WorldWideScience

Sample records for fuel storage pond

  1. Isolation and identification of cobalt- and caesium-resistant bacteria from a nuclear fuel storage pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Linda; Osborne, Thomas H; Santini, Joanne M

    2014-10-01

    One of the issues facing the nuclear power industry is how to store spent nuclear fuel which is contaminated with radionuclides produced during nuclear fission, including caesium ((134)Cs(+), (135)Cs(+) and (137)Cs(+)) and cobalt ((60)Co(2+)). In this study, we have isolated Co(2+)- and Cs(+)-resistant bacteria from water collected from a nuclear fuel storage pond. The most resistant Cs(+) and Co(2+) isolates grew in the presence of 500 mM CsCl and 3 mM CoCl2. Strain Cs67-2 is resistant to fourfold more Cs(+) than Cupriavidus metallidurans str. CH34 making it the most Cs(+)-resistant strain identified to date. The Cs(+)-resistant isolates were closely related to bacteria in the Serratia and Yersinia genera, while the Co(2+)-resistant isolates were closely related to the Curvibacter and Tardiphaga genera. These new isolates could be used for bioremediation.

  2. Combined electron microscopy and vibrational spectroscopy study of corroded Magnox sludge from a legacy spent nuclear fuel storage pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregson, Colin R.; Goddard, David T.; Sarsfield, Mark J.; Taylor, Robin J.

    2011-05-01

    Samples of filtered particulates and sludges, formed from corroding magnesium alloy clad uranium metal ("Magnox") fuel elements, collected from one of the legacy nuclear fuel storage ponds located at Sellafield (UK) were investigated by Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-Ray analysis (ESEM/EDX), micro-Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR). ESEM imaging confirmed the dominant morphology to be clusters of interlocking platelets typical of brucite (Mg(OH) 2). EDX analysis was suggestive of some conversion to the related phase, hydrotalcite (Mg 6Al 2(CO 3)(OH) 16·4H 2O), due to elevated levels of Al associated with Mg. Other apparent morphologies were less commonly observed including flaky sheets, consistent with earlier stages of Magnox alloy corrosion. In a few specific cases, rods were also observed suggestive of some conversion to Mg-hydroxycarbonate phases. Discrete phases rich in U were also identified. Fluorescence in the Raman spectroscopy also indicated surface coatings of organic macromolecules and iron sulphide on hematite containing particles, attributed to microbial activity within the open air pond. Some specific differences in the solid phases between pond areas with differing conditions were apparent.

  3. Fuel storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donakowski, T.D.; Tison, R.R.

    1979-08-01

    Storage technologies are characterized for solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels. Emphasis is placed on storage methods applicable to Integrated Community Energy Systems based on coal. Items discussed here include standard practice, materials and energy losses, environmental effects, operating requirements, maintenance and reliability, and cost considerations. All storage systems were found to be well-developed and to represent mature technologies; an exception may exist for low-Btu gas storage, which could have materials incompatability.

  4. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed. (ATT)

  5. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed. (ATT)

  6. Production of premium fuels from coal refuse pond material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honaker, R.Q.; Patil, D.P.; Sirkeci, A.; Patwardhan, A. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2001-11-01

    Because of increasing production of fine coal during mining over the past century and because of inefficient fine-coal recovery technologies, a vast reserve of high-quality coal now exists in refuse ponds. A novel fine-coal circuit, consisting of a hindered-bed classifier, an enhanced gravity concentrator and a flotation column, was evaluated for the recovery of fine coal from refuse ponds. The treatment of a pond derived from Pittsburgh No. 8 seam coal resulted in the production of a premium fuel containing less than 5 % ash and a calorific value of about 30,170 kJ/kg with 60% mass yield. Results from the treatment of two refuse pond materials are presented.

  7. Spent fuel data for waste storage programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, E M

    1980-09-01

    Data on LWR spent fuel were compiled for dissemination to participants in DOE-sponsored waste storage programs. Included are mechanical descriptions of the existing major types of LWR fuel assemblies, spent LWR fuel fission product inventories and decay heat data, and inventories of LWR spent fuel currently in storage, with projections of future quantities.

  8. Compressed gas fuel storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wozniak, John J. (Columbia, MD); Tiller, Dale B. (Lincoln, NE); Wienhold, Paul D. (Baltimore, MD); Hildebrand, Richard J. (Edgemere, MD)

    2001-01-01

    A compressed gas vehicle fuel storage system comprised of a plurality of compressed gas pressure cells supported by shock-absorbing foam positioned within a shape-conforming container. The container is dimensioned relative to the compressed gas pressure cells whereby a radial air gap surrounds each compressed gas pressure cell. The radial air gap allows pressure-induced expansion of the pressure cells without resulting in the application of pressure to adjacent pressure cells or physical pressure to the container. The pressure cells are interconnected by a gas control assembly including a thermally activated pressure relief device, a manual safety shut-off valve, and means for connecting the fuel storage system to a vehicle power source and a refueling adapter. The gas control assembly is enclosed by a protective cover attached to the container. The system is attached to the vehicle with straps to enable the chassis to deform as intended in a high-speed collision.

  9. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF HEAT STORAGE CHARACTERISTIC OF UREA AND BORAX SALT GRADIENT SOLAR PONDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin KURT

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Salt gradient solar ponds are simple and low cost solar energy system for collecting and storing solar energy. In this study, heat storage characteristic of urea and borax solutions in the solar pond were examined experimentally. Establishing density gradients in different concentration, variations in the temperature and density profiles were observed in four different experiments. Maximum storage temperatures were measured as 28ºC and 36 ºC for the ponds with urea and borax solution, respectively. The temperature difference between the bottom and the surface of the pond were measured as 13 ºC for urea and 17 ºC for borax- solutions. According to these results, heat storage characteristic of the solar pond with borax solution was found to be better than urea solution.

  10. Developments in spent fuel storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stallings, R.A. [USDOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The author gives a brief review of the his efforts to negotiate a site for monitored retrieval storage (MRS) of spent fuels in 1994. His efforts were centered on finding a voluntary host for the MRS site. He found politician were not opposed but did not want to make it a campaign issue during 1994. The author and his office came to the conclusion that to find a site voluntarily, the project would have to be an economic opportunity for the region.

  11. Rock cavern storage of spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Won Jin; Kim, Kyung Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Sang Ki [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    The rock cavern storage for spent fuel has been assessed to apply in Korea with reviewing the state of the art of the technologies for surface storage and rock cavern storage of spent fuel. The technical feasibility and economic aspects of the rock cavern storage of spent fuel were also analyzed. A considerable area of flat land isolated from the exterior are needed to meet the requirement for the site of the surface storage facilities. It may, however, not be easy to secure such areas in the mountainous region of Korea. Instead, the spent fuel storage facilities constructed in the rock cavern moderate their demands for the suitable site. As a result, the rock cavern storage is a promising alternative for the storage of spent fuel in the aspect of natural and social environments. The rock cavern storage of spent fuel has several advantages compared with the surface storage, and there is no significant difference on the viewpoint of economy between the two alternatives. In addition, no great technical difficulties are present to apply the rock cavern storage technologies to the storage of domestic spent fuel.

  12. Evolution of spent fuel dry storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Standring, Paul Nicholas [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Div. of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology; Takats, Ferenc [TS ENERCON KFT, Budapest (Hungary)

    2016-11-15

    Around 10,000 tHM of spent fuel is discharged per year from the nuclear power plants in operation. Whilst the bulk of spent fuel is still held in at reactor pools, 24 countries have developed storage facilities; either on the reactor site or away from the reactor site. Of the 146 operational AFR storage facilities about 80 % employ dry storage; the majority being deployed over the last 20 years. This reflects both the development of dry storage technology as well as changes in politics and trading relationships that have affected spent fuel management policies. The paper describes the various approaches to the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle for power reactor fuels and provides data on deployed storage technologies.

  13. Macstor dry spent fuel storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pare, F. E. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Montreal (Canada)

    1996-04-15

    AECL, a Canadian Grown Corporation established since 1952, is unique among the world's nuclear organizations. It is both supplier of research reactors and heavy water moderated CANDU power reactors as well as operator of extensive nuclear research facilities. As part of its mandate, AECL has developed products and conceptual designs for the short, intermediate and long term storage and disposal of spent nuclear fuel. AECL has also assumed leadership in the area of dry storage of spent fuel. This Canadian Crown Corporation first started to look into dry storage for the management of its spent nuclear fuel in the early 1970's. After developing silo-like structures called concrete canisters for the storage of its research reactor enriched uranium fuel, AECL went on to perfect that technology for spent CANDU natural uranium fuel. In 1989 AECL teamed up with Trans nuclear, Inc.,(TN), a US based member of the international Trans nuclear Group, to extend its dry storage technology to LWR spent fuel. This association combines AECL's expertise and many years experience in the design of spent fuel storage facilities with TN's proven capabilities of processing, transportation, storage and handling of LWR spent fuel. From the early AECL-designed unventilated concrete canisters to the advanced MACSTOR concept - Modular Air-Cooled Canister Storage - now available also for LWR fuel - dry storage is proving to be safe, economical, practical and, most of all, well accepted by the general public. AECL's experience with different fuels and circumstances has been conclusive.

  14. Hydrogen storage and integrated fuel cell assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Karl J.

    2010-08-24

    Hydrogen is stored in materials that absorb and desorb hydrogen with temperature dependent rates. A housing is provided that allows for the storage of one or more types of hydrogen-storage materials in close thermal proximity to a fuel cell stack. This arrangement, which includes alternating fuel cell stack and hydrogen-storage units, allows for close thermal matching of the hydrogen storage material and the fuel cell stack. Also, the present invention allows for tailoring of the hydrogen delivery by mixing different materials in one unit. Thermal insulation alternatively allows for a highly efficient unit. Individual power modules including one fuel cell stack surrounded by a pair of hydrogen-storage units allows for distribution of power throughout a vehicle or other electric power consuming devices.

  15. Spent fuel storage requirements 1993--2040

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    Historical inventories of spent fuel are combined with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) projections of future discharges from commercial nuclear reactors in the United States to provide estimates of spent fuel storage requirements through the year 2040. The needs are estimated for storage capacity beyond that presently available in the reactor storage pools. These estimates incorporate the maximum capacities within current and planned in-pool storage facilities and any planned transshipments of spent fuel to other reactors or facilities. Existing and future dry storage facilities are also discussed. The nuclear utilities provide historical data through December 1992 on the end of reactor life are based on the DOE/Energy Information Administration (EIA) estimates of future nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges.

  16. Decline in recycled water quality during short-term storage in open ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Jennifer; Warnken, Jan; Teasdale, Peter R; Arthur, J Michael

    2009-12-01

    Changes were assessed in urban wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent quality during short-term storage in open surface ponds. Water quality was monitored over five years at the inlets and outlets of open storage ponds located at three biological nutrient removal plants. Pond influent temperature, rainfall and sewage inflow were not found to be major factors. However, there was a trend for water temperature to be correlated negatively with nitrogenous nutrient and positively with faecal coliform values. The observed increases in faecal coliforms, nutrients and chemical oxygen demand were most likely caused through avian faecal contamination. These increases challenge the notion that pond storage has a positive or negligible effect on effluent quality. The observed one to two orders of magnitude increase in faecal coliforms may affect reuse scheme viability by limiting the range of uses under Australian water recycling guidelines. Potential improvements to short-term recycled water storage management at WWTPs could include the integration of monitoring requirements in WWTP discharge licences and recycling guidelines and the monitoring of all water quality parameters, including microbiological ones, at the point of entry into the recycled water distribution system, after WWTP storage, rather than directly post-disinfection.

  17. Inspection of Used Fuel Dry Storage Casks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis C. Kunerth; Tim McJunkin; Mark McKay; Sasan Bakhtiari

    2012-09-01

    ABSTRACT The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulates the storage of used nuclear fuel, which is now and will be increasingly placed in dry storage systems. Since a final disposition pathway is not defined, the fuel is expected to be maintained in dry storage well beyond the time frame originally intended. Due to knowledge gaps regarding the viability of current dry storage systems for long term use, efforts are underway to acquire the technical knowledge and tools required to understand the issues and verify the integrity of the dry storage system components. This report summarizes the initial efforts performed by researchers at Idaho National Laboratory and Argonne National Laboratory to identify and evaluate approaches to in-situ inspection dry storage casks. This task is complicated by the design of the current storage systems that severely restrict access to the casks.

  18. Storage and Reprocessing of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-02

    Addressing the problem of waste, especially high-level waste (HLW), is a requirement of the nuclear fuel cycle that cannot be ignored. We explore the two options employed currently, long-term storage and reprocessing.

  19. Analysis hydrogeochemical cituation in the territories adjacent to the storage ponds "Svidovok"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scherstyuk N.P.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Thehydrogeochemicalcomposition of surface and groundwater in the area adjacent to the pond-storage “Svidovok” (West Donbas was analyzed. The chemical types of surface and groundwater by the formula Kurlova were determined. The equilibriums with aluminosilicates and silicateswereconsidered.

  20. Macstor system for spent fuel storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pattantyus, P. (Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Power Projects)

    1993-01-01

    In 1989, Transnuclear Inc. and AECL jointly developed the conceptual design for the Modular Aircooled Canister Storage System (Macstor) for LWR fuel. The development effort has proceeded to the completion of successful full-scale thermal testing. In 1990, AECL adapted the Macstor System approach for use with Candu fuel. The adapted design, called Canstor, has also successfully completed full-scale thermal testing, and the final system design has been completed. (author) 1 fig.

  1. Development of floating cover constructions for pond heat storage; Udvikling af flydende laagkonstruktioner til damvarmelagre. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duer, K. (ed.)

    2000-07-01

    The purpose of the project was to carry out a sketch project of the new cover designs for heat storage in ponds that were developed in phase II of the project. In parallel to the sketch project minor laboratory tests were carried out in order to investigate critical details of the floating cover designs. Two types of floating covers were investigated: One of plastics and two versions based on steel. (EHS)

  2. Development of fuel and energy storage technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Development of fuel cell power plants is intended of high-efficiency power generation using such fuels with less air pollution as natural gas, methanol and coal gas. The closest to commercialization is phosphoric acid fuel cells, and the high in efficiency and rich in fuel diversity is molten carbonate fuel cells. The development is intended to cover a wide scope from solid electrolyte fuel cells to solid polymer electrolyte fuel cells. For new battery power storage systems, development is focused on discrete battery energy storage technologies of fixed type and mobile type (such as electric vehicles). The ceramic gas turbine technology development is purposed for improving thermal efficiency and reducing pollutants. Small-scale gas turbines for cogeneration will also be developed. Development of superconduction power application technologies is intended to serve for efficient and stable power supply by dealing with capacity increase and increase in power distribution distance due to increase in power demand. In the operations to improve the spread and general promotion systems for electric vehicles, load leveling is expected by utilizing and storing nighttime electric power. Descriptions are given also on economical city systems which utilize wide-area energy. 30 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. Fuel Cells and Electrochemical Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammells, Anthony F.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the nature of phosphoric acid, molten carbonate, and solid oxide fuel cells and major features and types of batteries used for electrical energy storage. Includes two tables presenting comparison of major battery features and summary of major material problems in the sodium-sulfur and lithium-alloy metal sulfide batteries. (JN)

  4. Report on interim storage of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    The report on interim storage of spent nuclear fuel discusses the technical, regulatory, and economic aspects of spent-fuel storage at nuclear reactors. The report is intended to provide legislators state officials and citizens in the Midwest with information on spent-fuel inventories, current and projected additional storage requirements, licensing, storage technologies, and actions taken by various utilities in the Midwest to augment their capacity to store spent nuclear fuel on site.

  5. Fuel cell energy storage for Space Station enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stedman, J. K.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on fuel cell energy storage for space station enhancement are presented. Topics covered include: power profile; solar dynamic power system; photovoltaic battery; space station energy demands; orbiter fuel cell power plant; space station energy storage; fuel cell system modularity; energy storage system development; and survival power supply.

  6. A present status for dry storage of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, K. S.; Lee, J. C.; Park, H. Y.; Seo, K. S

    2003-04-01

    National policy for management of a spent nuclear fuel does not establish in Korea yet. A storage capacity of a storage pool that is to store the spent nuclear fuel will be exceeded an amount of accumulation from the first Woljin nuclear power plant in 2007. Therefore it is necessary that dry storage facility is secured to store safely the spent nuclear fuel on site of the nuclear power plant until national policy for a back-end spent nuclear fuel cycle is established. In order to store safely spent nuclear fuel, it is important that the present status and technology on dry storage of spent nuclear fuel is looked over. Therefore, the present status on dry storage of spent nuclear fuel was analyzed so as to develop dry storage system and choose a proper dry storage method domestic.

  7. Occurrence of antimicrobials and antimicrobial resistance genes in beef cattle storage ponds and swine treatment lagoons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuping; Zhang, Chiqian [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE (United States); Parker, David B. [USDA Meat Animal Research Center, Clay Center, NE (United States); Snow, Daniel D. [Water Sciences Laboratory, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE (United States); Zhou, Zhi [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Li, Xu, E-mail: xuli@unl.edu [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Livestock manure treatment and storage structures are potential environmental sources of antimicrobials and antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs). In this study, the occurrence of antimicrobials and ARGs was investigated in the water and the sludge compartments of beef cattle storage ponds and swine lagoons. Analysis was focused on two families of antimicrobials (sulfonamide and tetracycline) and the corresponding ARGs (sul1, sul2, tetO, tetQ and tetX). Results showed that the pseudo-partitioning coefficients of tetracyclines were higher than those of sulfonamides, suggesting different distributions of these two classes of antimicrobials between water and sludge. The ARGs tested were detected in nearly all ponds and lagoons, with the highest relative abundance in sul2 at 6.3 × 10{sup −1} copies per 16S rRNA gene. A positive correlation was observed between total sul genes and total sulfonamides in water while the correlation was negative in sludge. No significant correlation was found between total tet genes and total tetracyclines in either water or sludge, but significant correlations were observed for certain individual tet genes. Ammonia concentrations strongly correlated with all ARGs except tetX. This study provided quantitative information on the occurrence of antimicrobials and ARGs in the liquid and solid compartments of typical manure treatment and storage structures. - Highlights: • Partitioning of antimicrobials between water and sludge is compound specific. • Antimicrobial resistance genes occurred in both water and sludge. • The ARG abundance varied more substantially in swine lagoons than in cattle ponds. • Correlations between ARGs and antimicrobials are system dependent.

  8. Existing Condition Analysis of Dry Spent Fuel Storage Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ning; XU Lan; HAO Jian-sheng

    2016-01-01

    As in some domestic nuclear power plants, spent fuel pools near capacity, away-from-reactor type storage should be arranged to transfer spent fuel before the pool capacity is full and the plants can operate in safety. This study compares the features of wet and dry storage technology, analyzes the actualities of foreign dry storage facilities and then introduces structural characteristics of some foreign dry storage cask. Finally, a glance will be cast on the failure of away-from-reactor storage facilities of Pressurized Water Reactor(PWR)to meet the need of spent-fuel storage. Therefore, this study believes dry storage will be a feasible solution to the problem.

