manufacturer contact information, fuel type(s), power source(s), and related information.

  16. Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel and Advanced Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-08-01

    Today's fleets are increasingly interested in medium-duty and heavy-duty vehicles that use alternative fuels or advanced technologies that can help reduce operating costs, meet emissions requirements, improve fleet sustainability, and support U.S. energy independence. Vehicle and engine manufacturers are responding to this interest with a wide range of options across a steadily growing number of vehicle applications. This guide provides an overview of alternative fuel power systems?including engines, microturbines, electric motors, and fuel cells?and hybrid propulsion systems. The guide also offers a list of individual medium- and heavy-duty vehicle models listed by application, along with associated manufacturer contact information, fuel type(s), power source(s), and related information.

  17. Ethanol and air quality: influence of fuel ethanol content on emissions and fuel economy of flexible fuel vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Carolyn P; Anderson, James E; Wallington, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    Engine-out and tailpipe emissions of NOx, CO, nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC), nonmethane organic gases (NMOG), total hydrocarbons (THC), methane, ethene, acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, ethanol, N2O, and NH3 from a 2006 model year Mercury Grand Marquis flexible fuel vehicle (FFV) operating on E0, E10, E20, E30, E40, E55, and E80 on a chassis dynamometer are reported. With increasing ethanol content in the fuel, the tailpipe emissions of ethanol, acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, methane, and ammonia increased; NOx and NMHC decreased; while CO, ethene, and N2O emissions were not discernibly affected. NMOG and THC emissions displayed a pronounced minimum with midlevel (E20-E40) ethanol blends; 25-35% lower than for E0 or E80. Emissions of NOx decreased by approximately 50% as the ethanol content increased from E0 to E30-E40, with no further decrease seen with E55 or E80. We demonstrate that emission trends from FFVs are explained by fuel chemistry and engine calibration effects. Fuel chemistry effects are fundamental in nature; the same trend of increased ethanol, acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, and CH4 emissions and decreased NMHC and benzene emissions are expected for all FFVs. Engine calibration effects are manufacturer and model specific; emission trends for NOx, THC, and NMOG will not be the same for all FFVs. Implications for air quality are discussed.

  18. Approximate Pressure Distribution in an Accelerating Launch-Vehicle Fuel Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Michael P.

    2010-01-01

    A detailed derivation of the equations governing the pressure in a generic liquid-fuel launch vehicle tank subjected to uniformly accelerated motion is presented. The equations obtained are then for the Space Shuttle Superlightweight Liquid-Oxygen Tank at approximately 70 seconds into flight. This generic derivation is applicable to any fuel tank in the form of a surface of revolution and should be useful in the design of future launch vehicles

  19. 76 FR 39477 - Revisions and Additions to Motor Vehicle Fuel Economy Label

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ...The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) are issuing a joint final rule establishing new requirements for the fuel economy and environment label that will be posted on the window sticker of all new automobiles sold in the U.S. The labeling requirements apply for model year 2013 and later vehicles with a voluntary manufacturer option for model year 2012. The labeling requirements apply to passenger cars, light-duty trucks, and medium duty passenger vehicles such as larger sport-utility vehicles and vans. The redesigned label provides expanded information to American consumers about new vehicle fuel economy and fuel consumption, greenhouse gas and smog-forming emissions, and projected fuel costs and savings, and also includes a smartphone interactive code that permits direct access to additional Web resources. Specific label designs are provided for gasoline, diesel, ethanol flexible fuel, compressed natural gas, electric, plug-in hybrid electric, and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. This rulemaking is in response to provisions in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 that imposed several new labeling requirements and new advanced-technology vehicles entering the market. NHTSA and EPA believe that these changes will help consumers to make more informed vehicle purchase decisions, particularly as the future automotive marketplace provides more diverse vehicle technologies from which consumers may choose. These new label requirements do not affect the methodologies that EPA uses to generate consumer fuel economy estimates, or the automaker compliance values for NHTSA's corporate average fuel economy and EPA's greenhouse gas emissions standards. This action also finalizes a number of technical corrections to EPA's light-duty greenhouse gas emission standards program.

  20. History of Significant Vehicle and Fuel Introductions in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirk, Matthew [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Alleman, Teresa [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Melendez, Margo [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Thomas, John F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); West, Brian H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-09-01

    This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Co-Optimization of Fuels & Engines (Co-Optima) project, a Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to accelerate the introduction of affordable, scalable, and sustainable biofuels and high-efficiency, low-emission vehicle engines. The simultaneous fuels and vehicles research and development is designed to deliver maximum energy savings, emissions reduction, and on-road performance.

  1. Integrating a hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicle with vehicle-to-grid technology, photovoltaic power and a residential building

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robledo, C.B.; Oldenbroek, V.D.W.M.; Abbruzzese, F.; van Wijk, A.J.M.

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a demonstration project, including building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) solar panels, a residential building and a hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) for combined mobility and power generation, aiming to achieve a net zero-energy residential building

  2. 78 FR 17660 - Draft Guidance for E85 Flexible Fuel Vehicle Weighting Factor for Model Years 2016-2019 Vehicles...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9792-9] Draft Guidance for E85 Flexible Fuel Vehicle... draft EPA guidance to auto manufacturers for weighting the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of a flexible... all federal government work days from 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m.; generally, it is open Monday through...

  3. Predicting Light-Duty Vehicle Fuel Economy as a Function of Highway Speed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, John [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hwang, Ho-Ling [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); West, Brian [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Huff, Shean [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2013-04-08

    The www.fueleconomy.gov website offers information such as window label fuel economy for city, highway, and combined driving for all U.S.-legal light-duty vehicles from 1984 to the present. The site is jointly maintained by the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and also offers a considerable amount of consumer information and advice pertaining to vehicle fuel economy and energy related issues. Included with advice pertaining to driving styles and habits is information concerning the trend that as highway cruising speed is increased, fuel economy will degrade. An effort was undertaken to quantify this conventional wisdom through analysis of dynamometer testing results for 74 vehicles at steady state speeds from 50 to 80 mph. Using this experimental data, several simple models were developed to predict individual vehicle fuel economy and its rate of change over the 50-80 mph speed range interval. The models presented require a minimal number of vehicle attributes. The simplest model requires only the EPA window label highway mpg value (based on the EPA specified estimation method for 2008 and beyond). The most complex of these simple model uses vehicle coast-down test coefficients (from testing prescribed by SAE Standard J2263) known as the vehicle Target Coefficients, and the raw fuel economy result from the federal highway test. Statistical comparisons of these models and discussions of their expected usefulness and limitations are offered.

  4. Making the case for direct hydrogen storage in fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, B.D.; Thomas, C.E.; Baum, G.N.; Lomas, F.D. Jr.; Kuhn, I.F. Jr. [Directed Technologies, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Three obstacles to the introduction of direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles are often states: (1) inadequate onboard hydrogen storage leading to limited vehicle range; (2) lack of an hydrogen infrastructure, and (3) cost of the entire fuel cell system. This paper will address the first point with analysis of the problem/proposed solutions for the remaining two obstacles addressed in other papers. Results of a recent study conducted by Directed Technologies Inc. will be briefly presented. The study, as part of Ford Motor Company/DOE PEM Fuel Cell Program, examines multiple pure hydrogen onboard storage systems on the basis of weight, volume, cost, and complexity. Compressed gas, liquid, carbon adsorption, and metal hydride storage are all examined with compressed hydrogen storage at 5,000 psia being judged the lowest-risk, highest benefit, near-term option. These results are combined with recent fuel cell vehicle drive cycle simulations to estimate the onboard hydrogen storage requirement for full vehicle range (380 miles on the combined Federal driving schedule). The results indicate that a PNGV-like vehicle using powertrain weights and performance realistically available by the 2004 PNGV target data can achieve approximate fuel economy equivalent to 100 mpg on gasoline (100 mpg{sub eq}) and requires storage of approximately 3.6 kg hydrogen for full vehicle storage quantity allows 5,000 psia onboard storage without altering the vehicle exterior lines or appreciably encroaching on the passenger or trunk compartments.

  5. Greenhouse Gas and Noxious Emissions from Dual Fuel Diesel and Natural Gas Heavy Goods Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stettler, Marc E J; Midgley, William J B; Swanson, Jacob J; Cebon, David; Boies, Adam M

    2016-02-16

    Dual fuel diesel and natural gas heavy goods vehicles (HGVs) operate on a combination of the two fuels simultaneously. By substituting diesel for natural gas, vehicle operators can benefit from reduced fuel costs and as natural gas has a lower CO2 intensity compared to diesel, dual fuel HGVs have the potential to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the freight sector. In this study, energy consumption, greenhouse gas and noxious emissions for five after-market dual fuel configurations of two vehicle platforms are compared relative to their diesel-only baseline values over transient and steady state testing. Over a transient cycle, CO2 emissions are reduced by up to 9%; however, methane (CH4) emissions due to incomplete combustion lead to CO2e emissions that are 50-127% higher than the equivalent diesel vehicle. Oxidation catalysts evaluated on the vehicles at steady state reduced CH4 emissions by at most 15% at exhaust gas temperatures representative of transient conditions. This study highlights that control of CH4 emissions and improved control of in-cylinder CH4 combustion are required to reduce total GHG emissions of dual fuel HGVs relative to diesel vehicles.

  6. Future fuel choices in Asia - the future for nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, W.A.

    1993-01-01

    It wasn't so long ago that the political events in the Persian Gulf threatened global energy supply and showed the vulnerability of global economies to the interruptions of foreign oil imports. Today, with increasing global environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels, there is renewed interest in the nuclear energy option. The fast economic growth currently experienced in the Asia Pacific region is expected to drive electrical demands in an unprecedented pace. Current forecast of the world's total uncommitted electrical needs exceed 1,100 GWe over the next 10-15 years. In the US, the excess of electrical generating capacity which has existed for the past 15 years is coming to an end, and as we approach the 21st century, an estimated 200+ GWe of new generating capacity will be needed in the next 15 years. This paper describes GE's advanced boiling water reactor programs aimed at providing a new generation of nuclear energy plants to provide safe, clean, reliable, and economical electricity to the world's utilities as we enter the 21st century. (author)

  7. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis of Multiple Vehicle Fuel Pathways in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianduo Peng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Tsinghua University Life Cycle Analysis Model (TLCAM is applied to calculate the life cycle fossil energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions for more than 20 vehicle fuel pathways in China. In addition to conventional gasoline and diesel, these include coal- and gas-based vehicle fuels, and electric vehicle (EV pathways. The results indicate the following. (1 China’s current dependence on coal and relative low-efficiency processes limits the potential for most alternative fuel pathways to decrease energy consumption and emissions; (2 Future low-carbon electricity pathways offer more obvious advantages, with coal-based pathways needing to adopt carbon dioxide capture and storage technology to compete; (3 A well-to-wheels analysis of the fossil energy consumption of vehicles fueled by compressed natural gas and liquefied natural gas (LNG showed that they are comparable to conventional gasoline vehicles. However, importing rather than domestically producing LNG for vehicle use can decrease domestic GHG emissions by 35% and 31% compared with those of conventional gasoline and diesel vehicles, respectively; (4 The manufacturing and recovery of battery and vehicle in the EV analysis has significant impact on the overall ability of EVs to decrease fossil energy consumption and GHG emissions from ICEVs.

  8. The battle between battery and fuel cell powered electric vehicles : A BWM approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Kaa, G.; Scholten, D.J.; Rezaei, J.; Milchram, C.

    2017-01-01

    The transition to a more sustainable personal transportation sector requires the widespread adoption of electric vehicles. However, a dominant design has not yet emerged and a standards battle is being fought between battery and hydrogen fuel cell powered electric vehicles. The aim of this paper

  9. Fuel Property, Emission Test, and Operability Results from a Fleet of Class 6 Vehicles Operating on Gas-to-Liquid Fuel and Catalyzed Diesel Particle Filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alleman, T. L.; Eudy, L.; Miyasato, M.; Oshinuga, A.; Allison, S.; Corcoran, T.; Chatterjee, S.; Jacobs, T.; Cherrillo, R. A.; Clark, R.; Virrels, I.; Nine, R.; Wayne, S.; Lansing, R.

    2005-11-01

    A fleet of six 2001 International Class 6 trucks operating in southern California was selected for an operability and emissions study using gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuel and catalyzed diesel particle filters (CDPF). Three vehicles were fueled with CARB specification diesel fuel and no emission control devices (current technology), and three vehicles were fueled with GTL fuel and retrofit with Johnson Matthey's CCRT diesel particulate filter. No engine modifications were made.

  10. Possibility of hydrogen supply by shared residential fuel cell systems for fuel cell vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ono Yusuke

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Residential polymer electrolyte fuel cells cogeneration systems (residential PEFC systems produce hydrogen from city gas by internal gas-reformer, and generate electricity, the hot water at the same time. From the viewpoint of the operation, it is known that residential PEFC systems do not continuously work but stop for long time, because the systems generate enough hot water for short operation time. In other words, currently residential PEFC systems are dominated by the amount of hot water demand. This study focuses on the idle time of residential PEFC systems. Since their gas-reformers are free, the systems have potential to produce hydrogen during the partial load operations. The authors expect that residential PEFC systems can take a role to supply hydrogen for fuel cell vehicles (FCVs before hydrogen fueling stations are distributed enough. From this perspective, the objective of this study is to evaluate the hydrogen production potential of residential PEFC systems. A residential PEFC system was modeled by the mixed integer linear programming to optimize the operation including hydrogen supply for FCV. The objective function represents annual system cost to be minimized with the constraints of energy balance. It should be noted that the partial load characteristics of the gas-reformer and the fuel cell stack are taken into account to derive the optimal operation. The model was employed to estimate the possible amount of hydrogen supply by a residential PEFC system. The results indicated that the system could satisfy at least hydrogen demand for transportation of 8000 km which is as far as the average annual mileage of a passenger car in Japan. Furthermore, hydrogen production by sharing a residential PEFC system with two households is more effective to reduce primary energy consumption with hydrogen supply for FCV than the case of introducing PEFC in each household.

  11. 49 CFR 536.10 - Treatment of dual-fuel and alternative fuel vehicles-consistency with 49 CFR part 538.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... vehicles-consistency with 49 CFR part 538. 536.10 Section 536.10 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... vehicles—consistency with 49 CFR part 538. (a) Statutory alternative fuel and dual-fuel vehicle fuel... economy in a particular compliance category by more than the limits set forth in 49 U.S.C. 32906(a), the...

  12. A fuel-based approach to estimating motor vehicle exhaust emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Brett Craig

    Motor vehicles contribute significantly to air pollution problems; accurate motor vehicle emission inventories are therefore essential to air quality planning. Current travel-based inventory models use emission factors measured from potentially biased vehicle samples and predict fleet-average emissions which are often inconsistent with on-road measurements. This thesis presents a fuel-based inventory approach which uses emission factors derived from remote sensing or tunnel-based measurements of on-road vehicles. Vehicle activity is quantified by statewide monthly fuel sales data resolved to the air basin level. Development of the fuel-based approach includes (1) a method for estimating cold start emission factors, (2) an analysis showing that fuel-normalized emission factors are consistent over a range of positive vehicle loads and that most fuel use occurs during loaded-mode driving, (3) scaling factors relating infrared hydrocarbon measurements to total exhaust volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations, and (4) an analysis showing that economic factors should be considered when selecting on-road sampling sites. The fuel-based approach was applied to estimate carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from warmed-up vehicles in the Los Angeles area in 1991, and CO and VOC exhaust emissions for Los Angeles in 1997. The fuel-based CO estimate for 1991 was higher by a factor of 2.3 +/- 0.5 than emissions predicted by California's MVEI 7F model. Fuel-based inventory estimates for 1997 were higher than those of California's updated MVEI 7G model by factors of 2.4 +/- 0.2 for CO and 3.5 +/- 0.6 for VOC. Fuel-based estimates indicate a 20% decrease in the mass of CO emitted, despite an 8% increase in fuel use between 1991 and 1997; official inventory models predict a 50% decrease in CO mass emissions during the same period. Cold start CO and VOC emission factors derived from parking garage measurements were lower than those predicted by the MVEI 7G model. Current inventories

  13. M1078 Hybrid Hydraulic Vehicle Fuel Economy Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    hydraulic energy stored in the accumulators. Park Mechanism Not Required – Vehicle air brake system used to immobilize vehicle when parked – Same...power to the transmission to accelerate the vehicle forward and maintain a desired speed. For regenerative braking , the switching valve is set to...assist, brake energy recovery, dual mode braking ( regenerative and service brakes ), engine stop/start, silent watch mode, and stationary tool use

  14. 10 CFR 490.203 - Light Duty Alternative Fueled Vehicle Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Efficiency and Renewable Energy, EE-33, 1000 Independence Ave., SW., Washington, DC 20585, or to such other... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Light Duty Alternative Fueled Vehicle Plan. 490.203 Section 490.203 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM...

  15. US Department of Energy workshop on future fuel technology for heavy vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The objective of the workshop described in this report was to develop consensus on a program strategy for use of alternative fuels in heavy vehicles. Participants represented fuel providers, additive suppliers, the trucking industry, engine manufacturers, and government or national laboratory staff. Breakout sessions were co-facilitated by national laboratory staff and industry representatives.

  16. The Sport-Utility Vehicle: Debating Fuel-Economy Standards in Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Shannon

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a debate about national fuel-economy standards for sport-utility vehicles (SUVs) used as a foundation for exploring a public policy issue in the physical science classroom. The subject of automobile fuel economy benefits from a familiarity with thermodynamics, specifically heat engines, and is therefore applicable to a broad…

  17. Safety risks of hydrogen fuel for applications in transportation vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    Combustion of hydrocarbon fuels in many practical applications produces pollutants that are harmful to human health and environment. Hydrogen fuel is considered to be a potential answer to the clean energy demands, especially with the advances in fue...

  18. Review of the Fuel Saving, Life Cycle GHG Emission, and Ownership Cost Impacts of Lightweighting Vehicles with Different Powertrains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Jason M; Kim, Hyung Chul; De Kleine, Robert; Wallington, Timothy J; MacLean, Heather L

    2017-08-01

    The literature analyzing the fuel saving, life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, and ownership cost impacts of lightweighting vehicles with different powertrains is reviewed. Vehicles with lower powertrain efficiencies have higher fuel consumption. Thus, fuel savings from lightweighting internal combustion engine vehicles can be higher than those of hybrid electric and battery electric vehicles. However, the impact of fuel savings on life cycle costs and GHG emissions depends on fuel prices, fuel carbon intensities and fuel storage requirements. Battery electric vehicle fuel savings enable reduction of battery size without sacrificing driving range. This reduces the battery production cost and mass, the latter results in further fuel savings. The carbon intensity of electricity varies widely and is a major source of uncertainty when evaluating the benefits of fuel savings. Hybrid electric vehicles use gasoline more efficiently than internal combustion engine vehicles and do not require large plug-in batteries. Therefore, the benefits of lightweighting depend on the vehicle powertrain. We discuss the value proposition of the use of lightweight materials and alternative powertrains. Future assessments of the benefits of vehicle lightweighting should capture the unique characteristics of emerging vehicle powertrains.

  19. 40 CFR 80.595 - How does a small or GPA refiner apply for a motor vehicle diesel fuel volume baseline for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for a motor vehicle diesel fuel volume baseline for the purpose of extending their gasoline sulfur... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive... a small or GPA refiner apply for a motor vehicle diesel fuel volume baseline for the purpose of...

  20. Comparison of policies on vehicle ownership and use between Beijing and Shanghai and their impacts on fuel consumption by passenger vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Han; Wang Hewu; Ouyang Minggao

    2011-01-01

    The fast growth of vehicle population in China has caused problems such as traffic congestion and excessive fuel consumption. There have been demands for policy control on growth in private vehicle travel demand. Beijing and Shanghai are China's first two cities to implement policies on vehicle ownership and use. In this paper, we compared policies in the two cities and estimated their impacts on fuel consumption by passenger vehicles. The limitation of vehicle use in Beijing provides limited but immediate reduction in fuel consumption. The limitation of vehicle ownership in Shanghai provides large potential of fuel conservation in a longer term. Under current policy, fuel consumptions by passenger vehicles in Beijing and Shanghai in 2020 were estimated to reach 7.5 and 3.9 billion liters, respectively. The experiences of Beijing and Shanghai are highly relevant for cities in China and abroad that are facing the same problems. - Research Highlights: → Beijing and Shanghai are the first two cities in China to implement policies on vehicle ownership and use. This paper compared policies in the two cities and evaluated their effectiveness. → A bottom-up model was established to simulate the fuel consumption by passenger vehicles. By using this model, fuel consumptions by passenger vehicles in Beijing and Shanghai from 1990 to 2020 under two scenarios of current policy and no policy were estimated. Under current policy, fuel consumptions by passenger vehicles in Beijing and Shanghai in 2020 were estimated to reach 7.5 and 3.9 billion liters, respectively. → This paper discussed the benefits and negative impacts of policies in Beijing and Shanghai, which are highly relevant for cities in China and abroad that are facing the problems of traffic congestion and excessive vehicle fuel consumption.

  1. An investigation on the fuel savings potential of hybrid hydraulic refuse collection vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Frank A; Bosse, Thomas; Sawodny, Oliver

    2014-09-01

    Refuse trucks play an important role in the waste collection process. Due to their typical driving cycle, these vehicles are characterized by large fuel consumption, which strongly affects the overall waste disposal costs. Hybrid hydraulic refuse vehicles offer an interesting alternative to conventional diesel trucks, because they are able to recuperate, store and reuse braking energy. However, the expected fuel savings can vary strongly depending on the driving cycle and the operational mode. Therefore, in order to assess the possible fuel savings, a typical driving cycle was measured in a conventional vehicle run by the waste authority of the City of Stuttgart, and a dynamical model of the considered vehicle was built up. Based on the measured driving cycle and the vehicle model including the hybrid powertrain components, simulations for both the conventional and the hybrid vehicle were performed. Fuel consumption results that indicate savings of about 20% are presented and analyzed in order to evaluate the benefit of hybrid hydraulic vehicles used for refuse collection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Autonomy-Enabled Fuel Savings for Military Vehicles: Report on 2016 Aberdeen Test Center Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragatz, Adam [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Prohaska, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gonder, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-05-26

    Fuel savings have never been the primary focus for autonomy-enabled military vehicles. However, studies have estimated that autonomy in passenger and commercial vehicles could improve fuel economy by as much as 22%-33% over various drive cycles. If even a fraction of this saving could be realized in military vehicles, significant cost savings could be realized each year through reduced fuel transport missions, reduced fuel purchases, less maintenance, fewer required personnel, and increased vehicle range. Researchers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory installed advanced data logging equipment and instrumentation on two autonomy-enabled convoy vehicles configured with Lockheed Martin's Autonomous Mobility Applique System to determine system performance and improve on the overall vehicle control strategies of the vehicles. Initial test results from testing conducted at the U.S. Army Aberdeen Test Center at the Aberdeen Proving Grounds are included in this report. Lessons learned from in-use testing and performance results have been provided to the project partners for continued system refinement.

  3. 75 FR 58077 - Revisions and Additions to Motor Vehicle Fuel Economy Label

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ...The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) are conducting a joint rulemaking to redesign and add information to the current fuel economy label that is posted on the window sticker of all new cars and light- duty trucks sold in the U.S. The redesigned label will provide new information to American consumers about the fuel economy and consumption, fuel costs, and environmental impacts associated with purchasing new vehicles beginning with model year 2012 cars and trucks. This action will also develop new labels for certain advanced technology vehicles, which are poised to enter the U.S. market, in particular plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and electric vehicles. NHTSA and EPA are proposing these changes because the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 imposes several new labeling requirements, because the agencies believe that the current labels can be improved to help consumers make more informed vehicle purchase decisions, and because the time is right to develop new labels for advanced technology vehicles that are being commercialized. This proposal is also consistent with the recent joint rulemaking by EPA and NHTSA that established harmonized federal greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards for new cars, sport utility vehicles, minivans, and pickup trucks for model years 2012-2016.

  4. 48 CFR 252.229-7009 - Relief from customs duty and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom). 252.229-7009 Section 252.229-7009... Relief from customs duty and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom). As prescribed in 229.402-70(i), use the following clause: Relief from Customs Duty and Value Added Tax on Fuel...

  5. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle Fuel System Integrity Research : Electrical Isolation Test Procedure Development and Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    The Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) establish minimum levels for vehicle safety, and manufacturers of motor vehicle and equipment items must comply with these standards. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) contra...

  6. A Study on BC Emission from Vehicles using Different Types of Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K.; Son, J.; Kim, J.; Kim, S.; Park, G.; Sung, K.; Kim, I.; Chung, T.; Park, T.; Kang, S.; Ban, J.; Kim, J.; Hong, Y. D.; Woo, J. H.; Lee, T.

    2017-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) is an anthropogenic aerosol from fossil fuels, and biomass burning. It absorbs solar radiation, and heats the atmosphere leading 0.4W m-2 radiative forcing. BC is a particle that can cause serious effects on human body as well. Toxicological studies of black carbon suggests that BC may be an important carrier of toxic chemicals to human body. The recent researches show that one of the main precursor of BC is vehicle emission, but the inventory of BC emission rate from vehicle is inadequate in South Korea. This study tries to find differences of BC emission from different sizes of vehicles using different types of fuels. Fuels used in vehicles are gasoline, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and diesel. BC was directly measured from the tail pipe of vehicles using Aethalometer (AE33, Magee Scientific Corporation). This study was conducted in Transport Pollutant Research Center, National Institute of Environmental Research, South Korea. Measurement was progressed with the five different test modes of speeds. Speed modes includes 4.7, 17.3, 34.1, 65.4, and 97.3 km h-1. Emission rate of BC was high in the slowest speed mode, and showed decrease with increase of the speed of vehicles. Gasoline vehicles had the relatively higher emission rate of BC than the LPG vehicle, while the emission rate of BC for Diesel with DPF (Diesel Particle Filter) was observed to be the lowest.

