WorldWideScience

Sample records for fuel transport container

  1. Fuel Containment Concepts - Transport Category Airplanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-01

    inhihi ting adhesive prim.r i’- app 1 d )rlor to bondin1 and they receive, an additional coat at ter bonding. Dense core is provided for stabi I itv in...installation of heat reticulated foam or expanded metal foil have the advantage of being passive systems. They prevent excessive overpressures from...Applicability of Reticulated Foams for the Suppression of Fuel Tank Explosions," AGARD-CP-166, Aircraft Fire Safety, Rome, Italy, April 1975. 45. MacDonald, J

  2. Shielding Performance Measurements of Spent Fuel Transportation Container

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUN Hong-chao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The safety supervision of radioactive material transportation package has been further stressed and implemented. The shielding performance measurements of spent fuel transport container is the important content of supervision. However, some of the problems and difficulties reflected in practice need to be solved, such as the neutron dose rate on the surface of package is too difficult to measure exactly, the monitoring results are not always reliable, etc. The monitoring results using different spectrometers were compared and the simulation results of MCNP runs were considered. An improvement was provided to the shielding performance measurements technique and management of spent fuel transport.

  3. A method for determining the spent-fuel contribution to transport cask containment requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, T.L.; Seager, K.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rashid, Y.R.; Barrett, P.R. [ANATECH Research Corp., La Jolla, CA (United States); Malinauskas, A.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Einziger, R.E. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Jordan, H. [EG and G Rocky Flats, Inc., Golden, CO (United States). Rocky Flats Plant; Duffey, T.A.; Sutherland, S.H. [APTEK, Inc., Colorado Springs, CO (United States); Reardon, P.C. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1992-11-01

    This report examines containment requirements for spent-fuel transport containers that are transported under normal and hypothetical accident conditions. A methodology is described that estimates the probability of rod failure and the quantity of radioactive material released from breached rods. This methodology characterizes the dynamic environment of the cask and its contents and deterministically models the peak stresses that are induced in spent-fuel cladding by the mechanical and thermal dynamic environments. The peak stresses are evaluated in relation to probabilistic failure criteria for generated or preexisting ductile tearing and material fractures at cracks partially through the wall in fuel rods. Activity concentrations in the cask cavity are predicted from estimates of the fraction of gases, volatiles, and fuel fines that are released when the rod cladding is breached. Containment requirements based on the source term are calculated in terms of maximum permissible volumetric leak rates from the cask. Calculations are included for representative cask designs.

  4. Selective Removal of Nitrogen-Containing Heterocyclic Compounds from Transportation Diesel Fuels with Reactive Adsorbent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Lei; WANG Shengqiang; WANG Ruicong; YU Hongbing

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new selective adsorbent to remove nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds from model and commercial transportation diesel fuels based on characteristic reaction designed to occur in the pores of substrate.This reactive adsorbent is composed of formaldehyde,phosphotungstic acid and Santa Barbara USA (SBA)-15.The experiment was based on assumed hydroxymethylation reaction of nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds with formaldehyde using phosphotungstic acid as catalyst in batch and fixed-bed systems.The nitrogen concentration in the model fuel was 237.33 ng·μl-1,carbazole and toluene were used as model nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compound and solvent,respectively.The effectiveness of reactive adsorbent for removal of nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds from commercial 0# diesel fuel containing 224.86 ng· μl-1 nitrogen was examined in a fixed-bed reactor at 70 ℃.The results showed that nitro1gen in the model fuel was very low and the nitrogen concentration in the commercial diesel reduced to 2.44 ng· μl-1.The demand for transportation fuel with ultra-low nitrogen is satisfied.

  5. Transport fuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronsse, Frederik; Jørgensen, Henning; Schüßler, Ingmar

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, the use of transport fuel derived from biomass increased four-fold between 2003 and 2012. Mainly based on food resources, these conventional biofuels did not achieve the expected emission savings and contributed to higher prices for food commod - ities, especially maize and oilseeds...

  6. FUEL CONTAINER CLOSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, C.C.; Noland, R.A.

    1962-07-17

    A method of producing a spherical closed end on a small thin-walled tube forming a container for reactor fuel is described. An end cap inserted in the tube has a long slender external projection extending axially of the tube. A heavy electrical current is applied to the projection, and simultaneously a portion of the tube very near the end cap is chilled. A part of the projection is vaporized, and the balance is melted, along with portions of the end cap and the tube. As a result, the end cap is welded to the tube, and the projection in melting is spread out to form a spherical surface on the end cap. (AEC)

  7. Accident resistant transport container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, John A.; Cole, James K.

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident.

  8. Container concept for the PBMR fuel plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braehler, G.; Kelly, M.; Sauer, L.; Welbers, P. [NUKEM Technologies GmbH (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation describes the types and the characteristics of the containers uniquely designed for and used in the PBMR Fuel Plant in Pelindaba, South Africa. The PBMR Fuel Plant is designed to manufacture so called Fuel Spheres for the High Temperature Reactor which shall be built in Koeberg near Cape Town. The PBMR fuel is based on a proven, high quality German fuel design consisting of 10% enriched Uranium triple-coated isotropic (LEU-TRISO) particles contained in a moulded graphite sphere. A coated particle comprises a kernel of Uranium dioxide surrounded by different layers. A fuel sphere consists of 9 g of Uranium (some 15 000 particles) and has a diameter of 60 mm; the total mass of a fuel sphere is 210 g. During normal operation the PBMR core contains a load of 456,000 fuel spheres. The PBMR Fuel plant is designed to produce 270,000 fuel spheres a year with the option to doubling the throughput. Two basic types of containers are foreseen for the plant, i.e. the Safe Geometry Containers for transportation and storage of Uranium bearing material and Containers in non restricted geometry for solid raw and auxiliary materials required by the different processes. Unlike other concepts in fuel element plants, the Safe Geometry Containers are allowed to be stored, from a criticality point of view, everywhere in the plant. Special identification measures, physical and IT based, prevent wrong material being processed. The sub-critical configuration is still maintained after the specified fire scenario for the PBMR Fuel Plant. (orig.)

  9. Fuel cells in transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdmann, G. [Technische Univ., Berlin (Germany); Hoehlein, B. [Research Center Juelich (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    A promising new power source for electric drive systems is the fuel cell technology with hydrogen as energy input. The worldwide fuel cell development concentrates on basic research efforts aiming at improving this new technology and at developing applications that might reach market maturity in the very near future. Due to the progress achieved, the interest is now steadily turning to the development of overall systems such as demonstration plants for different purposes: electricity generation, drive systems for road vehicles, ships and railroads. This paper does not present results concerning the market potential of fuel cells in transportation but rather addresses some questions and reflections that are subject to further research of both engineers and economists. Some joint effort of this research will be conducted under the umbrella of the IEA Implementing Agreement 026 - Annex X, but there is a lot more to be done in this challenging but also promising fields. (EG) 18 refs.

  10. Electricity as Transportation ``Fuel''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamor, Michael

    2013-04-01

    The personal automobile is a surprisingly efficient device, but its place in a sustainable transportation future hinges on its ability use a sustainable fuel. While electricity is widely expected to be such a ``fuel,'' the viability of electric vehicles rests on the validity of three assumptions. First, that the emissions from generation will be significantly lower than those from competing chemical fuels whether `renewable' or fossil. Second, that advances in battery technology will deliver adequate range and durability at an affordable cost. Third, that most customers will accept any functional limitations intrinsic to electrochemical energy storage. While the first two are subjects of active research and vigorous policy debate, the third is treated virtually as a given. Popular statements to the effect that ``because 70% of all daily travel is accomplished in less than 100 miles, mass deployment of 100 mile EVs will electrify 70% of all travel'' are based on collections of one-day travel reports such as the National Household Travel Survey, and so effectively ignore the complexities of individual needs. We have analyzed the day-to-day variations of individual vehicle usage in multiple regions and draw very different conclusions. Most significant is that limited EV range results in a level of inconvenience that is likely to be unacceptable to the vast majority of vehicle owners, and for those who would accept that inconvenience, battery costs must be absurdly low to achieve any economic payback. In contrast, the plug-in hybrid (PHEV) does not suffer range limitations and delivers economic payback for most users at realistic battery costs. More importantly, these findings appear to be universal in developed nations, with labor market population density being a powerful predictor of personal vehicle usage. This ``scalable city'' hypothesis may prove to a powerful predictor of the evolution of transportation in the large cities of the developing world.

  11. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    This report provides information on transportation fuels other than gasoline and diesel, and the vehicles that use these fuels. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) provides this information to support the U.S. Department of Energy`s reporting obligations under Section 503 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT). The principal information contained in this report includes historical and year-ahead estimates of the following: (1) the number and type of alterative-fueled vehicles (AFV`s) in use; (2) the consumption of alternative transportation fuels and {open_quotes}replacement fuels{close_quotes}; and (3) the number and type of alterative-fueled vehicles made available in the current and following years. In addition, the report contains some material on special topics. The appendices include a discussion of the methodology used to develop the estimates (Appendix A), a map defining geographic regions used, and a list of AFV suppliers.

  12. Transportation of spent MTR fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raisonnier, D.

    1997-08-01

    This paper gives an overview of the various aspects of MTR spent fuel transportation and provides in particular information about the on-going shipment of 4 spent fuel casks to the United States. Transnucleaire is a transport and Engineering Company created in 1963 at the request of the French Atomic Energy Commission. The company followed the growth of the world nuclear industry and has now six subsidiaries and affiliated companies established in countries with major nuclear programs.

  13. Container Logistic Transport Planning Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The study proposed a stochastic method of container logistic transport in order to solve the unreasonable transportation’s problem and overcome the traditional models’ two shortcomings. Container transport has rapidly developed into a modern means of transportation because of their significant advantages. With the development, it also exacerbated the flaws of transport in the original. One of the most important problems was that the invalid transport had not still reduced due to the congenital imbalances of transportation. Container transport exacerbated the invalid transport for the empty containers. To solve the problem, people made many efforts, but they did not make much progress. There had two theoretical flaws by analyzing the previous management methods in container transport. The first one was the default empty containers inevitability. The second one was that they did not overall consider how to solve the problem of empty containers allocation. In order to solve the unreasonable transportation’s problem and overcome the traditional models’ two shortcomings, the study re-built the container transport planning model-gravity model. It gave the general algorithm and has analyzed the final result of model.

  14. Corrosion assessment of dry fuel storage containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, C.E.

    1994-09-01

    The structural stability as a function of expected corrosion degradation of 75 dry fuel storage containers located in the 200 Area Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds was evaluated. These containers include 22 concrete burial containers, 13 55-gal (208-l) drums, and 40 Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) transport/storage casks. All containers are buried beneath at least 48 in. of soil and a heavy plastic tarp with the exception of 35 of the EBR-II casks which are exposed to atmosphere. A literature review revealed that little general corrosion is expected and pitting corrosion of the carbon steel used as the exterior shell for all containers (with the exception of the concrete containers) will occur at a maximum rate of 3.5 mil/yr. Penetration from pitting of the exterior shell of the 208-l drums and EBR-II casks is calculated to occur after 18 and 71 years of burial, respectively. The internal construction beneath the shell would be expected to preclude containment breach, however, for the drums and casks. The estimates for structural failure of the external shells, large-scale shell deterioration due to corrosion, are considerably longer, 39 and 150 years respectively for the drums and casks. The concrete burial containers are expected to withstand a service life of 50 years.

  15. Transportation fuels from energy crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatia, V.K.; Kulsrestha, G.N.; Padmaja, K.V.; Kamra, S.; Bhagat, S.D. (Indian Inst. of Petroleum, Dehra Dun (India))

    1993-01-01

    Biomass constituents in the form of energy crops can be used as starting materials in the production of transportation fuels. The potential of biocrudes obtained from laticiferous species belonging to the families of Euphorbiaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Apocynaceae, Moraceae and Convolvulaceae for the production of hydrocarbon fuels has been explored. Results of studies carried out on upgrading these biocrudes by catalytic cracking using a commercial catalyst are presented. (author)

  16. 49 CFR 173.230 - Fuel cell cartridges containing hazardous material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) For fuel cell cartridges contained in equipment, fuel cell systems must not charge batteries during... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fuel cell cartridges containing hazardous material... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.230 Fuel cell cartridges containing hazardous material. (a)...

  17. Methods of producing transportation fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Vijay; Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria; Cherrillo, Ralph Anthony; Bauldreay, Joanna M.

    2011-12-27

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method for producing transportation fuel is described herein. The method for producing transportation fuel may include providing formation fluid having a boiling range distribution between -5.degree. C. and 350.degree. C. from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process to a subsurface treatment facility. A liquid stream may be separated from the formation fluid. The separated liquid stream may be hydrotreated and then distilled to produce a distilled stream having a boiling range distribution between 150.degree. C. and 350.degree. C. The distilled liquid stream may be combined with one or more additives to produce transportation fuel.

  18. 49 CFR 571.304 - Standard No. 304; Compressed natural gas fuel container integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... container integrity. 571.304 Section 571.304 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... natural gas fuel container integrity. S1. Scope. This standard specifies requirements for the integrity of... recommended service life for the container. S8Test conditions: fuel container integrity. S8.1Pressure cycling...

  19. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This report presents the first compilation by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of information on alternatives to gasoline and diesel fuel. The purpose of the report is: (1) to provide background information on alternative transportation fuels and replacement fuels compared with gasoline and diesel fuel, and (2) to furnish preliminary estimates of alternative transportation fuels and alternative fueled vehicles as required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), Title V, Section 503, ``Replacement Fuel Demand Estimates and Supply Information.`` Specifically, Section 503 requires the EIA to report annually on: (1) the number and type of alternative fueled vehicles in existence the previous year and expected to be in use the following year, (2) the geographic distribution of these vehicles, (3) the amounts and types of replacement fuels consumed, and (4) the greenhouse gas emissions likely to result from replacement fuel use. Alternative fueled vehicles are defined in this report as motorized vehicles licensed for on-road use, which may consume alternative transportation fuels. (Alternative fueled vehicles may use either an alternative transportation fuel or a replacement fuel.) The intended audience for the first section of this report includes the Secretary of Energy, the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the automobile manufacturing industry, the transportation fuel manufacturing and distribution industries, and the general public. The second section is designed primarily for persons desiring a more technical explanation of and background for the issues surrounding alternative transportation fuels.

  20. REACTOR FUEL ELEMENTS TESTING CONTAINER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitham, G.K.; Smith, R.R.

    1963-01-15

    This patent shows a method for detecting leaks in jacketed fuel elements. The element is placed in a sealed tank within a nuclear reactor, and, while the reactor operates, the element is sparged with gas. The gas is then led outside the reactor and monitored for radioactive Xe or Kr. (AEC)

  1. Thermal Safety Analysis and Experimental Validation of New Fuel Element Transportation Container%新燃料元件运输容器热工安全分析及试验验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭春秋; 邹佳讯; 衣大勇; 张金山

    2016-01-01

    The new fuel element transportation container is a specific equipment de‐signed for transporting 493 reactor’s fuel elements .In order to insure the safety of fuel elements during transportation and fulfill the requirements of standard GB 11806—2004 ,thermal design calculation and validation experiments were carried out .The accu‐racy of the container’s thermal design was proven by comparing thermal design results with thermal experimental data .The safety of the new fuel elements can be insured and the requirements of GB 11806—2004 can be fulfilled by using the new fuel elements transportation container under both normal transport condition and accidental transport condition .%新燃料元件运输容器是为运输493反应堆燃料元件设计的专用设备。为保证燃料元件在运输过程中的安全性,使运输容器及燃料元件的各项性能指标符合标准GB 11806—2004的要求,对运输容器进行了热工设计计算和验证试验。通过计算与相应热工试验结果的比较,验证了运输容器热工设计的准确性。采用该运输容器运输新燃料元件,在正常运输工况和事故运输工况下可保证燃料元件的安全,完全满足GB 11806—2004的规定。

  2. Spent nuclear fuel project detonation phenomena of hydrogen/oxygen in spent fuel containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, T.D.

    1996-09-30

    Movement of Spent N Reactor fuels from the Hanford K Basins near the Columbia River to Dry interim storage facility on the Hanford plateau will require repackaging the fuel in the basins into multi-canister overpacks (MCOs), drying of the fuel, transporting the contained fuel, hot conditioning, and finally interim storage. Each of these functions will be accomplished while the fuel is contained in the MCOs by several mechanisms. The principal source of hydrogenand oxygen within the MCOs is residual water from the vacuum drying and hot conditioning operations. This document assesses the detonation phenomena of hydrogen and oxygen in the spent fuel containers. Several process scenarios have been identified that could generate detonation pressures that exceed the nominal 10 atmosphere design limit ofthe MCOS. Only 42 grams of radiolized water are required to establish this condition.

  3. Sensor system for fuel transport vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Dennis Duncan; McIntyre, Timothy J.; West, David L.

    2016-03-22

    An exemplary sensor system for a fuel transport vehicle can comprise a fuel marker sensor positioned between a fuel storage chamber of the vehicle and an access valve for the fuel storage chamber of the vehicle. The fuel marker sensor can be configured to measure one or more characteristics of one or more fuel markers present in the fuel adjacent the sensor, such as when the marked fuel is unloaded at a retail station. The one or more characteristics can comprise concentration and/or identity of the one or more fuel markers in the fuel. Based on the measured characteristics of the one or more fuel markers, the sensor system can identify the fuel and/or can determine whether the fuel has been adulterated after the marked fuel was last measured, such as when the marked fuel was loaded into the vehicle.

  4. Durability of solid oxide fuel cells using sulfur containing fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Anke; Rasmussen, Jens Foldager Bregnballe; Thydén, Karl Tor Sune

    2011-01-01

    The usability of hydrogen and also carbon containing fuels is one of the important advantages of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), which opens the possibility to use fuels derived from conventional sources such as natural gas and from renewable sources such as biogas. Impurities like sulfur compounds...... are critical in this respect. State-of-the-art Ni/YSZ SOFC anodes suffer from being rather sensitive towards sulfur impurities. In the current study, anode supported SOFCs with Ni/YSZ or Ni/ScYSZ anodes were exposed to H2S in the ppm range both for short periods of 24h and for a few hundred hours. In a fuel...

  5. 压水堆乏燃料运输容器对工作人员的辐射剂量计算%Dose Calculation of Worker Who Irradiated By Spent Fuel Transport Container

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小华; 罗雯丹

    2014-01-01

    Based on the basic parameter of NAC-STC spent fuel transport container, the model of spent fuel transport container , 17 ×17 spent fuel component of pressurized water reactor and simple mannequin, is con-structed by MCNP code, and the equivalent dose of motorman and worker is calculated respectively.Results show that equivalent dose of motorman whose distance from spent fuel transport container impact limiter to him-self is one meter is 1.82 mSv/a, that equivalent dose of worker whose distance from spent fuel transport con-tainer center to himself is two meters is 1 .78 mSv/a, which is smaller than the limit of dose level 20 mSv/a which stipulate by ( GB18871 -2002 ) Ionization Radiation Protect and Radioactive Source Basic Standard. Therefore, NAC-STC spent fuel transport container can meet the requirement of radiation shield and safety. The calculated results will provide a reference for radiated dose evaluation of worker who irradiated by artificial radioactive source.%根据NAC-STC型乏燃料运输容器基本参数,用MCNP程序构建乏燃料运输容器、17×17压水堆乏燃料组件和简单人体模型;分别对乏燃料运输容器卡车司机和侧旁工作人员的当量剂量进行计算。计算结果表明:距乏燃料运输容器前端木质减震器1 m处的司机当量剂量为1.82 mSv/a,距乏燃料运输容器侧面2米处侧旁工作人员的当量剂量为1.78 mSv/a,均小于(GB18871-2002)《电离辐射防护与辐射源安全基本标准》规定的放射性工作人员剂量水平限值20 mSv/a,乏燃料运输容器能够满足辐射屏蔽与安全的要求。计算结果将为受人工放射源照射的工人辐射剂量评估提供参考。

  6. Methods of making transportation fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria [Houston, TX; Mo, Weijian [Sugar Land, TX; Muylle, Michel Serge Marie [Houston, TX; Mandema, Remco Hugo [Houston, TX; Nair, Vijay [Katy, TX

    2012-04-10

    A method for producing alkylated hydrocarbons is disclosed. Formation fluid is produced from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process. The formation fluid is separated to produce a liquid stream and a first gas stream. The first gas stream includes olefins. The liquid stream is fractionated to produce at least a second gas stream including hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 3. The first gas stream and the second gas stream are introduced into an alkylation unit to produce alkylated hydrocarbons. At least a portion of the olefins in the first gas stream enhance alkylation. The alkylated hydrocarbons may be blended with one or more components to produce transportation fuel.

  7. Renewable Fuels for Cross Border Transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Mehlin, Markus; Zauner, Martin; Reichmuth, Matthias; Nill, Moritz; Wacker, Manfred; Galster, Manuel

    2003-01-01

    The use of renewable energy has increased slowly in most sectors and the transport sector is predominantly depending on traditional fossil fuels notably petrol and diesel. This has created a difficult situation concerning the fuel supply and fuel prices as well as an increase of emissions of climate gasses. A number of local and regional projects have been carried out and are still ongoing regarding the use of renewable fuels in the transport sector. Most of those covers captive fleets of bus...

  8. Fuel cell development for transportation: Catalyst development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doddapaneni, N. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Fuel cells are being considered as alternate power sources for transportation and stationary applications. With proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells the fuel crossover to cathodes causes severe thermal management and cell voltage drop due to oxidation of fuel at the platinized cathodes. The main goal of this project was to design, synthesize, and evaluate stable and inexpensive transition metal macrocyclic catalysts for the reduction of oxygen and be electrochemically inert towards anode fuels such as hydrogen and methanol.

  9. Spent fuel container and a material thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsubota, Motoji; Kikuchi, Masaaki

    1998-12-04

    The material of a vessel for containing spent fuels of the present invention is prepared by compositing boron fibers in a volume rate of about 30% in a metal base of Al-Mg-Si alloy containing 3% of boron. It has characteristics of the maximum strength at break being 1.8 times or more at a room temperature and at 200degC, a neutron transmittance being about 1/4, and a specific gravity being 1/3 or less compared with those of conventional austenite stainless steel to which 6% of boron is added. With such a constitution, spent fuels can be used smoothly. (T.M.)

  10. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    Interest in alternative transportation fuels (ATF`s) has increased in recent years due to the drives for cleaner air and less dependence upon foreign oil. This report, Alternatives to Traditional Transportation Fuels 1996, provides information on ATFs, as well as the vehicles that consume them.

  11. Outlook for alternative transportation fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gushee, D.E. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This presentation provides a brief review of regulatory issues and Federal programs regarding alternative fuel use in automobiles. A number of U.S. DOE initiatives and studies aimed at increasing alternative fuels are outlined, and tax incentives in effect at the state and Federal levels are discussed. Data on alternative fuel consumption and alternative fuel vehicle use are also presented. Despite mandates, tax incentives, and programs, it is concluded alternative fuels will have minimal market penetration. 7 refs., 5 tabs.

  12. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    In recent years, gasoline and diesel fuel have accounted for about 80 percent of total transportation fuel and nearly all of the fuel used in on-road vehicles. Growing concerns about the environmental effects of fossil fuel use and the Nation`s high level of dependence on foreign oil are providing impetus for the development of replacements or alternatives for these traditional transportation fuels. (The Energy Policy Act of 1992 definitions of {open_quotes}replacement{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}alternative{close_quotes} fuels are presented in the following box.) The Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988, the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90) and the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) are significant legislative forces behind the growth of replacement fuel use. Alternatives to Traditional Transportation Fuels 1993 provides the number of on-road alternative fueled vehicles in use in the United States, alternative and replacement fuel consumption, and information on greenhouse gas emissions resulting from the production, delivery, and use of replacement fuels for 1992, 1993, and 1995.

  13. Used Fuel Testing Transportation Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Steven B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Best, Ralph E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Maheras, Steven J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jensen, Philip J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); England, Jeffery L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); LeDuc, Dan [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-09-25

    This report identifies shipping packages/casks that might be used by the Used Nuclear Fuel Disposition Campaign Program (UFDC) to ship fuel rods and pieces of fuel rods taken from high-burnup used nuclear fuel (UNF) assemblies to and between research facilities for purposes of evaluation and testing. Also identified are the actions that would need to be taken, if any, to obtain U.S. Nuclear Regulatory (NRC) or other regulatory authority approval to use each of the packages and/or shipping casks for this purpose.

  14. Used Fuel Testing Transportation Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Steven B.; Best, Ralph E.; Maheras, Steven J.; Jensen, Philip J.; England, Jeffery L.; LeDuc, Dan

    2014-09-24

    This report identifies shipping packages/casks that might be used by the Used Nuclear Fuel Disposition Campaign Program (UFDC) to ship fuel rods and pieces of fuel rods taken from high-burnup used nuclear fuel (UNF) assemblies to and between research facilities for purposes of evaluation and testing. Also identified are the actions that would need to be taken, if any, to obtain U.S. Nuclear Regulatory (NRC) or other regulatory authority approval to use each of the packages and/or shipping casks for this purpose.

  15. Gas transport in solid oxide fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    He, Weidong; Dickerson, James

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of contemporary research and emerging measurement technologies associated with gas transport in solid oxide fuel cells. Within these pages, an introduction to the concept of gas diffusion in solid oxide fuel cells is presented. This book also discusses the history and underlying fundamental mechanisms of gas diffusion in solid oxide fuel cells, general theoretical mathematical models for gas diffusion, and traditional and advanced techniques for gas diffusivity measurement.

  16. 26 CFR 48.4041-18 - Fuels containing alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Fuels containing alcohol. 48.4041-18 Section 48... EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Special Fuels § 48.4041-18 Fuels containing alcohol..., of any liquid fuel described in section 4041(a) (1) or (2) which consists of at least 10% alcohol...

  17. Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Advanced Transportation Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PItz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Herbinet, O

    2009-01-20

    Development of detailed chemical kinetic models for advanced petroleum-based and nonpetroleum based fuels is a difficult challenge because of the hundreds to thousands of different components in these fuels and because some of these fuels contain components that have not been considered in the past. It is important to develop detailed chemical kinetic models for these fuels since the models can be put into engine simulation codes used for optimizing engine design for maximum efficiency and minimal pollutant emissions. For example, these chemistry-enabled engine codes can be used to optimize combustion chamber shape and fuel injection timing. They also allow insight into how the composition of advanced petroleum-based and non-petroleum based fuels affect engine performance characteristics. Additionally, chemical kinetic models can be used separately to interpret important in-cylinder experimental data and gain insight into advanced engine combustion processes such as HCCI and lean burn engines. The objectives are: (1) Develop detailed chemical kinetic reaction models for components of advanced petroleum-based and non-petroleum based fuels. These fuels models include components from vegetable-oil-derived biodiesel, oil-sand derived fuel, alcohol fuels and other advanced bio-based and alternative fuels. (2) Develop detailed chemical kinetic reaction models for mixtures of non-petroleum and petroleum-based components to represent real fuels and lead to efficient reduced combustion models needed for engine modeling codes. (3) Characterize the role of fuel composition on efficiency and pollutant emissions from practical automotive engines.

  18. DOE perspective on fuel cells in transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kost, R.

    1996-04-01

    Fuel cells are one of the most promising technologies for meeting the rapidly growing demand for transportation services while minimizing adverse energy and environmental impacts. This paper reviews the benefits of introducing fuel cells into the transportation sector; in addition to dramatically reduced vehicle emissions, fuel cells offer the flexibility than use petroleum-based or alternative fuels, have significantly greater energy efficiency than internal combustion engines, and greatly reduce noise levels during operation. The rationale leading to the emphasis on proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells for transportation applications is reviewed as are the development issues requiring resolution to achieve adequate performance, packaging, and cost for use in automobiles. Technical targets for power density, specific power, platinum loading on the electrodes, cost, and other factors that become increasingly more demanding over time have been established. Fuel choice issues and pathways to reduced costs and to a renewable energy future are explored. One such path initially introduces fuel cell vehicles using reformed gasoline while-on-board hydrogen storage technology is developed to the point of allowing adequate range (350 miles) and refueling convenience. This scenario also allows time for renewable hydrogen production technologies and the required supply infrastructure to develop. Finally, the DOE Fuel Cells in Transportation program is described. The program, whose goal is to establish the technology for fuel cell vehicles as rapidly as possible, is being implemented by means of the United States Fuel Cell Alliance, a Government-industry alliance that includes Detroit`s Big Three automakers, fuel cell and other component suppliers, the national laboratories, and universities.

  19. New challenges in transportation of used fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allimann, N.; Otton, C.

    2011-07-01

    For more than 45 years TN International has demonstrated its ability to face the many challenges of used fuel transportation. Whether travelling by rail, by road or by sea, TN International has built a comprehensive organization, covering ah aspects such as design, licensing, global acceptance, emergency response systems, effective fleet management and transport organization.

  20. Modelling global container freight transport demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tavasszy, L.A.; Ivanova, O.; Halim, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this chapter is to discuss methods and techniques for a quantitative and descriptive analysis of future container transport demand at a global level. Information on future container transport flows is useful for various purposes. It is instrumental for the assessment of returns of i

  1. RFID Application in Global Container Transportation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces the problems of container transportation, then analyzes the RFID application in container transportation management. It gives some suggestions to improve the trade actuality, ensure the trade security and promote the efficiency of logistics. Although there are some limitations to generalize this technology, the cheap standardized RFID system will serve global ports with the development of the information technology.

  2. Fuel cell assembly with electrolyte transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Chang V.

    1983-01-01

    A fuel cell assembly wherein electrolyte for filling the fuel cell matrix is carried via a transport system comprising a first passage means for conveying electrolyte through a first plate and communicating with a groove in a second plate at a first point, the first and second plates together sandwiching the matrix, and second passage means acting to carry electrolyte exclusively through the second plate and communicating with the groove at a second point exclusive of the first point.

  3. Spent Nuclear Fuel Transport Reliability Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jy-An John [ORNL; Wang, Hong [ORNL; Jiang, Hao [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    This conference paper was orignated and shorten from the following publisehd PTS documents: 1. Jy-An Wang, Hao Jiang, and Hong Wang, Dynamic Deformation Simulation of Spent Nuclear Fuel Assembly and CIRFT Deformation Sensor Stability Investigation, ORNL/SPR-2015/662, November 2015. 2. Jy-An Wang, Hong Wang, Mechanical Fatigue Testing of High-Burnup Fuel for Transportation Applications, NUREG/CR-7198, ORNL/TM-2014/214, May 2015. 3. Jy-An Wang, Hong Wang, Hao Jiang, Yong Yan, Bruce Bevard, Spent Nuclear Fuel Vibration Integrity Study 16332, WM2016 Conference, March 6 10, 2016, Phoenix, Arizona.

  4. Catalyst containing oxygen transport membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie Robyn; van Hassel, Bart Antonie

    2012-12-04

    A composite oxygen transport membrane having a dense layer, a porous support layer and an intermediate porous layer located between the dense layer and the porous support layer. Both the dense layer and the intermediate porous layer are formed from an ionic conductive material to conduct oxygen ions and an electrically conductive material to conduct electrons. The porous support layer has a high permeability, high porosity, and a high average pore diameter and the intermediate porous layer has a lower permeability and lower pore diameter than the porous support layer. Catalyst particles selected to promote oxidation of a combustible substance are located in the intermediate porous layer and in the porous support adjacent to the intermediate porous layer. The catalyst particles can be formed by wicking a solution of catalyst precursors through the porous support toward the intermediate porous layer.

  5. Catalyst containing oxygen transport membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Jonathan A.; Wilson, Jamie R.; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Petigny, Nathalie; Sarantopoulos, Christos

    2017-02-07

    A composite oxygen transport membrane having a dense layer, a porous support layer and an intermediate porous layer located between the dense layer and the porous support layer. Both the dense layer and the intermediate porous layer are formed from an ionic conductive material to conduct oxygen ions and an electrically conductive material to conduct electrons. The porous support layer has a high permeability, high porosity, and a microstructure exhibiting substantially uniform pore size distribution as a result of using PMMA pore forming materials or a bi-modal particle size distribution of the porous support layer materials. Catalyst particles selected to promote oxidation of a combustible substance are located in the intermediate porous layer and in the porous support adjacent to the intermediate porous layer. The catalyst particles can be formed by wicking a solution of catalyst precursors through the porous support toward the intermediate porous layer.

  6. Hydrogen-fueled polymer electrolyte fuel cell systems for transportation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahluwalia, R.; Doss, E.D.; Kumar, R.

    1998-10-19

    The performance of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) system that is fueled directly by hydrogen has been evaluated for transportation vehicles. The performance was simulated using a systems analysis code and a vehicle analysis code. The results indicate that, at the design point for a 50-kW PEFC system, the system efficiency is above 50%. The efficiency improves at partial load and approaches 60% at 40% load, as the fuel cell operating point moves to lower current densities on the voltage-current characteristic curve. At much lower loads, the system efficiency drops because of the deterioration in the performance of the compressor, expander, and, eventually, the fuel cell. The results also indicate that the PEFC system can start rapidly from ambient temperatures. Depending on the specific weight of the fuel cell (1.6 kg/kW in this case), the system takes up to 180s to reach its design operating conditions. The PEFC system has been evaluated for three mid-size vehicles: the 1995 Chrysler Sedan, the near-term Ford AIV (Aluminum Intensive Vehicle) Sable, and the future P2000 vehicle. The results show that the PEFC system can meet the demands of the Federal Urban Driving Schedule and the Highway driving cycles, for both warm and cold start-up conditions. The results also indicate that the P2000 vehicle can meet the fuel economy goal of 80 miles per gallon of gasoline (equivalent).

  7. Speeding Up Development of Container Railway Transportation and Establishing Integrative Container Inter-modal Transport System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Shunhu; Qian Jun

    2009-01-01

    Since the 16th CPC National Congress,the railway sector in China has been accelerating large-scale railway construction with the positive efforts to explore innovation of traffic organization,improve the quality and level of transport service,and lay solid foundation for development of container railway transportation.With the constant reform and innovation of container railway transportation in terms of operation and management,China Railways have achieved great progress in the aspects of traffic volume,transport network and transport equipment of container,as well as brand establishment of container block trains.Accelerating further the development of container transportation and establishing the integrative container intermodal transportation system need rational planning and construction of comprehensive logistics center,great development of rail-sea intermodal transportation,expansion of investment and financing channels and quick establishment of public logistics information platform.

  8. Permeation of Military Fuels Through Nitrile-Coated Fabrics Used for Collapsible Fuel Storage Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Permeation of Military Fuels Through Nitrile -Coated Fabrics Used for Collapsible Fuel Storage Containers by James M. Sloan ARL-TR-6881...March 2014 Permeation of Military Fuels Through Nitrile -Coated Fabrics Used for Collapsible Fuel Storage Containers James M. Sloan...Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) October 2012–October 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Permeation of Military Fuels Through Nitrile -Coated Fabrics Used

  9. 77 FR 28406 - Spent Fuel Transportation Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... COMMISSION Spent Fuel Transportation Risk Assessment AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft... issuing for public comment a draft NUREG, NUREG-2125, ``Spent Fuel Transportation Risk Assessment (SFTRA...): You may access publicly-available documents online in the NRC Library at...

  10. Methods for conversion of lignocellulosic-derived products to transportation fuel precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilga, Michael A.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.

    2017-10-03

    Methods are disclosed for converting a biomass-derived product containing levulinic acid and/or gamma-valerolactone to a transportation fuel precursor product containing diesel like hydrocarbons. These methods are expected to produce fuel products at a reduced cost relative to conventional approaches.

  11. Design of impact limiters of a bulk type B (U) . Trials of fall and validation of the analytical model In the design of a container for transportation of spent fuel, the impact limiters are a fundamental part for compliance with regulatory requirements; Diseno de los Limitadores de impacto de un Bulto Tipo B(U). Ensayos de Caida y validacion del Modelo Analitico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrido Quevedo, D.

    2013-07-01

    The aim is to confirm through real trials that the design and the results obtained through simulation conform to reality with a high degree of confidence... The combination of tests on scale models and the validation of the methods of calculation are necessary tools for the design of limiters impact a container of spent fuel transport.

  12. A Primer on Alternative Transportation Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    United States. Current annual corn production in the United States is about 1010 bushels. Most of that is used to feed livestock, poultry , fish, and...rechargeable Li- Air battery (SP = 1000 W/kg, SE = 1700 Wh/kg) were realized and found to be economical, durable and safe enough for manned vehicular use, it...Li-Air battery were realized and found to be economical, durable , and safe, 70% of the need for conventional transportation fuel could be eliminated

  13. Nuclear Energy and Synthetic Liquid Transportation Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Richard

    2012-10-01

    This talk will propose a plan to combine nuclear reactors with the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) process to produce synthetic carbon-neutral liquid transportation fuels from sea water. These fuels can be formed from the hydrogen and carbon dioxide in sea water and will burn to water and carbon dioxide in a cycle powered by nuclear reactors. The F-T process was developed nearly 100 years ago as a method of synthesizing liquid fuels from coal. This process presently provides commercial liquid fuels in South Africa, Malaysia, and Qatar, mainly using natural gas as a feedstock. Nuclear energy can be used to separate water into hydrogen and oxygen as well as to extract carbon dioxide from sea water using ion exchange technology. The carbon dioxide and hydrogen react to form synthesis gas, the mixture needed at the beginning of the F-T process. Following further refining, the products, typically diesel and Jet-A, can use existing infrastructure and can power conventional engines with little or no modification. We can then use these carbon-neutral liquid fuels conveniently long into the future with few adverse environmental impacts.

  14. Design and Testing of Prototypic Elements Containing Monolithic Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N.E. Woolstenhulme; M.K. Meyer; D.M. Wachs

    2011-10-01

    The US fuel development team has performed numerous irradiation tests on small to medium sized specimens containing low enriched uranium fuel designs. The team is now focused on qualification and demonstration of the uranium-molybdenum Base Monolithic Design and has entered the next generation of testing with the design and irradiation of prototypic elements which contain this fuel. The designs of fuel elements containing monolithic fuel, such as AFIP-7 (which is currently under irradiation) and RERTR-FE (which is currently under fabrication), are appropriate progressions relative to the technology life cycle. The culmination of this testing program will occur with the design, fabrication, and irradiation of demonstration products to include the base fuel demonstration and design demonstration experiments. Future plans show that design, fabrication, and testing activities will apply the rigor needed for a demonstration campaign.

  15. Life cycle analysis of transportation fuel pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-02-24

    The purpose of this work is to improve the understanding of the concept of life cycle analysis (LCA) of transportation fuels and some of its pertinent issues among non-technical people, senior managers, and policy makers. This work should provide some guidance to nations considering LCA-based policies and to people who are affected by existing policies or those being developed. While the concept of employing LCA to evaluate fuel options is simple and straightforward, the act of putting the concept into practice is complex and fraught with issues. Policy makers need to understand the limitations inherent in carrying out LCA work for transportation fuel systems. For many systems, even those that have been employed for a 100 years, there is a lack of sound data on the performance of those systems. Comparisons between systems should ideally be made using the same tool, so that differences caused by system boundaries, allocation processes, and temporal issues can be minimized (although probably not eliminated). Comparing the results for fuel pathway 1 from tool A to those of fuel system 2 from tool B introduces significant uncertainty into the results. There is also the question of the scale of system changes. LCA will give more reliable estimates when it is used to examine small changes in transportation fuel pathways than when used to estimate large scale changes that replace current pathways with completely new pathways. Some LCA tools have been developed recently primarily for regulatory purposes. These tools may deviate from ISO principles in order to facilitate simplicity and ease of use. In a regulatory environment, simplicity and ease of use are worthy objectives and in most cases there is nothing inherently wrong with this approach, particularly for assessing relative performance. However, the results of these tools should not be confused with, or compared to, the results that are obtained from a more complex and rigorous ISO compliant LCA. It should be

  16. A Study of Transport Airplane Crash-Resistant Fuel Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lisa (Technical Monitor); Robertson, S. H.; Johnson, N. B.; Hall, D. S.; Rimson, I. J.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study, funded by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), of transport airplane crash-resistant fuel system (CRFS). The report covers the historical studies related to aircraft crash fires and fuel containment concepts undertaken by the FAA, NASA, and the U.S. Army, which ultimately led to the current state of the art in CRFS technology. It describes the basic research, testing, field investigations and production efforts which have led to the highly successful military CRFS, which has saved many lives and reduced costs of accidents. Current CRFS technology used in transport category airplanes is defined and compared to the available state-of-the-art technology. The report provides information to the FAA and other government organizations which can help them plan their efforts to improve the state of crash fire protection in the transport airplane fleet. The report provides guidance to designers looking for information about CRFS design problems, analysis tools to use for product improvement, and a summary of current and proposed regulations for transport category airplane fuel systems.

  17. Ethanol as a Fuel for Road Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, U.; Johansen, T.; Schramm, J.

    2009-05-15

    Bioethanol as a motor fuel in the transportation sector, mainly for road transportation, has been subject to many studies and much discussion. Furthermore, the topic involves not only the application and engine technical aspects, but also the understanding of the entire life cycle of the fuel, well-to-wheels, including economical, environmental, and social aspects. It is not, however, the aim of this report to assess every single one of these aspects. The present report aims to address the technical potential and problems as well as the central issues related to the general application of bioethanol as an energy carrier in the near future. A suitable place to start studying a fuel is at the production stage, and bioethanol has been found to have a potential to mitigate greenhouse gases, depending on the production method. This and a potential for replacing fossil fuel-based oil (and being renewable) are the main reasons why ethanol is considered and implemented. Therefore, we must focus on two central questions related to ethanol implementation: how much carbon dioxide (CO2) can be mitigated and how much fossil fuel can be replaced? A number of life cycle assessments have been performed in order to provide estimates. These assessments have generally shown that bioethanol has very good potential and can mitigate CO2 emissions very effectively, but It has also been shown that the potential for both fossil fuel replacement and CO2 mitigation is totally dependent on the method used to produce the fuel. Bioethanol can be made from a wide range of biomass resources, not all equally effective at mitigating CO2 emissions and replacing fossil fuel. The Brazilian ethanol experience has in many ways shown the way for the rest of the world, not least in the production stage. Brazil was the first and biggest producer of bioethanol, but the United States, China, India, and European Union have since then increased their production dramatically. Overall, bioethanol represents the

  18. Ethanol as a Fuel for Road Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, U.; Johansen, T.; Schramm, J.

    2009-05-15

    Bioethanol as a motor fuel in the transportation sector, mainly for road transportation, has been subject to many studies and much discussion. Furthermore, the topic involves not only the application and engine technical aspects, but also the understanding of the entire life cycle of the fuel, well-to-wheels, including economical, environmental, and social aspects. It is not, however, the aim of this report to assess every single one of these aspects. The present report aims to address the technical potential and problems as well as the central issues related to the general application of bioethanol as an energy carrier in the near future. A suitable place to start studying a fuel is at the production stage, and bioethanol has been found to have a potential to mitigate greenhouse gases, depending on the production method. This and a potential for replacing fossil fuel-based oil (and being renewable) are the main reasons why ethanol is considered and implemented. Therefore, we must focus on two central questions related to ethanol implementation: how much carbon dioxide (CO2) can be mitigated and how much fossil fuel can be replaced? A number of life cycle assessments have been performed in order to provide estimates. These assessments have generally shown that bioethanol has very good potential and can mitigate CO2 emissions very effectively, but It has also been shown that the potential for both fossil fuel replacement and CO2 mitigation is totally dependent on the method used to produce the fuel. Bioethanol can be made from a wide range of biomass resources, not all equally effective at mitigating CO2 emissions and replacing fossil fuel. The Brazilian ethanol experience has in many ways shown the way for the rest of the world, not least in the production stage. Brazil was the first and biggest producer of bioethanol, but the United States, China, India, and European Union have since then increased their production dramatically. Overall, bioethanol represents the

  19. INTERACTION OF AIR TRANSPORTATION AND FUEL-SUPPLY COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Zheleznaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the role of aviation fuel in the life of air transport. Fueling industry worldwide solves two main tasks - ensuring the safety and economy of air traffic. In Russia, there is one more task of airlines fuel supply. The article deals with fuel pricing taking into consideration today's realities.

  20. Direct-hydrogen-fueled proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell system for transportation applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oei, D.; Adams, J.A.; Kinnelly, A.A. [and others

    1997-07-01

    In partial fulfillment of the U.S. Department of Energy Contract No. DE-ACO2-94CE50389, {open_quotes}Direct Hydrogen-Fueled Proton-Exchange-Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell System for Transportation Applications{close_quotes}, this conceptual vehicle design report addresses the design and packaging of battery augmented fuel cell powertrain vehicles. This report supplements the {open_quotes}Conceptual Vehicle Design Report - Pure Fuel Cell Powertrain Vehicle{close_quotes} and includes a cost study of the fuel cell power system. The three classes of vehicles considered in this design and packaging exercise are the same vehicle classes that were studied in the previous report: the Aspire, representing the small vehicle class; the AIV (Aluminum Intensive Vehicle) Sable, representing the mid-size vehicle; and the E-150 Econoline, representing the van-size class. A preliminary PEM fuel cell power system manufacturing cost study is also presented. As in the case of the previous report concerning the {open_quotes}Pure Fuel Cell Powertrain Vehicle{close_quotes}, the same assumptions are made for the fuel cell power system. These assumptions are fuel cell system power densities of 0.33 kW/ka and 0.33 kW/l, platinum catalyst loading of less than or equal to 0.25 mg/cm{sup 2} total, and hydrogen tanks containing compressed gaseous hydrogen under 340 atm (5000 psia) pressure. The batteries considered for power augmentation of the fuel cell vehicle are based on the Ford Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) program. These are state-of-the-art high power lead acid batteries with power densities ranging from 0.8 kW/kg to 2 kW/kg. The results reported here show that battery augmentation provides the fuel cell vehicle with a power source to meet instant high power demand for acceleration and start-up. Based on the assumptions made in this report, the packaging of the battery augmented fuel cell vehicle appears to be as feasible as the packaging of the pure fuel cell powered vehicle.

  1. Irisbus plan: urban transport with fuel cell; Projet Irisbus de transport urbain a pile a combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourachot, J.; Corgier, D.; Durelli, E. [Iribus, 92 - Suresnes (France); Badin, F.; Trigui, R. [Institut National de Recherche sur les transports et leur Securite, INRETS LTE, 94 - Arcueil (France)

    2000-07-01

    In this article is described the Irisbus development plan of urban transport vehicles containing a fuel cell. The aim of this research program is the demonstration and the analysis of this technology for a future development and industrialization of this type of vehicle. The partnership involves electric traction experts, research centers, energy suppliers as well as exploitation systems. The first vehicle, being at the present time carried out, will be operational at the first quarter 2001. (O.M.)

  2. Novel fuel cell stack with coupled metal hydride containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhixiang; Li, Yan; Bu, Qingyuan; Guzy, Christopher J.; Li, Qi; Chen, Weirong; Wang, Cheng

    2016-10-01

    Air-cooled, self-humidifying hydrogen fuel cells are often used for backup and portable power sources, with a metal hydride used as the hydrogen storage material. To provide a stable hydrogen flow to the fuel cell stack, heat must be provided to the metal hydride. Conventionally, the heat released from the exothermic reaction of hydrogen and oxygen in the fuel cell stack to the exhaust air is used to heat a separate metal hydride container. In this case, the heat is only partially used instead of being more closely coupled because of the heat transfer resistances in the system. To achieve better heat integration, a novel scheme is proposed whereby hydrogen storage and single fuel cells are more closely coupled. Based on this idea, metal hydride containers in the form of cooling plates were assembled between each pair of cells in the stack so that the heat could be directly transferred to a metal hydride container of much larger surface-to-volume ratio than conventional separate containers. A heat coupled fuel cell portable power source with 10 cells and 11 metal hydride containers was constructed and the experimental results show that this scheme is beneficial for the heat management of fuel cell stack.

  3. Safety Analysis Report for Packaging: The unirradiated fuel shipping container USA/9853/AF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-18

    The HFBR Unirradiated Fuel Shipping Container was designed and fabricated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1978 for the transport of fuel for the High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR) for Brookhaven National Laboratory. The package has been evaluated analytically, as well as the comparison to tests on similar packages, to demonstrate compliance with the applicable regulations governing packages in which radioactive and fissile materials are transported. The contents of this Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) are based on Regulatory Guide 7.9 (proposed Revision 2 - May 1986), 10 CFR Part 71, DOE Order 1540.2, DOE Order 5480.3, and 49 CFR Part 173.

  4. Safety Analysis Report for Packaging: The unirradiated fuel shipping container USA/9853/AF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-18

    The HFBR Unirradiated Fuel Shipping Container was designed and fabricated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1978 for the transport of fuel for the High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR) for Brookhaven National Laboratory. The package has been evaluated analytically, as well as the comparison to tests on similar packages, to demonstrate compliance with the applicable regulations governing packages in which radioactive and fissile materials are transported. The contents of this Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) are based on Regulatory Guide 7.9 (proposed Revision 2 - May 1986), 10 CFR Part 71, DOE Order 1540.2, DOE Order 5480.3, and 49 CFR Part 173.

  5. Ecological aspects of water coal fuel transportation and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna SHVORNIKOVA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the aspects of influence of transportation process and burning of water coal fuel on an ecological condition of environment. Also mathematical dependences between coal ash level and power consumption for transportation are presented.

  6. High fuel price: Will Indonesian shift to public transportation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopha, Bertha Maya; Pamungkas, Adhiguna Ramadhani

    2016-06-01

    Public transportation has been declining over years, while on the other hand, private vehicles are dramatically increasing. The share of public transportation was 38.3% in 2002 and slowly decreasing to 12.9% in 2010. Cheap fuel price has been alleged to be the main cause for the increased private vehicles. The declining trend of public transportation needs further investigation whether higher fuel price indeed influences the choice of transportation mode. The present study therefore aims at exploring the preference of using public transportation compared to motorcycle and private car for various fuel price and identifying barriers toward public transportation. A survey was conducted in 2013 to capture the preference of each transportation mode given different fuel price. A questionnaire which was designed according to the structure of Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was distributed using random sampling in ten cities in Sumatra and Java islands, Indonesia. Results indicate that the increased fuel price would not lead to significant increase of public transportation users. Motorcycle seems continuously being the dominating transportation mode in the future. On the other hand, issues resulted from limited public transportation capacity such as long travel time, security and safety issues, limited route, poor schedule appear to be the most barriers of using public transportation. It is implied that in order to promote public transportation, interventions should be introduced simultaneously at both supply (i.e., increasing public transportation capacity) and demand (i.e., high fuel price) sides. Limitations of the study are also discussed.

  7. PRODUCTION OF NEW BIOMASS/WASTE-CONTAINING SOLID FUELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David J. Akers; Glenn A. Shirey; Zalman Zitron; Charles Q. Maney

    2001-04-20

    CQ Inc. and its team members (ALSTOM Power Inc., Bliss Industries, McFadden Machine Company, and industry advisors from coal-burning utilities, equipment manufacturers, and the pellet fuels industry) addressed the objectives of the Department of Energy and industry to produce economical, new solid fuels from coal, biomass, and waste materials that reduce emissions from coal-fired boilers. This project builds on the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production. The electric utility industry is interested in the use of biomass and wastes as fuel to reduce both emissions and fuel costs. In addition to these benefits, utilities also recognize the business advantage of consuming the waste byproducts of customers both to retain customers and to improve the public image of the industry. Unfortunately, biomass and waste byproducts can be troublesome fuels because of low bulk density, high moisture content, variable composition, handling and feeding problems, and inadequate information about combustion and emissions characteristics. Current methods of co-firing biomass and wastes either use a separate fuel receiving, storage, and boiler feed system, or mass burn the biomass by simply mixing it with coal on the storage pile. For biomass or biomass-containing composite fuels to be extensively used in the U.S., especially in the steam market, a lower cost method of producing these fuels must be developed that includes both moisture reduction and pelletization or agglomeration for necessary fuel density and ease of handling. Further, this method of fuel production must be applicable to a variety of combinations of biomass, wastes, and coal; economically competitive with current fuels; and provide environmental benefits compared with coal. Notable accomplishments from the work performed in Phase I of this project include the development of three standard fuel formulations from mixtures of coal fines, biomass, and waste materials that can be used in

  8. Energy use of integral refrigerated containers in maritime transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzgerald, Warren B.; Howitt, Oliver J.A. [Department of Physics, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin (New Zealand); Smith, Inga J., E-mail: inga@physics.otago.ac.n [Department of Physics, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin (New Zealand); Hume, Anthony [Landcare Research, P.O. Box 40, Lincoln 7640 (New Zealand)

    2011-04-15

    The global trading of perishable goods is possible through the application of product refrigeration and atmospheric control during transportation. A mean energy consumption rate of 2.7 kW/TEU was assumed in this study, but was found to have potential variations of around {+-}60%. New Zealand's maritime trade was considered as a case study for the year 2007 to place the effect of refrigerated transport in context. For individual refrigerated containers, approximately 19% of the energy use related to its journey is used for refrigeration purposes. In 2007, approximately 18% and 61% of New Zealand's imported and exported food products by mass, respectively, required some form of refrigeration during transportation. Maintaining the refrigerated state of imports and exports to and from New Zealand during maritime transportation consumed approximately 280 GWh of electricity. Assuming all this electricity was generated onboard vessels using auxiliary engines, approximately 61 kt of fuel was consumed and 190 kt of CO{sub 2} produced. Refrigeration is of particular importance to the many greenhouse gas or carbon footprinting studies conducted around the world. Implications are discussed in the context of greenhouse gas emissions from the transport of apples from NZ to the UK and long-term storage of UK apples. - Research highlights: {yields} Energy use was assessed for New Zealand's international maritime transport of refrigerated goods. {yields} Cargo-based analysis was used to obtain energy use and GHG emissions. {yields} 2.7 kW/TEU mean energy consumption rate was assumed, but data indicated potential variations of around {+-}60%. {yields} Refrigeration accounts for approximately 19% of a refrigerated container's energy use on a journey. {yields} Approximately 280 GWh of electricity is used (190 kt of CO{sub 2}) for refrigeration of NZ's 2007 imports and exports.

  9. Comparison of fuel production costs for future transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridjan, Iva; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    The purpose of this poster is to provide an overview of fuel production costs for two types of synthetic fuels – methanol and methane, along with comparable costs for first and second generation biodiesel, two types of second generation bioethanol, and biogas. The model analysed is a 100% renewab...... scenario of Denmark for 2050, where the data for the transport sector has been changed to estimate the fuel production costs for eight different fuel pathways....

  10. Combustion aerosols from potassium-containing fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balzer Nielsen, Lars

    1998-12-31

    The scope of the work presented in this thesis is the formation and evolution of aerosol particles in the submicron range during combustion processes, in particular where biomass is used alone or co-fired with coal. An introduction to the formation processes of fly ash in general and submicron aerosol in particular during combustion is presented, along with some known problems related to combustion of biomass for power generation. The work falls in two parts. The first is the design of a laboratory setup for investigation of homogeneous nucleation and particle dynamics at high temperature. The central unit of the setup is a laminar flow aerosol condenser (LFAC), which essentially is a 173 cm long tubular furnace with an externally cooled wall. A mathematical model is presented which describes the formation and evolution of the aerosol in the LFAC, where the rate of formation of new nuclei is calculated using the so-called classical theory. The model includes mass and energy conservation equations and an expression for the description of particle growth by diffusion. The resulting set of nonlinear second-order partial differential equations are solved numerically using the method of orthogonal collocation. The model is implemented in the FORTRAN code MONAERO. The second part of this thesis describes a comprehensive investigation of submicron aerosol formation during co-firing of coal and straw carried out at a 380 MW{sub Th} pulverized coal unit at Studstrup Power Plant, Aarhus. Three types of coal are used, and total boiler load and straw input is varied systematically. Straw contains large amounts of potassium, which is released during combustion. Submicron aerosol is sampled between the two banks of the economizer at a flue gas temperature of 350 deg. C using a novel ejector probe. The aerosol is characterized using the SMPS system and a Berner-type low pressure impactor. The chemical composition of the particles collected in the impactor is determined using

  11. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2004-09-30

    The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a research consortium with participants from the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, West Virginia University, University of Utah, and Auburn University. The CFFS is conducting a research program to develop C1 chemistry technology for the production of clean transportation fuel from resources such as coal and natural gas, which are more plentiful domestically than petroleum. The processes under development will convert feedstocks containing one carbon atom per molecular unit into ultra clean liquid transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) and hydrogen, which many believe will be the transportation fuel of the future. Feedstocks include synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification, coalbed methane, light products produced by Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis, methanol, and natural gas.

  12. Cost reductions of fuel cells for transport applications: fuel processing options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teagan, W. P.; Bentley, J.; Barnett, B.

    The highly favorable efficiency/environmental characteristics of fuel cell technologies have now been verified by virtue of recent and ongoing field experience. The key issue regarding the timing and extent of fuel cell commercialization is the ability to reduce costs to acceptable levels in both stationary and transport applications. It is increasingly recognized that the fuel processing subsystem can have a major impact on overall system costs, particularly as ongoing R&D efforts result in reduction of the basic cost structure of stacks which currently dominate system costs. The fuel processing subsystem for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology, which is the focus of transport applications, includes the reformer, shift reactors, and means for CO reduction. In addition to low cost, transport applications require a fuel processor that is compact and can start rapidly. This paper describes the impact of factors such as fuel choice, operating temperature, material selection, catalyst requirements, and controls on the cost of fuel processing systems. There are fuel processor technology paths which manufacturing cost analyses indicate are consistent with fuel processor subsystem costs of under 150/kW in stationary applications and 30/kW in transport applications. As such, the costs of mature fuel processing subsystem technologies should be consistent with their use in commercially viable fuel cell systems in both application categories.

  13. Intermediate review on the transportation of spent fuel assemblies; Zwischenbilanz ueber die Transporte abgebrannter Brennelemente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-10-15

    container if contamination is probable according to the situation in France, and the accompaniment of the transportation by HSK in addition to the accompaniment by a radioactivity protection specialist from the Paul Scherrer Institute). Another measure will be reduced (quality of the transport documentation which is to be transmitted to HSK). On the basis of data measured in Switzerland, it was established that railway staff are subjected to no noticeable radiological exposition. From the point of view of protection against radioactivity, it should therefore be possible to reduce complementary radiation protection measures. These measures, however, also serve to assure confidence. For this purpose and in accordance with the Federal Railways, HSK has decided to maintain contamination checking at the Swiss border for foreign transportation as well as continuing accompaniment by a radioactivity protection specialist, including the measurement of the radiation doses incurred by staff, of the spent fuel transports on Swiss territory. The anthropogammametric measurements are no longer required, but the possibility to undergo such measurements is kept open for the railway staff participating to the transports. The new stringency with which the transport of spent fuel is carried out must not be relaxed. The good results gained up to now have still to be confirmed. Only one transport was carried out from the Leibstadt nuclear plant and none as yet from Muehleberg. No transportation was carried out to the BNFL reprocessing facility in England. In the future there will be also spent fuel transports to the central storage facility ZWILAG in Wuerenlingen. These examples show that much experience has still to be gained before decisions concerning the reduction of the other measures can be taken on a sound basis. HSK will carry out to a new analysis of the situation in due course

  14. EVermont Renewable Hydrogen Production and Transportation Fueling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garabedian, Harold T.