  9. Safeguards-by-Design: Guidance for Independent Spent Fuel Dry Storage Installations (ISFSI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trond Bjornard; Philip C. Durst

    2012-05-01

    This document summarizes the requirements and best practices for implementing international nuclear safeguards at independent spent fuel storage installations (ISFSIs), also known as Away-from- Reactor (AFR) storage facilities. These installations may provide wet or dry storage of spent fuel, although the safeguards guidance herein focuses on dry storage facilities. In principle, the safeguards guidance applies to both wet and dry storage. The reason for focusing on dry independent spent fuel storage installations is that this is one of the fastest growing nuclear installations worldwide. Independent spent fuel storage installations are typically outside of the safeguards nuclear material balance area (MBA) of the reactor. They may be located on the reactor site, but are generally considered by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the State Regulator/SSAC to be a separate facility. The need for this guidance is becoming increasingly urgent as more and more nuclear power plants move their spent fuel from resident spent fuel ponds to independent spent fuel storage installations. The safeguards requirements and best practices described herein are also relevant to the design and construction of regional independent spent fuel storage installations that nuclear power plant operators are starting to consider in the absence of a national long-term geological spent fuel repository. The following document has been prepared in support of two of the three foundational pillars for implementing Safeguards-by-Design (SBD). These are: i) defining the relevant safeguards requirements, and ii) defining the best practices for meeting the requirements. This document was prepared with the design of the latest independent dry spent fuel storage installations in mind and was prepared specifically as an aid for designers of commercial nuclear facilities to help them understand the relevant international requirements that follow from a country’s safeguards agreement with

  10. Transportation and storage of foreign spent power reactor fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-30

    This report describes the generic actions to be taken by the Department of Energy, in cooperation with other US government agencies, foreign governments, and international organizations, in support of the implementation of Administration policies with respect to the following international spent fuel management activities: bilateral cooperation related to expansion of foreign national storage capacities; multilateral and international cooperation related to development of multinational and international spent fuel storage regimes; fee-based transfer of foreign spent power reactor fuel to the US for storage; and emergency transfer of foreign spent power reactor fuel to the US for storage.

  11. Nuclear fuel assemblies' deformations measurement by optoelectronic methods in cooling ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senchenko, E. S.; Zavyalov, P. S.; Finogenov, L. V.; Khakimov, D. R.

    2013-12-01

    Increasing the reliability and life-time of nuclear fuel is actual problems for nuclear power engineering. It takes to provide the high geometric stability of nuclear fuel assemblies (FA) under exploitation, since various factors cause FA mechanical deformation (bending and twisting). To obtain the objective information and make recommendations for the FA design improvement one have to fulfill the post reactor FA analysis. Therefore it takes measurements of the FA geometric parameters in cooling ponds of nuclear power plants. As applied to this problem we have developed and investigated the different optoelectronic methods, namely, structured light method, television and shadow ones. In this paper effectiveness of these methods has been investigated using the special experimental test stand and fulfilled researches are described. The experimental results of FA measurements by different methods and recommendation for their usage is given.

  12. Characterising legacy spent nuclear fuel pond materials using microfocus X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, W.R. [Research Centre for Radwaste Disposal, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); National Nuclear Laboratory, Chadwick House, Warrington Road, Birchwood Park, Warrington, WA3 6AE (United Kingdom); Centre for Radiochemistry Research, Chemistry Building, The University of Manchester, Brunswick Street, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Morris, K. [Research Centre for Radwaste Disposal, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Mosselmans, J.F.W. [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Thompson, O.R. [National Nuclear Laboratory, Chadwick House, Warrington Road, Birchwood Park, Warrington, WA3 6AE (United Kingdom); Banford, A.W. [National Nuclear Laboratory, Chadwick House, Warrington Road, Birchwood Park, Warrington, WA3 6AE (United Kingdom); School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Law, K. [Centre for Radiochemistry Research, Chemistry Building, The University of Manchester, Brunswick Street, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Pattrick, R.A.D., E-mail: richard.pattrick@manchester.ac.uk [Research Centre for Radwaste Disposal, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-05

    Highlights: • A sample from a spent fuel pond wall has been analysed via X-ray spectroscopy. • Autoradiography shows a patchy distribution of radioactivity on the core face. • μXAS across a ‘hot spot’ showed Sr associates with the TiO{sub 2} pigment in the paint. • Original concrete coatings prove effective at limiting radionuclide migration. • Sorption studies show Sr immobilisation by the concrete and Cs by aggregate clasts. - Abstract: Analysis of a radioactive, coated concrete core from the decommissioned, spent nuclear fuel cooling pond at the Hunterston-A nuclear site (UK) has provided a unique opportunity to study radionuclides within a real-world system. The core, obtained from a dividing wall and sampled at the fill level of the pond, exhibited radioactivity (dominantly {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr) heterogeneously distributed across both painted faces. Chemical analysis of the core was undertaken using microfocus spectroscopy at Diamond Light Source, UK. Mapping of Sr across the surface coatings using microfocus X-ray fluorescence (μXRF) combined with X-ray absorption spectroscopy showed that Sr was bound to TiO{sub 2} particles in the paint layers, suggesting an association between TiO{sub 2} and radiostrontium. Stable Sr and Cs sorption experiments using concrete coupons were also undertaken to assess their interactions with the bulk concrete in case of a breach in the coating layers. μXRF and scanning electron microscopy showed that Sr was immobilized by the cement phases, whilst at the elevated experimental concentrations, Cs was associated with clay minerals in the aggregates. This study provides a crucial insight into poorly understood infrastructural contamination in complex systems and is directly applicable to the UK’s nuclear decommissioning efforts.

  13. Energy storage in ultrathin solid oxide fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Overmeere, Quentin; Kerman, Kian; Ramanathan, Shriram

    2012-07-11

    The power output of hydrogen fuel cells quickly decreases to zero if the fuel supply is interrupted. We demonstrate thin film solid oxide fuel cells with nanostructured vanadium oxide anodes that generate power for significantly longer time than reference porous platinum anode thin film solid oxide fuel cells when the fuel supply is interrupted. The charge storage mechanism was investigated quantitatively with likely identified contributions from the oxidation of the vanadium oxide anode, its hydrogen storage properties, and different oxygen concentration at the electrodes. Fuel cells capable of storing charge even for short periods of time could contribute to ultraminiaturization of power sources for mobile energy.

  14. Microbiology of spent nuclear fuel storage basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santo Domingo, J W; Berry, C J; Summer, M; Fliermans, C B

    1998-12-01

    Microbiological studies of spent nuclear fuel storage basins at Savannah River Site (SRS) were performed as a preliminary step to elucidate the potential for microbial-influenced corrosion (MIC) in these facilities. Total direct counts and culturable counts performed during a 2-year period indicated microbial densities of 10(4) to 10(7) cells/ml in water samples and on submerged metal coupons collected from these basins. Bacterial communities present in the basin transformed between 15% and 89% of the compounds present in Biologtrade mark plates. Additionally, the presence of several biocorrosion-relevant microbial groups (i.e., sulfate-reducing bacteria and acid-producing bacteria) was detected with commercially available test kits. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray spectra analysis of osmium tetroxide-stained coupons demonstrated the development of microbial biofilm communities on some metal coupons submerged for 3 weeks in storage basins. After 12 months, coupons were fully covered by biofilms, with some deterioration of the coupon surface evident at the microscopical level. These results suggest that, despite the oligotrophic and radiological environment of the SRS storage basins and the active water deionization treatments commonly applied to prevent electrochemical corrosion in these facilities, these conditions do not prevent microbial colonization and survival. Such microbial densities and wide diversity of carbon source utilization reflect the ability of the microbial populations to adapt to these environments. The presumptive presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria and acid-producing bacteria and the development of biofilms on submerged coupons indicated that an environment for MIC of metal components in the storage basins may occur. However, to date, there has been no indication or evidence of MIC in the basins. Basin chemistry control and corrosion surveillance programs instituted several years ago have substantially abated all corrosion mechanisms.

  15. Permeation of Military Fuels Through Nitrile-Coated Fabrics Used for Collapsible Fuel Storage Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Permeation of Military Fuels Through Nitrile -Coated Fabrics Used for Collapsible Fuel Storage Containers by James M. Sloan ARL-TR-6881...March 2014 Permeation of Military Fuels Through Nitrile -Coated Fabrics Used for Collapsible Fuel Storage Containers James M. Sloan...Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) October 2012–October 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Permeation of Military Fuels Through Nitrile -Coated Fabrics Used

  16. Heat Transfer Modeling of Dry Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.Y.

    1999-01-13

    The present work was undertaken to provide heat transfer model that accurately predicts the thermal performance of dry spent nuclear fuel storage facilities. One of the storage configurations being considered for DOE Aluminum-clad Spent Nuclear Fuel (Al-SNF), such as the Material and Testing Reactor (MTR) fuel, is in a dry storage facility. To support design studies of storage options a computational and experimental program has been conducted at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The main objective is to develop heat transfer models including natural convection effects internal to an interim dry storage canister and to geological codisposal Waste Package (WP). Calculated temperatures will be used to demonstrate engineering viability of a dry storage option in enclosed interim storage and geological repository WP and to assess the chemical and physical behaviors of the Al-SNF in the dry storage facilities. The current paper describes the modeling approaches and presents the computational results along with the experimental data.

  17. Treatment of defective fuel rods for interim storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muenchow, K.; Hummel, W. [AREVA NP GmbH, Erlangen (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    In this paper we look exclusively at the treatment of defective fuel rods for long-term dry interim storage at the nuclear power plant, in order to avoid off-site transports. AREVA has developed a technique that allows verifiably adequate drying of the defective fuel rods and reconstructs the barrier for retaining radioactive materials. This is done by individually encapsulating the defective fuel rods and achieving gas-tightness by seal welding. This guarantees the retention of radioactive materials during the storage period of at least 40 years in a transport and storage flask in an interim storage facility at site. (orig.)

  18. Interim irradiated fuel storage facility for research reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lolich, Jose [INVAP SE, Bariloche (Argentina)

    2002-07-01

    In most research reactors irradiated fuel discharged from the reactor is initially stored underwater inside the reactor building for along period of time. This allows for heat dissipation and fission product decay. In most cases this initial storage is done in a irradiated fuel storage facility pool located closed to the reactor core. After a certain cooling time, the fuel discharged should be relocated for long-term interim storage in a Irradiated Fuel Storage (IFS) Facility. IFS facilities are required for the safe storage of irradiated nuclear fuel before it is reprocessed or conditioned for disposal as radioactive waste. The IFS Facility described in this report is not an integral part of an operating nuclear reactor. This facility many be either co-located with nuclear facilities (such as a nuclear reactor or reprocessing plant) or sited independently of other nuclear facilities. (author)

  19. Used fuel extended storage security and safeguards by design roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durbin, Samuel G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lindgren, Eric Richard [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Robert [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Ketusky, Edward [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); England, Jeffrey [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Scherer, Carolynn [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sprinkle, James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Miller, Michael. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rauch, Eric [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Scaglione, John [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dunn, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    In the United States, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is safely and securely stored in spent fuel pools and dry storage casks. The available capacity in spent fuel pools across the nuclear fleet has nearly reached a steady state value. The excess SNF continues to be loaded in dry storage casks. Fuel is expected to remain in dry storage for periods beyond the initial dry cask certification period of 20 years. Recent licensing renewals have approved an additional 40 years. This report identifies the current requirements and evaluation techniques associated with the safeguards and security of SNF dry cask storage. A set of knowledge gaps is identified in the current approaches. Finally, this roadmap identifies known knowledge gaps and provides a research path to deliver the tools and models needed to close the gaps and allow the optimization of the security and safeguards approaches for an interim spent fuel facility over the lifetime of the storage site.

  20. Corrosion assessment of dry fuel storage containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, C.E.

    1994-09-01

    The structural stability as a function of expected corrosion degradation of 75 dry fuel storage containers located in the 200 Area Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds was evaluated. These containers include 22 concrete burial containers, 13 55-gal (208-l) drums, and 40 Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) transport/storage casks. All containers are buried beneath at least 48 in. of soil and a heavy plastic tarp with the exception of 35 of the EBR-II casks which are exposed to atmosphere. A literature review revealed that little general corrosion is expected and pitting corrosion of the carbon steel used as the exterior shell for all containers (with the exception of the concrete containers) will occur at a maximum rate of 3.5 mil/yr. Penetration from pitting of the exterior shell of the 208-l drums and EBR-II casks is calculated to occur after 18 and 71 years of burial, respectively. The internal construction beneath the shell would be expected to preclude containment breach, however, for the drums and casks. The estimates for structural failure of the external shells, large-scale shell deterioration due to corrosion, are considerably longer, 39 and 150 years respectively for the drums and casks. The concrete burial containers are expected to withstand a service life of 50 years.

  1. Characterising legacy spent nuclear fuel pond materials using microfocus X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, W R; Morris, K; Mosselmans, J F W; Thompson, O R; Banford, A W; Law, K; Pattrick, R A D

    2016-11-05

    Analysis of a radioactive, coated concrete core from the decommissioned, spent nuclear fuel cooling pond at the Hunterston-A nuclear site (UK) has provided a unique opportunity to study radionuclides within a real-world system. The core, obtained from a dividing wall and sampled at the fill level of the pond, exhibited radioactivity (dominantly (137)Cs and (90)Sr) heterogeneously distributed across both painted faces. Chemical analysis of the core was undertaken using microfocus spectroscopy at Diamond Light Source, UK. Mapping of Sr across the surface coatings using microfocus X-ray fluorescence (μXRF) combined with X-ray absorption spectroscopy showed that Sr was bound to TiO2 particles in the paint layers, suggesting an association between TiO2 and radiostrontium. Stable Sr and Cs sorption experiments using concrete coupons were also undertaken to assess their interactions with the bulk concrete in case of a breach in the coating layers. μXRF and scanning electron microscopy showed that Sr was immobilized by the cement phases, whilst at the elevated experimental concentrations, Cs was associated with clay minerals in the aggregates. This study provides a crucial insight into poorly understood infrastructural contamination in complex systems and is directly applicable to the UK's nuclear decommissioning efforts.

  2. Inspection of state of spent fuel elements stored in RA reactor spent fuel storage pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aden, V.G.; Bulkin, S.Yu.; Sokolov, A.V. [Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering, Moscow (Russian Federation); Matausek, M.V.; Vukadin, Z. [VINCA Institute of Nuclear Science, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1999-07-01

    About five thousand spent fuel elements from RA reactor have been stored for over 30 years in sealed aluminum barrels in the spent fuel storage pool. This way of storage does not provide complete information about the state of spent fuel elements or the medium inside the barrels, like pressure or radioactivity. The technology has recently been developed and the equipment has been manufactured to inspect the state of the spent fuel and to reduce eventual internal pressure inside the aluminum barrels. Based on the results of this inspection, a procedure will be proposed for transferring spent fuel to a more reliable storage facility. (author)

  3. Development of dry storage technology of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruoka, Kunio [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Yokohama (Japan). Nuclear Energy Systems Engineering Center; Murakami, Kazuo; Yokoyama, Takeshi; Natsume, Tomohiro; Irino, Mitsuhiro

    1998-07-01

    The increasing demand for storage of spent fuel assemblies generated by commercial nuclear power plants is the urgent subject to solve. The dry storage system is as economically more advantageous than the pool storage system, and so, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. has developed the metal storage cask suited to small and medium storage capacity under 2000MTU - 3000MTU. For large scale capacity, the new `Mitsubishi Vault Storage System` has been developed, and it provides a safe and economical solution. Technical study concerning cooling ability was performed. (author)

  4. Licensing of spent fuel dry storage and consolidated rod storage: A Review of Issues and Experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, W.J.

    1990-02-01

    The results of this study, performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), respond to the nuclear industry's recommendation that a report be prepared that collects and describes the licensing issues (and their resolutions) that confront a new applicant requesting approval from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for dry storage of spent fuel or for large-scale storage of consolidated spent fuel rods in pools. The issues are identified in comments, questions, and requests from the NRC during its review of applicants' submittals. Included in the report are discussions of (1) the 18 topical reports on cask and module designs for dry storage fuel that have been submitted to the NRC, (2) the three license applications for dry storage of spent fuel at independent spent fuel storage installations (ISFSIs) that have been submitted to the NRC, and (3) the three applications (one of which was later withdrawn) for large-scale storage of consolidated fuel rods in existing spent fuel storage pools at reactors that were submitted tot he NRC. For each of the applications submitted, examples of some of the issues (and suggestions for their resolutions) are described. The issues and their resolutions are also covered in detail in an example in each of the three subject areas: (1) the application for the CASTOR V/21 dry spent fuel storage cask, (2) the application for the ISFSI for dry storage of spent fuel at Surry, and (3) the application for full-scale wet storage of consolidated spent fuel at Millstone-2. The conclusions in the report include examples of major issues that applicants have encountered. Recommendations for future applicants to follow are listed. 401 refs., 26 tabs.

  5. Extending dry storage of spent LWR fuel for 100 years.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Einziger, R. E.

    1998-12-16

    Because of delays in closing the back end of the fuel cycle in the U.S., there is a need to extend dry inert storage of spent fuel beyond its originally anticipated 20-year duration. Many of the methodologies developed to support initial licensing for 20-year storage should be able to support the longer storage periods envisioned. This paper evaluates the applicability of existing information and methodologies to support dry storage up to 100 years. The thrust of the analysis is the potential behavior of the spent fuel. In the USA, the criteria for dry storage of LWR spent fuel are delineated in 10 CFR 72 [1]. The criteria fall into four general categories: maintain subcriticality, prevent the release of radioactive material above acceptable limits, ensure that radiation rates and doses do not exceed acceptable levels, and maintain retrievability of the stored radioactive material. These criteria need to be considered for normal, off-normal, and postulated accident conditions. The initial safety analysis report submitted for licensing evaluated the fuel's ability to meet the requirements for 20 years. It is not the intent to repeat these calculations, but to look at expected behavior over the additional 80 years, during which the temperatures and radiation fields are lower. During the first 20 years, the properties of the components may change because of elevated temperatures, presence of moisture, effects of radiation, etc. During normal storage in an inert atmosphere, there is potential for the cladding mechanical properties to change due to annealing or interaction with cask materials. The emissivity of the cladding could also change due to storage conditions. If there is air leakage into the cask, additional degradation could occur through oxidation in breached rods, which could lead to additional fission gas release and enlargement of cladding breaches. Air in-leakage could also affect cover gas conductivity, cladding oxidation, emissivity changes, and

  6. Dry spent fuel storage with the MACSTOR system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pare, F. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Montreal, PQ (Canada). CANDU Operations

    1996-10-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), and Transnuclear Inc. (TNI) began in 1989 the development of the concrete spent fuel storage system, called MACSTOR (Modular Air-Cooled Canister STORage) for use with LWR spent fuel assemblies. It is a hybrid system which combines the operational economies of metal cask technology with the capital economies of concrete technology. The MACSTOR Module is a monolithic, shielded concrete vault structure that can accommodate up to 20 spent fuel canisters. Each canister typically holds up to 21 PWR or 44 BWR spent fuel assemblies with a nominal fuel burn up rate of 40,000 MWD/MTU and a 7 year minimum cooling period. The structure is passively cooled by natural convection through an array of inlet and outlet gratings and galleries serving a central plenum where the (vertically) stored canisters are located. The canisters are continuously monitored by means of a pressure monitoring system developed by TNI. Thus, the utility can be assured of both positive cooling of the fuel and verification of the integrity of the fuel confinement boundary. The structure is seismically designed and is capable of withstanding site design basis accident events. The MACSTOR system includes the storage module(s), an overhead gantry system for cask handling, a transfer cask for moving fuel from wet to dry storage and a cask transporter. The canister and transfer cask designs are based on Transnuclear transport cask designs and proven hot cell transfer cask technology, adapted to requirements for on-site spent fuel storage. The MACSTOR system can economically address a wide range of storage capacity requirements. The modular concept allows for flexibility in determining each module`s capacity. Starting with 8 canisters, the capacity can be increased by increments of 4 up to 20 canisters. The MACSTOR system is also flexible in accommodating the various spent fuel types from such reactors as VVER-440, VVER-1000 and RBMK 1500. (J.P.N.)