  7. Development and application of underwater robot vehicle for close inspection of spent fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, J. S.; Park, B. S.; Song, T. G.; Kim, S. H.; Cho, M. W.; Ahn, S. H.; Lee, J. Y.; Oh, S. C.; Oh, W. J.; Shin, K. W.; Woo, D. H.; Kim, H. G.; Park, J. S

    1999-12-01

    The research and development efforts of the underwater robotic vehicle for inspection of spent fuels are focused on the development of an robotic vehicle which inspects spent fuels in the storage pool through remotely controlled actuation. For this purpose, a self balanced vehicle actuated by propellers is designed and fabricated, which consists of a radiation resistance camera, two illuminators, a pressure transducer and a manipulator. the algorithm for autonomous navigation is developed and its performance is tested at the swimming pool. The results of the underwater vehicle shows that the vehicle can easily navigate into the arbitrary directions while maintaining its balanced position. The camera provides a clear view of working environment by using the macro and zoom functions. The camera tilt device provides a wide field of view which is enough for monitoring the operation of manipulator. Also, the manipulator can pick up the dropped objects up to 4 kgf of weight. (author)

  8. Fuel Options for Vehicles in Korea and Role of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Yong Hoon; Chang, Soon Heung

    2005-01-01

    Nowadays, almost all vehicles in Korea are powered by gasoline or diesel and they are emitting about 25% of nationwide total carbon dioxide emission. With jetting up price of oil and concerns about global warming by use of fossil fuel, transition to the hydrogen economy gains more and more interest. As alternatives to the current fossil powered vehicles, hybrid, hydrogen, electricity powered vehicles are considered. In short term we will reduce dependence upon fossil fuel by using hybrid cars. However, in the long term, we have to escape from the dependence on fossil fuel. In this context, nuclear-driven hydrogen or electricity powered cars are the alternatives. In this study, we estimated the operation cost of cars powered by hydrogen and electricity from nuclear power and studied about the major blocks on the way to independence from fossil fuels. In the analysis, we put the capital cost of car aside

  9. ParaChoice Model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heimer, Brandon Walter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Levinson, Rebecca Sobel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); West, Todd H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Analysis with the ParaChoice model addresses three barriers from the VTO Multi-Year Program Plan: availability of alternative fuels and electric charging station infrastructure, availability of AFVs and electric drive vehicles, and consumer reluctance to purchase new technologies. In this fiscal year, we first examined the relationship between the availability of alternative fuels and station infrastructure. Specifically, we studied how electric vehicle charging infrastructure affects the ability of EVs to compete with vehicles that rely on mature, conventional petroleum-based fuels. Second, we studied how the availability of less costly AFVs promotes their representation in the LDV fleet. Third, we used ParaChoice trade space analyses to help inform which consumers are reluctant to purchase new technologies. Last, we began analysis of impacts of alternative energy technologies on Class 8 trucks to isolate those that may most efficaciously advance HDV efficiency and petroleum use reduction goals.

  10. The cost of fuel economy in the Indian passenger vehicle market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chugh, Randy; Cropper, Maureen; Narain, Urvashi

    2011-01-01

    To investigate how fuel economy is valued in the Indian car market, we compute the cost to Indian consumers of purchasing a more fuel-efficient vehicle and compare it to the benefit of lower fuel costs over the life of the vehicle. We estimate hedonic price functions for four market segments (petrol hatchbacks, diesel hatchbacks, petrol sedans, and diesel sedans) to compute 95% confidence intervals for the marginal cost to the consumer for an increase in fuel economy. We find that the associated present value of fuel savings falls within the 95% confidence interval for most specifications, in all market segments, for the years 2002 through 2006. Thus, we fail to consistently reject the hypothesis that consumers appropriately value fuel economy. - Highlights: → We examine the tradeoffs faced by new vehicle consumers in India. → We use hedonic price functions and instrumental variables. → We find no support for the hypothesis that consumers undervalue fuel economy. → Some consumers are willing to forgo substantial potential savings to own their preferred vehicle.

  11. Which energy source for road transport in the future? A comparison of battery, hybrid and fuel cell vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mierlo, J. van; Maggetto, G.; Lataire, Ph.

    2006-01-01

    The hydrogen era is foreseen following the European research programme in a time horizon of 2020-2040. But there will be clearly a choice to be made between an electron economy (direct use of the produced electricity) and the so called 'hydrogen economy' which leads to the introduction of an intermediate hydrogen production, transport and distribution process before the final use in an electrical process. This paper considers only passenger car and delivery vans applications. In this field a big time gap is to be filled between the situation today, the occurrence of oil shortage in a quite short future and this time horizon 2020-2040. Today's intermediate solutions are clearly based on hybrid electric vehicles and battery electric vehicles. The performances of these solutions are putting a lot of questions on the necessity of a hydrogen economy for future transportation. The paper discusses performances of hybrid electric vehicles and battery electric vehicles in comparison of the future hydrogen fuel cell based systems which are now in R and D phase and a very beginning of field demonstration

  12. Design and modelling of high gain DC-DC converters for fuel cell hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elangovan, D.; Karthigeyan, V.; Subhanu, B.; Ashwin, M.; Arunkumar, G.

    2017-11-01

    Transportation (Diesel and petrol internal combustion engine vehicles) approximately contributes to 25.5% of total CO2 emission. Thus diesel and petrol engine vehicles are the most dominant contributors of CO2 emission which leads global warming which causes climate change. The problem of CO2 emission and global warming can be reduced by focusing on renewable energy vehicles. Out of the available renewable energy sources fuel cell is the only source which has reasonable efficiency and can be used in vehicles. But the main disadvantage of fuel cell is its slow response time. So energy storage systems like batteries and super capacitors are used in parallel with the fuel cell. Fuel cell is used during steady state vehicle operation while during transient conditions like starting, acceleration and braking batteries and super capacitors can supply or absorb energy. In this paper a unidirectional fuel cell DC-DC converter and bidirectional energy storage system DC-DC converter is proposed, which can interface dc sources at different voltage levels to the dc bus and also it can independently control the power flow from each energy source to the dc bus and vice versa. The proposed converters are designed and simulated using PSIM version 9.1.1 and gate pulse pattern, input and output voltage waveforms of the converters for steady state operation are studied.

  13. Super-capacitors fuel-cell hybrid electric vehicle optimization and control strategy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paladini, Vanessa; Donateo, Teresa; De Risi, Arturo; Laforgia, Domenico

    2007-01-01

    In the last decades, due to emissions reduction policies, research focused on alternative powertrains among which hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) powered by fuel cells are becoming an attractive solution. One of the main issues of these vehicles is the energy management in order to improve the overall fuel economy. The present investigation aims at identifying the best hybrid vehicle configuration and control strategy to reduce fuel consumption. The study focuses on a car powered by a fuel cell and equipped with two secondary energy storage devices: batteries and super-capacitors. To model the powertrain behavior an on purpose simulation program called ECoS has been developed in Matlab/Simulink environment. The fuel cell model is based on the Amphlett theory. The battery and the super-capacitor models account for charge/discharge efficiency. The analyzed powertrain is also equipped with an energy regeneration system to recover braking energy. The numerical optimization of vehicle configuration and control strategy of the hybrid electric vehicle has been carried out with a multi objective genetic algorithm. The goal of the optimization is the reduction of hydrogen consumption while sustaining the battery state of charge. By applying the algorithm to different driving cycles, several optimized configurations have been identified and discussed

  14. Prolonging fuel cell stack lifetime based on Pontryagin's Minimum Principle in fuel cell hybrid vehicles and its economic influence evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, C. H.; Xu, G. Q.; Park, Y. I.; Lim, W. S.; Cha, S. W.

    2014-02-01

    The lifetime of fuel cell stacks is a major issue currently, especially for automotive applications. In order to take into account the lifetime of fuel cell stacks while considering the fuel consumption minimization in fuel cell hybrid vehicles (FCHVs), a Pontryagin's Minimum Principle (PMP)-based power management strategy is proposed in this research. This strategy has the effect of prolonging the lifetime of fuel cell stacks. However, there is a tradeoff between the fuel cell stack lifetime and the fuel consumption when this strategy is applied to an FCHV. Verifying the positive economic influence of this strategy is necessary in order to demonstrate its superiority. In this research, the economic influence of the proposed strategy is assessed according to an evaluating cost which is dependent on the fuel cell stack cost, the hydrogen cost, the fuel cell stack lifetime, and the lifetime prolonging impact on the fuel cell stack. Simulation results derived from the proposed power management strategy are also used to evaluate the economic influence. As a result, the positive economic influence of the proposed PMP-based power management strategy is proved for both current and future FCHVs.

  15. Efficiency Improvement Opportunities for Light-Duty Natural-Gas-Fueled Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staunton, R.H.; Thomas, J.F.

    1998-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate and make recommendations concerning technologies that promise to improve the efilciency of compressed natural gas (CNG) light-duty vehicles. Technical targets for CNG automotive technology given in the March 1998 OffIce of Advanced Automotive Technologies research and development plan were used as guidance for this effort. The technical target that necessitates this current study is to validate technologies that enable CNG light vehicles to have at least 10% greater - fuel economy (on a miles per gallon equivalent basis) than equivalent gasoline vehicles by 2006. Other tar- gets important to natural gas (NG) automotive technology and this study are to: (1) increase CNG vehicle range to 380 miles, (2) reduce the incremental vehicle cost (CNG vs gasoline) to $1500, and (3) meet the California ultra low-emission vehicle (ULEV) and Federal Tier 2 emission standards expected to be in effect in 2004.

  16. Real-world fuel use and gaseous emission rates for flex fuel vehicles operated on E85 versus gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delavarrafiee, Maryam; Frey, H Christopher

    2018-03-01

    Flex fuel vehicles (FFVs) typically operate on gasoline or E85, an 85%/15% volume blend of ethanol and gasoline. Differences in FFV fuel use and tailpipe emission rates are quantified for E85 versus gasoline based on real-world measurements of five FFVs with a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS), supplemented chassis dynamometer data, and estimates from the Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES) model. Because of inter-vehicle variability, an individual FFV may have higher nitrogen oxide (NO x ) or carbon monoxide (CO) emission rates on E85 versus gasoline, even though average rates are lower. Based on PEMS data, the comparison of tailpipe emission rates for E85 versus gasoline is sensitive to vehicle-specific power (VSP). For example, although CO emission rates are lower for all VSP modes, they are proportionally lowest at higher VSP. Driving cycles with high power demand are more advantageous with respect to CO emissions, but less advantageous for NO x . Chassis dynamometer data are available for 121 FFVs at 50,000 useful life miles. Based on the dynamometer data, the average difference in tailpipe emissions for E85 versus gasoline is -23% for NO x , -30% for CO, and no significant difference for hydrocarbons (HC). To account for both the fuel cycle and tailpipe emissions from the vehicle, a life cycle inventory was conducted. Although tailpipe NO x emissions are lower for E85 versus gasoline for FFVs and thus benefit areas where the vehicles operate, the life cycle NO x emissions are higher because the NO x emissions generated during fuel production are higher. The fuel production emissions take place typically in rural areas. Although there are not significant differences in the total HC emissions, there are differences in HC speciation. The net effect of lower tailpipe NO x emissions and differences in HC speciation on ozone formation should be further evaluated. Reported comparisons of flex fuel vehicle (FFV) tailpipe emission rates for E85 versus

  17. Coupling fuel cycles with repositories: how repository institutional choices may impact fuel cycle design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.; Miller, W.F.

    2013-01-01

    The historical repository siting strategy in the United States has been a top-down approach driven by federal government decision making but it has been a failure. This policy has led to dispatching fuel cycle facilities in different states. The U.S. government is now considering an alternative repository siting strategy based on voluntary agreements with state governments. If that occurs, state governments become key decision makers. They have different priorities. Those priorities may change the characteristics of the repository and the fuel cycle. State government priorities, when considering hosting a repository, are safety, financial incentives and jobs. It follows that states will demand that a repository be the center of the back end of the fuel cycle as a condition of hosting it. For example, states will push for collocation of transportation services, safeguards training, and navy/private SNF (Spent Nuclear Fuel) inspection at the repository site. Such activities would more than double local employment relative to what was planned for the Yucca Mountain-type repository. States may demand (1) the right to take future title of the SNF so if recycle became economic the reprocessing plant would be built at the repository site and (2) the right of a certain fraction of the repository capacity for foreign SNF. That would open the future option of leasing of fuel to foreign utilities with disposal of the SNF in the repository but with the state-government condition that the front-end fuel-cycle enrichment and fuel fabrication facilities be located in that state

  18. The new car market for electric vehicles and the potential for fuel substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kihm, Alexander; Trommer, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Electric vehicles are expected to significantly reduce road transport emissions, given an increasingly renewable power generation. While technological issues are more and more being overcome, the economic viability and thus possible adoption is still constrained, mainly by higher prices than for conventional vehicles. In our work we analyze possible market developments for electric vehicles with an application to Germany. We develop a drivetrain choice model with economical, technical and social constraints on the current vehicle registrations and inventory. It estimates the demand for electric vehicles until 2030 for private and commercially registered cars as well as light commercial vehicles. The results show a replacement potential of almost one third of the total German annual mileage for these vehicles. The result has a high granularity to allow for detailed emission calculation along different spatial areas as well as vehicle and engine types. Besides a baseline forecast, our method allows for calculating different scenarios regarding policy actions or the future development of important parameters such as energy prices. The results provide insights for policy measures as well as for transport and environmental modeling. - Highlights: • We model the potential German market for electric vehicles using total cost of ownership. • The results show a substitution potential of one third of the total German annual mileage. • Plug-in hybrid drivetrains outperform battery electric ones due to their cost advantages. • Suburbia around large cities is the largest market for EVs. • The first main vehicle categories for EVs are large and medium-sized company cars

  19. Fuel consumption from vehicles of China until 2030 in energy scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qingyu; Tian Weili; Zheng Yingyue; Zhang Lili

    2010-01-01

    Estimation of fuel (gasoline and diesel) consumption for vehicles in China under different long-term energy policy scenarios is presented here. The fuel economy of different vehicle types is subject to variation of government regulations; hence the fuel consumption of passenger cars (PCs), light trucks (Lts), heavy trucks (Hts), buses and motor cycles (MCs) are calculated with respect to (i) the number of vehicles, (ii) distance traveled, and (iii) fuel economy. On the other hand, the consumption rate of alternative energy sources (i.e. ethanol, methanol, biomass-diesel and CNG) is not evaluated here. The number of vehicles is evaluated using the economic elastic coefficient method, relating to per capita gross domestic product (GDP) from 1997 to 2007. The Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP) system software is employed to develop a simple model to project fuel consumption in China until 2030 under these scenarios. Three energy consumption decrease scenarios are designed to estimate the reduction of fuel consumption: (i) 'business as usual' (BAU); (ii) 'advanced fuel economy' (AFE); and (iii) 'alternative energy replacement' (AER). It is shown that fuel consumption is predicted to reach 992.28 Mtoe (million tons oil equivalent) with the BAU scenario by 2030. In the AFE and AER scenarios, fuel consumption is predicted to be 734.68 and 600.36 Mtoe, respectively, by 2030. In the AER scenario, fuel consumption in 2030 will be reduced by 391.92 (39.50%) and 134.29 (18.28%) Mtoe in comparison to the BAU and AFE scenarios, respectively. In conclusion, our models indicate that the energy conservation policies introduced by governmental institutions are potentially viable, as long as they are effectively implemented.

  20. Design of a Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle Drive System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltz, Erik

    Fuel cells achieve more and more attention due to their potential of replacing the traditional internal combustion engine (ICE) used in the area of transportation. In this PhD thesis a fuel cell shaft power pack (FCSPP) is designed and implemented in a small truck. The FCSPP replaces the original...

  1. UC Davis Fuel Cell, Hydrogen, and Hybrid Vehicle (FCH2V) GATE Center of Excellence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, Paul

    2012-05-31

    This is the final report of the UC Davis Fuel Cell, Hydrogen, and Hybrid Vehicle (FCH2V) GATE Center of Excellence which spanned from 2005-2012. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) established the Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Program, to provide a new generation of engineers and scientists with knowledge and skills to create advanced automotive technologies. The UC Davis Fuel Cell, Hydrogen, and Hybrid Vehicle (FCH2V) GATE Center of Excellence established in 2005 is focused on research, education, industrial collaboration and outreach within automotive technology. UC Davis has had two independent GATE centers with separate well-defined objectives and research programs from 1998. The Fuel Cell Center, administered by ITS-Davis, has focused on fuel cell technology. The Hybrid-Electric Vehicle Design Center (HEV Center), administered by the Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, has focused on the development of plug-in hybrid technology using internal combustion engines. The merger of these two centers in 2005 has broadened the scope of research and lead to higher visibility of the activity. UC Davis's existing GATE centers have become the campus's research focal points on fuel cells and hybrid-electric vehicles, and the home for graduate students who are studying advanced automotive technologies. The centers have been highly successful in attracting, training, and placing top-notch students into fuel cell and hybrid programs in both industry and government.

  2. Fuel consumption and greenhouse gas calculator for diesel and biodiesel-powered vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Factors that influence fuel consumption include environmental conditions, maintenance, poor driving techniques, and driving speed. Developed by Natural Resources Canada, the SmartDriver training programs were designed to help fleet managers, drivers, and instructors to learn methods of improving fuel economy. This fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) calculator for diesel and biodiesel-powered vehicles provides drivers with a method of calculating fuel consumption rates when driving. It includes a log-book in which to record odometer readings and a slide-rule in which to determine the litres of fuel used during a trip. The scale showed the number of kg of GHGs produced by burning a particular amount of fuel for both biodiesel and diesel fuels. 1 fig.

  3. A Two-Phase Heuristic Algorithm for the Common Frequency Routing Problem with Vehicle Type Choice in the Milk Run

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available High frequency and small lot size are characteristics of milk runs and are often used to implement the just-in-time (JIT strategy in logistical systems. The common frequency problem, which simultaneously involves planning of the route and frequency, has been extensively researched in milk run systems. In addition, vehicle type choice in the milk run system also has a significant influence on the operating cost. Therefore, in this paper, we simultaneously consider vehicle routing planning, frequency planning, and vehicle type choice in order to optimize the sum of the cost of transportation, inventory, and dispatch. To this end, we develop a mathematical model to describe the common frequency problem with vehicle type choice. Since the problem is NP hard, we develop a two-phase heuristic algorithm to solve the model. More specifically, an initial satisfactory solution is first generated through a greedy heuristic algorithm to maximize the ratio of the superior arc frequency to the inferior arc frequency. Following this, a tabu search (TS with limited search scope is used to improve the initial satisfactory solution. Numerical examples with different sizes establish the efficacy of our model and our proposed algorithm.

  4. Design and Comparison of Power Systems for a Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltz, Erik; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2008-01-01

    In a fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle (FCHEV) the fuel cell stack is assisted by one or more energy storage devices. Thereby the system cost, mass, and volume can be decreased, and a significant better performance can be obtained. Two often used energy storage devices are the battery...... ultracapacitors are the only energy storage device the system becomes too big and heavy. A fuel cell/battery/ultracapacitor hybrid provides the longest life time of the batteries. If the fuel cell stack power is too small, the system will be big, heavy, and have a poor efficiency....

  5. Long term fuel price elasticity: effects on mobility tool ownership and residential location choice - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erath, A.; Axhausen, K. W.

    2010-04-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines the long-term effects of fuel price elasticity. The study analyses how mobility tool usage and ownership as well as residence location choice are affected by rising fuel costs. Based on econometric models, long-term fuel price elasticity is derived. The authors quote that the demand reactions to higher fuel prices mainly observed are the reduction of mileage and the consideration of smaller-engined and diesel-driven cars. As cars with natural gas powered engines and electric drives were hardly considered in the survey, the results of the natural gas model can, according to the authors, only serve as a trend. No stable model could be estimated for the demand and usage of electric cars. A literature overview is presented and the design of the survey is discussed, whereby socio-demographical variables and the effects of price and residence changes are discussed. Modelling of mobility tool factors and results obtained are looked at. Finally, residence choice factors are modelled and discussed. Several appendices complete the report.

  6. Neural control systems for alternatively fuelled vehicles and natural gas fuel injection for DACIA NOVA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulatisky, M. [Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Ghelesel, A. [BC Gas International, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    The elements of natural gas vehicle conversion technology are described as background to a discussion of the development of bi-fuel injection system for the Rumanian-manufactured DACIA-NOVA automobile. The bi-fuel injection system mirrors the fueling system installed by the original equipment manufacturer; it can also be easily installed on Ford, General Motors and DaimlerChrysler vehicles as well as on most imports.To meet emission standards after 2000, it is envisaged to install on the DACIA NOVA a neural control system (NCS) and a completely adaptive linear control system (ACLS). Details of natural gas vehicles development and the development of NCS and ACLS are discussed, including short-term and long-term objectives.

  7. [Life cycle assessment of the infrastructure for hydrogen sources of fuel cell vehicles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wen; Wang, Shujuan; Ni, Weidou; Chen, Changhe

    2003-05-01

    In order to promote the application of life cycle assessment and provide references for China to make the project of infrastructure for hydrogen sources of fuel cell vehicles in the near future, 10 feasible plans of infrastructure for hydrogen sources of fuel cell vehicles were designed according to the current technologies of producing, storing and transporting hydrogen. Then life cycle assessment was used as a tool to evaluate the environmental performances of the 10 plans. The standard indexes of classified environmental impacts of every plan were gotten and sensitivity analysis for several parameters were carried out. The results showed that the best plan was that hydrogen will be produced by natural gas steam reforming in central factory, then transported to refuelling stations through pipelines, and filled to fuel cell vehicles using hydrogen gas at last.

  8. A Novel Range-Extended Strategy for Fuel Cell/Battery Electric Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jenn-Jiang; Hu, Jia-Sheng; Lin, Chih-Hong

    2015-01-01

    The range-extended electric vehicle is proposed to improve the range anxiety drivers have of electric vehicles. Conventionally, a gasoline/diesel generator increases the range of an electric vehicle. Due to the zero-CO2 emission stipulations, utilizing fuel cells as generators raises concerns in society. This paper presents a novel charging strategy for fuel cell/battery electric vehicles. In comparison to the conventional switch control, a fuzzy control approach is employed to enhance the battery's state of charge (SOC). This approach improves the quick loss problem of the system's SOC and thus can achieve an extended driving range. Smooth steering experience and range extension are the main indexes for development of fuzzy rules, which are mainly based on the energy management in the urban driving model. Evaluation of the entire control system is performed by simulation, which demonstrates its effectiveness and feasibility.

  9. Electrically heated catalysts for cold-start emission control on gasoline- and methanol-fueled vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heimrich, M.J.; Albu, S.; Ahuja, M.

    1992-01-01

    Cold-start emissions from current technology vehicles equipped with catalytic converters can account for over 80 percent of the emissions produced during the Federal Test Procedure (FTP). Excessive pollutants can be emitted for a period of one to two minutes following cold engine starting, partially because the catalyst has not reached an efficient operating temperature. Electrically heated catalysts, which are heated prior to engine starting, have been identified as a potential strategy for controlling cold-start emissions. This paper summarizes the emission results of three gasoline-fueled and three methanol-fueled vehicles equipped with electrically heated catalyst systems. Results from these vehicles demonstrate that heated catalyst technology can provide FTP emission levels of nonmethane organic gases (NMOG), carbon monoxide (CO), and oxides of nitrogen (NO x ) that show promise of meeting the Ultra-Low Emission Vehicle (ULEV) standards established by the California Air Resources Board

  10. A Study on Vehicle Emission Factor Correction Based on Fuel Consumption Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoning; Li, Meng; Peng, Bo

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study is to address the problem of obvious differences between the calculated and measured emissions of pollutants from motor vehicle by using the existing "Environmental Impact Assessment Specification of Highway Construction Projects". First, a field study collects the vehicle composition ratio, speed, slope, fuel consumption and other essential data. Considering practical applications, the emission factors corresponding to 40km/h and 110km/h and 120km/h velocity are introduced by data fitting. Then, the emission factors of motor vehicle are revised based on the measured fuel consumption, and the pollutant emission modified formula was calculated and compared with the standard recommendation formula. The results show the error between calculated and measured values are within 5%, which can better reflect the actual discharge of the motor vehicle.

  11. A Novel Range-Extended Strategy for Fuel Cell/Battery Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenn-Jiang Hwang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The range-extended electric vehicle is proposed to improve the range anxiety drivers have of electric vehicles. Conventionally, a gasoline/diesel generator increases the range of an electric vehicle. Due to the zero-CO2 emission stipulations, utilizing fuel cells as generators raises concerns in society. This paper presents a novel charging strategy for fuel cell/battery electric vehicles. In comparison to the conventional switch control, a fuzzy control approach is employed to enhance the battery’s state of charge (SOC. This approach improves the quick loss problem of the system’s SOC and thus can achieve an extended driving range. Smooth steering experience and range extension are the main indexes for development of fuzzy rules, which are mainly based on the energy management in the urban driving model. Evaluation of the entire control system is performed by simulation, which demonstrates its effectiveness and feasibility.

  12. Potential long-term impacts of changes in US vehicle fuel efficiency standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezdek, Roger H.; Wendling, Robert M.

    2005-01-01

    Changes in corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards have not been made due, in part, to concerns over their negative impact on the economy and jobs. This paper simulates the effects of enhanced CAFE standards through 2030 and finds that such changes could increase GDP and create 300,000 jobs distributed widely across states, industries, and occupations. In addition, enhanced CAFE standards could, each year, reduce US oil consumption by 30 billion gallons, save drivers $40 billion, and reduce US greenhouse gas emissions by 100 million tons. However, there is no free lunch. There would be widespread job displacement within many industries, occupations, and states, and increased CAFE standards require that fuel economy be given priority over other vehicle improvements, increase the purchase price of vehicles, require manufacturers to produce vehicles that they otherwise would not, and require consumers to purchase vehicles that would not exist except for CAFE

  13. Modelling and design optimization of low speed fuel cell - battery hybrid electric vehicles. Paper no. IGEC-1-125

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenther, M.; Dong, Z.