    2008-03-30

    A great deal of research funding is being devoted to the use of hydrogen for transportation fuel, particularly in the development of fuel cell vehicles. When this research bears fruit in the form of consumer-ready vehicles, will the fueling infrastructure be ready? Will the required fueling systems work in cold climates as well as they do in warm areas? Will we be sure that production of hydrogen as the energy carrier of choice for our transit system is the most energy efficient and environmentally friendly option? Will consumers understand this fuel and how to handle it? Those are questions addressed by the EVermont Wind to Wheels Hydrogen Project: Sustainable Transportation. The hydrogen fueling infrastructure consists of three primary subcomponents: a hydrogen generator (electrolyzer), a compression and storage system, and a dispenser. The generated fuel is then used to provide transportation as a motor fuel. EVermont Inc., started in 1993 by then governor Howard Dean, is a public-private partnership of entities interested in documenting and advancing the performance of advanced technology vehicles that are sustainable and less burdensome on the environment, especially in areas of cold climates, hilly terrain and with rural settlement patterns. EVermont has developed a demonstration wind powered hydrogen fuel producing filling system that uses electrolysis, compression to 5000 psi and a hydrogen burning vehicle that functions reliably in cold climates. And that fuel is then used to meet transportation needs in a hybrid electric vehicle whose internal combustion engine has been converted to operate on hydrogen Sponsored by the DOE EERE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies (HFC&IT) Program, the purpose of the project is to test the viability of sustainably produced hydrogen for use as a transportation fuel in a cold climate with hilly terrain and rural settlement patterns. Specifically, the project addresses the challenge of building a renewable

  15. Iron aluminide alloy container for solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, Roddie Reagan (Knoxville, TN); Singh, Prabhakar (Export, PA); Sikka, Vinod Kumar (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2000-01-01

    A container for fuel cells is made from an iron aluminide alloy. The container alloy preferably includes from about 13 to about 22 weight percent Al, from about 2 to about 8 weight percent Cr, from about 0.1 to about 4 weight percent M selected from Zr and Hf, from about 0.005 to about 0.5 weight percent B or from about 0.001 to about 1 weight percent C, and the balance Fe and incidental impurities. The iron aluminide container alloy is extremely resistant to corrosion and metal loss when exposed to dual reducing and oxidizing atmospheres at elevated temperatures. The alloy is particularly useful for containment vessels for solid oxide fuel cells, as a replacement for stainless steel alloys which are currently used.

  16. PLATINUM, FUEL CELLS, AND FUTURE ROAD TRANSPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    A vehicle powered by a fuel cell will emit virtually no air polution and, depending on fuel choice, can substantially improve fuel economy above that of current technology. Those attributes are complementary to issues of increasing national importance including the effects of tra...

  17. Component Cost of Fuel Oil of Waste Transportation Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burhamtoro

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The success of the transportation system can be measured based on four things, namely the efficiency of time, energy and fuel efficiency, environmental impact, and safety. Efficiency of energy and fuel is often stated as part of vehicle operating costs (VOC. So need to know the amount of the percentage of the fuel cost component of vehicle operating costs. The purpose of this study was to determine the percentage of the fuel cost component of the total cost of transportation. Research object is a dump truck or on the SCS transport system that serves the city of Malang. Stages of research begins with getting the data needed to analyze the cost of transporting waste. Furthermore, the analysis performed to determine the percentage of each component of transport costs. Results of the analysis showed that the greatest percentage of the cost of each component of the cost of transporting waste is a component of the fuel, while the smallest percentage of the cost of the mechanical components. For the percentage of fuel costs by 28.90% of the variable cost per kilometer, while the percentage of fuel costs by 27.45% of the total cost of transporting waste on his m3each.

  18. Production of New Biomass/Waste-Containing Solid Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn A. Shirey; David J. Akers

    2005-09-23

    CQ Inc. and its industry partners--PBS Coals, Inc. (Friedens, Pennsylvania), American Fiber Resources (Fairmont, West Virginia), Allegheny Energy Supply (Williamsport, Maryland), and the Heritage Research Group (Indianapolis, Indiana)--addressed the objectives of the Department of Energy and industry to produce economical, new solid fuels from coal, biomass, and waste materials that reduce emissions from coal-fired boilers. This project builds on the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production. The electric utility industry is interested in the use of biomass and wastes as fuel to reduce both emissions and fuel costs. In addition to these benefits, utilities also recognize the business advantage of consuming the waste byproducts of customers both to retain customers and to improve the public image of the industry. Unfortunately, biomass and waste byproducts can be troublesome fuels because of low bulk density, high moisture content, variable composition, handling and feeding problems, and inadequate information about combustion and emissions characteristics. Current methods of co-firing biomass and wastes either use a separate fuel receiving, storage, and boiler feed system, or mass burn the biomass by simply mixing it with coal on the storage pile. For biomass or biomass-containing composite fuels to be extensively used in the U.S., especially in the steam market, a lower cost method of producing these fuels must be developed that is applicable to a variety of combinations of biomass, wastes, and coal; economically competitive with current fuels; and provides environmental benefits compared with coal. During Phase I of this project (January 1999 to July 2000), several biomass/waste materials were evaluated for potential use in a composite fuel. As a result of that work and the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production, paper mill sludge and coal were selected for further evaluation and demonstration

  19. Development of nuclear spent fuel Maritime transportation scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Min; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    Spent fuel transportation of South Korea is to be conducted through near sea because it is able to ship a large amount of the spent fuel far from the public comparing to overland transportation. The maritime transportation is expected to be increased and its risk has to be assessed. For the risk assessment, this study utilizes the probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) method and the notions of the combined event. Risk assessment of maritime transportation of spent fuel is not well developed in comparison with overland transportation. For the assessment, first, the transportation scenario should be developed and categorized. Categories are assorted into the locations, release aspects and exposure aspects. This study deals with accident that happens on voyage and concentrated on ship-ship collision. The collision accident scenario is generated with event tree analysis. The scenario will be exploited for the maritime transportation risk model which includes consequence and accident probability.

  20. Integrated risk assessment for spent fuel transportation using developed software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Mi Rae; Christian, Robby; Kim, Bo Gyung; Almomani, Belal; Ham, Jae Hyun; Kang, Gook Hyun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang hoon [Keimyung University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    As on-site spent fuel storage meets limitation of their capacity, spent fuel need to be transported to other place. In this research, risk of two ways of transportation method, maritime transportation and on-site transportation, and interim storage facility were analyzed. Easier and integrated risk assessment for spent fuel transportation will be possible by applying this software. Risk assessment for spent fuel transportation has not been researched and this work showed a case for analysis. By using this analysis method and developed software, regulators can get some insights for spent fuel transportation. For example, they can restrict specific region for preventing ocean accident and also they can arrange spend fuel in interim storage facility avoiding most risky region which have high risk from aircraft engine shaft. Finally, they can apply soft material on the floor for specific stage for on-site transportation. In this software, because we targeted Korea, we need to use Korean reference data. However, there were few Korean reference data. Especially, there was no food chain data for Korean ocean. In MARINRAD, they used steady state food chain model, but it is far from reality. Therefore, to get Korean realistic reference data, dynamic food chain model for Korean ocean need to be developed.

  1. Degradation of solid oxide fuel cell metallic interconnects in fuels containing sulfur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Hawk, Jeffrey A.

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogen is the main fuel for all types of fuel cells except direct methanol fuel cells. Hydrogen can be generated from all manner of fossil fuels, including coal, natural gas, diesel, gasoline, other hydrocarbons, and oxygenates (e.g., methanol, ethanol, butanol, etc.). Impurities in the fuel can cause significant performance problems and sulfur, in particular, can decrease the cell performance of fuel cells, including solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). In the SOFC, the high (800-1000°C) operating temperature yields advantages (e.g., internal fuel reforming) and disadvantages (e.g., material selection and degradation problems). Significant progress in reducing the operating temperature of the SOFC from ~1000 ºC to ~750 ºC may allow less expensive metallic materials to be used for interconnects and as balance of plant (BOP) materials. This paper provides insight on the material performance of nickel, ferritic steels, and nickel-based alloys in fuels containing sulfur, primarily in the form of H2S, and seeks to quantify the extent of possible degradation due to sulfur in the gas stream.

  2. Spent fuels transportation coming from Australia; Transport de combustible use en provenance d'Australie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Maritime transportation of spent fuels from Australia to France fits into the contract between COGEMA and ANSTO, signed in 1999. This document proposes nine information cards in this domain: HIFAR a key tool of the nuclear, scientific and technological australian program; a presentation of the ANSTO Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization; the HIFAR spent fuel management problem; the COGEMA expertise in favor of the research reactor spent fuel; the spent fuel reprocessing at La Hague; the transports management; the transport safety (2 cards); the regulatory framework of the transports. (A.L.B.)

  3. Transportation capabilities study of DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, G.L.; Johnson, R.A.; Smith, R.W. [Packaging Technology, Inc., Tacoma, WA (United States); Abbott, D.G.; Tyacke, M.J. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1994-10-01

    This study evaluates current capabilities for transporting spent nuclear fuel owned by the US Department of Energy. Currently licensed irradiated fuel shipping packages that have the potential for shipping the spent nuclear fuel are identified and then matched against the various spent nuclear fuel types. Also included are the results of a limited investigation into other certified packages and new packages currently under development. This study is intended to support top-level planning for the disposition of the Department of Energy`s spent nuclear fuel inventory.

  4. Programmatic and technical requirements for the FMDP fresh MOX fuel transport package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, S. B.; Michelhaugh, R. D.; Pope, R. B.; Shappert, L. B.; Singletary, B. H.; Chae, S. M.; Parks, C. V.; Broadhead, B. L.; Schmid, S. P.; Cowart, C. G.

    1997-12-01

    This document is intended to guide the designers of the package to all pertinent regulatory and other design requirements to help ensure the safe and efficient transport of the weapons-grade (WG) fresh MOX fuel under the Fissile Materials Disposition Program. To accomplish the disposition mission using MOX fuel, the unirradiated MOX fuel must be transported from the MOX fabrication facility to one or more commercial reactors. Because the unirradiated fuel contains large quantities of plutonium and is not sufficient radioactive to create a self-protecting barrier to deter the material from theft, DOE intends to use its fleet of safe secure trailers (SSTs) to provide the necessary safeguards and security for the material in transit. In addition to these requirements, transport of radioactive materials must comply with regulations of the Department of Transportation and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). In particular, NRC requires that the packages must meet strict performance requirements. The requirements for shipment of MOX fuel (i.e., radioactive fissile materials) specify that the package design is certified by NRC to ensure the materials contained in the packages are not released and remain subcritical after undergoing a series of hypothetical accident condition tests. Packages that pass these tests are certified by NRC as a Type B fissile (BF) package. This document specifies the programmatic and technical design requirements a package must satisfy to transport the fresh MOX fuel assemblies.

  5. FY 2012 USED FUEL DISPOSITION CAMPAIGN TRANSPORTATION TASK REPORT ON INL EFFORTS SUPPORTING THE MODERATOR EXCLUSION CONCEPT AND STANDARDIZED TRANSPORTATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. K. Morton

    2012-08-01

    Following the defunding of the Yucca Mountain Project, it is reasonable to assume that commercial used fuel will remain in storage for a longer time period than initially assumed. Previous transportation task work in FY 2011, under the Department of Energy’s Office of Nuclear Energy, Used Fuel Disposition Campaign, proposed an alternative for safely transporting used fuel regardless of the structural integrity of the used fuel, baskets, poisons, or storage canisters after an extended period of storage. This alternative assures criticality safety during transportation by implementing a concept that achieves moderator exclusion (no in-leakage of moderator into the used fuel cavity). By relying upon a component inside of the transportation cask that provides a watertight function, a strong argument can be made that moderator intrusion is not credible and should not be a required assumption for criticality evaluations during normal or hypothetical accident conditions of transportation. This Transportation Task report addresses the assigned FY 2012 work that supports the proposed moderator exclusion concept as well as a standardized transportation system. The two tasks assigned were to (1) promote the proposed moderator exclusion concept to both regulatory and nuclear industry audiences and (2) advance specific technical issues in order to improve American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, Division 3 rules for storage and transportation containments. The common point behind both of the assigned tasks is to provide more options that can be used to resolve current issues being debated regarding the future transportation of used fuel after extended storage.

  6. International nuclear fuel cycle fact book. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, I.W.; Lakey, L.T.; Schneider, K.J.; Silviera, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need has developed for a ready source of information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book was compiled to meet that need. The information contained has been obtained from nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECD/NEA activities reports; proceedings of conferences and workshops; and so forth. Sources do not agree completely with each other, and the data listed herein does not reflect any one single source but frequently is a consolidation/combination of information. Lack of space as well as the intent and purpose of the Fact Book limit the given information to that pertaining to the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and to data considered of primary interest or most helpful to the majority of users.

  7. Microalgal and terrestrial transport biofuels to displace fossil fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.

    2009-01-01

    Terrestrial transport biofuels differ in their ability to replace fossil fuels. When both the conversion of solar energy into biomass and the life cycle inputs of fossil fuels are considered, ethanol from sugarcane and biodiesel from palm oil do relatively well, if compared with ethanol from corn, s

  8. Microalgal and terrestrial transport biofuels to displace fossil fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.

    2009-01-01

    Terrestrial transport biofuels differ in their ability to replace fossil fuels. When both the conversion of solar energy into biomass and the life cycle inputs of fossil fuels are considered, ethanol from sugarcane and biodiesel from palm oil do relatively well, if compared with ethanol from corn,

  9. METHANOL PRODUCTION FROM BIOMASS AND NATURAL GAS AS TRANSPORTATION FUEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two processes are examined for production of methanol. They are assessed against the essential requirements of a future alternative fuel for road transport: that it (i) is producible in amounts comparable to the 19 EJ of motor fuel annually consumed in the U.S., (ii) minimizes em...

  10. On direct and indirect methanol fuel cells for transportation applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottesfield, S.

    1996-04-01

    Research on direct oxidation methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) and polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) is discussed. Systems considered for transportation applications are addressed. The use of platinum/ruthenium anode electrocatalysts and platinum cathode electrocatalysts in polymer electrolyte DMFCs has resulted in significant performance enhancements.

  11. FCTESTNET - Testing fuel cells for transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkel, R.G.; Foster, D.L.; Smokers, R.T.M.

    2006-01-01

    FCTESTNET (Fuel Cell Testing and Standardization Network) is an ongoing European network project within Framework Program 5. It is a three-year project that commenced January 2003, with 55 partners from European research centers, universities, and industry, working in the field of fuel cell R and D.

  12. Environmental benefits of transport and stationary fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, David; Hörmandinger, Günter

    The potential environmental benefits of using fuel cells in cars, buses and stationary combined heat and power (CHP) plants of different sizes have not been well-researched. This environmental analysis was conducted for the UK on a `full fuel cycle' basis, encompassing all greenhouse gas and regulated pollutant emissions for the supply chain and end-use technology under consideration. Solid polymer fuel cells (SPFCs) with methanol or natural gas reformers were analysed for cars, SPFCs and phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFCs) with on-board hydrogen for buses. CHP plants were PAFCs or solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Each option was compared with one or more conventional technologies. In all cases fuel cell technologies have substantially reduced emissions in comparison with conventional technologies. Regulated emissions are lowest, by up to two orders of magnitude, and those that do occur are primarily in the fuel supply chain. The fuel cell technologies are more efficient in all cases, and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are reduced broadly in line with energy savings. Methane emissions increase due to fuel switching, e.g. from petrol to natural gas powered buses, but from a very low base. The study pinpoints some areas in which alternative approaches could be made - the methods for generating and transporting hydrogen have a significant bearing on energy consumption and emissions. However, it is clear that from an overall emissions perspective the use of fuel cells in transport and power generation is highly beneficial.

  13. Ultraclean Fuels Production and Utilization for the Twenty-First Century: Advances toward Sustainable Transportation Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Elise B.; Liu, Zhong-Wen; Liu, Zhao-Tie

    2013-11-21

    Ultraclean fuels production has become increasingly important as a method to help decrease emissions and allow the introduction of alternative feed stocks for transportation fuels. Established methods, such as Fischer-Tropsch, have seen a resurgence of interest as natural gas prices drop and existing petroleum resources require more intensive clean-up and purification to meet stringent environmental standards. This review covers some of the advances in deep desulfurization, synthesis gas conversion into fuels and feed stocks that were presented at the 245th American Chemical Society Spring Annual Meeting in New Orleans, LA in the Division of Energy and Fuels symposium on "Ultraclean Fuels Production and Utilization".

  14. 49 CFR 176.76 - Transport vehicles, freight containers, and portable tanks containing hazardous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transport vehicles, freight containers, and... TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY VESSEL General Handling and Stowage § 176.76 Transport... paragraphs (b) through (f) of this section, hazardous materials authorized to be transported by vessel may...

  15. 49 CFR 173.9 - Transport vehicles or freight containers containing lading which has been fumigated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transport vehicles or freight containers... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS General § 173.9 Transport... hazardous material. (b) No person may offer for transportation or transport a rail car, freight...

  16. High quality transportation fuels from renewable feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindfors, Lars Peter

    2010-09-15

    Hydrotreating of vegetable oils is novel process for producing high quality renewable diesel. Hydrotreated vegetable oils (HVO) are paraffinic hydrocarbons. They are free of aromatics, have high cetane numbers and reduce emissions. HVO can be used as component or as such. HVO processes can also be modified to produce jet fuel. GHG savings by HVO use are significant compared to fossil fuels. HVO is already in commercial production. Neste Oil is producing its NExBTL diesel in two plants. Production of renewable fuels will be limited by availability of sustainable feedstock. Therefore R and D efforts are made to expand feedstock base further.

  17. Macroscopic Modeling of Transport Phenomena in Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anders Christian

    An increasing need for energy efficiency and high energy density has sparked a growing interest in direct methanol fuel cells for portable power applications. This type of fuel cell directly generates electricity from a fuel mixture consisting of methanol and water. Although this technology...... for studying their transport. In this PhD dissertation the macroscopic transport phenomena governing direct methanol fuel cell operation are analyzed, discussed and modeled using the two-fluid approach in the computational fluid dynamics framework of CFX 14. The overall objective of this work is to extend...... the present fundamental understanding of direct methanol fuel cell operation by developing a three-dimensional, two-phase, multi-component, non-isotherm mathematical model including detailed non-ideal thermodynamics, non-equilibrium phase change and non-equilibrium sorption-desorption of methanol and water...

  18. Direct-hydrogen-fueled proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell system for transportation applications: Conceptual vehicle design report pure fuel cell powertrain vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oei, D.; Kinnelly, A.; Sims, R.; Sulek, M.; Wernette, D.

    1997-02-01

    In partial fulfillment of the Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. DE-AC02-94CE50389, {open_quotes}Direct-Hydrogen-Fueled Proton-Exchange-Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell for Transportation Applications{close_quotes}, this preliminary report addresses the conceptual design and packaging of a fuel cell-only powered vehicle. Three classes of vehicles are considered in this design and packaging exercise, the Aspire representing the small vehicle class, the Taurus or Aluminum Intensive Vehicle (AIV) Sable representing the mid-size vehicle and the E-150 Econoline representing the van-size class. A fuel cell system spreadsheet model and Ford`s Corporate Vehicle Simulation Program (CVSP) were utilized to determine the size and the weight of the fuel cell required to power a particular size vehicle. The fuel cell power system must meet the required performance criteria for each vehicle. In this vehicle design and packaging exercise, the following assumptions were made: fuel cell power system density of 0.33 kW/kg and 0.33 kg/liter, platinum catalyst loading less than or equal to 0.25 mg/cm{sup 2} total and hydrogen tanks containing gaseous hydrogen under 340 atm (5000 psia) pressure. The fuel cell power system includes gas conditioning, thermal management, humidity control, and blowers or compressors, where appropriate. This conceptual design of a fuel cell-only powered vehicle will help in the determination of the propulsion system requirements for a vehicle powered by a PEMFC engine in lieu of the internal combustion (IC) engine. Only basic performance level requirements are considered for the three classes of vehicles in this report. Each vehicle will contain one or more hydrogen storage tanks and hydrogen fuel for 560 km (350 mi) driving range. Under these circumstances, the packaging of a fuel cell-only powered vehicle is increasingly difficult as the vehicle size diminishes.

  19. Proton exchange membrane fuel cell technology for transportation applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swathirajan, S. [General Motors R& D Center, Warren, MI (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells are extremely promising as future power plants in the transportation sector to achieve an increase in energy efficiency and eliminate environmental pollution due to vehicles. GM is currently involved in a multiphase program with the US Department of Energy for developing a proof-of-concept hybrid vehicle based on a PEM fuel cell power plant and a methanol fuel processor. Other participants in the program are Los Alamos National Labs, Dow Chemical Co., Ballard Power Systems and DuPont Co., In the just completed phase 1 of the program, a 10 kW PEM fuel cell power plant was built and tested to demonstrate the feasibility of integrating a methanol fuel processor with a PEM fuel cell stack. However, the fuel cell power plant must overcome stiff technical and economic challenges before it can be commercialized for light duty vehicle applications. Progress achieved in phase I on the use of monolithic catalyst reactors in the fuel processor, managing CO impurity in the fuel cell stack, low-cost electrode-membrane assembles, and on the integration of the fuel processor with a Ballard PEM fuel cell stack will be presented.

  20. Storage, transportation and disposal system for used nuclear fuel assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaglione, John M.; Wagner, John C.

    2017-07-11

    An integrated storage, transportation and disposal system for used fuel assemblies is provided. The system includes a plurality of sealed canisters and a cask sized to receive the sealed canisters in side by side relationship. The plurality of sealed canisters include an internal basket structure to receive a plurality of used fuel assemblies. The internal basket structure includes a plurality of radiation-absorbing panels and a plurality of hemispherical ribs generally perpendicular to the canister sidewall. The sealed canisters are received within the cask for storage and transportation and are removed from the cask for disposal at a designated repository. The system of the present invention allows the handling of sealed canisters separately or collectively, while allowing storage and transportation of high burnup fuel and damaged fuel to the designated repository.

  1. Storage, transportation and disposal system for used nuclear fuel assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaglione, John M.; Wagner, John C.

    2017-01-10

    An integrated storage, transportation and disposal system for used fuel assemblies is provided. The system includes a plurality of sealed canisters and a cask sized to receive the sealed canisters in side by side relationship. The plurality of sealed canisters include an internal basket structure to receive a plurality of used fuel assemblies. The internal basket structure includes a plurality of radiation-absorbing panels and a plurality of hemispherical ribs generally perpendicular to the canister sidewall. The sealed canisters are received within the cask for storage and transportation and are removed from the cask for disposal at a designated repository. The system of the present invention allows the handling of sealed canisters separately or collectively, while allowing storage and transportation of high burnup fuel and damaged fuel to the designated repository.

  2. Containment analysis for Type B packages used to transport various contents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, B.L.; Carlson, R.W.; Fischer, L.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-11-01

    This report presents sample containment analyses and examples of leakage rate calculations for Type B packages used to transport various contents. Samples of acceptance standard leakage rates are developed for specific contents types at normal transport conditions and at hypothetical accident conditions. The leakage rates are expressed as allowable standard leakage rates. The type of contents considered include: (1) powders, (2) liquids, (3) irradiated fuel rods, (4) gases, and (5) solids.

  3. Experience of air transport of nuclear fuel material in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, T.; Toguri, D. [Transnuclear, LTD. (AREVA group), Tokyo (Japan); Kawasaki, M. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Muramatsu, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    Certified Reference Materials (hereafter called as to CRMs), which are indispensable for Quality Assurance and Material Accountability in nuclear fuel plants, are being provided by overseas suppliers to Japanese nuclear entities as Type A package (non-fissile) through air transport. However, after the criticality accident at JCO in Japan, special law defining nuclear disaster countermeasures (hereafter called as to the LAW) has been newly enforced in June 2000. Thereafter, nuclear fuel materials must meet not only to the existing transport regulations but also to the LAW for its transport.

  4. Uncanistered Spent Nuclear fuel Disposal Container System Description Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. E. Pettit

    2001-07-13

    The Uncanistered Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Disposal Container System supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Disposal containers are loaded with intact uncanistered assemblies and/or individually canistered SNF assemblies and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the access drifts, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The Uncanistered SNF Disposal Container provides long-term confinement of the commercial SNF placed inside, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. The Uncanistered SNF Disposal Container System provides containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limits radionuclide release. The disposal container maintains the waste in a designated configuration, withstands maximum handling and rockfall loads, limits the individual SNF assembly temperatures after emplacement, limits the introduction of moderator into the disposal container during the criticality control period, resists corrosion in the expected handling and repository environments, and provides containment of waste in the event of an accident.

  5. Reimagining liquid transportation fuels : sunshine to petrol.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Terry Alan (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Hogan, Roy E., Jr.; McDaniel, Anthony H. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Siegel, Nathan Phillip; Dedrick, Daniel E. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Stechel, Ellen Beth; Diver, Richard B., Jr.; Miller, James Edward; Allendorf, Mark D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Ambrosini, Andrea; Coker, Eric Nicholas; Staiger, Chad Lynn; Chen, Ken Shuang; Ermanoski, Ivan; Kellog, Gary L.

    2012-01-01

    Two of the most daunting problems facing humankind in the twenty-first century are energy security and climate change. This report summarizes work accomplished towards addressing these problems through the execution of a Grand Challenge LDRD project (FY09-11). The vision of Sunshine to Petrol is captured in one deceptively simple chemical equation: Solar Energy + xCO{sub 2} + (x+1)H{sub 2}O {yields} C{sub x}H{sub 2x+2}(liquid fuel) + (1.5x+.5)O{sub 2} Practical implementation of this equation may seem far-fetched, since it effectively describes the use of solar energy to reverse combustion. However, it is also representative of the photosynthetic processes responsible for much of life on earth and, as such, summarizes the biomass approach to fuels production. It is our contention that an alternative approach, one that is not limited by efficiency of photosynthesis and more directly leads to a liquid fuel, is desirable. The development of a process that efficiently, cost effectively, and sustainably reenergizes thermodynamically spent feedstocks to create reactive fuel intermediates would be an unparalleled achievement and is the key challenge that must be surmounted to solve the intertwined problems of accelerating energy demand and climate change. We proposed that the direct thermochemical conversion of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O to CO and H{sub 2}, which are the universal building blocks for synthetic fuels, serve as the basis for this revolutionary process. To realize this concept, we addressed complex chemical, materials science, and engineering problems associated with thermochemical heat engines and the crucial metal-oxide working-materials deployed therein. By project's end, we had demonstrated solar-driven conversion of CO{sub 2} to CO, a key energetic synthetic fuel intermediate, at 1.7% efficiency.

  6. Combined evaluation. Plutonium transports in France. Problems of safety and reliability of transport container FS47; Evaluation Conjointe. Transports de plutonium en France. Problemes de surete et de securite du container de transport FS47

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marignac, Y.; Coeytaux, X. [Wise-Paris, 75 (France); Large, J.H. [Nuclear Engineer, Large and Associates, Londres (United Kingdom)

    2004-09-15

    This report concerns the safety and the protection of plutonium dioxide transported from Cogema La Hague to the mixed oxide fuel plant of Marcoule and Cadarache. The French approach of the transport safety is based on the combining of two essential principles: the first one affirms that the performances of the FS47 container in regard of containment (norms TS-R-1 from IAEA for the accidental conditions) is conceived to resist in any situation even terrorism or sabotage. In fact, the IAEA norm follows a probabilistic study without a voluntary attack such a terrorist one. The second principle rests on the ability to prevent the treat of terrorism acts, because of a secrecy policy on the plutonium transport. It appeared that the Green peace association has succeeded several times to know exactly the hours, the trips of the plutonium transport and this simple thing raises more questions than it solves. (N.C.)

  7. Criticality benchmark guide for light-water-reactor fuel in transportation and storage packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichtenwalter, J.J.; Bowman, S.M.; DeHart, M.D.; Hopper, C.M.

    1997-03-01

    This report is designed as a guide for performing criticality benchmark calculations for light-water-reactor (LWR) fuel applications. The guide provides documentation of 180 criticality experiments with geometries, materials, and neutron interaction characteristics representative of transportation packages containing LWR fuel or uranium oxide pellets or powder. These experiments should benefit the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and licensees in validation of computational methods used in LWR fuel storage and transportation concerns. The experiments are classified by key parameters such as enrichment, water/fuel volume, hydrogen-to-fissile ratio (H/X), and lattice pitch. Groups of experiments with common features such as separator plates, shielding walls, and soluble boron are also identified. In addition, a sample validation using these experiments and a statistical analysis of the results are provided. Recommendations for selecting suitable experiments and determination of calculational bias and uncertainty are presented as part of this benchmark guide.

  8. Application of symmetric solid oxide fuel cell in fuel containing sulfur: I. Effect of electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wenyi; Pan, Cai; Yang, Song; Zhong, Qin

    2015-03-01

    Symmetric solid oxide fuel cells (SFCs) with double perovskite materials serving as symmetric electrodes are applied for the first time in fuel containing sulfur, aiming to explore solution to sulfur poison. Temperature-programmed techniques, including H2-TPR, O2-TPD, were used to evaluate catalytic activities of electrodes in different atmosphere, while stabilities of electrode materials in sulfur containing fuel gas were characterized in terms of phase structures, conductivity, and microstructures by SEM, four-probe method and XRD as a function of temperature and operating time. It is evidenced that Sr2CoMoO6 (denoted as SCMO) possesses better hydrogen reducibility, oxygen desorption and stability in sulfur containing fuel gas. In configuration of Sr2XMoO6 (X = Co, Ni)|Ce0.85Sm0.15O2-δ (SDC)|Sr2XMoO6, the maximum power density Pmax reaches 95 mW cm-2 for SCMO and 68 mW cm-2 for SNMO with H2-0.1% H2S at 750 °C. Lower polarization resistance of SCMO (about 2.7 Ω cm2 at 750 °C) is achieved. It is interestingly noted that SFC performance composed of ex-situ regenerated symmetric electrodes SCMO falls only by 21%, as compared to that of fresh electrodes. The combinations of thermal analysis (TG-DTA) and surface analysis (XPS) convince that an ex-situ regeneration of symmetric electrode can be realized.

  9. 10 CFR 51.52 - Environmental effects of transportation of fuel and waste-Table S-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... encapsulated in zircaloy rods; (3) The average level of irradiation of the irradiated fuel from the reactor...-water-cooled nuclear power reactor, and submitted after February 4, 1975, shall contain a statement concerning transportation of fuel and radioactive wastes to and from the reactor. That statement...

  10. Conventional bio-transportation fuels : an update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uil, den H.; Bakker, R.R.C.; Deurwaarder, E.P.; Elbersen, H.W.; Weismann, M.

    2003-01-01

    Up to now renewable energy sources are primarily used in the Netherlands for electricity production. At the end of the past decade the GAVE programme started to facilitate the introduction of gaseous and liquid fuels in the post-Kyoto period (after 2010), with the potential to realize more than 80%

  11. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels 1994. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    In this report, alternative and replacement fuels are defined in accordance with the EPACT. Section 301 of the EPACT defines alternative fuels as: methanol, denatured ethanol, and other alcohols; mixtures containing 85% or more (or such other percentage, but not less than 70%, as determined by the Secretary of Energy, by rule, to provide for requirements relating to cold start, safety, or vehicle functions) by volume of methanol, denatured ethanol, and other alcohols with gasoline or other fuels; natural gas; liquefied petroleum gas; hydrogen; coal-derived liquid fuels; fuels (other than alcohol) derived from biological materials; electricity (including electricity from solar energy); and any other fuel the Secretary determines, by rule, is substantially not petroleum and would yield substantial energy security benefits and substantial environmental benefits. The EPACT defines replacement fuels as the portion of any motor fuel that is methanol, ethanol, or other alcohols, natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, hydrogen, coal-derived liquid fuels, fuels (other than alcohol) derived from biological materials, electricity (including electricity from solar energy), ethers, or any other fuel the Secretary of Energy determines, by rule, is substantially not petroleum and would yield substantial energy security benefits and substantial environmental benefits. This report covers only those alternative and replacement fuels cited in the EPACT that are currently commercially available or produced in significant quantities for vehicle demonstration purposes. Information about other fuels, such as hydrogen and biodiesel, will be included in later reports as those fuels become more widely used. Annual data are presented for 1992 to 1996. Data for 1996 are based on plans or projections for 1996.

  12. Microalgal and Terrestrial Transport Biofuels to Displace Fossil Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Reijnders

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial transport biofuels differ in their ability to replace fossil fuels. When both the conversion of solar energy into biomass and the life cycle inputs of fossil fuels are considered, ethanol from sugarcane and biodiesel from palm oil do relatively well, if compared with ethanol from corn, sugar beet or wheat and biodiesel from rapeseed. When terrestrial biofuels are to replace mineral oil-derived transport fuels, large areas of good agricultural land are needed: about 5x108 ha in the case of biofuels from sugarcane or oil palm, and at least 1.8-3.6x109 ha in the case of ethanol from wheat, corn or sugar beet, as produced in industrialized countries. Biofuels from microalgae which are commercially produced with current technologies do not appear to outperform terrestrial plants such as sugarcane in their ability to displace fossil fuels. Whether they will able to do so on a commercial scale in the future, is uncertain.

  13. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of transportation fuel from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, Energy International, the Department of Defense, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research.

  14. Equilibrium models in multimodal container transport systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corman, F.; Viti, F.; Negenborn, R.R.

    2015-01-01

    Optimizing the performance of multimodal freight transport networks involves adequately balancing the interplay between costs, volumes, times of departure and arrival, and times of travel. In order to study this interplay, we propose an assignment model that is able to efficiently determine flows an

  15. 46 CFR 169.629 - Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks... SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.629 Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks. Spaces containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks must have...

  16. HYDROGEN COMMERCIALIZATION: TRANSPORTATION FUEL FOR THE 21ST CENTURY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    APOLONIO DEL TORO

    2008-05-27

    Since 1999, SunLine Transit Agency has worked with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) to develop and test hydrogen infrastructure, fuel cell buses, a heavy-duty fuel cell truck, a fuel cell neighborhood electric vehicle, fuel cell golf carts and internal combustion engine buses operating on a mixture of hydrogen and compressed natural gas (CNG). SunLine has cultivated a rich history of testing and demonstrating equipment for leading industry manufacturers in a pre-commercial environment. Visitors to SunLine's "Clean Fuels Mall" from around the world have included government delegations and agencies, international journalists and media, industry leaders and experts and environmental and educational groups.

  17. On the generalized cost - demand elasticity of intermodal container transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jourquin, B.; Tavasszy, L.A.; Duan, L.

    2014-01-01

    Elasticities for freight transport in the context of mode choice are hardly available for markets in which intermodal container transport competes with truck only transport. These elasticities are expected to be different, however, from values found in the literature for traditional freight

  18. Neutron shielding evaluation for a small fuel transport case

    CERN Document Server

    Coeck, M; Vanhavere, F

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the effectiveness of a small neutron shield configuration for the transportation of fresh MOX fuel rods in an experimental facility, this in order to reduce the dose received by the personnel. Monte Carlo simulations using the Tripoli and MCNP4B code were applied. Different configurations were studied, starting from the bare fuel rod positioned on an iron plate up to a fuel rod covered by a box-shaped shield made of different materials such as polyethylene, polyethylene with boron and polyethylene with a cadmium layer. We compared the neutron spectra for the different cases and calculated the corresponding ambient equivalent dose rate H*(10).

  19. A smooth transition to hydrogen transportation fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, G.D.; Smith, J.R.; Schock, R.N.

    1995-04-14

    The goal of this work is to examine viable near-term infrastructure options for a transition to hydrogen fueled vehicles and to suggest profitable directions for technology development. The authors have focused in particular on the contrasting options of decentralized production using the existing energy distribution network, and centralized production of hydrogen with a large-scale infrastructure. Delivered costs have been estimated using best available industry cost and deliberately conservative economic assumptions. The sensitivities of these costs have then been examined for three small-scale scenarios: (1) electrolysis at the home for one car, and production at the small station scale (300 cars/day), (2) conventional alkaline electrolysis and (3) steam reforming of natural gas. All scenarios assume fueling a 300 mile range vehicle with 3.75 kg. They conclude that a transition appears plausible, using existing energy distribution systems, with home electrolysis providing fuel costing 7.5 to 10.5{cents}/mile, station electrolysis 4.7 to 7.1{cents}/mile, and steam reforming 3.7 to 4.7{cents}/mile. The average car today costs about 6{cents}/mile to fuel. Furthermore, analysis of liquid hydrogen delivered locally by truck from central processing plants can also be competitive at costs as low as 4{cents}/mile. These delivered costs are equal to $30 to $70 per GJ, LHV. Preliminary analysis indicates that electricity transmission costs favor this method of distributing energy, until very large (10 GW) hydrogen pipelines are installed. This indicates that significant hydrogen pipeline distribution will be established only when significant markets have developed.

  20. Railroad transportation of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooden, D.G.

    1986-03-01

    This report documents a detailed analysis of rail operations that are important for assessing the risk of transporting high-level nuclear waste. The major emphasis of the discussion is towards ''general freight'' shipments of radioactive material. The purpose of this document is to provide a basis for selecting models and parameters that are appropriate for assessing the risk of rail transportation of nuclear waste.

  1. Physical modeling of spent-nuclear-fuel container

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Liping

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A new physical simulation model was developed to simulate the casting process of the ductile iron heavy section spent-nuclear-fuel container. In this physical simulation model, a heating unit with DR24 Fe-Cr-Al heating wires was used to compensate the heat loss across the non-natural surfaces of the sample, and a precise and reliable casting temperature controlling/monitoring system was employed to ensure the thermal behavior of the simulated casting to be similar to the actual casting. Also, a mould system was designed, in which changeable mould materials can be used for both the outside and inside moulds for different applications. The casting test was carried out with the designed mould and the cooling curves of central and edge points at different isothermal planes of the casting were obtained. Results show that for most isothermal planes, the temperature control system can keep the temperature differences within 6 ℃ between the edge points and the corresponding center points, indicating that this new physical simulation model has high simulation accuracy, and the mould developed can be used for optimization of casting parameters of spent-nuclear-fuel container, such as composition of ductile iron, the pouring temperature, the selection of mould material and design of cooling system. In addition, to maintain the spheroidalization of the ductile iron, the force-chilling should be used for the current physical simulation to ensure the solidification of casting in less than 2 h.

  2. Fuel Consumption Management in the Transportation Sector in Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dastjerdi, Aliasghar M.; Araghi, Bahar Namaki

    2011-01-01

    Energy consumption in the transportation sector in Iran is significantly higher than global norms and standards which caused some issues including wasting national resources, deteriorating air quality, GHG emissions etc. The major purpose of this paper is to introduce practical policies, strategies...... and technologies to reduce liquid fuel consumption known as a dominant source of energy in transport sector in Iran. Since, the road subsector has the major share in consuming liquid fuel amongst others, more attention is given to the methods for reducing consumption in this subsector. The relating policies...... and actions were classified by optimization measures according to four separate categories as follows; “Optimization of Supply of Transportation Services”, “Optimization of Transport Demand”, “Optimization of Energy Consumption” and “Optimization of Car Manufacturing”....

  3. Off-Highway Transportation-Related Fuel Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.

    2004-05-08

    The transportation sector includes many subcategories--for example, on-highway, off-highway, and non-highway. Use of fuel for off-highway purposes is not well documented, nor is the number of off-highway vehicles. The number of and fuel usage for on-highway and aviation, marine, and rail categories are much better documented than for off-highway land-based use. Several sources document off-highway fuel use under specific conditions--such as use by application (e.g., recreation) or by fuel type (e.g., gasoline). There is, however, no single source that documents the total fuel used off-highway and the number of vehicles that use the fuel. This report estimates the fuel usage and number of vehicles/equipment for the off-highway category. No new data have been collected nor new models developed to estimate the off-highway data--this study is limited in scope to using data that already exist. In this report, unless they are being quoted from a source that uses different terminology, the terms are used as listed below. (1) ''On-highway/on-road'' includes land-based transport used on the highway system or other paved roadways. (2) ''Off-highway/off-road'' includes land-based transport not using the highway system or other paved roadways. (3) ''Non-highway/non-road'' includes other modes not traveling on highways such as aviation, marine, and rail. It should be noted that the term ''transportation'' as used in this study is not typical. Generally, ''transportation'' is understood to mean the movement of people or goods from one point to another. Some of the off-highway equipment included in this study doesn't transport either people or goods, but it has utility in movement (e.g., a forklift or a lawn mower). Along these lines, a chain saw also has utility in movement, but it cannot transport itself (i.e., it must be carried) because it does not have wheels. Therefore

  4. A methodology for the evaluation of fuel rod failures under transportation accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, J.Y.R.; Machiels, A.J. [ANATECH, San Diego, CA (United States)]|[EPRI, Palo Alto (United States)

    2004-07-01

    , with embedded failure criteria, for cladding containing various concentrations of circumferentially and radially oriented hydrides has been developed and implemented in a finite element code. The characterization of hydrides-dependent properties of high-burnup fuel cladding is the main fea-ture of this constitutive model. The third element in the overall process is to utilize this material model and its host finite element code in the structural analysis of a transportation cask subjected to bounding accident loading to cal-culate fuel rod failures and failure mode configurations. This requires detailed modeling of the transport cask and its internal structure, which include canister, basket, fuel assembly grids and fuel rods. The overall methodology is described in the paper.

  5. Mechanical Fatigue Testing of High Burnup Fuel for Transportation Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jy-An John [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wang, Hong [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This report describes testing designed to determine the ability of high burnup (HBU) (>45 GWd/MTU) spent fuel to maintain its integrity under normal conditions of transportation. An innovative system, Cyclic Integrated Reversible-bending Fatigue Tester (CIRFT), has been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to test and evaluate the mechanical behavior of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) under conditions relevant to storage and transportation. The CIRFT system is composed of a U-frame equipped with load cells for imposing the pure bending loads on the SNF rod test specimen and measuring the in-situ curvature of the fuel rod during bending using a set up with three linear variable differential transformers (LVDTs).

  6. Multiphase transport in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Eric D.

    Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) enable efficient conversion of fuels to electricity. They have enormous potential due to the high energy density of the fuels they utilize (hydrogen or alcohols). Power density is a major limitation to wide-scale introduction of PEMFCs. Power density in hydrogen fuel cells is limited by accumulation of water in what is termed fuel cell `flooding.' Flooding may occur in either the gas diffusion layer (GDL) or within the flow channels of the bipolar plate. These components comprise the electrodes of the fuel cell and balance transport of reactants/products with electrical conductivity. This thesis explores the role of electrode materials in the fuel cell and examines the fundamental connection between material properties and multiphase transport processes. Water is generated at the cathode catalyst layer. As liquid water accumulates it will utilize the largest pores in the GDL to go from the catalyst layer to the flow channels. Water collects to large pores via lateral transport at the interface between the GDL and catalyst layer. We have shown that water may be collected in these large pores from several centimeters away, suggesting that we could engineer the GDL to control flooding with careful placement and distribution of large flow-directing pores. Once liquid water is in the flow channels it forms slugs that block gas flow. The slugs are pushed along the channel by a pressure gradient that is dependent on the material wettability. The permeable nature of the GDL also plays a major role in slug growth and allowing bypass of gas between adjacent channels. Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) have analogous multiphase flow issues where carbon dioxide bubbles accumulate, `blinding' regions of the fuel cell. This problem is fundamentally similar to water management in hydrogen fuel cells but with a gas/liquid phase inversion. Gas bubbles move laterally through the porous GDL and emerge to form large bubbles within the

  7. Commercialization of proton exchange membrane fuel cells for transportation applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wismer, L.

    1996-04-01

    Environmental concerns with air quality and global warming have triggered strict federal ambient ozone air quality standards. Areas on non-attainment of these standards exist across the United States. Because it contains several of the most difficult attainment areas, the State of California has adopted low emission standards including a zero emission vehicle mandate that has given rise to development of hybrid electric vehicles, both battery-powered and fuel-cell powered. Fuel cell powered vehicles, using on-board hydrogen as a fuel, share the non-polluting advantage of the battery electric vehicle while offering at least three times the range today`s battery technology.

  8. Hydrolytic Stability of Polyurethane-Coated Fabrics Used for Collapsible Fuel Storage Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Hydrolytic Stability of Polyurethane -Coated Fabrics Used for Collapsible Fuel Storage Containers by James M. Sloan ARL-TR-6949 June 2014...Hydrolytic Stability of Polyurethane -Coated Fabrics Used for Collapsible Fuel Storage Containers James M. Sloan Weapons and Materials...From - To) October 2012–February 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Hydrolytic Stability of Polyurethane -Coated Fabrics Used for Collapsible Fuel Storage

  9. Thermal explosion in a combustible gas containing fuel droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, A. C.; Gol'dshtein, V.; Goldfarb, I.; Zinoviev, A.

    1998-06-01

    An original physical model of self-ignition in a combustible gas mixture containing liquid fuel droplets is developed. The droplets are small enough for the gas-droplet mixture to be considered as a fine mist such that individual droplet burning is subsumed into a well-stirred, spatially invariant burning approximation. A classical Semenov-type analysis is used to describe the exothermic reaction, and the endothermic terms involve the use of quasi-steady mass transfer/heat balance and the Clausius-Clapeyron evaporative law. The resulting analysis predicts the ignition delay which is a function of the system parameters. Results are given for typical dynamical regimes. The case of different initial temperatures for droplets and gas is highly relevant to gas turbine lean blow-out and re-ignition.

  10. Numerical simulation of ion transport membrane reactors: Oxygen permeation and transport and fuel conversion

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Jongsup

    2012-07-01

    Ion transport membrane (ITM) based reactors have been suggested as a novel technology for several applications including fuel reforming and oxy-fuel combustion, which integrates air separation and fuel conversion while reducing complexity and the associated energy penalty. To utilize this technology more effectively, it is necessary to develop a better understanding of the fundamental processes of oxygen transport and fuel conversion in the immediate vicinity of the membrane. In this paper, a numerical model that spatially resolves the gas flow, transport and reactions is presented. The model incorporates detailed gas phase chemistry and transport. The model is used to express the oxygen permeation flux in terms of the oxygen concentrations at the membrane surface given data on the bulk concentration, which is necessary for cases when mass transfer limitations on the permeate side are important and for reactive flow modeling. The simulation results show the dependence of oxygen transport and fuel conversion on the geometry and flow parameters including the membrane temperature, feed and sweep gas flow, oxygen concentration in the feed and fuel concentration in the sweep gas. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  11. High liquid fuel yielding biofuel processes and a roadmap for the future transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Navneet R.

    In a fossil-fuel deprived world when crude oil will be scarce and transportation need cannot be met with electricity and transportation liquid fuel must be produced, biomass derived liquid fuels can be a natural replacement. However, the carbon efficiency of the currently known biomass to liquid fuel conversion processes ranges from 35-40%, yielding 90 ethanol gallon equivalents (ege) per ton of biomass. This coupled with the fact that the efficiency at which solar energy is captured by biomass (syngas derived from coal gasification (H2Bioil-C) or a natural gas reformer (H 2Bioil-NG) is used to supply the hydrogen and process heat for the biomass fast-hydropyrolysis/hydrodeoxygenation. Another off-shoot of the H2Bioil process is the H2Bioil-B process, where hydrogen required for the hydropyrolysis is obtained from gasification of a fraction of the biomass. H2Bioil-B achieves the highest liquid fuel yield (126-146 ege/ton of biomass) reported in the literature for any self-contained conversion of biomass to biofuel. Finally, an integration of the H2Bioil process with the H2CAR process is suggested which can achieve 100% carbon efficiency (330 ege/ton of biomass) at the expense of 0.24 kg hydrogen/liter of oil. A sun-to-fuel efficiency analysis shows that extracting CO2 from air and converting it to liquid fuel is at least two times more efficient than growing dedicated fuel crops and converting them to liquid fuel even for the highest biomass growth rates feasible by algae. This implies that liquid fuel should preferably be produced from sustainably available waste (SAW) biomass first and if the SAW biomass is unable to meet the demand for liquid fuel, then, CO2 should be extracted from air and converted to liquid fuel, rather than growing biomass. Furthermore, based on the Sun-to-Wheels recovery for different transportation pathways, synergistic and complementary use of electricity, hydrogen and biomass, all derived from solar energy, is presented in an energy

  12. Russian Containers for Transportation of Solid Radioactive Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrushenko, V. G.; Baal, E. P.; Tsvetkov, D. Y.; Korb, V. R.; Nikitin, V. S.; Mikheev, A. A.; Griffith, A.; Schwab, P.; Nazarian, A.

    2002-02-28

    The Russian Shipyard ''Zvyozdochka'' has designed a new container for transportation and storage of solid radioactive wastes. The PST1A-6 container is cylindrical shaped and it can hold seven standard 200-liter (55-gallon) drums. The steel wall thickness is 6 mm, which is much greater than standard U.S. containers. These containers are fully certified to the Russian GOST requirements, which are basically identical to U.S. and IAEA standards for Type A containers. They can be transported by truck, rail, barge, ship, or aircraft and they can be stacked in 6 layers in storage facilities. The first user of the PST1A-6 containers is the Northern Fleet of the Russian Navy, under a program sponsored jointly by the U.S. DoD and DOE. This paper will describe the container design and show how the first 400 containers were fabricated and certified.

  13. Understanding the transport processes in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, May Jean

    Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells are energy conversion devices suitable for automotive, stationary and portable applications. An engineering challenge that is hindering the widespread use of PEM fuel cells is the water management issue, where either a lack of water (resulting in membrane dehydration) or an excess accumulation of liquid water (resulting in fuel cell flooding) critically reduces the PEM fuel cell performance. The water management issue is addressed by this dissertation through the study of three transport processes occurring in PEM fuel cells. Water transport within the membrane is a combination of water diffusion down the water activity gradient and the dragging of water molecules by protons when there is a proton current, in a phenomenon termed electro-osmotic drag, EOD. The impact of water diffusion and EOD on the water flux across the membrane is reduced due to water transport resistance at the vapor/membrane interface. The redistribution of water inside the membrane by EOD causes an overall increase in the membrane resistance that regulates the current and thus EOD, thereby preventing membrane dehydration. Liquid water transport in the PEM fuel cell flow channel was examined at different gas flow regimes. At low gas Reynolds numbers, drops transitioned into slugs that are subsequently pushed out of the flow channel by the gas flow. The slug volume is dependent on the geometric shape, the surface wettability and the orientation (with respect to gravity) of the flow channel. The differential pressure required for slug motion primarily depends on the interfacial forces acting along the contact lines at the front and the back of the slug. At high gas Reynolds number, water is removed as a film or as drops depending on the flow channel surface wettability. The shape of growing drops at low and high Reynolds number can be described by a simple interfacial energy minimization model. Under flooding conditions, the fuel cell local current

  14. Transport Studies and Modeling in PEM Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittelsteadt, Cortney K. [Giner, Inc., Auburndale, MA (United States); Xu, Hui [Giner, Inc., Auburndale, MA (United States); Brawn, Shelly [Giner, Inc., Auburndale, MA (United States)

    2014-07-30

    This project’s aim was to develop fuel cell components (i.e. membranes, gas-diffusion media (GDM), bipolar plates and flow fields) that possess specific properties (i.e. water transport and conductivity). A computational fluid dynamics model was developed to elucidate the effect of certain parameters on these specific properties. Ultimately, the model will be used to determine sensitivity of fuel cell performance to component properties to determine limiting components and to guide research. We have successfully reached our objectives and achieved most of the milestones of this project. We have designed and synthesized a variety of hydrocarbon block polymer membranes with lower equivalent weight, structure, chemistry, phase separation and process conditions. These membranes provide a broad selection with optimized water transport properties. We have also designed and constructed a variety of devices that are capable of accurately measuring the water transport properties (water uptake, water diffusivity and electro-osmatic drag) of these membranes. These transport properties are correlated to the membranes’ structures derived from X-ray and microscopy techniques to determine the structure-property relationship. We successfully integrated hydrocarbon membrane MEAs with a current distribution board (CBD) to study the impact of hydrocarbon membrane on water transport in fuel cells. We have designed and fabricated various GDM with varying substrate, diffusivity and micro-porous layers (MPL) and characterized their pore structure, tortuosity and hydrophobicity. We have derived a universal chart (MacMullin number as function of wet proofing and porosity) that can be used to characterize various GDM. The abovementioned GDMs have been evaluated in operating fuel cells; their performance is correlated to various pore structure, tortuosity and hydrophobicity of the GDM. Unfortunately, determining a universal relationship between the MacMullin number and these properties

  15. Alternatives for managing wastes from reactors and post-fission operations in the LWR fuel cycle. Volume 3. Alternatives for interim storage and transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-05-01

    Volume III of the five-volume report contains information on alternatives for interim storage and transportation. Section titles are: interim storage of spent fuel elements; interim storage of chop-leach fuel bundle residues; tank storage of high-level liquid waste; interim storage of solid non-high-level wastes; interim storage of solidified high-level waste; and, transportation alternatives. (JGB)

  16. Oil Price Uncertainty, Transport Fuel Demand and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ling-Yun; Yang, Sheng; Chang, Dongfeng

    2017-01-01

    Based on the panel data of 306 cities in China from 2002 to 2012, this paper investigates China’s road transport fuel (i.e., gasoline and diesel) demand system by using the Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS) and the Quadratic AIDS (QUAIDS) models. The results indicate that own-price elasticities for different vehicle categories range from −1.215 to −0.459 (by AIDS) and from −1.399 to −0.369 (by QUAIDS). Then, this study estimates the air pollution emissions (CO, NOx and PM2.5) and public health damages from the road transport sector under different oil price shocks. Compared to the base year 2012, results show that a fuel price rise of 30% can avoid 1,147,270 tonnes of pollution emissions; besides, premature deaths and economic losses decrease by 16,149 cases and 13,817.953 million RMB yuan respectively; while based on the non-linear health effect model, the premature deaths and total economic losses decrease by 15,534 and 13,291.4 million RMB yuan respectively. Our study combines the fuel demand and health evaluation models and is the first attempt to address how oil price changes influence public health through the fuel demand system in China. Given its serious air pollution emission and substantial health damages, this paper provides important insights for policy makers in terms of persistent increasing in fuel consumption and the associated health and economic losses. PMID:28257076

  17. Safety assessment of ammonia as a transport fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duijm, N.J.; Markert, F.; Lundtang paulsen, Jette

    2005-02-01

    This report describes the safety study performed as part of the EU supported project 'Ammonia Cracking for Clean Electric Power Technology' The study addresses the following activities: safety of operation of the ammonia-powered vehicle under normal and accident (collision) conditions, safety of transport of ammonia to the refuelling stations and safety of the activities at the refuelling station (unloading and refuelling). Comparisons are made between the safety of using ammonia and the safety of other existing or alternative fuels. The conclusion is that the hazards in relation to ammonia need to be controlled by a combination of technical and regulatory measures. The most important requirements are: - Advanced safety systems in the vehicle - Additional technical measures and regulations are required to avoid releases in maintenance workshops and unauthorised maintenance on the fuel system - Road transport of ammonia to refuelling stations in refrigerated form - Sufficient safety zones between refuelling stations and residential or otherwise public areas. When these measures are applied, the use of ammonia as a transport fuel wouldnt cause more risks than currently used fuels (using current practice). (au)

  18. A Preliminary Evaluation of Using Fill Materials to Stabilize Used Nuclear Fuel During Storage and Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheras, Steven J.; Best, Ralph; Ross, Steven B.; Lahti, Erik A.; Richmond, David J.

    2012-08-01

    This report contains a preliminary evaluation of potential fill materials that could be used to fill void spaces in and around used nuclear fuel contained in dry storage canisters in order to stabilize the geometry and mechanical structure of the used nuclear fuel during extended storage and transportation after extended storage. Previous work is summarized, conceptual descriptions of how canisters might be filled were developed, and requirements for potential fill materials were developed. Elements of the requirements included criticality avoidance, heat transfer or thermodynamic properties, homogeneity and rheological properties, retrievability, material availability and cost, weight and radiation shielding, and operational considerations. Potential fill materials were grouped into 5 categories and their properties, advantages, disadvantages, and requirements for future testing were discussed. The categories were molten materials, which included molten metals and paraffin; particulates and beads; resins; foams; and grout. Based on this analysis, further development of fill materials to stabilize used nuclear fuel during storage and transportation is not recommended unless options such as showing that the fuel remains intact or canning of used nuclear fuel do not prove to be feasible.

  19. Assessment of the environmental benefits of transport and stationary fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauen, A.; Hart, D. [Energy-Environment Policy Group, TH Huxley School, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)

    2000-03-01

    Fuel cells (FCs) offer significant environmental benefits over competing technologies and hence the environment is a strong driving force behind the development of FC systems for transport and stationary applications. This paper provides a comprehensive comparison of FC and competing systems, and points out strengths and weaknesses of the different FC systems, suggesting areas for improvement. The results presented build on earlier work [D. Hart, G. Hoermandinger, Initial assessment of the environmental characteristics of fuel cells and competing technologies, ETSU F/02/00111/REP/1, ETSU, Harwell, UK, 1997.] and provide a detailed analysis of a wider range of systems, The analysis takes the form of a model, which compares system emissions (global, regional and local pollutants) and energy consumption on a full fuel cycle basis. It considers a variety of primary energy sources, intermediate fuel supply steps and FC systems for transport and stationary end-uses. These are compared with alternative systems for transport and stationary applications. Energy and pollutant emission reductions of FC systems compared to alternative vehicle technology vary considerably, though all FC technologies show reduction in energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions of at least 20%; as well as reductions of several orders of magnitude in regulated pollutants compared to the base-case vehicle. The location of emissions is also of importance, with most emissions in the case of FC vehicles occurring in the fuel supply stage. The energy, CO{sub 2} and regulated emissions advantages of FC systems for distributed and baseload electricity are more consistent than for transport applications, with reductions in regulated pollutants generally larger than one order of magnitude compared to competing technologies. For CHP applications, the advantages of FC systems with regard to regulated pollutants remain large. However, energy and CO{sub 2} emission advantages are reduced, depending largely on the

  20. Making alcohol fuels for transportation via biomass gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannula, I. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)], email: ilkka.hannula@vtt.fi

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this project was to examine and identify process configurations that prove most promising for the largescale production of transportation fuels via biomass gasification. Special attention was given to the production of alcohol fuels. Other objectives of the project included: reviewing the status of biomass-to-syngas technology in the US, strengthening of networks between Finland and the US in the area of biomass gasification, deepening VTT's process evaluation know-how in the biomass-to-liquids area, and investigation of availability and gasification properties of selected North American agricultural residues and energy crops.

  1. Transport of MOX fuel from Europe to Japan; Transport de combustible mox d' Europe vers le Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The MOX fuel transports from Europe to Japan represent a main part in the implementing of the Japan nuclear program. They complement the 160 transports of spent fuels realized from Japan to Europe and the vitrified residues return from France to Japan. In this framework the document presents the MOX fuel, the use of the MOX fuel in reactor, the proliferation risks, the MOX fuel transport to Japan, the public health, the transport regulations, the safety and the civil liability. (A.L.B.)

  2. Water footprint of U.S. transportation fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scown, Corinne D; Horvath, Arpad; McKone, Thomas E

    2011-04-01

    In the modern global economy, water and energy are fundamentally connected. Water already plays a major role in electricity generation and, with biofuels and electricity poised to gain a significant share of the transportation fuel market, water will become significantly more important for transportation energy as well. This research provides insight into the potential changes in water use resulting from increased biofuel or electricity production for transportation energy, as well as the greenhouse gas and freshwater implications. It is shown that when characterizing the water impact of transportation energy, incorporating indirect water use and defensible allocation techniques have a major impact on the final results, with anywhere between an 82% increase and a 250% decrease in the water footprint if evaporative losses from hydroelectric power are excluded. The greenhouse gas impact results indicate that placing cellulosic biorefineries in areas where water must be supplied using alternative means, such as desalination, wastewater recycling, or importation can increase the fuel's total greenhouse gas footprint by up to 47%. The results also show that the production of ethanol and petroleum fuels burden already overpumped aquifers, whereas electricity production is far less dependent on groundwater.