  7. Advantages of dry hardened cask storage over wet storage for spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanato, Luiz Sergio, E-mail: romanato@ctmsp.mar.mil.b [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. da Qualidade

    2011-07-01

    Pools are generally used to store and maintain spent nuclear fuel assemblies for cooling, after removed from reactors. After three to five years stored in the pools, spent fuel can be reprocessed or sent to a final disposition in a geological repository and handled as radioactive waste or sent to another site waiting for future solution. Spent fuel can be stored in dry or wet installations, depending on the method adopted by the nuclear plant. If this storage were exclusively wet, at the installation decommissioning in the future, another solution for storage will need to be found. Today, after a preliminary cooling, the spent fuel assemblies can be removed from the pool and sent to dry hardened storage installations. This kind of storage does not need complex radiation monitoring and it is safer than wet storage. Brazil has two nuclear reactors in operation, a third reactor is under construction and they use wet spent fuel storage . Dry hardened casks use metal or both metal and concrete for radiation shielding and they are safe, especially during an earthquake. An earthquake struck Japan on March 11, 2011 damaging Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. The occurrence of earthquakes in Brazil is very small but dry casks can resist to other events, including terrorist acts, better than pools. This paper shows the advantages of dry hardened cask storage in comparison with the wet storage (water pools) for spent nuclear fuel. (author)

  8. Studies on spent nuclear fuel evolution during storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rondinella, V.V.; Wiss, T.A.G.; Papaioannou, D.; Nasyrow, R. [European Commission Joint Research Centre, Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. for Transuranium Elements

    2015-07-01

    Initially conceived to last only a few decades (40 years in Germany), extended storage periods have now to be considered for spent nuclear fuel due to the expanding timeline for the definition and implementation of the disposal in geologic repository. In some countries, extended storage may encompass a timeframe of the order of centuries. The safety assessment of extended storage requires predicting the behavior of the spent fuel assemblies and the package systems over a correspondingly long timescale, to ensure that the mechanical integrity and the required level of functionality of all components of the containment system are retained. Since no measurement of ''old'' fuel can cover the ageing time of interest, spent fuel characterization must be complemented by studies targeting specific mechanisms that may affect properties and behavior of spent fuel during extended storage. Tests conducted under accelerated ageing conditions and other relevant simulations are useful for this purpose. During storage, radioactive decay determines the overall conditions of spent fuel and generates heat that must be dissipated. Alpha-decay damage and helium accumulation are key processes affecting the evolution of properties and behavior of spent fuel. The radiation damage induced by a decay event during storage is significantly lower than that caused by a fission during in-pile operation: however, the duration of the storage is much longer and the temperature levels are different. Another factor potentially affecting the mechanical integrity of spent fuel rods during storage and handling / transportation is the behavior of hydrogen present in the cladding. At the Institute for Transuranium Elements, part of the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, spent fuel alterations as a function of time and activity are monitored at different scales, from the microstructural level (defects and lattice parameter swelling) up to macroscopic properties such as

  9. Microbial Condition of Water Samples from Foreign Fuel Storage Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, C.J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Fliermans, C.B.; Santo Domingo, J.

    1997-10-30

    In order to assess the microbial condition of foreign nuclear fuel storage facilities, fourteen different water samples were received from facilities outside the United States that have sent spent nuclear fuel to SRS for wet storage. Each water sample was analyzed for microbial content and activity as determined by total bacteria, viable aerobic bacteria, viable anaerobic bacteria, viable sulfate- reducing bacteria, viable acid-producing bacteria and enzyme diversity. The results for each water sample were then compared to other foreign samples and to data from the receiving basin for off- site fuel (RBOF) at SRS.

  10. Fuel Storage Facility Final Safety Analysis Report. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linderoth, C.E.

    1984-03-01

    The Fuel Storage Facility (FSF) is an integral part of the Fast Flux Test Facility. Its purpose is to provide long-term storage (20-year design life) for spent fuel core elements used to provide the fast flux environment in FFTF, and for test fuel pins, components and subassemblies that have been irradiated in the fast flux environment. This Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) and its supporting documentation provides a complete description and safety evaluation of the site, the plant design, operations, and potential accidents.

  11. Storage, transportation and disposal system for used nuclear fuel assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaglione, John M.; Wagner, John C.

    2017-07-11

    An integrated storage, transportation and disposal system for used fuel assemblies is provided. The system includes a plurality of sealed canisters and a cask sized to receive the sealed canisters in side by side relationship. The plurality of sealed canisters include an internal basket structure to receive a plurality of used fuel assemblies. The internal basket structure includes a plurality of radiation-absorbing panels and a plurality of hemispherical ribs generally perpendicular to the canister sidewall. The sealed canisters are received within the cask for storage and transportation and are removed from the cask for disposal at a designated repository. The system of the present invention allows the handling of sealed canisters separately or collectively, while allowing storage and transportation of high burnup fuel and damaged fuel to the designated repository.

  12. Storage, transportation and disposal system for used nuclear fuel assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaglione, John M.; Wagner, John C.

    2017-01-10

    An integrated storage, transportation and disposal system for used fuel assemblies is provided. The system includes a plurality of sealed canisters and a cask sized to receive the sealed canisters in side by side relationship. The plurality of sealed canisters include an internal basket structure to receive a plurality of used fuel assemblies. The internal basket structure includes a plurality of radiation-absorbing panels and a plurality of hemispherical ribs generally perpendicular to the canister sidewall. The sealed canisters are received within the cask for storage and transportation and are removed from the cask for disposal at a designated repository. The system of the present invention allows the handling of sealed canisters separately or collectively, while allowing storage and transportation of high burnup fuel and damaged fuel to the designated repository.

  13. The cost of spent fuel storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez S, J. R.; Palacios H, J. C.; Badillo, V.; Alonso, G., E-mail: ramon.ramirez@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2011-11-15

    Spent fuel is one of the most important issues in the nuclear industry, currently spent fuel management is been cause of great amount of research, investments, constructing repositories or constructing the necessary facilities to reprocess the fuel, and later to recycle the plutonium recovered in thermal reactors. What is the best solution?, or What is the best technology for an specific solution? Many countries have deferred the decision on selecting an option, while others works actively constructing repositories and others implementing the reprocessing facilities to recycle the plutonium obtained from nuclear spent fuel. In Mexico the nuclear power is limited to two reactors BWR type and medium size. So the nuclear spent fuel discharged has been accommodated at reactor's spent fuel pools. Originally these pools have enough capacity to accommodate spent fuel for the 40 years of designed plant operation. However currently, the plants are under a process for extended power up-rate to 20% of original power and also there are plans to extended operational life for 20 more years. Under these conditions there will not be enough room for spent fuel in the pools. (Author)

  14. Safety aspects of dry spent fuel storage and spent fuel management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botsch, Wolfgang; Smalian, Silva; Hinterding, Peter [TUV NORD EnSys Hannover, GmbH and Co. KG, Hanover (Germany); Volzke, Holger; Wolff, Dietmar; Kasparek, Eva-Maria [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Berlin (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    As with the storage of all radioactive materials, the storage of spent nuclear fuel (SF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) must conform to safety requirements. Safety aspects like safe enclosure of radioactive materials, safe removal of decay heat, nuclear criticality safety and avoidance of unnecessary radiation exposure must be achieved throughout the storage period. The implementation of these safety requirements can be achieved by dry storage of SF and HLW in casks as well as in other systems such as dry vault storage systems or spent fuel pools, where the latter is neither a dry nor a passive system. After the events of Fukushima, the advantages of passively and inherently safe dry storage systems have become more obvious. TUV and BAM, who work as independent experts for the competent authorities, present the licensing process for sites and casks and inform about spent nuclear fuel management and issues concerning dry storage of spent nuclear fuel, based on their long experience in these fields. All safety relevant issues like safe enclosure, shielding, removal of the decay heat or behavior of cask and building under accident conditions are checked and validated with state-of-the-art methods and computer codes before the license approval. It is shown how dry storage systems can ensure the compliance with the mentioned safety criteria over a long storage period. Exemplarily, the process of licensing, erection and operation of selected German dry storage facilities is presented. (authors)

  15. Advantages on dry interim storage for spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanato, L.S. [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo, Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2468, 05508-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Rzyski, B.M. [IPEN/ CNEN-SP, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. e-mail: romanato@ctmsp.mar.mil.br

    2006-07-01

    When the nuclear fuel lose its ability to efficiently create energy it is removed from the core reactor and moved to a storage unit waiting for a final destination. Generally, the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) remains inside concrete basins with water within the reactors facility for the radioactive activity decay. Water cools the generated heat and shields radioactivity emissions. After some period of time in water basins the SNF can be sent to a definitive deposition in a geological repository and handled as radioactive waste or to reprocessing installations, or still wait for a future solution. Meanwhile, SNF remains stored for a period of time in dry or wet installations, depending on the method adopted by the nuclear power plant or other plans of the country. In many SNF wet storage sites the capacity can be fulfilled very quickly. If so, additional area or other alternative storage system should be given. There are many options to provide capacity increase in the wet storage area, but dry storages are worldwide preferred since it reduces corrosion concerns. In the wet storage the temperature and water purity should be constantly controlled whereas in the dry storage the SNF stands protected in specially designed canisters. Dry interim storages are practical and approved in many countries especially that have the 'wait and see' philosophy (wait to see new technologies development). This paper shows the advantages of dry interim storages sites in comparison with the wet ones and the nowadays problems as terrorism. (Author)

  16. Information handbook on independent spent fuel storage installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raddatz, M.G.; Waters, M.D.

    1996-12-01

    In this information handbook, the staff of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission describes (1) background information regarding the licensing and history of independent spent fuel storage installations (ISFSIs), (2) a discussion of the licensing process, (3) a description of all currently approved or certified models of dry cask storage systems (DCSSs), and (4) a description of sites currently storing spent fuel in an ISFSI. Storage of spent fuel at ISFSIs must be in accordance with the provisions of 10 CFR Part 72. The staff has provided this handbook for information purposes only. The accuracy of any information herein is not guaranteed. For verification or for more details, the reader should refer to the respective docket files for each DCSS and ISFSI site. The information in this handbook is current as of September 1, 1996.

  17. Crude oil and finished fuel storage stability: An annotated review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whisman, M.L.; Anderson, R.P.; Woodward, P.W.; Giles, H.N.

    1991-01-01

    A state-of-the-art review and assessment of storage effects on crude oil and product quality was undertaken through a literature search by computer accessing several data base sources. Pertinent citations from that literature search are tabulated for the years 1980 to the present. This 1990 revision supplements earlier reviews by Brinkman and others which covered stability publications through 1979 and an update in 1983 by Goetzinger and others that covered the period 1952--1982. For purposes of organization, citations are listed in the current revision chronologically starting with the earliest 1980 publications. The citations have also been divided according to primary subject matter. Consequently 11 sections appear including: alternate fuels, gasoline, distillate fuel, jet fuel, residual fuel, crude oil, biodegradation, analyses, reaction mechanisms, containment, and handling and storage. Each section contains a brief narrative followed by all the citations for that category.

  18. Hydrogen Storage Needs for Early Motive Fuel Cell Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, J.; Ainscough, C.; Simpson, L.; Caton, M.

    2012-11-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) objective for this project is to identify performance needs for onboard energy storage of early motive fuel cell markets by working with end users, manufacturers, and experts. The performance needs analysis is combined with a hydrogen storage technology gap analysis to provide the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cell Technologies Program with information about the needs and gaps that can be used to focus research and development activities that are capable of supporting market growth.

  19. Spent nuclear fuel canister storage building conceptual design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swenson, C.E. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This Conceptual Design Report provides the technical basis for the Spent Nuclear Fuels Project, Canister Storage Building, and as amended by letter (correspondence number 9555700, M.E. Witherspoon to E.B. Sellers, ``Technical Baseline and Updated Cost Estimate for the Canister Storage Building``, dated October 24, 1995), includes the project cost baseline and Criteria to be used as the basis for starting detailed design in fiscal year 1995.

  20. Benchmarking criticality analysis of TRIGA fuel storage racks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Matthew Loren; DeBey, Timothy M; Higginbotham, Jack F

    2017-01-01

    A criticality analysis was benchmarked to sub-criticality measurements of the hexagonal fuel storage racks at the United States Geological Survey TRIGA MARK I reactor in Denver. These racks, which hold up to 19 fuel elements each, are arranged at 0.61m (2 feet) spacings around the outer edge of the reactor. A 3-dimensional model was created of the racks using MCNP5, and the model was verified experimentally by comparison to measured subcritical multiplication data collected in an approach to critical loading of two of the racks. The validated model was then used to show that in the extreme condition where the entire circumference of the pool was lined with racks loaded with used fuel the storage array is subcritical with a k value of about 0.71; well below the regulatory limit of 0.8. A model was also constructed of the rectangular 2×10 fuel storage array used in many other TRIGA reactors to validate the technique against the original TRIGA licensing sub-critical analysis performed in 1966. The fuel used in this study was standard 20% enriched (LEU) aluminum or stainless steel clad TRIGA fuel.

  1. Cryogenic crashworthiness of LNG fuel storage tanks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atli-Veltin, B.; Vredeveldt, A.W.

    2014-01-01

    Shipping is gradually embracing natural gas as bunker fuel. The most viable way to store natural gas on board is in its liquid form. Gas needs to be cooled to cryogenic temperatures and in practice moderately pressurized. On board ships, solely double walled pressure tanks are used for this purpose.

  2. Fully Fueled TACOM Vehicle Storage Test Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    AFLRL with a water bottom were tested as control samples. This fuel sample had been previously innoculated with a culture of Cladosporium resinae and was...turbid, light pink color * Containing active growth of Cladosporium resinae ** Sample was shaken and allowed to stand for 24 hours prior to obtaining

  3. Cryogenic crashworthiness of LNG fuel storage tanks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atli-Veltin, B.; Vredeveldt, A.W.

    2014-01-01

    Shipping is gradually embracing natural gas as bunker fuel. The most viable way to store natural gas on board is in its liquid form. Gas needs to be cooled to cryogenic temperatures and in practice moderately pressurized. On board ships, solely double walled pressure tanks are used for this purpose.

  4. Decontamination of FAST (CPP-666) fuel storage area stainless steel fuel storage racks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessinger, G.F.

    1993-10-01

    The purpose of this report was to identify and evaluate alternatives for the decontamination of the RSM stainless steel that will be removed from the Idaho Chemical Processing plant (ICPP) fuel storage area (FSA) located in the FAST (CPP-666) building, and to recommend decontamination alternatives for treating this material. Upon the completion of a literature search, the review of the pertinent literature, and based on the review of a variety of chemical, mechanical, and compound (both chemical and mechanical) decontamination techniques, the preliminary results of analyses of FSA critically barrier contaminants, and the data collected during the FSA Reracking project, it was concluded that decontamination and beneficial recycle of the FSA stainless steel produced is technically feasible and likely to be cost effective as compared to burying the material at the RWMC. It is recommended that an organic acid, or commercial product containing an organic acid, be used to decontaminate the FSA stainless steel; however, it is also recommended that other surface decontamination methods be tested in the event that this method proves unsuitable. Among the techniques that should be investigated are mechanical techniques (CO{sub 2} pellet blasting and ultra-high pressure water blasting) and chemical techniques that are compatible with present ICPP waste streams.

  5. Spent fuel disassembly and canning programs at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP). [For storage or transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Townes, III, George A.

    1980-10-01

    Methods of disassembling and canning spent fuel to allow more efficient storage are being investigated at the BNFP. Studies and development programs are aimed at dry disassembly of fuel to allow storage and shipment of fuel pins rather than complete fuel assemblies. Results indicate that doubling existing storage capacity or tripling the carrying capacity of existing transportation equipment is achievable. Disassembly could be performed in the BNFP hot cells at rates of about 12 to 15 assemblies per day.

  6. REVIEW OF FAST FLUX TEST FACILITY (FFTF) FUEL EXPERIMENTS FOR STORAGE IN INTERIM STORAGE CASKS (ISC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CHASTAIN, S.A.

    2005-10-24

    Appendix H, Section H.3.3.10.11 of the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR), provides the limits to be observed for fueled components authorized for storage in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) spent fuel storage system. Currently, the authorization basis allows standard driver fuel assemblies (DFA), as described in the FSAR Chapter 17, Section 17.5.3.1, to be stored provided decay power per assembly is {le} 250 watts, post-irradiation time is four years minimum, average assembly burn-up is 150,000 MWD/MTHM maximum and the pre-irradiation enrichment is 29.3% maximum (per H.3.3.10.11). In addition, driver evaluation (DE), core characterizer assemblies (CCA), and run-to-cladding-breach (RTCB) assemblies are included based on their similarities to a standard DFA. Ident-69 pin containers with fuel pins from these DFAs can also be stored. Section H.3.3.10.11 states that fuel types outside the specification criteria above will be addressed on a case-by-case basis. There are many different types of fuel and blanket experiments that were irradiated in the FFTF which now require offload to the spent fuel storage system. Two reviews were completed for a portion of these special type fuel components to determine if placement into the Core Component Container (CCC)/Interim Storage Cask (ISC) would require any special considerations or changes to the authorization basis. Project mission priorities coupled with availability of resources and analysts prevented these evaluations from being completed as a single effort. Areas of review have included radiological accident release consequences, radiological shielding adequacy, criticality safety, thermal limits, confinement, and stress. The results of these reviews are available in WHC-SD-FF-RPT-005, Rev. 0 and 1, ''Review of FFTF Fuel Experiments for Storage at ISA'', (Reference I), which subsequently allowed a large portion of these components to be included in the authorization basis (Table H.3.3-21). The

  7. Capacitive Bioanodes Enable Renewable Energy Storage in Microbial Fuel Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deeke, A.; Sleutels, T.H.J.A.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2012-01-01

    We developed an integrated system for storage of renewable electricity in a microbial fuel cell (MFC). The system contained a capacitive electrode that was inserted into the anodic compartment of an MFC to form a capacitive bioanode. This capacitive bioanode was compared with a noncapacitive

  8. Signatures of Extended Storage of Used Nuclear Fuel in Casks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauch, Eric Benton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-28

    As the amount of used nuclear fuel continues to grow, more and more used nuclear fuel will be transferred to storage casks. A consolidated storage facility is currently in the planning stages for storing these casks, where at least 10,000 MTHM of fuel will be stored. This site will have potentially thousands of casks once it is operational. A facility this large presents new safeguards and nuclear material accounting concerns. A new signature based on the distribution of neutron sources and multiplication within casks was part of the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Material Protection, Account and Control Technologies (MPACT) campaign. Under this project we looked at fingerprinting each casks neutron signature. Each cask has a unique set of fuel, with a unique spread of initial enrichment, burnup, cooling time, and power history. The unique set of fuel creates a unique signature of neutron intensity based on the arrangement of the assemblies. The unique arrangement of neutron sources and multiplication produces a reliable and unique identification of the cask that has been shown to be relatively constant over long time periods. The work presented here could be used to restore from a loss of continuity of knowledge at the storage site. This presentation will show the steps used to simulate and form this signature from the start of the effort through its conclusion in September 2016.