    2005-01-01

    A push for electric vehicles has occurred in the past several decades due to various concerns about air pollution and the contribution of emissions to global climate change. Although electric cars and buses have been the focus of much of electric vehicle development, smaller vehicles are used extensively for transportation and utility purposes in many countries. In order to explore the viability of fuel cell - battery hybrid electric vehicles, empirical fuel cell system data has been incorporated into the NREL's vehicle design and simulation tool, ADVISOR (ADvanced Vehicle SimulatOR), to predict the performance of a low-speed, fuel cell - battery electric vehicle through MATLAB Simulink. The modelling and simulation provide valuable feedback to the design optimization of the fuel cell power system. A sampling based optimization algorithm was used to explore the viability and options of a low cost design for urban use. (author)

  14. Ultracapacitors for fuel saving in small size hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solero, L.; Lidozzi, A.; Serrao, V. [University ROMA TRE, Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Eng., Via della Vasca Navale, 79 - 00146 Roma (Italy); Martellucci, L. [University of Rome ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Dept. of Electrical Eng., Via Eudossiana, 18 - 00184 Roma (Italy); Rossi, E. [ENEA, Via Anguillarese, 301 - 00060 S. Maria Galeria, Roma (Italy)

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of the paper is to describe a small size hybrid vehicle having ultracapacitors as on-board storage unit. The vehicle on-board main power supply is achieved by a genset being formed of a 250 cm{sup 3} internal combustion engine and a permanent magnet synchronous electric generator, whereas 4 16V-500F ultracapacitors modules are connected in series in order to supply as well as to store the power peaks during respectively acceleration and braking vehicle modes of operation. The traction power is provided by a permanent magnet synchronous electric motor, whereas a distributed power electronic interface is in charge of all the required electronic conversions as well of controlling the operating conditions for each power unit. The paper discusses the implemented control strategy and shows experimental results on the modes of operation of both generation unit and storage unit. (author)

  15. Assessment of methane-related fuels for automotive fleet vehicles: technical, supply, and economic assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-02-01

    The use of methane-related fuels, derived from a variety of sources, in highway vehicles is assessed. Methane, as used here, includes natural gas (NG) as well as synthetic natural gas (SNG). Methanol is included because it can be produced from NG or the same resources as SNG, and because it is a liquid fuel at normal ambient conditions. Technological, operational, efficiency, petroleum displacement, supply, safety, and economic issues are analyzed. In principle, both NG and methanol allow more efficient engine operation than gasoline. In practice, engines are at present rarely optimized for NG and methanol. On the basis of energy expended from resource extraction to end use, only optimized LNG vehicles are more efficient than their gasoline counterparts. By 1985, up to 16% of total petroleum-based highway vehicle fuel could be displaced by large fleets with central NG fueling depots. Excluding diesel vehicles, which need technology advances to use NG, savings of 8% are projected. Methanol use by large fleets could displace up to 8% of petroleum-based highway vehicle fuel from spark-ignition vehicles and another 9% from diesel vehicles with technology advances. The US NG supply appears adequate to accommodate fleet use. Supply projections, future price differential versus gasoline, and user economics are uncertain. In many cases, attractive paybacks can occur. Compressed NG now costs on average about $0.65 less than gasoline, per energy-equivalent gallon. Methanol supply projections, future prices, and user economics are even more uncertain. Current and projected near-term methanol supplies are far from adequate to support fleet use. Methanol presently costs more than gasoline on an equal-energy basis, but is projected to cost less if produced from coal instead of NG or petroleum.

  16. Review of International Policies for Vehicle Fuel Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This paper reviews past and current voluntary and regulatory fuel efficiency programs and then assesses the effectiveness of these policies from the viewpoints of enforcement, standard design, standard stringency and standard related policies.

  17. Toxicological and performance aspects of oxygenated motor vehicle fuels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    National Research Council Staff; Commission on Life Sciences; Division on Earth and Life Studies; National Research Council; National Academy of Sciences

    .... Other questions have been raised about reduced fuel economy and engine performance and pollution of ground water due to the use of MTBE in gasoline. The book provides conclusions and recommendations about each major topic addressed in the government's report.

  18. Alternative Fuel Vehicles: What Do the Drivers Say?

    Science.gov (United States)

    survey of AFV fleet managers. Both the driver and the fleet manager reports are available in .pdf format through DOE's Alternative Fuels Data Center home page on the World Wide Web . For a hard copy, call the

  19. Comparative Emissions Testing of Vehicles Aged on E0, E15 and E20 Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vertin, K.; Glinsky, G.; Reek, A.

    2012-08-01

    The Energy Independence and Security Act passed into law in December 2007 has mandated the use of 36 billion ethanol equivalent gallons per year of renewable fuel by 2022. A primary pathway to achieve this national goal is to increase the amount of ethanol blended into gasoline. This study is part of a multi-laboratory test program coordinated by DOE to evaluate the effect of higher ethanol blends on vehicle exhaust emissions over the lifetime of the vehicle.

  20. Optimization of the choice of unmanned aerial vehicles used to monitor the implementation of selected construction projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorupka, Dariusz; Duchaczek, Artur; Waniewska, Agnieszka; Kowacka, Magdalena

    2017-07-01

    Due to their properties unmanned aerial vehicles have huge number of possibilities for application in construction engineering. The nature and extent of construction works performedmakes the decision to purchase the right equipment significant for the possibility for its further use while monitoring the implementation of these works. Technical factors, such as the accuracy and quality of the applied measurement instruments are especially important when monitoring the realization of construction projects. The paper presents the optimization of the choice of unmanned aerial vehicles using the Bellinger method. The decision-making analysis takes into account criteria that are particularly crucial by virtue of the range of monitoring of ongoing construction works.

  1. Distributed energy resources management using plug-in hybrid electric vehicles as a fuel-shifting demand response resource

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morais, Hugo; Sousa, Tiago; Soares, J.

    2015-01-01

    In the smart grids context, distributed energy resources management plays an important role in the power systems' operation. Battery electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles should be important resources in the future distribution networks operation. Therefore, it is important...... to develop adequate methodologies to schedule the electric vehicles' charge and discharge processes, avoiding network congestions and providing ancillary services.This paper proposes the participation of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in fuel shifting demand response programs. Two services are proposed......, namely the fuel shifting and the fuel discharging. The fuel shifting program consists in replacing the electric energy by fossil fuels in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles daily trips, and the fuel discharge program consists in use of their internal combustion engine to generate electricity injecting...

  2. Total fuel-cycle analysis of heavy-duty vehicles using biofuels and natural gas-based alternative fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Patrick E; Green, Erin H; Corbett, James J; Mas, Carl; Winebrake, James J

    2011-03-01

    Heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) present a growing energy and environmental concern worldwide. These vehicles rely almost entirely on diesel fuel for propulsion and create problems associated with local pollution, climate change, and energy security. Given these problems and the expected global expansion of HDVs in transportation sectors, industry and governments are pursuing biofuels and natural gas as potential alternative fuels for HDVs. Using recent lifecycle datasets, this paper evaluates the energy and emissions impacts of these fuels in the HDV sector by conducting a total fuel-cycle (TFC) analysis for Class 8 HDVs for six fuel pathways: (1) petroleum to ultra low sulfur diesel; (2) petroleum and soyoil to biodiesel (methyl soy ester); (3) petroleum, ethanol, and oxygenate to e-diesel; (4) petroleum and natural gas to Fischer-Tropsch diesel; (5) natural gas to compressed natural gas; and (6) natural gas to liquefied natural gas. TFC emissions are evaluated for three greenhouse gases (GHGs) (carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane) and five other pollutants (volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter, and sulfur oxides), along with estimates of total energy and petroleum consumption associated with each of the six fuel pathways. Results show definite advantages with biodiesel and compressed natural gas for most pollutants, negligible benefits for e-diesel, and increased GHG emissions for liquefied natural gas and Fischer-Tropsch diesel (from natural gas).

  3. Natural Gas as a Future Fuel for Heavy-Duty Vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wai-Lin Litzke; James Wegrzyn

    2001-01-01

    In addition to their significant environmental impacts, medium-duty and heavy-duty (HD) vehicles are high volume fuel users. Development of such vehicles, which include transit buses, refuse trucks, and HD Class 6-8 trucks, that are fueled with natural gas is strategic to market introduction of natural gas vehicles (NGV). Over the past five years the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT) has funded technological developments in NGV systems to support the growth of this sector in the highly competitive transportation market. The goals are to minimize emissions associated with NGV use, to improve on the economies of scale, and to continue supporting the testing and safety assessments of all new systems. This paper provides an overview of the status of major projects under a program supported by DOE/OHVT and managed by Brookhaven National Laboratory. The discussion focuses on the program's technical strategy in meeting specific goals proposed by the N GV industry and the government. Relevant projects include the development of low-cost fuel storage, fueling infrastructure, and HD vehicle applications

  4. Analysis of operational, institutional and international limitations for alternative fuel vehicles and technologies: Means/methods for implementing changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    This project focused upon the development of an approach to assist public fleet managers in evaluating the characteristics and availability of alternative fuels (AF`s) and alternative fuel vehicles (AFV`s) that will serve as possible replacements for vehicles currently serving the needs of various public entities. Also of concern were the institutional/international limitations for alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles. The City of Detroit and other public agencies in the Detroit area were the particular focus for the activities. As the development and initial stages of use of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles proceeds, there will be an increasing need to provide information and guidance to decision-makers regarding differences in requirements and features of these fuels and vehicles. There wig be true differences in requirements for servicing, managing, and regulating. There will also be misunderstanding and misperception. There have been volumes of data collected on AFV`S, and as technology is improved, new data is constantly added. There are not, however, condensed and effective sources of information for public vehicle fleet managers on vehicle and equipment sources, characteristics, performance, costs, and environmental benefits. While theoretical modeling of public fleet requirements has been done, there do not seem to be readily available ``practical``. There is a need to provide the best possible information and means to minimize the problems for introducing the effective use of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles.

  5. Biogas study. State of the art and potential of biomethane vehicle fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthiaud, Julien; Greninger, Aude; Oliveti-Selmi, Olga; Bouvart, Frederique; Lorne, Daphne; Prieur, Anne; Bastide, Guillaume; Plassat, Gabriel; Theobald, Olivier; Wenisch, Sandrine; Courtois, Jean-Paul; Etienne, Carole; Gagnepain, Laurent; Holuigue, Jean-Pierre; Hosteins, Michel; Jouette, Philippe; Juvigny, Gina; Lacoste, Julien; Lefevre, Felix; Le Leuch, Louis-Marie; Querleu, Cecile; Servais, Claude; Verchin, Jean-Claude; Tilagone, Richard; Tissot-Favre, Vincent

    2009-02-01

    This document presents approaches to the production of biomethane as a vehicle fuel and its resources (organic wastes, energetic crops, gasification) involved on the short term or on a longer term. The potential of each type of resource and production costs are discussed. The biomethane vehicle fuel production is described. This production comprises four main steps: production of raw biogas, purification, metering and odorization and quality checking, and storage. Purification processes are mentioned (de-carbonation, desulfurization, dehydration), and production costs are discussed. Expected technological advances are evoked. Lastly, the contribution of this gaseous biofuel to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is assessed

  6. Continual Energy Management System of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Hybrid Power Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Current research status in energy management of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM fuel cell hybrid power electric vehicles are first described in this paper, and then build the PEMFC/ lithium-ion battery/ ultra-capacitor hybrid system model. The paper analysis the key factors of the continuous power available in PEM fuel cell hybrid power electric vehicle and hybrid power system working status under different driving modes. In the end this paper gives the working flow chart of the hybrid power system and concludes the three items of the system performance analysis.

  7. Preliminary design for spent fuel canister handling systems in a canister transfer and installation vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendelin, T.; Suikki, M.

    2008-12-01

    The report presents a spent fuel canister transfer and installation vehicle. The vehicle is used for carrying the fuel canister into a disposal tunnel and installing it into a deposition hole. The report outlines basic requirements and a design for canister handling equipment used in a canister transfer and installation vehicle, a description regarding the operation and maintenance of the equipment, as well as a cost estimate. Specific vehicles will be manufactured for all canister types in order to minimize the height of the disposal tunnels. This report is only focused on a transfer and installation vehicle for OL1-2 fuel canisters. Detailed designing and selection of final components have not yet been carried out. The report also describes the vehicle's requirements for the structures of a repository system, as well as actions in possible malfunction or fault situations. The spent fuel canister is brought from an encapsulation plant by a canister lift down to the repository level. The fuel canister is driven from the canister lift by an automated guided vehicle onto a canister hoist at a canister loading station. The canister transfer and installation vehicle is waiting for the canister with its radiation shield in an upright position above the canister hoist. The hoist carries the canister upward until the vehicle's own lifting means grab hold of the canister and raise it up into the vehicle's radiation shield. This is followed by turning the radiation shield to a transport position and by closing it in a radiation-proof manner against a rear radiation shield. The vehicle is driven along the central tunnel into the disposal tunnel and parked on top of the deposition hole. The vehicle's radiation shield is turned to the upright position and the canister is lowered with the vehicle's hydraulic winches into a bentonite-lined deposition hole. The radiation shield is turned back to the transport position and the vehicle can be driven out of the disposal tunnel

  8. Flex-fuel vehicle adoption and dynamics of ethanol prices: lessons from Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Xiaodong; Carriquiry, Miguel A.

    2013-01-01

    Focusing on dynamics of the relative prices of substitute fuels, namely ethanol and gasoline, this study quantifies the impact of the increase in shares of flex-fuel vehicles (FFVs) in the vehicle fleet on the domestic ethanol prices in Brazil. A modified partial adjustment model is employed. Estimation results provide strong support for our research hypotheses: (i) when consumers can choose between the fuels the relative ethanol and gasoline prices converge to a long-run equilibrium level, which is determined by the fuel economy, and (ii) price dynamics are largely determined by market supply and demand factors including the price of sugar, ethanol exports, and composition of vehicle fleet. Furthermore, the impacts of demand factors such as ethanol exports are strengthened by the increasing proportion of FFVs in the vehicle fleet. - Highlights: • The relative prices of ethanol and gasoline in Brazil exhibit strong mean-reversion. • The fuel price dynamics are mainly influenced by supply and demand factors. • The impacts of demand factors are strengthened by the increasing proportion of FFVs

  9. The fuel cell and the electrical vehicle; La pile a combustible et la voiture electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, J C [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 75 - Paris (France)

    1999-01-01

    The fuel cell is an electrochemical generator able to transform directly the chemical energy of a gaseous fuel (hydrogen, natural gas, coke gas or methanol...) with a combustive (oxygen for example) in electricity, heat, water and carbon dioxide. This article briefly describes at first the history of the fuel cell and after its working principle with the main reasons of its present development. Indeed, the fuel cell could be an alternative to the batteries for the electrically powered vehicles but also for other applications demanding autonomous electrical supply. The different types of fuel cells are described with their own performances. The proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) are more specially described. Examples of polymer membranes with their performances are given. The different programs in the EC and in the world are described as well as their applications in different domains such as the electrical powered car. (authors) 10 refs.

  10. System modeling of an air-independent solid oxide fuel cell system for unmanned undersea vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, A. Alan; Carreiro, Louis G.

    To examine the feasibility of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC)-powered unmanned undersea vehicle (UUV), a system level analysis is presented that projects a possible integration of the SOFC stack, fuel steam reformer, fuel/oxidant storage and balance of plant components into a 21-in. diameter UUV platform. Heavy hydrocarbon fuel (dodecane) and liquid oxygen (LOX) are chosen as the preferred reactants. A maximum efficiency of 45% based on the lower heating value of dodecane was calculated for a system that provides 2.5 kW for 40 h. Heat sources and sinks have been coupled to show viable means of thermal management. The critical design issues involve proper recycling of exhaust steam from the fuel cell back into the reformer and effective use of the SOFC stack radiant heat for steam reformation of the hydrocarbon fuel.

  11. Preferences for Alternative Fuel Vehicles of Company Car Drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetse, M.J.; Hoen, A.

    2014-01-01

    Costs of car ownership for company cars drivers and private car owners are very different. Car use, car choice decisions and preferences for car characteristics may therefore differ substantially between these two markets. In this paper, we present results of a study on the preferences of company

  12. Improvement of the environmental and operational characteristics of vehicles through decreasing the motor fuel density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaril, Elena

    2016-04-01

    The environmental and operational characteristics of motor transport, one of the main consumers of motor fuel and source of toxic emissions, soot, and greenhouse gases, are determined to a large extent by the fuel quality which is characterized by many parameters. Fuel density is one of these parameters and it can serve as an indicator of fuel quality. It has been theoretically substantiated that an increased density of motor fuel has a negative impact both on the environmental and operational characteristics of motor transport. The use of fuels with a high density leads to an increase in carbonization within the engine, adversely affecting the vehicle performance and increasing environmental pollution. A program of technological measures targeted at reducing the density of the fuel used was offered. It includes a solution to the problem posed by changes in the refining capacities ratio and the temperature range of gasoline and diesel fuel boiling, by introducing fuel additives and adding butanes to the gasoline. An environmental tax has been developed which allows oil refineries to have a direct impact on the production of fuels with improved environmental performance, taking into account the need to minimize the density of the fuel within a given category of quality.

  13. Refueling Behavior of Flexible Fuel Vehicle Drivers in the Federal Fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daley, R.; Nangle, J.; Boeckman, G.; Miller, M.

    2014-05-01

    Federal fleets are a frequent subject of legislative and executive efforts to lead a national transition to alternative fuels and advanced vehicle technologies. Section 701 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 requires that all dual-fueled alternative fuel vehicles in the federal fleet be operated on alternative fuel 100% of the time when they have access to it. However, in Fiscal Year (FY) 2012, drivers of federal flex fuel vehicles (FFV) leased through the General Services Administration refueled with E85 24% of the time when it was available--falling well short of the mandate. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory completed a 2-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development project to identify the factors that influence the refueling behavior of federal FFV drivers. The project began with two primary hypotheses. First, information scarcity increases the tendency to miss opportunities to purchase E85. Second, even with perfect information, there are limits to how far drivers will go out of their way to purchase E85. This paper discusses the results of the project, which included a June 2012 survey of federal fleet drivers and an empirical analysis of actual refueling behavior from FY 2009 to 2012. This research will aid in the design and implementation of intervention programs aimed at increasing alternative fuel use and reducing petroleum consumption.

  14. Assessing the impacts of ethanol and isobutanol on gaseous and particulate emissions from flexible fuel vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karavalakis, Georgios; Short, Daniel; Russell, Robert L; Jung, Heejung; Johnson, Kent C; Asa-Awuku, Akua; Durbin, Thomas D

    2014-12-02

    This study investigated the effects of higher ethanol blends and an isobutanol blend on the criteria emissions, fuel economy, gaseous toxic pollutants, and particulate emissions from two flexible-fuel vehicles equipped with spark ignition engines, with one wall-guided direct injection and one port fuel injection configuration. Both vehicles were tested over triplicate Federal Test Procedure (FTP) and Unified Cycles (UC) using a chassis dynamometer. Emissions of nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) showed some statistically significant reductions with higher alcohol fuels, while total hydrocarbons (THC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) did not show strong fuel effects. Acetaldehyde emissions exhibited sharp increases with higher ethanol blends for both vehicles, whereas butyraldehyde emissions showed higher emissions for the butanol blend relative to the ethanol blends at a statistically significant level. Particulate matter (PM) mass, number, and soot mass emissions showed strong reductions with increasing alcohol content in gasoline. Particulate emissions were found to be clearly influenced by certain fuel parameters including oxygen content, hydrogen content, and aromatics content.

  15. Optimization of a fuel cell powertrain for a sport utility vehicle. Paper no. IGEC-1-087

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, M.B.; Mendes, C.; Mali, T.J.; Fowler, M.W.; Fraser, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    A central composite design was utilized to study the effects of fuel cell powertrain sizing and efficiencies on vehicle performance based on a Chevrolet Equinox platform. Simulations were performed using the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT), a vehicle simulator that constructs and executes various Simulink vehicle models. Once parametric equations relating performance metrics and subcomponent sizing and efficiency were fit, optimal design points were obtained using non-linear optimization. Optimized architectures were used to compare fuel cell powertrains incorporating ultracapacitors, nickel-metal hydride battery packs, and lithium-ion battery packs. The performance metrics also provided a basis for comparison with conventional, battery, and hybrid configurations. The fuel cell configurations exhibited similar or improved acceleration performance, with approximately double the mileage of the stock vehicle. The range of the fuel cell Equinox was reduced from the stock vehicle to approximately 300 miles. The battery vehicles showed the highest efficiencies and mileages, but exhibited an unacceptable range of approximately 100 miles. The hybrid configuration showed notable improvements over the stock vehicle, but still lacked the degree of benefits provided by the fuel cell (FCVs) and battery electric vehicles (BEVs). Also, the acceleration time for the hybrid vehicle was sluggish, likely due to the increase weight of the configuration. The work described in this study was performed by members of the University Of Waterloo Alternate Fuels Team (UWAFT) as part of the Challenge X Vehicle Competition. (author)

  16. 40 CFR 80.500 - What are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Information § 80.500 What are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program? 80.500 Section 80.500 Protection of Environment...

  17. Bio Diesel An Alternative Vehicles Fuel; Analytical View

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Banna, S.; El Deen, O.N.

    2004-01-01

    Transesterification of a vegetable oil was conducted as early as 1853, by scientists E. Duffy and J. Patrick, many years before the first diesel engine became functional(1). Rudolf Diesel's prime model, a single 10 ft (3 m) iron cylinder with a flywheel at its base, ran on its own power for the first time in Augsburg, Germany on August 10, 1893(2). Diesel later demonstrated his engine at the World Fair in Paris, France in 1898. This engine stood as an example of Diesel's vision because it was powered by peanut oil-a bio fuel. He believed that the utilization of a biomass fuel was the real future of his engine. In a 1912 speech, Rudolf Diesel said, (I) t he use of vegetable oils for engine fuels may seem insignificant today, but such oils may become, in the course of time, as important as petroleum and the coal-tar products of the present time. Rudolf Diesel was not the only inventor to believe that biomass fuels would be the mainstay of the transportation industry. Henry Ford designed his automobiles, beginning with the 1908 Model T(1), to use ethanol. Ford was so convinced that renewable resources were the key to the success of his automobiles that he built a plant to make ethanol in the Midwest and formed a partnership with Standard Oil to sell it in their distributing stations

  18. Optimal Battery Utilization Over Lifetime for Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle to Maximize Fuel Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, Chinmaya; Naghshtabrizi, Payam; Verma, Rajeev; Tang, Zhijun; Smith, Kandler; Shi, Ying

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a control strategy to maximize fuel economy of a parallel hybrid electric vehicle over a target life of the battery. Many approaches to maximizing fuel economy of parallel hybrid electric vehicle do not consider the effect of control strategy on the life of the battery. This leads to an oversized and underutilized battery. There is a trade-off between how aggressively to use and 'consume' the battery versus to use the engine and consume fuel. The proposed approach addresses this trade-off by exploiting the differences in the fast dynamics of vehicle power management and slow dynamics of battery aging. The control strategy is separated into two parts, (1) Predictive Battery Management (PBM), and (2) Predictive Power Management (PPM). PBM is the higher level control with slow update rate, e.g. once per month, responsible for generating optimal set points for PPM. The considered set points in this paper are the battery power limits and State Of Charge (SOC). The problem of finding the optimal set points over the target battery life that minimize engine fuel consumption is solved using dynamic programming. PPM is the lower level control with high update rate, e.g. a second, responsible for generating the optimal HEV energy management controls and is implemented using model predictive control approach. The PPM objective is to find the engine and battery power commands to achieve the best fuel economy given the battery power and SOC constraints imposed by PBM. Simulation results with a medium duty commercial hybrid electric vehicle and the proposed two-level hierarchical control strategy show that the HEV fuel economy is maximized while meeting a specified target battery life. On the other hand, the optimal unconstrained control strategy achieves marginally higher fuel economy, but fails to meet the target battery life.

  19. Hardware-in-the-loop vehicle system including dynamic fuel cell model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemes, Z.; Lenhart, T.; Braun, M.; Maencher, H. [MAGNUM Automatisierungstechnik GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    In order to reduce costs and accelerate the development of fuel cells and systems the usage of hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) testing and dynamic modelling opens new possibilities. The dynamic model of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) together with a vehicle model is used to carry out a comprehensive system investigation, which allows designing and optimising the behaviour of the components and the entire fuel cell system. The set-up of a HIL system enables real time interaction between the selected hardware and the model. (orig.)

  20. Fuel Consumption and Vehicle Emission Models for Evaluating Environmental Impacts of the ETC System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiancheng Weng

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The environmental outcome of the Electronic Toll Collection (ETC system is an important aspect in evaluating the impacts of the ETC system, which is influenced by various factors including the vehicle type, travel speed, traffic volume, and average queue length of Manual Toll Collection (MTC lanes. The primary objective of this paper is to develop a field data-based practical model for evaluating the effects of ETC system on the fuel efficiency and vehicle emission. First, laboratory experiments of seven types of vehicles under various scenarios for toll collection were conducted based on the Vehicle Emissions Testing System (VETS. The indicator calculation models were then established to estimate the comprehensive benefit of ETC system by comparing the test results of MTC lane and ETC lane. Finally, taking Beijing as a case study, the paper calibrated the model parameters, and estimated the monetization value of environmental benefit of the ETC system in terms of vehicle emissions reduction and fuel consumption decrease. The results shows that the applications of ETC system are expected to save fuel consumption of 4.1 million liters and reduce pollution emissions by 730.89 tons in 2013 in Beijing.