  3. Fuel Cell System for Transportation -- 2005 Cost Estimate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, D.

    2006-10-01

    Independent review report of the methodology used by TIAX to estimate the cost of producing PEM fuel cells using 2005 cell stack technology. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Manager asked the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to commission an independent review of the 2005 TIAX cost analysis for fuel cell production. The NREL Systems Integrator is responsible for conducting independent reviews of progress toward meeting the DOE Hydrogen Program (the Program) technical targets. An important technical target of the Program is the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell cost in terms of dollars per kilowatt ($/kW). The Program's Multi-Year Program Research, Development, and Demonstration Plan established $125/kW as the 2005 technical target. Over the last several years, the Program has contracted with TIAX, LLC (TIAX) to produce estimates of the high volume cost of PEM fuel cell production for transportation use. Since no manufacturer is yet producing PEM fuel cells in the quantities needed for an initial hydrogen-based transportation economy, these estimates are necessary for DOE to gauge progress toward meeting its targets. For a PEM fuel cell system configuration developed by Argonne National Laboratory, TIAX estimated the total cost to be $108/kW, based on assumptions of 500,000 units per year produced with 2005 cell stack technology, vertical integration of cell stack manufacturing, and balance-of-plant (BOP) components purchased from a supplier network. Furthermore, TIAX conducted a Monte Carlo analysis by varying ten key parameters over a wide range of values and estimated with 98% certainty that the mean PEM fuel cell system cost would be below DOE's 2005 target of $125/kW. NREL commissioned DJW TECHNOLOGY, LLC to form an Independent Review Team (the Team) of industry fuel cell experts and to evaluate the cost estimation process and the results reported by TIAX. The results of

  4. Real-time hiring of vehicles for container transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, J.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    This study concerns the deployment of large numbers of container transporting vehicles on a network consisting of (dedicated) roads and logistic sites such as container terminals. Each site is managed autonomously by a site manager. The fleet of vehicles is deployed by a fleet manager. On request of

  5. Liquefied natural gas as a transportation fuel for heavy-duty trucks: Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This document contains Volume 1 of a three-volume manual designed for use with a 2- to 3-day liquefied natural gas (LNG) training course. Transportation and off-road agricultural, mining, construction, and industrial applications are discussed. This volume provides a brief introduction to the physics and chemistry of LNG; an overview of several ongoing LNG projects, economic considerations, LNG fuel station technology, LNG vehicles, and a summary of federal government programs that encourage conversion to LNG.

  6. TECHNOLOGY FOR EFFICIENT USAGE OF HYDROCARBON-CONTAINING WASTE IN PRODUCTION OF MULTI-COMPONENT SOLID FUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Khroustalev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers modern approaches to usage of hydrocarbon-containing waste as energy resources and presents description of investigations, statistic materials, analysis results on formation of hydrocarbon-containing waste in the Republic of Belarus. Main problems pertaining to usage of waste as a fuel and technologies for their application have been given in the paper. The paper describes main results of the investigations and a method for efficient application of viscous hydrocarbon-containing waste as an energy-packed component and a binding material while producing a solid fuel. A technological scheme, a prototype industrial unit which are necessary to realize a method for obtaining multi-component solid fuel are represented in the paper. A paper also provides a model of technological process with efficient sequence of technological operations and parameters of optimum component composition. Main factors exerting significant structure-formation influence in creation of structural composition of multi-component solid fuel have been presented in the paper. The paper gives a graphical representation of the principle for selection of mixture particles of various coarseness to form a solid fuel while using a briquetting method and comprising viscous hydrocarbon-containing waste. A dependence of dimensionless concentration g of emissions into atmosphere during burning of two-component solid fuel has been described in the paper. The paper analyzes an influence of the developed methodology for emission calculation of multi-component solid fuels and reveals a possibility to optimize the component composition in accordance with ecological function and individual peculiar features of fuel-burning equipment. Special features concerning storage and transportation, advantages and disadvantages, comparative characteristics, practical applicability of the developed multi-component solid fuel have been considered and presented in the paper. The paper

  7. Modeling of molecular and particulate transport in dry spent nuclear fuel canisters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, Andrew M.

    2007-09-01

    The transportation and storage of spent nuclear fuel is one of the prominent issues facing the commercial nuclear industry today, as there is still no general consensus regarding the near- and long-term strategy for managing the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle. The debate continues over whether the fuel cycle should remain open, in which case spent fuel will be stored at on-site reactor facilities, interim facilities, or a geologic repository; or if the fuel cycle should be closed, in which case spent fuel will be recycled. Currently, commercial spent nuclear fuel is stored at on-site reactor facilities either in pools or in dry storage containers. Increasingly, spent fuel is being moved to dry storage containers due to decreased costs relative to pools. As the number of dry spent fuel containers increases and the roles they play in the nuclear fuel cycle increase, more regulations will be enacted to ensure that they function properly. Accordingly, they will have to be carefully analyzed for normal conditions, as well as any off-normal conditions of concern. This thesis addresses the phenomena associated with one such concern; the formation of a microscopic through-wall breach in a dry storage container. Particular emphasis is placed on the depressurization of the canister, release of radioactivity, and plugging of the breach due to deposition of suspended particulates. The depressurization of a dry storage container upon the formation of a breach depends on the temperature and quantity of the fill gas, the pressure differential across the breach, and the size of the breach. The first model constructed in this thesis is capable of determining the depressurization time for a breached container as long as the associated parameters just identified allow for laminar flow through the breach. The parameters can be manipulated to quantitatively determine their effect on depressurization. This model is expanded to account for the presence of suspended particles. If

  8. Direct methanol-air fuel cells for road transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNicol, B.D. [The Beeches, Kelsall (United Kingdom); Rand, D.A.J. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Clayton, VIC (Australia); Williams, K.R. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Science

    1999-10-01

    The direct methanol-air fuel cell is reviewed with special attention to its use in road transportation applications. The history of the technology is discussed and the various problems associated with its commercial development are assessed, in particular the mechanisms of the electrode reactions, the development of effective catalysts, and the possible electrolytes which can be used. The barriers to successful commercialization are reviewed and suggestions for future work are given. (orig.)

  9. A Review on Sabotage against Transportation of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Sungyeol; Lim, Jihwan [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    This report assesses the risk of routine transportation including cask response to an impact or fire accidents. In addition, we have still found the non-negligible difference among the studies for scenarios, approaches, and data. In order to evaluate attack cases on the same basis and reflect more realistic situations, at this moment, it is worthwhile to thoroughly review and analyze the existing studies and to suggest further development directions. In Section 2, we compare scenarios of terror attacks against spent fuel storage and transportation. Section 3 compares target scenarios, capabilities, and limitations of assessment methods. In addition, we collect and compare modeling data used for previous studies to analyze gaps and uncertainties in the existing studies. According to the long term management strategy for spent fuels in Korea, they will be transported from the spent fuel pools in each nuclear power plant to the central interim storage facility. The government should not be the only ones contributing to this dialogue. This dialogue that needs to happen should work both ways, with the government presenting their information and statistics and the public relaying their concerns for the government to review.

  10. The petroleum, natural gas and bio fuel transportation; O transporte de petroleo, gas natural e biocombustiveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Diego Varela; Campos, Carlos Hebert

    2011-01-15

    The paper expose on the activity of petroleum, natural gas and bio fuels transportation, outlining the transportation means used by the petroleum industry. After that, analyses the importance and the economic relevance of the Transpetro. Yet, proceeds an examination of the transportation activity under a constitutional optics, based on the EC 9/95; a legal optic, from the Petroleum Law (Law 9478/97) and some other legal documents related to the theme. Finally, presents the importance that the Law of Natural Gas (Law 11909/09) brought for that activity, by making possible that the natural gas transportation can also be effectuated through the Concession.

  11. Transport systems - solid indigenous fuels. [Identification of fuel transport problems in Sweden]. Transportsystem foer fasta inhemska braenslen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colliander, J.

    1985-12-01

    The following problems have been indentified: - A rational structure of transporting requires an established and relatively open market. - The necessary rolling stock for fuel conveyance by rail is not available. - Roads have to be improved and new roads have to be built. Railways with low load now might get a motivation for reinforcement. - Because of the irregular spread of consumption storing and terminals problems will arise and increase the cost of transport. - Terminals and stores are situated at a convenient place for one single enterprice. On a far-away aim this will not be rational.

  12. Deep removal of 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene from model transportation diesel fuels over reactive adsorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengqiang Wang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new reactive adsorbent used to effectively remove 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene (4,6-DMDBT from model transportation diesel fuels. This reactive adsorbent was composed of formaldehyde, phosphotungstic acid and mesoporous silica gel. The experiment was based on an assumed condensation reaction of 4,6-DMDBT with formaldehyde using phosphotungstic acid as catalyst in pore spaces. The effect of temperature and the amount of formaldehyde and phosphotungstic acid loaded on the substrate were investigated in a batch system. In the breakthrough experiment, three different model diesel fuels containing 1000 mg/kg 4,6-DMDBT were pumped through a fixed-bed reactor packed with reactive adsorbent at constant temperature and atmospheric pressure, respectively. The experimental results showed that sulfur-free model fuel was obtained at 80ºC despite the presence of aromatics. The sulfur capacity of regenerated reactive adsorbent was almost totally recovered.

  13. Spent fuel disassembly and canning programs at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP). [For storage or transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Townes, III, George A.

    1980-10-01

    Methods of disassembling and canning spent fuel to allow more efficient storage are being investigated at the BNFP. Studies and development programs are aimed at dry disassembly of fuel to allow storage and shipment of fuel pins rather than complete fuel assemblies. Results indicate that doubling existing storage capacity or tripling the carrying capacity of existing transportation equipment is achievable. Disassembly could be performed in the BNFP hot cells at rates of about 12 to 15 assemblies per day.

  14. Understanding of ammonia transport in PEM fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Myunghee

    This dissertation investigates ammonia (NH3) as a fuel contaminant to the anode in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs). Since NH 3 is fed to the anode in a gas phase and transferred to the cathode, the effect of a contaminant is distributed through MEA and quite complicated. This study is focused on the investigation of mechanism of NH3 transport and the isolation of multiple effects to degrade the performance of fuel cell. An External Reference Electrode (ERE) was employed to decouple the effect of individual electrode and explain the mechanism of NH3 contamination. A mechanism of NH3 transport is proposed and supported by data for various inlet conditions in a N2/N2 laboratory-scale fuel cell at Open Circuit Conditions (OCC). With a commercialized GORE(TM) PRIMEA RTM 5631 MEAs at 70°C, data were obtained utilizing a material balance technique, which uses an ion selective electrode (ISE) to determine the concentration of ammonium ion in the process streams. The results indicate that ammonia is not transported across the membrane when the feeds to both electrodes are dry. However, with humidified feeds ammonia was transported from the anode to the cathode. The data also indicate the water content of in the MEA is the critical factor that causes NH3 crossover in the MEA. Diffusion coefficients of NH3 in MEA are also calculated at different relative humilities. An ERE was developed for PEM fuel cell by using a NafionRTM strip which was used to understand contamination mechanism. The voltage of anode electrode relative to ERE was measured during a polarization curve. The data showed the measurement of individual electrode potential was extremely affected by the misalignment between two electrodes. We compare the overpotential measured from the reference electrode and the calculated overpotential from subtracting the cell voltages between neat hydrogen and a 25 ppm CO in H 2 stream at same current. The studies indicated that the overpotentials obtained from

  15. A Review of Removable Surface Contamination on Radioactive Materials Transportation Containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, Jr, W. E.; Watson, E. C.; Murphy, D. W.; Harrer, B. J.; Harty, R.; Aldrich, J. M.

    1981-05-01

    This report contains the results of a study sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) of removable surface contamination on radioactive materials transportation containers. The purpose of the study is to provide information to the NRC during their review of existing regulations. Data was obtained from both industry and literature on three major topics: 1) radiation doses, 2) economic costs, and 3) contamination frequencies. Containers for four categories of radioactive materials are considered including radiopharmaceuticals, industrial sources, nuclear fuel cycle materials, and low-level radioactive waste. Assumptions made in this study use current information to obtain realistic yet conservative estimates of radiation dose and economic costs. Collective and individual radiation doses are presented for each container category on a per container basis. Total doses, to workers and the public, are also presented for spent fuel cask and low-level waste drum decontamination. Estimates of the additional economic costs incurred by lowering current limits by factors of 10 and 100 are presented. Current contamination levels for each category of container are estimated from the data collected. The information contained in this report is designed to be useful to the NRC in preparing their recommendations for new regulations.

  16. Fission product tellurium chemistry from fuel to containment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFarlane, J. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, MB (Canada). Whiteshell Labs.

    1996-12-01

    Chemical equilibrium calculations were performed on the speciation of tellurium in-core and inside the primary heat transport system (PHTS) under loss-of-coolant accident conditions. Data from recent Knudsen-cell experiments on the volatilization of Cs{sub 2}Te were incorporated into the calculation. These data were used to recalculate thermodynamic quantities for Cs{sub 2}Te(g), including {Delta}{sub f}G{sup o}(298 K)= -118{+-}9 kJ.mol{sup -1}. The description of the condensed high-temperature cesium-tellurium phase was expanded to include Cs{sub 2}Te{sub 3}(c) in addition to Cs{sub 2}Te(c). These modifications were incorporated into the database used in the equilibrium calculations; the net effect was to stabilize the condensed cesium-tellurium phase and reduce the vapour pressure of Cs{sub 2}Te(g) between 1200 and 1600 K. The impact of tellurium speciation in containment, after release from the PHTS, is discussed along with the possible effect of tellurium on iodine chemistry. (author) 10 figs., 5 tabs., 21 refs.

  17. Addressing the Need for Alternative Transportation Fuels: The Joint BioEnergy Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanch, Harvey; Adams, Paul; Andrews-Cramer, Katherine; Frommer, Wolf; Simmons, Blake; Keasling, Jay

    2008-01-18

    Today, carbon-rich fossil fuels, primarily oil, coal, and natural gas, provide 85% of the energy consumed in the U.S. As world demand increases, oil reserves may become rapidly depleted. Fossil fuel use increases CO{sub 2} emissions and raises the risk of global warming. The high energy content of liquid hydrocarbon fuels makes them the preferred energy source for all modes of transportation. In the U.S. alone, transportation consumes >13.8 million barrels of oil per day and generates 0.5 gigatons of carbon per year. This release of greenhouse gases has spurred research into alternative, nonfossil energy sources. Among the options (nuclear, concentrated solar thermal, geothermal, hydroelectric, wind, solar, and biomass), only biomass has the potential to provide a high-energy-content transportation fuel. Biomass is a renewable resource that can be converted into carbon-neutral transporation fuels. Currently, biofuels such as ethanol are produced largely from grains, but there is a large, untapped resource (estimated at more than a billion tons per year) of plant biomass that could be utilized as a renewable, domestic source of liquid fuels. Well-established processes convert the starch content of the grain into sugars that can be fermented to ethanol. The energy efficiency of starch-based biofuels is however not optimal, while plant cell walls (lignocellulose) represent a huge untapped source of energy. Plant-derived biomass contains cellulose, which is more difficult to convert to sugars; hemicellulose, which contains a diversity of carbohydrates that have to be efficiently degraded by microorganisms to fuels; and lignin, which is recalcitrant to degradation and prevents cost-effective fermentation. The development of cost-effective and energy-efficient processes to transform lignocellulosic biomass into fuels is hampered by significant roadblocks, including the lack of specifically developed energy crops, the difficulty in separating biomass components, low

  18. Safety assessment of ammonia as a transport fuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duijm, N.J.; Markert, Frank; Paulsen, Jette Lundtang

    2005-01-01

    of transport of ammonia to the refuelling stations and safety of the activities at the refuelling station (unloading and refuelling). Comparisons are made between the safety of using ammonia and the safety of otherexisting or alternative fuels. The conclusion is that the hazards in relation to ammonia need......This report describes the safety study performed as part of the EU supported project “Ammonia Cracking for Clean Electric Power Technology” The study addresses the following activities: safety of operation of the ammonia-powered vehicle under normal andaccident (collision) conditions, safety...... to be controlled by a combination of technical and regulatory measures. The most important requirements are: - Advanced safety systems in the vehicle -Additional technical measures and regulations are required to avoid releases in maintenance workshops and unauthorised maintenance on the fuel system. - Road...

  19. Lift-based up-ender and methods using same to manipulate a shipping container containing unirradiated nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilles, Michael J.

    2017-08-01

    A shipping container containing an unirradiated nuclear fuel assembly is lifted off the ground by operating a crane to raise a lifting tool comprising a winch. The lifting tool is connected with the shipping container by a rigging line connecting with the shipping container at a lifting point located on the shipping container between the top and bottom of the shipping container, and by winch cabling connecting with the shipping container at the top of the shipping container. The shipping container is reoriented by operating the winch to adjust the length of the winch cabling so as to rotate the shipping container about the lifting point. Shortening the winch cabling rotates the shipping container about the lifting point from a horizontal orientation to a vertical orientation, while lengthening the winch cabling rotates the shipping container about the lifting point from the vertical orientation to the horizontal orientation.

  20. Fission products and structural materials release, transport and containment behaviour in Phebus FPT-0 and FPT-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanniet, N.; Garnier, Y.; Jacquemain, D. [Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire - IPSN, Departement de Recherches en Securite - DRS, CEA Cadarache - F 13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)

    1999-07-01

    The Phebus F.P. program is a wide international effort to investigate, through a series of in-pile integral experiments, LWR severe accident phenomena, in particular bundle degradation and the subsequent release and transport of radioactive materials up to the containment. Two tests simulating a low pressure cold leg break under a steam rich environment have already been successfully performed: FPT-0 in December 1993 with trace irradiated fuel and FPT-1 in July 1996 with re-irradiated BR3 fuel. Both tests have provided experimental data of high interest, particularly in the field of fission products and structural materials release from the fuel bundle, transport in the reactor coolant system (RCS) and behaviour in the containment. The analysis of FPT-1 is currently in progress, nevertheless main observations made for FPT-10 are confirmed by first FPT-1 results, i.e.: - the main mass transport phases through the RCS correspond to bundle degradation events (fuel oxidation, material re-location, pool formation); - significant amount of gaseous iodine are injected in the model containment during bundle oxidation phases; - the aerosols are multi-component with the structural materials dominant in mass; - the retention is low in the RCS pipes but aerosol deposition on containment walls is significant; - the containment sump chemistry is marked by aerosol material dissolution and the resulting iodine trapping by silver. Those results are described in some detail in the following paper. (author)

  1. Study of droplet size and velocity of fuel containing CO2 spray by means of PDA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Jin; QIAO Xinqi; HUANG Zhen; FANG Junhua

    2004-01-01

    Injection of fuel containing CO2 has potential to reduce NOx and soot emissions in a diesel engine. This paper presents an experimental study on the spray characteristics of fuel containing CO2 as measured by phase doppler anemometry (PDA). Experiments were performed under atmospheric conditions on diesel hole-type nozzles at constant injection pressure. Effects of CO2 concentration in diesel fuel on the spray pattern, droplet size and velocity were measured. Experimental results show that fuel atomization will improve greatly when the concentration of dissolved CO2 in the fuel exceeds the critical value. The axial and radial velocity of the fuel spray containing CO2 is larger than that of conventional diesel fuel spray near the nozzle exit due to flash boiling phenomena. Downstream of the spray, the radial velocity and droplet size of fuel containing CO2 is much more uniform and smaller than that of pure diesel spray. It is attributed to the greatly enhanced liquid-gas mixing resulting from flash separation of CO2 from the liquid. New insight into the atomization of the fuel containing CO2 was obtained and a possible mechanism to explain the phenomena was proposed. The method may be developed into a new technique for controlling diesel combustion and exhaust emissions.

  2. Integrated process for the catalytic conversion of biomass-derived syngas into transportation fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagle, Vanessa Lebarbier; Smith, Colin; Flake, Matthew; Albrecht, Karl O.; Gray, Michel J.; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Dagle, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Efficient synthesis of renewable fuels that will enable cost competitiveness with petroleum-derived fuels remains a grand challenge for U.S. scientists. In this paper, we report on an integrated catalytic approach for producing transportation fuels from biomass-derived syngas. The composition of the resulting hydrocarbon fuel can be modulated to meet specified requirements. Biomass-derived syngas is first converted over an Rh-based catalyst into a complex aqueous mixture of condensable C2+ oxygenated compounds (predominantly ethanol, acetic acid, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate). This multi-component aqueous mixture then is fed to a second reactor loaded with a ZnxZryOz mixed oxide catalyst, which has tailored acid-base sites, to produce an olefin mixture rich in isobutene. The olefins then are oligomerized using a solid acid catalyst (e.g., Amberlyst-36) to form condensable olefins with molecular weights that can be targeted for gasoline, jet, and/or diesel fuel applications. The product rich in long-chain olefins (C7+) is finally sent to a fourth reactor that is needed for hydrogenation of the olefins into paraffin fuels. Simulated distillation of the hydrotreated oligomerized liquid product indicates that ~75% of the hydrocarbons present are in the jet-fuel range. Process optimization for the oligomerization step could further improve yield to the jet-fuel range. All of these catalytic steps have been demonstrated in sequence, thus providing proof-of-concept for a new integrated process for the production of drop-in biofuels. This unique and flexible process does not require external hydrogen and also could be applied to non-syngas derived feedstock, such as fermentation products (e.g., ethanol, acetic acid, etc.), other oxygenates, and mixtures thereof containing alcohols, acids, aldehydes and/or esters.

  3. Integrated hedging and network planning for container shipping's bunker fuel management

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoyu Wang; Chee-Chong Teo

    2013-01-01

    Bunker fuel costs could account for 50–60 per cent of a ship's total operating cost in times of high fuel prices. The volatility of the bunker market over recent years has contributed to significant instability of cash flows for shipping lines. In this study, we consider two of the bunker fuel risk management measures employed by container shipping companies to reduce bunker fuel price risk – re-planning of network configuration and financial hedging of bunker fuel prices. The current industr...

  4. Upgrading of waste oils into transportation fuels using hydrotreating technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudipta De

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The generation of organic waste continues to increase, causing severe environmental pollution. Waste valorization is currently an emerging technology that can address this problem with an extra benefit of producing a range of valued products. In this contribution, we report the current developments in hydrotreating technologies for upgrading waste oil fractions into usable transportation fuels. Particular focus is given on the catalysts selection for a general hydroprocessing technique as well as the competitive role of those catalysts in hydrotreating and hydrocracking processes.

  5. the influence of the urban transport system in java on city fuel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nick

    2013-07-02

    Jul 2, 2013 ... population size has low correlation with fuel consumption/capita. Higher population size does not ... Bureau of Statistics and fuel consumption data obtained from the ..... Society for Transportation Studies, Vol. 7,. 1250-1265. 2.

  6. Basic Research Needs for Clean and Efficient Combustion of 21st Century Transportation Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIlroy, A.; McRae, G.; Sick, V.; Siebers, D. L.; Westbrook, C. K.; Smith, P. J.; Taatjes, C.; Trouve, A.; Wagner, A. F.; Rohlfing, E.; Manley, D.; Tully, F.; Hilderbrandt, R.; Green, W.; Marceau, D.; O' Neal, J.; Lyday, M.; Cebulski, F.; Garcia, T. R.; Strong, D.

    2006-11-01

    To identify basic research needs and opportunities underlying utilization of evolving transportation fuels, with a focus on new or emerging science challenges that have the potential for significant long-term impact on fuel efficiency and emissions.

  7. Natural Gas Container Transportation: the Alternative Way to Solve the World’s Energy Transportation Problems

    OpenAIRE

    A.M. Shendrik; M.I. Fyk

    2014-01-01

    The container gas transportation for low and medium level consumers as an alternative to pipelines is considered. The options for gas supply schemes, based on road and rail transport are given. The advantages and disadvantages of both types of gas transporting are described, the areas of their effective using are separated in the article. Promising implementations of technology in environment of economic crisis and also considering world trends of energy development are presented. The most ad...

  8. Experience of IEA-R1 research reactor spent fuel transportation back to United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frajndlich, Roberto [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Div. de Operacao do Reator IEAR-R1m]. E-mail: frajndli@net.ipen.br; Perrotta, Jose A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Div.de Engenharia do Nucleo]. E-mail: perrotta@net.ipen.br; Maiorino, Jose Rubens [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Diretoria de Reatores]. E-mail: maiorino@net.ipen.br; Soares, Adalberto Jose [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Reatores]. E-mail: ajsoares@net.ipen.br

    1998-07-01

    IPEN/CNEN-SP is sending the IEA-R1 Research Reactor spent fuels from USA origin back to this country. This paper describes the experience in organizing the negotiations, documents and activities to perform the transport. Subjects as cask licensing, transport licensing and fuel failure criteria for transportation are presented. (author)

  9. Energy analysis and break-even distance for transportation for biofuels in comparison to fossil fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the present analysis various forms fuel from biomass and fossil sources, their mass and energy densities, and their break-even transportation distances to transport them effectively were analyzed. This study gives an insight on how many times more energy spent on transporting the fuels to differe...

  10. Modelling of radiation field around spent fuel container

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kryuchkov, EF; Opalovsky, VA; Tikhomirov, GV

    2005-01-01

    Operation of nuclear reactors leads to the production of spent nuclear fuel (SNF). There are two basic strategies of SNF management: ultimate disposal of SNF in geological formations and recycle or repeated utilisation of reprocessed SNF. In both options, there is an urgent necessity to study radiat

  11. Mathematical structure of ocean container transport systems; Kaiyo container yuso system no suriteki kozo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinkai, A. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Chikushi, Y. [Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Mathematical structure of a vessel arrangement program was discussed in order to learn roles of container ships in ocean transport systems among China, NIES/ASEAN countries and Japan. Formulation is possible on a mathematical handling method for sailing route connection diagrams between ports, a transport network to indicate container movements, a service network to indicate sailing routes, and a network generalizing them. This paper describes an analysis made on the container transport system between Japan and China, taken as an example. Four ports were selected each from Japan and China, and the statistical database for fiscals 1996 and 1994 was utilized to set models for: (a) the liner network system with transshipment at the port of Shanghai and (b) the cruising route system going through the ports of Yokohama, Nagoya and Kobe. A hypothesis was set that a consortium (coordinated ship allocation) can be implemented ideally and completely. The transport network (a) is lower by 10% in total cost than the transport network (b), resulting in 1.6 times greater productivity. Actual service network is closer to the network (b), but the system can be utilized for discussing guidelines on vessel arrangement programs with which shipping companies pursue better management efficiency under a condition that the consortium can be formed. 10 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of transportation fuel from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, Energy International, the Department of Defense, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the first six months of the subject contract (DE-FC26-02NT-4159), from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003.

  13. C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2005-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center (Tank & Automotive Command--TACOM), and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the six months of the subject contract from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The results are presented in thirteen detailed reports on research projects headed by various faculty members at each of the five CFFS Universities. Additionally, an Executive Summary has been prepared that summarizes the principal results of all of these projects during the six-month reporting period.

  14. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2004-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center (Tank & Automotive Command--TACOM), and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the six months of the subject contract from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The results are presented in thirteen detailed reports on research projects headed by various faculty members at each of the five CFFS Universities. Additionally, an Executive Summary has been prepared that summarizes the principal results of all of these projects during the six-month reporting period.

  15. Which is a better transportation fuel – butanol or ethanol ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth R. Szulczyk

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines butanol and ethanol as transportation fuels for gasoline-powered engines. This paper examines two aspects. First, the fuel properties of butanol and ethanol are examined and compared to each other. Consequently, butanol overcomes three deficiencies of ethanol. Butanol has a higher energy content, butanol-gasoline blends do not separate in the presence of water, and butanol can be blended with gasoline in any percentage, all the way up to 100%. Second, a review of the fermentation technology is examined for both butanol and ethanol production. Both butanol and ethanol can be fermented from the same feedstocks, which include the sugar and starch crops and lignocellulosic fermentation from wood and crop residues, and fast-growing energy crops like hybrid poplar, switchgrass, and willow. Furthermore, the capital and facilities used to produce ethanol can be switched to butanol fermentation with minimal costs. Thus, society is able to transition away from ethanol and begin to produce butanol with minimal capital and infrastructure costs. Unfortunately, the main drawback to butanol fermentation is its low chemical yield. Until researchers discover or engineer new microorganisms that handle higher butanol concentrations, butanol may not be adapted as an alternative fuel.

  16. Transport properties of C and O in UN fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Thomas; Lopes, Denise Adorno; Claisse, Antoine; Olsson, Pär

    2017-03-01

    Uranium nitride fuel is considered for fast reactors (GEN-IV generation and space reactors) and for light water reactors as a high-density fuel option. Despite this large interest, there is a lack of information about its behavior for in-pile and out-of-pile conditions. From the present literature, it is known that C and O impurities have significant influence on the fuel performance. Here we perform a systematic study of these impurities in the UN matrix using electronic-structure calculations of solute-defect interactions and microscopic jump frequencies. These quantities were calculated in the DFT +U approximation combined with the occupation matrix control scheme, to avoid convergence to metastable states for the 5 f levels. The transport coefficients of the system were evaluated with the self-consistent mean-field theory. It is demonstrated that carbon and oxygen impurities have different diffusion properties in the UN matrix, with O atoms having a higher mobility, and C atoms showing a strong flux coupling anisotropy. The kinetic interplay between solutes and vacancies is expected to be the main cause for surface segregation, as incorporation energies show no strong thermodynamic segregation preference for (001) surfaces compared with the bulk.

  17. Extending Spent Fuel Storage until Transport for Reprocessing or Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsen, Brett; Chiguer, Mustapha; Grahn, Per; Sampson, Michele; Wolff, Dietmar; Bevilaqua, Arturo; Wasinger, Karl; Saegusa, Toshiari; Seelev, Igor

    2016-09-01

    Spent fuel (SF) must be stored until an end point such as reprocessing or geologic disposal is imple-mented. Selection and implementation of an end point for SF depends upon future funding, legisla-tion, licensing and other factors that cannot be predicted with certainty. Past presumptions related to the availability of an end point have often been wrong and resulted in missed opportunities for properly informing spent fuel management policies and strategies. For example, dry cask storage systems were originally conceived to free up needed space in reactor spent fuel pools and also to provide SFS of up to 20 years until reprocessing and/or deep geological disposal became available. Hundreds of dry cask storage systems are now employed throughout the world and will be relied upon well beyond the originally envisioned design life. Given present and projected rates for the use of nuclear power coupled with projections for SF repro-cessing and disposal capacities, one concludes that SF storage will be prolonged, potentially for several decades. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has recently considered 300 years of storage to be appropriate for the characterization and prediction of ageing effects and ageing management issues associated with extending SF storage and subsequent transport. This paper encourages addressing the uncertainty associated with the duration of SF storage by de-sign – rather than by default. It suggests ways that this uncertainty may be considered in design, li-censing, policy, and strategy decisions and proposes a framework for safely extending spent fuel storage until SF can be transported for reprocessing or disposal – regardless of how long that may be. The paper however is not intended to either encourage or facilitate needlessly extending spent fuel storage durations. Its intent is to ensure a design and safety basis with sufficient margin to accommodate the full range of potential future scenarios. Although the focus is primarily on

  18. Spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste transportation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-01

    This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ``comprehensive overview of the issues.`` This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste issues. In addition, this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages will be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list.

  19. Importance of OH(-) transport from cathodes in microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popat, Sudeep C; Ki, Dongwon; Rittmann, Bruce E; Torres, César I

    2012-06-01

    Cathodic limitation in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) is considered an important hurdle towards practical application as a bioenergy technology. The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) needs to occur in MFCs under significantly different conditions compared to chemical fuel cells, including a neutral pH. The common reason cited for cathodic limitation is the difficulty in providing protons to the catalyst sites. Here, we show that it is not the availability of protons, but the transport of OH(-) from the catalyst layer to the bulk liquid that largely governs cathodic potential losses. OH(-) is a product of an ORR mechanism that has not been considered dominant before. The accumulation of OH(-) at the catalyst sites results in an increase in the local cathode pH, resulting in Nernstian concentration losses. For Pt-based gas-diffusion cathodes, using polarization curves developed in unbuffered and buffered solutions, we quantified this loss to be >0.3 V at a current density of 10 Am(-2) . We show that this loss can be partially overcome by replacing the Nafion binder used in the cathode catalyst layer with an anion-conducting binder and by providing additional buffer to the cathode catalyst directly in the form of CO(2) , which results in enhanced OH(-) transport. Our results provide a comprehensive analysis of cathodic limitations in MFCs and should allow researchers to develop and select materials for the construction of MFC cathodes and identify operational conditions that will help minimize Nernstian concentration losses due to pH gradients.

  20. Spent Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by SSEB in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ``comprehensive overview of the issues.`` This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste Issues. In addition. this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages will be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list.

  1. Spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste transportation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-11-01

    This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ``comprehensive overview of the issues.`` This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste issues. In addition, this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages sew be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list.

  2. New concept of designing Pu and MA containing fuel for fast reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenko, A. M.; Konovalov, I. I.; Vatulin, A. V.; Glagovsky, E. M.

    2009-03-01

    New type of metal base fuel element is suggested for fast reactors. Basic approach to fuel element development - separated operations of fabricating uranium meat fuel element and introducing into it Pu or MA dioxides powder, that results in minimizing dust forming operations in fuel element fabrication. According to new fuel element design a framework fuel element having a porous uranium alloy meat is filled with standard PuO 2 powder of fuel meat metallurgically bonded to cladding forms a heat conducting framework, pores of which contain PuO 2 powder. Framework fuel element having porous meat is fabricated by capillary impregnation method with the use of Zr eutectic matrix alloys, which provides metallurgical bond between fuel and cladding and protects it from interaction. As compared to MOX fuel the new one features high thermal conductivity, higher uranium content, hence, high conversion ratio does not interact with fuel cladding and is more environmentally clean. Its principle advantage is a simple production process that is easily realized remotely, feasibility of involving high background Pu and MA isotopes into closed nuclear fuel cycle at the minimal influence on environment.

  3. Mass transportation in diethylmethylammonium trifluoromethanesulfonate for fuel cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsushima, Shigenori, E-mail: mitsushi@ynu.ac.j [Chemical Energy Laboratory, Yokohama National University, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan); Shinohara, Yoshitsugu; Matsuzawa, Koichi; Ota, Ken-ichiro [Chemical Energy Laboratory, Yokohama National University, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan)

    2010-09-01

    To use the protonic mesothermal fuel cell without humidification, mass transportation in diethylmethylammonium trifluoromethanesulfonate ([dema][TfO]), trifluoromethanesulfuric acid (TfOH)-added [dema][TfO], and phosphoric acid (H{sub 3}PO{sub 4})-added [dema][TfO] was investigated by electrochemical measurements. The diffusion coefficient and the solubility of oxygen were ca. 10{sup -5} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} and ca. 10{sup -3} M (=mol dm{sup -3}), respectively. Those of hydrogen were a factor of 10 and one-tenth compared to oxygen, respectively. The permeability, which is a product of the diffusion coefficient and solubility, of oxygen and hydrogen were almost the same for the perfluoroethylenesulfuric acid membrane and the sulfuric acid solution; therefore, these values are suitable for fuel cell applications. On the other hand, a diffusion limiting current was observed for the hydrogen evolution reaction. The current corresponded to ca. 10{sup -10} mol cm{sup -1} s{sup -1} of the permeability, and the diffusion limiting species was the hydrogen carrier species. The TfOH addition enhanced the diffusion limiting current of [dema][TfO], and the H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} addition eliminated the diffusion limit. The hydrogen bonds of H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} or water-added H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} might significantly enhance the transport of the hydrogen carrier species. Therefore, [dema][TfO] based materials are candidates for non-humidified mesothermal fuel cell electrolytes.

  4. Reactor pressure vessels as type B transport containment boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickell, R.E. [Applied Science and Technology, Inc., Poway, CA (United States); Griesbach, T.J. [ATI Consulting, Danville, CA (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Transportation risk and personnel exposure, as well as the cost of decommissioning nuclear power plants, can all be reduced significantly through the one-time use of the reactor pressure vessel as a containment boundary for shipping the activated internal components from the reactor site to a burial site. In order to help provide the technical basis for this end-use application, the ASME Board on Nuclear Codes and Standards, through its Subcommittee XI, has prepared a draft nuclear code case that contains requirements for any modifications to the vessel, including materials, design, fabrication, and examination. In particular, the requirements for evaluation of potential brittle fracture as the result of potentially low ambient shipping temperatures combined with hypothetical transportation accident loading are addressed. Existing ASME Code Section XI rules for linear elastic fracture mechanics evaluation of irradiated reactor pressure vessels have been adapted and included in the code case. (authors)

  5. On effective transport coefficients in PEM fuel cell electrodes: Anisotropy of the porous transport layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharoah, J. G.; Karan, K.; Sun, W.

    This paper reviews the approach taken in the literature to model the effective transport coefficients - mass diffusivity, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and hydraulic permeability - of carbon-fibre based porous electrode of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). It is concluded that current PEMFC model do not account for the inherent anisotropic microstructure of the fibrous electrodes. Simulations using a 2-D PEMFC cathode model show that neglecting the anisotropic nature and associated transport coefficients of the porous electrodes significantly influences both the nature and the magnitude of the model predictions. This emphasizes the need to appropriately characterize the relevant anisotropic properties of the fibrous electrode.

  6. 10 CFR 503.38 - Permanent exemption for certain fuel mixtures containing natural gas or petroleum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... natural gas or petroleum. 503.38 Section 503.38 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS... mixtures containing natural gas or petroleum. (a) Eligibility. Section 212(d) of the Act provides for a... proposes to use a mixture of natural gas or petroleum and an alternate fuel as a primary energy source; (2...

  7. Corrosion studies in fuel element reprocessing environments containing nitric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beavers, J A; White, R R; Berry, W E; Griess, J C

    1982-04-01

    Nitric acid is universally used in aqueous fuel element reprocessing plants; however, in the processing scheme being developed by the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program, some of the equipment will be exposed to nitric acid under conditions not previously encountered in fuel element reprocessing plants. A previous report presented corrosion data obtained in hyperazeotropic nitric acid and in concentrated magnesium nitrate solutions used in its preparation. The results presented in this report are concerned with the following: (1) corrosion of titanium in nitric acid; (2) corrosion of nickel-base alloys in a nitric acid-hydrofluoric acid solution; (3) the formation of Cr(VI), which enhances corrosion, in nitric acid solutions; and (4) corrosion of mechanical pipe connectors in nitric acid. The results show that the corrosion rate of titanium increased with the refreshment rate of boiling nitric acid, but the effect diminished rapidly as the temperature decreased. The addition of iodic acid inhibited attack. Also, up to 200 ppM of fluoride in 70% HNO/sub 3/ had no major effect on the corrosion of either titanium or tantalum. In boiling 8 M HNO/sub 3/-0.05 M HF, Inconel 671 was more resistant than Inconel 690, but both alloys experienced end-grain attack. In the case of Inconel 671, heat treatment was very important; annealed and quenched material was much more resistant than furnace-cooled material.The rate of oxidation of Cr(III) to Cr(VI) increased significantly as the nitric acid concentration increased, and certain forms of ruthenium in the solution seemed to accelerate the rate of formation. Mechanical connectors of T-304L stainless steel experienced end-grain attack on the exposed pipe ends, and seal rings of both stainless steel and a titanium alloy (6% Al-4% V) underwent heavy attack in boiling 8 M HNO/sub 3/.

  8. Effects of hydrogen sulfide in fuel gas on SOFC stack performance with nickel containing anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavurucu Schubert, Sena

    2012-07-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) can use wide varieties of fuels such as hydrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, alcohols as well as synthesis gases from natural gas, biogas and petroleum. Using such a wide range of fuels introduces the risk of unwanted impurities, which can affect the function of the SOFC. One of the known impurities is sulfur which is a well known catalyst poison. This work deals with the effect of H{sub 2}S containing fuel gas on SOFC stack performance as well as regeneration processes and their underlying mechanisms.

  9. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-09-30

    The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a research consortium with participants from the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University. The CFFS is conducting a research program to develop C1 chemistry technology for the production of clean transportation fuel from resources such as coal and natural gas, which are more plentiful domestically than petroleum. The processes under development will convert feedstocks containing one carbon atom per molecular unit into ultra clean liquid transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) and hydrogen, which many believe will be the transportation fuel of the future. These feedstocks include synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. Some highlights of the results obtained during the first year of the current research contract are summarized as: (1) Terminal alkynes are an effective chain initiator for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reactions, producing normal paraffins with C numbers {ge} to that of the added alkyne. (2) Significant improvement in the product distribution towards heavier hydrocarbons (C{sub 5} to C{sub 19}) was achieved in supercritical fluid (SCF) FT reactions compared to that of gas-phase reactions. (3) Xerogel and aerogel silica supported cobalt catalysts were successfully employed for FT synthesis. Selectivity for diesel range products increased with increasing Co content. (4) Silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) molecular sieve catalysts have been developed for methanol to olefin conversion, producing value-added products such as ethylene and propylene. (5) Hybrid Pt-promoted tungstated and sulfated zirconia catalysts are very effective in cracking n-C{sub 36} to jet and diesel fuel; these catalysts will be tested for cracking of FT wax. (6) Methane, ethane, and propane are readily decomposed to pure

  10. Winter fuels report, week ending December 7, 1990. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-13

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the United States and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and US total heating degree-days by city. This report will be published weekly by the EIA starting the first week in October 1990 and will continue until the first week in April 1991. 27 figs., 12 tabs.

  11. Use of certain alternative fuels in road transport in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gis, W.; Pielecha, J.; Waśkiewicz, J.; Gis, M.; Menes, M.

    2016-09-01

    The development of biomethane and hydrogen technology in the road transport in the EU countries is recommended, among the others, in the Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council 2014/94/EU of 22 October 2014. Under the provisions of the said Directive, it is recommended to EU countries to use biomethane and progressively ensure accessibility to hydrogen cars on their territories, and above all to ensure the possibility of driving hydrogen vehicles between the member States. The territorial accessibility for biomethane vehicles is determined by the availability of biomethane refuelling infrastructure in the first place in cities and then on the road network distances recommended in this directive. The territorial accessibility for hydrogen vehicles is determined by the availability of hydrogen refuelling infrastructure, in the first place along the TEN-T network. The article presents the possibilities of using these alternative fuels in Poland, presenting some of the results of research and analysis in this area.

  12. Contamination transfers during fuel transport cask loading. A concrete situation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournel, B.; Turchet, J.P.; Faure, S.; Allinei, P.G. [DEN/DED Centre d' Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Briquet, L. [EDF GENV, 93 - Saint Denis (France); Baubet, D. [SGS Qualitest Industrie, 30 - Pont Saint Esprit (France)

    2002-07-01

    In 1998, a number of contamination cases detected during fuel shipments have been pointed out by the french nuclear safety authority. Wagon and casks external surfaces were partly contaminated upon arrival in Valognes railway terminal. Since then, measures taken by nuclear power plants operators in France and abroad solved the problem. In Germany, a report analyzing the situation in depth has been published in which correctives actions have been listed. In France, EDF launched a large cleanliness program (projet proprete radiologique) in order to better understand contamination transfers mechanisms during power plants exploitation and to list remediation actions to avoid further problems. In this context, CEA Department for Wastes Studies at Cadarache (CEA/DEN/DED) was in charge of a study about contamination transfers during fuel elements loading operations. It was decided to lead experiments for a concrete case. The loading of a transport cask at Tricastin-PWR-1 was followed in november 2000 and different analysis comprising water analysis and smear tests analysis were carried out and are detailed in this paper. Results are discussed and qualitatively compared to those obtained in Philippsburg-BWR, Germany for a similar set of tests. (authors)

  13. Japanese perspectives and research on packaging, transport and storage of spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saegusa, T.; Ito, C.; Yamakawa, H.; Shirai, K. [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), Abiko (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    The Japanese policy on spent fuel is reprocessing. Until, reprocessed, spent fuel shall be stored properly. This paper overviews current status of transport and storage of spent fuel with related research in Japan. The research was partly carried out under a contract of Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry of the Japanese government.

  14. Applicability of the SCALE code system to MOX fuel transport systems for criticality safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Toshihiro; Naito, Yoshitaka [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Hayashi, Toshiaki; Takasugi, Masahiro; Natsume, Toshihiro; Tsuda, Kazuaki

    1996-11-01

    In order to ascertain feasibilities of the SCALE code system for MOX fuel transport systems, criticality analyses were performed for MOX fuel (Pu enrichment; 3.0 wt.%) criticality experiments at JAERI`s TCA and for infinite fuel rod arrays as parameters of Pu enrichment and lattice pitch. The comparison with a combination of the continuous energy Monte Carlo code MCNP and JENDL-3.2 indicated that the SCALE code system with GAM-THERMOS 123-group library can produce feasible results. Though HANSEN-ROACH 16-group library gives poorer results for MOS fuel transport systems, the errors are conservative except for high enriched fuels. (author)

  15. Multi-objective regulations on transportation fuels: Comparing renewable fuel mandates and emission standards

    OpenAIRE

    D. Rajagopal; Plevin, R; Hochman, G; Zilberman, D.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. We compare two types of fuel market regulations - a renewable fuel mandate and a fuel emission standard - that could be employed to simultaneously achieve multiple outcomes such as reduction in fuel prices, fuel imports and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. We compare these two types of regulations in a global context taking into account heterogeneity in carbon content of both fossil fuels and renewable fuels. We find that although neither the ethanol mandate nor the emissi...

  16. Technology assessment of alternative fuels for the transportation sector; Teknologivurdering af altgernative drivmidler til transportsektoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-05-15

    The report documents an analysis, which aims at evaluating technologies in connection with alternative fuels for the transportation sector. During the analysis process a method has been developed for consistent evaluation of the alternative transportation fuels with the largest technological and economic potential. (BA)

  17. Fine Astrocyte Processes Contain Very Small Mitochondria: Glial Oxidative Capability May Fuel Transmitter Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derouiche, Amin; Haseleu, Julia; Korf, Horst-Werner

    2015-12-01

    The peripheral astrocyte process (PAP) is the glial compartment largely handling inactivation of transmitter glutamate, and supplying glutamate to the axon terminal. It is not clear how these energy demanding processes are fueled, and whether the PAP exhibits oxidative capability. Whereas the GFAP-positive perinuclear cytoplasm and stem process are rich in mitochondria, the PAP is often considered too narrow to contain mitochondria and might thus not rely on oxidative metabolism. Applying high resolution light microscopy, we investigate here the presence of mitochondria in the PAPs of freshly dissociated, isolated astrocytes. We provide an overview of the subcellular distribution and the approximate size of astrocytic mitochondria. A substantial proportion of the astrocyte's mitochondria are contained in the PAPs and, on the average, they are smaller there than in the stem processes. The majority of mitochondria in the stem and peripheral processes are surprisingly small (0.2-0.4 µm), spherical and not elongate, or tubular, which is supported by electron microscopy. The density of mitochondria is two to several times lower in the PAPs than in the stem processes. Thus, PAPs do not constitute a mitochondria free glial compartment but contain mitochondria in large numbers. No juxtaposition of mitochondria-containing PAPs and glutamatergic synapses has been reported. However, the issue of sufficient ATP concentrations in perisynaptic PAPs can be seen in the light of (1) the rapid, activity dependent PAP motility, and (2) the recently reported activity-dependent mitochondrial transport and immobilization leading to spatial, subcellular organisation of glutamate uptake and oxidative metabolism.

  18. Integrated modeling for optimized regional transportation with compressed natural gas fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam A. Gabbar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Transportation represents major energy consumption where fuel is considered as a primary energy source. Recent development in the vehicle technology revealed possible economical improvements when using natural gas as a fuel source instead of traditional gasoline. There are several fuel alternatives such as electricity, which showed potential for future long-term transportation. However, the move from current situation where gasoline vehicle is dominating shows high cost compared to compressed natural gas vehicle. This paper presents modeling and simulation methodology to optimize performance of transportation based on quantitative study of the risk-based performance of regional transportation. Emission estimation method is demonstrated and used to optimize transportation strategies based on life cycle costing. Different fuel supply scenarios are synthesized and evaluated, which showed strategic use of natural gas as a fuel supply.

  19. 76 FR 67287 - Alternative Fuel Transportation Program; Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program (Subpart F...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... ``dedicated [alternative fuel] or dual fueled vehicle,'' and sections 501 (42 U.S.C. 13251) and 507 (42 U.S.C... example, B20 (a 20 percent blend of biodiesel with 80 percent petroleum diesel) is not an alternative fuel... that operate solely on alternative fuel, or ``dual fueled vehicles,'' which have some capability for...

  20. The dieselization of America: An integrated strategy for future transportation fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberhardt, J.J. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Diesel Cycle engine has already established itself as the engine-of-choice for the heavy duty transport industry because of its fuel efficiency, durability, and reliability. In addition, it has also been shown to be capable of using alternative fuels, albeit at efficiencies lower than that achieved with petroleum-derived diesel fuel. Alternative fuel dedicated engines have not made significant penetration of the heavy duty truck market because truck fleet operators need a cost-competitive fuel and reliable supply and fueling infrastructure. In lieu of forcing diverse fuels from many diverse domestic feedstocks onto the end-users, the Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies envisions that a future fuels strategy for the heavy duty transport sector is one where the diverse feedstocks are utilized to provide a single fuel specification (dispensed from the existing fueling infrastructure) that would run efficiently in a single high efficiency energy conversion device, the Diesel Cycle engine. In so doing, the US Commercial transport industry may gain a measure of security from the rapid fuel price increases by relying less on a single feedstock source to meet its increasing fuel requirements.

  1. Analysis of preliminary design concept of stainless steel container for disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, K.S.; Ku, J.H.; Park, J.H.; Choi, J.W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-02-01

    This report represents the structural, thermal and radiation shielding analysis of the basic concepts of the disposal container, that could accommodate PWR and CANDU fuels of which physical dimensions and shapes are quite different each other, with respect to the emplacement modes. Basic concepts of the disposal containers for the vertical horehole and the drift emplacement modes are proposed with their maximum allowable thermal loading. Appropriate thickness of the container to withstand the expected external pressure in the underground repository system was delivered by the structural analyses. The thermal analysis of the container containing spent fuels showed that the internal maximum temperatures of all container concepts did not reach the constraint values. Radiation dose rate from the container with 10cm thickness wall were also less than the established constraint value. (author). 9 refs., 33 figs., 12 tabs.

  2. Natural Gas Container Transportation: the Alternative Way to Solve the World’s Energy Transportation Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Shendrik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The container gas transportation for low and medium level consumers as an alternative to pipelines is considered. The options for gas supply schemes, based on road and rail transport are given. The advantages and disadvantages of both types of gas transporting are described, the areas of their effective using are separated in the article. Promising implementations of technology in environment of economic crisis and also considering world trends of energy development are presented. The most advanced organization of compressed gas condensate transportation of unprepared gas fields in large diameter universal cylindrical balloons (up to 1000 mm are reasoned. The problem of compressed gas sea transportation are well disclosed, but the alternative ways of gas transportation by land are not investigated enough. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG Technology - is new promising technology for natural gas transportation by specially designed vessels – CNG-vessels. The feature of this technology is that natural gas can be downloaded directly near gas deposits and unloaded - directly into the customer's network. This eliminates significant capital investments in underwater pipelining or gas liquefaction plants. The main objects of investment are CNG-vessels themselves. The most attractive places for implementation of CNG-technology are sea (offshore natural gas deposits. Numerous international experts estimate the natural gas transportation by CNG-vessels in 1.5-2.0 times more cost-beneficial in comparison with offshore pipelines transportation, or in comparison with LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas shipping with natural gas transportation volume between 0.5 and 4.0 billion cubic meters per year on the route from 250 to 2,500 sea miles. This technology makes possible to provide gas supplement to the mountain and abounding in water areas, remote and weakly gasified regions. Described technology deserves special attention in the case of depleted and low-power oil and

  3. The Effect of H2S on the Performance of SOFCs using Methane Containing Fuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens Foldager Bregnballe; Hagen, Anke

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, the interest for using biogas derived from biomass as fuel in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) has increased. To maximise the biogas to electrical energy output, it is important to study the effects of the main biogas components (CH4 and CO2), minor ones and traces (e.g. H2S...... performance was monitored with electric measurements and impedance spectroscopy. At OCV 2–24 ppm H2S were added to the fuel in 24 h intervals. The reforming activity of the Ni-containing anode decreased rapidly when H2S was added to the fuel. This ultimately resulted in a lower production of fuel (H2 and CO......) from CH4. Applying 1 A cm–2 current load, a maximum concentration of 7 ppm H2S was acceptable for a 24 h period....

  4. Fuel-mix, fuel efficiency, and transport demand affect prospects for biofuels in northern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Ryan M; Strømman, Anders Hammer

    2010-04-01

    Rising greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the road transport sector represents a difficult mitigation challenge due to a multitude of intricate factors, namely the dependency on liquid energy carriers and infrastructure lock-in. For this reason, low-carbon renewable energy carriers, particularly second generation biofuels, are often seen as a prominent candidate for realizing reduced emissions and lowered oil dependency over the medium- and long-term horizons. However, the overarching question is whether advanced biofuels can be an environmentally effective mitigation strategy in the face of increasing consumption and resource constraints. Here we develop both biofuel production and road transport consumption scenarios for northern Europe-a region with a vast surplus of forest bioenergy resources-to assess the potential role that forest-based biofuels may play over the medium- and long-term time horizons using an environmentally extended, multiregion input-output model. Through scenarios, we explore how evolving vehicle technologies and consumption patterns will affect the mitigation opportunities afforded by any future supply of forest biofuels. We find that in a scenario involving ambitious biofuel targets, the size of the GHG mitigation wedge attributed to the market supply of biofuels is severely reduced under business-as-usual growth in consumption in the road transport sector. Our results indicate that climate policies targeting the road transport sector which give high emphases to reducing demand (volume), accelerating the deployment of more fuel-efficient vehicles, and promoting altered consumption patterns (structure) can be significantly more effective than those with single emphasis on expanded biofuel supply.

  5. Ceramicrete: A novel ceramic packaging system for spent-fuel transport and storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, D.; Jeong, S. Y.; Dwyer, K.; Abesadze, T.

    2000-02-25

    This presentation summarizes efforts to develop and apply chemically bonded phosphate ceramic (Ceramicrete{trademark}) technology for radiation shielding applications. The specific application being targeted is a packaging system for spent-fuel transport and storage. Using Ceramicrete technology under ambient conditions, the authors can produce dense and hard ceramic forms that incorporate second-phase material. Ceramicrete inherently is a superior shielding material because it contains large amounts of bound water in its crystal structure and can be cast in any shape. A parametric study was conducted on Ceramicrete that contained second-phase additions of metals and other ceramic powders. Results of various standardized tests that included mechanical performance and shielding from neutrons are presented. The fabrication of complex shapes and structures by Ceramicrete technology is discussed. Ceramicrete is compared with other currently available shielding systems that are based on concrete and polymers.

  6. A Microfluidic Pore Network Approach to Investigate Water Transport in Fuel Cell Porous Transport Layers

    CERN Document Server

    Bazylak, A; Markicevic, B; Sinton, D; Djilali, N

    2008-01-01

    Pore network modelling has traditionally been used to study displacement processes in idealized porous media related to geological flows, with applications ranging from groundwater hydrology to enhanced oil recovery. Very recently, pore network modelling has been applied to model the gas diffusion layer (GDL) of a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell. Discrete pore network models have the potential to elucidate transport phenomena in the GDL with high computational efficiency, in contrast to continuum or molecular dynamics modelling that require extensive computational resources. However, the challenge in studying the GDL with pore network modelling lies in defining the network parameters that accurately describe the porous media as well as the conditions of fluid invasion that represent realistic transport processes. In this work, we discuss the first stage of developing and validating a GDL-representative pore network model. We begin with a two-dimensional pore network model with a single mobile pha...

  7. Can lignocellulosic hydrocarbon liquids rival lignocellulose-derived ethanol as a future transport fuel?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Ding

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Although transport fuels are currently obtained mainly from petroleum, alternative fuels derived from lignocellulosic biomass (LB have drawn much attention in recent years in light of the limited reserves of crude oil and the associated environmental issues. Lignocellulosic ethanol (LE and lignocellulosic hydrocarbons (LH are two typical representatives of the LB-derived transport fuels. This editorial systematically compares LE and LB from production to their application in transport fuels. It can be demonstrated that LH has many advantages over LE relative to such uses. However, most recent studies on the production of the LB-derived transport fuels have focused on LE production. Hence, it is strongly recommended that more research should be aimed at developing an efficient and economically viable process for industrial LH production.

  8. Polaronic Transport in Phosphate Glasses Containing Transition Metal Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Mark

    The goal of this dissertation is to characterize the basic transport properties of phosphate glasses containing various amounts of TIs and to identify and explain any electronic phase transitions which may occur. The P2 O5-V2O5-WO3 (PVW) glass system will be analyzed to find the effect of TI concentration on conduction. In addition, the effect of the relative concentrations of network forming ions (SiO2 and P2O5) on transport will be studied in the P2O5-SiO2-Fe2O 3 (PSF) system. Also presented is a numerical study on a tight-binding model adapted for the purposes of modelling Gaussian traps, mimicking TI's, which are arranged in an extended network. The results of this project will contribute to the development of fundamental theories on the electronic transport in glasses containing mixtures of transition oxides as well as those containing multiple network formers without discernible phase separation. The present study on the PVW follows up on previous investigation into the effect on mixed transition ions in oxide glasses. Past research has focused on glasses containing transition metal ions from the 3d row. The inclusion of tungsten, a 5d transition metal, adds a layer of complexity through the mismatch of the energies of the orbitals contributing to localized states. The data have indicated that a transition reminiscent of a metal-insulator transition (MIT) occurs in this system as the concentration of tungsten increases. As opposed to some other MIT-like transitions found in phosphate glass systems, there seems to be no polaron to bipolaron conversion. Instead, the individual localization parameter for tungsten noticeably decreases dramatically at the transition point as well as the adiabaticity. Another distinctive feature of this project is the study of the PSF system, which contains two true network formers, phosphorous pentoxide (P2O 5) and silicon dioxide (SiO2). It is not usually possible to do a reliable investigation of the conduction properties of

  9. A methodology for estimating the residual contamination contribution to the source term in a spent-fuel transport cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, T.L. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Jordan, H. (EG and G Rocky Flats, Inc., Golden, CO (United States). Rocky Flats Plant); Pasupathi, V. (Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)); Mings, W.J. (USDOE Idaho Field Office, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Reardon, P.C. (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

    1991-09-01

    This report describes the ranges of the residual contamination that may build up in spent-fuel transport casks. These contamination ranges are calculated based on data taken from published reports and from previously unpublished data supplied by cask transporters. The data involve dose rate measurements, interior smear surveys, and analyses of water flushed out of cask cavities during decontamination operations. A methodology has been developed to estimate the effect of residual contamination on spent-fuel cask containment requirements. Factors in estimating the maximum permissible leak rates include the form of the residual contamination; possible release modes; internal gas-borne depletion; and the temperature, pressure, and vibration characteristics of the cask during transport under normal and accident conditions. 12 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. VOC transport in vented drums containing simulated waste sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liekhus, K.J.; Gresham, G.L.; Rae, C.; Connolly, M.J.

    1994-02-01

    A model is developed to estimate the volatile organic compound (VOC) concentration in the headspace of the innermost layer of confinement in a lab-scale vented waste drum containing simulated waste sludge. The VOC transport model estimates the concentration using the measured VOC concentration beneath the drum lid and model parameters defined or estimated from process knowledge of drum contents and waste drum configuration. Model parameters include the VOC diffusion characteristic across the filter vent, VOC diffusivity in air, size of opening in the drum liner lid, the type and number of layers of polymer bags surrounding the waste, VOC permeability across the polymer, and the permeable surface area of the polymer bags. Comparison of model and experimental results indicates that the model can accurately estimate VOC concentration in the headspace of the innermost layer of confinement. The model may be useful in estimating the VOC concentration in actual waste drums.