  9. Signatures of Extended Storage of Used Nuclear Fuel in Casks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauch, Eric Benton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-28

    As the amount of used nuclear fuel continues to grow, more and more used nuclear fuel will be transferred to storage casks. A consolidated storage facility is currently in the planning stages for storing these casks, where at least 10,000 MTHM of fuel will be stored. This site will have potentially thousands of casks once it is operational. A facility this large presents new safeguards and nuclear material accounting concerns. A new signature based on the distribution of neutron sources and multiplication within casks was part of the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Material Protection, Account and Control Technologies (MPACT) campaign. Under this project we looked at fingerprinting each cask's neutron signature. Each cask has a unique set of fuel, with a unique spread of initial enrichment, burnup, cooling time, and power history. The unique set of fuel creates a unique signature of neutron intensity based on the arrangement of the assemblies. The unique arrangement of neutron sources and multiplication produces a reliable and unique identification of the cask that has been shown to be relatively constant over long time periods. The work presented here could be used to restore from a loss of continuity of knowledge at the storage site. This presentation will show the steps used to simulate and form this signature from the start of the effort through its conclusion in September 2016.

  10. Fuel Aging in Storage and Transportation (FAST): Accelerated Characterization and Performance Assessment of the Used Nuclear Fuel Storage System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDeavitt, Sean [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    2016-08-02

    This Integrated Research Project (IRP) was established to characterize key limiting phenomena related to the performance of used nuclear fuel (UNF) storage systems. This was an applied engineering project with a specific application in view (i.e., UNF dry storage). The completed tasks made use of a mixture of basic science and engineering methods. The overall objective was to create, or enable the creation of, predictive tools in the form of observation methods, phenomenological models, and databases that will enable the design, installation, and licensing of dry UNF storage systems that will be capable of containing UNF for extended period of time.

  11. Extending Spent Fuel Storage until Transport for Reprocessing or Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsen, Brett; Chiguer, Mustapha; Grahn, Per; Sampson, Michele; Wolff, Dietmar; Bevilaqua, Arturo; Wasinger, Karl; Saegusa, Toshiari; Seelev, Igor

    2016-09-01

    Spent fuel (SF) must be stored until an end point such as reprocessing or geologic disposal is imple-mented. Selection and implementation of an end point for SF depends upon future funding, legisla-tion, licensing and other factors that cannot be predicted with certainty. Past presumptions related to the availability of an end point have often been wrong and resulted in missed opportunities for properly informing spent fuel management policies and strategies. For example, dry cask storage systems were originally conceived to free up needed space in reactor spent fuel pools and also to provide SFS of up to 20 years until reprocessing and/or deep geological disposal became available. Hundreds of dry cask storage systems are now employed throughout the world and will be relied upon well beyond the originally envisioned design life. Given present and projected rates for the use of nuclear power coupled with projections for SF repro-cessing and disposal capacities, one concludes that SF storage will be prolonged, potentially for several decades. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has recently considered 300 years of storage to be appropriate for the characterization and prediction of ageing effects and ageing management issues associated with extending SF storage and subsequent transport. This paper encourages addressing the uncertainty associated with the duration of SF storage by de-sign – rather than by default. It suggests ways that this uncertainty may be considered in design, li-censing, policy, and strategy decisions and proposes a framework for safely extending spent fuel storage until SF can be transported for reprocessing or disposal – regardless of how long that may be. The paper however is not intended to either encourage or facilitate needlessly extending spent fuel storage durations. Its intent is to ensure a design and safety basis with sufficient margin to accommodate the full range of potential future scenarios. Although the focus is primarily on

  12. Seismic analysis of spent nuclear fuel storage racks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, S.J.; Biddle, J.R.; Bennett, S.M.; Schechter, C.B. [Framatome Cogema Fuels, Lynchburg, VA (United States); Harstead, G.A. [Harstead Engineering Associates, Inc., Old Tappan, NJ (United States); Marquet, F. [ATEA/FRAMATOME, Carquefou (France)

    1996-06-01

    In many nuclear power plants, existing storage racks are being replaced with high-density racks to accommodate the increasing inventory of spent fuel. In the hypothetical design considered here, the high-density arrangement of fuel assemblies, or consolidated fuel canisters, is accomplished through the use of borated stainless steel (BSS) plates acting as neutron absorbers. No structural benefit from the BSS is assumed. This paper describes the methods used to perform seismic analysis of high density spent fuel storage racks. The sensitivity of important parameters such as the effect of variation of coefficients of friction between the rack legs and the pool floor and fuel loading conditions (consolidated and unconsolidated) are also discussed in the paper. Results of this study are presented. The high-density fuel racks are simply supported by the pool floor with no structural connections to adjacent racks or to the pool walls or floor. Therefore, the racks are free standing and may slide and tip. Several time history, nonlinear, seismic analyses are required to account for variations in the coefficient of friction, rack loading configuration, and the type of the seismic event. This paper presents several of the mathematical models usually used. Friction cannot be precisely predicted, so a range of friction coefficients is assumed. The range assumed for the analysis is 0.2 to 0.8. A detailed model representing a single rack is used to evaluate the 3-D loading effects. This model is a controlling case for the stress analysis. A 2-D multi-rack model representing a row of racks between the spent fuel pool walls is used to evaluate the change in gaps between racks. The racks are normally analyzed for the fuel loading conditions of consolidated, full, empty, and half-loaded with fuel assemblies.

  13. Recommendations on Fuel Parameters for Standard Technical Specifications for Spent Fuel Storage Casks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, S.M.

    2001-03-08

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is currently reviewing the technical specifications for spent fuel storage casks in an effort to develop standard technical specifications (STS) that define the allowable spent nuclear fuel (SNF) contents. One of the objectives of the review is to minimize the level of detail in the STS that define the acceptable fuel types. To support this initiative, this study has been performed to identify potential fuel specification parameters needed for criticality safety and radiation shielding analysis and rank their importance relative to a potential compromise of the margin of safety.

  14. Report on interim storage of spent nuclear fuel. Midwestern high-level radioactive waste transportation project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    The report on interim storage of spent nuclear fuel discusses the technical, regulatory, and economic aspects of spent-fuel storage at nuclear reactors. The report is intended to provide legislators state officials and citizens in the Midwest with information on spent-fuel inventories, current and projected additional storage requirements, licensing, storage technologies, and actions taken by various utilities in the Midwest to augment their capacity to store spent nuclear fuel on site.

  15. Combined thermal storage pond and dry cooling tower waste heat rejection system for solar-thermal steam-electric power plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guyer, E.C.; Bourne, J.G.; Brownell, D.L.; Rose, R.M.

    1979-02-28

    The thermal performance and economics of the combined thermal storage pond and dry cooling tower waste heat rejection system concept for solar-thermal steam-electric plants have been evaluated. Based on the computer simulation of the operation of southwest-sited solar-thermal plants, it has been determined that the combined pond-tower concept has significant cost and performance advantages over conventional dry cooling systems. Use of a thermal storage pond as a component of the dry cooling system allows a significant reduction in the required dry cooling heat exchange capacity and the associated parasitic power consumption. Importantly, it has been concluded that the combined pond-tower dry cooling system concept can be employed to economically maintain steam condensing temperatures at levels normally achieved with conventional evaporative cooling systems. An evaluation of alternative thermal storage pond design concepts has revealed that a stratified vertical-flow cut-and-fill reservoir with conventional membrane lining and covering would yield the best overall system performance at the least cost.

  16. Spent nuclear fuel storage. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning spent nuclear fuel storage technologies, facilities, sites, and assessment. References review wet and dry storage, spent fuel casks and pools, underground storage, monitored and retrievable storage systems, and aluminum-clad spent fuels. Environmental impact, siting criteria, regulations, and risk assessment are also discussed. Computer codes and models for storage safety are covered. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  17. 77 FR 24585 - List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: HI-STORM 100, Revision 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... 3150-AJ05 List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: HI-STORM 100, Revision 8 AGENCY: Nuclear... amends the NRC's spent fuel storage regulations by revising the Holtec International HI-STORM 100 System... International HI-STORM 100 System listing within the ``List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks'' to...

  18. Hydrolytic Stability of Polyurethane-Coated Fabrics Used for Collapsible Fuel Storage Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Hydrolytic Stability of Polyurethane -Coated Fabrics Used for Collapsible Fuel Storage Containers by James M. Sloan ARL-TR-6949 June 2014...Hydrolytic Stability of Polyurethane -Coated Fabrics Used for Collapsible Fuel Storage Containers James M. Sloan Weapons and Materials...From - To) October 2012–February 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Hydrolytic Stability of Polyurethane -Coated Fabrics Used for Collapsible Fuel Storage

  19. Health risks associated with the storage of wood fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jirjis, R. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Science, Dept. of Forest Products, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1996-12-31

    It has been known for many years now that the storage of wood fuel chips in large piles, without pretreatment or active ventilation, involves many problems. As is the case with the storage of any organic material in a pile, a series of biological, physical and chemical processes usually takes place resulting in a series of problems. The paper will primarily focus on the health risks involved in the handling of stored fuel chips of woody biomass. Soon after building a pile of wood fuel chips, the growth of fungi and bacteria usually take place. Their numbers and growth rates depend on many internal and external factors. The most frequent microorganisms associated with the storage of wood chips are moulds and actinomycetes. The inhalation of organic particles of bacteria, spores of actinomycete and moulds is associated with various forms of respiratory diseases: inhalation fever or Organic Dust Toxic Syndrome (ODTS), and the uncommon disease allergic alveolitis. These diseases vary in their symptoms, severity and their long term effect. During screening, loading, transporting and other handling processes of wood fuel chips varying numbers of microspores, hyphal and bacterial segments and other organic products become airborne (organic dust). Awareness of the risks of exposure to airborne spores is the first step in minimizing these risks. Working environment could be greatly improved by avoiding unnecesary exposure to infected environments, or by taking suitable protective measures if needed. (au)

  20. ACR fuel storage analysis: finite element heat transfer analysis of dry storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khair, K.; Baset, S.; Millard, J. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Over the past decade Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has designed and licensed air-cooled concrete structures used as above ground dry storage containers (MACSTOR) to store irradiated nuclear fuel from CANDU plants. A typical MACSTOR 200 module is designed to store 12,000 bundles in 20 storage cylinders. MACSTOR 200 modules are in operation at Gentilly-2 in Canada and at Cernavoda in Romania. The MACSTOR module is cooled passively by natural convection and by conduction through the concrete walls and roof. Currently AECL is designing the Advanced Candu Reactor (ACR) with CANFLEX slightly enriched uranium fuel to be used. AECL has initiated a study to explore the possibility of storing the irradiated nuclear fuel from ACR in MACSTOR modules. This included work to consider ways of minimizing footprint both in the spent fuel storage bay and in the dry storage area. The commercial finite element code ANSYS has been used in this study. The FE model is used to complete simulations with the higher heat source using the same concrete structural dimensions to assess the feasibility of using the MACSTOR design for storing the ACR irradiated fuel. This paper presents the results of the analysis. The results are used to confirm the possibility of using, with minimal changes to the design of the storage baskets and the structure, the proven design of the MACSTOR 200 containment to store the ACR fuel bundles with higher enrichment and burnup. This has thus allowed us to confirm conceptual feasibility and move on to investigation of optimization. (author)

  1. Dosimetry at an interim storage for spent nuclear fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Králík, M; Kulich, V; Studeny, J; Pokorny, P

    2007-01-01

    The Czech nuclear power plant Dukovany started its operation in 1985. All fuel spent from 1985 up to the end of 2005 is stored at a dry interim storage, which was designed for 60 CASTOR-440/84 casks. Each of these casks can accommodate 84 fuel assemblies from VVER 440 reactors. Neutron-photon mixed fields around the casks were characterized in terms of ambient dose equivalent measured by standard area dosemeters. Except this, neutron spectra were measured by means of a Bonner sphere spectrometer, and the measured spectra were used to derive the corresponding ambient dose equivalent due to neutrons.

  2. Energy Storage: Batteries and Fuel Cells for Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Miller, Thomas B.; Hoberecht, Mark A.; Baumann, Eric D.

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Vision for Exploration requires safe, human-rated, energy storage technologies with high energy density, high specific energy and the ability to perform in a variety of unique environments. The Exploration Technology Development Program is currently supporting the development of battery and fuel cell systems that address these critical technology areas. Specific technology efforts that advance these systems and optimize their operation in various space environments are addressed in this overview of the Energy Storage Technology Development Project. These technologies will support a new generation of more affordable, more reliable, and more effective space systems.

  3. Hydrogen-Oxygen PEM Regenerative Fuel Cell Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bents, David J.; Scullin, Vincent J.; Chang, Bei-Jiann; Johnson, Donald W.; Garcia, Christopher P.

    2005-01-01

    An introduction to the closed cycle hydrogen-oxygen polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) regenerative fuel cell (RFC), recently constructed at NASA Glenn Research Center, is presented. Illustrated with explanatory graphics and figures, this report outlines the engineering motivations for the RFC as a solar energy storage device, the system requirements, layout and hardware detail of the RFC unit at NASA Glenn, the construction history, and test experience accumulated to date with this unit.

  4. Hydrogen Fuel Cells and Storage Technology: Fundamental Research for Optimization of Hydrogen Storage and Utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perret, Bob; Heske, Clemens; Nadavalath, Balakrishnan; Cornelius, Andrew; Hatchett, David; Bae, Chusung; Pang, Tao; Kim, Eunja; Hemmers, Oliver

    2011-03-28

    Design and development of improved low-cost hydrogen fuel cell catalytic materials and high-capacity hydrogenn storage media are paramount to enabling the hydrogen economy. Presently, effective and durable catalysts are mostly precious metals in pure or alloyed form and their high cost inhibits fuel cell applications. Similarly, materials that meet on-board hydrogen storage targets within total mass and volumetric constraints are yet to be found. Both hydrogen storage performance and cost-effective fuel cell designs are intimately linked to the electronic structure, morphology and cost of the chosen materials. The FCAST Project combined theoretical and experimental studies of electronic structure, chemical bonding, and hydrogen adsorption/desorption characteristics of a number of different nanomaterials and metal clusters to develop better fundamental understanding of hydrogen storage in solid state matrices. Additional experimental studies quantified the hydrogen storage properties of synthesized polyaniline(PANI)/Pd composites. Such conducting polymers are especially interesting because of their high intrinsic electron density and the ability to dope the materials with protons, anions, and metal species. Earlier work produced contradictory results: one study reported 7% to 8% hydrogen uptake while a second study reported zero hydrogen uptake. Cost and durability of fuel cell systems are crucial factors in their affordability. Limits on operating temperature, loss of catalytic reactivity and degradation of proton exchange membranes are factors that affect system durability and contribute to operational costs. More cost effective fuel cell components were sought through studies of the physical and chemical nature of catalyst performance, characterization of oxidation and reduction processes on system surfaces. Additional development effort resulted in a new hydrocarbon-based high-performance sulfonated proton exchange membrane (PEM) that can be manufactured at low

  5. Vehicular hydrogen storage using lightweight tanks (regenerative fuel cell systems)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitlitsky, F; Myers, B; Weisberg, A H

    1999-06-01

    Energy storage systems with extremely high specific energy (>400 Wh/kg) have been designed that use lightweight tankage to contain the gases generated by reversible (unitized) regenerative fuel cells (URFCs). Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will leverage work for aerospace applications supported by other sponsors (including BMDO, NASA, and USAF) to develop URFC systems for transportation and utility applications. Lightweight tankage is important for primary fuel cell powered vehicles that use on-board storage of hydrogen. Lightweight pressure vessels with state-of-the-art performance factors were designed, and prototypes are being fabricated to meet the DOE 2000 goals (4000 Wh/kg, 12% hydrogen by weight, 700 Wh/liter, and $20/kWh in high volume production). These pressure vessels use technologies that are easily adopted by industrial partners. Advanced liners provide permeation barriers for gas storage and are mandrels for composite overwrap. URFCs are important to the efficient use of hydrogen as a transportation fuel and enabler of renewable energy. H{sub 2}/halogen URFCs may be advantageous for stationary applications whereas H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} or H{sub 2}/air URFCs are advantageous for vehicular applications. URFC research and development is required to improve performance (efficiency), reduce catalyst loading, understand engineering operation, and integrate systems. LLNL has the experimental equipment and advanced URFC membrane electrode assemblies (some with reduced catalyst loading) for evaluating commercial hardware (not funded by DOE in FY1999).

  6. BWR Spent Nuclear Fuel Integrity Research and Development Survey for UKABWR Spent Fuel Interim Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevard, Bruce Balkcom [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mertyurek, Ugur [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Belles, Randy [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Scaglione, John M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this report is to identify issues and support documentation and identify and detail existing research on spent fuel dry storage; provide information to support potential R&D for the UKABWR (United Kingdom Advanced Boiling Water Reactor) Spent Fuel Interim Storage (SFIS) Pre-Construction Safety Report; and support development of answers to questions developed by the regulator. Where there are gaps or insufficient data, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has summarized the research planned to provide the necessary data along with the schedule for the research, if known. Spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from nuclear power plants has historically been stored on site (wet) in spent fuel pools pending ultimate disposition. Nuclear power users (countries, utilities, vendors) are developing a suite of options and set of supporting analyses that will enable future informed choices about how best to manage these materials. As part of that effort, they are beginning to lay the groundwork for implementing longer-term interim storage of the SNF and the Greater Than Class C (CTCC) waste (dry). Deploying dry storage will require a number of technical issues to be addressed. For the past 4-5 years, ORNL has been supporting the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in identifying these key technical issues, managing the collection of data to be used in issue resolution, and identifying gaps in the needed data. During this effort, ORNL subject matter experts (SMEs) have become expert in understanding what information is publicly available and what gaps in data remain. To ensure the safety of the spent fuel under normal and frequent conditions of wet and subsequent dry storage, intact fuel must be shown to: 1.Maintain fuel cladding integrity; 2.Maintain its geometry for cooling, shielding, and subcriticality; 3.Maintain retrievability, and damaged fuel with pinhole or hairline cracks must be shown not to degrade further. Where PWR (pressurized water reactor) information is

  7. 2016 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cafferty, Kara Grace [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (WRU-I-0160-01, Modification 1, formerly LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2015, through October 31, 2016.

  8. Summary engineering description of underwater fuel storage facility for foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlke, H.J.; Johnson, D.A.; Rawlins, J.K.; Searle, D.K.; Wachs, G.W.