  1. Status and outlook for biofuels, other alternative fuels and new vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nylund, N -O; Aakko-Saksa, P; Sipilae, K

    2008-03-15

    The report presents an outlook for alternative motor fuels and new vehicles. The time period covered extends up to 2030. The International Energy Agency and the U.S. Energy Information Administration predict that the world energy demand will increase by over 50% from now to 2030, if policies remain unchanged. Most of the growth in demand for energy in general, as well as for transport fuels, will take place in non-OECD countries. Gasoline and diesel are projected to remain the dominant automotive fuels until 2030. Vehicle technology and high quality fuels will eventually solve the problem of harmful exhaust emissions. However, the problem with CO{sub 2} still remains, and much attention will be given to increase efficiency. Hybrid technology is one option to reduce fuel consumption. Diesel engines are fuel efficient, but have high emissions compared with advanced gasoline engines. New combustion systems combining the best qualities of gasoline and diesel engines promise low emissions as well as high efficiency. The scenarios for alternative fuels vary a lot. By 2030, alternative fuels could represent a 10- 30% share of transport fuels, depending on policies. Ambitious goals for biofuels in transport have been set. As advanced biofuels are still in their infancy, it seems probable that traditional biofuels will also be used in 2030. Ethanol is the fastest growing biofuel. Currently the sustainability of biofuels is discussed extensively. Synthetic fuels promise excellent end-use properties, reduced emissions, and if produced from biomass, also reduced CO{sub 2} emissions. The report presents an analysis of technology options to meet the requirements for energy security, reduced CO{sub 2} emissions, reduced local emissions as well as sustainability in general in the long run. In the short term, energy savings will be the main measure for CO{sub 2} reductions in transport, fuel switches will have a secondary role. (orig.)

  2. Successes and Challenges in the Resale of Alternative Fuel Vehicles: July 2001 - March 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-05-01

    This report provides the outcome of Dorfman & O'Neal's effort to examine the resale market for automobiles as it relates to the resale of late-model, original equipment manufacture (OEM), alternative fuel vehicles. Auctions provide an exceptionally rapid, effective, and efficient market for the transfer of property between buyers and sellers at reasonable prices. The first automobile auction in the United States was successful because used cars were in reasonably constant supply, were uniformly packaged, and were easily graded for quality. Also, the auction had sufficient volume to significantly lower the handling and transaction costs for wholesalers and dealers. To this day, the automobile auction industry conducts business primarily with registered wholesalers and dealers. Except for the U.S. General Services Administration (GSA) auctions and some consignment auctions, nearly all automobile auctions are closed to the public. The auction system represents a near-perfect market, validated by the lack of statistical price differences in value of specific model cars between various regions of the country. However, specialty cars may be subject to arbitrage. The buyer purchases the vehicle believing that it can be sold immediately at a profit in another region. A variety of vehicle pricing services are available to serve the consumer and the wholesale automobile industry. Each has a different philosophy for collecting, analyzing, and reporting data. ''The Automobile Lease Guide'' (ALG) is clearly the authority on vehicle residual values. Auction companies continue to apply automated technologies to lower transaction costs. Automated technologies are the only way to track the increasing number of transactions in the growing industry. Nevertheless, people-to-people relationships remain critical to the success of all auction companies. Our assessment is that everyone in the secondary automobile market is aware of alternative fuel vehicles

  3. Carbonaceous Aerosols Emitted from Light-Duty Vehicles Operating on Ethanol Fuel Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is among the many environmental and public health concerns associated with increased ethanol use in vehicles. Jacobson [2007] showed for the U.S. market that full conversion to e85 ([85% ethanol, 15% gasoline]—the maximum standard blend used in modern dual fuel veh...

  4. The impact of residential density on vehicle usage and fuel consumption: Evidence from national samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Jinwon; Brownstone, David

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of residential density on household vehicle usage and fuel consumption. We estimate a simultaneous equations system to account for the potential residential self-selection problem. While most previous studies focus on a specific region, this paper uses national...

  5. Investigation of Battery/Ultracapacitor Energy Storage Rating for a Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltz, Erik; Khaligh, A.; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2008-01-01

    Combining high energy density batteries and high power density ultracapacitors in Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles (FCHEV) results in a high efficient, high performance, low size, and light system. Often the batteries are rated with respect to their energy requirement in order to reduce...

  6. Modeling and Nonlinear Control of Fuel Cell / Supercapacitor Hybrid Energy Storage System for Electric Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Fadil, Hassan; Giri, Fouad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of controlling hybrid energy storage system (HESS) for electric vehicle. The storage system consists of a fuel cell (FC), serving as the main power source, and a supercapacitor (SC), serving as an auxiliary power source. It also contains a power block for energy...

  7. Multiple criteria decision making of alternative fuels for waste collection vehicles in southeast region of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Goran S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper multiple criteria decision making approach of alternative fuels for waste collection vehicles in southeast region of Serbia was presented. Eight alternative fuels and advanced vehicle technologies were ranked according to thirteen criteria, including financial, socio-technical, and environmental. Assessment of alternatives was performed by using the weighted aggregated sum product assessment method and results were verified using multi-objective optimization on the basis of ratio analysis method. Considered criteria were obtained from previous researches and by assessment of professional experts from manufacturing industries, public utility companies, and academics institutions. The analysis showed that both biodiesel fuels - derived from used cooking oil or from vegetable oils are the best alternative fuels for Serbian waste collection vehicles in this point of time. Compressed natural gas-powered vehicles were also ranked high in this analysis, but due to the lack of financial capability for their purchase (especially in southeast region of Serbia, their gradual introduction into the waste collection fleet was proposed.

  8. Impact of Friction Reduction Technologies on Fuel Economy for Ground Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-13

    UNCLAS: Dist A. Approved for public release IMPACT OF FRICTION REDUCTION TECHNOLOGIES ON FUEL ECONOMY FOR GROUND VEHICLES G. R. Fenske , R. A. Erck...PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) G.R. Fenske ; R.A. Erck; O.O. Ajayi; A. Masoner’ A.S. Confort 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT

  9. Vehicle energy management for on/off controlled auxiliaries : fuel economy vs. switching frequency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, H.; Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Weiland, S.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, an integrated approach for designing energy management strategies concerning vehicle auxiliaries with on/off control is proposed. This approach provides the possibility of making different trade-offs between fuel economy and switching frequency. In this paper, we demonstrate the

  10. LNG as vehicle fuel and the problem of supply: The Italian case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arteconi, A.; Polonara, F.

    2013-01-01

    The transport sector represents a major item on the global balance of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Natural gas is considered the alternative fuel that, in the short-medium term, can best substitute conventional fuels in order to reduce their environmental impact, because it is readily available at a competitive price, using technologies already in widespread use. It can be used as compressed gas (CNG) or in the liquid phase (LNG), being the former more suitable for light vehicles, while the latter for heavy duty vehicles. The purpose of this paper is to outline the potential of LNG as vehicle fuel, showing positive and negative aspects related to its introduction and comparing the different supply options with reference to the Italian scenario, paying particular attention to the possibility of on site liquefaction. The analysis has highlighted that purchasing LNG at the regasification terminal is convenient up to a terminal distance of 2000 km from the refuelling station. The liquefaction on site, instead, asks for liquefaction efficiency higher than 70% and low natural gas price and, as liquefaction technology, the let-down plants at the pressure reduction points along the pipeline are the best option to compete with direct supply at the terminal. -- Highlights: •LNG potential as vehicles fuel is analysed. •A SWOT analysis for LNG introduction in the Italian market is presented. •An economic comparison of different supply options is performed. •Possible micro-scale liquefaction technologies are evaluated

  11. Refueling availability for alternative fuel vehicle markets: Sufficient urban station coverage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melaina, Marc; Bremson, Joel

    2008-01-01

    Alternative fuel vehicles can play an important role in addressing the challenges of climate change, energy security, urban air pollution and the continued growth in demand for transportation services. The successful commercialization of alternative fuels for vehicles is contingent upon a number of factors, including vehicle cost and performance. Among fuel infrastructure issues, adequate refueling availability is one of the most fundamental to successful commercialization. A commonly cited source reports 164,300 refueling stations in operation nationwide. However, from the perspective of refueling availability, this nationwide count tends to overstate the number of stations required to support the widespread deployment of alternative fuel vehicles. In terms of spatial distribution, the existing gasoline station networks in many urban areas are more than sufficient. We characterize a sufficient level of urban coverage based upon a subset of cities served by relatively low-density station networks, and estimate that some 51,000 urban stations would be required to provide this sufficient level of coverage to all major urban areas, 33 percent less than our estimate of total urban stations. This improved characterization will be useful for engineering, economic and policy analyses. (author)

  12. Modeling and Parameterization of Fuel Economy in Heavy Duty Vehicles (HDVs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjung Oh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper suggests fuel consumption modeling for HDVs based on the code from the Japanese Ministry of the Environment. Two interpolation models (inversed distance weighted (IDW and Hermite and three types of fuel efficiency maps (coarse, medium, and dense were adopted to determine the most appropriate combination for further studies. Finally, sensitivity analysis studies were conducted to determine which parameters greatly impact the fuel efficiency prediction results for HDVs. While vitiating each parameter at specific percentages (±1%, ±3%, ±5%, ±10%, the change rate of the fuel efficiency results was analyzed, and the main factors affecting fuel efficiency were summarized. As a result, the Japanese transformation algorithm program showed good agreement with slightly increased prediction accuracy for the fuel efficiency test results when applying the Hermite interpolation method compared to IDW interpolation. The prediction accuracy of fuel efficiency remained unchanged regardless of the chosen fuel efficiency map data density. According to the sensitivity analysis study, three parameters (fuel consumption map data, driving force, and gross vehicle weight have the greatest impact on fuel efficiency (±5% to ±10% changes.

  13. Evaluation of Fuel-Cell Range Extender Impact on Hybrid Electrical Vehicle Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans-Christian Becker; Schaltz, Erik; Koustrup, Per Sune

    2013-01-01

    The use of electric vehicles (EVs) is advantageous because of zero emission, but their market penetration is limited by one disadvantage, i.e., energy storage. Battery EVs (BEVs) have a limited range, and their batteries take a long time to charge, compared with the time it takes to refuel the tank...... of a vehicle with an internal combustion engine (ICE). Fuel cells (FCs) can be added to an EV as an additional energy source. These are faster to refill and will therefore facilitate the transition from vehicles running on fossil fuel to electricity. Different EV setups with FC strategies are presented...... in start/stop city cycles. Simulations with the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) showed that efficiency fell by at least 15% for the FC hybrid EV (FCHEV) when compared with BEVs....

  14. Substantial improvements of fuel economy. Potentials of electric and hybrid electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, K [Technical Univ. of Denmark (Denmark); Nielsen, L H [Forskningscenter Risoe (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    This paper evaluates the scope for improvement of the energy and environmental impacts of road traffic by means of electrical and hybrid electric propulsion. These technologies promise considerable improvements of the fuel economy of vehicles compared to the present vehicle types as well as beneficial effects for the energy and traffic system. The paper - based on work carried out in the project `Transportation fuel based on renewable energy`, funded by the National Energy Agency of Denmark and carried out by Department of Buildings and Energy, Technical University of Denmark and System Analysis Department, Risoe National Laboratory - assesses the potentials for reduction of the primary energy consumption and emissions, and points to the necessary technical development to reap these benefits. A case study concerning passenger cars is analysed by means of computer simulations, comparing electric and hybrid electric passenger car to an equivalent reference vehicle (a conventional gasoline passenger car). (au) 10 refs.

  15. Design of magnetic flywheel control for performance improvement of fuel cells used in vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Chung-Neng; Chen, Yui-Sung

    2017-01-01

    Because hydrogen can be extracted naturally and stored for a long time, different types of fuel cells have been developed to generate clean power, particularly for use in vehicles. However, the power demand of a running vehicle leads to unstable and irregular loading of fuel cells. This not only reduces fuel cell lifespan and efficiency but also affects driving safety when the slow output response cannot satisfy an abrupt increase in power demand. Magnetic flywheels with characteristics such as high energy density, high-speed charging ability, and low loss have been extensively used in Formula One cars. This study developed a hybrid powertrain in which a magnetic flywheel system (MFS) is integrated with the fuel cells to solve the aforementioned problems. Moreover, an auto-tuning proportional–integral–derivative (PID) controller based on the controls of a multiple adaptive neuro-fuzzy interference system and particle swarm optimization was designed for MFS control. Furthermore, MATLAB/Simulink simulations considering an FTP-75 urban driving cycle were conducted, and a variability improvement of approximately 27.3% in fuel cell output was achieved. - Highlights: • A hybrid powertrain integrating the magnetic flywheel and fuel cells is proposed. • An auto-tuning PID controller is designed for MFS control. • The MIMO-ANFIS and PSO based optimal control is realized. • A 27.3% improvement in the output variability of fuel cell is achieved under control.

  16. Assessment of institutional barriers to the use of natural gas fuel in automotive vehicle fleets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, J.; Lent, L.; Lawrence, M.; White, L.

    1983-01-01

    Institutional barriers to the use of natural gas as a fuel for motor vehicle fleets were identified. Recommendations for barrier removal were developed. Eight types of institutional barriers were assessed: (1) lack of a national standard for the safe design and certification of natural gas vehicles and refueling stations; (2) excessively conservative or misapplied state and local regulations, including bridge and tunnel restrictions, restrictions on types of vehicles that may be fueled by natural gas, zoning regulations that prohibit operation of refueling stations, parking restrictions, application of LPG standards to LNG vehicles, and unintentionally unsafe vehicle or refueling station requirements; (3) need for clarification of EPA's tampering enforcement policy; (4) the U.S. hydrocarbon standard; (5) uncertainty concerning state utility commission jurisdiction; (6) sale for resale prohibitions imposed by natural gas utility companies or state utility commissions; (7) uncertainty of the effects of conversions to natural gas on vehicle manufactures warranties; and (8) need for a natural gas to gasoline equivalent units conversion factor for use in calculation of state road use taxes.

  17. Comments on the Joint Proposed Rulemaking to Establish Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emission Standards and Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Thomas P

    2009-10-27

    I appreciate the opportunity to provide comments on the joint rulemaking to establish greenhouse gas emission and fuel economy standards for light-duty vehicles. My comments are directed at the choice of vehicle footprint as the attribute by which to vary fuel economy and greenhouse gas emission standards, in the interest of protecting vehicle occupants from death or serious injury. I have made several of these points before when commenting on previous NHTSA rulemakings regarding CAFE standards and safety. The comments today are mine alone, and do not necessarily represent the views of the US Department of Energy, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, or the University of California. My comments can be summarized as follows: (1) My updated analysis of casualty risk finds that, after accounting for drivers and crash location, there is a wide range in casualty risk for vehicles with the same weight or footprint. This suggests that reducing vehicle weight or footprint will not necessarily result in increased fatalities or serious injuries. (2) Indeed, the recent safety record of crossover SUVs indicates that weight reduction in this class of vehicles resulted in a reduction in fatality risks. (3) Computer crash simulations can pinpoint the effect of specific design changes on vehicle safety; these analyses are preferable to regression analyses, which rely on historical vehicle designs, and cannot fully isolate the effect of specific design changes, such as weight reduction, on crash outcomes. (4) There is evidence that automakers planned to build more large light trucks in response to the footprint-based light truck CAFE standards. Such an increase in the number of large light trucks on the road may decrease, rather than increase, overall safety.

  18. Current State of Technology of Fuel Cell Power Systems for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Mendez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs are vehicles that are primarily used to accomplish oceanographic research data collection and auxiliary offshore tasks. At the present time, they are usually powered by lithium-ion secondary batteries, which have insufficient specific energies. In order for this technology to achieve a mature state, increased endurance is required. Fuel cell power systems have been identified as an effective means to achieve this endurance but no implementation in a commercial device has yet been realized. This paper summarizes the current state of development of the technology in this field of research. First, the most adequate type of fuel cell for this application is discussed. The prototypes and design concepts of AUVs powered by fuel cells which have been developed in the last few years are described. Possible commercial and experimental fuel cell stack options are analyzed, examining solutions adopted in the analogous aerial vehicle applications, as well as the underwater ones, to see if integration in an AUV is feasible. Current solutions in oxygen and hydrogen storage systems are overviewed and energy density is objectively compared between battery power systems and fuel cell power systems for AUVs. A couple of system configuration solutions are described including the necessary lithium-ion battery hybrid system. Finally, some closing remarks on the future of this technology are given.

  19. Choices of canisters and elements for the first fuel shipment from K West Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makenas, B.J.

    1995-03-01

    Twenty-two canisters (10 prime and 12 backup candidates) in the K West Basin have been identified as containing fuel which, when examined, will satisfy the Data Quality Objectives for the first fuel shipment from this basin. These were chosen as meeting criteria such as containing relatively long fuel elements, locking bar integrity, and the availability of gas/liquid interface level measurements for associated canister gas traps. Two canisters were identified as having reported broken fuel on initial loading. Usage and interpretation of canister cesium concentration measurements have also been established and levels of maximum and minimum acceptable cesium concentration (from a data optimization point of view) for decapping have been determined although other operational cesium limits may also apply. Criteria for picking particular elements, once a canister is opened, are reviewed in this document. A pristine, a slightly damaged, and a badly damaged element are desired. The latter includes elements with end caps removed but does not include elements which have large amounts of swelling or split cladding that might interfere with handling tools. Finally, operational scenarios have been suggested to aid in the selections of canisters and elements in a way that utilizes anticipated canister gas sampling and leads to a correct and quick choice of elements which will supply the desired data

  20. Research and Development of a PEM Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Reformer, and Vehicle Refueling Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward F. Kiczek

    2007-08-31

    Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. has teamed with Plug Power, Inc. of Latham, NY, and the City of Las Vegas, NV, to develop, design, procure, install and operate an on-site hydrogen generation system, an alternative vehicle refueling system, and a stationary hydrogen fuel cell power plant, located in Las Vegas. The facility will become the benchmark for validating new natural gas-based hydrogen systems, PEM fuel cell power generation systems, and numerous new technologies for the safe and reliable delivery of hydrogen as a fuel to vehicles. Most important, this facility will serve as a demonstration of hydrogen as a safe and clean energy alternative. Las Vegas provides an excellent real-world performance and durability testing environment.

  1. Comments on the Joint Proposed Rulemaking to Establish Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emission Standards and Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Tom [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2009-10-27

    Tom Wenzel of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory comments on the joint rulemaking to establish greenhouse gas emission and fuel economy standards for light-duty vehicle, specifically on the relationship between vehicle weight and vehicle safety.

  2. Improved heavy-duty vehicle fuel efficiency in India, benefits, costs and environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopal, Anand R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Karali, Nihan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sharpe, Ben [International Council on Clean Transportation (United States); Delgado, Oscar [International Council on Clean Transportation (United States); Bandivadekar, Anup [International Council on Clean Transportation (United States); Garg, Mehul [International Council on Clean Transportation (United States)

    2017-06-14

    The main objectives of this analysis are to examine the benefits and costs of fuel-saving technologies for new heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) in India over the next 10 years and, to explore how various scenarios for the deployment of vehicles with these technologies will impact petroleum consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions over the next three decades. The study team developed simulation models for three representative HDV types—a 40-tonne tractor-trailer, 25-tonne rigid truck, and 16-tonne transit bus—based on top-selling vehicle models in the Indian market. The baseline technology profiles for all three vehicles were developed using India-specific engine data and vehicle specification information from manufacturer literature and input from industry experts. For each of the three vehicles we developed a comprehensive set of seven efficiency technology packages drawing from five major areas: engine, transmission and driveline, tires, aerodynamics, and weight reduction. Our analysis finds that India has substantial opportunity to improve HDV fuel efficiency levels using cost-effective technologies. Results from our simulation modeling of three representative HDV types—a tractor-trailer, rigid truck, and transit bus—reveal that per-vehicle fuel consumption reductions between roughly 20% and 35% are possible with technologies that provide a return on the initial capital investment within 1 to 2 years. Though most of these technologies are currently unavailable in India, experiences in other more advanced markets such as the US and EU suggest that with sufficient incentives and robust regulatory design, significant progress can be made in developing and deploying efficiency technologies that can provide real-world fuel savings for new commercial vehicles in India over the next 10 years. Bringing HDVs in India up to world-class technology levels will yield substantial petroleum and GHG reductions. By 2030, the fuel and CO2 reductions of the

  3. A Lifecycle Emissions Model (LEM): Lifecycle Emissions from Transportation Fuels, Motor Vehicles, Transportation Modes, Electricity Use, Heating and Cooking Fuels, and Materials, APPENDIX A: Energy Use and Emissions from the Lifecycle of Diesel-Like Fuels Derived From Biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Delucchi, Mark; Lipman, Timothy

    2003-01-01

    An Appendix to the Report, “A Lifecycle Emissions Model (LEM): Lifecycle Emissions From Transportation Fuels, Motor Vehicles, Transportation Modes, Electricity Use, Heating and Cooking Fuels, and Materialsâ€

  4. 40 CFR 600.206-08 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Procedures... economy value exists for an electric vehicle configuration, all values for that vehicle configuration are... HFET-based fuel economy values for vehicle configurations. 600.206-08 Section 600.206-08 Protection of...

  5. 40 CFR 600.209-08 - Calculation of vehicle-specific 5-cycle fuel economy values for a model type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-cycle fuel economy values for a model type. 600.209-08 Section 600.209-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Procedures for...

  6. Fuel consumption optimization for smart hybrid electric vehicle during a car-following process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Wang, Xiangyu; Song, Jian

    2017-03-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) provide large potential to save energy and reduce emission, and smart vehicles bring out great convenience and safety for drivers. By combining these two technologies, vehicles may achieve excellent performances in terms of dynamic, economy, environmental friendliness, safety, and comfort. Hence, a smart hybrid electric vehicle (s-HEV) is selected as a platform in this paper to study a car-following process with optimizing the fuel consumption. The whole process is a multi-objective optimal problem, whose optimal solution is not just adding an energy management strategy (EMS) to an adaptive cruise control (ACC), but a deep fusion of these two methods. The problem has more restricted conditions, optimal objectives, and system states, which may result in larger computing burden. Therefore, a novel fuel consumption optimization algorithm based on model predictive control (MPC) is proposed and some search skills are adopted in receding horizon optimization to reduce computing burden. Simulations are carried out and the results indicate that the fuel consumption of proposed method is lower than that of the ACC+EMS method on the condition of ensuring car-following performances.

  7. China's fuel economy standards for passenger vehicles. Rationale, policy process, and impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, Hongyan H.; Gallagher, Kelly Sims; Tian, Donglian; Zhang, Jinhua

    2009-01-01

    China issued its first Fuel Economy Standards (FES) for light-duty passenger vehicles (LDPV) in September 2004, and the first and second phases of the FES took effective in July 2005 and January 2008, respectively. The stringency of the Chinese FES ranks third globally, following the Japanese and European standards. In this paper, we first review the policy-making background, including the motivations, key players, and the process; and then explain the content and the features of the FES and why there was no compliance flexibility built into it. Next, we assess the various aspects of the standard's impact, including fuel economy improvement, technology changes, shift of market composition, and overall fuel savings. Lastly, we comment on the prospect of tightening the existing FES and summarize the complementary policies that have been adopted or may be considered by the Chinese government for further promoting efficient vehicles and reducing transport energy consumption. The Chinese experience is highly relevant for countries that are also experiencing or anticipating rapid growth in personal vehicles, those wishing to moderate an increase in oil demand, or those desirous of vehicle technology upgrades. (author)

  8. Exploring nuclear energy scenarios - implications of technology and fuel cycle choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rayment, Fiona; Mathers, Dan; Gregg, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear Energy is recognised globally as a mature, reliable low carbon technology with a secure and abundant fuel source. Within the UK, Nuclear Energy is an essential contributor to the energy mix and as such a decision has been made to refresh the current nuclear energy plants to at least replacement of the existing nuclear fleet. This will mean the building of new nuclear power plant to ensure energy production of 16 GWe per annum. However it is also recognised that this may not be enough and as such expansion scenarios ranging from replacement of the existing fleet to 75 GWe nuclear energy capacity are being considered (see appendix). Within these energy scenarios, a variety of options are being evaluated including electricity generation only, electricity generation plus heat, open versus closed fuel cycles, Generation III versus Generation IV systems and combinations of the above. What is clear is that the deciding factor on the type and mix of any energy programme will not be on technology choice alone. Instead a complex mix of Government policy, relative cost of nuclear power, market decisions and public opinion will influence the rate and direction of growth of any future energy programme. The UK National Nuclear Laboratory has supported this work through the use and development of a variety of assessment and modelling techniques. When assessing nuclear energy scenarios, the technology chosen will impact on a number of parameters within each scenario which includes but is not limited to: - Economics, - Nuclear energy demand, - Fuel Supply, - Spent fuel storage / recycle, - Geological repository volumetric and radiological capacity, - Sustainability - effective resource utilisation, - Technology viability and readiness level. A number of assessment and modelling techniques have been developed and are described further. In particular, they examine fuel cycle options for a number of nuclear energy scenarios, whilst exploring key implications for a particular

  9. Near-term markets for PEM fuel cell power modules: industrial vehicles and hydrogen recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chintawar, P.S.; Block, G.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Nuvera Fuel Cells, Inc. is a global leader in the development and advancement of multifuel processing and fuel cell technology. With offices located in Italy and the USA, Nuvera is committed to advancing the commercialization of hydrogen fuel cell power modules for industrial vehicles and equipment and stationary applications by 2006, natural gas fuel cell power systems for cogeneration applications by 2007, and on-board gasoline fuel processors and fuel cell stacks for automotive applications by 2010. Nuvera Fuel Cells Europe is ISO 9001:2000 certified for 'Research, Development, Design, Production and Servicing of Fuel Cell Stacks and Fuel Cell Systems.' In the chemical industry, one of the largest operating expenses today is the cost of electricity. For example, caustic soda and chlorine are produced today using industrial membrane electrolysis which is an energy intensive process. Production of 1 metric ton of caustic soda consumes 2.5 MWh of energy. However, about 20% of the electricity consumed can be recovered by converting the hydrogen byproduct of the caustic soda production process into electricity via PEM fuel cells. The accessible market is a function of the economic value of the hydrogen whether flared, used as fuel, or as chemical. Responding to this market need, we are currently developing large hydrogen fuel cell power modules 'Forza' that use excess hydrogen to produce electricity, representing a practical economic alternative to reducing the net electricity cost. Due for commercial launch in 2006, Forza is a low-pressure, steady state, base-load power generation solution that will operate at high efficiency and 100% capacity over a 24-hour period. We believe this premise is also true for chemical and electrochemical plants and companies that convert hydrogen to electricity using renewable sources like windmills or hydropower. The second near-term market that Nuvera is developing utilizes a 5.5 kW hydrogen fueled power module 'H 2 e

  10. A proposed model of factors influencing hydrogen fuel cell vehicle acceptance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanina, N. H. Noor; Kwe Lu, Tan; Fadhilah, A. R.