  11. Testing of LWR fuel rods to support criticality safety analysis of transport accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purcell, P.C. [BNFL International Transport, Spent Fuel Services (United Kingdom); Dallongeville, M. [COGEMA Logistics (AREVA Group) (France)

    2004-07-01

    For the transport of low enriched materials, criticality safety may be demonstrated by applying pessimistic modelling assumptions that bound any realistic case. Where Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel is being transported, enrichment levels are usually too high to permit this approach and more realistic data is needed. This requires a method by which the response of LWR fuel under impact accident conditions can be approximated or bounded. In 2000, BNFL and COGEMA LOGISTICS jointly commenced the Fuel Integrity Project (FIP) whose objective was to develop such methods. COGEMA LOGISTICS were well advanced with a method for determining the impact response of unirradiated fuel, but required further test data before acceptance by the Transport Regulators. The joint project team extensively discussed the required inputs to the FIP, from which it was agreed that BNFL would organise new tests on both unirradiated and irradiated fuel samples and COGEMA LOGISTICS would take major responsibility for evaluating the test results. Tests on unirradiated fuel rod samples involved both dynamic and quasi-static loading on fuel samples. PWR fuel rods loaded with uranium pellets were dropped vertically from 9m onto a rigid target and this was repeated on BWR fuel rods, similar tests on empty fuel rods were also conducted. Quasi-static tests were conducted on 530 mm long PWR and BWR fuel specimens under axial loading. Tests on irradiated fuel samples were conducted on high burn-up fuel rods of both PWR and BWR types. These were believed original to the FIP project and involved applying bending loads to simply supported pressurised rod specimens. In one test the fuel rod was heated to nearly 500oC during loading, all specimens were subject to axial impact before testing. Considerable experience of fuel rod testing and new data was gained from this test programme.

  12. Application of fuel cell for pyrite and heavy metal containing mining waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keum, H.; Ju, W. J.; Jho, E. H.; Nam, K.

    2015-12-01

    Once pyrite and heavy metal containing mining waste reacts with water and air it produces acid mine drainage (AMD) and leads to the other environmental problems such as contamination of surrounding soils. Pyrite is the major source of AMD and it can be controlled using a biological-electrochemical dissolution method. By enhancing the dissolution of pyrite using fuel cell technology, not only mining waste be beneficially utilized but also be treated at the same time by. As pyrite-containing mining waste is oxidized in the anode of the fuel cell, electrons and protons are generated, and electrons moves through an external load to cathode reducing oxygen to water while protons migrate to cathode through a proton exchange membrane. Iron-oxidizing bacteria such as Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, which can utilize Fe as an electron donor promotes pyrite dissolution and hence enhances electrochemical dissolution of pyrite from mining waste. In this study mining waste from a zinc mine in Korea containing 17 wt% pyrite and 9% As was utilized as a fuel for the fuel cell inoculated with A. ferrooxidans. Electrochemically dissolved As content and chemically dissolved As content was compared. With the initial pH of 3.5 at 23℃, the dissolved As concentration increased (from 4.0 to 13 mg/L after 20 d) in the fuel cell, while it kept decreased in the chemical reactor (from 12 to 0.43 mg/L after 20 d). The fuel cell produced 0.09 V of open circuit voltage with the maximum power density of 0.84 mW/m2. Dissolution of As from mining waste was enhanced through electrochemical reaction. Application of fuel cell technology is a novel treatment method for pyrite and heavy metals containing mining waste, and this method is beneficial for mining environment as well as local community of mining areas.

  13. EPAct Alternative Fuel Transportation Program: State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleet Compliance Annual Report; Fleet Compliance Results for MY 2013/FY 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-09-01

    Compliance rates for covered state government and alternative fuel provider fleets under the Alternative Fuel Transportation Program (pursuant to the Energy Policy Act or EPAct) are reported for MY 2013/FY 2014 in this publication.

  14. Transport phenomena in alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells for sustainable energy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, L.; Zhao, T. S.

    2017-02-01

    Alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFC), which convert the chemical energy stored in ethanol directly into electricity, are one of the most promising energy-conversion devices for portable, mobile and stationary power applications, primarily because this type of fuel cell runs on a carbon-neutral, sustainable fuel and the electrocatalytic and membrane materials that constitute the cell are relatively inexpensive. As a result, the alkaline DEFC technology has undergone a rapid progress over the last decade. This article provides a comprehensive review of transport phenomena of various species in this fuel cell system. The past investigations into how the design and structural parameters of membrane electrode assemblies and the operating parameters affect the fuel cell performance are discussed. In addition, future perspectives and challenges with regard to transport phenomena in this fuel cell system are also highlighted.

  15. OPTIMIZATION METHOD AND SOFTWARE FOR FUEL COST REDUCTION IN CASE OF ROAD TRANSPORT ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    György Kovács

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The transport activity is one of the most expensive processes in the supply chain and the fuel cost is the highest cost among the cost components of transportation. The goal of the research is to optimize the transport costs in case of a given transport task both by the selecting the optimal petrol station and by determining the optimal amount of the refilled fuel. Recently, in practice, these two decisions have not been made centrally at the forwarding company, but they depend on the individual decision of the driver. The aim of this study is to elaborate a precise and reliable mathematical method for selecting the optimal refuelling stations and determining the optimal amount of the refilled fuel to fulfil the transport demands. Based on the elaborated model, new decision-supporting software is developed for the economical fulfilment of transport trips.

  16. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Applied for Transport Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseinzadeh, Elham; Rokni, Masoud

    2010-01-01

    A thermodynamic analysis of a PEMFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cell) is investigated. PEMFC may be the most promising technology for fuel cell automotive systems, which is operating at quite low temperatures, (between 60 to 80℃). In this study the fuel cell motive power part of a lift truck has...... investigated. In addition, different stack design schemes have been proposed and their effect on system efficiency has been investigated....

  17. PEM fuel cell bipolar plate material requirements for transportation applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borup, R.L.; Stroh, K.R.; Vanderborgh, N.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    Cost effective bipolar plates are currently under development to help make proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells commercially viable. Bipolar plates separate individual cells of the fuel cell stack, and thus must supply strength, be electrically conductive, provide for thermal control of the fuel stack, be a non-porous materials separating hydrogen and oxygen feed streams, be corrosion resistant, provide gas distribution for the feed streams and meet fuel stack cost targets. Candidate materials include conductive polymers and metal plates with corrosion resistant coatings. Possible metals include aluminium, titanium, iron/stainless steel and nickel.

  18. Transportation and storage of foreign spent power reactor fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-30

    This report describes the generic actions to be taken by the Department of Energy, in cooperation with other US government agencies, foreign governments, and international organizations, in support of the implementation of Administration policies with respect to the following international spent fuel management activities: bilateral cooperation related to expansion of foreign national storage capacities; multilateral and international cooperation related to development of multinational and international spent fuel storage regimes; fee-based transfer of foreign spent power reactor fuel to the US for storage; and emergency transfer of foreign spent power reactor fuel to the US for storage.

  19. Transportation impact analysis for shipment of irradiated N-reactor fuel and associated materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daling, P.M.; Harris, M.S.

    1994-12-01

    An analysis of the radiological and nonradiological impacts of highway transportation of N-Reactor irradiated fuel (N-fuel) and associated materials is described in this report. N-fuel is proposed to be transported from its present locations in the 105-KE and 105-KW Basins, and possibly the PUREX Facility, to the 327 Building for characterization and testing. Each of these facilities is located on the Hanford Site, which is near Richland, Washington. The projected annual shipping quantity is 500 kgU/yr for 5 years for a total of 2500 kgU. It was assumed the irradiated fuel would be returned to the K- Basins following characterization, so the total amount of fuel shipped was assumed to be 5000 kgU. The shipping campaign may also include the transport and characterization of liquids, gases, and sludges from the storage basins, including fuel assembly and/or canister parts that may also be present in the basins. The impacts of transporting these other materials are bounded by the impacts of transporting 5000 kgU of N-fuel. This report was prepared to support an environmental assessment of the N-fuel characterization program. The RADTRAN 4 and GENII computer codes were used to evaluate the radiological impacts of the proposed shipping campaign. RADTRAN 4 was used to calculate the routine exposures and accident risks to workers and the general public from the N-fuel shipments. The GENII computer code was used to calculate the consequences of the maximum credible accident. The results indicate that the transportation of N-fuel in support of the characterization program should not cause excess radiological-induced latent cancer fatalities or traffic-related nonradiological accident fatalities. The consequences of the maximum credible accident are projected to be small and result in no excess latent cancer fatalities.

  20. Emissions of greenhouse gases from the use of transportation fuels and electricity. Volume 2: Appendixes A--S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLuchi, M.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Inst. of Transportation Studies

    1993-11-01

    This volume contains the appendices to the report on Emission of Greenhouse Gases from the Use of Transportation Fuels and Electricity. Emissions of methane, nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide, and other greenhouse gases are discussed. Sources of emission including vehicles, natural gas operations, oil production, coal mines, and power plants are covered. The various energy industries are examined in terms of greenhouse gas production and emissions. Those industries include electricity generation, transport of goods via trains, trucks, ships and pipelines, coal, natural gas and natural gas liquids, petroleum, nuclear energy, and biofuels.

  1. ESTEEM - Encouraging School Transportation Effective Energy Management - Fuel Economy Management Handbook for Directors of Pupil Transportation, School District Administrators, Transportation Department Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BRI Systems, Inc., Phoenix, AZ.

    This publication is a guide for school districts to reduce pupil transportation costs and save energy. The information presented is based upon: (1) energy saving programs implemented by school districts; (2) government and industry research efforts in fuel economy; (3) the successful experiences of commercial trucking fleets to save fuel; and (4)…

  2. Analysis of transport phenomena and electrochemical reactions in a micro PEM fuel cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Micro-fuel cells are considered as promising electrochemical power sources in portable electronic devices. The presence of microelectromechanical system (MEMS technology makes it possible to manufacture the miniaturized fuel cell systems. The majority of research on micro-scale fuel cells is aimed at micro-power applications. Performance of micro-fuel cells are closely related to many factors, such as designs and operating conditions. CFD modeling and simulation for heat and mass transport in micro PEM fuel cells are being used extensively in researches and industrial applications to gain better understanding of the fundamental processes and to optimize the micro fuel cell designs before building a prototype for engineering application. In this research, full three-dimensional, non-isothermal computational fluid dynamics model of a micro proton exchange membrane (PEM fuel cell has been developed. This comprehensive model accounts for the major transport phenomena such as convective and diffusive heat and mass transfer, electrode kinetics, transport and phase-change mechanism of water, and potential fields in a micro PEM fuel cell. The model explains many interacting, complex electrochemical, and transport phenomena that cannot be studied experimentally. Three-dimensional results of the species profiles, temperature distribution, potential distribution, and local current density distribution are presented and analysed, with the focus on the physical insight and fundamental understanding.

  3. Analysis of transport phenomena and electrochemical reactions in a micro PEM fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadiq Al-Baghdadi, Maher A.R. [Fuel Cell Research Center, International Energy and Environment Foundation, Najaf, P.O.Box 39 (Iraq)

    2013-07-01

    Micro-fuel cells are considered as promising electrochemical power sources in portable electronic devices. The presence of microelectromechanical system (MEMS) technology makes it possible to manufacture the miniaturized fuel cell systems. The majority of research on micro-scale fuel cells is aimed at micro-power applications. Performance of micro-fuel cells are closely related to many factors, such as designs and operating conditions. CFD modeling and simulation for heat and mass transport in micro PEM fuel cells are being used extensively in researches and industrial applications to gain better understanding of the fundamental processes and to optimize the micro fuel cell designs before building a prototype for engineering application. In this research, full three-dimensional, non-isothermal computational fluid dynamics model of a micro proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell has been developed. This comprehensive model accounts for the major transport phenomena such as convective and diffusive heat and mass transfer, electrode kinetics, transport and phase-change mechanism of water, and potential fields in a micro PEM fuel cell. The model explains many interacting, complex electrochemical, and transport phenomena that cannot be studied experimentally. Three-dimensional results of the species profiles, temperature distribution, potential distribution, and local current density distribution are presented and analysed, with the focus on the physical insight and fundamental understanding.

  4. Materials and Concepts for Full Ceramic SOFCs with Focus on Carbon Containing Fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtappels, Peter; Sudireddy, Bhaskar Reddy; Veltzé, Sune

    , stability, and S- tolerance has been investigated. These results and an assessment on a 1 kW system level using CPOX reformed natural gas will be reviewed and further perspectives of the cell concept discussed, especially with respect to efficient operation on high carbon containing fuels....

  5. Drug transport in HEMA conjunctival inserts containing precipitated drug particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Chhavi; Chauhan, Anuj

    2010-07-01

    This paper focuses on exploring the mechanism of cyclosporine A transport in hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) rods to develop conjunctival inserts for extended ocular delivery. Cylindrical conjunctival HEMA inserts were prepared by thermal polymerization in presence of drug at high loadings to create rods containing particles of drug dispersed in the matrix. The drug release rates were measured to explore the effect of length, drug loading, crosslinking, and mixing in the release medium. Also microstructure of the inserts was characterized by SEM imaging. The inserts release the drug for a period of about a month at therapeutic rates. The rates of drug release are zero order and independent of drug loading and crosslinking for certain period of time. These effects were shown to arise due to a mass-transfer boundary layer in the fluid and a mathematical model was developed by coupling mass transfer in the insert with that in the boundary layer in the surrounding fluid. The model with diffusivity in the insert and boundary layer thickness as parameters fits the experimental data and explains all trends in release kinetics. The fitted diffusivity is about twice that obtained by direct measurements, which agreed well with the value obtained by using the Brinkman's equation but only after accounting for drug binding to the polymer.

  6. Transport and degradation of fuel compounds in the vadose zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, Mette; Broholm, Mette Martina; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Fuel has been spilled in the vadose zone at many sites. An artificial jet fuel source has been installed in a vadose zone at Airbase Værløse. The field experiment is conducted to investigate the natural attenuation potential in order to obtain better evaluations of the risk for groundwater...

  7. Perovskite solid electrolytes: Structure, transport properties and fuel cell applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonanos, N.; Knight, K.S.; Ellis, B.

    1995-01-01

    Doped barium cerate perovskites, first investigated by Iwahara and co-workers, have ionic conductivities of the order of 20 mS/cm at 800 degrees C making them attractive as fuel cell electrolytes for this temperature region. They have been used to construct laboratory scale fuel cells, which...

  8. Assessment of costs and benefits of flexible and alternative fuel use in the US transportation sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    The DOE is conducting a comprehensive technical analysis of a flexible-fuel transportation system in the United States -- that is, a system that could easily switch between petroleum and another fuel, depending on price and availability. The DOE Alternative Fuels Assessment is aimed directly at questions of energy security and fuel availability, but covers a wide range of issues. This report examines environmental, health, and safety concerns associated with a switch to alternative- and flexible-fuel vehicles. Three potential alternatives to oil-based fuels in the transportation sector are considered: methanol, compressed natural gas (CNG), and electricity. The objective is to describe and discuss qualitatively potential environmental, health, and safety issues that would accompany widespread use of these three fuels. This report presents the results of exhaustive literature reviews; discussions with specialists in the vehicular and fuel-production industries and with Federal, State, and local officials; and recent information from in-use fleet tests. Each chapter deals with the end-use and process emissions of air pollutants, presenting an overview of the potential air pollution contribution of the fuel --relative to that of gasoline and diesel fuel -- in various applications. Carbon monoxide, particulate matter, ozone precursors, and carbon dioxide are emphasized. 67 refs., 6 figs. , 8 tabs.

  9. Summary report on transportation of nuclear fuel materials in Japan : transportation infrastructure, threats identified in open literature, and physical protection regulations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, John Russell; Ouchi, Yuichiro (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Japan); Furaus, James Phillip; Marincel, Michelle K.

    2008-03-01

    This report summarizes the results of three detailed studies of the physical protection systems for the protection of nuclear materials transport in Japan, with an emphasis on the transportation of mixed oxide fuel materials1. The Japanese infrastructure for transporting nuclear fuel materials is addressed in the first section. The second section of this report presents a summary of baseline data from the open literature on the threats of sabotage and theft during the transport of nuclear fuel materials in Japan. The third section summarizes a review of current International Atomic Energy Agency, Japanese and United States guidelines and regulations concerning the physical protection for the transportation of nuclear fuel materials.

  10. The sustainable development of transports: the motors and the fuels; Le developpement durable des transports: quels moteurs, quels carburants?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This panorama 2005 between politicians, industrialists and scientists discussed the following topics: exploration-production activities and markets, refining and petrochemistry, the future world gas market, the petroleum supply and demand, the new petroleum and gas reserves, the today and tomorrow alternative fuels, the biofuels in the world, the hybrid vehicles future, the energy consumption in the transport sector, the road fuels in europe and the increase of diesel fuel, the de-pollution techniques of industrial vehicles. The slides of the interventions are provided. The sheets ''le point sur'' of the year 2005 are also provided. (A.L.B.)

  11. Original Experimental Approach for Assessing Transport Fuel Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacha, Kenza; Ben Amara, Arij; Alves Fortunato, Maira; Wund, Perrine; Veyrat, Benjamin; Hayrault, Pascal; Vannier, Axel; Nardin, Michel; Starck, Laurie

    2016-10-21

    The study of fuel oxidation stability is an important issue for the development of future fuels. Diesel and kerosene fuel systems have undergone several technological changes to fulfill environmental and economic requirements. These developments have resulted in increasingly severe operating conditions whose suitability for conventional and alternative fuels needs to be addressed. For example, fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) introduced as biodiesel are more prone to oxidation and may lead to deposit formation. Although several methods exist to evaluate fuel stability (induction period, peroxides, acids, and insolubles), no technique allows one to monitor the real-time oxidation mechanism and to measure the formation of oxidation intermediates that may lead to deposit formation. In this article, we developed an advanced oxidation procedure (AOP) based on two existing reactors. This procedure allows the simulation of different oxidation conditions and the monitoring of the oxidation progress by the means of macroscopic parameters, such as total acid number (TAN) and advanced analytical methods like gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and Fourier Transform Infrared - Attenuated Total Reflection (FTIR-ATR). We successfully applied AOP to gain an in-depth understanding of the oxidation kinetics of a model molecule (methyl oleate) and commercial diesel and biodiesel fuels. These developments represent a key strategy for fuel quality monitoring during logistics and on-board utilization.

  12. High temperature corrosion by combustion gases produced by burning liquid fuels containing sulphur, sodium and vanadium.

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Fazlur Rahman

    1980-01-01

    High temperature corrosion, at 730° C, by combustion gases produced by burning liquid fuels in a laboratory combustor has been investigated. A selected range of steels and alloys (mild steel, stainless steel type 347, Nimonic N90, N105, and IN657) have been tested in the combustion gases using fuels containing varying amounts of impurities in the range of 0 - 6% sulphur, 0 - 60 ppm sodium, and 0 - 300 ppm vanadium. On the basis of the comprehensive results a computer programme was written t...

  13. The Value of Information in Container Transport: Leveraging the Triple Bottom Line

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A. Zuidwijk (Rob); A.W. Veenstra (Albert)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractPlanning the transport of maritime containers from the sea port to final destinations while using multiple transport modes is challenged by uncertainties regarding the time the container is released for further transport or the transit time from the port to its final destination. This pa

  14. Case Study: Transportation Initiative Incorporates Alternative Fuels and Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    James A. Lovell Federal Health Care Center in North Chicago, Illinois, reduced greenhouse gases by incorporating electric vehicles and alternative fuels into fleet operations. Lovell FHCC increased its electric fleet by 200 in one year.

  15. Production Costs of Alternative Transportation Fuels. Influence of Crude Oil Price and Technology Maturity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazzola, Pierpaolo; Morrison, Geoff; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Cuenot, Francois; Ghandi, Abbas; Fulton, Lewis

    2013-07-01

    This study examines the production costs of a range of transport fuels and energy carriers under varying crude oil price assumptions and technology market maturation levels. An engineering ''bottom-up'' approach is used to estimate the effect of the input cost of oil and of various technological assumptions on the finished price of these fuels. In total, the production costs of 20 fuels are examined for crude oil prices between USD 60 and USD 150 per barrel. Some fuel pathways can be competitive with oil as their production, transport and storage technology matures, and as oil price increases. Rising oil prices will offer new opportunities to switch to alternative fuels for transport, to diversify the energy mix of the transport sector, and to reduce the exposure of the whole system to price volatility and potential distuption of supply. In a time of uncertainty about the leading vehicle technology to decarbonize the transport sector, looking at the fuel cost brings key information to be considered to keep mobility affordable yet sustainable.

  16. The use of methanol as a fuel for transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egebaeck, K.E. [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden); Walsh, M.P. [Arlington, VA (United States); Westerholm, R. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden)

    1997-06-01

    The aim of the project was to collect and report international experiences concerning the use of methanol as an automotive fuel. The method has been to study the literature which covers the subject and most of the information has been collected that way. The project started with a participation in a conference and a visit to people who have been involved in activities concerning the use of automotive alcohols. Car manufacturers, environmental authorities and users of alcohol fuels i.e. representatives of bus companies, were interviewed. The different applications for the use of methanol as an automotive fuel has been described in the report as well as the production of methanol. Some results, mostly in form of emission data and other experiences derived from the use of alcohol fuels, have also been presented. The use of ethanol and methanol has been compared and based on information from engine manufacturers and users of alcohol fueled vehicles there seems to be a preference for the use of ethanol. However, the question `methanol or ethanol` has not been answered as the decision which of the two is to be used seems to depend more on economic factors, such as cost of the production of the fuel etc., than on other factors. 165 refs, 15 figs, 14 tabs

  17. Purge gas protected transportable pressurized fuel cell modules and their operation in a power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafred, Paolo R.; Dederer, Jeffrey T.; Gillett, James E.; Basel, Richard A.; Antenucci, Annette B.

    1996-01-01

    A fuel cell generator apparatus and method of its operation involves: passing pressurized oxidant gas, (O) and pressurized fuel gas, (F), into fuel cell modules, (10 and 12), containing fuel cells, where the modules are each enclosed by a module housing (18), surrounded by an axially elongated pressure vessel (64), where there is a purge gas volume, (62), between the module housing and pressure vessel; passing pressurized purge gas, (P), through the purge gas volume, (62), to dilute any unreacted fuel gas from the modules; and passing exhaust gas, (82), and circulated purge gas and any unreacted fuel gas out of the pressure vessel; where the fuel cell generator apparatus is transpatable when the pressure vessel (64) is horizontally disposed, providing a low center of gravity.

  18. Reduced Gravity Studies of Soret Transport Effects in Liquid Fuel Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Benjamin D.

    2004-01-01

    Soret transport, which is mass transport driven by thermal gradients, can be important in practical flames as well as laboratory flames by influencing transport of low molecular weight species (e.g., monatomic and diatomic hydrogen). In addition, gas-phase Soret transport of high molecular weight fuel species that are present in practical liquid fuels (e.g., octane or methanol) can be significant in practical flames (Rosner et al., 2000; Dakhlia et al., 2002) and in high pressure droplet evaporation (Curtis and Farrell, 1992), and it has also been shown that Soret transport effects can be important in determining oxygen diffusion rates in certain classes of microgravity droplet combustion experiments (Aharon and Shaw, 1998). It is thus useful to obtain information on flames under conditions where Soret effects can be clearly observed. This research is concerned with investigating effects of Soret transport on combustion of liquid fuels, in particular liquid fuel droplets. Reduced-gravity is employed to provide an ideal (spherically-symmetrical) experimental model with which to investigate effects of Soret transport on combustion. The research will involve performing reduced-gravity experiments on combustion of liquid fuel droplets in environments where Soret effects significantly influence transport of fuel and oxygen to flame zones. Experiments will also be performed where Soret effects are not expected to be important. Droplets initially in the 0.5 to 1 mm size range will be burned. Data will be obtained on influences of Soret transport on combustion characteristics (e.g., droplet burning rates, droplet lifetimes, gas-phase extinction, and transient flame behaviors) under simplified geometrical conditions that are most amenable to theoretical modeling (i.e., spherical symmetry). The experiments will be compared with existing theoretical models as well as new models that will be developed. Normal gravity experiments will also be performed.

  19. Transport dynamics of a high-power-density matrix-type hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopius, P. R.; Hagedorn, N. H.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental transport dynamics tests were made on a space power fuel cell of current design. Various operating transients were introduced and transport-related response data were recorded with fluidic humidity sensing instruments. Also, sampled data techniques were developed for measuring the cathode-side electrolyte concentration during transient operation.

  20. 46 CFR 182.460 - Ventilation of spaces containing machinery powered by, or fuel tanks for, gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of spaces containing machinery powered by, or fuel tanks for, gasoline. 182.460 Section 182.460 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND..., gasoline. (a) A space containing machinery powered by, or fuel tanks for, gasoline must have a...

  1. Geosphere transport of radionuclides in safety assessment of spent fuel disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jussila, P

    2000-07-01

    The study is associated with a research project of Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) to utilise analytical models in safety assessment for disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Geosphere constitutes a natural barrier for the possible escape of radionuclides from a geological repository of spent nuclear fuel. However, rock contains fractures in which flowing groundwater can transport material. Radionuclide transport in rock is complicated - the flow paths in the geosphere are difficult to characterise and there are various phenomena involved. In mathematical models, critical paths along which radionuclides can reach the biosphere are considered. The worst predictable cases and the effect of the essential parameters can be assessed with the help of such models although they simplify the reality considerably. Some of the main differences between the transport model used and the reality are the mathematical characterisation of the flow route in rock as a smooth and straight fracture and the modelling of the complicated chemical processes causing retardation with the help of a distribution coefficient that does not explain those phenomena. Radionuclide transport models via a heat transfer analogy and analytical solutions of them are derived in the study. The calculations are performed with a created Matlab program for a single nuclide model taking into account 1D advective transport along a fracture, 1D diffusion from the fracture into and within the porous rock matrices surrounding the fracture, retardation within the matrices, and radioactive decay. The results are compared to the results of the same calculation cases obtained by Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) and presented in TILA-99 safety assessment report. The model used by VTT is the same but the results have been calculated numerically in different geometry. The differences between the results of the present study and TILA-99 can to a large extent be explained by the different approaches to

  2. C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2006-03-30

    Professors and graduate students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and hydrocarbon gases and liquids produced from coal. An Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report summarizes the results obtained in this program during the period October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2006. The results are presented in detailed reports on 16 research projects headed by professors at each of the five CFFS Universities and an Executive Summary. Some of the highlights from these results are: (1) Small ({approx}1%) additions of acetylene or other alkynes to the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) reaction increases its yield, causes chain initiation, and promotes oxygenate formation. (2) The addition of Mo to Fe-Cu-K/AC F-T catalysts improves catalyst lifetime and activity. (3) The use of gas phase deposition to place highly dispersed metal catalysts on silica or ceria aerogels offers promise for both the F-T and the water-gas shift WGS reactions. (4) Improved activity and selectivity are exhibited by Co F-T catalysts in supercritical hexane. (5) Binary Fe

  3. Model for Environmental Assessment of Container Ship Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Hans Otto Holmegaard

    2012-01-01

    A generic computer model for systematic investigations of container ship designs is described in this paper. The primary statistical data on container ships used for the model development are also presented. The model can be used to calculate exhaust gas emissions from container ships, including...

  4. Characterization of transport phenomena in small polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    In small fuel cell systems, energy consumption and size of auxiliary devices should be minimized. One option is to use passive controlling methods that rely on material and structural solutions. Therefore it is important to understand transport phenomena occurring in the cells. In this thesis, charge, mass, and heat transport phenomena related to small PEMFCs were studied experimentally and by modeling. A new method was developed for the characterization of water transport properties of p...

  5. 40 CFR 80.610 - What acts are prohibited under the diesel fuel sulfur program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel... supply, store or transport motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel fuel, ECA marine fuel or heating oil... transport any diesel fuel for use in motor vehicle or nonroad engines that contains greater than...

  6. Hydrogen as a near-term transportation fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schock, R.N.; Berry, G.D.; Smith, J.R.; Rambach, G.D.

    1995-06-29

    The health costs associated with urban air pollution are a growing problem faced by all societies. Automobiles burning gasoline and diesel contribute a great deal to this problem. The cost to the United States of imported oil is more than US$50 billion annually. Economic alternatives are being actively sought. Hydrogen fuel, used in an internal combustion engine optimized for maximum efficiency and as part of a hybrid-electric vehicle, will give excellent performance and range (>480 km) with emissions well below the ultra-low emission vehicle standards being required in California. These vehicles can also be manufactured without excessive cost. Hydrogen-fueled engines have demonstrated indicated efficiencies of more than 50% under lean operation. Combining engine and other component efficiencies, the overall vehicle efficiency should be about 40%, compared with 13% for a conventional vehicle in the urban driving cycle. The optimized engine-generator unit is the mechanical equivalent of the fuel cell but at a cost competitive with today`s engines. The increased efficiency of hybrid-electric vehicles now makes hydrogen fuel competitive with today`s conventional vehicles. Conservative analysis of the infrastructure options to support a transition to a hydrogen-fueled light-duty fleet indicates that hydrogen may be utilized at a total cost comparable to what US vehicle operators pay today. Both on-site production by electrolysis or reforming of natural gas and liquid hydrogen distribution offer the possibility of a smooth transition by taking advantage of existing low-cost, large-scale energy infrastructures. Eventually, renewable sources of electricity and scalable methods of making hydrogen will have lower costs than today. With a hybrid-electric propulsion system, the infrastructure to supply hydrogen and the vehicles to use it can be developed today and thus can be in place when fuel cells become economical for vehicle use.

  7. Transport and degradation of fuel compounds in the vadose zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, Mette; Broholm, Mette Martina; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Fuel has been spilled in the vadose zone at many sites. An artificial jet fuel source has been installed in a vadose zone at Airbase Værløse. The field experiment is conducted to investigate the natural attenuation potential in order to obtain better evaluations of the risk for groundwater...... contamination. Field data and calculations of mass in the pore air indicate a large loss within a short period of time. Laboratory experiments and isotopic analysis proves that biodegradation is occurring. The results indicate that for most compounds degradation is significant reducing the concentrations...

  8. Energy and emission benefits of alternative transportation liquid fuels derived from switchgrass: a fuel life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, May; Wu, Ye; Wang, Michael

    2006-01-01

    We conducted a mobility chains, or well-to-wheels (WTW), analysis to assess the energy and emission benefits of cellulosic biomass for the U.S. transportation sector in the years 2015-2030. We estimated the life-cycle energy consumption and emissions associated with biofuel production and use in light-duty vehicle (LDV) technologies by using the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model. Analysis of biofuel production was based on ASPEN Plus model simulation of an advanced fermentation process to produce fuel ethanol/protein, a thermochemical process to produce Fischer-Tropsch diesel (FTD) and dimethyl ether (DME), and a combined heat and power plant to co-produce steam and electricity. Our study revealed that cellulosic biofuels as E85 (mixture of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline by volume), FTD, and DME offer substantial savings in petroleum (66-93%) and fossil energy (65-88%) consumption on a per-mile basis. Decreased fossil fuel use translates to 82-87% reductions in greenhouse gas emissions across all unblended cellulosic biofuels. In urban areas, our study shows net reductions for almost all criteria pollutants, with the exception of carbon monoxide (unchanged), for each of the biofuel production option examined. Conventional and hybrid electric vehicles, when fueled with E85, could reduce total sulfur oxide (SO(x)) emissions to 39-43% of those generated by vehicles fueled with gasoline. By using bio-FTD and bio-DME in place of diesel, SO(x) emissions are reduced to 46-58% of those generated by diesel-fueled vehicles. Six different fuel production options were compared. This study strongly suggests that integrated heat and power co-generation by means of gas turbine combined cycle is a crucial factor in the energy savings and emission reductions.

  9. Pyrometallurgical separation processes of radionuclides contained in the irradiated nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Cordoba, Guadalupe; Caravaca, Concha; Quinones, Javier; Gonzalez de la Huebra, Angel

    2005-01-01

    Faced with the new options for the high level waste management, the ''Partitioning and Transmutation (P and T)'' of the radio nuclides contained in the irradiated nuclear fuel appear as a promising option from different points of view, such as environmental risk, radiotoxic inventory reduction, economic, etc.. The present work is part of a research project called ''PYROREP'' of the 5th FWP of the EU that studied the feasibility of the actinide separation from the rest of fission products contained in the irradiated nuclear fuel by pyrometallurgical processes with the aim of their transmutation. In order to design these processes it is necessary to determine basic thermodynamic and kinetic data of the radionuclides contained in the nuclear fuel in molten salt media. The electrochemical study of uranium, samarium and molybdenum in the eutectic melt LiCl - KCl has been performed at a tungsten electrode in the temperature range of 450 - 600 deg C in order to obtain these basic properties. (Author)

  10. Optimal Protection of Reactor Hall Under Nuclear Fuel Container Drop Using Simulation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Králik Juraj

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents of the optimal design of the damping devices cover of reactor hall under impact of nuclear fuel container drop of type TK C30. The finite element idealization of nuclear power plant structure is used in software ANSYS. The steel pipe damper system is proposed for dissipation of the kinetic energy of the container free fall in comparison with the experimental results. The probabilistic and sensitivity analysis of the damping devices was considered on the base of the simulation methods in program AntHill using the Monte Carlo method.

  11. Assessment of health risks brought about by transportation of spent fuel; Kaeytetyn ydinpolttoaineen kuljetusten terveysriskien arviointi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suolanen, V.; Lautkaski, R.; Rossi, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1999-03-01

    In the study health risks caused by transportation of spent fuel from Olkiluoto and from Loviisa NPP`s to the planned disposal site have been evaluated. The Olkiluoto NPP is owned by Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) and the Loviisa NPP, situated at Haestholmen, by Fortum Power and Heat Oy. According to the base scenario of 40 years use of the current NPP`s the total amount of spent fuel will be 1840 tU (TVO) and 860 tU (Fortum). Annually, 110 tU on the average and at most 250 tU will be transported to the disposal site. The considered transportation routes are from Olkiluoto to Haestholmen, from Olkiluoto to Kivetty, from Olkiluoto to Romuvaara, from Haestholmen to Olkiluoto, from Haestholmen to Kivetty and from Haestholmen to Romuvaara. The considered transportation modes are truck, rail or ship, or combinations of these modes. Each transportation route has been divided into homogenised sequences with respect to population density and/or route type. Total amount of analysed route options were 40, some route sequences are overlapping. Radiation exposures to the population along the routes have been calculated in normal, incident and accident situations during transportation. Occupational radiation doses to the personnel have been estimated for normal transportation only. The consequences of normal transportation have been evaluated based on RADTRAN-model, developed by the Sandia National Laboratories. As incidents, stopping of spent fuel transportation for an exceptionally long period of time, and in another case contamination of outer surface of spent fuel cask have been considered. Expected collective doses and health risks of transportation accidents connected to the routes have been calculated with RADTRAN-model. Single hypothetical transport accidents with pessimistic release assumptions have been further analysed in more detail with the ARANO-model, developed by VTT (Technical Research Centre of Finland). (orig.) 9 refs.

  12. Catalytic Conversion of Bio-oil to Fuel for Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peter Mølgaard

    The incitement for decreasing the modern society's dependency on fossil based fuel and energy is both environmentally and politically driven. Development of biofuels could be part of the future solution. The combination of ash pyrolysis and catalytic upgrading of the produced bio-oil has been ide...

  13. Component Development - Advanced Fuel Cells for Transportation Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, William

    2000-06-19

    Report summarizes results of second phase of development of Vairex air compressor/expander for automotive fuel cell power systems. Project included optimizing key system performance parameters, as well as reducing number of components and the project cost, size and weight of the air system. Objectives were attained. Advanced prototypes are in commercial test environments.

  14. Overview of transportation in the nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhoads, R.E.

    1977-05-01

    This document presents a review of current transportation regulations, a description of transportation systems currently in use, a discussion of systems that are anticipated to be developed in the future and a projection of shipments and shipping distances through the year 2000. (LK)

  15. Simulation of the Internal Transport Phenomena for PEM Fuel Cells with Different Modes of Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡鸣若; 朱新坚; 顾安忠

    2004-01-01

    A numerical model for proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is developed, which can simulate such basic transport phenomena as gas-liquid two-phase flow in a working fuel cell. Boundary conditions for both the conventional and the interdigitated modes of flow are presented on a three-dimensional basis. Numerical techniques for this model are discussed in detail. Validation shows good agreement between simulating results and experimental data. Furthermore, internal transport phenomena are discussed and compared for PEM fuel cells with conventional and interdigitated flows. It is found that the dead-ended structure of an interdigitated flow does increase the oxygen mass fraction and decrease the liquid water saturation in the gas diffusion layer as compared to the conventional mode of flow. However, the cathode humidification is important for an interdigitated flow to acquire better performance than a conventional flow fuel cell.

  16. Fuel-rich, catalytic reaction experimental results. [fuel development for high-speed civil transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollbuhler, Jim

    1991-01-01

    Future aeropropulsion gas turbine combustion requirements call for operating at very high inlet temperatures, pressures, and large temperature rises. At the same time, the combustion process is to have minimum pollution effects on the environment. Aircraft gas turbine engines utilize liquid hydrocarbon fuels which are difficult to uniformly atomize and mix with combustion air. An approach for minimizing fuel related problems is to transform the liquid fuel into gaseous form prior to the completion of the combustion process. Experimentally obtained results are presented for vaporizing and partially oxidizing a liquid hydrocarbon fuel into burnable gaseous components. The presented experimental data show that 1200 to 1300 K reaction product gas, rich in hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and light-end hydrocarbons, is formed when flowing 0.3 to 0.6 fuel to air mixes through a catalyst reactor. The reaction temperatures are kept low enough that nitrogen oxides and carbon particles (soot) do not form. Results are reported for tests using different catalyst types and configurations, mass flowrates, input temperatures, and fuel to air ratios.

  17. Transport through liquid membranes containing omeprazole and lansoprazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagappa, A N; Pandi, P V; Mishra, P K; Girish, Rahul K; Shanmukh, I

    2002-12-01

    Omeprazole and lansoprazole, the therapeutically important drugs belonging to proton pump inhibitor category are extensively used in the treatment of gastric ulcers. Transport through liquid membranes generated by these drugs in lecithin-cholesterol mixture in series with a supporting membrane has been studied. The data obtained show the formation of liquid membrane in series with the supporting membrane. Transport of cations, chloride and bicarbonate ions in the presence liquid membranes generated by omeprazole and lanzoprazole indicate the modification in the permeability of various permeants.

  18. Morphologically controlled fuel cell transport layers enabled via electrospun carbon nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Devin; Mérida, Walter

    2015-01-01

    We report on the synthesis and performance of carbon nanofibre substrates for PEM fuel cell transport layer applications. Electrospinning is used for fabrication; by manipulation of spinning properties, morphological control is demonstrated in the product. Our application of the technology and it's manipulability to PEMFC transport layers constitutes a novel approach to the manufacture of such layers. Ex-situ morphology, electrical resistance and water contact angles are reported in additional to in-situ hydrogen/air fuel cell performance. Electrospun transport layers are compared directly to established commercial products in a cathode PTL role. The electrospun transport layers demonstrate approximately 85% of the commercial limiting current density, swifter water transport characteristics, and markedly more stable operating points.

  19. Fuel cells for transportation program: FY1997 national laboratory annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cells for Transportation Program is structured to effectively implement the research and development (R and D) required for highly efficient, low or zero emission fuel cell power systems to be a viable replacement for the internal combustion engine in automobiles. The Program is part of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), a government-industry initiative aimed at development of an 80 mile-per-gallon vehicle. This Annual Report summarizes the technical accomplishments of the laboratories during 1997. Participants include: Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). During 1997, the laboratory R and D included one project on solid oxide fuel cells; this project has since been terminated to focus Department resources on PEM fuel cells. The technical component of this report is divided into five key areas: fuel cell stack research and development; fuel processing; fuel cell modeling, testing, and evaluation; direct methanol PEM fuel cells; and solid oxide fuel cells.

  20. A Historical Review of the Safe Transport of Spent Nuclear Fuel, Rev. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, Kevin J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pope, Ronald [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report is a revision to M3 milestone M3FT-16OR090402028 for the former Nuclear Fuels Storage and Transportation Planning Project (NFST), “Safety Record of SNF Shipments.” The US Department of Energy (DOE) has since established the Office of Integrated Waste Management (IWM), which builds on the work begun by NFST, to develop an integrated waste management system for spent nuclear fuel (SNF), including the developm

  1. Water Transport Analysis in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells by Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.Tsushima; S.Hirai

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) have beenintensively developedfor future vehicle applications andon-site power generation owing to its high energy efficiency and high power density.In PEFCs ,appropriatewater management to maintain polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) hydratedis of great i mportance ,becausethe ion conductivity of membraneislower at lower water content .Consequently,it is of great interest to watercontent and water transport process in PEMs during fuel cell operation.

  2. Non-isothermal two-phase transport in the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell microporous layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Nan

    This thesis investigates the water transport mechanisms in the crack-free microporous layer (MPL) of a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell. Synchrotron X-ray radiography was used to visualize and quantify the in situ liquid water in the gas diffusion layers (GDLs) of an operating fuel cell. A methodology was developed to correct the artefact of imaging sample movement. Furthermore, to address inaccuracies due to the scattering effect and higher harmonics at the synchrotron beamline, a calibration technique was introduced in order to experimentally determine the liquid water X-ray attenuation coefficient. Through in situ radiography, liquid water breakthrough events were observed in the MPL, and measured water thicknesses were used as inputs into a one-dimensional (1D) heat and mass transport model. The 1D model was used to describe the coupled relationship between liquid and vapour transport through the cathode MPL and the temperature distributions in the operating fuel cell.

  3. A Review of Hydrothermal Liquefaction Bio-Crude Properties and Prospects for Upgrading to Transportation Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome A. Ramirez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL presents a viable route for converting a vast range of materials into liquid fuel, without the need for pre-drying. Currently, HTL studies produce bio-crude with properties that fall short of diesel or biodiesel standards. Upgrading bio-crude improves the physical and chemical properties to produce a fuel corresponding to diesel or biodiesel. Properties such as viscosity, density, heating value, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur content, and chemical composition can be modified towards meeting fuel standards using strategies such as solvent extraction, distillation, hydrodeoxygenation and catalytic cracking. This article presents a review of the upgrading technologies available, and how they might be used to make HTL bio-crude into a transportation fuel that meets current fuel property standards.

  4. Model for Environmental Assessment of Container Ship Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Hans Otto Holmegaard

    2012-01-01

    emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2). A calculation procedure to estimate the newly designated Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI), which is under development at the International Maritime Organisation (IMO), is included in the model. Different ship design parameters have been varied to see the influence......A generic computer model for systematic investigations of container ship designs is described in this paper. The primary statistical data on container ships used for the model development are also presented. The model can be used to calculate exhaust gas emissions from container ships, including...

  5. Role of membranes and membrane reactors in the hydrogen supply of fuel cells for transports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julbe, A.; Guizard, Ch. [Institut Europeen des Membranes, UMII, Lab. des Materiaux et des Procedes Membranaires, CNRS UMR 5635, 34 - Montpellier (France)

    2000-07-01

    Production, storage and supply of high-purity hydrogen as a clean and efficient fuel is central to fuel cells technology, in particular in vehicle traction. Actually, technologies for handling liquefied or gaseous hydrogen in transports are not available so that a number of alternative fuels are considered with the aim of in-situ generation of hydrogen through catalytic processes. The integrated concept of membrane reactors (MRs) can greatly benefit to these technologies. Particular emphasis is put on inorganic membranes and their role in MRs performance for H{sub 2} production.

  6. Self-deconstructing algae biomass as feedstock for transportation fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Ryan Wesley [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Biomass Science and Conversion Technologies

    2014-09-01

    The potential for producing biofuels from algae has generated much excitement based on projections of large oil yields with relatively little land use. However, numerous technical challenges remain for achieving market parity with conventional non-renewable liquid fuel sources. Among these challenges, the energy intensive requirements of traditional cell rupture, lipid extraction, and residuals fractioning of microalgae biomass have posed significant challenges to the nascent field of algal biotechnology. Our novel approach to address these problems was to employ low cost solution-state methods and biochemical engineering to eliminate the need for extensive hardware and energy intensive methods for cell rupture, carbohydrate and protein solubilization and hydrolysis, and fuel product recovery using consolidated bioprocessing strategies. The outcome of the biochemical deconstruction and conversion process consists of an emulsion of algal lipids and mixed alcohol products from carbohydrate and protein fermentation for co-extraction or in situ transesterification.

  7. Direct methanol fuel cells for transportation applications. Quarterly technical report, June 1996--September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, T.F.; Kunz, H.R.; Moore, R.

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this research and development effort is to advance the performance and viability of direct methanol fuel cell technology for light-duty transportation applications. For fuel cells to be an attractive alternative to conventional automotive power plants, the fuel cell stack combined with the fuel processor and ancillary systems must be competitive in terms of both performance and costs. A major advantage for the direct methanol fuel cell is that a fuel processor is not required. A direct methanol fuel cell has the potential of satisfying the demanding requirements for transportation applications, such as rapid start-up and rapid refueling. The preliminary goals of this effort are: (1) 310 W/l, (2) 445 W/kg, and (3) potential manufacturing costs of $48/kW. In the twelve month period for phase 1, the following critical areas will be investigated: (1) an improved proton-exchange membrane that is more impermeable to methanol, (2) improved cathode catalysts, and (3) advanced anode catalysts. In addition, these components will be combined to form membrane-electrode assemblies (MEA`s) and evaluated in subscale tests. Finally a conceptual design and program plan will be developed for the construction of a 5 kW direct methanol stack in phase II of the program.

  8. Adsorptive removal of nitrogen-containing compounds from fuel by metal-organic frameworks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhaoyang; Wang; Zhiguo; Sun; Linghao; Kong; Gang; Li

    2013-01-01

    The adsorptive denitrogenation from fuels over three metal-organic frameworks(MIL-96(Al),MIL-53(Al)and MIL-101(Cr))was studied by batch adsorption experiments.Four nitrogen-containing compounds(NCCs)pyridine,pyrrole,quinoline and indole were used as model NCCs in fuels to study the adsorption mechanism.The physicochemical properties of the adsorbents were characterized by XRD,N2physical adsorption,FT-IR spectrum and Hammett indicator method.The metal-organic frameworks(MOFs),especially the MIL-101(Cr)containing Lewis acid sites as well as high specific surface area,can adsorb large quantities of NCCs from fuels.In addition,the adsorptive capacity over MIL-101(Cr)will be different for NCCs with different basicity.The stronger basicity of the NCC is,the more it can be absorbed over MIL-101(Cr).Furthermore,pore size and shape also affect the adsorption capacity for a given adsorbate,which can be proved by the adsorption over MIL-53(Al)and MIL-96(Al).The pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir equation can be used to describe kinetics and thermodynamics of the adsorption process,respectively.Finally,the regeneration of the used adsorbent has been conducted successfully by just washing it with ethanol.

  9. Transport realization of high resolution fossil fuel CO2 emissions in an urban domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y.; Gurney, K. R.

    2010-12-01

    CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion are the largest net annual flux of carbon in the earth atmosphere system and energy consumption in urban environments is a major contributor to total fossil fuel CO2 emissions. Understanding how the emissions are transported in space and time, especially in urban environments and resolving contributions from individual sources of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions are an essential component of a complete reliable monitoring, reporting, and verification (MRV) system that are emerging at local, national, and international levels. As grid models are not designed to resolve concentrations on local scales, we tested the transport realization of fossil fuel CO2 emissions using the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model (HYSPLIT) model, a commonly used transport algorithm for small domain air quality studies, in the greater Indianapolis region, USA. A typical 24-hour point, mobile, and area sources fossil fuel CO2 emissions in four seasons (spring, summer, autumn and winter) were processed from hourly emissions data and prepared at 500-meter spatial resolution for the model inputs together with other parameters. The simulation result provides a complete 4-dimensional concentration matrix transported from all sources for the urban domain which can be analyzed in order to isolate individual sources or test sampling strategies for verification at selected time periods. In addition, the urban 4-dimensional concentration matrix can be visualized in a virtual environment, which provides a powerful education and outreach platform for researchers, students, and public.

  10. Application and Development of Biomass Fuels for Transportation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jianxin; SHUAI Shijin; CHEN Hu

    2007-01-01

    Biomass fuels have become a big concern due to the large increase in green house gases and the rapid rise of petroleum prices around the world. This paper reviews recent developments in biomass fuels,such as ethanol and biodiesel, in China. Ethanol-gasoline mixture (E10) for vehicles is currently distributed in nine provinces while biodiesel is under development. One way to extend the application of ethanol is to burn it in diesel engines to lower soot emissions. The effects of the different methods blending ethanol with fossil diesel, and blending biodiesel with fossil diesel and ethanol-diesel on the combustion and emissions are investigated. The test results show that ethanol and biodiesel can be mixed with fossil diesel to greatly reduce particulate matter and soot emissions from diesel engines. But the application of ethanol blending with fossil diesel is more difficult than that of ethanol blending with gasoline, and biodiesel blending with fossil diesel. The dual-fuel injection of ethanol and diesel systems has the highest smoke reduction effect for a high ethanol fraction.

  11. Ethanol as a fuel for road transportation. Main report; Contribution to IEA Implementing Agreement on Advanced Motor Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Ulrik; Johansen, T.; Schramm, J.

    2009-05-15

    Bioethanol as a motor fuel in the transportation sector, mainly for road transportation, has been subject to many studies and much discussion. Furthermore, the topic involves not only the application and engine technical aspects, but also the understanding of the entire life cycle of the fuel, well-to-wheels, including economical, environmental, and social aspects. It is not, however, the aim of this report to assess every single one of these aspects. The present report aims to address the technical potential and problems as well as the central issues related to the general application of bioethanol as an energy carrier in the near future. In discussions of the advantages and drawbacks of ethanol, the type of application is important. Generalization is not possible, because ethanol can be used in many forms. Furthermore, a wide range of ethanol/gasoline blends has not yet been investigated sufficiently. The most favorable type of application is determined by infrastructural factors, especially vehicle fleet configuration. From a technical point of view, optimal usage involves a high degree of water content in the ethanol, and this excludes low-percentage-ethanol fuels. The benefits seem strongly related to the amount of ethanol in a given blend, that is, the more the better. Both engine efficiencies and emissions improve with more ethanol in the fuel. Wet ethanol constitutes an even cleaner fuel in both the production and application phases. In summary, ethanol application has many possibilities, but with each type of application comes a set of challenges. Nevertheless, technical solutions for each challenge are available. (ln)

  12. Transportation costs for new fuel forms produced from low rank US coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newcombe, R.J.; McKelvey, D.G. (TMS, Inc., Germantown, MD (USA)); Ruether, J.A. (USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (USA))

    1990-09-01

    Transportation costs are examined for four types of new fuel forms (solid, syncrude, methanol, and slurry) produced from low rank coals found in the lower 48 states of the USA. Nine low rank coal deposits are considered as possible feedstocks for mine mouth processing plants. Transportation modes analyzed include ship/barge, pipelines, rail, and truck. The largest potential market for the new fuel forms is coal-fired utility boilers without emission controls. Lowest cost routes from each of the nine source regions to supply this market are determined. 12 figs.

  13. Membraneless glucose/oxygen enzymatic fuel cells using redox hydrogel films containing carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAodha, Domhnall; Ó Conghaile, Peter; Egan, Brenda; Kavanagh, Paul; Leech, Dónal

    2013-07-22

    Co-immobilisation of three separate multiple blue copper oxygenases, a Myceliophthora thermophila laccase, a Streptomyces coelicolor laccase and a Myrothecium verrucaria bilirubin oxidase, with an [Os(2,2'-bipyridine)2 (polyvinylimidazole)10Cl](+/2+) redox polymer in the presence of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on graphite electrodes results in enzyme electrodes that produce current densities above 0.5 mA cm(-2) for oxygen reduction at an applied potential of 0 V versus Ag/AgCl. Fully enzymatic membraneless fuel cells are assembled with the oxygen-reducing enzyme electrodes connected to glucose-oxidising anodes based on co-immobilisation of glucose oxidase or a flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent glucose dehydrogenase with an [Os(4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine)2(polyvinylimidazole)10Cl](+/2+) redox polymer in the presence of MWCNTs on graphite electrodes. These fuel cells can produce power densities of up to 145 μW cm(-2) on operation in pH 7.4 phosphate buffer solution at 37 °C containing 150 mM NaCl, 5 mM glucose and 0.12 mM O2. The fuel cells based on Myceliophthora thermophila laccase enzyme electrodes produce the highest power density if combined with glucose oxidase-based anodes. Although the maximum power density of a fuel cell of glucose dehydrogenase and Myceliophthora thermophila laccase enzyme electrodes decreases from 110 μW cm(-2) in buffer to 60 μW cm(-2) on testing in artificial plasma, it provides the highest power output reported to date for a fully enzymatic glucose-oxidising, oxygen-reducing fuel cell in artificial plasma.

  14. Development of a Life Cycle Inventory of Water Consumption Associated with the Production of Transportation Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampert, David J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cai, Hao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, Zhichao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Keisman, Jennifer [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wu, May [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Han, Jeongwoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dunn, Jennifer [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sullivan, John L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Elgowainy, Amgad [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Keisman, Jennifer [American Association for the Advancemetn of Science (AAAS), Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The production of all forms of energy consumes water. To meet increased energy demands, it is essential to quantify the amount of water consumed in the production of different forms of energy. By analyzing the water consumed in different technologies, it is possible to identify areas for improvement in water conservation and reduce water stress in energy-producing regions. The transportation sector is a major consumer of energy in the United States. Because of the relationships between water and energy, the sustainability of transportation is tied to management of water resources. Assessment of water consumption throughout the life cycle of a fuel is necessary to understand its water resource implications. To perform a comparative life cycle assessment of transportation fuels, it is necessary first to develop an inventory of the water consumed in each process in each production supply chain. The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model is an analytical tool that can used to estimate the full life-cycle environmental impacts of various transportation fuel pathways from wells to wheels. GREET is currently being expanded to include water consumption as a sustainability metric. The purpose of this report was to document data sources and methodologies to estimate water consumption factors (WCF) for the various transportation fuel pathways in GREET. WCFs reflect the quantity of freshwater directly consumed per unit production for various production processes in GREET. These factors do not include consumption of precipitation or low-quality water (e.g., seawater) and reflect only water that is consumed (i.e., not returned to the source from which it was withdrawn). The data in the report can be combined with GREET to compare the life cycle water consumption for different transportation fuels.

  15. Study of minimum-weight highway transporters for spent nuclear fuel casks: Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoess, J.A.; Drago, V.J.

    1989-05-01

    There are federal and state limits on the maximum tractor-trailer- payload combination and individual axle loads permissible on US highways. These can generally be considered as two sets, i.e., legal-weight and overweight limits. The number of individual shipments required will decrease as the capacity of the spent nuclear fuel cask increases. Thus, there is an incentive for identifying readily available minimum-weight tractors and trailers capable of safely and reliably transporting as large a cask as possible without exceeding the legal gross combination weight (GCW) of 80,000 lb or selected overweight GCW limit of 110,000 lb. This study identifies options for commercially available heavy-duty on-highway tractors and trailers for transporting proposed future loaded spent nuclear fuel casks. Loaded cask weights of 56,000 and 80,000 lb were selected as reference design points for the legal-weight and overweight transporters, respectively. The technical data on tractor and trailer characteristics obtained indicate that it is possible to develop a tractor-trailer combination, tailored for spent nuclear fuel transportation service, utilizing existing technology and commercially available components, capable of safely and reliably transporting 56,000 and 80,000-lb spent nuclear fuel casks without exceeding GCWs of 80,000 and 10,000 lb, respectively. 4 figs., 14 tabs.

  16. Corrosion of copper containers prior to saturation of a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, F.; Kolar, M

    1997-12-01

    The buffer material surrounding the containers in a Canadian nuclear fuel waste disposal vault will partially desiccate as a result of the elevated temperature at the container surface. This will lead to a period of corrosion in a moist air atmosphere. Corrosion will either take the form of slow oxidation if the container surface remains dry or aqueous electrochemical corrosion if the surface is wetted by a thin liquid film. The relevant literature is reviewed, from which it is concluded that corrosion should be uniform in nature, except if the surface is wetted, in which case localized corrosion is a possibility. A quantitative analysis of the extent and rate of uniform corrosion during the unsaturated period is presented. Two bounding cases are considered: first, the case of slow oxidation in moist air following either logarithmic or parabolic oxide-growth kinetics and, second, the case of electrochemically based corrosion occurring in a thin liquid film uninhibited by the growth of corrosion products. (author)

  17. Alternative transportation fuels: Infrastructure requirements and environmental impacts for ethanol and hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeley, Heather L.

    Alternative fuels could replace a significant portion of the 140 billion gallons of annual US gasoline use. Considerable attention is being paid to processes and technologies for producing alternative fuels, but an enormous investment in new infrastructure will be needed to have substantial impact on the demand for petroleum. The economics of production, distribution, and use, along with environmental impacts of these fuels, will determine the success or failure of a transition away from US petroleum dependence. This dissertation evaluates infrastructure requirements for ethanol and hydrogen as alternative fuels. It begins with an economic case study for ethanol and hydrogen in Iowa. A large-scale linear optimization model is developed to estimate average transportation distances and costs for nationwide ethanol production and distribution systems. Environmental impacts of transportation in the ethanol life cycle are calculated using the Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment (EIO-LCA) model. An EIO-LCA Hybrid method is developed to evaluate impacts of future fuel production technologies. This method is used to estimate emissions for hydrogen production and distribution pathways. Results from the ethanol analyses indicate that the ethanol transportation cost component is significant and is the most variable. Costs for ethanol sold in the Midwest, near primary production centers, are estimated to be comparable to or lower than gasoline costs. Along with a wide range of transportation costs, environmental impacts for ethanol range over three orders of magnitude, depending on the transport required. As a result, intensive ethanol use should be encouraged near ethanol production areas. Fossil fuels are likely to remain the primary feedstock sources for hydrogen production in the near- and mid-term. Costs and environmental impacts of hydrogen produced from natural gas and transported by pipeline are comparable to gasoline. However, capital costs are prohibitive and

  18. A new fast neutron collar for safeguards inspection measurements of fresh low enriched uranium fuel assemblies containing burnable poison rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Louise G.; Swinhoe, Martyn T.; Menlove, Howard O.; Schwalbach, Peter; Baere, Paul De; Browne, Michael C.