    1994-10-01

    This document is a summary description for an Underwater Fuel Storage Facility (UFSF) for foreign research reactor (FRR) spent nuclear fuel (SNF). A FRR SNF environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is being prepared and will include both wet and dry storage facilities as storage alternatives. For the UFSF presented in this document, a specific site is not chosen. This facility can be sited at any one of the five locations under consideration in the EIS. These locations are the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Savannah River Site, Hanford, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Nevada Test Site. Generic facility environmental impacts and emissions are provided in this report. A baseline fuel element is defined in Section 2.2, and the results of a fission product analysis are presented. Requirements for a storage facility have been researched and are summarized in Section 3. Section 4 describes three facility options: (1) the Centralized-UFSF, which would store the entire fuel element quantity in a single facility at a single location, (2) the Regionalized Large-UFSF, which would store 75% of the fuel element quantity in some region of the country, and (3) the Regionalized Small-UFSF, which would store 25% of the fuel element quantity, with the possibility of a number of these facilities in various regions throughout the country. The operational philosophy is presented in Section 5, and Section 6 contains a description of the equipment. Section 7 defines the utilities required for the facility. Cost estimates are discussed in Section 8, and detailed cost estimates are included. Impacts to worker safety, public safety, and the environment are discussed in Section 9. Accidental releases are presented in Section 10. Standard Environmental Impact Forms are included in Section 11.

  9. Summary engineering description of underwater fuel storage facility for foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlke, H.J.; Johnson, D.A.; Rawlins, J.K.; Searle, D.K.; Wachs, G.W.

    1994-10-01

    This document is a summary description for an Underwater Fuel Storage Facility (UFSF) for foreign research reactor (FRR) spent nuclear fuel (SNF). A FRR SNF environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is being prepared and will include both wet and dry storage facilities as storage alternatives. For the UFSF presented in this document, a specific site is not chosen. This facility can be sited at any one of the five locations under consideration in the EIS. These locations are the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Savannah River Site, Hanford, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Nevada Test Site. Generic facility environmental impacts and emissions are provided in this report. A baseline fuel element is defined in Section 2.2, and the results of a fission product analysis are presented. Requirements for a storage facility have been researched and are summarized in Section 3. Section 4 describes three facility options: (1) the Centralized-UFSF, which would store the entire fuel element quantity in a single facility at a single location, (2) the Regionalized Large-UFSF, which would store 75% of the fuel element quantity in some region of the country, and (3) the Regionalized Small-UFSF, which would store 25% of the fuel element quantity, with the possibility of a number of these facilities in various regions throughout the country. The operational philosophy is presented in Section 5, and Section 6 contains a description of the equipment. Section 7 defines the utilities required for the facility. Cost estimates are discussed in Section 8, and detailed cost estimates are included. Impacts to worker safety, public safety, and the environment are discussed in Section 9. Accidental releases are presented in Section 10. Standard Environmental Impact Forms are included in Section 11.

  10. Modeling Potential Surface and Shallow Groundwater Storage Provided by Beaver Ponds Across Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafen, K.; Wheaton, J. M.; Macfarlane, W.

    2016-12-01

    Damming of streams by North American Beaver (Castor canadensis) has been shown to provide a host of potentially desirable hydraulic and hydrologic impacts. Notably, increases in surface water storage and groundwater storage may alter the timing and delivery of water around individual dams and dam complexes. Anecdotal evidence suggests these changes may be important for increasing and maintaining baseflow and even helping some intermittent streams flow perennially. In the arid west, these impacts could be particularly salient in the face of climate change. However, few studies have examined the hydrologic impacts of beaver dams at scales large enough to provide insight for water management, in part because understanding or modeling these impacts at large spatial scales has been precluded by uncertainty concerning the number of beaver dams a drainage network can support. Using the recently developed Beaver Restoration Assessment Tool (BRAT) to identify possible densities and spatial configurations of beaver dams, we developed a model that predicts the area and volume of surface water storage associated with dams of various sizes, and applied this model at different dam densities across multiple watersheds (HUC12) in northern Utah. We then used model results as inputs to the MODFLOW groundwater model to identify the subsequent changes to shallow groundwater storage. The spatially explicit water storage estimates produced by our approach will be useful in evaluating potential beaver restoration and conservation, and will also provide necessary information for developing hydrologic models to specifically identify the effects beaver dams may have on water delivery and timing.

  11. Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Canister Storage Building Functions and Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KLEM, M.J.

    2000-10-18

    In 1998, a major change in the technical strategy for managing Multi Canister Overpacks (MCO) while stored within the Canister Storage Building (CSB) occurred. The technical strategy is documented in Baseline Change Request (BCR) No. SNF-98-006, Simplified SNF Project Baseline (MCO Sealing) (FDH 1998). This BCR deleted the hot conditioning process initially adopted for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNF Project) as documented in WHC-SD-SNF-SP-005, Integrated Process Strategy for K Basins Spent Nuclear Fuel (WHC 199.5). In summary, MCOs containing Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) from K Basins would be placed in interim storage following processing through the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) facility. With this change, the needs for the Hot Conditioning System (HCS) and inerting/pressure retaining capabilities of the CSB storage tubes and the MCO Handling Machine (MHM) were eliminated. Mechanical seals will be used on the MCOs prior to transport to the CSB. Covers will be welded on the MCOs for the final seal at the CSB. Approval of BCR No. SNF-98-006, imposed the need to review and update the CSB functions and requirements baseline documented herein including changing the document title to ''Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Canister Storage Building Functions and Requirements.'' This revision aligns the functions and requirements baseline with the CSB Simplified SNF Project Baseline (MCO Sealing). This document represents the Canister Storage Building (CSB) Subproject technical baseline. It establishes the functions and requirements baseline for the implementation of the CSB Subproject. The document is organized in eight sections. Sections 1.0 Introduction and 2.0 Overview provide brief introductions to the document and the CSB Subproject. Sections 3.0 Functions, 4.0 Requirements, 5.0 Architecture, and 6.0 Interfaces provide the data described by their titles. Section 7.0 Glossary lists the acronyms and defines the terms used in this document. Section 8

  12. 75 FR 77017 - Nextera Energy Seabrook, LLC Seabrook Station Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    ... COMMISSION Nextera Energy Seabrook, LLC Seabrook Station Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation; Exemption 1.0 Background NextEra Energy Seabrook, LLC (NextEra, the licensee) is the holder of Facility..., subpart K, a general license is issued for the storage of spent fuel in an independent spent fuel...

  13. A fuel cell energy storage system for Space Station extravehicular activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, Matthew J., Jr.; Adlhart, Otto J.; Marmolejo, Jose A.

    1988-01-01

    The development of a fuel cell energy storage system for the Space Station Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) is discussed. The ion-exchange membrane fuel cell uses hydrogen stored as a metal hydride. Several features of the hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell are examined, including its construction, hydrogen storage, hydride recharge, water heat, water removal, and operational parameters.

  14. Storage of Residual Fuel Oil in Underground Unlined Rock Caverns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    Francaise des Petroles BP, Elf Union, Shell Francaise, and Compagnie Francaise de Raffinage (Total). The company and its subsidiaries were formed with...DEC 80 D C BANKS UNCLASSIFIED WES/NP/S4.-8O-19 ti. LE VEL MISCELLANEOUS PAPER GL-80-19 31 STORAGE OF RESIDUAL FUEL OIL IN UNDERGROUND UNLINED ROCK...Ruimaia.~ indl a riiirI( le ol Air in1 wi r’ hve en coIit’Icted to enc1ouraige muiliriershnpl I[I the i 5kRM. 1) By Innf t-Ii .fi’ I ’I.]%- I "W

  15. Capacitive bioanodes enable renewable energy storage in microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeke, Alexandra; Sleutels, Tom H J A; Hamelers, Hubertus V M; Buisman, Cees J N

    2012-03-20

    We developed an integrated system for storage of renewable electricity in a microbial fuel cell (MFC). The system contained a capacitive electrode that was inserted into the anodic compartment of an MFC to form a capacitive bioanode. This capacitive bioanode was compared with a noncapacitive bioanode on the basis of performance and storage capacity. The performance and storage capacity were investigated during polarization curves and charge-discharge experiments. During polarization curves the capacitive electrode reached a maximum current density of 1.02 ± 0.04 A/m(2), whereas the noncapacitive electrode reached a current density output of only 0.79 ± 0.03 A/m(2). During the charge-discharge experiment with 5 min of charging and 20 min of discharging, the capacitive electrode was able to store a total of 22,831 C/m(2), whereas the noncapacitive electrode was only able to store 12,195 C/m(2). Regarding the charge recovery of each electrode, the capacitive electrode was able to recover 52.9% more charge during each charge-discharge experiment compared with the noncapacitive electrode. The capacitive electrode outperformed the noncapacitive electrode throughout each charge-discharge experiment. With a capacitive electrode it is possible to use the MFC simultaneously for production and storage of renewable electricity.

  16. Initial evaluation of dry storage issues for spent nuclear fuels in wet storage at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, R J; Johnson, Jr, A B; Lund, A L; Gilbert, E R [and others

    1996-07-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has evaluated the basis for moving selected spent nuclear fuels in the CPP-603 and CPP-666 storage pools at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant from wet to dry interim storage. This work is being conducted for the Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company as part of the effort to determine appropriate conditioning and dry storage requirements for these fuels. These spent fuels are from 22 test reactors and include elements clad with aluminum or stainless steel and a wide variety of fuel materials: UAl{sub x}, UAl{sub x}-Al and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-Al cermets, U-5% fissium, UMo, UZrH{sub x}, UErZrH, UO{sub 2}-stainless steel cermet, and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-stainless steel cermet. The study also included declad uranium-zirconium hydride spent fuel stored in the CPP-603 storage pools. The current condition and potential failure mechanisms for these spent fuels were evaluated to determine the impact on conditioning and dry storage requirements. Initial recommendations for conditioning and dry storage requirements are made based on the potential degradation mechanisms and their impacts on moving the spent fuel from wet to dry storage. Areas needing further evaluation are identified.

  17. Evaluation of safety margins during dry storage of CANDU fuel in MACSTOR/KN-400 module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaudoin, R.; Shill, R. [Atomic Energy Of Canada Limited, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Lee, K.-H.; Chung, S.-H.; Yoon, J.-H.; Choi, B.-I.; Lee, H.-Y.; Song, M.-J. [KHNP, Nuclear Environment Technology Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-03-15

    This paper covers an evaluation of the available safety margin against fuel bundle degradation during dry storage of CANDU spent fuel bundles in a MACSTOR/KN-400 module, considering normal, off-normal and postulated accidental conditions. (author)

  18. Transfer of Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant and N Reactor irradiated fuel for storage at the 105-KE and 105-KW fuel storage basins, Hanford Site, Richland Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) needs to remove irradiated fuel from the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant and N Reactor at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington, to stabilize the facilities in preparation for decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) and to reduce the cost of maintaining the facilities prior to D&D. DOE is proposing to transfer approximately 3.9 metric tons (4.3 short tons) of unprocessed irradiated fuel, by rail, from the PUREX Plant in the 200 East Area and the 105 N Reactor (N Reactor) fuel storage basin in the 100 N Area, to the 105-KE and 105-KW fuel storage basins (K Basins) in the 100 K Area. The fuel would be placed in storage at the K Basins, along with fuel presently stored, and would be dispositioned in the same manner as the other existing irradiated fuel inventory stored in the K Basins. The fuel transfer to the K Basins would consolidate storage of fuels irradiated at N Reactor and the Single Pass Reactors. Approximately 2.9 metric tons (3.2 short tons) of single-pass production reactor, aluminum clad (AC) irradiated fuel in four fuel baskets have been placed into four overpack buckets and stored in the PUREX Plant canyon storage basin to await shipment. In addition, about 0.5 metric tons (0.6 short tons) of zircaloy clad (ZC) and a few AC irradiated fuel elements have been recovered from the PUREX dissolver cell floors, placed in wet fuel canisters, and stored on the canyon deck. A small quantity of ZC fuel, in the form of fuel fragments and chips, is suspected to be in the sludge at the bottom of N Reactor`s fuel storage basin. As part of the required stabilization activities at N Reactor, this sludge would be removed from the basin and any identifiable pieces of fuel elements would be recovered, placed in open canisters, and stored in lead lined casks in the storage basin to await shipment. A maximum of 0.5 metric tons (0.6 short tons) of fuel pieces is expected to be recovered.

  19. Extended Storage for Research and Test Reactor Spent Fuel for 2006 and Beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurt, William Lon; Moore, K.M.; Shaber, Eric Lee; Mizia, Ronald Eugene

    1999-10-01

    This paper will examine issues associated with extended storage of a variety of spent nuclear fuels. Recent experiences at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory and Hanford sites will be described. Particular attention will be given to storage of damaged or degraded fuel. The first section will address a survey of corrosion experience regarding wet storage of spent nuclear fuel. The second section will examine issues associated with movement from wet to dry storage. This paper also examines technology development needs to support storage and ultimate disposition.

  20. Fast facility spent-fuel and waste assay instrument. [Fluorinel Dissolution and Fuel Storage (FAST) Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eccleston, G.W.; Johnson, S.S.; Menlove, H.O.; Van Lyssel, T.; Black, D.; Carlson, B.; Decker, L.; Echo, M.W.

    1983-01-01

    A delayed-neutron assay instrument was installed in the Fluorinel Dissolution and Fuel Storage Facility at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The dual-assay instrument is designed to measure both spent fuel and waste solids that are produced from fuel processing. A set of waste standards, fabricated by Los Alamos using uranium supplied by Exxon Nuclear Idaho Company, was used to calibrate the small-sample assay region of the instrument. Performance testing was completed before installation of the instrument to determine the effects of uranium enrichment, hydrogenous materials, and neutron poisons on assays. The unit was designed to measure high-enriched uranium samples in the presence of large neutron backgrounds. Measurements indicate that the system can assay low-enriched uranium samples with moderate backgrounds if calibrated with proper standards.

  1. Development of operational criteria for the interim spent fuel storage facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, M. H.; Kim, J. C.; Kim, D. K.; Cho, D. K.; Bae, K. M. [Kyunghee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-03-15

    The final objective is to develop the technical criteria for the facility operation of the interim spent fuel storage facility. For this purpose, elementary technical issues are evaluated for the wet storage of spent fuels and status of operation in foreign counties are examined. Urgent objective of this study is to provide technical back data for the development of operational criteria. For the back data for the development of operational criteria, domestic technical data for the wet storages are collected as well as standards and criteria related to the spent fuel storage. Operational stutus of spent fuel storages in foreign countries CLAB in Sweden and MRS in the United States are studied. Dry storage concept is also studied in order to find the characteristics of wet storage concept. Also basic technical issues are defined and studied in order to build a draft of operational criteri00.

  2. Experience on wet storage spent fuel sipping at IEA-R1 Brazilian research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrotta, J.A.; Terremoto, L.A.A.; Zeituni, C.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Divisao de Engenharia do Nucleo

    1997-12-01

    The IEA-R1 research reactor of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP) is a pool type reactor of B and W design, that has been operating since 1957 at a power of 2 MW. Irradiated (spent) fuels have been stored at the facility during the various years of operation. At present there are 40 spent fuel assemblies at dry storage, 79 spent fuel assemblies at wet storage and 30 fuel assemblies in the core. The oldest fuels are of United States origin, made with U-Al alloy, both of LEU and HEU MTR fuel type. many of these fuel assemblies have corrosion pits along their lateral fuel plates. These pits originate by galvanic corrosion between the fuel plate and the stainless steel storage racks. As a consequence of the possibility of sending the irradiated old fuels back to the U.S.A., sipping tests were performed with the spent fuel assemblies. The reason for this was to evaluate their {sup 137}Cs leaking rate, if any. This work describes the procedure and methodology used to perform the sipping tests with the fuel assemblies at the storage pool, and presents the results obtained for the {sup 137}Cs sipping water activity for each fuel assembly. A correlation is made between the corrosion pits and the activity values measured. A {sup 137}Cs leaking rate is determined and compared to the criteria established for canning spent fuel assemblies before shipment. (author).

  3. Experience on wet storage spent fuel sipping at IEA-R1 Brazilian research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrotta, J.A.; Terremoto, L.A.A.; Zeituni, C.A

    1998-03-01

    The IEA-R1 research reactor of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP) is a pool type reactor of B and W design, that has been operating since 1957 at a power of 2 MW. Irradiated (spent) fuels have been stored at the facility during the various years of operation. At present there are 40 spent fuel assemblies at dry storage, 79 spent fuel assemblies at wet storage and 30 fuel assemblies in the core. The oldest fuels are of United States origin, made with U-Al alloy, both of LEU and HEU MTR fuel type. Many of these fuel assemblies have corrosion pits along their lateral fuel plates. These pits originate by galvanic corrosion between the fuel plate and the stainless steel storage racks. As a consequence of the possibility of sending the irradiated old fuels back the U.S.A., sipping tests were performed with the spent fuel assemblies. The reason for this was to evaluate their {sup 137}Cs leaking rate, if any. This work describes the procedure and methodology used to perform the sipping tests with the fuel assemblies at the storage pool, and presents the results obtained for the {sup 137}Cs sipping water activity for each fuel assembly. A correlation is made between the corrosion pits and the activity values measured. A {sup 137}Cs leaking rate is determined and compared to the criteria established for canning spent fuel assemblies before shipment.

  4. Technical basis for storage of Zircaloy-clad spent fuel in inert gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Gilbert, E.R.

    1983-09-01

    This report summarizes the technical bases to establish safe conditions for dry storage of Zircaloy-clad fuel. Dry storage of fuel with zirconium alloy cladding has been licensed in Canada, the Federal Republic of Germany, and Switzerland. In addition, dry storage demonstrations, hot cell tests, and modeling have been conducted using Zircaloy-clad fuel. The demonstrations have included irradiated boiling water reactor, pressurized heavy-water reactor, and pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel assemblies. Irradiated fuel has been emplaced in and retrieved from metal casks, dry wells, silos, and a vault. Dry storage tests and demonstrations have involved {similar_to}5,000 fuel rods, and {similar_to}600 rods have been monitored during dry storage in inert gases with maximum cladding temperatures ranging from 50 to 570{sup 0}C. Although some tests and demonstrations are still in progress, there is currently no evidence that any rods exposed to inert gases have failed (one PWR rod exposed to an air cover gas failed at {similar_to}70{sup 0}C). Based on this favorable experience, it is concluded that there is sufficient information on fuel rod behavior, storage conditions, and potential cladding failure mechanisms to support licensing of dry storage in the United States. This licensing position includes a requirement for inert cover gases and a maximum cladding temperature guideline of 380{sup 0}C for Zircaloy-clad fuel. Using an inert cover gas assures that even if fuel with cladding defects were placed in dry storage, or if defects develop during storage, the defects would not propagate. Tests and demonstrations involving Zircaloy-clad rods and assemblies with maximum cladding temperatures above 400{sup 0}C are in progress. When the results from these tests have been evaluated, the viability of higher temperature limits should be examined. Acceptable conditions for storage in air and dry storage of consolidated fuel are issues yet to be resolved.