    2016-03-01

    Issues such as environmental problem and energy insecurity keep worsening as a result of energy use from household to huge industries including automotive industry. Recently, a new type of zero emission vehicle, hydrogen fuel cell vehicle (HFCV) has received attention. Although there are argues on the feasibility of hydrogen as the future fuel, there is another important issue, which is the acceptance of HFCV. The study of technology acceptance in the early stage is a vital key for a successful introduction and penetration of a technology. This paper proposes a model of factors influencing green vehicle acceptance, specifically HFCV. This model is built base on two technology acceptance theories and other empirical studies of vehicle acceptance. It aims to provide a base for finding the key factors influencing new sustainable energy fuelled vehicle, HFCV acceptance which is achieved by explaining intention to accept HFCV. Intention is influenced by attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control from Theory of Planned Behaviour and personal norm from Norm Activation Theory. In the framework, attitude is influenced by perceptions of benefits and risks, and social trust. Perceived behavioural control is influenced by government interventions. Personal norm is influenced by outcome efficacy and problem awareness.

  11. Energy Management Strategies based on efficiency map for Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feroldi, Diego; Serra, Maria; Riera, Jordi [Institut de Robotica i Informatica Industrial (CSIC-UPC), C. Llorens i Artigas 4, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2009-05-15

    The addition of a fast auxiliary power source like a supercapacitor bank in fuel cell-based vehicles has a great potential because permits a significant reduction of the hydrogen consumption and an improvement of the vehicle efficiency. The Energy Management Strategies, commanding the power split between the power sources in the hybrid arrangement to fulfil the power requirement, perform a fundamental role to achieve this objective. In this work, three strategies based on the knowledge of the fuel cell efficiency map are proposed. These strategies are attractive due to the relative simplicity of the real time implementation and the good performance. The strategies are tested both in a simulation environment and in an experimental setup using a 1.2-kW PEM fuel cell. The results, in terms of hydrogen consumption, are compared with an optimal case, which is assessed trough an advantageous technique also introduced in this work and with a pure fuel cell vehicle as well. This comparative reveals high efficiency and good performance, allowing to save up to 26% of hydrogen in urban scenarios. (author)

  12. Fuel cell system economics: comparing the costs of generating power with stationary and motor vehicle PEM fuel cell systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipman, Timothy E.; Edwards, Jennifer L.; Kammen, Daniel M.

    2004-01-01

    This investigation examines the economics of producing electricity from proton-exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems under various conditions, including the possibility of using fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) to produce power when they are parked at office buildings and residences. The analysis shows that the economics of both stationary fuel cell and FCV-based power vary significantly with variations in key input variables such as the price of natural gas, electricity prices, fuel cell and reformer system costs, and fuel cell system durability levels. The 'central case' results show that stationary PEM fuel cell systems can supply electricity for offices and homes in California at a net savings when fuel cell system costs reach about $6000 for a 5 kW home system ($1200/kW) and $175,000 for a 250 kW commercial system ($700/kW) and assuming somewhat favorable natural gas costs of $6/GJ at residences and $4/GJ at commercial buildings. Grid-connected FCVs in commercial settings can also potentially supply electricity at competitive rates, in some cases producing significant annual benefits. Particularly attractive is the combination of net metering along with time-of-use electricity rates that allow power to be supplied to the utility grid at the avoided cost of central power plant generation. FCV-based power at individual residences does not appear to be as attractive, at least where FCV power can only be used directly or banked with the utility for net metering and not sold in greater quantity, due to the low load levels at these locations that provide a poor match to automotive fuel cell operation, higher natural gas prices than are available at commercial settings, and other factors

  13. Well-to-wheels life-cycle analysis of alternative fuels and vehicle technologies in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Wei; Han Weijian; Chock, David; Chai Qinhu; Zhang Aling

    2012-01-01

    A well-to-wheels life cycle analysis on total energy consumptions and greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions for alternative fuels and accompanying vehicle technologies has been carried out for the base year 2010 and projected to 2020 based on data gathered and estimates developed for China. The fuels considered include gasoline, diesel, natural gas, liquid fuels from coal conversion, methanol, bio-ethanol and biodiesel, electricity and hydrogen. Use of liquid fuels including methanol and Fischer–Tropsch derived from coal will significantly increase GHG emissions relative to use of conventional gasoline. Use of starch-based bio-ethanol will incur a substantial carbon disbenefit because of the present highly inefficient agricultural practice and plant processing in China. Electrification of vehicles via hybrid electric, plug-in hybrid electric (PHEV) and battery electric vehicle technologies offers a progressively improved prospect for the reduction of energy consumption and GHG emission. However, the long-term carbon emission reduction is assured only when the needed electricity is generated by zero- or low-carbon sources, which means that carbon capture and storage is a necessity for fossil-based feedstocks. A PHEV that runs on zero- or low-carbon electricity and cellulosic ethanol may be one of the most attractive fuel-vehicle options in a carbon-constrained world. - Highlights: ► Data and estimates unique to China are used in this analysis. ► Use of starch-based bio-ethanol will incur a substantial carbon disbenefit in China. ► Use of methanol derived from coal will incur even more carbon disbenefit. ► Plug-in-hybrid with cellulosic ethanol and clean electricity may be a viable option.

  14. Effect Of Platooning on Fuel Consumption of Class 8 Vehicles Over a Range of Speeds, Following Distances, and Mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammert, M. P.; Duran, A.; Diez, J.; Burton, K.; Nicholson, A.

    2014-10-01

    This research project evaluates fuel consumption results of two Class 8 tractor-trailer combinations platooned together compared to their standalone fuel consumption. A series of ten modified SAE Type II J1321 fuel consumption track tests were performed to document fuel consumption of two platooned vehicles and a control vehicle at varying steady-state speeds, following distances, and gross vehicle weights (GVWs). The steady-state speeds ranged from 55 mph to 70 mph, the following distances ranged from a 20-ft following distance to a 75-ft following distance, and the GVWs were 65K lbs and 80K lbs. All tractors involved had U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) SmartWay-compliant aerodynamics packages installed, and the trailers were equipped with side skirts. Effects of vehicle speed, following distance, and GVW on fuel consumption were observed and analyzed. The platooning demonstration system used in this study consisted of radar systems, Dedicated Short-Range Communication (DSRC) vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications, vehicle braking and torque control interface, cameras and driver displays. The lead tractor consistently demonstrated an improvement in average fuel consumption reduction as following distance decreased, with results showing 2.7% to 5.3% fuel savings at a GVW of 65k. The trailing vehicle achieved fuel consumption savings ranging from 2.8% to 9.7%; tests during which the engine cooling fan did not operate achieved savings of 8.4% to 9.7%. 'Team' fuel savings, considering the platooned vehicles as one, ranged from 3.7% to 6.4%, with the best combined result being for 55 mph, 30-ft following distance, and 65k GVW.

  15. Distributed energy resources management using plug-in hybrid electric vehicles as a fuel-shifting demand response resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morais, H.; Sousa, T.; Soares, J.; Faria, P.; Vale, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Definition fuel shifting demand response programs applied to the electric vehicles. • Integration of the proposed fuel shifting in energy resource management algorithm. • Analysis of fuel shifting contribution to support the consumption increasing. • Analysis of fuel shifting contribution to support the electric vehicles growing. • Sensitivity analysis considering different electric vehicles penetration levels. - Abstract: In the smart grids context, distributed energy resources management plays an important role in the power systems’ operation. Battery electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles should be important resources in the future distribution networks operation. Therefore, it is important to develop adequate methodologies to schedule the electric vehicles’ charge and discharge processes, avoiding network congestions and providing ancillary services. This paper proposes the participation of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in fuel shifting demand response programs. Two services are proposed, namely the fuel shifting and the fuel discharging. The fuel shifting program consists in replacing the electric energy by fossil fuels in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles daily trips, and the fuel discharge program consists in use of their internal combustion engine to generate electricity injecting into the network. These programs are included in an energy resources management algorithm which integrates the management of other resources. The paper presents a case study considering a 37-bus distribution network with 25 distributed generators, 1908 consumers, and 2430 plug-in vehicles. Two scenarios are tested, namely a scenario with high photovoltaic generation, and a scenario without photovoltaic generation. A sensitivity analyses is performed in order to evaluate when each energy resource is required

  16. What are the environmental benefits of electric vehicles? A life cycle based comparison of electric vehicles with biofuels, hydrogen and fossil fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungmeier, Gerfried; Canella, Lorenza; Beermann, Martin; Pucker, Johanna; Koenighofer, Kurt [JOANNEUM RESEARCH Forschungsgesellschaft mbH, Graz (Austria)

    2013-06-01

    The Renewable Energy Directive aims reaching a share of 10% of renewable fuels in Europe in 2020. These renewable fuels are transportation biofuels, renewable electricity and renewable hydrogen. In most European countries transportation biofuels are already on the transportation fuel market in significant shares, e.g. in Austria 7% by blending bioethanol to gasoline and biodiesel to diesel. Electric vehicles can significantly contribute towards creating a sustainable, intelligent mobility and intelligent transportation systems. They can open new business opportunities for the transportation engineering sector and electricity companies. But the broad market introduction of electric vehicles is only justified due to a significant improvement of the environmental impact compared to conventional vehicles. This means that in addition to highly efficient electric vehicles and renewable electricity, the overall environmental impact in the life cycle - from building the vehicles and the battery to recycling at the end of its useful life - has to be limited to an absolute minimum. There is international consensus that the environmental effects of electric vehicles (and all other fuel options) can only be analysed on the basis of life cycle assessment (LCA) including the production, operation and the end of life treatment of the vehicles. The LCA results for different environmental effects e.g. greenhouse gas emissions, primary energy consumption, eutrophication will be presented in comparison to other fuels e.g. transportation biofuels, gasoline, natural gas and the key factors to maximize the environmental benefits will be presented. The presented results are mainly based on a national research projects. These results are currently compared and discussed with international research activities within the International Energy Agency (lEA) in the Implementing Agreement on Hybrid and Electric Vehicles (IA-HEV) in Task 19 ''Life Cycle Assessment of Electric Vehicles

  17. Solving a bi-objective vehicle routing problem under uncertainty by a revised multi-choice goal programming approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Yousefi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A vehicle routing problem with time windows (VRPTW is an important problem with many real applications in a transportation problem. The optimum set of routes with the minimum distance and vehicles used is determined to deliver goods from a central depot, using a vehicle with capacity constraint. In the real cases, there are other objective functions that should be considered. This paper considers not only the minimum distance and the number of vehicles used as the objective function, the customer’s satisfaction with the priority of customers is also considered. Additionally, it presents a new model for a bi-objective VRPTW solved by a revised multi-choice goal programming approach, in which the decision maker determines optimistic aspiration levels for each objective function. Two meta-heuristic methods, namely simulated annealing (SA and genetic algorithm (GA, are proposed to solve large-sized problems. Moreover, the experimental design is used to tune the parameters of the proposed algorithms. The presented model is verified by a real-world case study and a number of test problems. The computational results verify the efficiency of the proposed SA and GA.

  18. Impact of methanol and CNG fuels on motor-vehicle toxic emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, F.; Gabele, P.

    1991-01-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments require that the Environmental Protection Agency investigate the need for reduction of motor vehicle toxic emissions such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, benzene, 1,3-butadiene, and polycyclic organic matter. Toxic organic emissions can be reduced by utilizing the control technologies employed for regulated THC (NMHC) and CO emissions, and by changing fuel composition. The paper examines emissions associated with the use of methanol and compressed natural gas fuels. Both tailpipe and evaporative emissions are examined at varied ambient temperatures ranging from 20 C to 105 F. Tailpipe emissions are also examined over a variety of driving cycles with average speeds ranging from 7 to 48 mph. Results suggest that an equivalent ambient temperatures and average speeds, motor vehicle toxic emissions are generally reduced with methanol and compressed natural gas fuels relative to those with gasoline, except for formaldehyde emissions, which may be elevated. As with gasoline, tailpipe toxic emissions with methanol and compressed natural gas fuels generally increase when ambient temperature or average speed decreases (the sensitivity to these variables is greater with methanol than with compressed natural gas). Evaporative emissions generally increase when fuel volatility or ambient temperature increases (however, the relative contribution of evaporative sources to the aggregate toxic compound emissions is small)

  19. Technology updates from the OEMs (tires, rims, automation inflation systems, and alternative fuels for heavy vehicles)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, N. [Charonic Canada Inc., Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    This power point presentation outlined a project at Charonic Canada Inc., which demonstrated and evaluated innovations in the areas of vehicle safety, operating economy and diesel fuel substitution. It also presented a range of results that demonstrate some of the trends that may be used on vehicles, particularly trucks, in the near future. The demonstration involved a 2 year observation of a five truck fleet hauling refuse from Toronto to Michigan. The trucks completed 2,500 round trips of 540 miles and used 115 tonnes of natural gas fuel replacing diesel fuel. Safety innovations included tire pressure monitoring, hazard locator radar system, anti-spray system, wheel nut and bearing temperature indicators and brake safe indicators. These features were reported as being worthwhile investments. Economy innovations included a dual-fuel engine system, wide base tires, light weight CNG tanks, centrifugal oil cleaner and an oil and lubrication system. Although the technology continues to improve, the dual-engine system requires further work. Difficulties were encountered when trying to meet performance, fuel economy and emission targets at the same time. 18 figs.

  20. Deriving fuel-based emission factor thresholds to interpret heavy-duty vehicle roadside plume measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiros, David C; Smith, Jeremy D; Ham, Walter A; Robertson, William H; Huai, Tao; Ayala, Alberto; Hu, Shaohua

    2018-04-13

    Remote sensing devices have been used for decades to measure gaseous emissions from individual vehicles at the roadside. Systems have also been developed that entrain diluted exhaust and can also measure particulate matter (PM) emissions. In 2015, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) reported that 8% of in-field diesel particulate filters (DPF) on heavy-duty (HD) vehicles were malfunctioning and emitted about 70% of total diesel PM emissions from the DPF-equipped fleet. A new high-emitter problem in the heavy-duty vehicle fleet had emerged. Roadside exhaust plume measurements reflect a snapshot of real-world operation, typically lasting several seconds. In order to relate roadside plume measurements to laboratory emission tests, we analyzed carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), oxides of nitrogen (NO X ), and PM emissions collected from four HD vehicles during several driving cycles on a chassis dynamometer. We examined the fuel-based emission factors corresponding to possible exceedances of emission standards as a function of vehicle power. Our analysis suggests that a typical HD vehicle will exceed the model year (MY) 2010 emission standards (of 0.2 g NO X /bhp-hr and 0.01 g PM/bhp-hr) by three times when fuel-based emission factors are 9.3 g NO X /kg fuel and 0.11 g PM/kg using the roadside plume measurement approach. Reported limits correspond to 99% confidence levels, which were calculated using the detection uncertainty of emissions analyzers, accuracy of vehicle power calculations, and actual emissions variability of fixed operational parameters. The PM threshold was determined for acceleration events between 0.47 and 1.4 mph/sec only, and the NO X threshold was derived from measurements where aftertreatment temperature was above 200°C. Anticipating a growing interest in real-world driving emissions, widespread implementation of roadside exhaust plume measurements as a compliment to in-use vehicle programs may benefit from expanding this analysis to a larger

  1. Development and use of GREET 1.6 fuel-cycle model for transportation fuels and vehicle technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, M. Q.

    2001-01-01

    Since 1995, with funds from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Transportation Technologies (OTT), Argonne National Laboratory has been developing the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model. The model is intended to serve as an analytical tool for use by researchers and practitioners in estimating fuel-cycle energy use and emissions associated with alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies. Argonne released the first version of the GREET model--GREET 1.0--in June 1996. Since then, it has released a series of GREET versions with revisions, updates, and upgrades. In February 2000, the latest public version of the model--GREET 1.5a--was posted on Argonne's Transportation Technology Research and Development Center (TTRDC) Web site (www.transportation.anl.gov/ttrdc/greet). Major publications that address GREET development are listed. These reports document methodologies, development, key default assumptions, applications, and results of the GREET model. They are also posted, along with additional materials for the GREET model, on the TTRDC Web site. For a given transportation fuel/technology combination, the GREET model separately calculates: (A)--Fuel-cycle energy consumption for the following three source categories: (1) Total energy (all energy sources), (2) Fossil fuels (petroleum, natural gas [NG], and coal), and (3) Petroleum. (B)--Fuel-cycle emissions of the following three greenhouse gases (GHGs): (1) Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) (with a global warming potential [GWP] of 1), (2) Methane (CH 4 ) (with a GWP of 21), and (3) Nitrous oxide (N 2 O) (with a GWP of 310). (C)--Fuel-cycle emissions of the following five criteria pollutants (separated into total [T] and urban [U] emissions): (1) Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), (2) Carbon monoxide (CO), (3) Nitrogen oxides (NO x ), (4) Particulate matter with a mean aerodynamic diameter of 10 (micro)m or less (PM 10 ), and (5) Sulfur oxides

  2. Metal membrane-type 25-kW methanol fuel processor for fuel-cell hybrid vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jaesung; Lee, Seok-Min; Chang, Hyuksang

    A 25-kW on-board methanol fuel processor has been developed. It consists of a methanol steam reformer, which converts methanol to hydrogen-rich gas mixture, and two metal membrane modules, which clean-up the gas mixture to high-purity hydrogen. It produces hydrogen at rates up to 25 N m 3/h and the purity of the product hydrogen is over 99.9995% with a CO content of less than 1 ppm. In this fuel processor, the operating condition of the reformer and the metal membrane modules is nearly the same, so that operation is simple and the overall system construction is compact by eliminating the extensive temperature control of the intermediate gas streams. The recovery of hydrogen in the metal membrane units is maintained at 70-75% by the control of the pressure in the system, and the remaining 25-30% hydrogen is recycled to a catalytic combustion zone to supply heat for the methanol steam-reforming reaction. The thermal efficiency of the fuel processor is about 75% and the inlet air pressure is as low as 4 psi. The fuel processor is currently being integrated with 25-kW polymer electrolyte membrane fuel-cell (PEMFC) stack developed by the Hyundai Motor Company. The stack exhibits the same performance as those with pure hydrogen, which proves that the maximum power output as well as the minimum stack degradation is possible with this fuel processor. This fuel-cell 'engine' is to be installed in a hybrid passenger vehicle for road testing.

  3. Evaluating the Impact of Road Grade on Simulated Commercial Vehicle Fuel Economy Using Real-World Drive Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopp, Sean; Wood, Eric; Duran, Adam

    2015-10-13

    Commercial vehicle fuel economy is known to vary significantly with both positive and negative road grade. Medium- and heavy-duty vehicles operating at highway speeds require incrementally larger amounts of energy to pull heavy payloads up inclines as road grade increases. Non-hybrid vehicles are then unable to recapture energy on descent and lose energy through friction braking. While the on-road effects of road grade are well understood, the majority of standard commercial vehicle drive cycles feature no climb or descent requirements. Additionally, existing literature offers a limited number of sources that attempt to estimate the on-road energy implications of road grade in the medium- and heavy-duty space. This study uses real-world commercial vehicle drive cycles from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Fleet DNA database to simulate the effects of road grade on fuel economy across a range of vocations, operating conditions, and locations. Drive-cycles are matched with vocation-specific vehicle models and simulated with and without grade. Fuel use due to grade is presented, and variation in fuel consumption due to drive cycle and vehicle characteristics is explored through graphical and statistical comparison. The results of this study suggest that road grade accounts for 1%-9% of fuel use in commercial vehicles on average and up to 40% on select routes.

  4. Dynamic modelling of a De Nora fuel cell intended for the electric vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirot-Crouvezier, J.-P.; Baurens, P.; Levrard, D.

    2000-01-01

    Recent progress in fuel cells (proton membrane exchange) has gained interest in the electricity generation in particular for electric vehicles. So far the vehicles demonstrate the feasibility of the technique. After a limited number of demonstrations, the energy source will be indispensable. In general, one cannot speak about a single cell, but a stacking of cells. The system must be able to be supplied with reactants, evacuate products, and produce heat and usable electricity. A fuel cell is inevitably a system of many components that interact with one another. The overall operation of the assembly depends on the associated sub-systems. In the case of the application to automobiles, the driving behaviour must be analysed to ensure the system function can be simulated to obtain the correct characteristics. For instance, an essential study would be the dynamic function of successive accelerations and decelerations

  5. Modeling and control of a hybrid-electric vehicle for drivability and fuel economy improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprubasi, Kerem

    The gradual decline of oil reserves and the increasing demand for energy over the past decades has resulted in automotive manufacturers seeking alternative solutions to reduce the dependency on fossil-based fuels for transportation. A viable technology that enables significant improvements in the overall tank-to-wheel vehicle energy conversion efficiencies is the hybridization of electrical and conventional drive systems. Sophisticated hybrid powertrain configurations require careful coordination of the actuators and the onboard energy sources for optimum use of the energy saving benefits. The term optimality is often associated with fuel economy, although other measures such as drivability and exhaust emissions are also equally important. This dissertation focuses on the design of hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) control strategies that aim to minimize fuel consumption while maintaining good vehicle drivability. In order to facilitate the design of controllers based on mathematical models of the HEV system, a dynamic model that is capable of predicting longitudinal vehicle responses in the low-to-mid frequency region (up to 10 Hz) is developed for a parallel HEV configuration. The model is validated using experimental data from various driving modes including electric only, engine only and hybrid. The high fidelity of the model makes it possible to accurately identify critical drivability issues such as time lags, shunt, shuffle, torque holes and hesitation. Using the information derived from the vehicle model, an energy management strategy is developed and implemented on a test vehicle. The resulting control strategy has a hybrid structure in the sense that the main mode of operation (the hybrid mode) is occasionally interrupted by event-based rules to enable the use of the engine start-stop function. The changes in the driveline dynamics during this transition further contribute to the hybrid nature of the system. To address the unique characteristics of the HEV

  6. Emission factors of air pollutants from CNG-gasoline bi-fuel vehicles: Part I. Black carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Xing, Zhenyu; Xu, Hui; Du, Ke

    2016-12-01

    Compressed natural gas (CNG) is considered to be a "cleaner" fuel compared to other fossil fuels. Therefore, it is used as an alternative fuel in motor vehicles to reduce emissions of air pollutants in transportation. To quantify "how clean" burning CNG is compared to burning gasoline, quantification of pollutant emissions under the same driving conditions for motor vehicles with different fuels is needed. In this study, a fleet of bi-fuel vehicles was selected to measure the emissions of black carbon (BC), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC) and nitrogen oxide (NO x ) for driving in CNG mode and gasoline mode respectively under the same set of constant speeds and accelerations. Comparison of emission factors (EFs) for the vehicles burning CNG and gasoline are discussed. This part of the paper series reports BC EFs for bi-fuel vehicles driving on the real road, which were measured using an in situ method. Our results show that burning CNG will lead to 54%-83% reduction in BC emissions per kilometer, depending on actual driving conditions. These comparisons show that CNG is a cleaner fuel than gasoline for motor vehicles in terms of BC emissions and provide a viable option for reducing BC emissions cause by transportation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Hydrocarbon emission fingerprints from contemporary vehicle/engine technologies with conventional and new fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Larisse; Duane, Matthew; Manfredi, Urbano; Astorga, Covadonga; Martini, Giorgio; Carriero, Massimo; Krasenbrink, Alois; Larsen, B. R.