    2013-11-01

    Safeguards inspection measurements must be performed in a timely manner in order to detect the diversion of significant quantities of nuclear material. A shorter measurement time can increase the number of items that a nuclear safeguards inspector can reliably measure during a period of access to a nuclear facility. In turn, this improves the reliability of the acquired statistical sample, which is used to inform decisions regarding compliance. Safeguards inspection measurements should also maintain independence from facility operator declarations. Existing neutron collars employ thermal neutron interrogation for safeguards inspection measurements of fresh fuel assemblies. A new fast neutron collar has been developed for safeguards inspection measurements of fresh low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel assemblies containing gadolinia (Gd2O3) burnable poison rods. The Euratom Fast Collar (EFC) was designed with high neutron detection efficiency to make a fast (Cd) mode measurement viable whilst meeting the high counting precision and short assay time requirements of the Euratom safeguards inspectorate. A fast mode measurement reduces the instrument sensitivity to burnable poison rod content and therefore reduces the applied poison correction, consequently reducing the dependence on the operator declaration of the poison content within an assembly. The EFC non-destructive assay (NDA) of typical modern European pressurized water reactor (PWR) fresh fuel assembly designs have been simulated using Monte Carlo N-particle extended transport code (MCNPX) simulations. Simulations predict that the EFC can achieve 2% relative statistical uncertainty on the doubles neutron counting rate for a fast mode measurement in an assay time of 600 s (10 min) with the available 241AmLi (α,n) interrogation source strength of 5.7×104 s-1. Furthermore, the calibration range of the new collar has been extended to verify 235U content in variable PWR fuel designs in the presence of up to 32

  19. Applying Advanced Neutron Transport Calculations for Improving Fuel Performance Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botazzoli, P.; Luzzi, L. [Politecnico di Milano, Department of Energy, Nuclear Engineering Division - CeSNEF, Milano (Italy); Schubert, A.; Van Uffelen, P. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, Karlsruhe (Germany); Haeck, W. [Institute de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2009-06-15

    TRANSURANUS is a computer code for the thermal and mechanical analysis of fuel rods in nuclear reactors. As part of the code, the TUBRNP model calculates the local concentration of the actinides (U, Pu, Am, Cm), the main fission products (Xe, Kr, Cs and Nd) and {sup 4}He produced during the irradiation as a function of the radial position across a fuel pellet (radial profiles). These local quantities are required for the determination of the local power density, the local burn-up, and the source term of fission products and other inert gases. In previous works the neutronic code ALEPH has been used to validate the models for the actinides and fission products concentrations in UO{sub 2} fuels. A similar approach has been adopted in the present work for verifying the Helium production. The present paper focuses on the modelling of the Helium production in PWR oxide fuels (MOX and UO{sub 2}). A reliable prediction of the Helium production and release in LWR oxide fuels is of great interest in case of increasing burn-up, linear heat generation rates and Plutonium content. The contribution of the Helium released plays a fundamental role in the gap pressure and subsequently in the mechanical behaviour of the fuel rod, in particular during the storage of the high burn-up spent fuel. Helium is produced in oxide fuels by three main paths: (i) alpha decay of the actinides (the main contribution is due to {sup 242}Cm, {sup 238}Pu and {sup 244}Cm); (ii) (n,{alpha}) reactions; and (iii) ternary fission. In the present work, the contributions due to ternary fission and the (n,{alpha}) reaction on {sup 16}O as well as some refinements in the {sup 241}Am burn-up chain have been included in TUBRNP. The VESTA neutronic code has been used for the validation of the He production model. The generic VESTA Monte Carlo depletion interface developed at IRSN allows us to couple different Monte Carlo codes with a depletion module. It currently allows for combining the ORIGEN 2.2 isotope

  20. A TRANSPORTATION RISK ASSESSMENT TOOL FOR ANALYZING THE TRANSPORT OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE TO THE PROPOSED YUCCA MOUNTAIN REPOSITORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NA

    2001-02-15

    The Yucca Mountain Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) analysis addressed the potential for transporting spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste from 77 origins for 34 types of spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste, 49,914 legal weight truck shipments, and 10,911 rail shipments. The analysis evaluated transportation over 59,250 unique shipment links for travel outside Nevada (shipment segments in urban, suburban or rural zones by state), and 22,611 links in Nevada. In addition, the analysis modeled the behavior of 41 isotopes, 1091 source terms, and used 8850 food transfer factors (distinct factors by isotope for each state). The analysis also used mode-specific accident rates for legal weight truck, rail, and heavy haul truck by state, and barge by waterway. This complex mix of data and information required an innovative approach to assess the transportation impacts. The approach employed a Microsoft{reg_sign} Access database tool that incorporated data from many sources, including unit risk factors calculated using the RADTRAN IV transportation risk assessment computer program. Using Microsoft{reg_sign} Access, the analysts organized data (such as state-specific accident and fatality rates) into tables and developed queries to obtain the overall transportation impacts. Queries are instructions to the database describing how to use data contained in the database tables. While a query might be applied to thousands of table entries, there is only one sequence of queries that is used to calculate a particular transportation impact. For example, the incident-free dose to off-link populations in a state is calculated by a query that uses route segment lengths for each route in a state that could be used by shipments, populations for each segment, number of shipments on each segment, and an incident-free unit risk factor calculated using RADTRAN IV. In addition to providing a method for using large volumes of data in the calculations, the

  1. Ultrasonic Fingerprinting of Structural Materials: Spent Nuclear Fuel Containers Case-Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sednev, D.; Lider, A.; Demyanuk, D.; Kroening, M.; Salchak, Y.

    Nowadays, NDT is mainly focused on safety purposes, but it seems possible to apply those methods to provide national and IAEA safeguards. The containment of spent fuel in storage casks could be dramatically improved in case of development of so-called "smart" spent fuel storage and transfer casks. Such casks would have tamper indicating and monitoring/tracking features integrated directly into the cask design. The microstructure of the containers material as well as of the dedicated weld seam is applied to the lid and the cask body and provides a unique fingerprint of the full container, which can be reproducibly scanned by using an appropriate technique. The echo-sounder technique, which is the most commonly used method for material inspection, was chosen for this project. The main measuring parameter is acoustic noise, reflected from material's artefacts. The purpose is to obtain structural fingerprinting. Reference measurement and additional measurement results were compared. Obtained results have verified the appliance of structural fingerprint and the chosen control method. The successful authentication demonstrates the levels of the feature points' compliance exceeding the given threshold which differs considerably from the percentage of the concurrent points during authentication from other points. Since reproduction or doubling of the proposed unique identification characteristics is impossible at the current state science and technology, application of this technique is considered to identify the interference into the nuclear materials displacement with high accuracy.

  2. Visualization of Fuel Cell Water Transport and Performance Characterization under Freezing Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandlikar, Satish G. [Rochester Inst. of Technology, Rochester, NY (United States); Lu, Zijie [Rochester Inst. of Technology, Rochester, NY (United States); Rao, Navalgund [Rochester Inst. of Technology, Rochester, NY (United States); Sergi, Jacqueline [Rochester Inst. of Technology, Rochester, NY (United States); Rath, Cody [Rochester Inst. of Technology, Rochester, NY (United States); McDade, Christopher [Rochester Inst. of Technology, Rochester, NY (United States); Trabold, Thomas [General Motors, Honeoye Falls, NY (United States); Owejan, Jon [General Motors, Honeoye Falls, NY (United States); Gagliardo, Jeffrey [General Motors, Honeoye Falls, NY (United States); Allen, Jeffrey [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Yassar, Reza S. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Medici, Ezequiel [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Herescu, Alexandru [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States)

    2010-05-30

    In this program, Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT), General Motors (GM) and Michigan Technological University (MTU) have focused on fundamental studies that address water transport, accumulation and mitigation processes in the gas diffusion layer and flow field channels of the bipolar plate. These studies have been conducted with a particular emphasis on understanding the key transport phenomena which control fuel cell operation under freezing conditions.

  3. Fuel Consumption Management in the Transportation Sector in Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dastjerdi, Aliasghar M.; Araghi, Bahar Namaki

    2011-01-01

    Energy consumption in the transportation sector in Iran is significantly higher than global norms and standards which caused some issues including wasting national resources, deteriorating air quality, GHG emissions etc. The major purpose of this paper is to introduce practical policies, strategi...

  4. Biogas as a fuel source for the transport sector

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Szewczuk, S

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ; and there is an urgent need to develop clean, low-carbon mass transport options that are accessible and affordable A legacy of mining has resulted in mine-dumps, with air-, water- and soil- contamination and degraded land. These lands are unutilised or underutilised...

  5. Life-cycle assessment of diesel, natural gas and hydrogen fuel cell bus transportation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ally, Jamie; Pryor, Trevor

    The Sustainable Transport Energy Programme (STEP) is an initiative of the Government of Western Australia, to explore hydrogen fuel cell technology as an alternative to the existing diesel and natural gas public transit infrastructure in Perth. This project includes three buses manufactured by DaimlerChrysler with Ballard fuel cell power sources operating in regular service alongside the existing natural gas and diesel bus fleets. The life-cycle assessment (LCA) of the fuel cell bus trial in Perth determines the overall environmental footprint and energy demand by studying all phases of the complete transportation system, including the hydrogen infrastructure, bus manufacturing, operation, and end-of-life disposal. The LCAs of the existing diesel and natural gas transportation systems are developed in parallel. The findings show that the trial is competitive with the diesel and natural gas bus systems in terms of global warming potential and eutrophication. Emissions that contribute to acidification and photochemical ozone are greater for the fuel cell buses. Scenario analysis quantifies the improvements that can be expected in future generations of fuel cell vehicles and shows that a reduction of greater than 50% is achievable in the greenhouse gas, photochemical ozone creation and primary energy demand impact categories.

  6. Hybrid life-cycle assessment of natural gas based fuel chains for transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strømman, Anders Hammer; Solli, Christian; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2006-04-15

    This research compares the use of natural gas, methanol, and hydrogen as transportation fuels. These three fuel chains start with the extraction and processing of natural gas in the Norwegian North Sea and end with final use in Central Europe. The end use is passenger transportation with a sub-compact car that has an internal combustion engine for the natural gas case and a fuel cell for the methanol and hydrogen cases. The life cycle assessment is performed by combining a process based life-cycle inventory with economic input-output data. The analysis shows that the potential climate impacts are lowest for the hydrogen fuel scenario with CO2 deposition. The hydrogen fuel chain scenario has no significant environmental disadvantage compared to the other fuel chains. Detailed analysis shows that the construction of the car contributes significantly to most impact categories. Finally, it is shown how the application of a hybrid inventory model ensures a more complete inventory description compared to standard process-based life-cycle assessment. This is particularly significant for car construction which would have been significantly underestimated in this study using standard process life-cycle assessment alone.

  7. Used Fuel Logistics: Decades of Experience with transportation and Interim storage solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orban, G.; Shelton, C.

    2015-07-01

    Used fuel inventories are growing worldwide. While some countries have opted for a closed cycle with recycling, numerous countries must expand their interim storage solutions as implementation of permanent repositories is taking more time than foreseen. In both cases transportation capabilities will have to be developed. AREVA TN has an unparalleled expertise with transportation of used fuel. For more than 50 years AREVA TN has safely shipped more than 7,000 used fuel transport casks. The transportation model that was initially developed in the 1970s has been adapted and enhanced over the years to meet more restrictive regulatory requirements and evolving customer needs, and to address public concerns. The numerous “lessons learned” have offered data and guidance that have allowed for also efficient and consistent improvement over the decades. AREVA TN has also an extensive experience with interim dry storage solutions in many countries on-site but also is working with partners to developed consolidated interim storage facility. Both expertise with storage and transportation contribute to safe, secure and smooth continuity of the operations. This paper will describe decades of experience with a very successful transportation program as well as interim storage solutions. (Author)

  8. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heath, Garvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sandor, Debra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Steward, Darlene [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vimmerstedt, Laura [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Warner, Ethan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Webster, Karen W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The petroleum-based transportation fuel system is complex and highly developed, in contrast to the nascent low-petroleum, low-carbon alternative fuel system. This report examines how expansion of the low-carbon transportation fuel infrastructure could contribute to deep reductions in petroleum use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions across the U.S. transportation sector. Three low-carbon scenarios, each using a different combination of low-carbon fuels, were developed to explore infrastructure expansion trends consistent with a study goal of reducing transportation sector GHG emissions to 80% less than 2005 levels by 2050.These scenarios were compared to a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario and were evaluated with respect to four criteria: fuel cost estimates, resource availability, fuel production capacity expansion, and retail infrastructure expansion.

  9. MEASUREMENTS AND COMPUTATIONS OF FUEL DROPLET TRANSPORT IN TURBULENT FLOWS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Katz and Omar Knio

    2007-01-10

    The objective of this project is to study the dynamics of fuel droplets in turbulent water flows. The results are essential for development of models capable of predicting the dispersion of slightly light/heavy droplets in isotropic turbulence. Since we presently do not have any experimental data on turbulent diffusion of droplets, existing mixing models have no physical foundations. Such fundamental knowledge is essential for understanding/modeling the environmental problems associated with water-fuel mixing, and/or industrial processes involving mixing of immiscible fluids. The project has had experimental and numerical components: 1. The experimental part of the project has had two components. The first involves measurements of the lift and drag forces acting on a droplet being entrained by a vortex. The experiments and data analysis associated with this phase are still in progress, and the facility, constructed specifically for this project is described in Section 3. In the second and main part, measurements of fuel droplet dispersion rates have been performed in a special facility with controlled isotropic turbulence. As discussed in detail in Section 2, quantifying and modeling the of droplet dispersion rate requires measurements of their three dimensional trajectories in turbulent flows. To obtain the required data, we have introduced a new technique - high-speed, digital Holographic Particle Image Velocimetry (HPIV). The technique, experimental setup and results are presented in Section 2. Further information is available in Gopalan et al. (2005, 2006). 2. The objectives of the numerical part are: (1) to develop a computational code that combines DNS of isotropic turbulence with Lagrangian tracking of particles based on integration of a dynamical equation of motion that accounts for pressure, added mass, lift and drag forces, (2) to perform extensive computations of both buoyant (bubbles) and slightly buoyant (droplets) particles in turbulence conditions

  10. Usage of Production Functions in the Comparative Analysis of Transport Related Fuel Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torok Adam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribution aims to examine the relationship between the transport sector and the macroeconomy, particularly in fossil energy use, capital and labour relations. The authors have investigated the transport related fossil fuel consumption 2003 -2010 in a macroeconomic context in Hungary and Germany. The Cobb-Douglas type of production function could be justified empirically, while originating from the general CES (Constant Elasticity of Substitution production function. Furthermore, as a policy implication, the results suggest that a solution for the for the reduction of anthropogenic CO2 driven by the combustion of fossil fuels presupposes technological innovation to reach emission reduction targets. Other measures, such as increasing the fossil fuel price by levying taxes, would consequently lead to an undesirable GDP decline.

  11. Mechanical Fatigue Testing of High-Burnup Fuel for Transportation Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jy-An John [ORNL; Wang, Hong [ORNL

    2015-05-01

    This report describes testing designed to determine the ability of high burnup (HBU) (>45 GWd/MTU) spent fuel to maintain its integrity under normal conditions of transportation. An innovative system, Cyclic Integrated Reversible-bending Fatigue Tester (CIRFT), has been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to test and evaluate the mechanical behavior of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) under conditions relevant to storage and transportation. The CIRFT system is composed of a U-frame equipped with load cells for imposing the pure bending loads on the SNF rod test specimen and measuring the in-situ curvature of the fuel rod during bending using a set up with three linear variable differential transformers (LVDTs).

  12. Rationale for continuing R&D in direct coal conversion to produce high quality transportation fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, R.D.; McIlvried, H.G. [Burns and Roe Services Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Gray, D. [Mitre Corp, McLean, VA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    For the foreseeable future, liquid hydrocarbon fuels will play a significant role in the transportation sector of both the United States and the world. Factors favoring these fuels include convenience, high energy density, and the vast existing infrastructure for their production and use. At present the U.S. consumes about 26% of the world supply of petroleum, but this situation is expected to change because of declining domestic production and increasing competition for imports from countries with developing economies. A scenario and time frame are developed in which declining world resources will generate a shortfall in petroleum supply that can be allieviated in part by utilizing the abundant domestic coal resource base. One option is direct coal conversion to liquid transportation fuels. Continued R&D in coal conversion technology will results in improved technical readiness that can significantly reduce costs so that synfuels can compete economically in a time frame to address the shortfall.

  13. A software tool for integrated risk assessment of spent fuel transportation and storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirae Yun

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available When temporary spent fuel storage pools at nuclear power plants reach their capacity limit, the spent fuel must be moved to an alternative storage facility. However, radioactive materials must be handled and stored carefully to avoid severe consequences to the environment. In this study, the risks of three potential accident scenarios (i.e., maritime transportation, an aircraft crashing into an interim storage facility, and on-site transportation associated with the spent fuel transportation process were analyzed using a probabilistic approach. For each scenario, the probabilities and the consequences were calculated separately to assess the risks: the probabilities were calculated using existing data and statistical models, and the consequences were calculated using computation models. Risk assessment software was developed to conveniently integrate the three scenarios. The risks were analyzed using the developed software according to the shipment route, building characteristics, and spent fuel handling environment. As a result of the risk analysis with varying accident conditions, transportation and storage strategies with relatively low risk were developed for regulators and licensees. The focus of this study was the risk assessment methodology; however, the applied model and input data have some uncertainties. Further research to reduce these uncertainties will improve the accuracy of this model.

  14. 75 FR 9452 - Solicitation of Topics for Discussion at a Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation Licensing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ... COMMISSION Solicitation of Topics for Discussion at a Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation Licensing Conference AGENCY: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Solicitation of Topics for Discussion at a... Commission (NRC) is soliciting input on topics for discussion at a proposed June 23-24, 2010, public meeting...

  15. Thermal evaluation facility for LMFBR spent fuel transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesley, D.A.

    1980-04-01

    A full-scale mock-up of a 217 pin breeder reactor fuel assembly in a cylindrical pipe was initially designed and constructed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). It was transferred to Sandia where it was extensively redesigned and modified. The 217 pin hexagonal core assembly was installed in a smaller diameter stainless steel pipe which more closely represents the diameter of a shipping canister or shipping cask basket wall. Two-hundred four of the tubes are electrically heated over an active length of 4-feet and the remaining thirteen are instrumented with multiple junction thermocouples which can be traversed axially. Thermocouples and heat-flux gauges are located on the hex core and canister perimeters at several axial locations.

  16. Transients of Water Distribution and Transport in PEM Fuel Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Hussaini, Irfan S.

    2009-01-01

    The response of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells to a step change in load is investigated experimentally in this work. Voltage undershoot, a characteristic feature of transient response following a step increase in current, is due to transients of water distribution in the membrane and ionomers occurring at subsecond time scales. The use of humidified reactants as a means to control the magnitude of voltage undershoot is demonstrated. Further, the response under a step decrease in current density is explored to determine the existence of hysteresis. Under sufficiently humidified conditions, the responses under forward and reverse step changes are symmetric, but under low relative humidity conditions, voltage undershoot is twice as large as the overshoot. © 2009 The Electrochemical Society.

  17. Computational modeling of transport and electrochemical reactions in proton-exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Sukkee

    A comprehensive, multi-physics computational fuel cell dynamics (CFCD) model integrating electrochemical kinetics, charge transport, mass transport (particularly water transport), and flow dynamics is developed in this thesis. The numerical model is validated against published experimental data and utilized to generate results that reveal the internal operation of a PEM fuel cell. A number of model applications are demonstrated in the present work. First, the CFCD model is applied to explore hydrogen dilution effects in the anode feed. Detailed two-dimensional electrochemical and flow/transport simulations are provided to examine substantial anode concentration polarization due to hydrogen depletion at the reaction sites. A transient simulation of the cell current response to a step change in cell voltage is also attempted to elucidate characteristics of the dynamic response of a fuel cell for the first time. After the two-dimensional computational study, the CFCD model is applied to illustrate three-dimensional interactions between mass transfer and electrochemical kinetics. Emphasis is placed on obtaining a fundamental understanding of fully three-dimensional flow in the air cathode with interdigitated flowfield design and how it impacts the transport and electrochemical reaction processes. The innovative design concept for enhanced oxygen transport to, and effective water removal from the cathode, is explored numerically. Next, an analytical study of water transport is performed to investigate various water transport regimes of practical interest. The axial locations characteristic of anode water loss and cathode flooding are predicted theoretically and compared with numerical results. A continuous stirred fuel cell reactor (CSFCR) model is also proposed for the limiting situation where the anode and cathode sides reach equilibrium in water concentration with a thin ionomer membrane in between. In addition to the analytical solutions, a detailed water transport

  18. WRF fire simulation coupled with a fuel moisture model and smoke transport by WRF-Chem

    CERN Document Server

    Kochanski, Adam K; Mandel, Jan; Kim, Minjeong

    2012-01-01

    We describe two recent additions to WRF coupled with a fire spread model. Fire propagation is strongly dependent on fuel moisture, which in turn depends on the history of the atmosphere. We have implemented a equilibrium time-lag model of fuel moisture driven by WRF variables. The code allows the user to specify fuel parameters, with the defaults calibrated to the Canadian fire danger rating system for 10-hour fuel. The moisture model can run coupled with the atmosphere-fire model, or offline from WRF output to equilibrate the moisture over a period of time and to provide initial moisture conditions for a coupled atmosphere-fire-moisture simulation. The fire model also inserts smoke tracers into WRF-Chem to model the transport of fire emissions. The coupled model is available from OpenWFM.org. An earlier version of the fire model coupled with atmosphere is a part of WRF release.

  19. Neutron and Photon Transport in Sea-Going Cargo Containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruet, J; Descalle, M; Hall, J; Pohl, B; Prussin, S G

    2005-02-09

    Factors affecting sensing of small quantities of fissionable material in large sea-going cargo containers by neutron interrogation and detection of {beta}-delayed photons are explored. The propagation of variable-energy neutrons in cargos, subsequent fission of hidden nuclear material and production of the {beta}-delayed photons, and the propagation of these photons to an external detector are considered explicitly. Detailed results of Monte Carlo simulations of these stages in representative cargos are presented. Analytical models are developed both as a basis for a quantitative understanding of the interrogation process and as a tool to allow ready extrapolation of the results to cases not specifically considered here.

  20. Assessment of the risk of transporting spent nuclear fuel by truck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elder, H.K.

    1978-11-01

    The assessment includes the risks from release of spent fuel materials and radioactive cask cavity cooling water due to transportation accidents. The contribution to the risk of package misclosure and degradation during normal transport was also considered. The results of the risk assessment have been related to a time in the mid-1980's, when it is projected that nuclear plants with an electrical generating capacity of 100 GW will be operating in the U.S. For shipments from reactors to interim storage facilities, it is estimated that a truck carrying spent fuel will be involved in an accident that would not be severe enough to result in a release of spent fuel material about once in 1.1 years. It was estimated that an accident that could result in a small release of radioactive material (primarily contaminated cooling water) would occur once in about 40 years. The frequency of an accident resulting in one or more latent cancer fatalities from release of radioactive materials during a truck shipment of spent fuel to interim storage was estimated to be once in 41,000 years. No accidents were found that would result in acute fatalities from releases of radioactive material. The risk for spent fuel shipments from reactors to reprocessing plants was found to be about 20% less than the risk for shipments to interim storage. Although the average shipment distance for the reprocessing case is larger, the risk is somewhat lower because the shipping routes, on average, are through less populated sections of the country. The total risk from transporting 180-day cooled spent fuel by truck in the reference year is 4.5 x 10/sup -5/ fatalities. An individual in the population at risk would have one chance in 6 x 10/sup 11/ of suffering a latent cancer fatality from a release of radioactive material from a truck carrying spent fuel in the reference year. (DLC)

  1. Fuels for transportation derived from renewable energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, J.; Weindorf, W.

    2001-07-01

    There are two main reasons for introducing renewable energy sources into the transportation sector: global warming on the one hand and the imminent end of cheap oil on the other. The future use of renewable energy sources for tranportation is the only sustainable solution that protects the climate and ensures energy supply - especially it is the only conceivable way to satisfy the demand for mobility of the people in the developing countries.

  2. 49 CFR 175.310 - Transportation of flammable liquid fuel; aircraft only means of transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... impracticable. The stowage requirements of § 175.75(a) do not apply to a person operating an aircraft under the... racks or slings. (c) Flammable liquid fuels may be carried on a cargo aircraft, subject to the...

  3. EPAct Alternative Fuel Transportation Program: State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleet Compliance Annual Report, Fleet Compliance Results for MY 2014/ FY 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-04-01

    This annual report of the Alternative Fuel Transportation Program, which ensures compliance with DOE regulations covering state government and alternative fuel provider fleets pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct), as amended, provides fleet compliance results for manufacturing year 2014 / fiscal year 2015.

  4. Niche public transport operational and capital investment strategies to minimize fares in the light of increased energy costs

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Letebele, MO

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Fuel costs are a significant component of a public transport fare. It is therefore of critical importance for measures aimed at containing household public transport expenditure to explore alternative ways of reducing fuel consumption or fuel...

  5. Environmental and financial implications of ethanol as a bioethylene feedstock versus as a transportation fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKechnie, Jon; Pourbafrani, Mohammad; Saville, Bradley A.; MacLean, Heather L.

    2015-12-01

    Bulk chemicals production from biomass may compete with biofuels for low-cost and sustainable biomass sources. Understanding how alternative uses of biomass compare in terms of financial and environmental parameters is therefore necessary to help ensure that efficient uses of resources are encouraged by policy and undertaken by industry. In this paper, we compare the environmental and financial performance of using ethanol as a feedstock for bioethylene production or as a transport fuel in the US life cycle-based models are developed to isolate the relative impacts of these two ethanol uses and generate results that are applicable irrespective of ethanol production pathway. Ethanol use as a feedstock for bioethylene production or as a transport fuel leads to comparable greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and fossil energy consumption reductions relative to their counterparts produced from fossil sources. By displacing gasoline use in vehicles, use of ethanol as a transport fuel is six times more effective in reducing petroleum energy use on a life cycle basis. In contrast, bioethylene predominately avoids consumption of natural gas. Considering 2013 US ethanol and ethylene market prices, our analysis shows that bioethylene is financially viable only if significant price premiums are realized over conventional ethylene, from 35% to 65% depending on the scale of bioethylene production considered (80 000 t yr-1 to 240 000 t yr-1). Ethanol use as a transportation fuel is therefore the preferred pathway considering financial, GHG emissions, and petroleum energy use metrics, although bioethylene production could have strategic value if demand-side limitations of ethanol transport fuel markets are reached.

  6. Failure Criteria for Evaluating Accidental Drops of Fuel Containers at INTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, G. K.

    1998-10-01

    This report presents a failure criterion that has been developed for use in evaluating fuel containers at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) for accidental drop events. The criterion would typically be used in dynamic finite element analyses using the ABA-QUS/Explicit program. The failure criterion used in the past is generally considered to substantially underestimate the strength and ductility of the materials involved. The new criterion is intended to be more realistic, allowing for more accurate impact analyses. The criterion is based on the distortion energy theory, which is considered to be appropriate for the ductile materials typically used in fuel containers. Also addressed in development of the criterion were the effects of strain rate and hydrostatic stress. The importance of these factors, however, is highly dependent on the material used. Three materials specifically addressed in this study were stainless steel, aluminum, and lead. The criterion is presented in the form of guidelines and recommendations that are based on material data obtained from the literature. The most significant difference between these and the previous criterion is that ductile materials are allowed to strain to much higher levels before they are considered to fail.

  7. Workshop on spent fuel performance, radionuclide chemistry and geosphere transport parameters, Lidingoe 2008: Overview and evaluation of recent SKB procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinrath, Guenther; Stenhouse, Mike; Brown, Paul; Ekberg, Christian; Jegou, Christophe; Nitsche, Heino

    2009-08-15

    The safety assessment for disposal of spent nuclear fuel canister in the Swedish bedrock should thoroughly address the time period after a containment failure. Such a failure could be expected as a result of corrosion damage or mechanical failure due to rock movement. This report mainly covers some issues connected to parameters used for radionuclide transport calculations in the areas of spent fuel performance (for fuel in contact with groundwater), radionuclide chemistry, and sorption and geosphere transport parameters. Some examples of topics that are elaborated in some detail include statistical treatment of measurement data (for sorption measurements), handling of uncertainties in speciation calculations, use of triangular distributions in safety assessment and physical processes in connection with spent fuel aging. The results emerged from discussions among international experts at a workshop in May 2008. The purpose of this work is providing an overview of ongoing work within the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB), to provide ideas and suggestions for methodology development and to develop review capability within the SSM. The authors conclude that SKB's treatment of uncertainty in speciation calculations has improved, but that additional efforts in the area of error propagation are recommended. In efforts to condense the scope of utilised thermodynamic databases, the authors recommend that exclusion criteria should be explicitly stated. In the area of sorption, there is a need for more thorough analysis of errors in order to establish uncertainty ranges. The most essential improvements concern dose-limiting nuclides (e.g. Ra-226). Triangular distributions are often featured in SKB safety assessment, but it is not clear that the use of such distributions is based on a firm understanding of its properties. Regarding fuel performance, while safety assessment parameters are supported by measurement data there is still a need for better

  8. Modeling and Diagnostics of Fuel Cell Porous Media for Improving Water Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Jeff; M' edici, Ezequiel

    2011-07-01

    When a fuel cell is operating at high current density, water accumulation is a significant cause of performance and component degradation. Investigating the water transport inside the fuel cell is a challenging task due to opacity of the components, the randomness of the porous materials, and the difficulty in gain access to the interior for measurement due to the small dimensions of components. Numerical simulation can provide a good insight of the evolution of the water transport under different working condition. However, the validation of those simulations is remains an issue due the same experimental obstacles associated with in-situ measurements. The discussion herein will focus on pore-network modeling of the water transport on the PTL and the insights gained from simulations as well as in the validation technique. The implications of a recently published criterion to characterize PTL, based on percolation theory, and validate numerical simulation are discussed.

  9. Lattice Boltzmann modeling of transport phenomena in fuel cells and flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ao; Shyy, Wei; Zhao, Tianshou

    2017-06-01

    Fuel cells and flow batteries are promising technologies to address climate change and air pollution problems. An understanding of the complex multiscale and multiphysics transport phenomena occurring in these electrochemical systems requires powerful numerical tools. Over the past decades, the lattice Boltzmann (LB) method has attracted broad interest in the computational fluid dynamics and the numerical heat transfer communities, primarily due to its kinetic nature making it appropriate for modeling complex multiphase transport phenomena. More importantly, the LB method fits well with parallel computing due to its locality feature, which is required for large-scale engineering applications. In this article, we review the LB method for gas-liquid two-phase flows, coupled fluid flow and mass transport in porous media, and particulate flows. Examples of applications are provided in fuel cells and flow batteries. Further developments of the LB method are also outlined.

  10. Plant for producing an oxygen-containing additive as an ecologically beneficial component for liquid motor fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siryk, Yury Paul; Balytski, Ivan Peter; Korolyov, Volodymyr George; Klishyn, Olexiy Nick; Lnianiy, Vitaly Nick; Lyakh, Yury Alex; Rogulin, Victor Valery

    2013-04-30

    A plant for producing an oxygen-containing additive for liquid motor fuels comprises an anaerobic fermentation vessel, a gasholder, a system for removal of sulphuretted hydrogen, and a hotwell. The plant further comprises an aerobic fermentation vessel, a device for liquid substance pumping, a device for liquid aeration with an oxygen-containing gas, a removal system of solid mass residue after fermentation, a gas distribution device; a device for heavy gases utilization; a device for ammonia adsorption by water; a liquid-gas mixer; a cavity mixer, a system that serves superficial active and dispersant matters and a cooler; all of these being connected to each other by pipelines. The technical result being the implementation of a process for producing an oxygen containing additive, which after being added to liquid motor fuels, provides an ecologically beneficial component for motor fuels by ensuring the stability of composition fuel properties during long-term storage.

  11. Gas fuels for the transport sector; Denmark; Gas til transportsektoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-07-01

    Recent analyses suggest that especially biogas, but also natural gas in macroeconomic terms will be attractive propellants, including for heavy transport. To implement a Danish expansion of gas infrastructure for transportation, the report recommends the following essential elements: 1) A Danish rollout should be closely linked to contracts with fleet owners with heavy vehicles / taxis / vans and the like, thus ensuring high utilization of filling stations; 2) About 10 larger, flexible CNG filling stations set up at major fleet owners is estimated as sufficient for an initial deployment phase, strategically distributed in and around Copenhagen, the major cities and along the main road network from Sweden to Germany; 3) A certain time-limited funding for the construction of infrastructure is likely to cause a rapid spread, if desired, and if other business conditions are in place; 4) There is a need for adjustment of tax terms - the rules for green taxes should be adjusted, and it should be considered to lower the taxes on CNG and biogas; 5) Natural gas mixed with biogas should be an integral element of a comprehensive strategy to ensure maximum CO{sub 2} displacement. (LN)

  12. Sustainable Transportation: Accelerating Widespread Adoption of Energy Efficient Vehicles & Fuels (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-12-01

    While energy efficient transportation strategies have the potential to simultaneously slash oil consumption and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, a truly sustainable solution will require more than just putting drivers behind the wheels of new fuel-efficient cars. As the only national laboratory dedicated 100% to renewable energy and energy efficiency, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) accelerates widespread adoption of high-performance, low-emission, energy-efficient passenger and freight vehicles, as well as alternative fuels and related infrastructure. Researchers collaborate closely with industry, government, and research partners, using a whole-systems approach to design better batteries, drivetrains, and engines, as well as thermal management, energy storage, power electronic, climate control, alternative fuel, combustion, and emission systems. NREL's sustainable transportation research, development, and deployment (RD&D) efforts are not limited to vehicles, roads, and fueling stations. The lab also explores ways to save energy and reduce GHGs by integrating transportation technology advancements with renewable energy generation, power grids and building systems, urban planning and policy, and fleet operations.

  13. Effect of a sudden fuel shortage on freight transport in the United States: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooker, J N

    1980-01-01

    A survey was made of the potential effects of a sudden reduction of fuel supplies on freight transport via truck, rail, water, and pipeline. After a brief discussion of the energy characteristics of each of these modes of transport, short-term strategies for making better use of fuel in a crisis are investigated. Short-term is taken to mean something on the order of six months, and a crisis is taken to be the result of something on the order of a 20% drop in available fuel. Although no succinct or well-established conclusions are drawn, the gist of the paper is that the potential for short-term conservation, without a serious disruption of service, exists but does not appear to be large. It is remarked that it is possible, through further study, to obtain a fairly accurate reckoning of the physical ability of the freight transport network to weather a fuel crisis, but that it is impossible to say in advance what freight carriers will in fact do with the network.

  14. Predictive model of transport properties of fuel cell membrane : from microscopic to macroscopic level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colinart, T.; Lottin, O.; Maranzana, G.; Didierjean, S.; Moyne, C. [Nancy-Univ., Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France). Laboratoire d' Energetique et de Mecanique Theorique et Appliquee

    2007-07-01

    Because of their attractiveness as efficient and clean energy producers, proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) can be used in automotive and small stationary applications. The electrochemical reaction takes place on two electrodes separated by a ionomer membrane. An important component of fuel cell water management and a problem for fuel cell performances involves the transport of protons from the anode to the cathode as its' transport properties are highly water dependent. Nafion membranes are widely used as an electrolyte for PEMFC. This paper presented a model to predict transport properties of polymer membranes such as Nafion used as electrolytes in a low temperature fuel cell. The paper discussed the electrical double layer that was used to determine surface charge density. The paper then discussed the analytical solution to the physical problem in the diffuse part of a cylindrical pore which involved solving the Poisson-Boltzmann, the Navier-Stokes and the Nernst-Planck equations. The properties of the electrolytic solution were equal to those of water and they were considered to be constant within the pore. A literature comparison with other models was also presented. It was concluded that in order to supplement the model, it is necessary to investigate the mechanics of the membrane, particularly the swelling behaviour, and the adsorption phenomena of the ions in the stern layer. 15 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  15. Analysis of the risk of transporting spent nuclear fuel by train

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elder, H.K.

    1981-09-01

    This report uses risk analyses to analyze the safety of transporting spent nuclear fuel for commercial rail shipping systems. The rail systems analyzed are those expected to be used in the United States when the total electricity-generating capacity by nuclear reactors is 100 GW in the late 1980s. Risk as used in this report is the product of the probability of a release of material to the environment and the consequences resulting from the release. The analysis includes risks in terms of expected fatalities from release of radioactive materials due to transportation accidents involving PWR spent fuel shipped in rail casks. The expected total risk from such shipments is 1.3 x 10/sup -4/ fatalities per year. Risk spectrums are developed for shipments of spent fuel that are 180 days and 4 years out-of-reactor. The risk from transporting spent fuel by train is much less (by 2 to 4 orders of magnitude) than the risk to society from other man-caused events such as dam failure.

  16. Legal, institutional, and political issues in transportation of nuclear materials at the back end of the LWR nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippek, H.E.; Schuller, C.R.

    1979-03-01

    A study was conducted to identify major legal and institutional problems and issues in the transportation of spent fuel and associated processing wastes at the back end of the LWR nuclear fuel cycle. (Most of the discussion centers on the transportation of spent fuel, since this activity will involve virtually all of the legal and institutional problems likely to be encountered in moving waste materials, as well.) Actions or approaches that might be pursued to resolve the problems identified in the analysis are suggested. Two scenarios for the industrial-scale transportation of spent fuel and radioactive wastes, taken together, high-light most of the major problems and issues of a legal and institutional nature that are likely to arise: (1) utilizing the Allied General Nuclear Services (AGNS) facility at Barnwell, SC, as a temporary storage facility for spent fuel; and (2) utilizing AGNS for full-scale commercial reprocessing of spent LWR fuel.

  17. Hydrogen as a fuel for the transportation sector: possibilities and views for future applications in Libya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Osta, W.; Zeghlam, J. [Center for Solar Energy Studies, Tripoli (Libya)

    2000-04-01

    World-wide energy consumption in the transportation sector accounts for about one quarter of the total energy consumption. This implies that thousands of tons of pollutants are emitted each year. The total pollutants include CO, CO{sub 2}, HC, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2} and soot particles. In Libya, the transportation sector counts for a big share of the total energy demand. So if this sector would be changed to clean fuel, the pollution will be reduced dramatically. Hydrogen is proposed (hypothetically) to be used for the transportation sector in Libya. This paper will review the advancement of this technology world wide, in a sense of hydrogen production, storage, transportation and refuelling systems. The possibilities of using hydrogen in the transportation sector in Libya and the expected advantages, obstacles and constraints associate with its application and public acceptance. (Author)

  18. Releasable activity and maximum permissible leakage rate within a transport cask of Tehran Research Reactor fuel samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezaeian Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Containment of a transport cask during both normal and accident conditions is important to the health and safety of the public and of the operators. Based on IAEA regulations, releasable activity and maximum permissible volumetric leakage rate within the cask containing fuel samples of Tehran Research Reactor enclosed in an irradiated capsule are calculated. The contributions to the total activity from the four sources of gas, volatile, fines, and corrosion products are treated separately. These calculations are necessary to identify an appropriate leak test that must be performed on the cask and the results can be utilized as the source term for dose evaluation in the safety assessment of the cask.

  19. Transport operations in container terminals : Literature overview, trends, research directions and classification scheme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlo, Hector J.; Vis, Iris F. A.; Roodbergen, Kees Jan

    2014-01-01

    Internal transport operations connect the seaside, yard side, and landside processes at container terminals. This paper presents an in-depth overview of transport operations and the material handling equipment used, highlights current industry trends and developments, and proposes a new classificati

  20. A decision support system tool for the transportation by barge of import containers : A case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fazi, Stefano; Fransoo, Jan C.; Van Woensel, Tom

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a DSS that generates schedules for the transportation of containers by barge in the hinterland, in particular from sea terminals to an inland terminal. As a case study, we propose the transportation from the ports of Rotterdam and Antwerp to a terminal in the south of the N

  1. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, M. W.; Heath, G.; Sandor, D.; Steward, D.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Warner, E.; Webster, K. W.

    2013-04-01

    Achieving the Department of Energy target of an 80% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 depends on transportation-related strategies combining technology innovation, market adoption, and changes in consumer behavior. This study examines expanding low-carbon transportation fuel infrastructure to achieve deep GHG emissions reductions, with an emphasis on fuel production facilities and retail components serving light-duty vehicles. Three distinct low-carbon fuel supply scenarios are examined: Portfolio: Successful deployment of a range of advanced vehicle and fuel technologies; Combustion: Market dominance by hybridized internal combustion engine vehicles fueled by advanced biofuels and natural gas; Electrification: Market dominance by electric drive vehicles in the LDV sector, including battery electric, plug-in hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles, that are fueled by low-carbon electricity and hydrogen. A range of possible low-carbon fuel demand outcomes are explored in terms of the scale and scope of infrastructure expansion requirements and evaluated based on fuel costs, energy resource utilization, fuel production infrastructure expansion, and retail infrastructure expansion for LDVs. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored transportation-related strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence.

  2. Investigation of Electromagnetic Field Threat to Fuel Tank Wiring of a Transport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Jay J.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Dudley, Kenneth L.; Scearce, Stephen A.; Beck, Fred B.; Deshpande, Manohar D.; Cockrell, C. R.

    2000-01-01

    National Transportation Safety Board investigators have questioned whether an electrical discharge in the Fuel Quantity Indication System (FQIS) may have initiated the TWA-800 center wing tank explosion. Because the FQIS was designed to be incapable of producing such a discharge on its own, attention has been directed to mechanisms of outside electromagnetic influence. To support the investigation, the NASA Langley Research Center was tasked to study the potential for radiated electromagnetic fields from external radio frequency (RF) transmitters and passenger carried portable electronic devices (PEDs) to excite the FQIS enough to cause arcing, sparking or excessive heating within the fuel tank.

  3. Spent nuclear fuel system dynamic stability under normal conditions of transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Hao; Wang, Jy-An John, E-mail: wangja@ornl.gov

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • A conformational potential effect of fuel assembly contact interaction induced transient shock. • Complex vibration modes and vibration load intensity were observed from fuel assembly system. • The project was able to link the periodic transient shock to spent fuel fatigue strength reduction. - Abstract: In a horizontal layout of a spent nuclear fuel (SNF) assembly under normal conditions of transportation (NCT), the fuel assembly’s skeleton formed by guide tubes and spacer grids is the primary load bearing structure for carrying and transferring the vibration loads within an SNF assembly. Therefore, the integrity of guide tubes and spacer grids will dictate the vibration amplitude/intensity of the fuel assembly during transport, and must be considered when designing multipurpose purpose canister (MPC) for safe SNF transport. This paper investigates the SNF assembly deformation dynamics during normal vibration mode, as well as the transient shock mode inside the cask during NCT. Dynamic analyses were performed in the frequency domain to study frequency characteristic of the fuel assembly system and in the time domain to simulate the transient dynamic response of the fuel assembly. To further evaluate the intensity of contact interaction induced by the local contacts’ impact loading at the spacer grid, detailed models of the actual spring and dimples of the spacer grids were created. The impacts between the fuel rod and springs and dimples were simulated with a 20 g transient shock load. The associated contact interaction intensities, in terms of reaction forces, were estimated from the finite element analyses (FEA) results. The bending moment estimated from the resultant stress on the clad under 20 g transient shock can be used to define the loading in cyclic integrated reversible-bending fatigue tester (CIRFT) vibration testing for the equivalent condition. To estimate the damage potential of the transient shock to the SNF vibration

  4. Fuel consumption in the transport of technical broadleaf roundwood in lowland areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilović Milorad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an analysis of fuel consumption in the transport of technical roundwood of soft broadleaves from the felling site to a roadside landing using forwarders and tractor assemblies. The research was performed in various operating conditions in the area of FE "Banat" Pančevo. On the basis of the results of the analysis of variance, the data recorded in a variety of conditions were grouped. In addition, the dependence of fuel consumption on the average volume of tour was estimated. The results of the conducted analysis indicate that operating conditions significantly affect fuel consumption of the investigated vehicles. The elements of statistical analysis of the dependence of fuel consumption on the volume of load indicate that an increase in load causes increased fuel consumption per unit of production. Having in mind the results of the analysis of variance, unique norms of fuel consumption were adopted for practical purposes. The highest average consumption (1.21 L/m3 was achieved by a tractor assembly (Same Laser 130 tractor and Imako TP12 trailer with a Loglift 61F hydraulic crane, while significantly lower consumption was achieved by a John Deere 1210E forwarder (1.06 L/m3. In favourable operating conditions, consumption of the forwarder was about 0.9 L/m3.

  5. Anode materials for hydrogen sulfide containing feeds in a solid oxide fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roushanafshar, Milad

    SOFCs which can directly operate under high concentration of H2S would be economically beneficial as this reduces the cost of gas purification. H2S is highly reactive gas specie which can poison most of the conventional catalysts. As a result, developing anode materials which can tolerate high concentrations of H2S and also display high activity toward electrochemical oxidation of feed is crucial and challenging for this application. The performance of La0.4Sr0.6TiO3+/-delta -Y0.2Ce0.8O2-delta (LST-YDC) composite anodes in solid oxide fuel cells significantly improved when 0.5% H2 S was present in syngas (40% H2, 60% CO) or hydrogen. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry analyses revealed that the rate of electrochemical oxidation of all fuel components improved when H2S containing syngas was present in the fuel. Electrochemical stability tests performed under potentiostatic condition showed that there was no power degradation for different feeds, and that there was power enhancement when 0.5% H2S was present in various feeds. The mechanism of performance improvement by H2S was discussed. Active anodes were synthesized via wet chemical impregnation of different amounts of La0.4Ce0.6O1.8 (LDC) and La 0.4Sr0.6TiO3 (L4ST) into porous yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ). Co-impregnation of LDC with LS4T significantly improved the performance of the cell from 48 mW.cm-2 (L4ST) to 161 mW.cm -2 (LDC-L4ST) using hydrogen as fuel at 900 °C. The contribution of LDC to this improvement was investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) as well as transmission electron microscopy (TEM). EIS measurements using symmetrical cells showed that the polarization resistance decreased from 3.1¦O.cm 2 to 0.5 O.cm2 when LDC was co-impregnated with LST, characterized in humidified H2 (3% H2O) at 900 °C. In addition, the microstructure of the cell was modified when LDC was impregnated prior to L4ST into the porous YSZ. TEM and SEM

  6. Effect of fuel concentration on cargo transport by a team of Kinesin motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takshak, Anjneya; Mishra, Nirvantosh; Kulkarni, Aditi; Kunwar, Ambarish

    2017-02-01

    Eukaryotic cells employ specialized proteins called molecular motors for transporting organelles and vesicles from one location to another in a regulated and directed manner. These molecular motors often work collectively in a team while transporting cargos. Molecular motors use cytoplasmic ATP as fuel, which is hydrolyzed to generate mechanical force. While the effect of ATP concentration on cargo transport by single Kinesin motor function is well understood, it is still unexplored, both theoretically and experimentally, how ATP concentration would affect cargo transport by a team of Kinesin motors. For instance, how does fuel concentration affect the travel distances and travel velocities of cargo? How cooperativity of Kinesin motors engaged on a cargo is affected by ATP concentration? To answer these questions, here we develop mechano-chemical models of cargo transport by a team of Kinesin motors. To develop these models we use experimentally-constrained mechano-chemical model of a single Kinesin motor as well as earlier developed mean-field and stochastic models of load sharing for cargo transport. Thus, our new models for cargo transport by a team of Kinesin motors include fuel concentration explicitly, which was not considered in earlier models. We make several interesting predictions which can be tested experimentally. For instance, the travel distances of cargos are very large at limited ATP concentrations in spite of very small travel velocity. Velocities of cargos driven by multiple Kinesin have a Michaelis-Menten dependence on ATP concentration. Similarly, cooperativity among the engaged Kinesin motors on the cargo shows a Michaelis-Menten type dependence, which attains a maximum value near physiological ATP concentrations. Our new results can be potentially useful in controlling artificial nano-molecular shuttles precisely for targeted delivery in various nano-technological applications.

  7. 1990 fuel cell seminar: Program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-31

    This volume contains author prepared short resumes of the presentations at the 1990 Fuel Cell Seminar held November 25-28, 1990 in Phoenix, Arizona. Contained herein are 134 short descriptions organized into topic areas entitled An Environmental Overview, Transportation Applications, Technology Advancements for Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells, Technology Advancements for Solid Fuel Cells, Component Technologies and Systems Analysis, Stationary Power Applications, Marine and Space Applications, Technology Advancements for Acid Type Fuel Cells, and Technology Advancement for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.

  8. Development of Collision Accident Scenario during Nuclear Spent Fuel Maritime Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Min; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Population density of South Korea is much higher than the other countries, and it is peninsula. Therefore, it is expected that major means of transportation of the spent fuel will be maritime transportation rather than overland transportation. Korea Maritime safety Tribunal (KMST) categorized various maritime accident, see table I. Among them, collision accident is one of the most important and complicated accident from Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) point of view. We will show what will happen if the transportation ship is struck by other ship, how to calculate collision energy and probability of the branches on ship-ship collision with Event Tree Analysis (ETA) method. We selected and re-categorized maritime accident that KMST categorized for ship-ship collision analysis of spent fuel transportation ship. Event tree is constructed and collision energy distribution is derived from statistics and equation. And outer and inner hull fracture probabilities are calculated. If outer hull is broken but inner hull is fine, water will be flooded into the space between outer and inner hull. It will decrease mobility of the ship. If inner hull is fractured, water will be flooded into the ship inside. The ship has compartment structure to resist from foundering. Loss of mobility and compartment damage (ultimately it ends with sink) mechanism need to be analyzed to complete transportation ship collision event tree.

  9. Model improvements for tritium transport in DEMO fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santucci, Alessia, E-mail: alessia.santucci@enea.it [Unità Tecnica Fusione – ENEA C. R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Tosti, Silvano [Unità Tecnica Fusione – ENEA C. R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Franza, Fabrizio [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • T inventory and permeation of DEMO blankets have been assessed under pulsed operation. • 1-D model for T transport has been developed for the HCLL DEMO blanket. • The 1-D model evaluated T partial pressure and T permeation rate radial profiles. - Abstract: DEMO operation requires a large amount of tritium, which is directly produced inside the reactor by means of Li-based breeders. During its production, recovering and purification, tritium comes in contact with large surfaces of hot metallic walls, therefore it can permeate through the blanket cooling structure, reach the steam generator and finally the environment. The development of dedicated simulation tools able to predict tritium losses and inventories is necessary to verify the accomplishment of the accepted tritium environmental releases as well as to guarantee a correct machine operation. In this work, the FUS-TPC code is improved by including the possibility to operate in pulsed regime: results in terms of tritium inventory and losses for three pulsed scenarios are shown. Moreover, the development of a 1-D model considering the radial profile of the tritium generation is described. By referring to the inboard segment on the equatorial axis of the helium-cooled lithium–lead (HCLL) blanket, preliminary results of the 1-D model are illustrated: tritium partial pressure in Li–Pb and tritium permeation in the cooling and stiffening plates by assuming several permeation reduction factor (PRF) values. Future improvements will consider the application of the model to all segments of different blanket concepts.

  10. A comparison between renewable transport fuels that can supplement or replace biofuels in a 100% renewable energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Ridjan, Iva

    2014-01-01

    Identifying renewable energy alternatives in transport is particularly complicated, since the end-user can vary from a single-person car to a cargo ship. The aim of this paper is to aid this process by comparing 7 different methods for producing transport fuels in terms of the resources required...... for these fuels. Based on the assumptions in this study, some of the renewable fuels proposed here would be cheaper than oil in the year 2050. However, this is based on fuel production costs only and does do not consider other key costs, such as the infrastructure costs, which will be considered in the future...

  11. Fuel Aging in Storage and Transportation (FAST): Accelerated Characterization and Performance Assessment of the Used Nuclear Fuel Storage System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDeavitt, Sean [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    2016-08-02

    This Integrated Research Project (IRP) was established to characterize key limiting phenomena related to the performance of used nuclear fuel (UNF) storage systems. This was an applied engineering project with a specific application in view (i.e., UNF dry storage). The completed tasks made use of a mixture of basic science and engineering methods. The overall objective was to create, or enable the creation of, predictive tools in the form of observation methods, phenomenological models, and databases that will enable the design, installation, and licensing of dry UNF storage systems that will be capable of containing UNF for extended period of time.

  12. Heat science and transport phenomena in fuel cells; Thermique et phenomenes de transport dans les piles a combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liberatore, P.M.; Boillot, M. [Laboratoire des Sciences du Genie Chimique de Nancy, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Bonnet, C.; Didieerjean, S.; Lapicque, F.; Deseure, J.; Lottin, O.; Maillet, D.; Oseen-Senda, J. [Laboratoire d' Energetique et de Mecanique Theorique et Appliquee, 54 - Vandoeuvre Les Nancy (France); Alexandre, A. [Laboratoire d' Etudes Thermiques, ENSMA, 86 Poitiers (France); Topin, F.; Occelli, R.; Daurelle, J.V. [IUSTI / Polytech' Marseille, Institut universitaire des Systemes Thermiques Industriels Ecole, 13 - Marseille (France); Pauchet, J.; Feidt, M. [CEA Grenoble, Groupement pour la recherche sur les echangeurs thermiques (Greth), 38 (France); Voarino, C. [CEA Centre d' Etudes du Ripault, 37 - Tours (France); Morel, B.; Laurentin, J.; Bultel, Y.; Lefebvre-Joud, F. [CEA Grenoble, LEPMI, 38 (France); Auvity, B.; Lasbet, Y.; Castelain, C.; Peerohossaini, H. [Ecole Centrale de Nantes, Laboratoire de Thermocinetique de Nantes (LTN), 44 - Nantes (France)

    2005-07-01

    In this work are gathered the transparencies of the lectures presented at the conference 'heat science and transport phenomena in fuel cells'. The different lectures have dealt with 1)the gas distribution in the bipolar plates of a fuel cell: experimental studies and computerized simulations 2)two-phase heat distributors in the PEMFC 3)a numerical study of the flow properties of the backing layers on the transfers in a PEMFC 4)modelling of the heat and mass transfers in a PEMFC 5)two-phase cooling of the PEMFC with pentane 6)stationary thermodynamic model of the SOFC in the GECOPAC system 7)modelling of the internal reforming at the anode of the SOFC 8)towards a new thermal design of the PEMFC bipolar plates. (O.M.)

  13. Next-Generation Electrochemical Energy Materials for Intermediate Temperature Molten Oxide Fuel Cells and Ion Transport Molten Oxide Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belousov, Valery V

    2017-02-21

    High temperature electrochemical devices such as solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and oxygen separators based on ceramic materials are used for efficient energy conversion. These devices generally operate in the temperature range of 800-1000 °C. The high operating temperatures lead to accelerated degradation of the SOFC and oxygen separator materials. To solve this problem, the operating temperatures of these electrochemical devices must be lowered. However, lowering the temperature is accompanied by decreasing the ionic conductivity of fuel cell electrolyte and oxygen separator membrane. Therefore, there is a need to search for alternative electrolyte and membrane materials that have high ionic conductivity at lower temperatures. A great many opportunities exist for molten oxides as electrochemical energy materials. Because of their unique electrochemical properties, the molten oxide innovations can offer significant benefits for improving energy efficiency. In particular, the newly developed electrochemical molten oxide materials show high ionic conductivities at intermediate temperatures (600-800 °C) and could be used in molten oxide fuel cells (MOFCs) and molten oxide membranes (MOMs). The molten oxide materials containing both solid grains and liquid channels at the grain boundaries have advantages compared to the ceramic materials. For example, the molten oxide materials are ductile, which solves a problem of thermal incompatibility (difference in coefficient of thermal expansion, CTE). Besides, the outstanding oxygen selectivity of MOM materials allows us to separate ultrahigh purity oxygen from air. For their part, the MOFC electrolytes show the highest ionic conductivity at intermediate temperatures. To evaluate the potential of molten oxide materials for technological applications, the relationship between the microstructure of these materials and their transport and mechanical properties must be revealed. This Account summarizes the latest results on

  14. Lignin Valorisation for Chemicals and (Transportation) Fuels via (Catalytic) Pyrolysis and Hydrodeoxygenation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wild, Paul; Van der Laan, Ron; Kloekhorst, Arjan; Heeres, Hero

    2009-01-01

    New technology is needed to exploit the potential of lignin as a renewable feedstock for fuels, chemicals and performance products. Fast fluidized bed pyrolysis of different lignins at 400 degrees C yields up to 2.1 wt% (d.b.) of a phenolic fraction containing 10 wt%, (d.b.) of several phenols. Subs

  15. Real-time Container Transport Planning with Decision Trees based on Offline Obtained Optimal Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. van Riessen (Bart); R.R. Negenborn (Rudy); R. Dekker (Rommert)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractHinterland networks for container transportation require planning methods in order to increase efficiency and reliability of the inland road, rail and waterway connections. In this paper we aim to derive real-time decision rules for suitable allocations of containers to inland services b

  16. Evaluation of FSV-1 cask for the transport of LWR irradiated fuel assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    The Model FSV-1 spent fuel shipping cask was designed by General Atomic Company (GA) to service the Fort St. Vrain (FSV) nuclear generating station, a High Temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR) owned and operated by Public Service Company of Colorado (PSC). This report presents an evaluation of the suitability of the FSV-1 cask for the transport of irradiated Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel assemblies from both Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) and Boiling Water Reactors (BWR). The FSV-1 cask evaluation parameters covered a wide spectrum of LWR fuel assemblies, based on burnup in Megawatt Days/Metric Ton of Heavy Metal (MWD/MTHM) and years of decay since irradiation. The criteria for suitability included allowable radiation dose rates, cask surface and interior temperatures and the Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW) of the complete shipping system.

  17. Economic and Social Aspects of Applying Biodiesel Fuel in Road Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukljaš Skočibušić, Mihaela; Jolić, Natalija; Bukljaš, Zdravko

    The world trend in automotive industry represents the improvement of the existing vehicle power plants and their further development as well as the use of various alternative fuels. Such tendencies should not be considered only from an entirely technical aspect, but also from the economic, social and strategic aspects of the modern society. In this sense it is necessary to give priority to biodiesel fuel. The production of biodiesel fuel has to be developed in compliance with the increasingly severe exhaust emission standards in designing and realization of road transport means. From the economic aspect at macro-economic level, the development of biodiesel will reflect on the condition of industrial production, employment, additional inflow of financial means into agriculture and the economic development of rural areas, as well as the foreign currency reserves of a country along with the reduction in the dependence of macroeconomic parameters on the external factors.

  18. using fuzzy-robust approach for minimizing transportation and fuel costs in location problem under uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hasan hosseini nasab

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Operations research is a commonly used method in many subjects nowadays. One applicable domain of operation research is the problem of facility layout and location. In this paper, a new mathematical programing model is developed for an optimal facility location and assignment. The model includes two objective functions. The first one minimizes the total material handling and fixed costs of facility location. Because of the importance of energy and the main role of fossil fuel in transportation, the second objective function, minimizes the total cost of fuel consumption. To consider the real condition in the proposed model, the cost of fuel, is considered to increase stepwise gradually. In the proposed model the coefficients of objective function are considered to be probabilistic and some of constraints to be fuzzy variables. Using a new approach, this model can be changed to a robust model. To prove the applicability of the model, it is examined for a real condition of facility location.

  19. Mass transport aspects of polymer electrolyte fuel cells under two-phase flow conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, D.

    2007-03-15

    This well-illustrated, comprehensive dissertation by Dr. Ing. Denis Kramer takes an in-depth look at polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC) and the possibilities for their application. First of all, the operating principles of polymer electrolyte fuel cells are described and discussed, whereby thermodynamics aspects and loss mechanisms are examined. The mass transport diagnostics made with respect to the function of the cells are discussed. Field flow geometry, gas diffusion layers and, amongst other things, liquid distribution, the influence of flow direction and the low-frequency behaviour of air-fed PEFCs are discussed. Direct methanol fuel cells are examined, as are the materials chosen. The documentation includes comprehensive mathematical and graphical representations of the mechanisms involved.