  5. MACSTOR{trademark}: Dry spent fuel storage for the nuclear power industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pare, F.E.; Pattantyus, P. [AECL Candu, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Hanson, A.S. [Transnuclear, Inc., Hawthorne, NY (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Safe storage of spent fuel has long been an area of critical concern for the nuclear power industry. As fuel pools fill up and re-racking possibilities become exhausted, power plant operators will find that they must ship spent fuel assemblies off-site or develop new on-site storage options. Many utility companies are turning to dry storage for their spent fuel assemblies. The MACSTOR (Modular Air-cooled Canister STORage) concept was developed with this in mind. Derived from AECL`s successful vertical loading, concrete silo program for storing CANDU nuclear spent fuel, MACSTOR was developed for light water reactor spent fuel and was subjected to full scale thermal testing. The MACSTOR Module is a monolithic, shielded concrete vault structure than can accommodate up to 24 spent fuel canisters. Each canister holds 12 PWR or 32 PWR previously cooled spent fuel assemblies with burn-up rates as high as 45,000 MWD/MTU. The structure is passively cooled by natural convection through an array of inlet and outlet gratings and galleries serving a central plenum where the (vertically) stored canisters are located. The canisters are continuously monitored by means of a pressure monitoring system developed by TNI. The MACSTOR system includes the storage module(s), an overhead gantry system for cask handling, a transfer cask for moving fuel from wet to dry storage and a cask transporter. The canister and transfer cask designs are based on Transnuclear transport cask designs and proven hot cell transfer cask technology, adapted to requirements for on-site spent fuel storage. This Modular Air Cooled System has a number of inherent advantages: efficient use of construction materials and site space; cooling is virtually impossible to impede; has the ability to monitor fuel confinement boundary integrity during storage; the fuel canisters may be used for both storage and transport and canisters utilize a flanged, ASME-III closure system that allows for easy inspection.

  6. 10 CFR 72.214 - List of approved spent fuel storage casks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 72.214 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C... Standardized NUHOMS® Horizontal Modular Storage System for Irradiated Nuclear Fuel. Docket Number:...

  7. 75 FR 25120 - List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: NUHOMS® HD System Revision 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR- RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C... Safety Analysis Report for the NUHOMS HD Horizontal Modular Storage System for Irradiated Nuclear Fuel...; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75, No. 88 / Friday, May 7, 2010 / Proposed Rules#0;#0; ]...

  8. 77 FR 9515 - List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: HI-STORM 100, Revision 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ... RIN 3150-AJ05 List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: HI-STORM 100, Revision 8 AGENCY: Nuclear... Commission) is amending its spent fuel storage regulations by revising the Holtec International HI-STORM 100... and safety will be adequately protected. This direct final rule revises the HI-STORM 100 listing in...

  9. Modular Energy Storage System for Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Janice [Magna International, Rochester Mills, MI (United States)

    2010-08-27

    The objective of the project is to develop technologies, specifically power electronics, energy storage electronics and controls that provide efficient and effective energy management between electrically powered devices in alternative energy vehicles plug-in electric vehicles, hybrid vehicles, range extended vehicles, and hydrogen-based fuel cell vehicles. The in-depth research into the complex interactions between the lower and higher voltage systems from data obtained via modeling, bench testing and instrumented vehicle data will allow an optimum system to be developed from a performance, cost, weight and size perspective. The subsystems are designed for modularity so that they may be used with different propulsion and energy delivery systems. This approach will allow expansion into new alternative energy vehicle markets.

  10. Radiation induced corrosion of copper for spent nuclear fuel storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkbacka, Åsa; Hosseinpour, Saman; Johnson, Magnus; Leygraf, Christofer; Jonsson, Mats

    2013-11-01

    The long term safety of repositories for radioactive waste is one of the main concerns for countries utilizing nuclear power. The integrity of engineered and natural barriers in such repositories must be carefully evaluated in order to minimize the release of radionuclides to the biosphere. One of the most developed concepts of long term storage of spent nuclear fuel is the Swedish KBS-3 method. According to this method, the spent fuel will be sealed inside copper canisters surrounded by bentonite clay and placed 500 m down in stable bedrock. Despite the importance of the process of radiation induced corrosion of copper, relatively few studies have been reported. In this work the effect of the total gamma dose on radiation induced corrosion of copper in anoxic pure water has been studied experimentally. Copper samples submerged in water were exposed to a series of total doses using three different dose rates. Unirradiated samples were used as reference samples throughout. The copper surfaces were examined qualitatively using IRAS and XPS and quantitatively using cathodic reduction. The concentration of copper in solution after irradiation was measured using ICP-AES. The influence of aqueous radiation chemistry on the corrosion process was evaluated based on numerical simulations. The experiments show that the dissolution as well as the oxide layer thickness increase upon radiation. Interestingly, the evaluation using numerical simulations indicates that aqueous radiation chemistry is not the only process driving the corrosion of copper in these systems.

  11. Microfungi problem, health aspects. [Storage of wood fuel chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jirjis, Raida (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (SE). Dept. of Forest Products)

    1988-11-01

    The storage of wood fuel chips, in general, leads to the establishment of microbial activity in the pile. Fungi are one of these microorganisms which can grow vigorously in stored forest products. Different types of fungi are commonly present on wood chip pile; rot fungi, blue stain fungi and moulds. Each fungis has its optimum temperature and humidity. Fungi also differ in their ability to utilize different components of the biofuel; moulds are unable to degrade lignin and only few species can degrade cellulose. Rot fungi on the other hand can attack all parts of the substrate and degrade it to varying degrees. Sporulation in fungi is their mechanisms for reproduction and survival. The spores are produced asexually in special spore carriers which are specific for each type of fungi. In stored wood chip pile the sporulation of moulds is the source of health hazard due to its ability to produce very large numbers of microspores in a short period. These microspores are usually airborne and they are almost always present in air but their numbers differ with time, weather and location. Most people can tolerate the presence of these microfungi at concentrations up to 10{sup 6} spore/m{sup 3} air, but a more intense exposure of 10{sup 10} spores/m{sup 3} air con provoke allergic reactions in certain individuals causing allergic alveolitis. The growth of different fungi on stored wood chips pile depends on the time and the system of storage that is used for that pile. In general, indoors storage, high moisture contents and excess of fine fractions are factors that could lead to intensive fungal activity. Handling of such material necessitate the use of protective helmet to avoid the risks of allergic reactions. (4 refs.) (au).

  12. ALARA Analysis for Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor Core 2 Fuel Storage in the Canister Storage Building (CSB)

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, M E

    2000-01-01

    The addition of Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Core 2 Blanket Fuel Assembly storage in the Canister Storage Building (CSB) will increase the total cumulative CSB personnel exposure from receipt and handling activities. The loaded Shippingport Spent Fuel Canisters (SSFCs) used for the Shippingport fuel have a higher external dose rate. Assuming an MCO handling rate of 170 per year (K East and K West concurrent operation), 24-hr CSB operation, and nominal SSFC loading, all work crew personnel will have a cumulative annual exposure of less than the 1,000 mrem limit.

  13. Permeability of Flexible Materials Used in Fuel Storage Tanks. Part 1. General Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-01

    459 PERMEABILITY OF FLEXIBLE MATERIALS USED IN FUEL STORAGE TANKS: PART 1 - GENERAL REVIEW B.C. Ennis- THE UNITED STATES NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFMATION... GENERAL REVIEW Accession For NTIS T&i Ju £ , ,, L f T B.C. Ennis * .... . . ABSTRACT I A review of the transport of hydrocarbon fuels through composite...PERMEABILITY OF FLEXIBLE MATERIALS USED IN FUEL STORAGE TANKS% ’I PART 1 - GENERAL REVIEW MT40R(S) COF"ATE AUTHOR Materlals Research Laboratories• !ENNIS

  14. Cooling Performance Evaluation of the Hybrid Heat Pipe for Spent Nuclear Fuel Dry Storage Cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Yeong Shin; Bang, In Cheol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    To evaluate the concept of the cooling device, 2-step CFD analysis was conducted for the cooling performance of hybrid heat pipe, which consists of single fuel assembly model and full scope dry cask model. As a passive cooling device of the metal cask for dry storage of spent nuclear fuel, hybrid heat pipe was applied to DPC developed in Korea. Hybrid heat pipe is the heat pipe containing neutron absorber can be used as a passive cooling in nuclear application with both decay heat removal and control the reactivity. In this study, 2-step CFD analysis was performed to find to evaluate the heat pipe-based passive cooling system for the application to the dry cask. Only spent fuel pool cannot satisfy the demands for high burnup fuel and large amount of spent fuel. Therefore, it is necessary to prepare supplement of the storage facilities. As one of the candidate of another type of storage, dry storage method have been preferred due to its good expansibility of storage capacity and easy long-term management. Dry storage uses the gas or air as coolant with passive cooling and neutron shielding materials was used instead of water in wet storage system. It is relatively safe and emits little radioactive waste for the storage. As short term actions for the limited storage capacity of spent fuel pool, it is considered to use dry interim/long term storage method to increase the capacity of spent nuclear fuel storage facilities. For 10-year cooled down spent fuel in the pool storage, fuel rod temperature inside metal cask is expected over 250 .deg. C in simulation. Although it satisfied the criteria that cladding temperature of the spent fuel should keep under 400 .deg. C during storage period, high temperature inside cask can accelerate the thermal degradation of the structural materials consisting metal cask and fuel assembly as well as limitation of the storage capacity of metal cask. In this paper, heat pipe-based cooling device for the dry storage cask was suggested for

  15. Japanese perspectives and research on packaging, transport and storage of spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saegusa, T.; Ito, C.; Yamakawa, H.; Shirai, K. [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), Abiko (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    The Japanese policy on spent fuel is reprocessing. Until, reprocessed, spent fuel shall be stored properly. This paper overviews current status of transport and storage of spent fuel with related research in Japan. The research was partly carried out under a contract of Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry of the Japanese government.

  16. Foreign experience on effects of extended dry storage on the integrity of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, K.J.; Mitchell, S.J.

    1992-04-01

    This report summarizes the results of a survey of foreign experience in dry storage of spent fuel from nuclear power reactors that was carried out for the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). The report reviews the mechanisms for degradation of spent fuel cladding and fuel materials in dry storage, identifies the status and plans of world-wide experience and applications, and documents the available information on the expected long-term integrity of the dry-stored spent fuel from actual foreign experience. Countries covered in this survey are: Argentina, Canada, Federal Republic of Germany (before reunification with the former East Germany), former German Democratic Republic (former East Germany), France, India, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Spain, Switzerland, United Kingdom, and the former USSR (most of these former Republics are now in the Commonwealth of Independent States [CIS]). Industrial dry storage of Magnox fuels started in 1972 in the United Kingdom; Canada began industrial dry storage of CANDU fuels in 1980. The technology for safe storage is generally considered to be developed for time periods of 30 to 100 years for LWR fuel in inert gas and for some fuels in oxidizing gases at low temperatures. Because it will probably be decades before countries will have a repository for spent fuels and high-level wastes, the plans for expanded use of dry storage have increased significantly in recent years and are expected to continue to increase in the near future.

  17. Foreign experience on effects of extended dry storage on the integrity of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, K.J.; Mitchell, S.J.

    1992-04-01

    This report summarizes the results of a survey of foreign experience in dry storage of spent fuel from nuclear power reactors that was carried out for the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). The report reviews the mechanisms for degradation of spent fuel cladding and fuel materials in dry storage, identifies the status and plans of world-wide experience and applications, and documents the available information on the expected long-term integrity of the dry-stored spent fuel from actual foreign experience. Countries covered in this survey are: Argentina, Canada, Federal Republic of Germany (before reunification with the former East Germany), former German Democratic Republic (former East Germany), France, India, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Spain, Switzerland, United Kingdom, and the former USSR (most of these former Republics are now in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)). Industrial dry storage of Magnox fuels started in 1972 in the United Kingdom; Canada began industrial dry storage of CANDU fuels in 1980. The technology for safe storage is generally considered to be developed for time periods of 30 to 100 years for LWR fuel in inert gas and for some fuels in oxidizing gases at low temperatures. Because it will probably be decades before countries will have a repository for spent fuels and high-level wastes, the plans for expanded use of dry storage have increased significantly in recent years and are expected to continue to increase in the near future.

  18. Interim storage of wastes and refuse derived fuels; Zwischenlagerung von Abfaellen und Ersatzbrennstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thome-Kozmiensky, K.J.; Versteyl, A.; Beckmann, M. (eds.)

    2006-07-01

    Authors comment on interim storage of municipal wastes and refuse derived fuels. Topics of the 16 contributions are: Logistics and engineering, planning, estimation of storage time, cost and commitment, amend ment of the regulations, penal risks of interim storage, material flow management at waste incinerators, fire prevention, environmental risk, insurances. (uke)

  19. 77 FR 9591 - List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: HI-STORM 100, Revision 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 72 RIN 3150-AJ05 List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: HI-STORM 100, Revision 8... the Holtec International HI-STORM 100 dry cask storage system listing within the ``List of Approved... other aspects of the HI-STORM 100 dry storage cask system. Because the NRC considers this...

  20. OVERVIEW OF CRITERIA FOR INTERIM WET & DRY STORAGE OF RESEARCH REACTOR SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sindelar, R.; Vinson, D.; Iyer, N.; Fisher, D.

    2010-11-03

    Following discharge from research reactors, spent nuclear fuel may be stored 'wet' in water pools or basins, or it may be stored 'dry' in various configurations including non-sealed or sealed containers until retrieved for ultimate disposition. Interim safe storage practices are based on avoiding degradation to the fuel that would impact functions related to safety. Recommended practices including environmental controls with technical bases, are outlined for wet storage and dry storage of aluminum-clad, aluminum-based research reactor fuel. For wet storage, water quality must be maintained to minimize corrosion degradation of aluminum fuel. For dry storage, vented canister storage of aluminum fuel readily provides a safe storage configuration. For sealed dry storage, drying must be performed so as to minimize water that would cause additional corrosion and hydrogen generation. Consideration must also be given to the potential for radiolytically-generated hydrogen from the bound water in the attendant oxyhydroxides on aluminum fuel from reactor operation for dry storage systems.

  1. 76 FR 33121 - List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: HI-STORM Flood/Wind Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... 3150-AI90 List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: HI-STORM Flood/Wind Addition AGENCY: Nuclear... the NRC's spent fuel storage regulations to add the Holtec HI-STORM Flood/Wind cask system to the... Holtec HI- STORM Flood/Wind cask system to the ``List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks''...

  2. Design requirements of a consolidating dry storage module for CANDU spent fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Ho; Yoon, Jeong Hyoun; Yang, Ke Hyung; Choi, Byung Il; Lee, Heung Young [KHNP/NETEC, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Gyu Seong [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-01

    This paper presents a technical description of design requirement document covers the requirements of the MACSTOR/KN-400 module, which is under development to densely accommodate CANDU spent fuels with more efficient way. The design requirement is for the module that will be constructed within a dry storage site after successfully licensed by the regulatory body. This temporary outdoor spent fuel dry storage facility provides for safe storage of spent nuclear fuel after it has been removed from the plant's storage pool after being allowed to decay for a period of at least 6 years. The MACSTOR/KN-400 module is being designed to the envelope of site environmental conditions encountered at the Wolsong station. The design requirements of MACSTOR/KN-400 module meets the requirements of the appropriate Codes and Standards for dry storage of spent fuel from nuclear power reactors such as lOCFR72, and Korea Atomic Energy Act and relevant technical standard.

  3. Simulating thermal behavior of AECL's spent fuel dry storage system with CATHENA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabourin, G. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    1998-07-01

    This paper documents the comparisons between CATHENA predictions and temperature measurements taken at the Gentilly-2 NPP spent fuel dry storage facility and in a mock--up of a storage basket placed inside a storage cylinder. It also presents CATHENA temperature predictions related to the storage of spent fuel in MACSTOR modules as planned for Ignalina NPP, Lithuania. CATHENA has been chosen because it can simulate many noncondensable gases including air and helium, and because of its great flexibility in the representation of the MACSTOR module geometry. The results of the simulations show good agreement with the experimental measurements. The two comparisons indicate that CATHENA can be used to simulate heat transfer from the fuel to the external air circuit of the spent fuel dry storage system. For the Ignalina MACSTOR module, containing RBMK fuel having higher heat release than typical CANDU fuel, CATHENA predicts that the maximum fuel temperature is expected to be around 240 deg C, giving an acceptable margin below the maximum allowed temperature of 300 deg C. In conclusion, this paper shows that the thermalhydraulic code CATHENA can accurately predict the thermal behavior AECL's air cooled spent fuel dry storage system. (author)

  4. Fuel Aging in Storage and Transportation (FAST): Accelerated Characterization and Performance Assessment of the Used Nuclear Fuel Storage System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDeavitt, Sean [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2016-08-02

    This Integrated Research Project (IRP) was established to characterize key limiting phenomena related to the performance of used nuclear fuel (UNF) storage systems. This was an applied engineering project with a specific application in view (i.e., UNF dry storage). The completed tasks made use of a mixture of basic science and engineering methods. The overall objective was to create, or enable the creation of, predictive tools in the form of observation methods, phenomenological models, and databases that will enable the design, installation, and licensing of dry UNF storage systems that will be capable of containing UNF for extended period of time. The project was divided four distinct, yet synergistic, technical mission areas (TMAs), as summarized below. The key technical results and findings from each of the TMAs are summarized in Sections 2 through 5. Technical Mission Area 1: Low Temperature Creep This mission focused on the low temperature creep of UNF cladding that may be enabled by decay heat from fission products and stresses from internal pressures. The major objectives were (1) to obtain data using highly oxidized/hydrided tubing under relevant stresses and temperatures, (2) to characterize and translate that data to enable input to FRAPCON and other codes that may be modified to predict UNF behavior in dry storage, and (3) to formulate atomistic simulations to better understand long term creep behavior. Technical Mission Area 2: Hydrogen Behavior and Delayed Hydride Cracking This mission focused on the characterization and understanding of delayed hydride cracking (DHC) in spent Zircaloy cladding. The DHC mechanism is generally attributed to local hydride precipitation at stress risers present on the surface of the cladding. Samples with low and high hydrogen loadings were prepared and studiedusing various methods. Technical Mission Area 3: UNF Canister Corrosion This mission was focused on recognized gaps in understanding mechanisms relevant to the

  5. Natural heat storage in a brine-filled solar pond in the Tully Valley of central New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayhurst, Brett; Kappel, William M.

    2014-01-01

    The Tully Valley, located in southern Onondaga County, New York, has a long history of unusual natural hydrogeologic phenomena including mudboils (Kappel, 2009), landslides (Tamulonis and others, 2009; Pair and others, 2000), landsurface subsidence (Hackett and others, 2009; Kappel, 2009), and a brine-filled sinkhole or “Solar pond” (fig. 1), which is documented in this report. A solar pond is a pool of salty water (brine) which stores the sun’s energy in the form of heat. The saltwater naturally forms distinct layers with increasing density between transitional zones (haloclines) of rapidly changing specific conductance with depth. In a typical solar pond, the top layer has a low salt content and is often times referred to as the upper convective zone (Lu and others, 2002). The bottom layer is a concentrated brine that is either convective or temperature stratified dependent on the surrounding environment. Solar insolation is absorbed and stored in the lower, denser brine while the overlying halocline acts as an insulating layer and prevents heat from moving upwards from the lower zone (Lu and others, 2002). In the case of the Tully Valley solar pond, water within the pond can be over 90 degrees Fahrenheit (°F) in late summer and early fall. The purpose of this report is to summarize observations at the Tully Valley brine-filled sinkhole and provide supplemental climate data which might affect the pond salinity gradients insolation (solar energy).