    2010-06-01

    The present paper presents results from the analysis of 29 individual C 2-C 9 hydrocarbons (HCs) specified in the European Commission Ozone Directive. The 29 HCs are measured in exhaust from common, contemporary vehicle/engine/fuel technologies for which very little or no data is available in the literature. The obtained HC emission fingerprints are compared with fingerprints deriving from technologies that are being phased out in Europe. Based on the total of 138 emission tests, thirteen type-specific fingerprints are extracted (Mean ± SD percentage contributions from individual HCs to the total mass of the 29 HCs), essential for receptor modelling source apportionment. The different types represent exhaust from Euro3 and Euro4 light-duty (LD) diesel and petrol-vehicles, Euro3 heavy-duty (HD) diesel exhaust, and exhaust from 2-stroke preEuro, Euro1 and Euro2 mopeds. The fuels comprise liquefied petroleum gas, petrol/ethanol blends (0-85% ethanol), and mineral diesel in various blends (0-100%) with fatty acid methyl esters, rapeseed methyl esters palm oil methyl esters, soybean oil methyl or sunflower oil methyl esters. Type-specific tracer compounds (markers) are identified for the various vehicle/engine/fuel technologies. An important finding is an insignificant effect on the HC fingerprints of varying the test driving cycle, indicating that combining HC fingerprints from different emission studies for receptor modelling purposes would be a robust approach. The obtained results are discussed in the context of atmospheric ozone formation and health implications from emissions (mg km -1 for LD and mopeds and mg kW h -1 for HD, all normalised to fuel consumption: mg dm -3 fuel) of the harmful HCs, benzene and 1,3-butadiene. Another important finding is a strong linear correlation of the regulated "total" hydrocarbon emissions (tot-HC) with the ozone formation potential of the 29 HCs (ΣPO 3 = (1.66 ± 0.04) × tot-RH; r2 = 0.93). Tot-HC is routinely monitored in

  8. Exergy and environmental comparison of the end use of vehicle fuels: The Brazilian case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flórez-Orrego, Daniel; Silva, Julio A.M.; Oliveira Jr, Silvio de

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Total and non-renewable exergy costs of Brazilian transportation service are evaluated. • Specific CO 2 emissions of the Brazilian transportation service are determined. • Overall exergy efficiency of the end use of vehicle fuels in transportation sector is calculated. • A comparative extended analysis of the production and end use of transportation fuels is presented. - Abstract: In this work, a comparative exergy and environmental analysis of the vehicle fuel end use is presented. This analysis comprises petroleum and natural gas derivatives (including hydrogen), biofuels (ethanol and biodiesel), and their mixtures, besides of the electricity generated in the Brazilian electricity mix, intended to be used in plug in electric vehicles. The renewable and non-renewable unit exergy costs and CO 2 emission cost are proposed as suitable indicators for assessing the renewable exergy consumption intensity and the environmental impact, and for quantifying the thermodynamic performance of the transportation sector. This allows ranking the energy conversion processes along the vehicle fuels production routes and their end use, so that the best options for the transportation sector can be determined and better energy policies may be issued. It is found that if a drastic CO 2 emissions abatement of the sector is pursued, a more intensive utilization of ethanol in the Brazilian transportation sector mix is advisable. However, as the overall exergy conversion efficiency of the sugar cane industry is still very low, which increases the unit exergy cost of ethanol, better production and end use technologies are required. Nonetheless, with the current scenario of a predominantly renewable Brazilian electricity mix, based on more than 80% of renewable sources, this source consolidates as the most promising energy source to reduce the large amount of greenhouse gas emissions which transportation sector is responsible for

  9. Determining air quality and greenhouse gas impacts of hydrogen infrastructure and fuel cell vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens-Romero, Shane; Carreras-Sospedra, Marc; Brouwer, Jacob; Dabdub, Donald; Samuelsen, Scott

    2009-12-01

    Adoption of hydrogen infrastructure and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCVs) to replace gasoline internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles has been proposed as a strategy to reduce criteria pollutant and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the transportation sector and transition to fuel independence. However, it is uncertain (1) to what degree the reduction in criteria pollutants will impact urban air quality, and (2) how the reductions in pollutant emissions and concomitant urban air quality impacts compare to ultralow emission gasoline-powered vehicles projected for a future year (e.g., 2060). To address these questions, the present study introduces a "spatially and temporally resolved energy and environment tool" (STREET) to characterize the pollutant and GHG emissions associated with a comprehensive hydrogen supply infrastructure and HFCVs at a high level of geographic and temporal resolution. To demonstrate the utility of STREET, two spatially and temporally resolved scenarios for hydrogen infrastructure are evaluated in a prototypical urban airshed (the South Coast Air Basin of California) using geographic information systems (GIS) data. The well-to-wheels (WTW) GHG emissions are quantified and the air quality is established using a detailed atmospheric chemistry and transport model followed by a comparison to a future gasoline scenario comprised of advanced ICE vehicles. One hydrogen scenario includes more renewable primary energy sources for hydrogen generation and the other includes more fossil fuel sources. The two scenarios encompass a variety of hydrogen generation, distribution, and fueling strategies. GHG emissions reductions range from 61 to 68% for both hydrogen scenarios in parallel with substantial improvements in urban air quality (e.g., reductions of 10 ppb in peak 8-h-averaged ozone and 6 mug/m(3) in 24-h-averaged particulate matter concentrations, particularly in regions of the airshed where concentrations are highest for the gasoline scenario).

  10. Energy storage options for fuel cell hybrid power-trains in road vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, D; Mortimer, R; Moore, J

    2000-07-01

    The objective of this work was to identify and assess energy storage technologies that may be applicable for use in fuel cell hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) in the time frame to 2010. The current and projected status of each technology was evaluated, based on recognised existing goals (such as USDoE and USABC) and performance requirements, so that potential commercial opportunities could be identified. (Author)

  11. Screening potential social impacts of fossil fuels and biofuels for vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekener-Petersen, Elisabeth; Höglund, Jonas; Finnveden, Göran

    2014-01-01

    The generic social and socioeconomic impacts of various biofuels and fossil fuels were screened by applying Social Life Cycle Assessment methodology. Data were taken from the Social Hotspots Database on all categories for all the related themes and all indicators available. To limit the amount of data, only high and very high risk indicators were considered for each combination. The risks identified per life cycle phase were listed for each fuel assessed and the results were then aggregated by counting the number of high and very high risk indicators for that fuel. All the fossil fuels and biofuels analysed were found to display high or very high risks of negative impacts. Country of origin seemed to be of greater importance for risks than fuel type, as the most risk-related and least risk-related product systems referred to the same type of fuel, fossil oil from Russia/Nigeria and fossil oil from Norway, respectively. These results suggest that in developing policy, strict procurement requirements on social performance should be set for both fossil fuel and biofuel. However, the results must be interpreted with care owing to some limitations in the assessment, such as simplifications to life cycles, method used and data collection. - Highlights: • Both fossil and biofuels displayed high or very high risks of negative social impacts. • Social procurement requirements should be applied on all vehicle fuels. • Applying social criteria only on biofuels may be unfairly benefiting fossil fuels. • Social LCA can identify severe social impacts and influence policies accordingly. • Schemes can be adapted to include relevant criteria for specific fuels and/or origins

  12. Light-duty vehicle fuel economy improvements, 1979--1998: A consumer purchase model of corporate average fuel economy, fuel price, and income effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, David Michael

    2000-10-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975, which created fuel economy standards for automobiles and light trucks, was passed by Congress in response to the rapid rise in world oil prices as a result of the 1973 oil crisis. The standards were first implemented in 1978 for automobiles and 1979 for light trucks, and began with initial standards of 18 MPG for automobiles and 17.2 MPG for light trucks. The current fuel economy standards for 1998 have been held constant at 27.5 MPG for automobiles and 20.5 MPG for light trucks since 1990--1991. While actual new automobile fuel economy has almost doubled from 14 MPG in 1974 to 27.2 MPG in 1994, it is reasonable to ask if the CAFE standards are still needed. Each year Congress attempts to pass another increase in the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standard and fails. Many have called for the abolition of CAFE standards citing the ineffectiveness of the standards in the past. In order to determine whether CAFE standards should be increased, held constant, or repealed, an evaluation of the effectiveness of the CAFE standards to date must be established. Because fuel prices were rising concurrently with the CAFE standards, many authors have attributed the rapid rise in new car fuel economy solely to fuel prices. The purpose of this dissertation is to re-examine the determinants of new car fuel economy via three effects: CAFE regulations, fuel price, and income effects. By measuring the marginal effects of the three fuel economy determinants upon consumers and manufacturers choices, for fuel economy, an estimate was made of the influence of each upon new fuel economy. The conclusions of this dissertation present some clear signals to policymakers: CAFE standards have been very effective in increasing fuel economy from 1979 to 1998. Furthermore, they have been the main cause of fuel economy improvement, with income being a much smaller component. Furthermore, this dissertation has suggested that fuel prices have

  13. Life cycle cost analysis of alternative vehicles and fuels in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goedecke, Martin; Therdthianwong, Supaporn; Gheewala, Shabbir H.

    2007-01-01

    High crude oil prices and pollution problems have drawn attention to alternative vehicle technologies and fuels for the transportation sector. The question is: What are the benefits/costs of these technologies for society? To answer this question in a quantitative way, a web-based model (http://vehiclesandfuels.memebot.com) has been developed to calculate the societal life cycle costs, the consumer life cycle costs and the tax for different vehicle technologies. By comparing these costs it is possible to draw conclusions about the social benefit and the related tax structure. The model should help to guide decisions toward optimality, which refers to maximum social benefit. The model was applied to the case of Thailand. The life cycle cost of 13 different alternative vehicle technologies in Thailand have been calculated and the tax structure analyzed

  14. A real time fuzzy logic power management strategy for a fuel cell vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemi, Hanane; Ghouili, Jamel; Cheriti, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We present a real time fuzzy logic power management strategy. • This strategy is applied to hybrid electric vehicle dynamic model. • Three configurations evaluated during a drive cycle. • The hydrogen consumption is analysed for the three configurations. - Abstract: This paper presents real time fuzzy logic controller (FLC) approach used to design a power management strategy for a hybrid electric vehicle and to protect the battery from overcharging during the repetitive braking energy accumulation. The fuel cell (FC) and battery (B)/supercapacitor (SC) are the primary and secondary power sources, respectively. This paper analyzes and evaluates the performance of the three configurations, FC/B, FC/SC and FC/B/SC during real time driving conditions and unknown driving cycle. The MATLAB/Simulink and SimPowerSystems software packages are used to model the electrical and mechanical elements of hybrid vehicles and implement a fuzzy logic strategy

  15. Simulation of hydrogen releases from fuel-cell vehicles in tunnels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houf, William G.; Evans, Greg H.; James, Scott C. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Merilo, Erik; Groethe, Mark [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Simulation results for a hydrogen fuel-cell vehicle in a full-scale tunnel have been performed for the case where hydrogen gas is vented from the vehicle as a result of thermal activation of the pressure relief device (PRD). The same modeling approach used in the full-scale tunnel modeling was validated in a scaled model by comparing simulated results with measured results from a series of scaled-tunnel test experiments performed at the SRI Corral Hollow test facility. Results of the simulations were found to be in good agreement with the experimental data. Finally, a rudimentary risk analysis indicated that the level of potential risk from hydrogen vehicles accidents involving thermally activated PRDs in tunnels does not appear to significantly increase the current level of individual risk to the public from everyday life. (orig.)

  16. Cleaning the Air and Improving Health with Hydrogen Fuel-Cell Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, M. Z.; Colella, W. G.; Golden, D. M.

    2005-06-01

    Converting all U.S. onroad vehicles to hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles (HFCVs) may improve air quality, health, and climate significantly, whether the hydrogen is produced by steam reforming of natural gas, wind electrolysis, or coal gasification. Most benefits would result from eliminating current vehicle exhaust. Wind and natural gas HFCVs offer the greatest potential health benefits and could save 3700 to 6400 U.S. lives annually. Wind HFCVs should benefit climate most. An all-HFCV fleet would hardly affect tropospheric water vapor concentrations. Conversion to coal HFCVs may improve health but would damage climate more than fossil/electric hybrids. The real cost of hydrogen from wind electrolysis may be below that of U.S. gasoline.

  17. Electricity reforms and firm level responses: changing ownership, fuel choices, and technology decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, P.R.; Nag, Tirthankar; Biswas, Debashish

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines how electricity reforms in India managed to influence the responses of generating firms. Indian electricity reforms have federal and state character. This paper utilises an extensive survey of generation units in Gujarat State. The findings suggest that reforms have created heterogeneous ownership of generation units. The fuel-mix and technology choices of new owners differ from pre-reform pattern followed by state-owned utilities. The new owners prefer natural gas, sourced technologies internationally, and chosen unit sizes that follow market dynamics. Consequently, the operational performance of power plants has improved. This paper quantifies energy efficiency and carbon intensity baselines, projects their trends, and delineates the contribution of reforms for the state. In generalisation, this paper argues that energy and cost efficiency of power plants across different states shows secular improvements under the reforms, though it cautions that environmental performance would not show such uniformly improving trends. (Author)

  18. Development of Sensors and Sensing Technology for Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brosha, E L; Sekhar, P K; Mukundan, R; Williamson, T; Garzon, F H; Woo, L Y; Glass, R R

    2010-01-06

    One related area of hydrogen fuel cell vehicle (FCV) development that cannot be overlooked is the anticipated requirement for new sensors for both the monitoring and control of the fuel cell's systems and for those devices that will be required for safety. Present day automobiles have dozens of sensors on-board including those for IC engine management/control, sensors for state-of-health monitoring/control of emissions systems, sensors for control of active safety systems, sensors for triggering passive safety systems, and sensors for more mundane tasks such as fluids level monitoring to name the more obvious. The number of sensors continues to grow every few years as a result of safety mandates but also in response to consumer demands for new conveniences and safety features. Some of these devices (e.g. yaw sensors for dynamic stability control systems or tire presure warning RF-based devices) may be used on fuel cell vehicles without any modification. However the use of hydrogen as a fuel will dictate the development of completely new technologies for such requirements as the detection of hydrogen leaks, sensors and systems to continuously monitor hydrogen fuel purity and protect the fuel cell stack from poisoning, and for the important, yet often taken for granted, tasks such as determining the state of charge of the hydrogen fuel storage and delivery system. Two such sensors that rely on different transduction mechanisms will be highlighted in this presentation. The first is an electrochemical device for monitoring hydrogen levels in air. The other technology covered in this work, is an acoustic-based approach to determine the state of charge of a hydride storage system.

  19. Real-world fuel economy and CO2 emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploetz, Patrick; Funke, Simon Arpad; Jochem, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) combine electric propulsion with an internal combustion engine. Their potential to reduce transport related green-house gas emissions highly depends on their actual usage and electricity provision. Various studies underline their environmental and economic advantages, but are based on standardised driving cycles, simulations or small PHEV fleets. Here, we analyse real-world fuel economy of PHEV and the factors influencing it based on about 2,000 actual PHEV that have been observed over more than a year in the U.S. and Germany. We find that real-world fuel economy of PHEV differ widely among users. The main factors explaining this variation are the annual mileage, the regularity of daily driving, and the likelihood of long-distance trips. Current test cycle fuel economy ratings neglect these factors. Despite the broad range of PHEV fuel economies, the test cycle fuel economy ratings can be close to empiric PHEV fleet averages if the average annual mile-age is about 17,000 km. For the largest group of PHEV in our data, the Chevrolet Volt, we find the average fuel economy to be 1.45 litres/100 km at an average electric driving share of 78%. The resulting real-world tank-to-wheel CO 2 emissions of these PHEV are 42 gCO 2 /km and the annual CO 2 savings in the U.S. amount to about 50 Mt. In conclusion, the variance of empirical PHEV fuel economy is considerably higher than of conventional vehicles. This should be taken into account by future test cycles and high electric driving shares should be incentivised.

  20. Induced motor vehicle travel from improved fuel efficiency and road expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su Qing, E-mail: suq1@nku.edu [Department of Marketing, Economics and Sports Business, Northern Kentucky University, AST Center, Office 338, Nunn Drive, Highland Heights, KY 41099 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    This paper investigates the impact of improved fuel efficiency and road network expansion on motor vehicle travel using a system dynamic panel data estimator and panel data at the state level for the 2001-2008 period. Our model accounts for endogenous changes in fuel efficiency, congestion, fuel cost per mile, and vehicle stock. Our regression results suggest that the short run rebound effect is 0.0276 while the long run rebound effect is 0.11. The short run effect of road capacity per capita is 0.066 while the long run effect is 0.26. - Highlights: > We estimate two effects: the rebound effect and induced travel effect at the state level. > System dynamic panel data approach is used to address endogeneity issue. > In the period of 2001-2008, the rebound effect is 0.0276 in the short run and 0.11 in the long run. > Increase in road capacity induces motor vehicle travel. > Induced travel effect is 0. 0.066 in the short run and 0.26 in the long run.

  1. Particle and carbon dioxide emissions from passenger vehicles operating on unleaded petrol and LPG fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ristovski, Z.D.; Jayaratne, E.R.; Morawska, L.; Ayoko, G.A.; Lim, M.

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive study of the particle and carbon dioxide emissions from a fleet of six dedicated liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) powered and five unleaded petrol (ULP) powered new Ford Falcon Forte passenger vehicles was carried out on a chassis dynamometer at four different vehicle speeds-0 (idle), 40, 60, 80 and 100 km h -1 . Emission factors and their relative values between the two fuel types together with a statistical significance for any difference were estimated for each parameter. In general, LPG was found to be a 'cleaner' fuel, although in most cases, the differences were not statistically significant owing to the large variations between emissions from different vehicles. The particle number emission factors ranged from 10 11 to 10 13 km -1 and was over 70% less with LPG compared to ULP. Corresponding differences in particle mass emission factor between the two fuels were small and ranged from the order of 10 μg km -1 at 40 to about 1000 μg km -1 at 100 km h -1 . The count median particle diameter (CMD) ranged from 20 to 35 nm and was larger with LPG than with ULP in all modes except the idle mode. Carbon dioxide emission factors ranged from about 300 to 400 g km -1 at 40 km h -1 , falling with increasing speed to about 200 g km -1 at 100 km h -1 . At all speeds, the values were 10% to 18% greater with ULP than with LPG

  2. Induced motor vehicle travel from improved fuel efficiency and road expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Qing

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of improved fuel efficiency and road network expansion on motor vehicle travel using a system dynamic panel data estimator and panel data at the state level for the 2001-2008 period. Our model accounts for endogenous changes in fuel efficiency, congestion, fuel cost per mile, and vehicle stock. Our regression results suggest that the short run rebound effect is 0.0276 while the long run rebound effect is 0.11. The short run effect of road capacity per capita is 0.066 while the long run effect is 0.26. - Highlights: → We estimate two effects: the rebound effect and induced travel effect at the state level. → System dynamic panel data approach is used to address endogeneity issue. → In the period of 2001-2008, the rebound effect is 0.0276 in the short run and 0.11 in the long run. → Increase in road capacity induces motor vehicle travel. → Induced travel effect is 0. 0.066 in the short run and 0.26 in the long run.

  3. Impact of experience on government policy toward acceptance of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Min Jung [Department of Information and Industrial Engineering, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemoon-Gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Heejun, E-mail: h.park@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Information and Industrial Engineering, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemoon-Gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    As the 'low carbon, green growth' agenda, which emphasized sustainable development through equilibrium between economic growth and environmental preservation, is propagated rapidly in Korea. Despite this progress, it is not uncommon for new products made through advanced technologies, such as hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, to face public skepticism preventing market penetration. Therefore, the factors impacting customer acceptance of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles have to be estimated. Furthermore, it is necessary to examine whether or not the policies related to these products can prevent public skepticism regarding them. This empirical study examining the relationship between personal experiences related to the policy and acceptance of the innovative products of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles shows that government involvement in technology targeting and promotions administered by the 'low carbon, green growth' agenda rarely stimulate potential customers' purchase intentions. Thus, technology targeting administered by the 'low carbon, green growth' agenda needs to be reconciled with customer responses to the future market. - Highlights: > Experience of the 'low carbon, green growth' policy affects perception of it. > Positive perception on the policy seldom arouses positive perception on HFCV performance. > Technology targeting by the policy rarely stimulates purchase intention of HFCV. > Desire to be regarded as a person with environment concern impacts purchase intentions.> Technology targeting by the policy needs to be reconciled with customer responses to it.

  4. Impact of experience on government policy toward acceptance of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Min Jung; Park, Heejun

    2011-01-01

    As the 'low carbon, green growth' agenda, which emphasized sustainable development through equilibrium between economic growth and environmental preservation, is propagated rapidly in Korea. Despite this progress, it is not uncommon for new products made through advanced technologies, such as hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, to face public skepticism preventing market penetration. Therefore, the factors impacting customer acceptance of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles have to be estimated. Furthermore, it is necessary to examine whether or not the policies related to these products can prevent public skepticism regarding them. This empirical study examining the relationship between personal experiences related to the policy and acceptance of the innovative products of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles shows that government involvement in technology targeting and promotions administered by the 'low carbon, green growth' agenda rarely stimulate potential customers' purchase intentions. Thus, technology targeting administered by the 'low carbon, green growth' agenda needs to be reconciled with customer responses to the future market. - Highlights: → Experience of the 'low carbon, green growth' policy affects perception of it. → Positive perception on the policy seldom arouses positive perception on HFCV performance. → Technology targeting by the policy rarely stimulates purchase intention of HFCV. → Desire to be regarded as a person with environment concern impacts purchase intentions.→ Technology targeting by the policy needs to be reconciled with customer responses to it.

  5. A Parallel Energy-Sharing Control Strategy for Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nik Rumzi Nik Idris

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a parallel energy-sharing control strategy for the application of fuel cell hybrid vehicles (FCHVs. The hybrid source discussed consists of a fuel cells (FCs generator and energy storage units (ESUs which composed by the battery and ultracapacitor (UC modules. A direct current (DC bus is used to interface between the energy sources and the electric vehicles (EV propulsion system (loads. Energy sources are connected to the DC bus using of power electronics converters. A total of six control loops are designed in the supervisory system in order to regulate the DC bus voltage, control of current flow and to monitor the state of charge (SOC of each energy storage device at the same time. Proportional plus integral (PI controllers are employed to regulate the output from each control loop referring to their reference signals. The proposed energy control system is simulated in MATLAB/Simulink environment. Results indicated that the proposed parallel energy-sharing control system is capable to provide a practical hybrid vehicle in respond to the vehicle traction response and avoids the FC and battery from overstressed at the same time.

  6. Development and use of GREET 1.6 fuel-cycle model for transportation fuels and vehicle technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, M. Q.

    2001-01-01

    Since 1995, with funds from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Transportation Technologies (OTT), Argonne National Laboratory has been developing the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model. The model is intended to serve as an analytical tool for use by researchers and practitioners in estimating fuel-cycle energy use and emissions associated with alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies. Argonne released the first version of the GREET mode--GREET 1.0--in June 1996. Since then, it has released a series of GREET versions with revisions, updates, and upgrades. In February 2000, the latest public version of the model--GREET 1.5a--was posted on Argonne's Transportation Technology Research and Development Center (TTRDC) Web site (www.transportation.anl.gov/ttrdc/greet)

  7. Residual heat use generated by a 12 kW fuel cell in an electric vehicle heating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colmenar-Santos, Antonio; Alberdi-Jiménez, Lucía; Nasarre-Cortés, Lorenzo; Mora-Larramona, Joaquín

    2014-01-01

    A diesel or gasoline vehicle heating is produced by the heat of the engine coolant liquid. Nevertheless, electric vehicles, due to the fact that electric motor transform directly electricity into mechanical energy through electromagnetic interactions, do not generate this heat so other method of providing it has to be developed. This study introduces the system developed in a fuel cell electric vehicle (lithium-ion battery – fuel cell) with residual heat use. The fuel cell electric vehicle is driven by a 12 kW PEM (proton exchange membrane) fuel cell. This fuel cell has an operating temperature around 50 °C. The residual heat generated was originally wasted by interaction with the environment. The new developed heating system designed integrates the heat generated by the fuel cell into the heating system of the vehicle, reducing the global energy consumption and improving the global efficiency as well. - Highlights: • Modification of heating system was done by introducing the residual heat from fuel cell. • Maximum heat achieved by the heating radiator of 9.27 kW. • Reduction of the heat dissipation by the fuel cell cooling system 1.5 kW. • Total efficiency improvement of 20% with an autonomy increase of 21 km

  8. Hybrid-mode interleaved boost converter design for fuel cell electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Huiqing; Su, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A high power interleaved boost converter is designed for a 150 kW high-power fuel cell electric vehicle application. • A hybrid-mode scheme is used: Mode I and mode II are used with each boost converter operating in continuous conduction mode and discontinuous conduction mode. • Boundary conditions for different modes are determined with respect to switching duty ratio and load conditions. • With the proposed scheme, the power density is improved by 44.2% and 34.3% in terms of the converter volume and weight. - Abstract: For Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles, DC-DC power converters are essential to provide energy storage buffers between fuel cell stacks and the traction system because fuel cells show characteristics of low-voltage high-current output and wide output voltage variation. This paper presents a hybrid-mode two-phase interleaved boost converter for fuel cell electric vehicle application in order to improve the power density, minimize the input current ripple, and enhance the system efficiency. Two operation modes are adopted in the practical design: mode I and mode II are used with each boost converter operating in continuous conduction mode and discontinuous conduction mode. The operation, design and control of the interleaved boost converter for different operating modes are discussed with their equivalent circuits. The boundary conditions are distinguished with respect to switching duty ratio and load conditions. Transitions between continuous conduction mode and discontinuous conduction mode are illustrated for the whole duty ratio range. The expressions for inductor current ripple, input current ripple and output voltage ripple are derived and verified by simulation and experimental tests. The efficiency and power density improvements are illustrated to verify the effectiveness of the proposed design scheme.

  9. Navigation API Route Fuel Saving Opportunity Assessment on Large-Scale Real-World Travel Data for Conventional Vehicles and Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Lei [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Holden, Jacob [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gonder, Jeffrey D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-06

    The green routing strategy instructing a vehicle to select a fuel-efficient route benefits the current transportation system with fuel-saving opportunities. This paper introduces a navigation API route fuel-saving evaluation framework for estimating fuel advantages of alternative API routes based on large-scale, real-world travel data for conventional vehicles (CVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). The navigation APIs, such Google Directions API, integrate traffic conditions and provide feasible alternative routes for origin-destination pairs. This paper develops two link-based fuel-consumption models stratified by link-level speed, road grade, and functional class (local/non-local), one for CVs and the other for HEVs. The link-based fuel-consumption models are built by assigning travel from a large number of GPS driving traces to the links in TomTom MultiNet as the underlying road network layer and road grade data from a U.S. Geological Survey elevation data set. Fuel consumption on a link is calculated by the proposed fuel consumption model. This paper envisions two kinds of applications: 1) identifying alternate routes that save fuel, and 2) quantifying the potential fuel savings for large amounts of travel. An experiment based on a large-scale California Household Travel Survey GPS trajectory data set is conducted. The fuel consumption and savings of CVs and HEVs are investigated. At the same time, the trade-off between fuel saving and time saving for choosing different routes is also examined for both powertrains.

  10. Exploring the impact of signal types and adjacent vehicles on drivers' choices after the onset of yellow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Ji; Chen, Qun; Luo, Dandan; Wu, Yuli; Liang, Zuli

    2018-06-01

    Drivers' choices at signalized intersections may be made in great uncertainty after the onset of yellow, which creates potential hazards for road safety. These choices are analyzed and modeled based on field observations at three comparable signalized intersections in Changsha, China. The results show that intersections without monitoring devices widen the indecision zone, which can increase the risk of rear-end collisions and the uncertainty of drivers' decision-making. In addition, drivers are more likely to stop during the yellow interval at intersections equipped with a green signal countdown device (GSCD) than at those with a green signal flashing device (GSFD). Subsequently, according to the results of a binary logistic regression model (BLRM), drivers' decision making at the onset of the yellow indication is greatly influenced by the vehicle's spot speed, the distance to the stop line, and signal and monitoring devices. The presence of an adjacent vehicle with a short space headway can particularly motivate the following driver to make a go-decision after the first driver chooses to pass the intersection. However, a stop-decision by a driver in an adjacent lane can also prompt the following driver to stop.