  20. Numerical simulation of mass and energy transport phenomena in solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arpino, F. [Dipartimento di Meccanica, Strutture, Ambiente e Territorio (DiMSAT), University of Cassino, via Di Biasio 43, Cassino (Italy); Massarotti, N. [Dipertimento per le Tecnologie (DiT), University of Naples ' ' Parthenope' ' , Centro Direzionale, isola C4, 80143 Napoli (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) represent a very promising technology for near future energy conversion thanks to a number of advantages, including the possibility of using different fuels. In this paper, a detailed numerical model, based on a general mathematical description and on a finite element Characteristic based Split (CBS) algorithm code is employed to simulate mass and energy transport phenomena in SOFCs. The model predicts the thermodynamic quantity of interest in the fuel cell. Full details of the numerical solution obtained are presented both in terms of heat and mass transfer in the cell and in terms of electro-chemical reactions that occur in the system considered. The results obtained with the present algorithm is compared with the experimental data available in the literature for validation, showing an excellent agreement. (author)

  1. Atomistic Simulations of Mass and Thermal Transport in Oxide Nuclear Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Anders D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Uberuaga, Blas P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Du, Shiyu [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Liu, Xiang-Yang [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nerikar, Pankaj [IBM; Stanek, Christopher R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tonks, Michael [Idaho National Laboratory; Millet, Paul [Idaho National Laboratory; Biner, Bulent [Idaho National Laboratory

    2012-06-04

    In this talk we discuss simulations of the mass and thermal transport in oxide nuclear fuels. Redistribution of fission gases such as Xe is closely coupled to nuclear fuel performance. Most fission gases have low solubility in the fuel matrix, specifically the insolubility is most pronounced for large fission gas atoms such as Xe, and as a result there is a significant driving force for segregation of gas atoms to grain boundaries or dislocations and subsequently for nucleation of gas bubbles at these sinks. The first step of the fission gas redistribution is diffusion of individual gas atoms through the fuel matrix to existing sinks, which is governed by the activation energy for bulk diffusion. Fission gas bubbles are then formed by either separate nucleation events or by filling voids that were nucleated at a prior stage; in both cases their formation and latter growth is coupled to vacancy dynamics and thus linked to the production of vacancies via irradiation or thermal events. In order to better understand bulk Xe behavior (diffusion mechanisms) in UO{sub 2{+-}x} we first calculate the relevant activation energies using density functional theory (DFT) techniques. By analyzing a combination of Xe solution thermodynamics, migration barriers and the interaction of dissolved Xe atoms with U, we demonstrate that Xe diffusion predominantly occurs via a vacancy-mediated mechanism, though other alternatives may exist in high irradiation fields. Since Xe transport is closely related to diffusion of U vacancies, we have also studied the activation energy for this process. In order to explain the low value of 2.4 eV found for U migration from independent damage experiments (not thermal equilibrium) the presence of vacancy clusters must be included in the analysis. Next a continuum transport model for Xe and U is formulated based on the diffusion mechanisms established from DFT. After combining this model with descriptions of the interaction between Xe and grain

  2. Mathematical model of water transport in Bacon and alkaline matrix-type hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopius, P. R.; Easter, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    Based on general mass continuity and diffusive transport equations, a mathematical model was developed that simulates the transport of water in Bacon and alkaline-matrix fuel cells. The derived model was validated by using it to analytically reproduce various Bacon and matrix-cell experimental water transport transients.

  3. Uranium extraction from TRISO-coated fuel particles using supercritical CO2 containing tri-n-butyl phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liyang; Duan, Wuhua; Xu, Jingming; Zhu, Yongjun

    2012-11-30

    High-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) are advanced nuclear systems that will receive heavy use in the future. It is important to develop spent nuclear fuel reprocessing technologies for HTGR. A new method for recovering uranium from tristructural-isotropic (TRISO-) coated fuel particles with supercritical CO(2) containing tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) as a complexing agent was investigated. TRISO-coated fuel particles from HTGR fuel elements were first crushed to expose UO(2) pellet fuel kernels. The crushed TRISO-coated fuel particles were then treated under O(2) stream at 750°C, resulting in a mixture of U(3)O(8) powder and SiC shells. The conversion of U(3)O(8) into solid uranyl nitrate by its reaction with liquid N(2)O(4) in the presence of a small amount of water was carried out. Complete conversion was achieved after 60 min of reaction at 80°C, whereas the SiC shells were not converted by N(2)O(4). Uranyl nitrate in the converted mixture was extracted with supercritical CO(2) containing TBP. The cumulative extraction efficiency was above 98% after 20 min of online extraction at 50°C and 25 MPa, whereas the SiC shells were not extracted by TBP. The results suggest an attractive strategy for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel from HTGR to minimize the generation of secondary radioactive waste.

  4. Advanced Hydrogen Transport Membranes for Vision 21 Fossil Fuel Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carl R. Evenson; Shane E. Roark

    2006-03-31

    The objective of this project was to develop an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. A family of hydrogen separation membranes was developed including single phase mixed conducting ceramics, ceramic/ceramic composites, cermet membranes, cermet membranes containing a hydrogen permeable metal, and intermediate temperature composite layered membranes. Each membrane type had different operating parameters, advantages, and disadvantages that were documented over the course of the project. Research on these membranes progressed from ceramics to cermets to intermediate temperature composite layered membranes. During this progression performance was increased from 0.01 mL x min{sup -1} x cm{sup -2} up to 423 mL x min{sup -1} x cm{sup -2}. Eltron and team membranes not only developed each membrane type, but also membrane surface catalysis and impurity tolerance, creation of thin film membranes, alternative applications such as membrane promoted alkane dehydrogenation, demonstration of scale-up testing, and complete engineering documentation including process and mechanical considerations necessary for inclusion of Eltron membranes in a full scale integrated gasification combined cycle power plant. The results of this project directly led to a new $15 million program funded by the Department of Energy. This new project will focus exclusively on scale-up of this technology as part of the FutureGen initiative.

  5. Evaluation of Storage for Transportation Equipment, Unfueled Convertors, and Fueled Convertors at the INL for the Radioisotope Power Systems Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. G. Johnson; K. L. Lively

    2010-05-01

    This report contains an evaluation of the storage conditions required for several key components and/or systems of the Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Program at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). These components/systems (transportation equipment, i.e., type ‘B’ shipping casks and the radioisotope thermo-electric generator transportation systems (RTGTS), the unfueled convertors, i.e., multi-hundred watt (MHW) and general purpose heat source (GPHS) RTGs, and fueled convertors of several types) are currently stored in several facilities at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) site. For various reasons related to competing missions, inherent growth of the RPS mission at the INL and enhanced efficiency, it is necessary to evaluate their current storage situation and recommend the approach that should be pursued going forward for storage of these vital RPS components and systems. The reasons that drive this evaluation include, but are not limited to the following: 1) conflict with other missions at the INL of higher priority, 2) increasing demands from the INL RPS Program that exceed the physical capacity of the current storage areas and 3) the ability to enhance our current capability to care for our equipment, decrease maintenance costs and increase the readiness posture of the systems.

  6. Transport and supply logistics of biomass fuels: Vol. 2. Biomass and strategic modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, J.; Browne, M.; Cook, A.; Wicks, N.; Palmer, H.; Hunter, A.; Boyd, J.

    1996-10-01

    This document forms part of the United Kingdom Department of Trade and Industry project ''Transport and Logistics of Biomass Fuels'', which aimed to describe the distribution of existing and potential biomass resources in terms of their supply potential for power stations. Fixed areas of supply, or catchments, have been identified on colour maps of Britain showing the distribution of forest fuel, short rotation coppices, and various types of straw and animal slurry, using a specially written strategic modelling program. Adequate supplies of biomass resources are shown to exist in Britain, but siting of power stations to exploit these resources, will depend on transport and economic considerations appropriate at the time of construction. Biomass power stations in the megawatt capacity range could be resourced. (UK)

  7. Minority and poor households: patterns of travel and transportation fuel use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millar, M.; Morrison, R.; Vyas, A.

    1986-05-01

    This report documents the travel behavior and transportation fuel use of minority and poor households in the US, using information from numerous national-level sources. The resulting data base reveals distinctive patterns of household vehicle availability and use, travel, and fuel use and enables us to relate observed differences between population groups to differences in their demographic characteristics and in the attributes of their household vehicles. When income and residence location are controlled, black (and to a lesser extent, Hispanic and poor) households have fewer vehicles regularly available than do comparable white or nonpoor households; moreover, these vehicles are older and larger and thus have significantly lower fuel economy. The net result is that average black, Hispanic, and poor households travel fewer miles per year but use more fuel than do average white and nonpoor households. Certain other findings - notably, that of significant racial differences in vehicle availability and use by low-income households - challenge the conventional wisdom that such racial variations arise solely because of differences in income and residence location. Results of the study suggest important differences - primarily in the yearly fluctuation of income - between black and white low-income households even when residence location is controlled. These variables are not captured by cross-sectional data sets (either the national surveys used in our analysis or the local data sets that are widely used for urban transportation planning).

  8. CNG (compressed natural gas) as fuel for the transport sector in Trinidad and Tobago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    So`Brien, G.C.; Persad, P.; Satcunanathan, S. [University of the West Indies, St. Augustine (Trinidad)

    1996-08-01

    Several studies have established that Trinidad and Tobago is well positioned to consider the substitution of compressed natural gas (CNG) for gasoline or diesel in the transport sector. Consequently a programme of conversion of private motors was initiated. Despite considerable advertisement programs projecting CNG as an environmentally friendly and cheap fuel, there is not yet widespread acceptance of the technology. The reasons for this are analysed. It is recommended that the policy of CNG usage be reviewed and the emphasis be shifted to transport fleets. It is also recommended that tax credits be considered as an incentive to users. (author)

  9. The effect of inhomogeneous compression on water transport in the cathode of a PEM fuel cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anders Christian; Berning, Torsten; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2011-01-01

    A three-dimensional, multi-component, two-fluid model developed in the commercial CFD package CFX 13 (ANSYS inc.), is used to investigate the effect of porous media compression on transport phenomenon of a PEM Fuel cell (PEMFC). The PEMFC model only consist of the cathode channel, gas diffusion...... layer, micro-porous layer and catalyst layer, excluding the membrane and anode. In the porous media liquid water transport is described by the capillary pressure gradient, momentum loss via the Darcy-Forchheimer equation and mass transfer between phases by a non-equilibrium phase change model...

  10. Influence of Microstructure and Sintering Routes on Transport Properties of Apatite Materials for Fuel Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.Chesnaud; C.Estournes; G.Dezannau

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Oxy-apatite materials are thought as zirconia-substitutes in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells due to their fast ionic conduction. However, the well known difficulties related to their densification prevent them from being used as such. This study presents strategies to obtain oxy-apatite dense materials and the influence of elaboration route on transport properties. Particular emphasis is put on the microstructure effect on ion conduction. By the combined use of freeze-drying and conventional or spark p...

  11. NREL Produces Ethylene via Photosynthesis; Breakthrough Offers Cleaner Alternative for Transportation Fuels (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-08-01

    NREL scientists have demonstrated a way to produce ethylene through photosynthesis, a breakthrough that could lead to more environmentally friendly ways to produce a variety of materials, chemicals, and transportation fuels. The scientists introduced a gene into a cyanobacterium and demonstrated that the organism remains stable through at least four generations, producing ethylene gas that can be easily captured. In the laboratory, the organism, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, produced 720 milligrams of ethylene per liter each day.

  12. Parallel-burn options for dual-fuel single-stage orbital transports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    A parallel-burn version of a single-stage vehicle for transport from the earth to low-earth orbit using two fuels and rocket propulsion is considered. New engine results were incorporated in vehicle performance and design studies. The results indicate that a hydrogen-cooled gas generator cycle engine provides attractive vehicle performance and that there is little incentive for increasing the chamber pressure beyond 27 MPa.

  13. Anion exchange membranes for fuel cells and flow batteries : transport and stability of model systems

    OpenAIRE

    Marino, Michael G

    2015-01-01

    Polymeric anion exchange materials in membrane form can be key components in emerging energy storage and conversions systems such as the alkaline fuel cell and the RedOx flow battery. For these applications the membrane properties need to include good ionic conductivity and sufficient chemical stability, two aspects, that are not sufficiently understood in terms of materials science. Materials fulfilling both criteria are currently not available. The transport of ions and water in a model...

  14. Oxygen reduction and transportation mechanisms in solid oxide fuel cell cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yihong; Gemmen, Randall; Liu, Xingbo

    In recent years, various models have been developed for describing the reaction mechanisms in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) especially for the cathode electrode. However, many fundamental issues regarding the transport of oxygen and electrode kinetics have not been fully understood. This review tried to summarize the present status of the SOFC cathode modeling efforts, and associated experimental approaches on this topic. In addition, unsolved problems and possible future research directions for SOFC cathode kinetics had been discussed.

  15. Role of copper transporters in the uptake and efflux of platinum containing drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Roohangiz

    2006-03-08

    Cellular mechanisms for the uptake, intracellular distribution and efflux of the platinum (Pt) containing compounds cisplatin (DDP), carboplatin (CBDCA) and oxaliplatin (LOHP) are unknown. Current data suggest that specialized transporters/carriers mediate the transport of Pt drugs across the cellular membranes. Specific roles for the copper (Cu) transporters CTR1, ATP7A and ATP7B have been demonstrated during recent years. The finding that in cultured cells and tumor samples a correlation can be found between the expression of Cu transporters and the degree of the acquired resistance to Pt drug suggests that the Cu transporters are important constituents of the program that regulates sensitivity to Pt drugs. A model is presented that describes the function of Cu transporters in the regulation of Pt drug uptake and efflux.

  16. LIBS Spectral Data for a Mixed Actinide Fuel Pellet Containing Uranium, Plutonium, Neptunium and Americium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judge, Elizabeth J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Berg, John M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Le, Loan A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lopez, Leon N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Barefield, James E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-18

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was used to analyze a mixed actinide fuel pellet containing 75% UO{sub 2}/20% PuO{sub 2}/3% AmO{sub 2}/2% NpO{sub 2}. The preliminary data shown here is the first report of LIBS analysis of a mixed actinide fuel pellet, to the authors knowledge. The LIBS spectral data was acquired in a plutonium facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory where the sample was contained within a glove box. The initial installation of the glove box was not intended for complete ultraviolet (UV), visible (VIS) and near infrared (NIR) transmission, therefore the LIBS spectrum is truncated in the UV and NIR regions due to the optical transmission of the window port and filters that were installed. The optical collection of the emission from the LIBS plasma will be optimized in the future. However, the preliminary LIBS data acquired is worth reporting due to the uniqueness of the sample and spectral data. The analysis of several actinides in the presence of each other is an important feature of this analysis since traditional methods must chemically separate uranium, plutonium, neptunium, and americium prior to analysis. Due to the historic nature of the sample fuel pellet analyzed, the provided sample composition of 75% UO{sub 2}/20% PuO{sub 2}/3% AmO{sub 2}/2% NpO{sub 2} cannot be confirm without further analytical processing. Uranium, plutonium, and americium emission lines were abundant and easily assigned while neptunium was more difficult to identify. There may be several reasons for this observation, other than knowing the exact sample composition of the fuel pellet. First, the atomic emission wavelength resources for neptunium are limited and such techniques as hollow cathode discharge lamp have different dynamics than the plasma used in LIBS which results in different emission spectra. Secondly, due to the complex sample of four actinide elements, which all have very dense electronic energy levels, there may be reactions and

  17. Solid-Oxide Fuel Cell Electrode Microstructures: Making Sense of the Internal Framework Affecting Gas Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Jeffrey

    Optimal electrodes for solid-oxide fuel cells will combine high porosity for gas diffusion, high phase connectivity for ion and electron conduction, and high surface area for chemical and electrochemical reactions. Tracer-diffusion simulations are used to gain a better understanding of the interplay between microstructure and transport in porous materials. Results indicate that the coefficient of diffusion through a porous medium is a function of the details of the internal geometry (microscopic) and porosity (macroscopic). I report that current solid-oxide fuel cell electrodes produced from high-temperature sintering of ceramic powders severely hinder gas transport because the resulting structures are highly tortuous, complex three-dimensional networks. In addition, poor phase connectivities will assuredly limit ion and electron transport, as well as the density of active sites for power-producing reactions. With new access to a wide range of technologies, micro- and nano-fabrication capabilities, and high-performance materials, there is a new ability to engineer the fuel cell electrode architecture, optimizing the physical processes within, increasing performance, and greatly reducing cost per kilowatt. Even simple packed-sphere and inverse-opal architectures will increase gas diffusion by an order of magnitude, and provide a higher level of connectivity than traditional powder-based structures.

  18. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Projected Biomass Utilization for Fuels and Power in a Mature Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, M.; Mai, T.; Newes, E.; Aden, A.; Warner, E.; Uriarte, C.; Inman, D.; Simpkins, T.; Argo, A.

    2013-03-01

    The viability of biomass as transportation fuel depends upon the allocation of limited resources for fuel, power, and products. By focusing on mature markets, this report identifies how biomass is projected to be most economically used in the long term and the implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and petroleum use. In order to better understand competition for biomass between these markets and the potential for biofuel as a market-scale alternative to petroleum-based fuels, this report presents results of a micro-economic analysis conducted using the Biomass Allocation and Supply Equilibrium (BASE) modeling tool. The findings indicate that biofuels can outcompete biopower for feedstocks in mature markets if research and development targets are met. The BASE tool was developed for this project to analyze the impact of multiple biomass demand areas on mature energy markets. The model includes domestic supply curves for lignocellulosic biomass resources, corn for ethanol and butanol production, soybeans for biodiesel, and algae for diesel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  19. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Projected Biomass Utilization for Fuels and Power in a Mature Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Newes, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Aden, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Warner, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Uriarte, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Inman, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Simpkins, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Argo, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-03-01

    The viability of biomass as transportation fuel depends upon the allocation of limited resources for fuel, power, and products. By focusing on mature markets, this report identifies how biomass is projected to be most economically used in the long term and the implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and petroleum use. In order to better understand competition for biomass between these markets and the potential for biofuel as a market-scale alternative to petroleum-based fuels, this report presents results of a micro-economic analysis conducted using the Biomass Allocation and Supply Equilibrium (BASE) modeling tool. The findings indicate that biofuels can outcompete biopower for feedstocks in mature markets if research and development targets are met. The BASE tool was developed for this project to analyze the impact of multiple biomass demand areas on mature energy markets. The model includes domestic supply curves for lignocellulosic biomass resources, corn for ethanol and butanol production, soybeans for biodiesel, and algae for diesel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  20. Algae as a Feedstock for Transportation Fuels. The Future of Biofuels?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGill, Ralph [Sentech, Inc., Fuels, Engines, and Emissions Consulting, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2008-05-15

    Events in world energy markets over the past several years have prompted many new technical developments as well as political support for alternative transportation fuels, especially those that are renewable. We have seen dramatic rises in the demand for and production of fuel ethanol from sugar cane and corn and biodiesel from vegetable oils. The quantities of these fuels being used continue to rise dramatically, and their use is helping to create a political climate for doing even more. But, the quantities are still far too small to stem the tide of rising crude prices worldwide. In fact, the use of some traditional crops (corn, sugar, soy, etc.) in making fuels instead of food is apparently beginning to impact the cost of food worldwide. Thus, there is considerable interest in developing alternative biofuel feedstocks for use in making fuels -- feedstocks that are not used in the food industries. Of course, we know that there is a lot of work in developing cellulosic-based ethanol that would be made from woody biomass. Process development is the critical path for this option, and the breakthrough in reducing the cost of the process has been elusive thus far. Making biodiesel from vegetable oils is a well-developed and inexpensive process, but to date there have been few reasonable alternatives for making biodiesel, although advanced processes such as gasification of biomass remain an option.

  1. The Fuel Efficiency of Maritime Transport. Potential for improvement and analysis of barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, J.; Nelissen, D.; Smit, M. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Behrends, B. [Marena Ltd., s.l. (United Kingdom); Lee, D.S. [Manchester Metropolitan University, Machester (United Kingdom)

    2012-02-15

    There is significant potential to improve the fuel efficiency of ships and thus contribute to reducing greenhouse gas emissions from maritime transport. It has long been recognised that this potential is not being fully exploited, owing to the existence of non-market barriers. This report analyses the barriers to implementing fuel efficiency improvements, and concludes that the most important of these are the split incentive between ship owners and operators, a lack of trusted data on new technologies, and transaction costs associated with evaluating measures. As a result, in practice about a quarter of the cost-effective abatement potential is unavailable. There are several ways to overcome these barriers. The split incentive can - to some extent - be overcome by providing more detailed information on the fuel efficiency of vessels, making due allowance for operational profiles. This would allow fuel consumption to be more accurately projected and a larger share of efficiency benefits to accrue to ship owners, thus increasing the return on investment in fuel-saving technologies. This would also require changes to standard charter parties. The credibility of information on new technologies can be improved through intensive collaboration between suppliers of new technologies and shipping companies. In order to overcome risk, government subsidies could provide an incentive. This could have the additional benefit that governments could require publication of results.

  2. The Costs of Container Transport Flow Between Far East and Serbia Using Different Liner Shipping Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkovic Radoslav

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Liner shipping is the most efficient mode of transport for goods. International liner shipping is a sophisticated network of regularly scheduled services that transports goods from anywhere in the world to anywhere in the world at low cost and with greater energy efficiency than any other form of international transportation. Liner shipping connects countries, markets, businesses and people, allowing them to buy and sell goods on a scale not previously possible. Today, the liner shipping industry transports goods representing approximately one-third of the total value of global trade. Ocean shipping contributes significantly to international stability and security. Considering the large and constant struggle in the market in terms of competitive pricing of products, a very important and indispensable role represents the container transport with a clear task to define the final price of the product. This paper analyzes the costs of container transport flow between Far East and Serbia, using different liner shipping services, observing the six world’s largest container operators (Maersk Line, Mediterranean Shipping Company, CMA CGM, Evergreen Line, China Ocean Shipping Company and Hapag-Lloyd and inland (truck-rail-river transport corridors. These corridors include distance between selected Mediterranean ports (Koper, Rijeka, Bar, Thessaloniki, Constanta and Serbia. As a result, in this paper is considered a mathematical model that provides a comparative analysis of transportation costs on the different routes. It is observed already existing transport routes and it is also given hypothetical review to the development of new transport routes. The main goal of this research is to provide an optimal route with lowest transportation cost during container transport. Selection of the best route in the intermodal network is a very difficult and complex task. The costs in all modes of transport and the quality of their services are not constant

  3. TECHNICAL EVALUATION OF THE SAFE TRANSPORTATION OF WASTE CONTAINERS COATED WITH POLYUREA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VAIL, T.S.

    2007-03-30

    This technical report is to evaluate and establish that the transportation of waste containers (e.g. drums, wooden boxes, fiberglass-reinforced plywood (FRP) or metal boxes, tanks, casks, or other containers) that have an external application of polyurea coating between facilities on the Hanford Site can be achieved with a level of onsite safety equivalent to that achieved offsite. Utilizing the parameters, requirements, limitations, and controls described in the DOE/RL-2001-36, ''Hanford Sitewide Transportation Safety Document'' (TSD) and the Department of Energy Richland Operations (DOE-RL) approved package specific authorizations (e.g. Package Specific Safety Documents (PSSDs), One-Time Requests for Shipment (OTRSs), and Special Packaging Authorizations (SPAS)), this evaluation concludes that polyurea coatings on packages does not impose an undue hazard for normal and accident conditions. The transportation of all packages on the Hanford Site must comply with the transportation safety basis documents for that packaging system. Compliance with the requirements, limitations, or controls described in the safety basis for a package system will not be relaxed or modified because of the application of polyurea. The inspection criteria described in facility/projects procedures and work packages that ensure compliance with Container Management Programs and transportation safety basis documentation dictate the need to overpack a package without consideration for polyurea. This technical report reviews the transportation of waste packages coated with polyurea and does not credit the polyurea with enhancing the structural, thermal, containment, shielding, criticality, or gas generating posture of a package. Facilities/Projects Container Management Programs must determine if a container requires an overpack prior to the polyurea application recognizing that circumstances newly discovered surface contamination or loss of integrity may require a previously

  4. A Review of Tungsten Heavy Alloy Utilization in Isotope Transport Containers - 13380

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, Steven G. [ATI Firth Sterling, Madison, AL (United States)

    2013-07-01

    A common requirement for radioisotope transport containers is that they provide both durable and efficient shielding of penetrating gamma radiation. This is the case for transport of both spent nuclear fuel as well as intentionally created radioisotopes for medical or other uses. Tungsten heavy alloy (WHA) provides a unique engineering property set for such shielding - easily surpassing more commonly used lead alloys in both strength and attenuation. This family of alloys contains typically 90-98 wt.% W in combination with transition metals such as Ni and Fe. WHA is manufactured in near net shape blanks by liquid phase sintering of compacted powder shapes to full metallurgical density parts. This powder metallurgy approach is described in its ability to provide excellent material utilization and affords efficient manufacturing of various shapes required for gamma shields or collimators. WHAs offer very high density (approaching 19 g/cc) in combination with relatively high thermal conductivity, low thermal expansion, ambient corrosion resistance, and can be provided with mechanical properties comparable to many medium carbon steels. As such, they can be machined to complex, damage resistant geometries using common metal cutting tools and methods. WHA additionally provides a lower toxicity alternative to Pb- or U-based gamma shielding. Given the specialty nature of WHA, specific metallurgical characteristics are reviewed to assist shielding designers who may otherwise encounter difficulties locating important alloy selection and fabrication details. Contained within this materials and applications overview are guidelines for WHA component design, alloy selection, and practical machining, finishing, and assembly considerations. The microstructure of WHA is that of a metal matrix composite. This factor has specific implications in the design of components for stress service as well as their protection in the presence of electrolytes. WHA is also discussed in the

  5. Comparative analyses of forest fuels in a life cycle perspective with a focus on transport systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Lisa Naeslund [Ecotechnology, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics, Mid Sweden University, SE-831 25 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2008-08-15

    Local, national and international transportation of forest fuels with regard to costs, primary energy use and CO{sub 2} emission was analysed. The main issue was the extent to which both mode and distance of transport affect the monetary cost, CO{sub 2} emission and primary energy use arising from the use of various types of forest residues for energy purpose. Local applications proved the most efficient options of those studied. Chipping of bundles at a terminal, for transport by rail and sea to national or international end-users, has low costs and produces only modest CO{sub 2} emissions. For the pellet options, the cost is about the same as for chipping, but require more primary energy and emit more CO{sub 2}. The traditional chipping system is more expensive than the other options. The costs of the international options over a transport distance of 1100 km vary between 21 and 28 EUR{sub 2007}/MWh, whereas pellet options cost between 22 and 25 EUR{sub 2007}/MWh. The primary energy required for transport of logging residues vis-a-vis pellets falls in the range 4-7% and 2-4%, respectively, of the bio-energy delivered. The primary energy needed to produce pellets gives them a lower fossil fuel substitution rate per hectare, compared with bundle systems. Similarly, for chip systems vis-a-vis bundle systems, the biomass delivered to the conversion plant is reduced by the greater physical dry-matter losses entailed by chipping systems in the forest-fuel chain. (author)

  6. Life cycle assessment of the production of hydrogen and transportation fuels from corn stover via fast pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanan; Hu, Guiping; Brown, Robert C.

    2013-06-01

    This life cycle assessment evaluates and quantifies the environmental impacts of the production of hydrogen and transportation fuels from the fast pyrolysis and upgrading of corn stover. Input data for this analysis come from Aspen Plus modeling, a GREET (Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation) model database and a US Life Cycle Inventory Database. SimaPro 7.3 software is employed to estimate the environmental impacts. The results indicate that the net fossil energy input is 0.25 MJ and 0.23 MJ per km traveled for a light-duty vehicle fueled by gasoline and diesel fuel, respectively. Bio-oil production requires the largest fossil energy input. The net global warming potential (GWP) is 0.037 kg CO2eq and 0.015 kg CO2eq per km traveled for a vehicle fueled by gasoline and diesel fuel, respectively. Vehicle operations contribute up to 33% of the total positive GWP, which is the largest greenhouse gas footprint of all the unit processes. The net GWPs in this study are 88% and 94% lower than for petroleum-based gasoline and diesel fuel (2005 baseline), respectively. Biomass transportation has the largest impact on ozone depletion among all of the unit processes. Sensitivity analysis shows that fuel economy, transportation fuel yield, bio-oil yield, and electricity consumption are the key factors that influence greenhouse gas emissions.

  7. Analysis of transport phenomena and electrochemical reactions in a micro PEM fuel cell with nature inspired flow field design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Micro-fuel cells are considered as promising electrochemical power sources in portable electronic devices. The presence of microelectromechanical system (MEMS technology makes it possible to manufacture the miniaturized fuel cell systems. The majority of research on micro-scale fuel cells is aimed at micro-power applications. Performance of micro-fuel cells are closely related to many factors, such as designs and operating conditions. CFD modeling and simulation for heat and mass transport in micro PEM fuel cells are being used extensively in researches and industrial applications to gain better understanding of the fundamental processes and to optimize the micro fuel cell designs before building a prototype for engineering application. In this research, full three-dimensional, non-isothermal computational fluid dynamics model of a micro proton exchange membrane (PEM fuel cell with nature inspired flow field designs has been developed. The design inspired from the existed biological fluid flow patterns in the leaf. This comprehensive model accounts for the major transport phenomena such as convective and diffusive heat and mass transfer, electrode kinetics, transport and phase-change mechanism of water, and potential fields in a micro PEM fuel cell. The model explains many interacting, complex electrochemical, and transport phenomena that cannot be studied experimentally.

  8. Analysis of transport phenomena and electrochemical reactions in a micro PEM fuel cell with serpentine gas flow channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Micro-fuel cells are considered as promising electrochemical power sources in portable electronic devices. The presence of microelectromechanical system (MEMS technology makes it possible to manufacture the miniaturized fuel cell systems. The majority of research on micro-scale fuel cells is aimed at micro-power applications. Performance of micro-fuel cells are closely related to many factors, such as designs and operating conditions. CFD modeling and simulation for heat and mass transport in micro PEM fuel cells are being used extensively in researches and industrial applications to gain better understanding of the fundamental processes and to optimize the micro fuel cell designs before building a prototype for engineering application. In this research, full three-dimensional, non-isothermal computational fluid dynamics model of a micro proton exchange membrane (PEM fuel cell with serpentine gas flow channels has been developed. This comprehensive model accounts for the major transport phenomena such as convective and diffusive heat and mass transfer, electrode kinetics, transport and phase-change mechanism of water, and potential fields in a micro PEM fuel cell. The model explains many interacting, complex electrochemical, and transport phenomena that cannot be studied experimentally.

  9. Probabilistic Risk Assessment of Cask Drop Accident during On-site Spent Nuclear Fuel Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, Jae Hyun; Christian, Robby; Momani, Belal Al; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    There are two ways to transfer the SNF from a site to other site, one is land transportation and the other is maritime transportation. Maritime transportation might be used because this way uses more safe route which is far from populated area. The whole transportation process can be divided in two parts: transferring the SNF between SNP and wharf in-Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) site by truck, and transferring the SNF from the wharf to the other wharf by ship. In this research, on-site SNF transportation between SNP and wharf was considered. Two kinds of single accident can occur during this type of SNF transportation, impact and fire, caused by internal events and external events. In this research, PRA of cask drop accident during onsite SNF transportation was done, risk to a person (mSv/person) from a case with specific conditions was calculated. In every 11 FEM simulation drop cases, FDR is 1 even the fuel assemblies are located inside of the cask. It is a quite larger value for all cases than the results with similar drop condition from the reports which covers the PRA on cask storage system. Because different from previous reports, subsequent impact was considered. Like in figure 8, accelerations which are used to calculate the FDR has extremely higher values in subsequent impact than the first impact for all SNF assemblies.

  10. Health risks in international container and bulk cargo transport due to volatile toxic compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baur, Xaver; Budnik, Lygia T; Zhao, Zhiwei

    2015-01-01

    on the toxic substance, its chemical reactivity, concentration, the temperature, the contaminated matrix (goods and packing materials), and the packing density in the transport units. Regulations on declaration and handling dangerous goods are mostly not followed. It is obvious that this hazardous situation...... shown to contain volatile toxic substances above the exposure limit values. Possible exposure to these toxic chemicals may occur not only for the applicators but also the receiver by off gassing from products, packing materials or transport units like containers. A number of intoxications, some...... with lethal outcome, occur not only during the fumigation, but also during freight transport (on bulk carriers and other transport vessels), as well as in the logistic lines during loading and unloading. Risk occupations include dock-workers, seafarers, inspectors, as well as the usually uninformed workers...

  11. Surrogate fuel assembly multi-axis shaker tests to simulate normal conditions of rail and truck transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, Paul E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Koenig, Greg John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Uncapher, William Leonard [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grey, Carissa [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Engelhardt, Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Saltzstein, Sylvia J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sorenson, Ken B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-05-01

    This report describes the third set of tests (the “DCLa shaker tests”) of an instrumented surrogate PWR fuel assembly. The purpose of this set of tests was to measure strains and accelerations on Zircaloy-4 fuel rods when the PWR assembly was subjected to rail and truck loadings simulating normal conditions of transport when affixed to a multi-axis shaker. This is the first set of tests of the assembly simulating rail normal conditions of transport.

  12. Results of Recent Microstructural Characterization of Irradiated U-Mo Dispersion Fuels with Al Alloy Matrices that Contain Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D D. Keiser, Jr.; A. B. Robinson; D. E. Janney; J. F. Jue

    2008-03-01

    RERTR U-Mo dispersion fuel plates are being developed for application in research reactors throughout the world. As part of this development, reactor experiments are being conducted in the Advanced Test Reactor to determine the irradiation performance of different dispersion fuels that contain U-Mo alloys with different Mo contents and Al alloy matrices with different Si contents. Of particular interest is the performance of the dispersion fuels depending on the Si content of the Al alloy matrix, since the addition of Si is being looked to for improving the performance of these dispersion fuels. This paper will describe the results of recent microstructural examinations that have been performed using optical metallography and scanning electron microscopy on as-fabricated and as-irradiated dispersion fuels with different amounts of Si added to the Al matrix. Differences in the microstructural development during irradiation as a function of the Si content in the Al matrix will be discussed, and comments will be made about the development and stability of the fuel/matrix interaction layers that are commonly present in irradiated dispersion fuels.

  13. Nuclear fuel particles in the environment - characteristics, atmospheric transport and skin doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poellaenen, R

    2002-05-01

    In the present thesis, nuclear fuel particles are studied from the perspective of their characteristics, atmospheric transport and possible skin doses. These particles, often referred to as 'hot' particles, can be released into the environment, as has happened in past years, through human activities, incidents and accidents, such as the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986. Nuclear fuel particles with a diameter of tens of micrometers, referred to here as large particles, may be hundreds of kilobecquerels in activity and even an individual particle may present a quantifiable health hazard. The detection of individual nuclear fuel particles in the environment, their isolation for subsequent analysis and their characterisation are complicated and require well-designed sampling and tailored analytical methods. In the present study, the need to develop particle analysis methods is highlighted. It is shown that complementary analytical techniques are necessary for proper characterisation of the particles. Methods routinely used for homogeneous samples may produce erroneous results if they are carelessly applied to radioactive particles. Large nuclear fuel particles are transported differently in the atmosphere compared with small particles or gaseous species. Thus, the trajectories of gaseous species are not necessarily appropriate for calculating the areas that may receive large particle fallout. A simplified model and a more advanced model based on the data on real weather conditions were applied in the case of the Chernobyl accident to calculate the transport of the particles of different sizes. The models were appropriate in characterising general transport properties but were not able to properly predict the transport of the particles with an aerodynamic diameter of tens of micrometers, detected at distances of hundreds of kilometres from the source, using only the current knowledge of the source term. Either the effective release height has

  14. Liquid water transport characteristics of porous diffusion media in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xunliang; Peng, Fangyuan; Lou, Guofeng; Wen, Zhi

    2015-12-01

    Fundamental understanding of liquid water transport in gas diffusion media (GDM) is important to improve the material and structure design of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells. Continuum methods of two-phase flow modeling facilitate to give more details of relevant information. The proper empirical correlations of liquid water transport properties, such as capillary characteristics, water relative permeability and effective contact angle, are crucial to two phase flow modeling and cell performance prediction. In this work, researches on these properties in the last decade are reviewed. Various efforts have been devoted to determine the water transport properties for GDMs. However, most of the experimental studies are ex-situ measurements. In-situ measurements for GDMs and extending techniques available to study the catalyst layer and the microporous layer will be further challenges. Using the Leverett-Udell correlation is not recommended for quantitative modeling. The reliable Leverett-type correlation for GDMs, with the inclusion of the cosine of effective contact angle, is desirable but hard to be established for modeling two-phase flow in GDMs. A comprehensive data set of liquid water transport properties is needed for various GDM materials under different PEM fuel cell operating conditions.

  15. Transport and micro-instability analysis of JET H-mode plasma during pellet fueling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaywittaphat, P.; Onjun, T.

    2017-02-01

    Transport and micro-instability analysis in a JET H-mode plasma discharge 53212 during the pellet fueling operation is carried out using the BALDUR integrated predictive modeling code with a combination of the NCLASS neoclassical transport model and an anomalous core transport model (either Mixed B/gB or MMM95 model). In this work, the evolution of plasma current, plasma density and temperature profiles is carried out and, consequently, the plasma’s behaviors during the pellet operation can be observed. The NGS pellet model with the Grad-B drift effect included is used to describe pellet ablation and its behaviors when a pellet is launched into hot plasma. The simulation shows that after each pellet enters the plasma, there is a strong perturbation on the plasma causing a sudden change of both thermal and particle profiles, as well as the thermal and particle transports. For the simulation using MMM95 transport model, the change of both thermal and particle transports during pellet injection are found to be dominated by the transport due to the resistive ballooning modes due to the increase of collisionality and resistivity near the plasma edge. For the simulation based on mixed B/gB transport model, it is found that the change of transport during the pellet injection is dominated by the Bohm term. Micro-instability analysis of the plasma during the time of pellet operation is also carried out for the simulations based on MMM95 transport model. It is found that the ion temperature gradient mode is destabilized due to an increase of temperature gradient in the pellet effective region, while the trapped electron mode is stabilized due to an increase of collisionality in that region.

  16. Spatially- explicit Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide Inventories for Transportation in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, M.; Gurney, K. R.

    2016-12-01

    The transportation sector is the second largest source of Fossil Fuel CO2 (FFCO2) emissions, and is unique in that federal, state, and municipal levels of government are all able to enact transportation policy. However, since data related to transportation activities are reported by multiple different government agencies, the data are not always consistent. As a result, the methods and data used to inventory and account for transportation related FFCO2 emissions have important implications for both science and policy. Aggregate estimates of transportation related FFCO2 emissions can be spatially distributed using traffic data, such as the Highway Performance Monitoring System (HPMS) Average Annual Daily Traffic (AADT). There are currently two datasets that estimate the spatial distribution of transportation related FFCO2 in the United States- Vulcan 3.0 and the Database of Road Transportation Emissions (DARTE). Both datasets are at 1 km resolution, for the year 2011, and utilize HPMS AADT traffic data. However, Vulcan 3.0 and DARTE spatially distribute emissions using different methods and inputs, resulting in a number of differences. Vulcan 3.0 and DARTE estimate national transportation related FFCO2 emissions within 2.5% of each other, with more significant differences at the county and state level. The differences are most notable in urban versus rural regions, and for specific road classes. The origin of these differences are explored in depth to understand the implication of using specific data sources, such as the National Emissions Inventory and other aggregate transportation statistics from the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). In addition to comparing Vulcan 3.0 and DARTE to each other, the results from both data sets are compared to independent traffic volume measurements acquired from the FHWA Continuous Count Station (CCS) network. The CCS records hourly traffic counts at fixed locations in space throughout the U.S. We calculate transportation

  17. Investigation of Micro- and Macro-Scale Transport Processes for Improved Fuel Cell Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Wenbin

    2015-02-05

    This report documents the work performed by General Motors (GM) under the Cooperative agreement No. DE-EE0000470, “Investigation of Micro- and Macro-Scale Transport Processes for Improved Fuel Cell Performance,” in collaboration with the Penn State University (PSU), University of Tennessee Knoxville (UTK), Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT), and University of Rochester (UR) via subcontracts. The overall objectives of the project are to investigate and synthesize fundamental understanding of transport phenomena at both the macro- and micro-scales for the development of a down-the-channel model that accounts for all transport domains in a broad operating space. GM as a prime contractor focused on cell level experiments and modeling, and the Universities as subcontractors worked toward fundamental understanding of each component and associated interface.

  18. Investigation of Micro- and Macro-Scale Transport Processes for Improved Fuel Cell Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Wenbin [General Motors LLC, Pontiac, MI (United States)

    2014-08-29

    This report documents the work performed by General Motors (GM) under the Cooperative agreement No. DE-EE0000470, “Investigation of Micro- and Macro-Scale Transport Processes for Improved Fuel Cell Performance,” in collaboration with the Penn State University (PSU), University of Tennessee Knoxville (UTK), Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT), and University of Rochester (UR) via subcontracts. The overall objectives of the project are to investigate and synthesize fundamental understanding of transport phenomena at both the macro- and micro-scales for the development of a down-the-channel model that accounts for all transport domains in a broad operating space. GM as a prime contractor focused on cell level experiments and modeling, and the Universities as subcontractors worked toward fundamental understanding of each component and associated interface.

  19. Measurements on high temperature fuel cells with carbon monoxide-containing fuel gases; Messungen an Hochtemperatur-Brennstoffzellen mit kohlenmonoxidhaltigen Brenngasen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apfel, Holger

    2012-10-10

    In the present work the different power density of anode-supported high-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (ASC-SOFCs) were examined for carbon monoxide-containing fuels. In addition to wet hydrogen / carbon monoxide mixtures the cells were run with synthetic gas mixtures resembling the products of an autothermal reformer, and actual reformate generated by a 2 kW autothermal reformer. It was found that the power-voltage characteristics of an ASC depends primarily on the open circuit voltages of different gas mixtures, but is nearly independent of the hydrogen concentration of the fuel, although the reaction rates of other potential fuels within the gas mixture, namely carbon monoxide and methane, are much lower that the hydrogen reaction rate. The probable reason is that the main fuel for the electrochemical oxidation within the cell is hydrogen, while the nickel in the base layer of the anode acts as a reformer which replenishes the hydrogen by water reduction via carbon monoxide and methane oxidation.

  20. Full-Scale Accident Testing in Support of Used Nuclear Fuel Transportation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durbin, Samuel G.; Lindgren, Eric R.; Rechard, Rob P.; Sorenson, Ken B.

    2014-09-01

    The safe transport of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste is an important aspect of the waste management system of the United States. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) currently certifies spent nuclear fuel rail cask designs based primarily on numerical modeling of hypothetical accident conditions augmented with some small scale testing. However, NRC initiated a Package Performance Study (PPS) in 2001 to examine the response of full-scale rail casks in extreme transportation accidents. The objectives of PPS were to demonstrate the safety of transportation casks and to provide high-fidelity data for validating the modeling. Although work on the PPS eventually stopped, the Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future recommended in 2012 that the test plans be re-examined. This recommendation was in recognition of substantial public feedback calling for a full-scale severe accident test of a rail cask to verify evaluations by NRC, which find that risk from the transport of spent fuel in certified casks is extremely low. This report, which serves as the re-assessment, provides a summary of the history of the PPS planning, identifies the objectives and technical issues that drove the scope of the PPS, and presents a possible path for moving forward in planning to conduct a full-scale cask test. Because full-scale testing is expensive, the value of such testing on public perceptions and public acceptance is important. Consequently, the path forward starts with a public perception component followed by two additional components: accident simulation and first responder training. The proposed path forward presents a series of study options with several points where the package performance study could be redirected if warranted.

  1. Fuel cells for future transportation: The Department of Energy OTT/OUT partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, P.G.; Milliken, J.; Gronich, S.; Rossmeissl, N. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Utility Technologies; Ohi, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States). Center for Transportation Technologies and Systems

    1997-12-31

    The DOE Office of Transportation Technologies (OTT) is currently engaged in the development and integration R and D activities which will make it possible to reduce oil imports, and move toward a sustainable transportation future. Within OTT, the Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies is supporting development of highly efficient, low or zero emission fuel cell power systems as an alternative to internal combustion engines. The objectives of the program are: By 2000, develop and validate fuel cell stack system technologies that are greater than 51% energy efficient at 40 kW (maximum net power); more than 100 times cleaner than EPA Tier II emissions; and capable of operating on gasoline, methanol, ethanol, natural gas, and hydrogen gas or liquid. By 2004, develop and validate fuel cell power system technologies that meet vehicle requirements in terms of: cost--competitive with internal combustion engines; and performance, range, safety and reliability. The research, development, and validation of fuel cell technology is integrally linked to the Energy Policy Act (EPACT) and other major US policy objectives, such as the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV). Established in 1993, PNGV is a research and development initiative involving seven Federal agencies and the three US automobile manufacturers to strengthen US competitiveness. The PNGV will develop technologies for vehicles with a fuel efficiency of 80 miles per gallon, while maintaining such attributes as size, performance, safety, and cost. To help address the critical issue of fuel and fuel infrastructure development for advanced vehicles, the DOE Office of Utility Technologies (OUT) has directed the Hydrogen Program to provide national leadership in the research, development, and validation of advanced technologies to produce, store, and use hydrogen. An objective of the Program is to work in partnership with industry to advance hydrogen systems to the point where they are cost effective and

  2. Laminar oxy-fuel diffusion flame supported by an oxygen-permeable-ion-transport membrane

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Jongsup

    2013-03-01

    A numerical model with detailed gas-phase chemistry and transport was used to predict homogeneous fuel conversion processes and to capture the important features (e.g., the location, temperature, thickness and structure of a flame) of laminar oxy-fuel diffusion flames stabilized on the sweep side of an oxygen permeable ion transport membrane (ITM). We assume that the membrane surface is not catalytic to hydrocarbon or syngas oxidation. It has been demonstrated that an ITM can be used for hydrocarbon conversion with enhanced reaction selectivity such as oxy-fuel combustion for carbon capture technologies and syngas production. Within an ITM unit, the oxidizer flow rate, i.e., the oxygen permeation flux, is not a pre-determined quantity, since it depends on the oxygen partial pressures on the feed and sweep sides and the membrane temperature. Instead, it is influenced by the oxidation reactions that are also dependent on the oxygen permeation rate, the initial conditions of the sweep gas, i.e., the fuel concentration, flow rate and temperature, and the diluent. In oxy-fuel combustion applications, the sweep side is fuel-diluted with CO2, and the entire unit is preheated to achieve a high oxygen permeation flux. This study focuses on the flame structure under these conditions and specifically on the chemical effect of CO2 dilution. Results show that, when the fuel diluent is CO2, a diffusion flame with a lower temperature and a larger thickness is established in the vicinity of the membrane, in comparison with the case in which N2 is used as a diluent. Enhanced OH-driven reactions and suppressed H radical chemistry result in the formation of products with larger CO and H2O and smaller H2 concentrations. Moreover, radical concentrations are reduced due to the high CO2 fraction in the sweep gas. CO2 dilution reduces CH3 formation and slows down the formation of soot precursors, C2H2 and C2H4. The flame location impacts the species diffusion and heat transfer from the

  3. A three-dimensional PEM fuel cell model with consistent treatment of water transport in MEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Hua

    In this paper, a three-dimensional PEM fuel cell model with a consistent water transport treatment in the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) has been developed. In this new PEM fuel cell model, the conservation equation of the water concentration is solved in the gas channels, gas diffusion layers, and catalyst layers while a conservation equation of the water content is established in the membrane. These two equations are connected using a set of internal boundary conditions based on the thermodynamic phase equilibrium and flux equality at the interface of the membrane and the catalyst layer. The existing fictitious water concentration treatment, which assumes thermodynamic phase equilibrium between the water content in the membrane phase and the water concentration, is applied in the two catalyst layers to consider water transport in the membrane phase. Since all the other conservation equations are still developed and solved in the single-domain framework without resort to interfacial boundary conditions, the present new PEM fuel cell model is termed as a mixed-domain method. Results from this mixed-domain approach have been compared extensively with those from the single-domain method, showing good accuracy in terms of not only cell performances and current distributions but also water content variations in the membrane.

  4. Water transport in gas diffusion media for PEM fuel cells. Experimental and numerical investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, Joerg

    2010-08-20

    The water flux in partially saturated hydrophobic carbon fibre paper for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell applications is investigated and compared with the frequently used constitutive two-phase flow model based on Darcy's law. Further, the first steps towards a math-based material design for gas diffusion media are explored in this thesis. Two self-developed ex-situ experiments to investigate the liquid water transport are introduced. The first is a newly developed buoyancy-based measurement of the pressuresaturation relationship on thin porous material with an accuracy of 0.5 kPa for the pressure and {+-} 5% for the saturation. The second experiment measures the pressure drop in dependence of flow rates down to magnitudes of {mu}L/s across the partially saturated thin porous material. This flow rate is relevant for the fuel cell application. The liquid water transport through Toray 060 carbon fibre paper, impregnated with 7% and 10% PTFE is investigated at wet and dry boundary conditions. The experiments are also accompanied by analytical and numerical free surface modelling with the consideration of the material morphology and liquid-solid interaction. The imbibing and draining cases of an arrangement of six fibres at varying solid-liquid interaction and boundary conditions are studied with 'Surface Evolver'. In order to evaluate the findings of ex-situ and modelling work for applicability to water transport in fuel cell operation, the technique of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging is assessed. The focus is on the visualisation of 2D and 3D water distribution in the operating fuel cell. The compatibility of the NMR experiment with fuel cell operation in relation to material selection, operating temperature, and current density is addressed. NMR imaging is employed for different current densities, stoichiometries, and fuel cell arrangements. The fuel cell arrangements differ by the cathode diffusion medium. Plain, hydrophobic, and

  5. Strategic network design of Java Island fuel supply with production-transportation solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianawati, Fauzia; Farizal, -; Surjandari, Isti; Marzuli, Rully

    2011-10-01

    This study aims to find more efficient supply network, from refineries / imports to fuel terminal, which still uses the Tanker, Tank Trucks or Rail Tank Wagon with an alternative pipeline that are considered more efficient than other transport modes, as well as gaining pipeline transportation network optimization analysis tailored to the capabilities/ capacity of refinery production and capacity of the pipe mode. With the complexity of the number of 3 point sources of supply, 19 destination of terminal, 4 kinds of products and 4 types of transport modes, transport-production model modified by adding multi-modal transport and investment costs of new pipeline. Then coded in Lingo program which adopts Branch & Bound technique and input the processed data in order to obtain an optimal distribution pattern produced the lowest distribution costs. This B&B solution was also compared with SCO solution which is a metaheuristic method. The results of this study lead to the development of new modes of pipeline connections in amount of 4 alternatives, generated from the optimal solution, but still potentially earned savings of about IDR 1 Trillion per year from cost-efficiency of product procurement and transportation costs.

  6. Lipase-catalyzed production of biodiesel fuel from vegetable oils contained in waste activated bleaching earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizarro, Ana V. Lara; Park, Enoch Y. [Shizuoka Univ., Dept. of Applied Biological Chemistry, Shizuoka (Japan)

    2003-02-28

    Waste bleaching earths from crude vegetable oil refining process contain approximately 40% of its weight as oil. Low valued oils are potential substrates for biodiesel fuel production. Vegetable oils from waste bleaching earth samples were organic-solvent extracted and identified as soybean, palm and rapeseed oil. Methanolysis was efficiently catalyzed by Rhizopus oryzae lipase in the presence of high water content, and by a single addition of methanol. R. oryzae lipase was not inactivated by methanol in concentrations lower than 4 milli-equivalents and 75% water content. Optimum conditions for methanolysis of extracted oils were 75% water content (by weight of substrate), an oil/methanol molar ratio of I:4, and 67 IU/g of substrate with agitation at 175 rpm for 96 h at 35 deg C. The highest conversion yield reached 55% (w/w) with palm oil after 96 h of reaction. Adverse viscosity conditions might have influenced methanolysis of extracted soybean and rapeseed oil in spite of high water or methanol concentrations. (Author)

  7. Waste to Watts and Water: Enabling Self-Contained Facilities Using Microbial Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    Logan et al., "Microbial Fuel Cells: Methodology and Technology," Environmental Science & Technology 40, no. 17 (2006): 5189. 60 M. A. Rodrigo et al...348. 67 Bruce Logan et al., "Graphite Fiber Brush Anodes for Increased Power Production in Air-Cathode Microbial Fuel Cells," Environmental Science & Technology 41...34Diversifying Biological Fuel Cell Designs by Use of Nanoporous Filters," Environmental Science & Technology 41, no. 4 (2007). 76 Eliza M. Tsui and

  8. A robotized surface workstation for manipulation, filling and closing of packaging containers for spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartos, Pavel [FITE a.s., Ostrava-Marianske Hory (Czech Republic); Haladova, Petra [Robotsystem, LLC/Moravian Research, LLC, Ostrava-Moravska (Czech Republic); Otcenasek, Petr

    2016-01-15

    Options for the handling of spent nuclear fuel are described and a packaging cask for an underground repository is presented as also a robotic surface workplace for the repository. The potential for the closing the nuclear fuel cycle is discussed. Currently, a team of Czech experts is developing a project of fully robotic technology for manipulation and storage of packaging casks for spent nuclear fuel in host rock of underground repository.

  9. The concept of the development of cargo container transport system within airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Hentschel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The transport of luggage units between the check-in terminal and airplanes is realized by the use of very simple transport solutions and manual reloading of the luggage. The luggage trolleys are used for the transport purposes, which are hitched to the mover and moved directly to the surroundings of the airplane. The loading and unloading of luggage is performed manually. Regarding actual safety requirements there was a need to create a new transport system, working in a closed cycle and based on the device for automatic loading and unloading of luggage units. Methods: Various potential variants of the device were generated based on results of analytical researches by the use of the morphological schema. The detail evaluation and the optimization of individual variants allow to prepare the concept of the complex method to solve problems of the reliable transport of luggage units within an airport. Results: The closed transport system was created as a result of the innovative project. The main element of this system is a container trolley, which is equipped in five storage layers. By the use of the special mover and gravitational forces, luggage units can be transported and placed inside this trolley as well as being loaded and unloaded. This solution enables to move 200 pieces of luggage in one transport cycle from the check-in terminal to the hatchway of the airplane.

  10. Formulation and Testing of Paraffin-Based Solid Fuels Containing Energetic Additives for Hybrid Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Daniel B.; Boyer, Eric; Wachs,Trevor; Kuo, Kenneth K.; Story, George

    2012-01-01

    Many approaches have been considered in an effort to improve the regression rate of solid fuels for hybrid rocket applications. One promising method is to use a fuel with a fast burning rate such as paraffin wax; however, additional performance increases to the fuel regression rate are necessary to make the fuel a viable candidate to replace current launch propulsion systems. The addition of energetic and/or nano-sized particles is one way to increase mass-burning rates of the solid fuels and increase the overall performance of the hybrid rocket motor.1,2 Several paraffin-based fuel grains with various energetic additives (e.g., lithium aluminum hydride (LiAlH4) have been cast in an attempt to improve regression rates. There are two major advantages to introducing LiAlH4 additive into the solid fuel matrix: 1) the increased characteristic velocity, 2) decreased dependency of Isp on oxidizer-to-fuel ratio. The testing and characterization of these solid-fuel grains have shown that continued work is necessary to eliminate unburned/unreacted fuel in downstream sections of the test apparatus.3 Changes to the fuel matrix include higher melting point wax and smaller energetic additive particles. The reduction in particle size through various methods can result in more homogeneous grain structure. The higher melting point wax can serve to reduce the melt-layer thickness, allowing the LiAlH4 particles to react closer to the burning surface, thus increasing the heat feedback rate and fuel regression rate. In addition to the formulation of LiAlH4 and paraffin wax solid-fuel grains, liquid additives of triethylaluminum and diisobutylaluminum hydride will be included in this study. Another promising fuel formulation consideration is to incorporate a small percentage of RDX as an additive to paraffin. A novel casting technique will be used by dissolving RDX in a solvent to crystallize the energetic additive. After dissolving the RDX in a solvent chosen for its compatibility

  11. Computational Analysis of Mixing and Transport of Air and Fuel in Co-Fired Combustor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javaid Iqbal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Computational analysis for air fuel mixing and transport in a combustor used for co fired burner has been done by RANS (Reynolds-Averaged Navier?Stokes model comparing with 3D (Three Dimensional LES (Large Eddy Simulation. To investigate the better turbulence level and mixing within co fired combustor using the solid fuel biomass with coal is main purpose of this research work. The results show the difference in flow predicted by the two models, LES give better results than the RANS. For compressible flow the LES results show more swirling effect, The velocity decays along axial and radial distance for both swirling and non-swirling jet. Because of no slip condition near boundary the near the wall velocity is about zero

  12. Algal biomass as a global source of transport fuels: Overview and development perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kifayat Ullah

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the global fuel crisis of the early 1970s, coupled with concerns for the environment, the use of biofuel has been on the increase in many regions throughout the world. At present, a total of approximately 30 billion (30×109 liters of biofuel are utilized worldwide annually, although most countries rely hugely on the first generation biofuel. The limitations of the first and second generation biofuel gave rise to current interest in algae as a promising alternative to these conventional biofuel sources. Algal biomass could provide a lion׳s share of the global transport fuel requirements in future. The present review highlights some important developments in, and potentials of algaculture as a major biomass resource of the future. However, the major constraint to commercial-scale algae farming for energy production is the cost factor, which must be addressed adequately before its potentials can be harnessed.

  13. Effect of cathode and electrolyte transport properties on chromium poisoning in solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fergus, Jeffrey W. [Materials Research and Education Center, 275 Wilmore Laboratories, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)

    2007-11-15

    A major degradation mechanism in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) is poisoning of the cathode by chromium from volatilization of the interconnect material. The chromium deposition has been attributed to both chemical and electrochemical mechanisms. For an electrochemical reaction, deposition can occur only where both ions and electrons are available, which, for a purely ionic conducting electrolyte and a purely electronic conducting cathode, can occur only at the three-phase gas-electrolyte-electrode interface. However, the introduction of ionic conductivity into the cathode or electronic conductivity into the electrolyte can allow deposition to occur away from this three-phase interface, and thus alter its effect on the fuel cell performance. In this paper, the chromium poisoning of SOFC cathodes is reviewed, with a focus on the effects of the transport properties of the cathode and electrolyte materials. (author)

  14. Study on the fire-protection-system for interim storage facilities of spent nuclear fuel and transportation ships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S. O; Choi, M. H.; Lee, S. C. and others [Dongbang Electron Industry Corporation, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-12-15

    This study consists of : the fire risk and it's fire protection for the storage facilities and transportation equipments of dangerous goods, the fire risk and it's fire protection for the interim storage facilities of spent nuclear fuel, the fire risk and it's fire protection for the dangerous goods transportation ships, the necessary equipment for safety of ships and regulations of fire fighting equipment for ships, technical specification of spent nuclear fuel transportation ships which are operated in foreign countries, draft of fire protection guideline for interim storage facilities of spent nuclear fuel, inspection items of fire fighting equipment, scope of education and training. On the basis of the aforementioned, a draft of fire protection guideline for interim storage facilities of spent nuclear fuel is proposed and the regulations for ship engaged in the a carrage of dangerous goods that should be considered in design and operation stage are proposed.