  6. Recycled water reuse permit renewal application for the materials and fuels complex industrial waste ditch and industrial waste pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Name, No

    2014-10-01

    This renewal application for the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (IWRP) WRU-I-0160-01 at Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) Industrial Waste Ditch (IWD) and Industrial Waste Pond (IWP) is being submitted to the State of Idaho, Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ). This application has been prepared in compliance with the requirements in IDAPA 58.01.17, Recycled Water Rules. Information in this application is consistent with the IDAPA 58.01.17 rules, pre-application meeting, and the Guidance for Reclamation and Reuse of Municipal and Industrial Wastewater (September 2007). This application is being submitted using much of the same information contained in the initial permit application, submitted in 2007, and modification, in 2012. There have been no significant changes to the information and operations covered in the existing IWRP. Summary of the monitoring results and operation activity that has occurred since the issuance of the WRP has been included. MFC has operated the IWP and IWD as regulated wastewater land treatment facilities in compliance with the IDAPA 58.01.17 regulations and the IWRP. Industrial wastewater, consisting primarily of continuous discharges of nonhazardous, nonradioactive, routinely discharged noncontact cooling water and steam condensate, periodic discharges of industrial wastewater from the MFC facility process holdup tanks, and precipitation runoff, are discharged to the IWP and IWD system from various MFC facilities. Wastewater goes to the IWP and IWD with a permitted annual flow of up to 17 million gallons/year. All requirements of the IWRP are being met. The Operations and Maintenance Manual for the Industrial Wastewater System will be updated to include any new requirements.

  7. Recycled Water Reuse Permit Renewal Application for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    No Name

    2014-10-01

    ABSTRACT This renewal application for the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (IWRP) WRU-I-0160-01 at Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) Industrial Waste Ditch (IWD) and Industrial Waste Pond (IWP) is being submitted to the State of Idaho, Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ). This application has been prepared in compliance with the requirements in IDAPA 58.01.17, Recycled Water Rules. Information in this application is consistent with the IDAPA 58.01.17 rules, pre-application meeting, and the Guidance for Reclamation and Reuse of Municipal and Industrial Wastewater (September 2007). This application is being submitted using much of the same information contained in the initial permit application, submitted in 2007, and modification, in 2012. There have been no significant changes to the information and operations covered in the existing IWRP. Summary of the monitoring results and operation activity that has occurred since the issuance of the WRP has been included. MFC has operated the IWP and IWD as regulated wastewater land treatment facilities in compliance with the IDAPA 58.01.17 regulations and the IWRP. Industrial wastewater, consisting primarily of continuous discharges of nonhazardous, nonradioactive, routinely discharged noncontact cooling water and steam condensate, periodic discharges of industrial wastewater from the MFC facility process holdup tanks, and precipitation runoff, are discharged to the IWP and IWD system from various MFC facilities. Wastewater goes to the IWP and IWD with a permitted annual flow of up to 17 million gallons/year. All requirements of the IWRP are being met. The Operations and Maintenance Manual for the Industrial Wastewater System will be updated to include any new requirements.

  8. 2014 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Mike [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (WRU-I-0160-01, formerly LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2013 through October 31, 2014. The report contains the following information; Facility and system description; Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates; Groundwater monitoring data; Status of special compliance conditions; Noncompliance issues; and Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2014 reporting year, an estimated 10.11 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 17 million gallons per year. The concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the applicable Idaho Department of Environmental Quality’s groundwater quality standard levels.

  9. 2010 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David B. Frederick

    2011-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from May 1, 2010 through October 31, 2010. The report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Groundwater monitoring data • Status of special compliance conditions • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2010 partial reporting year, an estimated 3.646 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 13 million gallons per year. The concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Primary and Secondary Constituent Standards.

  10. 2011 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Frederick

    2012-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA-000160-01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2010 through October 31, 2011. The report contains the following information: (1) Facility and system description; (2) Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates; (3) Groundwater monitoring data; (4) Status of special compliance conditions; and (5) Discussion of the facility's environmental impacts. During the 2011 reporting year, an estimated 6.99 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 13 million gallons per year. Using the dissolved iron data, the concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Primary and Secondary Constituent Standards.

  11. 2010 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David B. Frederick

    2011-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from May 1, 2010 through October 31, 2010. The report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Groundwater monitoring data • Status of special compliance conditions • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2010 partial reporting year, an estimated 3.646 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 13 million gallons per year. The concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Primary and Secondary Constituent Standards.

  12. 2012 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Lewis

    2013-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (WRU-I-0160-01, formerly LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2011 through October 31, 2012. The report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Groundwater monitoring data • Status of special compliance conditions • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2012 reporting year, an estimated 11.84 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 17 million gallons per year. The concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Primary and Secondary Constituent Standards.

  13. 2011 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Frederick

    2012-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA-000160-01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2010 through October 31, 2011. The report contains the following information: (1) Facility and system description; (2) Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates; (3) Groundwater monitoring data; (4) Status of special compliance conditions; and (5) Discussion of the facility's environmental impacts. During the 2011 reporting year, an estimated 6.99 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 13 million gallons per year. Using the dissolved iron data, the concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Primary and Secondary Constituent Standards.

  14. DEMONSTRATION OF LONG-TERM STORAGE CAPABILITY FOR SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL IN L BASIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sindelar, R.; Deible, R.

    2011-04-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy decisions for the ultimate disposition of its inventory of used nuclear fuel presently in, and to be received and stored in, the L Basin at the Savannah River Site, and schedule for project execution have not been established. A logical decision timeframe for the DOE is following the review of the overall options for fuel management and disposition by the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future (BRC). The focus of the BRC review is commercial fuel; however, the BRC has included the DOE fuel inventory in their review. Even though the final report by the BRC to the U.S. Department of Energy is expected in January 2012, no timetable has been established for decisions by the U.S. Department of Energy on alternatives selection. Furthermore, with the imminent lay-up and potential closure of H-canyon, no ready path for fuel disposition would be available, and new technologies and/or facilities would need to be established. The fuel inventory in wet storage in the 3.375 million gallon L Basin is primarily aluminum-clad, aluminum-based fuel of the Materials Test Reactor equivalent design. An inventory of non-aluminum-clad fuel of various designs is also stored in L Basin. Safe storage of fuel in wet storage mandates several high-level 'safety functions' that would be provided by the Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs) of the storage system. A large inventory of aluminum-clad, aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel, and other nonaluminum fuel owned by the U.S. Department of Energy is in wet storage in L Basin at the Savannah River Site. An evaluation of the present condition of the fuel, and the Structures, Systems, or Components (SSCs) necessary for its wet storage, and the present programs and storage practices for fuel management have been performed. Activities necessary to validate the technical bases for, and verify the condition of the fuel and the SSCs under long-term wet storage have also been identified. The

  15. Irradiation of Microbes from Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Pool Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breckenridge, C.R.; Watkins, C.S.; Bruhn, D.F.; Roberto, F.F.; Tsang, M.N.; Pinhero, P.J. [INEEL (US); Brey, R.F. [ISU (US); Wright, R.N.; Windes, W.F.

    1999-09-03

    Microbes have been isolated and identified from spent nuclear fuel storage pools at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Included among these are Corynebacterium aquaticum, Pseudomonas putida, Comamonas acidovorans, Gluconobacter cerinus, Micrococcus diversus, Rhodococcus rhodochrous, and two strains of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). We examined the sensitivity of these microbes to a variety of total exposures of radiation generated by a 6-MeV linear accelerator (LINAC). The advantage of using a LINAC is that it provides a relatively quick screen of radiation tolerance. In the first set of experiments, we exposed each of the aforementioned microbes along with four additional microbes, pseudomonas aeruginosa, Micrococcus luteus, Escherchia coli, and Deinococcus radiodurans to exposures of 5 x 10{sup 3} and 6 x 10{sup 4} rad. All microbial specimens withstood the lower exposure with little or no reduction in cell population. Upon exposing the microbes to the larger dose of 6 x 10{sup 4} rad, we observed two distinct groupings: microbes that demonstrate resistance to radiation, and microbes that display intolerance through a dramatic reduction from their initial population. Microbes in the radiation tolerant grouping were exposed to 1.1 x 10{sup 5} rad to examine the extent of their resistance. We observe a correlation between radiation resistance and gram stain. The gram-positive species we examined seem to demonstrate a greater radiation resistance.

  16. Spent-fuel dry-storage testing at E-MAD (March 1978-March 1982)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unterzuber, R.; Milnes, R.D.; Marinkovich, B.A.; Kubancsek, G.M.

    1982-09-01

    From March 1978 through March 1982, spent fuel dry storage tests were conducted at the Engine Maintenance, Assembly and Disassembly (E-MAD) facility on the Nevada Test Site to confirm that commercial reactor spent fuel could be encapsulated and passively stored in one or more interim dry storage cell concepts. These tests were: electrically heated drywell, isolated and adjacent drywell, concrete silo, fuel assembly internal temperature measurement, and air-cooled vault. This document presents the test data and results as well as results from supporting test operations (spent fuel calorimetry and canister gas sampling).

  17. Electrolyser-metal hydride-fuel cell system for seasonal energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhanen, J.P.; Lund, P.D.; Tolonen, J.S. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Engineering Physics and Mathematics Dept., Helsinki (Finland)

    1998-12-01

    A small-scale seasonal energy storage system, comprising an electrolyser, metal hydride hydrogen store and fuel cell, has been studied. According to the feasibility study, solid polymer electrolysers and fuel cells are the best options for the electrolyser-metal hydride-fuel cell energy storage systems. A round-trip efficiency of 30% has already been demonstrated, and the next target is to reach a round-trip efficiency close to 40%. The electyrolyser-metal hydride-fuel cell systems are suitable for small-scale self-sufficient applications in which high volumetric capacity is needed and safety aspects are appreciated. (Author)

  18. Regenerative Hydrogen-oxygen Fuel Cell-electrolyzer Systems for Orbital Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheibley, D. W.

    1984-01-01

    Fuel cells have found application in space since Gemini. Over the years technology advances have been factored into the mainstream hardware programs. Performance levels and service lives have been gradually improving. More recently, the storage application for fuel cell-electrolyzer combinations are receiving considerable emphasis. The regenerative system application described here is part of a NASA Fuel Cell Program which was developed to advance the fuel cell and electrolyzer technology required to satisfy the identified power generation and energy storage need of the Agency for space transportation and orbital applications to the year 2000.

  19. Categorization of failed and damaged spent LWR (light-water reactor) fuel currently in storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, W.J.

    1987-11-01

    The results of a study that was jointly sponsored by the US Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute are described in this report. The purpose of the study was to (1) estimate the number of failed fuel assemblies and damaged fuel assemblies (i.e., ones that have sustained mechanical or chemical damage but with fuel rod cladding that is not breached) in storage, (2) categorize those fuel assemblies, and (3) prepare this report as an authoritative, illustrated source of information on such fuel. Among the more than 45,975 spent light-water reactor fuel assemblies currently in storage in the United States, it appears that there are nearly 5000 failed or damaged fuel assemblies. 78 refs., 23 figs., 19 tabs.

  20. Proposal to characterise legacy Sellafield ponds using SONAR and RadLine Trade-Mark-Sign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, Sarah F., E-mail: s.reddy@lancaster.ac.uk [Engineering Department, Lancaster University, Bailrigg, Lancaster, Lancashire LA1 4YR (United Kingdom); Monk, Stephen D.; Nye, Daniel W.; Colling, Bethany R.; Stanley, Steven J. [Engineering Department, Lancaster University, Bailrigg, Lancaster, Lancashire LA1 4YR (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-15

    Sellafield Nuclear Reprocessing Plant in Cumbria contains storage ponds built in the 1950s which was originally intended to hold spent nuclear fuel for reprocessing, and eventual production of weapons grade plutonium. Parts of the spent fuel have corroded; some are buried under a layer of sediment or intertwined with other debris and removal and destruction of this nuclear waste is not a trivial task due to elevated radiation levels. We propose a system in collaboration with the National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) to characterise the ponds using a system containing three main parts; an ultrasonic SONAR system used to physically map the pond, scintillator based radiation detector (known as RadLine Trade-Mark-Sign) used to map the pond from a radiation point of view, and bespoke software intended to combine the physical and radiation plots of this environment to create an overall 3D source map.

  1. Technology for the Recovery of Fuel and Adsorbent Carbons from Coal Burning Utility Ash Ponds and Landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.G. Groppo; T.L. Robl

    2005-09-30

    Several sampling techniques were evaluated to recover representative core samples from the ash ponds at Western Kentucky Energy's Coleman Station. The most successful was a combination of continuous-flight augers and specially designed soft-sediment sampling tubes driven by a Hammerhead drill mounted on an amphibious ARGO vehicle. A total of 51 core samples were recovered and analyzed in 3 ft sections and it was determined that there are 1,354,974 tons of ash in Pond C. Of the over 1.35M tons of ash present, 14% or 190K tons can be considered as coarse (+100 mesh). Pond C contains approximately 88K tons of carbon, nearly half of which is coarse and potentially recoverable with spiral concentration while the fine carbon (-100 mesh) is recoverable with froth flotation. There are 1.27M tons of carbon-free ash, 12% of which is coarse and potentially usable as block sand. Spiral concentration testing on bulk samples showed that product grade of 30 to 38% C (4200 to 5500 Btu/lb) was obtainable. When this product was cleaned again in an additional stage of spiral concentration, the product grade was improved to 7200 to 8200 Btu/lb with an accompanying 13 to 29% decrease in yield. Release analysis of hydraulically classified pond ash showed that froth flotation could provide froth products with as high a grade as 9000 Btu/lb with a yield of 5%. Increasing yield to 10% reduced froth grade to 7000 Btu/lb. Batch flotation provided froth grades as high as 6500 Btu/lb with yields of 7% with 1.5 lb/ton SPP and 1 lb/ton frother. Column flotation test results were similar to those achieved in batch flotation in terms of both grade and yield, however, carbon recoveries were lower (<70%). High airflow rate was required to achieve >50% carbon recovery and using wash water improved froth grade. Bottom ash samples were recovered from each of the units at Coleman Station. Characterization confirmed that sufficient quantity and quality of material is generated to produce a

  2. Technology for the Recovery of Fuel and Adsorbent Carbons from Coal Burning Utility Ash Ponds and Landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.G. Groppo; T.L. Robl

    2005-09-30

    Several sampling techniques were evaluated to recover representative core samples from the ash ponds at Western Kentucky Energy's Coleman Station. The most successful was a combination of continuous-flight augers and specially designed soft-sediment sampling tubes driven by a Hammerhead drill mounted on an amphibious ARGO vehicle. A total of 51 core samples were recovered and analyzed in 3 ft sections and it was determined that there are 1,354,974 tons of ash in Pond C. Of the over 1.35M tons of ash present, 14% or 190K tons can be considered as coarse (+100 mesh). Pond C contains approximately 88K tons of carbon, nearly half of which is coarse and potentially recoverable with spiral concentration while the fine carbon (-100 mesh) is recoverable with froth flotation. There are 1.27M tons of carbon-free ash, 12% of which is coarse and potentially usable as block sand. Spiral concentration testing on bulk samples showed that product grade of 30 to 38% C (4200 to 5500 Btu/lb) was obtainable. When this product was cleaned again in an additional stage of spiral concentration, the product grade was improved to 7200 to 8200 Btu/lb with an accompanying 13 to 29% decrease in yield. Release analysis of hydraulically classified pond ash showed that froth flotation could provide froth products with as high a grade as 9000 Btu/lb with a yield of 5%. Increasing yield to 10% reduced froth grade to 7000 Btu/lb. Batch flotation provided froth grades as high as 6500 Btu/lb with yields of 7% with 1.5 lb/ton SPP and 1 lb/ton frother. Column flotation test results were similar to those achieved in batch flotation in terms of both grade and yield, however, carbon recoveries were lower (<70%). High airflow rate was required to achieve >50% carbon recovery and using wash water improved froth grade. Bottom ash samples were recovered from each of the units at Coleman Station. Characterization confirmed that sufficient quantity and quality of material is generated to produce a

  3. Making the case for direct hydrogen storage in fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, B.D.; Thomas, C.E.; Baum, G.N.; Lomas, F.D. Jr.; Kuhn, I.F. Jr. [Directed Technologies, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Three obstacles to the introduction of direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles are often states: (1) inadequate onboard hydrogen storage leading to limited vehicle range; (2) lack of an hydrogen infrastructure, and (3) cost of the entire fuel cell system. This paper will address the first point with analysis of the problem/proposed solutions for the remaining two obstacles addressed in other papers. Results of a recent study conducted by Directed Technologies Inc. will be briefly presented. The study, as part of Ford Motor Company/DOE PEM Fuel Cell Program, examines multiple pure hydrogen onboard storage systems on the basis of weight, volume, cost, and complexity. Compressed gas, liquid, carbon adsorption, and metal hydride storage are all examined with compressed hydrogen storage at 5,000 psia being judged the lowest-risk, highest benefit, near-term option. These results are combined with recent fuel cell vehicle drive cycle simulations to estimate the onboard hydrogen storage requirement for full vehicle range (380 miles on the combined Federal driving schedule). The results indicate that a PNGV-like vehicle using powertrain weights and performance realistically available by the 2004 PNGV target data can achieve approximate fuel economy equivalent to 100 mpg on gasoline (100 mpg{sub eq}) and requires storage of approximately 3.6 kg hydrogen for full vehicle storage quantity allows 5,000 psia onboard storage without altering the vehicle exterior lines or appreciably encroaching on the passenger or trunk compartments.

  4. Heat transfer in fuel oil storage tank at thermal power plants with local fuel heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsova Svetlana A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of mathematical modeling of the thermal control system in fuel oil storage, in the presence of heat source at the lower boundary of the region, in the framework of models of incompressible viscous fluid are presented. Solved the system of differential equations of non-stationary Navier-Stokes equations, the energy equation and the heat equation with appropriate initial and boundary conditions. Takes into account the processes of heat exchange region considered with the environment. A comparative analysis of the dependence of average temperatures of oil in the volume of the tank on the time calculated by the simplified (balanced method and obtained as a result of numerical simulation are performed.

  5. Evolution of the MACSTOR{trademark} dry spent fuel storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pare, F.E.; Joubert, W.M. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    The MACSTOR{trademark} (Modular Air-Cooled Canister Storage) system was developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) for the interim storage of spent fuel discharged by light water reactors. It is a hybrid system which combines the operational economies of metal cask technology with the capital economies of concrete technology. The system includes all the necessary equipment to transfer spent fuel from a storage pool to an independent interim dry spent fuel storage site. After presenting a description of the system and a brief history of its development, the paper addresses its thermal performance and modeling for various design configurations. Finally, a brief summary of the experience being gained during the implementation of a MACSTOR{trademark} system modified for CANDU spent fuel at the Gentilly-2 NPP in Quebec is presented. It includes progress made in licensing activities and in public hearings pertinent to the initiation of the project.

  6. 77 FR 48565 - Maine Yankee Atomic Power Company, Maine Yankee Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... also holds a 10 CFR part 72 general license for storage of spent fuel and greater than Class C waste at... significant increase in either occupational radiation exposure or public radiation exposure because...