  11. A review on idling reduction strategies to improve fuel economy and reduce exhaust emissions of transport vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shancita, I.; Masjuki, H.H.; Kalam, M.A.; Rizwanul Fattah, I.M.; Rashed, M.M.; Rashedul, H.K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Introduce various idling reduction technologies for transport vehicles. • Exhibit their energy use, advantages, disadvantages to understand their capability. • Conduct critical review to improve fuel economy and exhaust emissions. • Suggest better technology according to their performance ability. - Abstract: To achieve reductions in vehicle idling, strategies and actions must be taken to minimize the time spent by drivers idling their engines. A number of benefits can be obtained in limiting the idling time. These benefits include savings in fuel use and maintenance costs, vehicle life extension, and reduction in exhaust emissions. The main objective of idling reduction (IR) devices is to reduce the amount of energy wasted by idling trucks, rail locomotives, and automobiles. During idling, gasoline vehicles emit a minimum amount of nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and negligible particulate matter (PM). However, generally a large amount of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbons (HC) are produced from these vehicles. Gasoline vehicles consume far more fuel at an hourly rate than their diesel counterparts during idling. Higher NOx and comparatively larger PM are produced by diesel vehicles than gasoline vehicles on the average during idling. Auxiliary power unit (APU), direct-fired heaters, fuel cells, thermal storage system, truck stop electrification, battery-based systems, engine idle management (shutdown) systems, electrical (shore power) solutions, cab comfort system, and hybridization are some of the available IR technologies whose performances for reducing fuel consumption and exhaust emissions have been compared. This paper analyzes the availability and capability of most efficient technologies to reduce fuel consumption and exhaust emissions from diesel and gasoline vehicles by comparing the findings of previous studies. The analysis reveals that among all the options direct fired heaters, APUs and electrified parking spaces exhibit better

  12. Emission factors of air pollutants from CNG-gasoline bi-fuel vehicles: Part II. CO, HC and NOx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yang; Xing, Zhenyu; Du, Ke

    2016-09-15

    The estimation of emission factors (EFs) is the basis of accurate emission inventory. However, the EFs of air pollutants for motor vehicles vary under different operating conditions, which will cause uncertainty in developing emission inventory. Natural gas (NG), considered as a "cleaner" fuel than gasoline, is increasingly being used to reduce combustion emissions. However, information is scarce about how much emission reduction can be achieved by motor vehicles burning NG (NGVs) under real road driving conditions, which is necessary for evaluating the environmental benefits for NGVs. Here, online, in situ measurements of the emissions from nine bi-fuel vehicles were conducted under different operating conditions on the real road. A comparative study was performed for the EFs of black carbon (BC), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) for each operating condition when the vehicles using gasoline and compressed NG (CNG) as fuel. BC EFs were reported in part I. The part II in this paper series reports the influence of operating conditions and fuel types on the EFs of CO, HC and NOx. Fuel-based EFs of CO showed good correlations with speed when burning CNG and gasoline. The correlation between fuel-based HC EFs and speed was relatively weak whether burning CNG or gasoline. The fuel-based NOx EFs moderately correlated with speed when burning CNG, but weakly correlated with gasoline. As for HC, the mileage-based EFs of gasoline vehicles are 2.39-12.59 times higher than those of CNG vehicles. The mileage-based NOx EFs of CNG vehicles are slightly higher than those of gasoline vehicles. These results would facilitate a detailed analysis of the environmental benefits for replacing gasoline with CNG in light duty vehicles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Review and analysis of potential safety impacts of and regulatory barriers to fuel efficiency technologies and alternative fuels in medium- and heavy-duty vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This report summarizes a safety analysis of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles (MD/HDVs) equipped with fuel efficiency (FE) technologies and/or using alternative fuels (natural gas-CNG and LNG, propane, biodiesel and power train electrification). The st...

  14. Sizing for fuel cell/supercapacitor hybrid vehicles based on stochastic driving cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feroldi, Diego; Carignano, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A sizing procedure based on the fulfilment of real driving conditions is proposed. • A methodology to generate long-term stochastic driving cycles is proposed. • A parametric optimization of the real-time EMS is conducted. • A trade-off design is adopted from a Pareto front. • A comparison with optimal consumption via Dynamic Programming is performed. - Abstract: In this article, a methodology for the sizing and analysis of fuel cell/supercapacitor hybrid vehicles is presented. The proposed sizing methodology is based on the fulfilment of power requirements, including sustained speed tests and stochastic driving cycles. The procedure to generate driving cycles is also presented in this paper. The sizing algorithm explicitly accounts for the Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy (ECMS). The performance is compared with optimal consumption, which is found using an off-line strategy via Dynamic Programming. The sizing methodology provides guidance for sizing the fuel cell and the supercapacitor number. The results also include analysis on oversizing the fuel cell and varying the parameters of the energy management strategy. The simulation results highlight the importance of integrating sizing and energy management into fuel cell hybrid vehicles.

  15. Sustainable Transportation: Accelerating Widespread Adoption of Energy Efficient Vehicles & Fuels (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-12-01

    While energy efficient transportation strategies have the potential to simultaneously slash oil consumption and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, a truly sustainable solution will require more than just putting drivers behind the wheels of new fuel-efficient cars. As the only national laboratory dedicated 100% to renewable energy and energy efficiency, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) accelerates widespread adoption of high-performance, low-emission, energy-efficient passenger and freight vehicles, as well as alternative fuels and related infrastructure. Researchers collaborate closely with industry, government, and research partners, using a whole-systems approach to design better batteries, drivetrains, and engines, as well as thermal management, energy storage, power electronic, climate control, alternative fuel, combustion, and emission systems. NREL's sustainable transportation research, development, and deployment (RD&D) efforts are not limited to vehicles, roads, and fueling stations. The lab also explores ways to save energy and reduce GHGs by integrating transportation technology advancements with renewable energy generation, power grids and building systems, urban planning and policy, and fleet operations.

  16. Effectiveness of replacing catalytic converters in LPG-fueled vehicles in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Lyu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Many taxis and public buses are powered by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG in Hong Kong. With more vehicles using LPG, they have become the major contributor to ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs in Hong Kong. An intervention program which aimed to reduce the emissions of VOCs and nitrogen oxides (NOx from LPG-fueled vehicles was implemented by the Hong Kong government in September 2013. Long-term real-time measurements indicated that the program was remarkably effective in reducing LPG-related VOCs, NOx and nitric oxide (NO in the atmosphere. Receptor modeling results further revealed that propane, propene, i-butane, n-butane and NO in LPG-fueled vehicle exhaust emissions decreased by 40.8 ± 0.1, 45.7 ± 0.2, 35.7 ± 0.1, 47.8 ± 0.1 and 88.6 ± 0.7 %, respectively, during the implementation of the program. In contrast, despite the reduction of VOCs and NOx, O3 following the program increased by 0.40 ± 0.03 ppbv (∼  5.6 %. The LPG-fueled vehicle exhaust was generally destructive to OH and HO2. However, the destruction effect weakened for OH and it even turned to positive contribution to HO2 during the program. These changes led to the increases of OH, HO2 and HO2 ∕ OH ratio, which might explain the positive O3 increment. Analysis of O3–VOCs–NOx sensitivity in ambient air indicated VOC-limited regimes in the O3 formation before and during the program. Moreover, a maximum reduction percentage of NOx (i.e., 69 % and the lowest reduction ratio of VOCs ∕ NOx (i.e., 1.1 in LPG-fueled vehicle exhaust were determined to give a zero O3 increment. The findings are of great help to future formulation and implementation of control strategies on vehicle emissions in Hong Kong, and could be extended to other regions in China and around the world.

  17. VOC composition of current motor vehicle fuels and vapors, and collinearity analyses for receptor modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jo-Yu; Batterman, Stuart A

    2012-03-01

    The formulation of motor vehicle fuels can alter the magnitude and composition of evaporative and exhaust emissions occurring throughout the fuel cycle. Information regarding the volatile organic compound (VOC) composition of motor fuels other than gasoline is scarce, especially for bioethanol and biodiesel blends. This study examines the liquid and vapor (headspace) composition of four contemporary and commercially available fuels: gasoline (gasoline), ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD), and B20 (20% soy-biodiesel and 80% ULSD). The composition of gasoline and E85 in both neat fuel and headspace vapor was dominated by aromatics and n-heptane. Despite its low gasoline content, E85 vapor contained higher concentrations of several VOCs than those in gasoline vapor, likely due to adjustments in its formulation. Temperature changes produced greater changes in the partial pressures of 17 VOCs in E85 than in gasoline, and large shifts in the VOC composition. B20 and ULSD were dominated by C(9) to C(16)n-alkanes and low levels of the aromatics, and the two fuels had similar headspace vapor composition and concentrations. While the headspace composition predicted using vapor-liquid equilibrium theory was closely correlated to measurements, E85 vapor concentrations were underpredicted. Based on variance decomposition analyses, gasoline and diesel fuels and their vapors VOC were distinct, but B20 and ULSD fuels and vapors were highly collinear. These results can be used to estimate fuel related emissions and exposures, particularly in receptor models that apportion emission sources, and the collinearity analysis suggests that gasoline- and diesel-related emissions can be distinguished. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of process parameters on the dynamic behavior of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells for electric vehicle applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Abd El Monem

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a dynamic mathematical model for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane “PEM” fuel cell systems to be used for electric vehicle applications. The performance of the fuel cell, depending on the developed model and taking the double layer charging effect into account, is investigated with different process parameters to evaluate their effect on the unit behavior. Thus, it will be easy to develop suitable controllers to regulate the unit operation, which encourages the use of fuel cells especially with electric vehicles applications. The steady-state performance of the fuel cell is verified using a comparison with datasheet data and curves provided by the manufacturer. The results and conclusions introduced in this paper provide a base for further investigation of fuel cells-driven dc motors for electric vehicle.

  19. Numerical studies of a compact gasoline reformer for fuel cell vehicle applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntyre, C.S.; Harrison, S.J.; Oosthuizen, P.H.; Peppley, B.A.

    2004-01-01

    There has been recent interest in the development of compact fuel processors to produce hydrogen for fuel cell powered vehicles. Gasoline is a promising candidate for distributed or on-board processing because of its high energy density and well-developed infrastructure. A compact fuel processor is under development which utilizes autothermal reforming (ATR) to extract hydrogen from iso-octane, which is used as a surrogate for gasoline. The processor consists of a double-pass packed-bed catalytic reactor to promote partial oxidation, steam reforming, and water-gas-shift reactions. As part of this system development, a commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) package was used to model flow and chemical reactions. Reformer performance is presented in terms of hydrogen content in the product stream, reformer efficiency (LHV efficiency) and iso-octane conversion. Results are compared to on-going experimental studies. (author)

  20. U.S. Department of Energy FreedomCar & Vehicle Technologies Program CARB Executive Order Exemption Process for a Hydrogen-fueled Internal Combustion engine Vehicle -- Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-04-01

    The CARB Executive Order Exemption Process for a Hydrogen-fueled Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle was undertaken to define the requirements to achieve a California Air Resource Board Executive Order for a hydrogenfueled vehicle retrofit kit. A 2005 to 2006 General Motors Company Sierra/Chevrolet Silverado 1500HD pickup was assumed to be the build-from vehicle for the retrofit kit. The emissions demonstration was determined not to pose a significant hurdle due to the non-hydrocarbon-based fuel and lean-burn operation. However, significant work was determined to be necessary for Onboard Diagnostics Level II compliance. Therefore, it is recommended that an Experimental Permit be obtained from the California Air Resource Board to license and operate the vehicles for the durability of the demonstration in support of preparing a fully compliant and certifiable package that can be submitted.

  1. Hydraulic Hybrid and Conventional Parcel Delivery Vehicles' Measured Laboratory Fuel Economy on Targeted Drive Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammert, M. P.; Burton, J.; Sindler, P.; Duran, A.

    2014-10-01

    This research project compares laboratory-measured fuel economy of a medium-duty diesel powered hydraulic hybrid vehicle drivetrain to both a conventional diesel drivetrain and a conventional gasoline drivetrain in a typical commercial parcel delivery application. Vehicles in this study included a model year 2012 Freightliner P100H hybrid compared to a 2012 conventional gasoline P100 and a 2012 conventional diesel parcel delivery van of similar specifications. Drive cycle analysis of 484 days of hybrid parcel delivery van commercial operation from multiple vehicles was used to select three standard laboratory drive cycles as well as to create a custom representative cycle. These four cycles encompass and bracket the range of real world in-use data observed in Baltimore United Parcel Service operations. The NY Composite cycle, the City Suburban Heavy Vehicle Cycle cycle, and the California Air Resources Board Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT) cycle as well as a custom Baltimore parcel delivery cycle were tested at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Renewable Fuels and Lubricants Laboratory. Fuel consumption was measured and analyzed for all three vehicles. Vehicle laboratory results are compared on the basis of fuel economy. The hydraulic hybrid parcel delivery van demonstrated 19%-52% better fuel economy than the conventional diesel parcel delivery van and 30%-56% better fuel economy than the conventional gasoline parcel delivery van on cycles other than the highway-oriented HHDDT cycle.

  2. Test methods for evaluating energy consumption and emissions of vehicles with electric, hybrid and fuel cell power trains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smokers, R.T.M.; Ploumen, S.; Conte, M.; Buning, L.; Meier-Engel, K.

    2000-01-01

    As part of the MATADOR-project measurement methods have been developed for the evaluation of the energy consumption and emissions of vehicles with advanced propulsion systems, such as battery-electric, hybrid electric and fuel cell vehicles. Based on an inventory of existing and prospective standard

  3. Optimal control of a repowered vehicle: Plug-in fuel cell against plug-in hybrid electric powertrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tribioli, L., E-mail: laura.tribioli@unicusano.it; Cozzolino, R. [Dept. of Industrial Engineering, University of Rome Niccolo’ Cusano (Italy); Barbieri, M. [Engineering Dept., University of Naples Parthenope, Centro Direzionale-Isola C4, 80143 Naples (Italy)

    2015-03-10

    This paper describes two different powertrain configurations for the repowering of a conventional vehicle, equipped with an internal combustion engine (ICE). A model of a mid-sized ICE-vehicle is realized and then modified to model both a parallel plug-in hybrid electric powertrain and a proton electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell (FC) hybrid powertrain. The vehicle behavior under the application of an optimal control algorithm for the energy management is analyzed for the different scenarios and results are compared.

  4. Optimal control of a repowered vehicle: Plug-in fuel cell against plug-in hybrid electric powertrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tribioli, L.; Cozzolino, R.; Barbieri, M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes two different powertrain configurations for the repowering of a conventional vehicle, equipped with an internal combustion engine (ICE). A model of a mid-sized ICE-vehicle is realized and then modified to model both a parallel plug-in hybrid electric powertrain and a proton electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell (FC) hybrid powertrain. The vehicle behavior under the application of an optimal control algorithm for the energy management is analyzed for the different scenarios and results are compared

  5. New fuel consumption standards for Chinese passenger vehicles and their effects on reductions of oil use and CO2 emissions of the Chinese passenger vehicle fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhao; Jin Yuefu; Wang Michael; Wei Wu

    2010-01-01

    A new fuel consumption standard for passenger vehicles in China, the so-called Phase 3 standard, was approved technically in 2009 and will take effect in 2012. This standard aims to introduce advanced energy-saving technologies into passenger vehicles and to reduce the average fuel consumption rate of Chinese new passenger vehicle fleet in 2015 to 7 L/100 km. The Phase 3 standard follows the evaluating system by specifying fuel consumption targets for sixteen individual mass-based classes. Different from compliance with the Phases 1 and 2 fuel consumption standards, compliance of the Phase 3 standard is based on corporate average fuel consumption (CAFC) rates for individual automobile companies. A transition period from 2012 to 2014 is designed for manufacturers to gradually adjust their production plans and introduce fuel-efficient technologies. In this paper, we, the designers of the Phase 3 standard, present the design of the overall fuel consumption reduction target, technical feasibility, and policy implications of the Phase 3 standard. We also explore several enforcement approaches for the Phase 3 standard with financial penalties of non-compliance as a priority. Finally, we estimate the overall effect of the Phase 3 standard on oil savings and CO 2 emission reductions.

  6. Development of a multi-criteria assessment model for ranking of renewable and non-renewable transportation fuel vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safaei Mohamadabadi, H.; Tichkowsky, G.; Kumar, A.

    2009-01-01

    Several factors, including economical, environmental, and social factors, are involved in selection of the best fuel-based vehicles for road transportation. This leads to a multi-criteria selection problem for multi-alternatives. In this study, a multi-criteria assessment model was developed to rank different road transportation fuel-based vehicles (both renewable and non-renewable) using a method called Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment and Evaluations (PROMETHEE). This method combines qualitative and quantitative criteria to rank various alternatives. In this study, vehicles based on gasoline, gasoline-electric (hybrid), E85 ethanol, diesel, B100 biodiesel, and compressed natural gas (CNG) were considered as alternatives. These alternatives were ranked based on five criteria: vehicle cost, fuel cost, distance between refueling stations, number of vehicle options available to the consumer, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per unit distance traveled. In addition, sensitivity analyses were performed to study the impact of changes in various parameters on final ranking. Two base cases and several alternative scenarios were evaluated. In the base case scenario with higher weight on economical parameters, gasoline-based vehicle was ranked higher than other vehicles. In the base case scenario with higher weight on environmental parameters, hybrid vehicle was ranked first followed by biodiesel-based vehicle

  7. Development of a multi-criteria assessment model for ranking of renewable and non-renewable transportation fuel vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safaei Mohamadabadi, H.; Tichkowsky, G.; Kumar, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    2009-01-15

    Several factors, including economical, environmental, and social factors, are involved in selection of the best fuel-based vehicles for road transportation. This leads to a multi-criteria selection problem for multi-alternatives. In this study, a multi-criteria assessment model was developed to rank different road transportation fuel-based vehicles (both renewable and non-renewable) using a method called Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment and Evaluations (PROMETHEE). This method combines qualitative and quantitative criteria to rank various alternatives. In this study, vehicles based on gasoline, gasoline-electric (hybrid), E85 ethanol, diesel, B100 biodiesel, and compressed natural gas (CNG) were considered as alternatives. These alternatives were ranked based on five criteria: vehicle cost, fuel cost, distance between refueling stations, number of vehicle options available to the consumer, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per unit distance traveled. In addition, sensitivity analyses were performed to study the impact of changes in various parameters on final ranking. Two base cases and several alternative scenarios were evaluated. In the base case scenario with higher weight on economical parameters, gasoline-based vehicle was ranked higher than other vehicles. In the base case scenario with higher weight on environmental parameters, hybrid vehicle was ranked first followed by biodiesel-based vehicle. (author)

  8. 78 FR 23832 - Labeling Requirements for Alternative Fuels and Alternative Fueled Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... will have the discretion to use the old FTC label if it chooses to omit such information from the EPA... inaccurate and misleading marketing claims. The Commission may consider these and other advertising issues as part of its ongoing review of its ``Guide Concerning Fuel Economy Advertising for New Automobiles,'' 16...

  9. Fuel cell propulsion for urban duty vehicles: Bavarian fuel cell bus project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurster, R.; Altmann, M.; Sillat, D.; Kalk, K. W.; Hammerschmidt, A.; Stuehler, W.; Holl, E.

    1998-01-01

    Following a feasibility study and a detailed specification phase, the realization of a fuel cell city bus prototype was started in autumn 1996. The project is a joint development effort of Siemens, MAN and Linde, which receives a 50 % funding by the Bavarian State Ministry for Economic Affairs, Transport and Technology (BStMWVT) in the context of the Hydrogen Initiative Bavaria. An MAN low-floor bus will be equipped with the components for a fuel cell drive system. The PEM fuel cell is developed by the power generation division of Siemens. Four fuel cell modules deliver a total electrical output of 120 kW to the two electric motors, which are linked by a summation gearbox by the Siemens Transportation Systems Division. MAN Technologie AG is responsible for the compressed hydrogen storage system allowing for a driving range of more than 250 km, while Linde AG takes care of the hydrogen periphery and delivers the hydrogen for the test operation scheduled for the beginning of the year 2000. Project coordination is done by Ludwig-Boelkow System-technik GmbH. The project is divided into four phases. The conceptual design phase is scheduled to last until the end of 1997. The partly overlapping system integration phase will end in the first quarter of 1999. The subsequent test and commissioning phase will prepare the test operation at the beginning of 2000 with a bus operator yet to be defined. (author)

  10. 76 FR 67287 - Alternative Fuel Transportation Program; Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program (Subpart F...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... additional credits for the use of biodiesel in blends of 20 percent biodiesel or greater and have provided an... discussion in Part II.A), the original program based upon AFV acquisitions and biodiesel use became known as... example, B20 (a 20 percent blend of biodiesel with 80 percent petroleum diesel) is not an alternative fuel...

  11. Combining stated and revealed choice research to simulate the neighbor effect: The case of hybrid-electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axsen, Jonn [Institute of Transportation Studies, Univ. of California at Davis, 2028 Academic Surge, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Mountain, Dean C. [DeGroote School of Business, McMaster Univ., 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M4 (Canada); Jaccard, Mark [School of Resource and Environmental Management, Simon Fraser Univ., 8888 Univ. Drive, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6 (Canada)

    2009-08-15

    According to intuition and theories of diffusion, consumer preferences develop along with technological change. However, most economic models designed for policy simulation unrealistically assume static preferences. To improve the behavioral realism of an energy-economy policy model, this study investigates the ''neighbor effect'', where a new technology becomes more desirable as its adoption becomes more widespread in the market. We measure this effect as a change in aggregated willingness to pay under different levels of technology penetration. Focusing on hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs), an online survey experiment collected stated preference (SP) data from 535 Canadian and 408 Californian vehicle owners under different hypothetical market conditions. Revealed preference (RP) data was collected from the same respondents by eliciting the year, make and model of recent vehicle purchases from regions with different degrees of HEV popularity: Canada with 0.17% new market share, and California with 3.0% new market share. We compare choice models estimated from RP data only with three joint SP-RP estimation techniques, each assigning a different weight to the influence of SP and RP data in coefficient estimates. Statistically, models allowing more RP influence outperform SP influenced models. However, results suggest that because the RP data in this study is afflicted by multicollinearity, techniques that allow more SP influence in the beta estimates while maintaining RP data for calibrating vehicle class constraints produce more realistic estimates of willingness to pay. Furthermore, SP influenced coefficient estimates also translate to more realistic behavioral parameters for CIMS, allowing more sensitivity to policy simulations. (author)

  12. Combining stated and revealed choice research to simulate the neighbor effect: The case of hybrid-electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axsen, Jonn; Mountain, Dean C.; Jaccard, Mark

    2009-01-01

    According to intuition and theories of diffusion, consumer preferences develop along with technological change. However, most economic models designed for policy simulation unrealistically assume static preferences. To improve the behavioral realism of an energy-economy policy model, this study investigates the ''neighbor effect'', where a new technology becomes more desirable as its adoption becomes more widespread in the market. We measure this effect as a change in aggregated willingness to pay under different levels of technology penetration. Focusing on hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs), an online survey experiment collected stated preference (SP) data from 535 Canadian and 408 Californian vehicle owners under different hypothetical market conditions. Revealed preference (RP) data was collected from the same respondents by eliciting the year, make and model of recent vehicle purchases from regions with different degrees of HEV popularity: Canada with 0.17% new market share, and California with 3.0% new market share. We compare choice models estimated from RP data only with three joint SP-RP estimation techniques, each assigning a different weight to the influence of SP and RP data in coefficient estimates. Statistically, models allowing more RP influence outperform SP influenced models. However, results suggest that because the RP data in this study is afflicted by multicollinearity, techniques that allow more SP influence in the beta estimates while maintaining RP data for calibrating vehicle class constraints produce more realistic estimates of willingness to pay. Furthermore, SP influenced coefficient estimates also translate to more realistic behavioral parameters for CIMS, allowing more sensitivity to policy simulations. (author)

  13. Multi-objective component sizing based on optimal energy management strategy of fuel cell electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Liangfei; Mueller, Clemens David; Li, Jianqiu; Ouyang, Minggao; Hu, Zunyan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A non-linear model regarding fuel economy and system durability of FCEV. • A two-step algorithm for a quasi-optimal solution to a multi-objective problem. • Optimal parameters for DP algorithm considering accuracy and calculating time. • Influences of FC power and battery capacity on system performance. - Abstract: A typical topology of a proton electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell electric vehicle contains at least two power sources, a fuel cell system (FCS) and a lithium battery package. The FCS provides stationary power, and the battery delivers dynamic power. In this paper, we report on the multi-objective optimization problem of powertrain parameters for a pre-defined driving cycle regarding fuel economy and system durability. We introduce the dynamic model for the FCEV. We take into consideration equations not only for fuel economy but also for system durability. In addition, we define a multi-objective optimization problem, and find a quasi-optimal solution using a two-loop framework. In the inside loop, for each group of powertrain parameters, a global optimal energy management strategy based on dynamic programming (DP) is exploited. We optimize coefficients for the DP algorithm to reduce calculating time as well as to maintain accuracy. For the outside loop, we compare the results of all the groups with each other, and choose the Pareto optimal solution based on a compromise of fuel economy and system durability. Simulation results show that for a “China city bus typical cycle,” a battery capacity of 150 Ah and an FCS maximal net output power of 40 kW are optimal for the fuel economy and system durability of a fuel cell city bus.

  14. SERA Scenarios of Early Market Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Introductions: Modeling Framework, Regional Markets, and Station Clustering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Melaina, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Penev, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Daniel, W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This report describes the development and analysis of detailed temporal and spatial scenarios for early market hydrogen fueling infrastructure clustering and fuel cell electric vehicle rollout using the Scenario Evaluation, Regionalization and Analysis (SERA) model. The report provides an overview of the SERA scenario development framework and discusses the approach used to develop the nationwidescenario.