  15. Measurements of turbulent pressures of flow in a water-conveying pipe containing a simulation fuel bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasian, F.; Cao, J.; Yu, S.D. [Ryerson Univ., Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    A test apparatus was set up to investigate the turbulent flows and flow induced vibrations in a fluid-conveying pipe containing a CANDU 43-element simulation fuel bundle. The fuel bundle is immersed in test pipe of 4-inch in diameter. A centrifugal pump circulates fresh water with a maximum velocity of 9 m/s at full pump power. The pressure fluctuation near the inner surface of the flow channel was measured at various locations using a pressure transducer and a data acquisition system. It was found that the turbulence away from the test section containing the simulation fuel bundle is largely caused by the pipe flow of high Reynolds number; the turbulence near and inside the bundle structures is the result of pipe flow and fluid-solid interactions. The measurements of pressures near the fuel bundle structure showed that the power spectral density (PSD) of pressure fluctuation has a frequency range of 1-300 Hz, and a normalized maximum pressure range of 0.04 to 0.05 times dynamic pressure. The effects of bundle angular alignments and subchannels on the pressure spectra, Strouhal number range, and streamwise pressure drop are also investigated in this paper. Results presented in this paper are useful in validating the computational models for flow-induced fluid forces that cause the fuel bundle structure to rock and fret. (author)

  16. Joint slot allocation and dynamic pricing of container sea–rail multimodal transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Liu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The container sea–rail multimodal transport system faces complex challenges with demand uncertainties for joint slot allocation and dynamic pricing. The challenge is formulated as a two-stage optimal model based on revenue management (RM as actual slots sale of multi-node container sea–rail multimodal transport usually includes contract sale to large shippers and free sale to scattered shippers. First stage in the model utilizes an origin-destination control approach, formulated as a stochastic integer programming equation, to settle long-term slot allocation in the contract market and empty container allocation. Second stage in the model is formulated as a stochastic nonlinear programming equation to solve a multiproduct joint dynamic pricing and inventory control problem for price settling and slot allocation in each period of free market. Considering the random nature of demand, the methods of chance constrained programming and robust optimization are utilized to transform stochastic models into deterministic models. A numerical experiment is presented to verify the availability of models and solving methods. Results of considering uncertain/certain demand are compared, which show that the two-stage optimal strategy integrating slot allocation with dynamic pricing considering random demand is revealed to increase the revenue for multimodal transport operators (MTO while concurrently satisfying shippers' demand. Research resulting from this paper will contribute to the theory and practice of container sea–rail multimodal transport revenue management and provide a scientific decision-making tool for MTO.

  17. Fuel cells applied to transport; Celdas de combustible aplicadas al transporte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas Gonzalez, Miguel [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    The future demand of energy as well as the preservation of the environment have generated, in several countries, the necessity of developing alternative means for the most efficient transformation of energy that causes minimum damages to the environment. The fuel cells technology is outlined as one of the alternating means to the traditional forms of transforming the energy for residential use as well as for the automotive vehicles. At present it is in a final stage of demonstration, reason why as of year 2003 the possibility will exist on automobiles and trucks circulating normally. [Spanish] La futura demanda de energeticos asi como la preservacion del medio ambiente ha generado, en varios paises, la necesidad de desarrollar medios alternos para la transformacion mas eficiente de la energia que cause minimos danos al ambiente. La tecnologia de celdas de combustible se perfila como uno de los medios alternos a la forma tradicional de transformar la energia tanto para uso residencial como para los vehiculos automotores. En la actualidad se encuentra en una etapa final de demostracion por lo que posiblemente a partir del ano 2003 se cuente con automoviles y camiones circulando normalmente.

  18. A quasi-Delphi study on technological barriers to the uptake of hydrogen as a fuel for transport applications : production, storage and fuel cell drivetrain considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, David; Anghel, Alexandra T.; Huijsmans, Joep; Vuille, François

    2009-01-01

    The introduction of hydrogen in transport, particularly using fuel cell vehicles, faces a number of technical and non-technical hurdles. However, their relative importance is unclear, as are the levels of concern accorded them within the expert community conducting research and development within this area. To understand what issues are considered by experts working in the field to have significant potential to slow down or prevent the introduction of hydrogen technology in transport, a study...

  19. Storage Stability of Jet Fuel Not Containing Anti-Oxidant (AO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    tertiary alkyl groups are not as effective as one methyl and one tertiary butyl. 2. Sharma, B.K., Perez, J.M., Erhan, S.V., “Soybean Oil-Based... Kerosene Fuels,” Proceedings of 2nd International Conference on Long Term Storage Stability of Liquid Fuels, Stavinoha, L.L., Southwest Research Institute

  20. Life-cycle assessment of corn-based butanol as a potential transportation fuel.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, M.; Wang, M.; Liu, J.; Huo, H.; Energy Systems

    2007-12-31

    Butanol produced from bio-sources (such as corn) could have attractive properties as a transportation fuel. Production of butanol through a fermentation process called acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) has been the focus of increasing research and development efforts. Advances in ABE process development in recent years have led to drastic increases in ABE productivity and yields, making butanol production worthy of evaluation for use in motor vehicles. Consequently, chemical/fuel industries have announced their intention to produce butanol from bio-based materials. The purpose of this study is to estimate the potential life-cycle energy and emission effects associated with using bio-butanol as a transportation fuel. The study employs a well-to-wheels analysis tool--the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model developed at Argonne National Laboratory--and the Aspen Plus{reg_sign} model developed by AspenTech. The study describes the butanol production from corn, including grain processing, fermentation, gas stripping, distillation, and adsorption for products separation. The Aspen{reg_sign} results that we obtained for the corn-to-butanol production process provide the basis for GREET modeling to estimate life-cycle energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. The GREET model was expanded to simulate the bio-butanol life cycle, from agricultural chemical production to butanol use in motor vehicles. We then compared the results for bio-butanol with those of conventional gasoline. We also analyzed the bio-acetone that is coproduced with bio-butanol as an alternative to petroleum-based acetone. Our study shows that, while the use of corn-based butanol achieves energy benefits and reduces greenhouse gas emissions, the results are affected by the methods used to treat the acetone that is co-produced in butanol plants.

  1. REFORMULATION OF COAL-DERIVED TRANSPORTATION FUELS: SELECTIVE OXIDATION OF CARBON MONOXIDE ON METAL FOAM CATALYSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mr. Paul Chin; Dr. Xiaolei Sun; Professor George W. Roberts; Professor James J. Spivey; Mr. Amornmart Sirijarhuphan; Dr. James G. Goodwin, Jr.; Dr. Richard W. Rice

    2002-12-31

    Several different catalytic reactions must be carried out in order to convert hydrocarbons (or alcohols) into hydrogen for use as a fuel for polyelectrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells. Each reaction in the fuel-processing sequence has a different set of characteristics, which influences the type of catalyst support that should be used for that particular reaction. A wide range of supports are being evaluated for the various reactions in the fuel-processing scheme, including porous and non-porous particles, ceramic and metal straight-channel monoliths, and ceramic and metal monolithic foams. These different types of support have distinctly different transport characteristics. The best choice of support for a given reaction will depend on the design constraints for the system, e.g., allowable pressure drop, and on the characteristics of the reaction for which the catalyst is being designed. Three of the most important reaction characteristics are the intrinsic reaction rate, the exothermicity/endothermicity of the reaction, and the nature of the reaction network, e.g., whether more than one reaction takes place and, in the case of multiple reactions, the configuration of the network. Isotopic transient kinetic analysis was used to study the surface intermediates. The preferential oxidation of low concentrations of carbon monoxide in the presence of high concentrations of hydrogen (PROX) is an important final step in most fuel processor designs. Data on the behavior of straight-channel monoliths and foam monolith supports will be presented to illustrate some of the factors involved in choosing a support for this reaction.

  2. Water transport in gas diffusion media for PEM fuel cells. Experimental and numerical investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, Joerg

    2010-08-20

    The water flux in partially saturated hydrophobic carbon fibre paper for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell applications is investigated and compared with the frequently used constitutive two-phase flow model based on Darcy's law. Further, the first steps towards a math-based material design for gas diffusion media are explored in this thesis. Two self-developed ex-situ experiments to investigate the liquid water transport are introduced. The first is a newly developed buoyancy-based measurement of the pressuresaturation relationship on thin porous material with an accuracy of 0.5 kPa for the pressure and {+-} 5% for the saturation. The second experiment measures the pressure drop in dependence of flow rates down to magnitudes of {mu}L/s across the partially saturated thin porous material. This flow rate is relevant for the fuel cell application. The liquid water transport through Toray 060 carbon fibre paper, impregnated with 7% and 10% PTFE is investigated at wet and dry boundary conditions. The experiments are also accompanied by analytical and numerical free surface modelling with the consideration of the material morphology and liquid-solid interaction. The imbibing and draining cases of an arrangement of six fibres at varying solid-liquid interaction and boundary conditions are studied with 'Surface Evolver'. In order to evaluate the findings of ex-situ and modelling work for applicability to water transport in fuel cell operation, the technique of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging is assessed. The focus is on the visualisation of 2D and 3D water distribution in the operating fuel cell. The compatibility of the NMR experiment with fuel cell operation in relation to material selection, operating temperature, and current density is addressed. NMR imaging is employed for different current densities, stoichiometries, and fuel cell arrangements. The fuel cell arrangements differ by the cathode diffusion medium. Plain, hydrophobic, and

  3. A practical fabrication method for the advanced heterogeneous fuel with magnesia containing minor actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miwa, Shuhei [Oarai Research and Development Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002 Narita-cho, Oarai-machi, Higashi-ibaraki-gun, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan)], E-mail: miwa.shuhei@jaea.go.jp; Osaka, Masahiko [Oarai Research and Development Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002 Narita-cho, Oarai-machi, Higashi-ibaraki-gun, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan)

    2009-03-15

    Fabrication tests on advanced heterogeneous fuel with MgO were carried out for the purpose of establishing a practical fabrication method. Advanced heterogeneous fuel consists of spheres (diameter greater than 100 {mu}m) of a minor actinide oxide and MgO inert matrix (macro-dispersed type fuel). Macro-dispersed type fuel pellets with a high density above 90% T.D. were successfully fabricated. In addition, the fabricated pellets showed a homogeneous dispersion of near spherical host phase granules. These were attained by optimization of the fabrication process and conditions; i.e. a preliminary heat treatment of raw powders of host phase, an adjustment of pressure at the granulation process, deployment of a spray-dry process for MgO sphere preparation and sintering in a He atmosphere. From these results, a practical fabrication method for MgO-based macro-dispersed type fuel based on a simple powder metallurgical technique was established.

  4. Production of Clean Transportation Fuel Dimethylether by Dehydration of Methanol Over Nafion Catalyst

    OpenAIRE

    Varışlı, Dilek; Doğu, Timur

    2010-01-01

    Dimethylether (DME) which is a very attractive synthetic transportation fuel alternate is synthesized by the dehydration reaction of methanol over nafion as the catalyst. The objective is to test the activity of this catalyst in methanol dehydration reaction. Experiments carried out in a vapor phase flow reactor in a temperature range of 120-220oC and with a space time of 1.35 s.g/cm3 showed quite high activity of Nafion to produce DME, giving conversion values of about 0.4 at 220oC. An incre...

  5. FUZZY COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION OF CONTAINER TRANSPORTATION MODES ALONG THE CHANGJIANG RIVER MAIN LINE AND ITS DELTA AREA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shi-yu; XIAO Han-liang

    2003-01-01

    The Changjiang River (Yangtze) is one of the fastest growth areas of container transportation in Chi-na. Rail, road and water transportation have competed against each other for container transportation in the Chang-jiang River main line and its delta area. It is of significance to assess these different transportation modes scientifi-cally in order to organize container transportation efficiently in this area and make decision for integral plan and construction of transportation system in this area. This paper outlines application of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation to appraise different modes of typical direction of containers. Twelve assessment indexes were decided. Membership functions were formulated. Evaluation results indicated that road transportation was optimal mode in the Changjiang River delta area, however water transportation was the primary way in the Changjiang River main line.

  6. Mass transfer in fuel cells. [electron microscopy of components, thermal decomposition of Teflon, water transport, and surface tension of KOH solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R. D., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Results of experiments on electron microscopy of fuel cell components, thermal decomposition of Teflon by thermogravimetry, surface area and pore size distribution measurements, water transport in fuel cells, and surface tension of KOH solutions are described.

  7. Membrane crystallinity and fuel crossover in direct ethanol fuel cells with Nafion composite membranes containing phosphotungstic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hongjun; Lee, Sunghwan; Kim, Suran; Oh, Chungik; Ryu, Jeongjae; Kim, Jaegyu; Park, Eugene; Hong, Seungbum; No, Kwangsoo

    2016-11-01

    Interest has been growing in direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs) due to their non-toxicity, low cost and potential contribution to energy issues in third world countries. A reduction in fuel cross-over is of key importance to enhance the performance of DEFCs that operate at low temperatures (<100 °C). We report on the effect of the addition of phosphotungstic acid (PWA) in Nafion membrane on the ethanol-crossover for DEFC application. A set of PWANafion composite membranes (PWA 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 wt%) was prepared by solution casting and their microstructures, diffraction patterns and permeability were systematically characterized. The significant reduction in ethanol-crossover was observed with increasing PWA concentration in PWA-Nafion membranes, which was mainly attributed to an improvement in crystallinity of the membrane. PWA provides additional nucleation sites during solidification leading to higher crystallinity, which is supported by the membrane permeability tests. These PWA-Nafion composites were implemented in proto-type DEFC devices as a membrane and the maximum power density achieved was 22% higher than that of commercial Nafion-117 device.

  8. Criticality and shielding calculations for containers in dry of spent fuel of TRIGA Mark III reactor of ININ; Calculos de criticidad y blindaje para contenedores en seco de combustible gastado del reactor Triga Mark III del ININ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barranco R, F.

    2015-07-01

    In this thesis criticality and shielding calculations to evaluate the design of a container of dry storage of spent nuclear fuel generated in research reactors were made. The design of such container was originally proposed by Argentina and Brazil, and the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) of Mexico. Additionally, it is proposed to modify the design of this container to store spent fuel 120 that are currently in the pool of TRIGA Mark III reactor, the Nuclear Center of Mexico and calculations and analyzes are made to verify that the settlement of these fuel elements is subcritical limits and dose rates to workers and the general public are not exceeded. These calculations are part of the design criteria for security protection systems in dry storage system (Dss for its acronym in English) proposed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) of the United States. To carry out these calculations simulation codes of Monte Carlo particle transport as MCNPX and MCNP5 were used. The initial design (design 1) 78 intended to store spent fuel with a maximum of 115. The ININ has 120 fuel elements and spent 3 control rods (currently stored in the reactor pool). This leads to the construction of two containers of the original design, but for economic reasons was decided to modify (design 2) to store in a single container. Criticality calculations are performed to 78, 115 and fresh fuel elements 124 within the container, to the two arrangements described in Chapter 4, modeling the three-dimensional geometry assuming normal operating conditions and accident. These calculations are focused to demonstrate that the container will remain subcritical, that is, that the effective multiplication factor is less than 1, in particular not greater than 0.95 (as per specified by the NRC). Spent fuel 78 and 124 within the container, both gamma radiation to neutron shielding calculations for only two cases were simulated. First actinides and fission products generated

  9. Alternative connection between territory of Poland and Far / Middle East countries for containers transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiktor Żuchowski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The new cyclical service, available on the Polish market, related to the railway connection between Port of Koper and the terminal in Silesia, enables delivery of containers, skipping the Polish and German ports. To "the opening" of a direct connection with the Adriatic Sea arises dilemma that requires the identification of sustainability of the containers' transport to the Polish territories in economical and ecological terms. The key to this problem is a solution of the equation with several unknowns, which include the cost and time of transport, sea freight operator procedures, infrastructure constraints and the interests of local and regional communities. The analysis of the impact area of rail connection Koper - Slawkow was carried within Empiric project. The assumptions and results are described below. Material and methods: Based on the experience of the Slawkow-Koper link's operator and analysis of distances, cost, duration of containers transport, the research has been conducted, intended to estimate the area of influence of ports, located on the shores of the four seas surrounding area of Central Europe: Adriatic, Baltic, Black and North, with particular reference to the Port of Koper. The research used publicly available information, calculators, and disseminated investment plans. Results: Analysis of factors possible to calculate, especially the cost of containers' transport, by adopted assumptions, the study allowed to estimate the theoretical impact area of the Port of Koper. The area covers a large part of Poland, south from the line Szczecin-Brest. Besides aspect of cost impact area has been expanded due to different rail-gauge along the eastern Polish border. Also the environmental aspects indicate south direction of transport containers, as beneficial to the natural environment. As the factors reducing the development of the connections financial policies of the sea freight operators and infrastructure limitations of

  10. Formation and transport of granular heaps in vertically vibrated containers with periodic corrugated bottoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    We report the formation and transportation of granular heaps in vertically vibrated containers with two types of periodic corrugated bottoms:one with a periodic array of ten identical plexiglas rectangles mounted(named the periodic container),and the other with a single-step(named the single-step container).For the periodic container,when the excitation was weaker,several small heaps formed,and the number of them was the same as that of the rectangles on the bottom.As the excitation increased,the system presented three types of states:single well-defined heap,weaker wave,and stronger wave.Some local convections were observed in the interior of heap.For the single-step container,we observed the transpOnatIon of a heap toward step.We propose that the compressive force from the ambient gas plays a crucial role in the movement of the heap.

  11. The Solodamu Surveys: determining fossil fuel use and sea transport need in a coastal village in Fiji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Patricia Newell

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Domestic sea transport is critical to all aspects of life in the Pacific, providing access to markets and health and education services, as well as enabling cultural and social connectivity. Current sea transport services are entirely dependent upon use of increasingly expensive fossil fuels. Whilst there has been increasing research on international shipping, very little focus has been given to date to domestic shipping in the Pacific, and in particular at the local, village level. Recent studies have highlighted lack of data, particularly at a village level, as being a major impediment to progressing a shift to more sustainable transport.The importance of transport in achieving sustainable development and green growth is being increasingly highlighted by Pacific Leaders as a key priority, and particularly the need to find alternatives to reduce the region’s crippling dependency on imported fossil fuels. Small Island Developing States (SIDS in other regions also face similar challenges.This paper provides a summary of the findings of a village-based assessment of transport and fossil fuel use in Solodamu Village, Kadavu, Fiji carried out in 2009 and 2011. The objectives of the surveys were to gauge the overall sea, land and air transport use by the village and the fossil fuel footprint of the village by collecting data on a household by household basis. We then go on to outline how this assessment methodology has been expanded for an island group and highlight the potential of using this in other SIDS, so building the data sets available for more accurate analysis of both transport need and fossil fuel use to better address the issues of fossil fuel dependency and sustainable transport for the Pacific.

  12. Fuel conservation opportunities through changes in mode of freight transportation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbett, R.M.; Moon, A.E.

    1979-06-01

    The study identifies opportunities for and barriers to increased use of railroads to promote fuel conservation. Transportation officials were interviewed from 9 companies in the processed food, metals, chemicals, and transportation vehicle industries. These industry personnel identified unreliable delivery times and equipment shortages as the key issues in their decision not to use the railroads. A range of actions that railroad management could take to improve transit time reliability is identified. Barriers to implementing changes include (in increasing order of difficulty) changes in operating practices, capital outlays, increased operating costs, and changes in work rules. Ranked by increased order of difficulty to implement actions to improve reliability are as follows: rationalize train schedules, yard crew assignments in terminal areas, system blocking plan, and configuration of complex terminal areas; schedule freight cars from door to door; and operate freight trains more frequently.

  13. Assessment of the feasibility of indefinite containment of canadian nuclear fuel wastes; Evaluation de la faisabilite du confinement illimite des dechets de combustible nucleaire canadiens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoesmith, D.W.; King, F.; Ikeda, B.M.

    1995-05-01

    This report presents an analysis of the expected corrosion behavior of nuclear fuel waste containers in a conceptual Canadian disposal vault. The container materials considered are dilute Ti alloys (Grades-2, -12 and -16) and oxygen-free copper.

  14. Costs and CO{sub 2} benefits of recovering, refining and transporting logging residues for fossil fuel replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsson, Leif [Ecotechnology, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Mid Sweden University, 83125 Oestersund (Sweden); Linnaeus University, 35195 Vaexjoe (Sweden); Eriksson, Lisa; Sathre, Roger [Ecotechnology, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Mid Sweden University, 83125 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2011-01-15

    There are many possible systems for recovering, refining, and transporting logging residues for use as fuel. Here we analyse costs, primary energy and CO{sub 2} benefits of various systems for using logging residues locally, nationally or internationally. The recovery systems we consider are a bundle system and a traditional chip system in a Nordic context. We also consider various transport modes and distances, refining the residues into pellets, and replacing different fossil fuels. Compressing of bundles entails costs, but the cost of chipping is greatly reduced if chipping is done on a large scale, providing an overall cost-effective system. The bundle system entails greater primary energy use, but its lower dry-matter losses mean that more biomass per hectare can be extracted from the harvest site. Thus, the potential replacement of fossil fuels per hectare of harvest area is greater with the bundle system than with the chip system. The fuel-cycle reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions per harvest area when logging residues replace fossil fuels depends more on the type of fossil fuel replaced, the logging residues recovery system used and the refining of the residues, than on whether the residues are transported to local, national or international end-users. The mode and distance of the transport system has a minor impact on the CO{sub 2} emission balance. (author)

  15. Concept for premixed combustion of hydrogen-containing fuels in gas turbines; Konzept zur vorgemischten Verbrennung wasserstoffhaltiger Brennstoffe in Gasturbinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, Christoph

    2012-07-19

    One of the main challenges for future gas turbines and their combustion systems is to provide fuel flexibility. The fuel range is expected to reach from the lowly reactive natural gas to highly reactive hydrogen-containing syngases. The objective of the project in which this work was pursued is to develop such a combustion system. The burner has to ensure premixed operation with an aerodynamically stabilized flame. The focus of this work is on characterizing and optimizing the operational safety of the system, but also on ensuring sufficientmixing and lowemissions. A burner and fuel injection design is achieved that leads not only to emissions far below the permissible values, but also to flashback safety for hydrogen combustion that comes close to the theoretically achievable maximum at atmospheric pressure conditions. In this design flashback due to combustion-induced vortex breakdown and wall boundary layer flashback is avoided. Flashback only takes place when the flow velocity reaches the flame velocity.

  16. The Development of an Effective Transportation Risk Assessment Model for Analyzing the Transport of Spent Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste to the Proposed Yucca Mountain Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McSweeney; Thomas; Winnard; Ross; Steven B.; Best; Ralph E.

    2001-02-06

    Past approaches for assessing the impacts of transporting spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste have not been effectively implemented or have used relatively simple approaches. The Yucca Mountain Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) analysis considers 83 origins, 34 fuel types, 49,914 legal weight truck shipments, 10,911 rail shipments, consisting of 59,250 shipment links outside Nevada (shipment kilometers and population density pairs through urban, suburban or rural zones by state), and 22,611 shipment links in Nevada. There was additional complexity within the analysis. The analysis modeled the behavior of 41 isotopes, 1091 source terms, and used 8850 food transfer factors (distinct factors by isotope for each state). The model also considered different accident rates for legal weight truck, rail, and heavy haul truck by state, and barge by waterway. To capture the all of the complexities of the transportation analysis, a Microsoft{reg_sign} Access database was created. In the Microsoft{reg_sign} Access approach the data is placed in individual tables and equations are developed in queries to obtain the overall impacts. While the query might be applied to thousands of table entries, there is only one equation for a particular impact. This greatly simplifies the validation effort. Furthermore, in Access, data in tables can be linked automatically using query joins. Another advantage built into MS Access is nested queries, or the ability to develop query hierarchies. It is possible to separate the calculation into a series of steps, each step represented by a query. For example, the first query might calculate the number of shipment kilometers traveled through urban, rural and suburban zones for all states. Subsequent queries could join the shipment kilometers query results with another table containing the state and mode specific accident rate to produce accidents by state. One of the biggest advantages of the nested queries is in validation

  17. IMPROVEMENT OF THE SUPPORTING STRUCTURE OF PLATFORM CAR FOR HIGHER EFFICIENCY OF CONTAINER TRANSPORTATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Lovska

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The article is aimed to improve supporting structures of the platform car to increase the efficiency of container transportations. Methodology. In order to achieve the objective, the strength investigations of the universal platform car of the model 13-401 were conducted, strength reserves of the supporting elements were defined, and more optimal profiles of basic longitudinal beams of the frame in terms of the minimum material capacity were proposed. Decision correctness was confirmed by the strength calculation of the platform car supporting structure at basic loading operational modes and fatigue taking into account the research database of 107 cycles. It has been proposed to equip a platform car with swing fitting stops for fastening containers on the frame, which allows transportation of 20ft and 40ft containers. In order to improve container transportation efficiency along international transport corridors running through Ukraine, a platform car of articulated type has been designed on the base of the improved platform car structure. The mathematical simulation of dynamic loads of the platform car with containers (two 1CC containers at operational loading modes has been carried out, the maximum accelerations influencing the support structure have been defined, and their multiple values have been considered in computer simulation of the strength of the platform car of articulated type. Findings. The support structure of the platform car of articulated type on the basis of the standard platform car has been developed. Refined values of dynamic loads influencing supporting structure the platform car of articulated type with containers at operational loading modes have been obtained; the maximum equivalent stresses in the platform car support structure have been defined. Originality and practical value. A mathematical model of displacements for a platform car of articulated type with containers at operational loading modes of

  18. M4/12 package project - development of a package for transport of new MOX fuel in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaye, B.R.; Porter, I.; Ashley, P. [BNFL, Warrington, Cheshire (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    BNFL has a requirement to deliver new MOX fuel from the Sellafield MOX Plant (SMP) to its customers in mainland Europe. To satisfy this requirement, a transport system has been developed which complies with national and international regulations and conventions relating to the transport of Category 1 materials. Fundamental to this system is the transport package. BNFL has designed, developed, and is manufacturing a new transport package, the M4/12, This paper gives a brief overview of the overall transport system and then goes on to describe the development of the M4/12 package with particular emphasis on the novel features of the design.

  19. Production and Optimization of Direct Coal Liquefaction derived Low Carbon-Footprint Transportation Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Markovich

    2010-06-30

    This report summarizes works conducted under DOE Contract No. DE-FC26-05NT42448. The work scope was divided into two categories - (a) experimental program to pretreat and refine a coal derived syncrude sample to meet transportation fuels requirements; (b) system analysis of a commercial scale direct coal liquefaction facility. The coal syncrude was derived from a bituminous coal by Headwaters CTL, while the refining study was carried out under a subcontract to Axens North America. The system analysis included H{sub 2} production cost via six different options, conceptual process design, utilities requirements, CO{sub 2} emission and overall plant economy. As part of the system analysis, impact of various H{sub 2} production options was evaluated. For consistence the comparison was carried out using the DOE H2A model. However, assumptions in the model were updated using Headwaters database. Results of Tier 2 jet fuel specifications evaluation by the Fuels & Energy Branch, US Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/RZPF) located at Wright Patterson Air Force Base (Ohio) are also discussed in this report.

  20. Analysis of Heat Transport in a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Afshari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study a two-phases, single-domain and non-isothermal model of a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM fuel cell has been studied to investigate thermal management effects on fuel cell performance. A set of governing equations, conservation of mass, momentum, species, energy and charge for gas diffusion layers, catalyst layers and the membrane regions are considered. These equations are solved numerically in a single domain, using finite-volume-based computational fluid dynamics technique. Also the effects of four critical parameters that are thermal conductivity of gas diffusion layer, relative humidity, operating temperature and current density on the PEM fuel cell performance is investigated. In low operating temperatures the resistance within the membrane increases and this could cause rapid decrease in potential. High operating temperature would also reduce transport losses and it would lead to increase in electrochemical reaction rate. This could virtually result in decreasing the cell potential due to an increasing water vapor partial pressure and the membrane water dehydration. Another significant result is that the temperature distribution in GDL is almost linear but within membrane is highly non-linear. However at low current density the temperature across all regions of the cell dose not change significantly. The cell potential increases with relative humidity and improved hydration which reduces ohmic losses. Also the temperature within the cell is much higher with reduced GDL thermal conductivities. The numerical model which is developed is validated with published experimental data and the results are in good agreement.

  1. Application of CFRP with High Hydrogen Gas Barrier Characteristics to Fuel Tanks of Space Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonemoto, Koichi; Yamamoto, Yuta; Okuyama, Keiichi; Ebina, Takeo

    In the future, carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRPs) with high hydrogen gas barrier performance will find wide applications in all industrial hydrogen tanks that aim at weight reduction; the use of such materials will be preferred to the use of conventional metallic materials such as stainless steel or aluminum. The hydrogen gas barrier performance of CFRP will become an important issue with the introduction of hydrogen-fuel aircraft. It will also play an important role in realizing fully reusable space transportation system that will have high specific tensile CFRP structures. Such materials are also required for the manufacture of high-pressure hydrogen gas vessels for use in the fuel cell systems of automobiles. This paper introduces a new composite concept that can be used to realize CFRPs with high hydrogen gas barrier performance for applications in the cryogenic tanks of fully reusable space transportation system by the incorporation of a nonmetallic crystal layer, which is actually a dense and highly oriented clay crystal laminate. The preliminary test results show that the hydrogen gas barrier characteristics of this material after cryogenic heat shocks and cyclic loads are still better than those of other polymer materials by approximately two orders of magnitude.

  2. Computational Flame Diagnostics for Direct Numerical Simulations with Detailed Chemistry of Transportation Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Tianfeng [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)

    2017-02-16

    The goal of the proposed research is to create computational flame diagnostics (CFLD) that are rigorous numerical algorithms for systematic detection of critical flame features, such as ignition, extinction, and premixed and non-premixed flamelets, and to understand the underlying physicochemical processes controlling limit flame phenomena, flame stabilization, turbulence-chemistry interactions and pollutant emissions etc. The goal has been accomplished through an integrated effort on mechanism reduction, direct numerical simulations (DNS) of flames at engine conditions and a variety of turbulent flames with transport fuels, computational diagnostics, turbulence modeling, and DNS data mining and data reduction. The computational diagnostics are primarily based on the chemical explosive mode analysis (CEMA) and a recently developed bifurcation analysis using datasets from first-principle simulations of 0-D reactors, 1-D laminar flames, and 2-D and 3-D DNS (collaboration with J.H. Chen and S. Som at Argonne, and C.S. Yoo at UNIST). Non-stiff reduced mechanisms for transportation fuels amenable for 3-D DNS are developed through graph-based methods and timescale analysis. The flame structures, stabilization mechanisms, local ignition and extinction etc., and the rate controlling chemical processes are unambiguously identified through CFLD. CEMA is further employed to segment complex turbulent flames based on the critical flame features, such as premixed reaction fronts, and to enable zone-adaptive turbulent combustion modeling.

  3. Mass transport aspects of polymer electrolyte fuel cells under two-phase flow conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, D.

    2007-03-27

    This work deals with selected aspects of mass transport phenomena in PEFCs and DMFCs. Emphasis is placed on the implications originating from the occurrence of two-phase flow within these devices. Optimality of supply, distribution, and removal of the fuel, the oxidant, and the reaction products is of utmost importance for the stability, efficiency, and durability of the devices. Being a prerequisite for high current densities while maintaining sufficient voltage, mass transport optimization contributes to the development of cost effective as well as compact designs and hence competitive fuel cells. [German] Die Visualisierung und Quantifizierung von Fluessigwasseransammlungen in Polymerelektrolytmembran-Brennstoffzellen konnte mittels Neutronenradiographie erreicht werden. Dank dieser neuartigen diagnostischen Methode konnte erstmals die Fluessigwasseransammlung in den poroesen Gasdiffusionsschichten direkt nachgewiesen und quantifiziert werden. Die Kombination von Neutronenradiographie mit ortsaufgeloesten Stromdichtemessungen bzw. lokaler Impedanzspektroskopie erlaubte die Korrelation des inhomogenen Fluessigwasseranfalls mit dem lokalen elektrochemischen Leistungsverhalten. Systematische Untersuchungen an Polymerelektrolyt- und Direkt-Methanol-Brennstoffzellen verdeutlichen sowohl den Einfluss von Betriebsbedingungen als auch die Auswirkung von Materialeigenschaften auf die Ausbildung zweiphasiger Stroemungen.

  4. Interfacial Structure, Dynamics, and Transport of Polyelectrolyte Membrane Materials for Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soles, Christopher; Page, K.; Eastman, S.; Kim, S.; Kang, S.; Dura, J.; National Institute of Standards; Technology; Polymers Divison Team; NIST Collaboration

    2011-03-01

    Polymer electrolyte membranes (PEM) fuel cells show promise for a wide range of applications both in the transportation sector and for stationary power production due to their high charge density and low operating temperatures. While the structure and transport of bulk PEMs have been studied extensively, little is known about these materials at interfaces and under confinement, as they exist within the membrane electrode assembly (MEA). Using neutron/ x-ray reflectivity and polarization-modulation infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy, we have studied the polymer-substrate interfacial structure, swelling, and water transport as function of humidity, surface chemistry, and film thickness. The interfacial structure is highly dependent upon the substrate surface chemistry and the swelling/water diffusivity are suppressed when the PEM is confined to a thin film. This new information will enable researchers to more accurately model the performance of the MEA as current simulations typically rely on bulk property values to predict water and proton transport under these conditions.

  5. Heat and water transport in a polymer electrolyte fuel cell electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, Partha P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Borup, Rod L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ranjan, Devesh [TEXAS A& M UNIV

    2010-01-01

    In the present scenario of a global initiative toward a sustainable energy future, the polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) has emerged as one of the most promising alternative energy conversion devices for various applications. Despite tremendous progress in recent years, a pivotal performance limitation in the PEFC comes from liquid water transport and the resulting flooding phenomena. Liquid water blocks the open pore space in the electrode and the fibrous diffusion layer leading to hindered oxygen transport. The electrode is also the only component in the entire PEFC sandwich which produces waste heat from the electrochemical reaction. The cathode electrode, being the host to several competing transport mechanisms, plays a crucial role in the overall PEFC performance limitation. In this work, an electrode model is presented in order to elucidate the coupled heat and water transport mechanisms. Two scenarios are specifically considered: (1) conventional, Nafion{reg_sign} impregnated, three-phase electrode with the hydrated polymeric membrane phase as the conveyer of protons where local electro-neutrality prevails; and (2) ultra-thin, two-phase, nano-structured electrode without the presence of ionomeric phase where charge accumulation due to electro-statics in the vicinity of the membrane-CL interface becomes important. The electrode model includes a physical description of heat and water balance along with electrochemical performance analysis in order to study the influence of electro-statics/electro-migration and phase change on the PEFC electrode performance.

  6. Investigation of silver and iodine transport through silicon carbide layers prepared for nuclear fuel element cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedland, E.; van der Berg, N. G.; Malherbe, J. B.; Hancke, J. J.; Barry, J.; Wendler, E.; Wesch, W.

    2011-03-01

    Transport of silver and iodine through polycrystalline SiC layers produced by PBMR (Pty) Ltd. for cladding of TRISO fuel kernels was investigated using Rutherford backscattering analysis and electron microscopy. Fluences of 2 × 10 16 Ag + cm -2 and 1 × 10 16 I + cm -2 were implanted at room temperature, 350 °C and 600 °C with an energy of 360 keV, producing an atomic density of approximately 1.5% at the projected ranges of about 100 nm. The broadening of the implantation profiles and the loss of diffusors through the front surface during vacuum annealing at temperatures up to 1400 °C was determined. The results for room temperature implantations point to completely different transport mechanisms for silver and iodine in highly disordered silicon carbide. However, similar results are obtained for high temperature implantations, although iodine transport is much stronger influenced by lattice defects than is the case for silver. For both diffusors transport in well annealed samples can be described by Fickian grain boundary diffusion with no abnormal loss through the surface as would be expected from the presence of nano-pores and/or micro-cracks. At 1100 °C diffusion coefficients for silver and iodine are below our detection limit of 10 -21 m 2 s -1, while they increase into the 10 -20 m 2 s -1 range at 1300 °C.

  7. Experimental dissection of oxygen transport resistance in the components of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hwanyeong; Lee, Yoo il; Lee, Guesang; Min, Kyoungdoug; Yi, Jung S.

    2017-03-01

    Oxygen transport resistance is a major obstacle for obtaining high performance in a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). To distinguish the major components that inhibit oxygen transport, an experimental method is established to dissect the oxygen transport resistance of the components of the PEMFC, such as the substrate, micro-porous layer (MPL), catalyst layer, and ionomer film. The Knudsen numbers are calculated to determine the types of diffusion mechanisms at each layer by measuring the pore sizes with either mercury porosimetry or BET analysis. At the under-saturated condition where condensation is mostly absent, the molecular diffusion resistance is dissected by changing the type of inert gas, and ionomer film permeation is separated by varying the inlet gas humidity. Moreover, the presence of the MPL and the variability of the substrate thickness allow the oxygen transport resistance at each component of a PEMFC to be dissected. At a low relative humidity of 50% and lower, an ionomer film had the largest resistance, while the contribution of the MPL was largest for the other humidification conditions.

  8. Environmental profile of ethanol from poplar biomass as transport fuel in Southern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, Sara; Moreira, M. Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo [Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Gasol, Carles M. [SosteniPrA (UAB-IRTA), Institute of Environmental Science and Technology (ICTA), Autonomous University of Barcelona (UAB), 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Gabarrell, Xavier; Rieradevall, Joan [SosteniPrA (UAB-IRTA), Institute of Environmental Science and Technology (ICTA), Autonomous University of Barcelona (UAB), 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Chemical Engineering Department, Autonomous University of Barcelona (UAB), 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    Liquid biofuels provide one of the few options for fossil fuel substitution in the short to medium-term and they are strongly being promoted by the European Union as transport fuel (such as ethanol) since they have the potential to offer both greenhouse gas (GHG) savings and energy security. A ''well to wheel'' analysis has been conducted for poplar based ethanol by means of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. The aim of the analysis is to assess the environmental performance of three ethanol applications (E10, E85 and E100) in comparison with conventional gasoline. To compare the environmental profiles, the study addressed the impact potentials per kilometre driven by a middle size passenger car, taking into account the performance difference between ethanol blends and gasoline. According to the results of this study, fuel ethanol derived from poplar biomass may help to reduce the contributions to global warming, abiotic resources depletion and ozone layer depletion up to 62%, 72% and 36% respectively. Reductions of fossil fuel extraction of up to 80% could be achieved when pure ethanol is used. On the contrary, contributions to other impact categories would be increased, specifically to acidification and eutrophication. In both categories, ethanol based blends are less environmentally friendly than conventional gasoline due to the higher impact from the upstream activities. Research focussed on the reduction of the environmental impacts should be pointed forward poplar cultivation as well as ethanol conversion plant (enzyme manufacturing, energy production and distillation). In this study poplar cultivation was really intensive in order to obtain a high yield. Strategic planning according to the location of the crops and its requirements should help to reduce these impacts from its cultivation. (author)

  9. Transport parameters of thin, supported cathode layers in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs); Transportparameter duenner, getraegerter Kathodenschichten der oxidkeramischen Brennstoffzelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedershoven, Christian

    2010-12-22

    The aim of this work was to determine the transport properties of thin cathode layers, which are part of the composite layer of a fabricated anode-supported solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The transport properties of the anode and cathode have a significant influence on the electrochemical performance of a fuel cell stack and therefore represent an important parameter when designing fuel cell stacks. In order to determine the transport parameters of the cathode layers in a fabricated SOFC, it is necessary to permeate the thin cathode layer deposited on the gas-tight electrolyte with a defined gas transport. These thin cathode layers cannot be fabricated as mechanically stable single layers and cannot therefore be investigated in the diffusion and permeation experiments usually used to determine transport parameters. The setup of these experiments - particularly the sample holder - was therefore altered in this work. The result of this altered setup was a three-dimensional flow configuration. Compared to the conventional setup, it was no longer possible to describe the gas transport in the experiments with an analytical one-dimensional solution. A numerical solution process had to be used to evaluate the measurements. The new setup permitted a sufficiently symmetrical gas distribution and thus allowed the description of the transport to be reduced to a two-dimensional description, which significantly reduced the computational effort required to evaluate the measurements. For pressure-induced transport, a parametrized coherent expression of transport could be derived. This expression is equivalent to the analytical description of the transport in conventional measurement setups, with the exception of parameters that describe the geometry of the gas diffusion. In this case, a numerical process is not necessary for the evaluation. Using the transport parameters of mechanically stable anode substrates, which can be measured both in the old and the new setups, the old and

  10. Research and development of proton-exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell system for transportation applications. Phase I final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    Objective during Phase I was to develop a methanol-fueled 10-kW fuel cell power source and evaluate its feasibility for transportation applications. This report documents research on component (fuel cell stack, fuel processor, power source ancillaries and system sensors) development and the 10-kW power source system integration and test. The conceptual design study for a PEM fuel cell powered vehicle was documented in an earlier report (DOE/CH/10435-01) and is summarized herein. Major achievements in the program include development of advanced membrane and thin-film low Pt-loaded electrode assemblies that in reference cell testing with reformate-air reactants yielded performance exceeding the program target (0.7 V at 1000 amps/ft{sup 2}); identification of oxidation catalysts and operating conditions that routinely result in very low CO levels ({le} 10 ppm) in the fuel processor reformate, thus avoiding degradation of the fuel cell stack performance; and successful integrated operation of a 10-kW fuel cell stack on reformate from the fuel processor.

  11. Brucella abortus ure2 region contains an acid-activated urea transporter and a nickel transport system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Lobo Juan M

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urease is a virulence factor that plays a role in the resistance of Brucella to low pH conditions, both in vivo and in vitro. Brucella contains two separate urease gene clusters, ure1 and ure2. Although only ure1 codes for an active urease, ure2 is also transcribed, but its contribution to Brucella biology is unknown. Results Re-examination of the ure2 locus showed that the operon includes five genes downstream of ureABCEFGDT that are orthologs to a nikKMLQO cluster encoding an ECF-type transport system for nickel. ureT and nikO mutants were constructed and analyzed for urease activity and acid resistance. A non-polar ureT mutant was unaffected in urease activity at neutral pH but showed a significantly decreased activity at acidic pH. It also showed a decreased survival rate to pH 2 at low concentration of urea when compared to the wild type. The nikO mutant had decreased urease activity and acid resistance at all urea concentrations tested, and this phenotype could be reverted by the addition of nickel to the growth medium. Conclusions Based on these results, we concluded that the operon ure2 codes for an acid-activated urea transporter and a nickel transporter necessary for the maximal activity of the urease whose structural subunits are encoded exclusively by the genes in the ure1 operon.

  12. Analysis of different research activities and description of parties within the Swedish Knowledge Centre for Renewable Transportation Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundgren, Joakim [Bio4Energy, Luleaa (Sweden); Wallberg, Ola [Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden)

    2012-07-01

    The Swedish Knowledge Centre for Renewable Transportation Fuels (f3) is a nationwide centre, which through cooperation and a systems approach will contribute to the development of sustainable fossil free fuels for transportation. The centre will, through joint efforts by the centre partners, perform syntheses of current research about the production of renewable fuels as well as supplementing research, such as comparative systems analyses of fuels, processes, raw materials and plant design. f3 provides a platform for collaboration between centre partners, with a common vision of sustainable fuels for transportation and common objectives. The centre partners include Sweden's most active universities and research institutes within the field, as well as a number of highly relevant industrial companies. New fuels will be an important component of a strategy to reduce both greenhouse gas emissions and our dependence on petroleum. The Swedish Government has established a vision for the Swedish transport industry to function without fossil fuels by 2030. Such a development requires a concerted response, with participation from all stake holders. Swedish researchers in various disciplines and at various colleges and institutes have a unique breadth and they are at the forefront in several areas of knowledge appropriate for a centre for renewable fuels. Through collaboration, f3 should help to link engineering and systems research and communicate results and conclusions from these research efforts. Within the f3 centre, several parties with different research activities are represented. This document is a snapshot of the different parties at the end of 2011 where the stake holders are described and their current research is highlighted. Also, the different projects conducted by the parties have been categorized and presented at the end of the document.

  13. The Transportation Leapfrog: Using Smart Phones to Collect Driving Data and Model Fuel Economy in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopal, Anand [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Schewel, Laura [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Saxena, Samveg [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Phadke, Amol [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division

    2013-05-01

    Car ownership in India is expected to skyrocket in the coming decades, strongly driven by rising incomes. This phenomenon provides unprecedented opportunities for automakers and equally unprecedented social and environmental challenges. Policymakers, urban planners and civil society see this car boom leading to an explosion in problems related to congestion, infrastructure, air pollution, safety, higher oil imports and climate change. For all these stakeholders to take effective action, good data on how people use their cars, their demand for mobility and their behavior in mobility is essential. Unfortunately, there is very little data on the Indian transport sector as a whole and virtually none on real-world vehicle performance and use. The rapid development of high quality mobile telecommunications infrastructure provides India with the opportunity to leapfrog the West in cheaply collecting vast amounts of useful data from transportation. In this paper, we describe a pilot project in which we use commercial smart phone apps to collect per second car driving data from the city of Pune, instantly upload it through 3G and prepare it for analysis using advanced noise filtering algorithms for less than $1 per day per car. We then use our data in an Autonomie simulation to show that India’s currently planned fuel economy test procedures will result in over-estimates of fuel economy of approximately 35% for a typical Indian car when it is operated in real world conditions. Supporting better driving cycle development is just one of many applications for smart phone derived data in Indian transportation.

  14. Spent fuel dry storage technology development: thermal evaluation of isolated drywells containing spent fuel (1 kW PWR spent fuel assembly)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unterzuber, R; Wright, J B

    1980-09-01

    A spent fuel Isolated Drywell Test was conducted at the Engine-Maintenance, Assembly and Disassembly (E-MAD) facility on the Nevada Test Site. Two PWR spent fuel assemblies having a decay heat level of approximately 1.1 kW were encapsulated inside the E-MAD Hot Bay and placed in instrumented near-surface drywell storage cells. Temperatures from the two isolated drywells and the adjacent soil have been recorded throughout the 19 month Isolated Drywell Test. Canister and drywell liner temperatures reached their peak values (254{sup 0}F and 203{sup 0}F, respectively) during August 1979. Thereafter, all temperatures decreased and showed a cycling pattern which responded to seasonal atmospheric temperature changes. A computer model was utilized to predict the thermal response of the drywell. Computer predictions of the drywell temperatures and the temperatures of the surrounding soil are presented and show good agreement with the test data.

  15. Interactions between oxygen permeation and homogeneous-phase fuel conversion on the sweep side of an ion transport membrane

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Jongsup

    2013-02-01

    The interactions between oxygen permeation and homogeneous fuel oxidation reactions on the sweep side of an ion transport membrane (ITM) are examined using a comprehensive model, which couples the dependency of the oxygen permeation rate on the membrane surface conditions and detailed chemistry and transport in the vicinity of the membrane. We assume that the membrane surface is not catalytic to hydrocarbon or syngas oxidation. Results show that increasing the sweep gas inlet temperature and fuel concentration enhances oxygen permeation substantially. This is accomplished through promoting oxidation reactions (oxygen consumption) and the transport of the products and reaction heat towards the membrane, which lowers the oxygen concentration and increases the gas temperature near the membrane. Faster reactions at higher fuel concentration and higher inlet gas temperature support substantial fuel conversion and lead to a higher oxygen permeation flux without the contribution of surface catalytic activity. Beyond a certain maximum in the fuel concentration, extensive heat loss to the membrane (and feed side) reduces the oxidation kinetic rates and limits oxygen permeation as the reaction front reaches the membrane. The sweep gas flow rate and channel height have moderate impacts on oxygen permeation and fuel conversion due to the residence time requirements for the chemical reactions and the location of the reaction zone relative to the membrane surface. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal Conditions of Transport- Demonstration of Approach and Results on Used Fuel Performance Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adkins, Harold [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Geelhood, Ken [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Koeppel, Brian [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Coleman, Justin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bignell, John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Flores, Gregg [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wang, Jy-An [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sanborn, Scott [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Spears, Robert [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Klymyshyn, Nick [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    This document addresses Oak Ridge National Laboratory milestone M2FT-13OR0822015 Demonstration of Approach and Results on Used Nuclear Fuel Performance Characterization. This report provides results of the initial demonstration of the modeling capability developed to perform preliminary deterministic evaluations of moderate-to-high burnup used nuclear fuel (UNF) mechanical performance under normal conditions of storage (NCS) and normal conditions of transport (NCT) conditions. This report also provides results from the sensitivity studies that have been performed. Finally, discussion on the long-term goals and objectives of this initiative are provided.

  17. Final Report: Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation Applications (2012-2016)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Brian David [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); Huya-Kouadio, Jennie Moton [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); Houchins, Cassidy [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); DeSantis, Daniel Allen [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report summarizes project activities for Strategic Analysis, Inc. (SA) Contract Number DE-EE0005236 to the U.S. Department of Energy titled “Transportation Fuel Cell System Cost Assessment”. The project defined and projected the mass production costs of direct hydrogen Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell power systems for light-duty vehicles (automobiles) and 40-foot transit buses. In each year of the five-year contract, the fuel cell power system designs and cost projections were updated to reflect technology advances. System schematics, design assumptions, manufacturing assumptions, and cost results are presented.

  18. The coprocessing of fossil fuels and biomass for CO{sub 2} emission reduction in the transportation sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Dong, Yuanji [Hydrocarb Corp., New York, NY (United States); Borgwardt, R.H. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1993-10-01

    Research is underway to evaluate the Hydrocarb process for conversion of carbonaceous raw material to clean carbon and methanol products. These products are valuable in the market either as fuel or as chemical commodities. As fuel, methanol and carbon can be used economically, either independently or in slurry form, in efficient heat energies (turbines and internal combustion engines) for both mobile and stationary single and combined cycle power plants. When considering CO{sub 2} emission control in the utilization of fossil fuels, the copressing of those fossil fuels with biomass (which may include, wood, municipal solid waste and sewage sludge) is a viable mitigation approach. By coprocessing both types of feedstock to produce methanol and carbon while sequestering all or part of the carbon, a significant net CO{sub 2} reduction is achieved if the methanol is substituted for petroleum fuels in the transportation sector. The Hydrocarb process has the potential, if the R&D objectives are achieved, to produce alternative transportation fuel from indigenous resources at lower cost than any other biomass conversion process. These comparisons suggest the resulting fuel can significantly displace gasoline at a competitive price while mitigating CO{sub 2} emissions and reducing ozone and other toxics in urban atmospheres.

  19. A CFD analysis of transport phenomena and electrochemical reactions in a tubular-shaped PEM fuel cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A fuel cell is most interesting new power source because it solves not only the environment problem but also natural resource exhaustion problem. CFD modeling and simulation for heat and mass transport in PEM fuel cells are being used extensively in researches and industrial applications to gain better understanding of the fundamental processes and to optimize fuel cell designs before building a prototype for engineering application. In this research, full three-dimensional, non-isothermal computational fluid dynamics model of a tubular-shaped proton exchange membrane (PEM fuel cell has been developed. This comprehensive model accounts for the major transport phenomena such as convective and diffusive heat and mass transfer, electrode kinetics, transport and phase-change mechanism of water, and potential fields in a tubular-shaped PEM fuel cell. The model explains many interacting, complex electrochemical, and transport phenomena that cannot be studied experimentally. Three-dimensional results of the species profiles, temperature distribution, potential distribution, and local current density distribution are presented and analysed, with the focus on the physical insight and fundamental understanding.

  20. A CFD analysis of transport phenomena and electrochemical reactions in a tubular-shaped PEM fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadiq Al-Baghdadi, Maher A.R. [Fuel Cell Research Center, International Energy and Environment Foundation, Al-Najaf, P.O.Box 39 (Iraq)

    2013-07-01

    A fuel cell is most interesting new power source because it solves not only the environment problem but also natural resource exhaustion problem. CFD modeling and simulation for heat and mass transport in PEM fuel cells are being used extensively in researches and industrial applications to gain better understanding of the fundamental processes and to optimize fuel cell designs before building a prototype for engineering application. In this research, full three-dimensional, non-isothermal computational fluid dynamics model of a tubular-shaped proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell has been developed. This comprehensive model accounts for the major transport phenomena such as convective and diffusive heat and mass transfer, electrode kinetics, transport and phase-change mechanism of water, and potential fields in a tubular-shaped PEM fuel cell. The model explains many interacting, complex electrochemical, and transport phenomena that cannot be studied experimentally. Three-dimensional results of the species profiles, temperature distribution, potential distribution, and local current density distribution are presented and analysed, with the focus on the physical insight and fundamental understanding.

  1. Polybenzimidazole Membranes Containing Benzimidazole Side Groups for High Temprature Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Jingshuai; Li, Xueyuan; Xu, Yizin

    2013-01-01

    Polybenzimidazole (PBI) with a high molecular weight of 69,000 was first synthesized. It was afterwards grafted with benzimidazole pendant groups on the backbones. The acid doped benzimidaozle grafted PBI membranes were investigated and characterized including fuel cell tests at elevated temperat......Polybenzimidazole (PBI) with a high molecular weight of 69,000 was first synthesized. It was afterwards grafted with benzimidazole pendant groups on the backbones. The acid doped benzimidaozle grafted PBI membranes were investigated and characterized including fuel cell tests at elevated...... temperatures without humidification. At an acid doping level of 13.1 mol H3PO4 per average molar repeat unit, the PBI membranes with a benzimidazole grafting degree of 10.6% demonstrated a conductivity of 0.15 S cm-1 and a H2-air fuel cell peak power density of 378 mW cm-2 at 180 oC at ambient pressure without...

  2. Transport phenomena within the porous cathode for a proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Juanfang; Oshima, Nobuyuki; Kurihara, Eru; Saha, Litan Kumar [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)

    2010-10-01

    A two-phase, one-dimensional steady model is developed to analyze the coupled phenomena of cathode flooding and mass-transport limiting for the porous cathode electrode of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell. In the model, the catalyst layer is treated not as an interface between the membrane and gas diffusion layer, but as a separate computational domain with finite thickness and pseudo-homogenous structure. Furthermore, the liquid water transport across the porous electrode is driven by the capillary force based on Darcy's law. And the gas transport is driven by the concentration gradient based on Fick's law. Additionally, through Tafel kinetics, the transport processes of gas and liquid water are coupled. From the numerical results, it is found that although the catalyst layer is thin, it is very crucial to better understand and more correctly predict the concurrent phenomena inside the electrode, particularly, the flooding phenomena. More importantly, the saturation jump at the interface of the gas diffusion layer and catalyst layers is captured, when the continuity of the capillary pressure is imposed on the interface. Elsewise, the results show further that the flooding phenomenon in the CL is much more serious than that in the GDL, which has a significant influence on the mass transport of the reactants. Moreover, the saturation level inside the cathode is determined, to a great extent, by the surface overpotential, the absolute permeability of the porous electrode, and the boundary value of saturation at the gas diffusion layer-gas channel interface. In order to prevent effectively flooding, it should remove firstly the liquid water accumulating inside the CL and keep the boundary value of liquid saturation as low as possible. (author)

  3. EU policies on car emissions and fuel quality. Reducing the climate impact from road transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, Anne Raaum; Gulbrandsen, Lars H.

    2012-07-01

    Transport is the second biggest source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the EU, and contributes about one-quarter of the EU's total emissions of CO{sub 2}. Significant reductions in GHG emissions from transport are required if the EU is to achieve its long-term climate goals. This report examines the making and implementation of two of the regulations the EU has put in place to lower emissions from the transport sector: the EU's revised Fuel Quality Directive (Directive 2009/30/EC) and the cars/CO{sub 2} regulation (Regulation (EC) 443/2009). It was found that the relevance of various theories of policymaking in the EU varies with different policy phases. A policy-network understanding of EU policymaking is strengthened when assessing the policy-initiation phase. The Commission played a key role in this phase and drafted legislation in close collaboration with the car and oil refining industries. An intergovernmentalist understanding of EU policy-making is strengthened when assessing the decision-making phase. In this phase, member states defending the interests of their domestic industries had strong influence, but the European Parliament played an important role in this phase too, employing its power in the co-decision procedure. Finally, the implementation process is best understood as a multi-level governance process in which several actors and institutions - notably the Commission, member states, industries, and NGOs - influenced the process. (Author)

  4. Lattice Boltzmann Simulation of Multiphase Transport in Nanostructured PEM Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, Christopher D.

    As the fossil fuel crisis becomes more critical, it is imperative to develop renewable sources of power generation. Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells are considered a viable option. However, the cost of the platinum catalyst has hindered their commercialization. PEM fuel cells with platinum loading of >0.4 mg cm2 are common. Efforts towards further reducing this loading are currently underway utilizing nanostructured electrodes. A consequence of increased platinum utilization per unit area and thinner nanostructured electrodes is flooding, which is detrimental to fuel cell performance. Flooding causes a two-fold impact on cell performance: a drop in cell voltage and a rise in parasitic pumping power to overcome the increased pressure drop, which together result in a significant reduction in system efficiency. Proper water management is therefore crucial for optimum performance of the fuel cell and also for enhancing membrane durability. The goal of this thesis is to simulate the multiphase fluid transport in the nanostructured PEMFC of H2O in air with realistic density ratios. In order to pursue this goal, the ability of the pseudopotential based multiphase lattice Boltzmann method to realistically model the coexistence of the gas and liquid phases of H2O at low temperatures is explored. This method is expanded to include a gas mixture of O2 and N 2 into the multiphase H2O systems. Beginning with the examination of the phase transition region described by the current implementation of the multiphase pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann model. Following this, a modified form of the pressure term with the use of a scalar multiplier kappa for the Peng-Robinson equation of state is thoroughly investigated. This method proves to be very effective at enabling numerically stable simulations at low temperatures with large density ratios. It is found that for decreasing values of kappa, this model leads to an increase in multiphase interface thickness and a

  5. Safety aspects of long-term dry interim storage of type-B spent fuel and HLW transport casks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, D.; Probst, U.; Voelzke, H.; Droste, B.; Roedel, R. [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Based on the German decision to minimise transports of spent fuel casks between nuclear power plants, reprocessing plants and central storage facilities several on-site storage facilities have been licensed till the end of 2003. Because of the large amount of type-B transport casks which are going to be used for long-term interim storage the question of time limited type-B license maintenance during the storage period of up to 40 years has been discussed under different aspects. This paper describes present technical aspects of the discussion. A main aspect of transport cask qualification for interim storage is the long-term behaviour of the metallic seal lid system. Concerning this results from current experimental long-term tests with metallic ''Helicoflex''-seals in which pool water is enclosed are presented. The test series has been performed by the Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM) on behalf of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) since 2001. Finally, the paper presents a German concept for an authorities' and technical experts' exchange of experience, know-how and state of the art referring to cask dispatch in nuclear facilities. BAM has taken over a central role in this so-called ''co-ordinating institution for cask dispatching information'' (''KOBAF'') which contains an online data base and a technical working group meeting twice a year. The goal is to keep comparable technical standards for all nuclear sites and storage facilities which are going to load and dispatch casks of the same or similar types under the responsibility of different German state governments for the next decades.

  6. Proton transport in additives to the polymer electrolyte membrane for fuel cell application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toelle, Pia

    2011-03-21

    The enhancement of proton transport in polymer electrolyte membranes is an important issue for the development of fuel cell technology. The objective is a material providing proton transport at a temperature range of 350 K to 450 K independent from a purely water based mechanism. To enhance the PEM properties of standard polymer materials, a class of additives is studied by means of atomistic simulations consisting of functionalised mesoporous silicon dioxide particles. The functional molecules are imidazole or sulphonic acid, covalently bound to the surface via a carbon chain with a surface density of about 1.0 nm{sup -2} groups. At first, the proton transport mechanism is explored in a system of functional molecules in vacuum. The molecules are constrained by the terminal carbon groups according to the geometric arrangement in the porous silicon dioxide. The proton transport mechanism is characterised by structural properties obtained from classical molecular dynamics simulations and consists of the aggregation of two or more functional groups, a barrier free proton transport between these groups followed by the separation of the groups and formation of new aggregates due to fluctuations in the hydrogen bond network and movement of the carbon chain. For the different proton conducting groups, i.e. methyl imidazole, methyl sulphonic acid and water, the barrier free proton transport and the formation of protonated bimolecular complexes were addressed by potential energy calculations of the density functional based tight binding method (DFTB). For sulphonic acid even at a temperature of 450 K, relatively stable aggregates are formed, while most imidazole groups are isolated and the hydrogen bond fluctuations are high. However, high density of groups and elevated temperatures enhance the proton transport in both systems. Besides the anchorage and the density of the groups, the influence of the chemical environment on the proton transport was studied. Therefore, the

  7. Copper transporters and the cellular pharmacology of the platinum-containing cancer drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Stephen B; Safaei, Roohangiz; Larson, Christopher A; Sailor, Michael J

    2010-06-01

    Multiple lines of evidence indicate that the platinum-containing cancer drugs enter cells, are distributed to various subcellular compartments, and are exported from cells via transporters that evolved to manage copper homeostasis. The cytotoxicity of the platinum drugs is directly related to how much drug enters the cell, and almost all cells that have acquired resistance to the platinum drugs exhibit reduced drug accumulation. The major copper influx transporter, copper transporter 1 (CTR1), has now been shown to control the tumor cell accumulation and cytotoxic effect of cisplatin, carboplatin, and oxaliplatin. There is a good correlation between change in CTR1 expression and acquired cisplatin resistance among ovarian cancer cell lines, and genetic knockout of CTR1 renders cells resistant to cisplatin in vivo. The expression of CTR1 is regulated at the transcriptional level by copper via Sp1 and at the post-translational level by the proteosome. Copper and cisplatin both trigger the down-regulation of CTR1 via a process that involves ubiquitination and proteosomal degradation and requires the copper chaperone antioxidant protein 1 (ATOX1). The cisplatin-induced degradation of CTR1 can be blocked with the proteosome inhibitor bortezomib, and this increases the cellular uptake and the cytotoxicity of cisplatin in a synergistic manner. Copper and platinum(II) have similar sulfur binding characteristics, and the presence of stacked rings of methionines and cysteines in the CTR1 trimer suggest a mechanism by which CTR1 selectively transports copper and the platinum-containing drugs via sequential transchelation reactions similar to the manner in which copper is passed from ATOX1 to the copper efflux transporters.