  15. The valuation of air emission externalities of vehicles: a comparison between fossil fuels and ethanol in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, E.S.L.; Zylbersztain, D.

    1997-01-01

    The National Alcohol Program, Proalcool has had an important strategic role as an alternative fuel. Nevertheless, Proalcool has faced economic difficulties that endanger the Program's future. From the environmental point of view, the introduction of hydrated ethanol as an automobile fuel was beneficial because initially it reduced vehicle emissions. The lack of investment in technology for a neat-alcohol vehicle has delayed further development of an alcohol engine relative to the gasoline engine, which is reflected in current exhaust gas emissions. This paper discusses the evolution of ethanol vehicle emissions and the monetary effect of these emissions in the urban area of Sao Paulo, Brazil. (author)

  16. Design incentives to increase vehicle size created from the U.S. footprint-based fuel economy standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitefoot, Kate S.; Skerlos, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    The recently amended U.S. Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards determine fuel-economy targets based on the footprint (wheelbase by track width) of vehicles such that larger vehicles have lower fuel-economy targets. This paper considers whether these standards create an incentive for firms to increase vehicle size by presenting an oligopolistic-equilibrium model in which automotive firms can modify vehicle dimensions, implement fuel-saving technology features, and trade off acceleration performance and fuel economy. Wide ranges of scenarios for consumer preferences are considered. Results suggest that the footprint-based CAFE standards create an incentive to increase vehicle size except when consumer preference for vehicle size is near its lower bound and preference for acceleration is near its upper bound. In all other simulations, the sales-weighted average vehicle size increases by 2–32%, undermining gains in fuel economy by 1–4 mpg (0.6–1.7 km/L). Carbon-dioxide emissions from these vehicles are 5–15% higher as a result (4.69×10 11 –5.17×10 11 kg for one year of produced vehicles compared to 4.47×10 11 kg with no size changes), which is equivalent to adding 3–10 coal-fired power plants to the electricity grid each year. Furthermore, results suggest that the incentive is larger for light trucks than for passenger cars, which could increase traffic safety risks. - Highlights: ► New U.S. fuel-economy standards may create an incentive to increase vehicle size. ► We model firms as choosing vehicle designs and prices in oligopolistic equilibrium. ► Vehicle size increases 2–32% for 20 out of 21 scenarios of consumer preferences. ► Increases in size reduce fuel economy gains from 5–13%, resulting in 5–15% higher CO 2 emissions. ► Incentive is larger for trucks than cars, which may increase traffic safety risks.

  17. Impact of modeling Choices on Inventory and In-Cask Criticality Calculations for Forsmark 3 BWR Spent Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Gonzalez, Jesus S.; Ade, Brian J.; Bowman, Stephen M.; Gauld, Ian C.; Ilas, Germina; Marshall, William BJ J.

    2015-01-01

    Simulation of boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel depletion poses a challenge for nuclide inventory validation and nuclear criticality safety analyses. This challenge is due to the complex operating conditions and assembly design heterogeneities that characterize these nuclear systems. Fuel depletion simulations and in-cask criticality calculations are affected by (1) completeness of design information, (2) variability of operating conditions needed for modeling purposes, and (3) possible modeling choices. These effects must be identified, quantified, and ranked according to their significance. This paper presents an investigation of BWR fuel depletion using a complete set of actual design specifications and detailed operational data available for five operating cycles of the Swedish BWR Forsmark 3 reactor. The data includes detailed axial profiles of power, burnup, and void fraction in a very fine temporal mesh for a GE14 (10x10) fuel assembly. The specifications of this case can be used to assess the impacts of different modeling choices on inventory prediction and in-cask criticality, specifically regarding the key parameters that drive inventory and reactivity throughout fuel burnup. This study focused on the effects of the fidelity with which power history and void fraction distributions are modeled. The corresponding sensitivity of the reactivity in storage configurations is assessed, and the impacts of modeling choices on decay heat and inventory are addressed.

  18. Design Tool for Estimating Chemical Hydrogen Storage System Characteristics for Light-Duty Fuel Cell Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, Matthew J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sprik, Samuel [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brooks, Kriston P. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Tamburello, David A. [Savannah River National Laboratory

    2018-04-07

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) developed a vehicle Framework model to simulate fuel cell-based light-duty vehicle operation for various hydrogen storage systems. This transient model simulates the performance of the storage system, fuel cell, and vehicle for comparison to Technical Targets established by DOE for four drive cycles/profiles. Chemical hydrogen storage models have been developed for the Framework for both exothermic and endothermic materials. Despite the utility of such models, they require that material researchers input system design specifications that cannot be estimated easily. To address this challenge, a design tool has been developed that allows researchers to directly enter kinetic and thermodynamic chemical hydrogen storage material properties into a simple sizing module that then estimates system parameters required to run the storage system model. Additionally, the design tool can be used as a standalone executable file to estimate the storage system mass and volume outside of the Framework model. These models will be explained and exercised with the representative hydrogen storage materials exothermic ammonia borane (NH3BH3) and endothermic alane (AlH3).

  19. Design Tool for Estimating Chemical Hydrogen Storage System Characteristics for Light-Duty Fuel Cell Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Sprik, Sam; Tamburello, David; Thornton, Matthew

    2018-05-03

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a vehicle framework model to simulate fuel cell-based light-duty vehicle operation for various hydrogen storage systems. This transient model simulates the performance of the storage system, fuel cell, and vehicle for comparison to DOE’s Technical Targets using four drive cycles/profiles. Chemical hydrogen storage models have been developed for the Framework model for both exothermic and endothermic materials. Despite the utility of such models, they require that material researchers input system design specifications that cannot be easily estimated. To address this challenge, a design tool has been developed that allows researchers to directly enter kinetic and thermodynamic chemical hydrogen storage material properties into a simple sizing module that then estimates the systems parameters required to run the storage system model. Additionally, this design tool can be used as a standalone executable file to estimate the storage system mass and volume outside of the framework model and compare it to the DOE Technical Targets. These models will be explained and exercised with existing hydrogen storage materials.

  20. The influence of the placement method of fuel dispenserson the refueling cycle of vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levin Ruslan Yur’evich

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Logistics of production processes at a gas station is a critical point in the system of petroleum products, on the operation of which the effectiveness and sustainability of the transport sector depends. The provision and supply of road transportation of petroleum products is one of the most urgent tasks.Technological processes of reception, storage of fuel and refuelling of motor vehicles on petrol stations needs a scientific study of their structure and organization. At the design stage of a gas station, it is necessary to consider quite a lot of different factors: the configuration of the area under the gas station, the scheme of arrangement and the number of fuel dispensers, the trajectory of motion and the design of vehicles, calls to the station, distance between cars on duty, between the elements of buildings and equipment, as well as the requirements for fire, building, public, sanitary-epidemiological and state regulations. Therefore, the designer has a great opportunity for varying the parameters of the elements of the station, especially when considering the characteristics of the fueled vehicles.Typical projects at a same power station include various sizes, the seizure of land to build a station changes from planning decisions and the locations of all its technological elements. For increase of functioning efficiency of transportation systems of petroleum products in modern conditions on the basis of the design and technical innovations it is necessary to conduct special studies.Research planning decisions for a refueling station led to the conclusion that the placement of technological equipment in the refueling area has a certain impact on the length of vehicles service. Improving the layout of the refueling zone several times reduces the loss of the components of the refueling cycle time and increase the capacity of the station.Information base describing the stages of a gas station includes parts of refueling cycle time and

  1. Design of a reconfigurable liquid hydrogen fuel tank for use in the Genii unmanned aerial vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, Patrick; Leachman, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Long endurance flight, on the order of days, is a leading flight performance characteristic for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Liquid hydrogen (LH2) is well suited to providing multi-day flight times with a specific energy 2.8 times that of conventional kerosene based fuels. However, no such system of LH2 storage, delivery, and use is currently available for commercial UAVs. In this paper, we develop a light weight LH2 dewar for integration and testing in the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell powered, student designed and constructed, Genii UAV. The fuel tank design is general for scaling to suit various UAV platforms. A cylindrical vacuum-jacketed design with removable end caps was chosen to incorporate various fuel level gauging, pressurizing, and slosh mitigation systems. Heat and mechanical loadings were modeled to compare with experimental results. Mass performance of the fuel tank is characterized by the fraction of liquid hydrogen to full tank mass, and the insulation performance was characterized by effective thermal conductivity and boil-off rate

  2. Design of a reconfigurable liquid hydrogen fuel tank for use in the Genii unmanned aerial vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, Patrick; Leachman, Jacob [HYdrogen Properties for Energy Research (HYPER) Laboratory, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-2920 (United States)

    2014-01-29

    Long endurance flight, on the order of days, is a leading flight performance characteristic for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Liquid hydrogen (LH2) is well suited to providing multi-day flight times with a specific energy 2.8 times that of conventional kerosene based fuels. However, no such system of LH2 storage, delivery, and use is currently available for commercial UAVs. In this paper, we develop a light weight LH2 dewar for integration and testing in the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell powered, student designed and constructed, Genii UAV. The fuel tank design is general for scaling to suit various UAV platforms. A cylindrical vacuum-jacketed design with removable end caps was chosen to incorporate various fuel level gauging, pressurizing, and slosh mitigation systems. Heat and mechanical loadings were modeled to compare with experimental results. Mass performance of the fuel tank is characterized by the fraction of liquid hydrogen to full tank mass, and the insulation performance was characterized by effective thermal conductivity and boil-off rate.

  3. Modeling, simulation, and concept studies of a fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle powertrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezbek, Markus

    2010-03-29

    This thesis focuses on the development of a fuel cell-based hybrid electric powertrain for smaller (2 kW) hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). A Hardware-in-the-Loop test rig is designed and built with the possibility to simulate any load profile for HEVs in a realistic environment, whereby the environment is modeled. Detailed simulation models of the test rig are developed and validated to real physical components and control algorithms are designed for the DC/DC-converters and the fuel cell system. A state-feedback controller is developed for the DC/DC-converters where the state-space averaging method is used for the development. For the fuel cells, a gain-scheduling controller based on state feedback is developed and compared to two conventional methods. The design process of an HEV with regard to a given load profile is introduced with comparison between SuperCaps and batteries. The HEV is also evaluated with an introduction to different power management concepts with regard to fuel consumption, dynamics, and fuel cell deterioration rate. The power management methods are implemented in the test rig and compared. (orig.)

  4. Addressing Concerns Related to the Use of Ethanol-Blended Fuels in Marine Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory W. Davis

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol blended fuels have become increasingly prevalent in the on-road transportation sector due to the benefits they provide in energy security, sustainability and reduced environmental impact. However, ethanol usage has led to material compatibility concerns causing corrosion and degradation in materials that are commonly used in engines and fuel storage/delivery systems. The on-road transportation sector continues to study and develop alternatives to minimize potential material challenges. Although, marine vehicles represent a smaller segment of the transportation sector, they represent many vehicles, particularly in the United States. Concerns related to the use of ethanol blended fuels in the marine environment have been expressed by many individuals and groups. Unfortunately, relatively little work has gone into the study of gasoline mixed with approximately 10% ethanol usage and potential material incompatibilities in marine engines. The objective of this article is to provide some factual answers to these concerns. In order to understand the extent of material incompatibilities, a literature survey of published material compatibility data and marine engine manufacturer recommendations was conducted. Next field samples of marine fuels were gathered to estimate the extent of ethanol usage in marine gasoline. Finally, samples of new and in-use marine components were exposed to either gasoline mixed with approximately 10% ethanol or gasoline with 0% ethanol for 1,960 hours to determine whether gasoline mixed with approximately 10% ethanol presented degradation beyond that seen with gasoline (gasoline with 0% ethanol alone. This work has shown that many marine engine manufacturers have used ethanol compatible materials in current products and that exposure of older marine engine components to gasoline mixed with approximately 10% ethanol by did not reveal any significant degradation. Finally, marine fuel samples gathered in 2013, reveal that

  5. An Efficient Two-Objective Hybrid Local Search Algorithm for Solving the Fuel Consumption Vehicle Routing Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weizhen Rao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The classical model of vehicle routing problem (VRP generally minimizes either the total vehicle travelling distance or the total number of dispatched vehicles. Due to the increased importance of environmental sustainability, one variant of VRPs that minimizes the total vehicle fuel consumption has gained much attention. The resulting fuel consumption VRP (FCVRP becomes increasingly important yet difficult. We present a mixed integer programming model for the FCVRP, and fuel consumption is measured through the degree of road gradient. Complexity analysis of FCVRP is presented through analogy with the capacitated VRP. To tackle the FCVRP’s computational intractability, we propose an efficient two-objective hybrid local search algorithm (TOHLS. TOHLS is based on a hybrid local search algorithm (HLS that is also used to solve FCVRP. Based on the Golden CVRP benchmarks, 60 FCVRP instances are generated and tested. Finally, the computational results show that the proposed TOHLS significantly outperforms the HLS.

  6. Cooling system and climate control of fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ap, N.S. [Valeo Engine Cooling, La Varriere (France); Cloarec, M.; Rouveyre, L. [PSA-Renault, Trappes (France)

    2000-07-01

    This paper described the special thermal aspects of the fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) program established in 1999 by the combined efforts of the two French car manufacturers PSA and Renault. One of the objectives of the program was to examine the climate control and particularly the air conditioning in the passenger compartment which had not been previously studied. The heat dissipation of FCEV is in the order of 2.5 to 3 times higher than that of a comparable internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV). In addition, the fuel cell powertrain has two temperature levels. The first level is high for the fuel cell stack and the second is low for the electrical, electronic components and other auxiliaries. This paper presented and described each component of two cooling loops along with the heat performance of each type. The first cooling loop used de-ionized water as a coolant, and the second made use of an ethylene-glycol-water mixture as a coolant. The air conditioning capability is a major aspect of the FCEV thermal management. The electrical source availability creates the condition to introduce an enhanced comfort level. Both winter preheating and summer precooling are possible. refs., figs.

  7. Fuel efficiency of the Austrian passenger vehicle fleet-Analysis of trends in the technological profile and related impacts on CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, I.; Wessely, S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes trends in the technological profile of the Austrian personnel vehicle fleet from 1990 to 2007. This includes the parameters of power, engine size and weight, which beyond the technological efficiency of the motor engine itself, are considered to be the main determinants of the fuel efficiency of the average car stock. Investigating the drivers of ever rising transport related greenhouse gas emissions is crucial in order to derive policies that strive towards more energy-efficient on-road passenger mobility. We focus on the efficacy of technological efficiency improvements in mitigating climate-relevant emissions from car use in light of shifting demand patterns towards bigger, heavier and more powerful cars. The analysis is descriptive in nature and based on a bottom-up database that was originally collated for the purpose of the present study. Technological data on car models, which includes tested fuel consumption, engine size, power and weight, is related to registered car stock and, in parts, to newly registered cars. From this, we obtain an original database of the Austrian passenger car fleet, i.e. information on consumer choice of specific car models, segregated by gasoline and diesel fuelled engines. Conclusions are derived for policies aimed at reducing the fossil fuel consumption of the moving vehicle fleet in order to contribute to a low carbon society.

  8. Market penetration analysis of fuel cell vehicles in Japan by using the energy system model MARKAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Eiichi

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present work is to validate the hydrogen energy roadmap of Japan by analyzing the market penetration of fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) and the effects of a carbon tax using an energy system model of Japan based on MARKAL. The results of the analysis show that a hydrogen FCV would not be cost competitive until 2050 without a more severe carbon tax than the government's planned 2400 JPY/t-C carbon tax. However, as the carbon tax rate increases, instead of conventional vehicles including the gasoline hybrid electric vehicle, hydrogen FCVs gain market penetration earlier and more. By assuming a more severe carbon tax rate, such as 10 000 JPY/t-C, the market share of hydrogen FCVs approaches the governmental goal. This suggests that cheaper vehicle cost and hydrogen cost than those targeted in the roadmap should be attained or subsidies to hydrogen FCV and hydrogen refueling station will be necessary for achieving the goal of earlier market penetration. (author)

  9. Action plan for coordinated deployment of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles and hydrogen infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elrick, W.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discussed a program designed to provide hydrogen vehicles and accessible hydrogen stations for a pre-commercial hydrogen economy in California. The rollout will coordinate the placement of stations in areas that meet the needs of drivers in order to ensure the transition to a competitive marketplace. An action plan has been developed that focuses on the following 3 specific steps: (1) the validation of early passenger vehicle markets, (2) expanded transit bus use, and (2) the establishment of regulations and standards. Specific tasks related to the steps were discussed, as well as potential barriers to the development of a hydrogen infrastructure in California. Methods of ensuring coordinated actions with the fuel cell and hydrogen industries were also reviewed

  10. Current status of hybrid, battery and fuel cell electric vehicles: From electrochemistry to market prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollet, Bruno G.; Staffell, Iain; Shang, Jin Lei

    2012-01-01

    Decarbonising transport is proving to be one of today's major challenges for the global automotive industry due to many factors such as the increase in greenhouse gas and particulate emissions affecting not only the climate but also humans, the increase in pollution, rapid oil depletion, issues with energy security and dependency from foreign sources and population growth. For more than a century, our society has been dependent upon oil, and major breakthroughs in low- and ultra-low carbon technologies and vehicles are urgently required. This review paper highlights the current status of hybrid, battery and fuel cell electric vehicles from an electrochemical and market point of view. The review paper also discusses the advantages and disadvantages of using each technology in the automotive industry and the impact of these technologies on consumers.

  11. Life-cycle greenhouse gas analysis of LNG as a heavy vehicle fuel in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arteconi, A.; Brandoni, C.; Evangelista, D.; Polonara, F.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the life cycle, in terms of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, of diesel and liquefied natural gas (LNG) used as fuels for heavy-duty vehicles in the European market (EU-15). A literature review revealed that the numerous studies conducted have reported different results when the authors departed from different baseline assumptions and reference scenarios. For our study, we concentrated on the European scenario and on heavy-duty road transport vehicles, given their important incidence on the global emissions of GHG. Two possible LNG procurement strategies were considered i.e. purchasing it directly from the regasification terminal (LNG-TER) or producing LNG locally (at the service station) with small-scale plants (LNG-SSL). We ascertained that the use of LNG-TER enables a 10% reduction in GHG emissions by comparison with diesel, while the emissions resulting from the LNG-SSL solution are comparable with those of diesel.

  12. A Model Predictive Control Approach for Fuel Economy Improvement of a Series Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri-Vien Vu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study applied a model predictive control (MPC framework to solve the cruising control problem of a series hydraulic hybrid vehicle (SHHV. The controller not only regulates vehicle velocity, but also engine torque, engine speed, and accumulator pressure to their corresponding reference values. At each time step, a quadratic programming problem is solved within a predictive horizon to obtain the optimal control inputs. The objective is to minimize the output error. This approach ensures that the components operate at high efficiency thereby improving the total efficiency of the system. The proposed SHHV control system was evaluated under urban and highway driving conditions. By handling constraints and input-output interactions, the MPC-based control system ensures that the system operates safely and efficiently. The fuel economy of the proposed control scheme shows a noticeable improvement in comparison with the PID-based system, in which three Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID controllers are used for cruising control.

  13. The choice of the fuel assembly for VVER-1000 in a closed fuel cycle based on REMIX-technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobrov, E.; Alekseev, P.; Chibinyaev, A.; Teplov, P.; Dudnikov, A.

    2016-01-01

    REMIX (Regenerated Mixture) fuel is produced directly from a non-separated mix of recycled uranium and plutonium from reprocessed used fuel and the fabrication technology of such fuel is called REMIX-technology. This paper shows basic features of different fuel assembly (FA) application for VVER-1000 in a closed fuel cycle based on REMIX-technology. This investigation shows how the change in the water-fuel ratio in the VVER FA affects the fuel characteristics produced by REMIX technology during multiple recycling. It is shown that for for the traditional REMIX-fuel it does not make sense to change anything in the design of VVER FA, because there are no advantages in the fuel feed consumption. The natural uranium economy by the fifth cycle reached about 29%. In the case of the REMIX fuel based on uranium-plutonium from SNF MOX fuel, it would be appropriate to use fuel assemblies with a water-fuel ratio of 1.5

  14. DoD use of Domestically-Produced Alternative Fuels and Alternative Fuel Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-10

    85 $21,927 Electric $171 Hydrogen $3 Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) $4 Liquefied Petroleum Gas ( LPG ) $14 Total $25,053 Data source: GSA’s FAST Data...919 407 5,802 GAS PH 13 77 94 10 10 204 HYD DE 5 5 LNG BI 1 1 LPG BI 47 47 LPG DE 1 1 Conventional DSL DE 867 16,174 16,028 5,698 2,508 41,275...includes information on the status of: (1) use and potential use of domestically-produced alternative fuels including but not limited to, natural gas

  15. Technology Demonstration of Qualified Vehicle Modifier (QVM) Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) and Gasoline Fueled Ford F-150 Series Bifuel Prep Vehicles at Ft. Hood, TX

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alvarez, R

    2000-01-01

    ...) of 1988, the Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments of 1990, and the Energy Policy Act of 1992. The objectives of the program were to demonstrate the acceptability of alternative-fueled- vehicles in a Department of Defense (DOD) U.S...

  16. Toxicity of power vehicles exhaust gases using bio fuels of different composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalnins, I.; Berjoza, D.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the work is to state the influence of different bio fuels on the surrounding environment using them in diesel motors. The work summarises information on the composition of toxic components in vehicle exhaust gases, their influence on the surrounding environment. Characteristic features of different biofuels are summarised as well as their application possibilities in diesel motors. Measuring devices and measuring methods of toxic components of exhaust gases have been classified. Different measuring regimes of diesel motor exhaust gases have been described. Research in automobile Renault, equipped with diesel motor, exhaust gas smokiness using different biofuels has been carried out (author)

  17. Development of sensors and sensing technology for hydrogen fuel cell vehicle applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brosha, Eric L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sekhar, Praveen K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mukundan, Rangchary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Williamson, Todd L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Barzon, Fernando H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Woo, Leta Y [LLNL; Glass, Robert S [LLNL

    2010-01-01

    One related area of hydrogen fuel cell vehicle (FCV) development that cannot be overlooked is the anticipated requirement for new sensors for both the monitoring and control of the fuel cell's systems and for those devices that will be required for safety. Present day automobiles have dozens of sensors on-board including those for IC engine management/control, sensors for state-of-health monitoring/control of emissions systems, sensors for control of active safety systems, sensors for triggering passive safety systems, and sensors for more mundane tasks such as fluids level monitoring to name the more obvious. The number of sensors continues to grow every few years as a result of safety mandates but also in response to consumer demands for new conveniences and safety features.

  18. Empirical analyses of a choice model that captures ordering among attribute values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mabit, Stefan Lindhard

    2017-01-01

    an alternative additionally because it has the highest price. In this paper, we specify a discrete choice model that takes into account the ordering of attribute values across alternatives. This model is used to investigate the effect of attribute value ordering in three case studies related to alternative-fuel...... vehicles, mode choice, and route choice. In our application to choices among alternative-fuel vehicles, we see that especially the price coefficient is sensitive to changes in ordering. The ordering effect is also found in the applications to mode and route choice data where both travel time and cost...

  19. Vehicle Technologies and Fuel Cell Technologies Office Research and Development Programs: Prospective Benefits Assessment Report for Fiscal Year 2018

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, T. S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Birky, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gohlke, David [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Under a diverse set of programs, the Vehicle Technologies and Fuel Cell Technologies Offices of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy invest in early-stage research of advanced batteries and electrification, engines and fuels, materials, and energy-efficient mobility systems; hydrogen production, delivery, and storage; and fuel cell technologies. This report documents the estimated benefits of successful development and implementation of advanced vehicle technologies. It presents a comparison of a scenario with completely successful implementation of Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) and Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) technologies (the Program Success case) to a future in which there is no contribution after Fiscal Year 2017 by the VTO or FCTO to these technologies (the No Program case). Benefits were attributed to individual program technology areas, which included FCTO research and development and the VTO programs of electrification, advanced combustion engines and fuels, and materials technology. Projections for the Program Success case indicate that by 2035, the average fuel economy of on-road, light-duty vehicle stock could be 24% to 30% higher than in the No Program case, while fuel economy for on-road medium- and heavy-duty vehicle stock could be as much as 13% higher. The resulting petroleum savings in 2035 were estimated to be as high as 1.9 million barrels of oil per day, and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions were estimated to be as high as 320 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent per year. Projections of light-duty vehicle adoption indicate that although advanced-technology vehicles may be somewhat more expensive to purchase, the fuel savings result in a net reduction of consumer cost. In 2035, reductions in annual fuel expenditures for vehicles (both light- and heavy-duty) are projected to range from $86 billion to $109 billion (2015$), while the projected increase in new vehicle

  20. Ethanol, Corn, and Soybean Price Relations in a Volatile Vehicle-Fuels Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Escalante

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The rapid upward shift in ethanol demand has raised concerns about ethanol’s impact on the price level and volatility of agricultural commodities. The popular press attributes much of this volatility in commodity prices to a price bubble in ethanol fuel and recent deflation. Market economics predicts not only a softening of demand to high commodity prices but also a positive supply response. This volatility in ethanol and commodity prices are investigated using cointegration, vector error corrections (VECM, and multivariate generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedascity (MGARCH models. In terms of derived demand theory, results support ethanol and oil demands as derived demands from vehicle-fuel production. Gasoline prices directly influence the prices of ethanol and oil. However, of greater significance for the fuel versus food security issue, results support the effect of agricultural commodity prices as market signals which restore commodity markets to their equilibriums after a demand or supply event (shock. Such shocks may in the short-run increase agricultural commodity prices, but decentralized freely operating markets will mitigate the persistence of these shocks. Results indicate in recent years there are no long-run relations among fuel (ethanol, oil and gasoline prices and agricultural commodity (corn and soybean prices.