  8. Model of Optimal Cargo Transport Structure by Full Container Ship on Predefined Sailing Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serđo Kos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the mathematical model for solving theproblem of defining optimal cargo transport structure, occurringwhen, on a predefined sailing route, adequate number ofcontainers of various types, masses and sizes, possibly includingRO!RO cargo, is to be selected, i.e., a "container lot" is to beestablished in loading ports with the aim of gaining maximumship profit and, at the same time, of exploiting useful load andtransport capacity of container ship as much as possible. Theimplementation of the proposed model enables considerableincrease in the efficiency of container ship operations. Themodel was tested using a numerical example with real data.The applied post-optimal analysis examines the influence ofchange in some values of the mathematical model on the resultingoptimal program.

  9. Thermochemical Analysis of Gas-Cooled Reactor Fuels Containing Am and Pu Oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindemer, T.B.

    2002-09-05

    Literature values and estimated data for the thermodynamics of the actinide oxides and fission products are applied to explain the chemical behavior in gas-cooled-reactor fuels. Emphasis is placed on the Am-O-C and Pu-O-C systems and the data are used to plot the oxygen chemical potential versus temperature of solid-solid and solid-gas equilibria. These results help explain observations of vaporization in Am oxides, nitrides, and carbides and provide guidance for the ceramic processing of the fuels. The thermodynamic analysis is then extended to the fission product systems and the Si-C-O system. Existing data on oxygen release (primarily as CO) as a function of burnup in the thoria-urania fuel system is reviewed and compared to values calculated from thermodynamic data. The calculations of oxygen release are then extended to the plutonia and americia fuels. Use of ZrC not only as a particle coating that may be more resistant to corrosion by Pd and other noble-metal fission products, but also as a means to getter oxygen released by fission is discussed.

  10. Life cycle assessment of Jatropha biodiesel as transportation fuel in rural India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achten, Wouter M.J. [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Division Forest, Nature and Landscape, Celestijnenlaan 200 E-2411, BE-3001 Leuven (Belgium); World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) Regional Office for South Asia, CG Block, 1st Floor, National Agricultural Science Centre, Dev Prakash Shastri Marg, Pusa, New Delhi 110 012 (India); Almeida, Joana [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Division Forest, Nature and Landscape, Celestijnenlaan 200 E-2411, BE-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Grupo de Disciplinas da Ecologia da Hidrosfera, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Fobelets, Vincent; Bolle, Evelien; Muys, Bart [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Division Forest, Nature and Landscape, Celestijnenlaan 200 E-2411, BE-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Mathijs, Erik [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Division Agricultural and Food Economics, Celestijnenlaan 200 E-2411, BE-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Singh, Virendra P. [World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) Regional Office for South Asia, CG Block, 1st Floor, National Agricultural Science Centre, Dev Prakash Shastri Marg, Pusa, New Delhi 110 012 (India); Tewari, Dina N. [Utthan NGO, Centre for Sustainable Development and Poverty Alleviation, 18-A, Auckland Road, Civil Lines, Allahabad 211 001 (India); Verchot, Louis V. [Centre for International Forestry Research, P.O. Box 0113 BOCBD, Bogor 16000 (Indonesia)

    2010-12-15

    Since 2003 India has been actively promoting the cultivation of Jatropha on unproductive and degraded lands (wastelands) for the production of biodiesel suitable as transportation fuel. In this paper the life cycle energy balance, global warming potential, acidification potential, eutrophication potential and land use impact on ecosystem quality is evaluated for a small scale, low-input Jatropha biodiesel system established on wasteland in rural India. In addition to the life cycle assessment of the case at hand, the environmental performance of the same system expanded with a biogas installation digesting seed cake was quantified. The environmental impacts were compared to the life cycle impacts of a fossil fuel reference system delivering the same amount of products and functions as the Jatropha biodiesel system under research. The results show that the production and use of Jatropha biodiesel triggers an 82% decrease in non-renewable energy requirement (Net Energy Ratio, NER = 1.85) and a 55% reduction in global warming potential (GWP) compared to the reference fossil-fuel based system. However, there is an increase in acidification (49%) and eutrophication (430%) from the Jatropha system relative to the reference case. Although adding biogas production to the system boosts the energy efficiency of the system (NER = 3.40), the GWP reduction would not increase (51%) due to additional CH{sub 4} emissions. For the land use impact, Jatropha improved the structural ecosystem quality when planted on wasteland, but reduced the functional ecosystem quality. Fertilizer application (mainly N) is an important contributor to most negative impact categories. Optimizing fertilization, agronomic practices and genetics are the major system improvement options. (author)

  11. Impact of bioethanol fuel implementation in transport based on modelled acetaldehyde concentration in the urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundvor, Ingrid; López-Aparicio, Susana

    2014-10-15

    This study shows the results obtained from emission and air dispersion modelling of acetaldehyde in the city of Oslo and associated with the circulation of bioethanol vehicles. Two scenarios of bioethanol implementation, both realistic and hypothetical, have been considered under winter conditions; 1) realistic baseline scenario, which corresponds to the current situation in Oslo where one bus line is running with bioethanol (E95; 95% ethanol-5% petrol) among petrol and diesel vehicles; and 2) a hypothetical scenario characterized by a full implementation of high-blend bioethanol (i.e. E85) as fuel for transportation, and thus an entire bioethanol fleet. The results indicate that a full implementation of bioethanol will have a certain impact on urban air quality due to direct emissions of acetaldehyde. Acetaldehyde emissions are estimated to increase by 233% and concentration levels increase up to 650% with regard to the baseline.

  12. Charge Transport in Two-Photon Semiconducting Structures for Solar Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guohua; Du, Kang; Haussener, Sophia; Wang, Kaiying

    2016-10-20

    Semiconducting heterostructures are emerging as promising light absorbers and offer effective electron-hole separation to drive solar chemistry. This technology relies on semiconductor composites or photoelectrodes that work in the presence of a redox mediator and that create cascade junctions to promote surface catalytic reactions. Rational tuning of their structures and compositions is crucial to fully exploit their functionality. In this review, we describe the possibilities of applying the two-photon concept to the field of solar fuels. A wide range of strategies including the indirect combination of two semiconductors by a redox couple, direct coupling of two semiconductors, multicomponent structures with a conductive mediator, related photoelectrodes, as well as two-photon cells are discussed for light energy harvesting and charge transport. Examples of charge extraction models from the literature are summarized to understand the mechanism of interfacial carrier dynamics and to rationalize experimental observations. We focus on a working principle of the constituent components and linking the photosynthetic activity with the proposed models. This work gives a new perspective on artificial photosynthesis by taking simultaneous advantages of photon absorption and charge transfer, outlining an encouraging roadmap towards solar fuels.

  13. Numerical Investigation of the Water Droplet Transport in a PEM Fuel Cell with Serpentine Flow Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bittagopal Mondal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The serpentine flow channel can be considered as one of the most common and practical channel layouts for a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC since it ensures an effective and efficient removal of water produced in a cell with acceptable parasitic load. Water management is one of the key issues to improve the cell performance since at low operating temperatures in PEMFC, water vapor condensation starts easily and accumulates the liquid water droplet within the flow channels, thus affecting the chemical reactions and reducing the fuel cell performance. In this article, a comprehensive three dimensional numerical simulation is carried out to understand the water droplet mobility in a serpentine gas flow channel for a wide range of surface properties, inlet air velocities, droplet positions (center or off-center, bottom or top and droplet sizes by deploying a finite volume based methodology. The liquid-gas interface is tracked following the volume-of-fluid (VOF method. The droplet transport is found to be greatly influenced by the surface wettability properties, inlet velocities, number of droplets emerged and initial droplet positions. Super hydrophobic surface property is not always preferable for designing the gas flow channels. It depends upon the inlet velocity conditions, droplet positions, number of droplets and surface properties.

  14. Measurement and modelling of reactive transport in geological barriers for nuclear waste containment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Qingrong; Joseph, Claudia; Schmeide, Katja; Jivkov, Andrey P

    2015-11-11

    Compacted clays are considered as excellent candidates for barriers to radionuclide transport in future repositories for nuclear waste due to their very low hydraulic permeability. Diffusion is the dominant transport mechanism, controlled by a nano-scale pore system. Assessment of the clays' long-term containment function requires adequate modelling of such pore systems and their evolution. Existing characterisation techniques do not provide complete pore space information for effective modelling, such as pore and throat size distributions and connectivity. Special network models for reactive transport are proposed here using the complimentary character of the pore space and the solid phase. This balances the insufficient characterisation information and provides the means for future mechanical-physical-chemical coupling. The anisotropy and heterogeneity of clays is represented using different length parameters and percentage of pores in different directions. Resulting networks are described as mathematical graphs with efficient discrete calculus formulation of transport. Opalinus Clay (OPA) is chosen as an example. Experimental data for the tritiated water (HTO) and U(vi) diffusion through OPA are presented. Calculated diffusion coefficients of HTO and uranium species are within the ranges of the experimentally determined data in different clay directions. This verifies the proposed pore network model and validates that uranium complexes are diffusing as neutral species in OPA. In the case of U(vi) diffusion the method is extended to account for sorption and convection. Rather than changing pore radii by coarse grained mathematical formula, physical sorption is simulated in each pore, which is more accurate and realistic.

  15. Formulation, Casting, and Evaluation of Paraffin-Based Solid Fuels Containing Energetic and Novel Additives for Hybrid Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Daniel B.; Desain, John D.; Boyer, Eric; Wachs, Trevor; Kuo, Kenneth K.; Borduin, Russell; Koo, Joseph H.; Brady, Brian B.; Curtiss, Thomas J.; Story, George

    2012-01-01

    This investigation studied the inclusion of various additives to paraffin wax for use in a hybrid rocket motor. Some of the paraffin-based fuels were doped with various percentages of LiAlH4 (up to 10%). Addition of LiAlH4 at 10% was found to increase regression rates between 7 - 10% over baseline paraffin through tests in a gaseous oxygen hybrid rocket motor. Mass burn rates for paraffin grains with 10% LiAlH4 were also higher than those of the baseline paraffin. RDX was also cast into a paraffin sample via a novel casting process which involved dissolving RDX into dimethylformamide (DMF) solvent and then drawing a vacuum on the mixture of paraffin and RDX/DMF in order to evaporate out the DMF. It was found that although all DMF was removed, the process was not conducive to generating small RDX particles. The slow boiling generated an inhomogeneous mixture of paraffin and RDX. It is likely that superheating the DMF to cause rapid boiling would likely reduce RDX particle sizes. In addition to paraffin/LiAlH4 grains, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) were cast in paraffin for testing in a hybrid rocket motor, and assorted samples containing a range of MWNT percentages in paraffin were imaged using SEM. The fuel samples showed good distribution of MWNT in the paraffin matrix, but the MWNT were often agglomerated, indicating that a change to the sonication and mixing processes were required to achieve better uniformity and debundled MWNT. Fuel grains with MWNT fuel grains had slightly lower regression rate, likely due to the increased thermal conductivity to the fuel subsurface, reducing the burning surface temperature.

  16. Inventory of concepts for mixed diesel fuels containing renewable components. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronberg, B. [Inst. for Surface Chemistry, Stockholm (Sweden); Berg, R. [Befri Konsult, Solna (Sweden); Berg, J. [Svenska Lantmaennen/Agro Oil, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2000-08-01

    The present report has involved the assembly of two sub-reports, which have been put together to form this final report. Both of the sub-reports deal with the incorporation of ethanol in diesel fuels. The potential advantages are the decreased net emissions of carbon dioxide, due to the renewable nature of ethanol (if obtained from renewable raw materials), and the decrease of NO{sub x} emissions, due to the decreased combustion temperature. The first sub-report is a compilation of scientific articles and patents/patent applications regarding the possibility to blend ethanol into diesel to form a stable solution in the form of a so called microemulsion, with the aid of surfactants and/or co-solvents. The second sub-report briefly describes the test work, both in the laboratory and in field tests, that is being done in various countries, regarding the blending of ethanol into diesel fuel.

  17. Mechanochemical production of lignin-containing powder fuels from biotechnical industry waste: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lomovsky Oleg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In biotechnological processing of plant raw materials, carbohydrates that are soluble and accessible for microorganisms are the only usable components. The lignin-rich part of the plant raw materials usually ends up in the waste. Lignin transferred into water suspensions cannot be used efficiently as a fuel. In this review, a new processing scheme of plant raw materials is presented, which includes mechanochemical treatment of the plant raw materials and separation of the powder product into particles of lignified and non-lignified tissues rich in lignin and cellulose, respectively. The cellulose-rich powders can then be used in biotechnological processes. Lignin-rich powder aerodynamically separated using cyclone-type apparatus can be used as a powder fuel to satisfy the needs of the main biotechnological plant in heat and steam.

  18. Thermal radiation effect on thermal explosion in gas containing fuel droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Igor; Gol'dshtein, Vladimir; Kuzmenko, Grigory; Sazhin, Sergei

    1999-12-01

    The effect of thermal radiation on the dynamics of a thermal explosion of a flammable gas mixture with the addition of volatile fuel droplets is studied. This is based on an original physical model of self-ignition. The thermal radiation energy exchange between the evaporating surface of the fuel droplets and burning gas is described using the P-1 model with Marshak boundary conditions. The original system of equations describing the effects of heating, evaporation and the combustion of fuel droplets is simplified to enable their analysis using asymptotic methods. The mathematical formulation is eventually reduced to a singularly perturbed system of ordinary differential equations. This allows us to apply the advanced geometric asymptotic technique (integral manifold method) for the qualitative analysis of the behaviour of the solution. Possible types of dynamic behaviour of the system are classified and parametric regions of their existence are determined analytically. The main attention is concentrated on the situations where delays might occur before the final ignition. Our study is focused on the impact of thermal radiation on the delay time. The dimensionless parameter responsible for the impact of thermal radiation is singled out and analysed. The dependence of the delay characteristics on the physical parameters of the problem under consideration is analysed. An explicit expression for the minimum time delay of the thermal explosion of fuel droplets in the presence of thermal radiation is derived and applied to the thermal explosion of n-decane and tetralin droplets. It is pointed out that the effects of thermal radiation can be significant, especially at high temperatures, and cannot be ignored in the analysis of this phenomenon.

  19. Studies on treatment of chlorophenol-containing wastewater by microbial fuel cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A microbial fuel cell with 4-CP as oxidant was established to investigate the feasibility of 4-CP dechlorination in the cathodic chamber of MFC. It demonstrated good performance on electricity generation with Pmax 12.4 mW/m2 and CE 22.7%. Besides, 60 mg/L 4-CP could be completely dechlorinated in 45 h in the MFC, and 4-CP dechlorination process and electricity generation process had obvious synergistic effect.

  20. Mathematical Modeling of Transport Phenomena in Polymer Electrolyte and Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birgersson, Erik

    2004-02-01

    This thesis deals with modeling of two types of fuel cells: the polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) and the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC), for which we address four major issues: a) mass transport limitations; b) water management (PEFC); c) gas management (DMFC); d) thermal management. Four models have been derived and studied for the PEFC, focusing on the cathode. The first exploits the slenderness of the cathode for a two-dimensional geometry, leading to a reduced model, where several non dimensional parameters capture the behavior of the cathode. The model was extended to three dimensions, where four different flow distributors were studied for the cathode. A quantitative comparison shows that the interdigitated channels can sustain the highest current densities. These two models, comprising isothermal gas phase flow, limit the studies to (a). Returning to a two-dimensional geometry of the PEFC, the liquid phase was introduced via a separate flow model approach for the cathode. In addition to conservation of mass, momentum and species, the model was extended to consider simultaneous charge and heat transfer for the whole cell. Different thermal, flow fields, and hydrodynamic conditions were studied, addressing (a), (b) and (d). A scale analysis allowed for predictions of the cell performance prior to any computations. Good agreement between experiments with a segmented cell and the model was obtained. A liquid-phase model, comprising conservation of mass, momentum and species, was derived and analyzed for the anode of the DMFC. The impact of hydrodynamic, electrochemical and geometrical features on the fuel cell performance were studied, mainly focusing on (a). The slenderness of the anode allows the use of a narrow-gap approximation, leading to a reduced model, with benefits such as reduced computational cost and understanding of the physical trends prior to any numerical computations. Adding the gas-phase via a multiphase mixture approach, the gas

  1. Nuclear Energy R&D Imperative 3: Enable a Transition Away from Fossil Fuel in the Transportation and Industrial Sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Petti; J. Stephen Herring

    2010-03-01

    As described in the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Nuclear Energy R&D Roadmap, nuclear energy can play a significant role in supplying energy for a growing economy while reducing both our dependence on foreign energy supplies and emissions from the burning of fossil fuels. The industrial and transportation sectors are responsible for more than half of the greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S., and imported oil supplies 70% of the energy used in the transportation sector. It is therefore important to examine the various ways nuclear energy can facilitate a transition away from fossil fuels to secure environmentally sustainable production and use of energy in the transportation and manufacturing industry sectors. Imperative 3 of the Nuclear Energy R&D Roadmap, entitled “Enable a Transition Away from Fossil Fuels by Producing Process Heat for use in the Transportation and Industrial Sectors”, addresses this need. This document presents an Implementation Plan for R&D efforts related to this imperative. The expanded use of nuclear energy beyond the electrical grid will contribute significantly to overcoming the three inter-linked energy challenges facing U.S. industry: the rising and volatile prices for premium fossil fuels such as oil and natural gas, dependence on foreign sources for these fuels, and the risks of climate change resulting from carbon emissions. Nuclear energy could be used in the industrial and transportation sectors to: • Generate high temperature process heat and electricity to serve industrial needs including the production of chemical feedstocks for use in manufacturing premium fuels and fertilizer products, • Produce hydrogen for industrial processes and transportation fuels, and • Provide clean water for human consumption by desalination and promote wastewater treatment using low-grade nuclear heat as a useful additional benefit. Opening new avenues for nuclear energy will significantly enhance our nation’s energy

  2. Nuclear Energy R&D Imperative 3: Enable a Transition Away from Fossil Fuel in the Transportation and Industrial Sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Petti; J. Stephen Herring

    2010-03-01

    As described in the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Nuclear Energy R&D Roadmap, nuclear energy can play a significant role in supplying energy for a growing economy while reducing both our dependence on foreign energy supplies and emissions from the burning of fossil fuels. The industrial and transportation sectors are responsible for more than half of the greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S., and imported oil supplies 70% of the energy used in the transportation sector. It is therefore important to examine the various ways nuclear energy can facilitate a transition away from fossil fuels to secure environmentally sustainable production and use of energy in the transportation and manufacturing industry sectors. Imperative 3 of the Nuclear Energy R&D Roadmap, entitled “Enable a Transition Away from Fossil Fuels by Producing Process Heat for use in the Transportation and Industrial Sectors”, addresses this need. This document presents an Implementation Plan for R&D efforts related to this imperative. The expanded use of nuclear energy beyond the electrical grid will contribute significantly to overcoming the three inter-linked energy challenges facing U.S. industry: the rising and volatile prices for premium fossil fuels such as oil and natural gas, dependence on foreign sources for these fuels, and the risks of climate change resulting from carbon emissions. Nuclear energy could be used in the industrial and transportation sectors to: • Generate high temperature process heat and electricity to serve industrial needs including the production of chemical feedstocks for use in manufacturing premium fuels and fertilizer products, • Produce hydrogen for industrial processes and transportation fuels, and • Provide clean water for human consumption by desalination and promote wastewater treatment using low-grade nuclear heat as a useful additional benefit. Opening new avenues for nuclear energy will significantly enhance our nation’s energy

  3. RISKIND: A computer program for calculating radiological consequences and health risks from transportation of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Y.C. [Square Y, Orchard Park, NY (United States); Chen, S.Y.; LePoire, D.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment and Information Sciences Div.; Rothman, R. [USDOE Idaho Field Office, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1993-02-01

    This report presents the technical details of RISIUND, a computer code designed to estimate potential radiological consequences and health risks to individuals and the collective population from exposures associated with the transportation of spent nuclear fuel. RISKIND is a user-friendly, semiinteractive program that can be run on an IBM or equivalent personal computer. The program language is FORTRAN-77. Several models are included in RISKIND that have been tailored to calculate the exposure to individuals under various incident-free and accident conditions. The incidentfree models assess exposures from both gamma and neutron radiation and can account for different cask designs. The accident models include accidental release, atmospheric transport, and the environmental pathways of radionuclides from spent fuels; these models also assess health risks to individuals and the collective population. The models are supported by databases that are specific to spent nuclear fuels and include a radionudide inventory and dose conversion factors.

  4. Reactant gas transport and cell performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cells with tapered flow field design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, H.C.; Yan, W.M. [Department of Mechatronic Engineering, Huafan University, Shih-Ting, Taipei 223, Taiwan (ROC); Soong, C.Y. [Department of Aerospace and Systems Engineering, Feng Chia University, Seatwen, Taichung 407, Taiwan (ROC); Chen, Falin [Institute of Applied Mechanics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (ROC); Chu, H.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Chiao-Tung University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (ROC)

    2006-07-14

    The objective of this work is to examine the reactant gas transport and the cell performance of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) with a tapered flow channel design. It is expected that, with the reduction in the channel depth along the streamwise direction, the reactant fuel gas in the tapered channel can be accelerated as well as forced into the gas diffuser layer to enhance the electrochemical reaction and thus augment the cell performance. The effects of liquid water formation on the reactant gas transport are taken into account in the present study. Numerical predictions show that the cell performance can be enhanced with the fuel channel tapered, and the enhancement is more noticeable at a lower voltage. The results also reveal that the liquid water effect in general influences the cell performance and the effect becomes significant at lower voltages. (author)

  5. Reactant gas transport and cell performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cells with tapered flow field design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H. C.; Yan, W. M.; Soong, C. Y.; Chen, Falin; Chu, H. S.

    The objective of this work is to examine the reactant gas transport and the cell performance of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) with a tapered flow channel design. It is expected that, with the reduction in the channel depth along the streamwise direction, the reactant fuel gas in the tapered channel can be accelerated as well as forced into the gas diffuser layer to enhance the electrochemical reaction and thus augment the cell performance. The effects of liquid water formation on the reactant gas transport are taken into account in the present study. Numerical predictions show that the cell performance can be enhanced with the fuel channel tapered, and the enhancement is more noticeable at a lower voltage. The results also reveal that the liquid water effect in general influences the cell performance and the effect becomes significant at lower voltages.

  6. Methods for using novel cathode and electrolyte materials for solid oxide fuel cells and ion transport membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, Allan J.; Wang, Shuangyan; Kim, Gun Tae

    2016-01-12

    Methods using novel cathode, electrolyte and oxygen separation materials operating at intermediate temperatures for use in solid oxide fuel cells and ion transport membranes include oxides with perovskite related structures and an ordered arrangement of A site cations. The materials have significantly faster oxygen kinetics than in corresponding disordered perovskites.

  7. Water transport in the gas diffusion layer of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell : Dynamic Pore-Network Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, C.

    2015-01-01

    The pore-scale modeling is a powerful tool for increasing our understanding of water transport in the fibrous gas diffusion layer (GDL) of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC). In this work, a new dynamic pore-network model for air-water flow in the GDL is developed. It incorporates water vapor tr

  8. Electric Vehicles - Promoting Fuel Efficiency and Renewable Energy in Danish Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of electric vehicles as energy carrier for renewable energy and fossil fuels, including comparisons with other energy carriers (hydrogen, bio-fuels)......Analysis of electric vehicles as energy carrier for renewable energy and fossil fuels, including comparisons with other energy carriers (hydrogen, bio-fuels)...

  9. Electric Vehicles - Promoting Fuel Efficiency and Renewable Energy in Danish Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of electric vehicles as energy carrier for renewable energy and fossil fuels, including comparisons with other energy carriers (hydrogen, bio-fuels)......Analysis of electric vehicles as energy carrier for renewable energy and fossil fuels, including comparisons with other energy carriers (hydrogen, bio-fuels)...

  10. Study of liquid fuel transport in a small carburetted engine in the context of cold-start HC emission control

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sumit Tewari; T N C Anand; M P Nishikant; R V Ravikrishna

    2014-06-01

    In the present study, a detailed visualization of the transport of fuel film has been performed in a small carburetted engine with a transparent manifold at the exit of the carburettor. The presence of fuel film is observed significantly on the lower half of the manifold at idling, while at load conditions, the film is found to be distributed all throughout the manifold walls. Quantitative measurement of the fuel film in a specially-designed manifold of square cross section has also been performed using the planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) technique. The measured fuel film thickness is observed to be of the order of 1 mm at idling, and in the range of 0.1 to 0.4 mm over the range of load and speed studied. These engine studies are complemented by experiments conducted in a carburettor rig to study the state of the fuel exiting the carburettor. Laser-based Particle/Droplet Image Analysis (PDIA) technique is used to identify fuel droplets and ligaments and estimate droplet diameters. At a throttle position corresponding to idling, the fuel exiting the carburettor is found to consist of very fine droplets of size less than 15 m and large fuel ligaments associated with length scales of the order of 500 m and higher. For a constant pressure difference across the carburettor, the fuel consists of droplets with an SMD of the order of 30 m. Also, the effect of liquid fuel film on the cold start HC emissions is studied. Based on the understanding obtained from these studies, strategies such as manifold heating and varying carburettor main jet nozzle diameter are implemented. These are observed to reduce emissions under both idling and varying load conditions.

  11. Development of pressure containment and damage tolerance technology for composite fuselage structures in large transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P. J.; Thomson, L. W.; Wilson, R. D.

    1986-01-01

    NASA sponsored composites research and development programs were set in place to develop the critical engineering technologies in large transport aircraft structures. This NASA-Boeing program focused on the critical issues of damage tolerance and pressure containment generic to the fuselage structure of large pressurized aircraft. Skin-stringer and honeycomb sandwich composite fuselage shell designs were evaluated to resolve these issues. Analyses were developed to model the structural response of the fuselage shell designs, and a development test program evaluated the selected design configurations to appropriate load conditions.

  12. Numerical study of cell performance and local transport phenomena in PEM fuel cells with various flow channel area ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Dong; Duan, Yuan-Yuan; Yan, Wei-Mon

    Three-dimensional models of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) with parallel and interdigitated flow channel designs were developed including the effects of liquid water formation on the reactant gas transport. The models were used to investigate the effects of the flow channel area ratio and the cathode flow rate on the cell performance and local transport characteristics. The results reveal that at high operating voltages, the cell performance is independent of the flow channel designs and operating parameters, while at low operating voltages, both significantly affect cell performance. For the parallel flow channel design, as the flow channel area ratio increases the cell performance improves because fuel is transported into the diffusion layer and the catalyst layer mainly by diffusion. A larger flow channel area ratio increases the contact area between the fuel and the diffusion layer, which allows more fuel to directly diffuse into the porous layers to participate in the electrochemical reaction which enhances the reaction rates. For the interdigitated flow channel design, the baffle forces more fuel to enter the cell and participate in the electrochemical reaction, so the flow channel area ratio has less effect. Forced convection not only increases the fuel transport rates but also enhances the liquid water removal, thus interdigitated flow channel design has higher performance than the parallel flow channel design. The optimal performance for the interdigitated flow channel design occurs for a flow channel area ratio of 0.4. The cell performance also improves as the cathode flow rate increases. The effects of the flow channel area ratio and the cathode flow rate on cell performance are analyzed based on the local current densities, oxygen flow rates and liquid water concentrations inside the cell.

  13. Numerical study of cell performance and local transport phenomena in PEM fuel cells with various flow channel area ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiao-Dong [Department of Thermal Engineering, School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Duan, Yuan-Yuan [Key Laboratory of Thermal Science and Power Engineering of MOE, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Yan, Wei-Mon [Department of Mechatronic Engineering, Huafan University, Shih-Ting 22305 (China)

    2007-10-11

    Three-dimensional models of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) with parallel and interdigitated flow channel designs were developed including the effects of liquid water formation on the reactant gas transport. The models were used to investigate the effects of the flow channel area ratio and the cathode flow rate on the cell performance and local transport characteristics. The results reveal that at high operating voltages, the cell performance is independent of the flow channel designs and operating parameters, while at low operating voltages, both significantly affect cell performance. For the parallel flow channel design, as the flow channel area ratio increases the cell performance improves because fuel is transported into the diffusion layer and the catalyst layer mainly by diffusion. A larger flow channel area ratio increases the contact area between the fuel and the diffusion layer, which allows more fuel to directly diffuse into the porous layers to participate in the electrochemical reaction which enhances the reaction rates. For the interdigitated flow channel design, the baffle forces more fuel to enter the cell and participate in the electrochemical reaction, so the flow channel area ratio has less effect. Forced convection not only increases the fuel transport rates but also enhances the liquid water removal, thus interdigitated flow channel design has higher performance than the parallel flow channel design. The optimal performance for the interdigitated flow channel design occurs for a flow channel area ratio of 0.4. The cell performance also improves as the cathode flow rate increases. The effects of the flow channel area ratio and the cathode flow rate on cell performance are analyzed based on the local current densities, oxygen flow rates and liquid water concentrations inside the cell. (author)

  14. Electrochemical Approach for Analyzing Electrolyte Transport Properties and Their Effect on Protonic Ceramic Fuel Cell Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilov, Nikolay; Lyagaeva, Julia; Vdovin, Gennady; Medvedev, Dmitry; Demin, Anatoly; Tsiakaras, Panagiotis

    2017-08-16

    The design and development of highly conductive materials with wide electrolytic domain boundaries are among the most promising means of enabling solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) to demonstrate outstanding performance across low- and intermediate-temperature ranges. While reducing the thickness of the electrolyte is an extensively studied means for diminishing the total resistance of SOFCs, approaches involving an improvement in the transport behavior of the electrolyte membranes have been less-investigated. In the present work, a strategy for analyzing the electrolyte properties and their effect on SOFC output characteristics is proposed. To this purpose, a SOFC based on a recently developed BaCe0.5Zr0.3Dy0.2O3-δ proton-conducting ceramic material was fabricated and tested. The basis of the strategy consists of the use of traditional SOFC testing techniques combined with the current interruption method and electromotive force measurements with a modified polarization-correction assessment. This allows one to determine simultaneously such important parameters as maximal power density; ohmic and polarization resistances; average ion transport numbers; and total, ionic, and electronic film conductivities and their activation energies. The proposed experimental procedure is expected to expand both fundamental and applied basics that could be further adopted to improve the technology of electrochemical devices based on proton-conducting electrolytes.

  15. Analysis of Performance of Selected AFC, ATF Fuels, and Lanthanide Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unal, Cetin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Galloway, Jack D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-09-29

    We started to look at the performance of ATF concept in LWRs late in FY14 and finish our studies in FY15. The work has been presented in AFC review meetings, ICAPP and TOPFUEL conferences. The final version of the work is accepted for publication in Nuclear Engineering and Science Journal (NES). The copy of ICAPP and NES papers are attached separately to this document as our milestone deliverables. We made an important progress in the modeling of lanthanide transport in FY15. This work produced an ANS Winter Meeting paper and GLOBAL 2015 paper. GLOBAL 2015 paper is also attached as deliverable of FY15. The work on the lanthanide transport is preliminary. We are exploring other potential mechanisms, in addition to “liquid-like” diffusion mechanisms, proposed by Robert Mariani [1] before we analyze data that will be taken by Ohio State University. This year, we concentrate on developing diffusion kernels and principles of modeling. Next year, this work will continue and analyze the Ohio State data and develop approaches to solve multicomponent diffusion. In addition to three papers we attached to this report, we have done some research on coupling and the development of gas release model for metallic fuels in FY15. They are also preliminary in nature; therefore, we give the summary of what we found rather than an extended report that will be done in FY16.

  16. Radioecological consequences of a potential accident during transport of spent nuclear fuel along an Arctic coastline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iosjpe, M; Reistad, O; Amundsen, I B

    2009-02-01

    This article presents results pertaining to a risk assessment of the potential consequences of a hypothetical accident occurring during the transportation by ship of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) along an Arctic coastline. The findings are based on modelling of potential releases of radionuclides, radionuclide transport and uptake in the marine environment. Modelling work has been done using a revised box model developed at the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority. Evaluation of the radioecological consequences of a potential accident in the southern part of the Norwegian Current has been made on the basis of calculated collective dose to man, individual doses for the critical group, concentrations of radionuclides in seafood and doses to marine organisms. The results of the calculations indicate a large variability in the investigated parameters above mentioned. On the basis of the calculated parameters the maximum total activity ("accepted accident activity") in the ship, when the parameters that describe the consequences after the examined potential accident are still in agreement with the recommendations and criterions for protection of the human population and the environment, has been evaluated.

  17. Modeling studies of water consumption for transportation fuel options: Hawaii, US-48

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, C. W.; Webber, M. E.

    2011-12-01

    There are now major drivers to move from petroleum transportation: moving to low-carbon transport life cycles for climate change mitigation, fuel diversity to reduce reliance on imported oil, and economic concerns regarding the relatively high price of oil ( $100/barrel) and the resulting impact on discretionary income. Unfortunately many transportation fuel alternatives also have some environmental impacts, particularly with regard to water consumption and biodiversity. In this presentation we will discuss the water and energy sustainability struggle ongoing in Hawai'i on the island of Maui with a brief history and discussion of energy and water modeling scenarios. The vast majority of surface water on Maui is diverted via man-made ditches for irrigation on sugar cane plantations. Maui currently allocates between 250 and 300 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) of irrigation water for sugarcane cultivation each day, and it is likely that the island could support a biofuel-focused sugarcane plantation by shifting production focus from raw sugar to ethanol. However, future water availability is likely to be less than existing water availability because Maui is growing, more water is being reserved for environmental purposes, and precipitation levels are on decline for the past two decades and some expect this trend to continue. While Maui residents cannot control precipitation patterns, they can control the levels of increased requirements for instream flow in Maui's streams. The Hawaii State Commission on Water Resource Management (CWRM) sets instream flow standards, and choosing not to restore instream flow could have what many locals consider negative environmental and cultural impacts that must be weighed against the effects of reducing surface water availability for agriculture. Instream flow standards that reduce legal withdrawals for streams that supply irrigation water would reduce the amount of surface water available for biofuel crop irrigation. Environmental

  18. Fuel Aging in Storage and Transportation (FAST): Accelerated Characterization and Performance Assessment of the Used Nuclear Fuel Storage System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDeavitt, Sean [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2016-08-02

    This Integrated Research Project (IRP) was established to characterize key limiting phenomena related to the performance of used nuclear fuel (UNF) storage systems. This was an applied engineering project with a specific application in view (i.e., UNF dry storage). The completed tasks made use of a mixture of basic science and engineering methods. The overall objective was to create, or enable the creation of, predictive tools in the form of observation methods, phenomenological models, and databases that will enable the design, installation, and licensing of dry UNF storage systems that will be capable of containing UNF for extended period of time. The project was divided four distinct, yet synergistic, technical mission areas (TMAs), as summarized below. The key technical results and findings from each of the TMAs are summarized in Sections 2 through 5. Technical Mission Area 1: Low Temperature Creep This mission focused on the low temperature creep of UNF cladding that may be enabled by decay heat from fission products and stresses from internal pressures. The major objectives were (1) to obtain data using highly oxidized/hydrided tubing under relevant stresses and temperatures, (2) to characterize and translate that data to enable input to FRAPCON and other codes that may be modified to predict UNF behavior in dry storage, and (3) to formulate atomistic simulations to better understand long term creep behavior. Technical Mission Area 2: Hydrogen Behavior and Delayed Hydride Cracking This mission focused on the characterization and understanding of delayed hydride cracking (DHC) in spent Zircaloy cladding. The DHC mechanism is generally attributed to local hydride precipitation at stress risers present on the surface of the cladding. Samples with low and high hydrogen loadings were prepared and studiedusing various methods. Technical Mission Area 3: UNF Canister Corrosion This mission was focused on recognized gaps in understanding mechanisms relevant to the

  19. A quasi-Delphi study on technological barriers to the uptake of hydrogen as a fuel for transport applications-Production, storage and fuel cell drivetrain considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, David; Anghel, Alexandra T.; Huijsmans, Joep; Vuille, François

    The introduction of hydrogen in transport, particularly using fuel cell vehicles, faces a number of technical and non-technical hurdles. However, their relative importance is unclear, as are the levels of concern accorded them within the expert community conducting research and development within this area. To understand what issues are considered by experts working in the field to have significant potential to slow down or prevent the introduction of hydrogen technology in transport, a study was undertaken, primarily during 2007. Three key technology areas within hydrogen transport were selected - hydrogen storage, fuel cell drivetrains, and small-scale hydrogen production - and interviews with selected experts conducted. Forty-nine experts from 34 organisations within the fuel cell, automotive, industrial gas and other related industries participated, in addition to some key academic and government figures. The survey was conducted in China, Japan, North America and Europe, and analysed using conventional mathematical techniques to provide weighted and averaged rankings of issues viewed as important by the experts. It became clear both from the interviews and the subsequent analysis that while a primary concern in China was fundamental technical performance, in the other regions cost and policy were rated more highly. Although a few individual experts identified possible technical showstoppers, the overall message was that pre-commercial hydrogen fuel cell vehicles could realistically be on the road in tens of thousands within 5 years, and that full commercialisation could take place within 10-15 years, without the need for radical technical breakthroughs. Perhaps surprisingly, the performance of hydrogen storage technologies was not viewed as a showstopper, though cost was seen as a significant challenge. Overall, however, coherent policy development was more frequently identified as a major issue to address.

  20. Stability of MOF-5 in a hydrogen gas environment containing fueling station impurities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ming, Yang; Purewal, Justin; Yang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are an emerging class of porous, crystalline materials with potential application as hydrogen storage media in fuel cell vehicles. Unlike lower capacity adsorbents such as zeolites and carbons, some MOFs are expected to degrade due to attack by impurities present...... capacity of an exposed sample. Hydrogen chloride was observed to be the only impurity that yielded a measurable, albeit small, decrease in hydrogen capacity; no change in H2 uptake was observed for the other impurities. Post-cycling and post-storage MOF-5 samples were also analyzed using infrared...

  1. Improving transport container design to reduce broiler chicken PSE (pale, soft, exudative) meat in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurio, Rafael S; Soares, Adriana L; Carvalho, Rafael H; Silveira Junior, Vivaldo; Grespan, Moisés; Oba, Alexandre; Shimokomaki, Massami

    2016-02-01

    Throughout the chicken production chain, transport from farm to the commercial abattoir is one of the most critical sources of stress, particularly heat stress. The aim of this work was to describe the performance of a new prototype truck container designed to improve the microenvironment and reduce the incidence of pale, soft and exudative (PSE) meat and dead on arrival (DOA) occurrences. Experiments were carried out for four different conditions: regular and prototype truck, both with and without wetting loaded cages at the farm (for bird thermal stress relief) just before transporting. While there was no difference in the DOA index (P ≥ 0.05), the prototype truck caused a reduction (P < 0.05) in the occurrence of PSE meat by 66.3% and 49.6% with and without wetting, respectively. The results of this experiment clearly revealed a low-cost solution for transporting chickens that yields better animal welfare conditions and improves meat quality.

  2. Hybrid-Type Organic Thermoelectric Materials Containing Nanoparticles as a Carrier Transport Promoter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Keisuke; Inoue, Junta; Sadakata, Shifumi; Shiraishi, Yukihide; Toshima, Naoki

    2017-05-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have recently received much attention as thermoelectric materials. Although the carrier mobility within a single CNT is very high, the charge carrier transport between CNTs is quite slow. We have utilized nanoparticles (NPs) for promotion of the carrier transport between CNTs for improving their thermoelectric performance. Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) was used as a binder of the CNTs. Thus, hybrid-type organic thermoelectric materials containing the NPs were constructed from Pd NPs, CNTs, and PVC. The thermoelectric properties were slightly improved in the three-component films by only mixing the separately-prepared Pd NPs. The NPs of a polymer complex, poly(nickel 1,1,2,2-ethenetetrathiolate) (n-PETT), were also used as a charge carrier transport promoter instead of the Pd NPs to produce n-PETT/CNT/PVC hybrid films. Treatment of the three-component films with methanol produced a high thermoelectric power factor and low thermal conductivity, resulting in a high "apparent" thermoelectric performance ( ZT ˜ 0.3 near room temperature) although the thermal conductivity was measured in the through-plane direction, which is a different direction from that for the electrical conductivity.

  3. Measurement of fissile mass in large-size containers with a transportable linear accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeyer Dherbey, Jacques; Lyoussi, A.; Buisson, A.

    1997-02-01

    The quantification of transuranic material (TRU) in waste packages is a common problem of countries working in the field of nuclear nondestructive inspection. The direct measurement of TRU mass inside large size closed containers is difficult due to several effects, mainly the matrix attenuation and uncertainty on the localization of the radioactive mass. The present document describes the method being developed to assay conditioned waste packages using a transportable linear accelerator which is called Mini- Linatron. The system uses a pulsed electron beam from the Mini-Linatron to produce high energy bremsstrahlung photon bursts from thin metallic converter. The transportable linear accelerator operates at 6, 9 and 11 MeV with a repetition rate between 10 to 300 Hz and a 4.5 microsecond(s) pulse duration. The maximum gamma dose rate is about 23 Gy/mn at 1 m. The photons induce fission in fissile and fertile nuclei. We counted delayed neutrons emitted after each pulse by using Sequential Photon Interrogation and Neutron Counting Signatures technique which has ben developed in this framework. Results of measurements on an experimental active gamma interrogation facility for embedded intermediate and low level wastes are presented. Finally, the advantages and performances of the photofission interrogation technique, the use of a transportable electron linear accelerator as a particle source, and the experimental and electronic details will be discussed.

  4. Hybrid-Type Organic Thermoelectric Materials Containing Nanoparticles as a Carrier Transport Promoter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Keisuke; Inoue, Junta; Sadakata, Shifumi; Shiraishi, Yukihide; Toshima, Naoki

    2016-08-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have recently received much attention as thermoelectric materials. Although the carrier mobility within a single CNT is very high, the charge carrier transport between CNTs is quite slow. We have utilized nanoparticles (NPs) for promotion of the carrier transport between CNTs for improving their thermoelectric performance. Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) was used as a binder of the CNTs. Thus, hybrid-type organic thermoelectric materials containing the NPs were constructed from Pd NPs, CNTs, and PVC. The thermoelectric properties were slightly improved in the three-component films by only mixing the separately-prepared Pd NPs. The NPs of a polymer complex, poly(nickel 1,1,2,2-ethenetetrathiolate) (n-PETT), were also used as a charge carrier transport promoter instead of the Pd NPs to produce n-PETT/CNT/PVC hybrid films. Treatment of the three-component films with methanol produced a high thermoelectric power factor and low thermal conductivity, resulting in a high "apparent" thermoelectric performance (ZT ˜ 0.3 near room temperature) although the thermal conductivity was measured in the through-plane direction, which is a different direction from that for the electrical conductivity.

  5. 40 CFR 59.653 - How do I test portable fuel containers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....652(c). (2) UV exposure. Perform a sunlight-exposure test by exposing the container to an ultraviolet.... Alternatively, the container may be exposed to direct natural sunlight for an equivalent period of time, as long... (i.e., the pressure cycling, UV exposure, and slosh testing) specified in this section. For other...

  6. Water use impacts of future transport fuels: role of California's climate policy & National biofuel policies (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teter, J.; Yeh, S.; Mishra, G. S.; Tiedeman, K.; Yang, C.

    2013-12-01

    In the coming decades, growing demand for energy and water and the need to address climate change will create huge challenges for energy policy and natural resource management. Synergistic strategies must be developed to conserve and use both resources more efficiently. California (CA) is a prime example of a region where policymakers have began to incorporate water planning in energy infrastructure development. But more must be done as CA transforms its energy system to meet its climate target. We analyze lifecycle water use of current and future transport fuel consumption to evaluate impacts & formulate mitigation strategies for the state at the watershed scale. Four 'bounding cases' for CA's future transportation demand to year 2030 are projected for analysis: two scenarios that only meet the 2020 climate target (business-as-usual, BAU) with high / low water use intensity, and two that meet long-term climate target with high / low water use intensity (Fig 1). Our study focuses on the following energy supply chains: (a) liquid fuels from conventional/unconventional oil & gas, (b) thermoelectric and renewable generation technologies, and (c) biofuels (Fig 2-3). We develop plausible siting scenarios that bound the range of possible water sources, impacts, and dispositions to provide insights into how to best allocate water and limit water impacts of energy development. We further identify constraints & opportunities to improve water use efficiency and highlight salient policy relevant lessons. For biofuels we extend our scope to the entire US as most of the biofuels consumed in California are and will be produced from outside of the state. We analyze policy impacts that capture both direct & indirect land use effects across scenarios, thus addressing the major shortcomings of existing studies, which ignore spatial heterogeneity as well as economic effects of crop displacement and the effects of crop intensification and extensification. We use the agronomic

  7. Direct-hydrogen-fueled proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell system for transportation applications. Hydrogen vehicle safety report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C.E. [Directed Technologies, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1997-05-01

    This report reviews the safety characteristics of hydrogen as an energy carrier for a fuel cell vehicle (FCV), with emphasis on high pressure gaseous hydrogen onboard storage. The authors consider normal operation of the vehicle in addition to refueling, collisions, operation in tunnels, and storage in garages. They identify the most likely risks and failure modes leading to hazardous conditions, and provide potential countermeasures in the vehicle design to prevent or substantially reduce the consequences of each plausible failure mode. They then compare the risks of hydrogen with those of more common motor vehicle fuels including gasoline, propane, and natural gas.

  8. Metal cask RT-5000 for the dry storage and transportation of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorobyov, A.I.; Kazeev, V.G.; Krayev, V.S.; Shcherbina, A.N.; Churikov, Y.I. [All-Russian Research Inst. of Technical Physics, Snezhinsk (Russian Federation)

    2003-05-01

    Presentation of new-type cask, developed at RFNC-VNIITF, is in the article. The prototype model of the shipping cask was subjected to tests imitating normal shipment conditions (free fall, pressing, and impact) and to tests imitating emergency situation during shipment (a drop from the 9-m height onto a pin is replaced by acceleration of the shipping cask at a guide rail of the rocket-catapult installation (RCI), a 1-m drop onto a pin, heat tests a 30-minutes fire at the temperature of for 8500 C, submergence to the depth of 15 and 200 meters). After each test the hermeticity preservation is examined. Parallel with the real testing, a mathematical simulation of physical processes induced by the corresponding tests was conducted at the RFNC-VNIITF. The required parameters obtained from the tests are used to calibrate the calculation methods. As a result it has been possible to obtain a good agreement between the results of calculations and experiments; this will allow the mathematic simulation to be used wider. The advantage of the RT-5000 metal cask in comparison with metal-concrete analogs are as follows: SFA are placed into the RT-5000 entirely without cutting into two bunches of fuel elements; the expensive hot doom is not required for automatic cutting the SFA and for loading the bunches of fuel elements into intermediate cases; the possibility remains to transport the RT-5000 without reloading SFA after 50-year storage, although this is a problem for the metal-concrete casks.

  9. Mass transport of direct methanol fuel cell species in sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, V.S.; Boaventura, M.; Mendes, A.M.; Madeira, L.M. [LEPAE, Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Ruffmann, B.; Vetter, S.; Nunes, S.P. [GKSS Research Centre, Max-Planck Str., 21502 Geesthacht (Germany)

    2006-05-05

    Homogeneous membranes based on sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (sPEEK) with different sulfonation degrees (SD) were prepared and characterized. In order to perform a critical analysis of the SD effect on the polymer barrier and mass transport properties towards direct methanol fuel cell species, proton conductivity, water/methanol pervaporation and nitrogen/oxygen/carbon dioxide pressure rise method experiments are proposed. This procedure allows the evaluation of the individual permeability coefficients in hydrated sPEEK membranes with different sulfonation degrees. Nafion{sup (R)} 112 was used as reference material. DMFC tests were also performed at 50{sup o}C. It was observed that the proton conductivity and the permeability towards water, methanol, oxygen and carbon dioxide increase with the sPEEK sulfonation degree. In contrast, the SD seems to not affect the nitrogen permeability coefficient. In terms of selectivity, it was observed that the carbon dioxide/oxygen selectivity increases with the sPEEK SD. In contrast, the nitrogen/oxygen selectivity decreases. In terms of barrier properties for preventing the DMFC reactants loss, the polymer electrolyte membrane based on the sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) with SD lower or equal to 71%, although having slightly lower proton conductivity, presented much better characteristics for fuel cell applications compared with the well known Nafion{sup (R)} 112. In terms of the DMFC tests of the studied membranes at low temperature, the sPEEK membrane with SD=71% showed to have similar performance, or even better, as that of Nafion{sup (R)} 112. However, the highest DMFC overall efficiency was achieved using sPEEK membrane with SD=52%. (author)

  10. Numerical model of fluid flow and oxygen transport in a radial-flow microchannel containing hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledezma, G A; Folch, A; Bhatia, S N; Balis, U J; Yarmush, M L; Toner, M

    1999-02-01

    The incorporation of monolayers of cultured hepatocytes into an extracorporeal perfusion system has become a promising approach for the development of a temporary bioartificial liver (BAL) support system. In this paper we present a numerical investigation of the oxygen tension, shear stress, and pressure drop in a bioreactor for a BAL composed of plasma-perfused chambers containing monolayers of porcine hepatocytes. The chambers consist of microfabricated parallel disks with center-to-edge radial flow. The oxygen uptake rate (OUR), measured in vitro for porcine hepatocytes, was curve-fitted using Michaelis-Menten kinetics for simulation of the oxygen concentration profile. The effect of different parameters that may influence the oxygen transport inside the chambers, such as the plasma flow rate, the chamber height, the initial oxygen tension in the perfused plasma, the OUR, and K(m) was investigated. We found that both the plasma flow rate and the initial oxygen tension may have an important effect upon oxygen transport. Increasing the flow rate and/or the inlet oxygen tension resulted in improved oxygen transport to cells in the radial-flow microchannels, and allowed significantly greater diameter reactor without oxygen limitation to the hepatocytes. In the range investigated in this paper (10 microns < H < 100 microns), and for a constant plasma flow rate, the chamber height, H, had a negligible effect on the oxygen transport to hepatocytes. On the contrary, it strongly affected the mechanical stress on the cells that is also crucial for the successful design of the BAL reactors. A twofold decrease in chamber height from 50 to 25 microns produced approximately a fivefold increase in maximal shear stress at the inlet of the reactor from 2 to 10 dyn/cm2. Further decrease in chamber height resulted in shear stress values that are physiologically unrealistic. Therefore, the channel height needs to be carefully chosen in a BAL design to avoid deleterious hydrodynamic

  11. Assessment of shielding analysis methods, codes, and data for spent fuel transport/storage applications. [Radiation dose rates from shielded spent fuels and high-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parks, C.V.; Broadhead, B.L.; Hermann, O.W.; Tang, J.S.; Cramer, S.N.; Gauthey, J.C.; Kirk, B.L.; Roussin, R.W.

    1988-07-01

    This report provides a preliminary assessment of the computational tools and existing methods used to obtain radiation dose rates from shielded spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). Particular emphasis is placed on analysis tools and techniques applicable to facilities/equipment designed for the transport or storage of spent nuclear fuel or HLW. Applications to cask transport, storage, and facility handling are considered. The report reviews the analytic techniques for generating appropriate radiation sources, evaluating the radiation transport through the shield, and calculating the dose at a desired point or surface exterior to the shield. Discrete ordinates, Monte Carlo, and point kernel methods for evaluating radiation transport are reviewed, along with existing codes and data that utilize these methods. A literature survey was employed to select a cadre of codes and data libraries to be reviewed. The selection process was based on specific criteria presented in the report. Separate summaries were written for several codes (or family of codes) that provided information on the method of solution, limitations and advantages, availability, data access, ease of use, and known accuracy. For each data library, the summary covers the source of the data, applicability of these data, and known verification efforts. Finally, the report discusses the overall status of spent fuel shielding analysis techniques and attempts to illustrate areas where inaccuracy and/or uncertainty exist. The report notes the advantages and limitations of several analysis procedures and illustrates the importance of using adequate cross-section data sets. Additional work is recommended to enable final selection/validation of analysis tools that will best meet the US Department of Energy's requirements for use in developing a viable HLW management system. 188 refs., 16 figs., 27 tabs.

  12. Fabrication and Pre-irradiation Characterization of a Minor Actinide and Rare Earth Containing Fast Reactor Fuel Experiment for Irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy A. Hyde

    2012-06-01

    The United States Department of Energy, seeks to develop and demonstrate the technologies needed to transmute the long-lived transuranic actinide isotopes contained in spent nuclear fuel into shorter lived fission products, thereby decreasing the volume of material requiring disposal and reducing the long-term radiotoxicity and heat load of high-level waste sent to a geologic repository. This transmutation of the long lived actinides plutonium, neptunium, americium and curium can be accomplished by first separating them from spent Light Water Reactor fuel using a pyro-metalurgical process, then reprocessing them into new fuel with fresh uranium additions, and then transmuted to short lived nuclides in a liquid metal cooled fast reactor. An important component of the technology is developing actinide-bearing fuel forms containing plutonium, neptunium, americium and curium isotopes that meet the stringent requirements of reactor fuels and materials.

  13. Atmospheric limiting values for complex hydrocarbon-containing mixtures. Pt. 3. Fuels for combustion engines; Luftgrenzwerte fuer komplexe kohlenwasserstoffhaltige Gemische. T. 3. Kraftstoffe fuer Verbrennungsmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarzer, H.G. [Esso AG, Hamburg (Germany)

    1997-06-01

    The justification paper atmospheric limiting values for complex hydrocarbon-containing mixtures, part 3 - ``fuels for combustion engines`` (gasolines, diesel fuel and kerosene) is currently in preparation. This third part gives information on industrial hygiene regarding the different fuels and describes the application of atmospheric limiting values for fuels. The article offers information on industrial hygiene regarding Otto engine fuel and aviation fuel, which needs to be taken into account in discussions concerning the laying down of atmospheric limiting values. (orig./ABI) [Deutsch] Das Begruendungspapier Luftgrenzwerte fuer komplexe kohlenwasserstoffhaltige Gemische Teil 3 `Kraftstoffe fuer Verbrennungsmotoren` (Gasoline, Dieselkraftstoff und Kerosin) ist z.Z. in Vorbereitung. In diesem dritten Teil werden arbeitshygienische Informationen zu den verschiedenen Kraftstoffen gegeben und die Anwendung der Luftgrenzwerte fuer Kraftstoffe beschrieben. Im folgenden werden arbeitshygienische Informationen zu Ottokraftstoff und Avgas gegeben, die es bei den Ueberlegungen hinsichtlich der Festlegung eines Luftgrenzwertes zu beruecksichtigen gilt. (orig./ABI)

  14. A parallel multi-domain solution methodology applied to nonlinear thermal transport problems in nuclear fuel pins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Bobby; Berrill, Mark A.; Allu, Srikanth; Hamilton, Steven P.; Sampath, Rahul S.; Clarno, Kevin T.; Dilts, Gary A.

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes an efficient and nonlinearly consistent parallel solution methodology for solving coupled nonlinear thermal transport problems that occur in nuclear reactor applications over hundreds of individual 3D physical subdomains. Efficiency is obtained by leveraging knowledge of the physical domains, the physics on individual domains, and the couplings between them for preconditioning within a Jacobian Free Newton Krylov method. Details of the computational infrastructure that enabled this work, namely the open source Advanced Multi-Physics (AMP) package developed by the authors is described. Details of verification and validation experiments, and parallel performance analysis in weak and strong scaling studies demonstrating the achieved efficiency of the algorithm are presented. Furthermore, numerical experiments demonstrate that the preconditioner developed is independent of the number of fuel subdomains in a fuel rod, which is particularly important when simulating different types of fuel rods. Finally, we demonstrate the power of the coupling methodology by considering problems with couplings between surface and volume physics and coupling of nonlinear thermal transport in fuel rods to an external radiation transport code.

  15. Transport in fuel cells: Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and neutron imaging studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Douglas Scott

    This dissertation focuses on two powerful methods of performing in-situ studies of transport limitations in fuel cells. The first is electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) while the second is neutron imaging. Three fuel cell systems are studied in this work: polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and enzyme fuel cells (EFCs). The first experimental section of this dissertation focuses on application of EIS and neutron imaging to an operating PEMFC. The effects of cathode-side humidity and flow rate, as well as cell temperature and a transient response to cathode-side humidity, were studied for a PEMFC via EIS. It was found that increased air humidity in the cathode resulted in greatly reduced cathode resistance as well as a significant reduction in membrane resistance. The anode resistance was only slightly reduced in this case. Increased air flow rate was observed to have little effect on any resistance in the PEMFC, though slight reductions in both the anode and the cathode were observed. Increased cell temperature resulted in decreased cathode and anode resistances. Finally, the transient response to increased humidity exhibited unstable behavior for both the anode and the cathode resistances and the PEMFC power output. Neutron imaging allowed the calculation of water content throughout the PEMFC, showing a maximum in water content at the cathode gas diffusion layer - membrane interface. The second experimental section of this dissertation delves into the world of microbial fuel cells. Multiple long-term observations of changes in internal resistances were performed and illustrated the reduction in anode resistance as the bacterial community was established. Over this same time period, the cathode resistance was observed to have increased; these two phenomena suggest that the anode improved over time while the cathode suffered from degradation. Increased anode fluid ionic strength and flow rate both led to significant

  16. Corrosion Resistance of High Strength Concrete Containing Palm Oil Fuel Ash as Partial Cement Replacement

    OpenAIRE

    F. Mat Yahaya; Muthusamy, K.; Sulaiman, N.

    2014-01-01

    This experimental work investigates the influence of POFA as partial cement replacement towards corrosion resistance of high strength concrete. Plain high strength concrete (P0) with 100% ordinary Portland cement (control specimen) and POFA high strength concrete containing POFA as partial cement replacement material were used. At the first stage, mix with 20% POFA (P20) has been identified as the best performing mix after cubes (150×150×150 mm) containing various content of POFA as partial c...

  17. Research and Development of Proton-Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell System for Transportation Applications: Initial Conceptual Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-30

    This report addresses Task 1.1, model development and application, and Task 1.2, vehicle mission definition. Overall intent is to produce a methanol-fueled 10-kW power source, and to evaluate electrochemical engine (ECE) use in transportation. Major achievements include development of an ECE power source model and its integration into a comprehensive power source/electric vehicle propulsion model, establishment of candidate FCV (fuel cell powered electric vehicle) mission requirements, initial FCV studies, and a candidate FCV recommendation for further study.