  7. Symposium on Energy Storage Materials Energy and Fuel Division, 246th ACS National Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-17

    Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Symposium on Energy Storage Materials Energy and Fuel Division, 246th ACS National...Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 ARO, symposium, batteries, energy, ACS REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR...journals: Final Report: Symposium on Energy Storage Materials Energy and Fuel Division, 246th ACS National Meeting Report Title The symposium took place on

  8. Use of burnup credit in criticality evaluation for spent fuel storage pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chon, Je Keun; Kim, Jae Chun; Koh, Duck Joon; Kim Byung Tae [Nuclear Environment Technology Institute, Korea Electric Power Corporation, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-07-01

    Boraflex is a polymer based material which is used as matrix to contain a neutron absorber material, boron carbide. In a typical spent fuel pool the irradiated Boraflex has been known as a significant source of silica. Since 1996, it was reported that elevated silica levels were measured in the Ulchin Unit 2 spent fuel pool water. Therefore, the Ulchin Unit 2 spent fuel storage racks were needed to be reanalyzed to allow storage of fuel assemblies with normal enrichments up to 5.0w/o U-235 in all storage cell locations using credit for burnup. The analysis does not take any credit for the presence of the spent fuel rack Boraflex neutron absorber panels. In region 2, the calculations were performed by assuming in an infinite radial array of storage cells. No credit is taken for axial or radial neutron leakage. The water in the spent fuel storage pool was assumed to be pure. In the evaluation of the Ulchin Unit 2 spent fuel storage pool, criticality analyses were performed with the CASMO-3 code. A reactivity uncertainty in the fuel depletion calculations was combined with other calculational uncertainty. The manufacturing tolerances were considered, as well. From the calculation, the acceptable burnup domain in region 2 of the spent fuel storage pool. where the curve identifies conditions of equal reactivity for various initial enrichments between 1.6w/o and 5.0w/o, was evaluated. In region 2, the maximum k{sub e}ff including all uncertainties, is 0.94648 for the enrichment-burnup combination from loading curve. (author)

  9. Design of spent-fuel concrete pit dry storage and handling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamaki, H.; Natsume, T.; Maruoka, K.; Yokoyama, T. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Yokohama (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    An advanced dry storage system design with highly improved storage efficiency of spent nuclear fuel has been developed. The new concept 'Concrete Pit Dry Storage System' realizes a safe and economical solution to an increasing demand of storing spent fuel assemblies (SFAs) generated from commercial nuclear power reactors. The system is basically composed of a large mass concrete module which has densely arranged pit boreholes, sealed canisters containing spent fuel assemblies and a canister handling system. The system is characterized by the following advantages compared with the existing concrete module type storage systems: higher storage efficiency can be achieved by the storage module filled with concrete which also gives a high shielding performance; simple handling technology is used for transfer and installation of the canisters at the storage facility as well as the transport cask of the canisters, surface contamination of the canister is prevented; lower radiation around the storage area is provided to reduce radiation exposure during handling and storage; high structural integrity of the facility is maintained by the concrete module with a simple construction ; the ventilation gallery introducing cooling air air to the bit borehole has an enough draft height to improve cooling performance of the system; a result of the design concept, the storage system can store higher burn-up SFAs with a short cooling period. (authors)

  10. 76 FR 2277 - List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: NUHOMS® HD System Revision 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR- RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE 1. The... the NUHOMS HD Horizontal Modular Storage System for Irradiated Nuclear Fuel. ] Docket Number: 72-1030... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR...

  11. 75 FR 24786 - List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: NUHOMS® HD System Revision 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... include pressurized water reactor fuel assemblies with control components, reduce the minimum initial..., for the dry storage of spent nuclear fuel at civilian nuclear power reactor sites, with the objective... sites of civilian nuclear power reactors without, to the maximum extent practicable, the need...

  12. 78 FR 123 - Diablo Canyon, Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation; License Amendment Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... and transfer spent fuel, reactor-related Greater than Class C waste and other radioactive materials... Criteria,'' is revised to add reference to Table 2.1-9 as regionalized loading of high burn-up fuel. c. TS... cases to mail copies on electronic storage media. Participants may not submit paper copies of their...

  13. Storage Stability of Jet Fuel Not Containing Anti-Oxidant (AO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    tertiary alkyl groups are not as effective as one methyl and one tertiary butyl. 2. Sharma, B.K., Perez, J.M., Erhan, S.V., “Soybean Oil-Based... Kerosene Fuels,” Proceedings of 2nd International Conference on Long Term Storage Stability of Liquid Fuels, Stavinoha, L.L., Southwest Research Institute

  14. Analysis of DC/DC Converter Efficiency for Energy Storage System Based on Bidirectional Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pittini, Riccardo; Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2013-01-01

    Renewable energy sources are fluctuating depending on the availability of the energy source. For this reason, energy storage is becoming more important and bidirectional fuel cells represent an attractive technology. Fuel cells require highcurrent low-voltage dc-dc or dc-ac converters as power...

  15. 78 FR 61401 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Big Rock Point; Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC 20555-0001..., and 10 CFR part 50, allows ENO to possess and store spent nuclear fuel at the permanently shutdown and... Director, Division of Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation, Office of Nuclear Material Safety...

  16. 10 CFR 72.236 - Specific requirements for spent fuel storage cask approval and fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR... storage cask must be designed to provide adequate heat removal capacity without active cooling systems. (g... ascertain that there are no cracks, pinholes, uncontrolled voids, or other defects that could...

  17. 75 FR 81031 - Consideration of Environmental Impacts of Temporary Storage of Spent Fuel After Cessation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... Commission 10 CFR Part 51 Consideration of Environmental Impacts of Temporary Storage of Spent Fuel After... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 51 RIN 3150-AI47 Consideration of Environmental Impacts of Temporary Storage of Spent... environmental considerations; it was based on finding that 30 years beyond the licensed life for operation...

  18. Modeling and Nonlinear Control of Fuel Cell / Supercapacitor Hybrid Energy Storage System for Electric Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Fadil, Hassan; Giri, Fouad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of controlling hybrid energy storage system (HESS) for electric vehicle. The storage system consists of a fuel cell (FC), serving as the main power source, and a supercapacitor (SC), serving as an auxiliary power source. It also contains a power block for energy...

  19. Forecast level in the groundwater regime in the territory adjacent to the pond - storage devices waste mine water "SVIDOVOK"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevhrashkina H.P.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The hydrodynamic scheme layer-bond is proposed for long – term level regime forecast. Which takes into account the rising ground waters under the influence by hydrodynamic schemes: of the pond and of the river Samara. The process is described with Fourier’s equation. The method of double superposition is used in the calculations, which the most accurately accounts for the effect of boundary condition

  20. Super-capacitors as an energy storage for fuel cell automotive hybrid electrical system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thounthong, P.; Rael, St.; Davat, B. [Institut National Polytechnique, GREEN-INPL-CNRS (UMR 7037), 54 - Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France)

    2004-07-01

    The design, implementation and testing of a purely super-capacitors energy storage system for automotive system having a fuel cell as main source are presented. The system employs a super-capacitive storage device, composed of six components (3500 F, 2.5 V, 400 A) associated in series. This device is connected to automotive 42 V DC bus by a 2-quadrant DC-DC converter. The control structure of the system is realised by means of analogical and digital control. The experimental results show that super-capacitors are suitable as energy storage device for fuel cell automotive electrical system. (authors)

  1. High temperature solid oxide regenerative fuel cell for solar photovoltaic energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bents, David J.

    1987-01-01

    A hydrogen-oxygen regenerative fuel cell energy storage system based on high temperature solid oxide fuel cell technology is discussed which has application to darkside energy storage for solar photovoltaics. The forward and reverse operating cycles are described, and heat flow, mass, and energy balance data are presented to characterize the system's performance and the variation of performance with changing reactant storage pressure. The present system weighs less than nickel hydrogen battery systems after 0.7 darkside operation, and it maintains a specific weight advantage over radioisotope generators for discharge periods up to 72 hours.

  2. High temperature solid oxide regenerative fuel cell for solar photovoltaic energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bents, David J.

    1987-01-01

    A hydrogen-oxygen regenerative fuel cell energy storage system based on high temperature solid oxide fuel cell technology is discussed which has application to darkside energy storage for solar photovoltaics. The forward and reverse operating cycles are described, and heat flow, mass, and energy balance data are presented to characterize the system's performance and the variation of performance with changing reactant storage pressure. The present system weighs less than nickel hydrogen battery systems after 0.7 darkside operation, and it maintains a specific weight advantage over radioisotope generators for discharge periods up to 72 hours.

  3. Evaluation of Fluorine-Trapping Agents for Use During Storage of the MSRE Fuel Salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brynestad, J.; Williams, D.F.

    1999-05-01

    A fundamental characteristic of the room temperature Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) fuel is that the radiation from the retained fission products and actinides interacts with this fluoride salt to produce fluorine gas. The purpose of this investigation was to identify fluorine-trapping materials for the MSRE fuel salt that can meet both the requirement of interim storage in a sealed (gastight) container and the vented condition required for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Sealed containers will be needed for interim storage because of the large radon source that remains even in fuel salt stripped of its uranium content. An experimental program was undertaken to identify the most promising candidates for efficient trapping of the radiolytic fluorine generated by the MSRE fuel salt. Because of the desire to avoid pressurizing the closed storage containers, an agent that traps fluorine without the generation of gaseous products was sought.

  4. A model for release of fission products from a breached fuel plate under wet storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terremoto, L.A.A.; Seerban, R.S.; Zeituni, C.A.; Silva, J.E.R. da; Silva, A.T. e; Castanheira, M.; Lucki, G.; Damy, M. de A.; Teodoro, C.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: laaterre@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    MTR fuel elements burned-up inside the core of nuclear research reactors are stored worldwide mainly under the water of storage pools. When cladding breach is present in one or more fuel plates of such elements, radioactive fission products are released into the storage pool water. This work proposes a model to describe the release mechanism considering the diffusion of nuclides of a radioactive fission product either through a postulated small cylindrical breach or directly from a large circular hole in the cladding. In each case, an analytical expression is obtained for the activity released into the water as a function of the total storage time of a breached fuel plate. Regarding sipping tests already performed at the IEA-R1 research reactor on breached MTR fuel elements, the proposed model correlates successfully the specific activity of {sup 137}Cs, measured as a function of time, with the evaluated size of the cladding breach. (author)

  5. Sensitivity Analysis of Depletion Parameters for Heat Load Evaluation of PWR Spent Fuel Storage Pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In Young; Lee, Un Chul [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    As necessity of safety re-evaluation for spent fuel storage facility has emphasized after the Fukushima accident, accuracy improvement of heat load evaluation has become more important to acquire reliable thermal-hydraulic evaluation results. As groundwork, parametric and sensitivity analyses of various storage conditions for Kori Unit 4 spent fuel storage pool and spent fuel depletion parameters such as axial burnup effect, operation history, and specific heat are conducted using ORIGEN2 code. According to heat load evaluation and parametric sensitivity analyses, decay heat of last discharged fuel comprises maximum 80.42% of total heat load of storage facility and there is a negative correlation between effect of depletion parameters and cooling period. It is determined that specific heat is most influential parameter and operation history is secondly influential parameter. And decay heat of just discharged fuel is varied from 0.34 to 1.66 times of average value and decay heat of 1 year cooled fuel is varied from 0.55 to 1.37 times of average value in accordance with change of specific power. Namely depletion parameters can cause large variation in decay heat calculation of short-term cooled fuel. Therefore application of real operation data instead of user selection value is needed to improve evaluation accuracy. It is expected that these results could be used to improve accuracy of heat load assessment and evaluate uncertainty of calculated heat load.

  6. Rod internal pressure of spent nuclear fuel and its effects on cladding degradation during dry storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ju-Seong; Hong, Jong-Dae; Yang, Yong-Sik; Kook, Dong-Hak

    2017-08-01

    Temperature and hoop stress limits have been used to prevent the gross rupture of spent nuclear fuel during dry storage. The stress due to rod internal pressure can induce cladding degradation such as creep, hydride reorientation, and delayed hydride cracking. Creep is a self-limiting phenomenon in a dry storage system; in contrast, hydride reorientation and delayed hydride cracking are potential degradation mechanisms activated at low temperatures when the cladding material is brittle. In this work, a conservative rod internal pressure and corresponding hoop stress were calculated using FRAPCON-4.0 fuel performance code. Based on the hoop stresses during storage, a study on the onset of hydride reorientation and delayed hydride cracking in spent nuclear fuel was conducted under the current storage guidelines. Hydride reorientation is hard to occur in most of the low burn-up fuel while some high burn-up fuel can experience hydride reorientation, but their effect may not be significant. On the other hand, delayed hydride cracking will not occur in spent nuclear fuel from pressurized water reactor; however, there is a lack of confirmatory data on threshold intensity factor for delayed hydride cracking and crack size distribution in the fuel.

  7. Release of tritium from fuel and collection for storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, L.L.; Trevorrow, L.E.

    1976-04-01

    Recent work is reviewed on the technology that has been suggested as applicable to collection and storage of tritium in anticipation of the necessity of that course of action. Collection technology and procedures must be adapted to the tritium-bearing effluent and to the facility from which it emerges. Therefore, this discussion of tritium collection technology includes some information on the processes from which release is expected to occur, the amounts, the nature of the effluent media, and the form in which tritium appears. Recent work on collection and storage concepts has explored, both by experimentation and by feasibility analyses, the operations generally aimed at producing recycle, collection, or storage of tritium from these streams. Storage concepts aimed specifically at tritium involve plans to store volumes ranging from that of the entire effluent stream to only that of a small volume of a concentrate. Decisions between storage of unconcentrated streams and storage of concentrates are expected to be made largely by weighing the cost of storage space against the cost of concentration. The storage of tritium concentrate requires the selection of a form of tritium possessing physical and chemical properties appropriate for the expected storage conditions. This selection of an appropriate storage form has occupied a major portion of recent work concerned with tritium storage concepts. In summary, within the context of present regulations and expected amounts of waste tritium; this waste can be disposed of by dilution and dispersal to the environment. In the future, however, more restrictive regulations might be introduced that could be satisfied only by some collection and storage operations. Technology for this practice is not now available, and the present discussion reviews recent activities devoted to its development.

  8. Alternatives for managing wastes from reactors and post-fission operations in the LWR fuel cycle. Volume 3. Alternatives for interim storage and transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-05-01

    Volume III of the five-volume report contains information on alternatives for interim storage and transportation. Section titles are: interim storage of spent fuel elements; interim storage of chop-leach fuel bundle residues; tank storage of high-level liquid waste; interim storage of solid non-high-level wastes; interim storage of solidified high-level waste; and, transportation alternatives. (JGB)

  9. High Performance Fuel Cell and Electrolyzer Membrane Electrode Assemblies (MEAs) for Space Energy Storage Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Thomas I.; Billings, Keith J.; Kisor, Adam; Bennett, William R.; Jakupca, Ian J.; Burke, Kenneth; Hoberecht, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Regenerative fuel cells provide a pathway to energy storage system development that are game changers for NASA missions. The fuel cell/ electrolysis MEA performance requirements 0.92 V/ 1.44 V at 200 mA/cm2 can be met. Fuel Cell MEAs have been incorporated into advanced NFT stacks. Electrolyzer stack development in progress. Fuel Cell MEA performance is a strong function of membrane selection, membrane selection will be driven by durability requirements. Electrolyzer MEA performance is catalysts driven, catalyst selection will be driven by durability requirements. Round Trip Efficiency, based on a cell performance, is approximately 65%.

  10. Solar ponds. Citations from the NTIS data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundemann, A. S.

    1980-08-01

    Federally funded research on the design, performance, and use of solar ponds is discussed on these. Topic areas cover the use of solar ponds in industrial process heat production, roof ponds for passive solar buildings, and solar ponds use in the production of biomass for renewable fuels.

  11. Storage tank materials for biodiesel blends; the analysis of fuel property changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Komariah Leily

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fuel stability is one of major problem in biodiesel application. Some of the physical properties of biodiesel are commonly changed during storage. The change in physico-chemical properties is strongly correlated to the stability of the fuel. This study is objected to observe the potential materials for biodiesel storage. The test was conducted in three kinds of tank materials, such as glass, HDPE, and stainless steel. The fuel properties are monitored in 12 weeks, while the sample was analyzed every week. Biodiesel used is palm oil based. The storage tanks were placed in a confined indoor space with range of temperature 27–34 °C. The relative humidity and sunshine duration on the location was also evaluated. The observed properties of the fuel blends were density, viscosity and water content. During 12 weeks of storage, the average density of B20 was changed very slightly in all tanks, while the viscosity was tend to increase sharply, especially in polimerics tank. Water content of B20 was increased by the increase of storage time especially in HDPE tank. In short period of storage, the biodiesel blends is found more stable in glass tank due to its versatility to prohibit oxidation, degradation, and its chemical resistance.

  12. Deployment of advanced MACSTOR dry spent fuel storage technology in Korea - A joint development program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobanoglu, M. M.; Pattantyus, P. [Atomic Energy Canada Limited, Ottawa (Canada); Song, M. J.; Lee, H. Y. [KHNP/NETEC, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-04-15

    KHNP/NETEC's (K/N) and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) are undertaking to jointly develop a high capacity dry storage structure made of reinforced concrete that uses the MACSTOR storage module concept. This effort is based on AECL's experience and on the successful deployment of concrete canisters at Wolsong and on the deployment of air-cooled MACSTOR modules at the Gentilly 2 reactor in Canada. The proposed approach addresses the conditions specific to the Wolsong site: large yearly fuel throughput, space limitations and the need for an economical dry storage structure that can store lifetime spent fuel inventories expected from the four CANDU units. The selected configuration is a 4-row MACSTOR module with a capacity of 24,000 bundles stored in 400 baskets, each holding 60 spent fuel bundles. The module is thus termed MACSTOR/KN-400 and is expected to offer a repetitive storage density increase by a factor of approximately 3, compared to concrete canisters presently used. The four Wolsong units generate spent fuel bundles that, with the high capacity factors achieved, are in the order of 20,000 bundles or more per year. At all Korean nuclear facilities, space limitations dictate the need for storage structures having high storage density. Storage density increases have to be accomplished while maintaining safety parameters during the full term storage of nuclear fuel. During the early 1990's AECL has proceeded with the development of a 2-row MACSTOR storage module that offered a higher storage density and a more economical solution compared to the stand alone concrete canister used at Wolsong 1. These modules are in use at Gentilly since the mid 1990's and operate at a capacity of 200 baskets. The selection of a MACSTOR module with 4 rows of storage cylinders is the natural evolution of the already deployed configuration. It can be developed without additional thermal testing as the fuel is maintained within the existing licensing

  13. The Impact of Microbially Influenced Corrosion on Spent Nuclear Fuel and Storage Life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. H. Wolfram; R. E. Mizia; R. Jex; L. Nelson; K. M. Garcia

    1996-10-01

    A study was performed to evaluate if microbial activity could be considered a threat to spent nuclear fuel integrity. The existing data regarding the impact of microbial influenced corrosion (MIC) on spent nuclear fuel storage does not allow a clear assessment to be made. In order to identify what further data are needed, a literature survey on MIC was accomplished with emphasis on materials used in nuclear fuel fabrication, e.g., A1, 304 SS, and zirconium. In addition, a survey was done at Savannah River, Oak Ridge, Hanford, and the INEL on the condition of their wet storage facilities. The topics discussed were the SNF path forward, the types of fuel, ramifications of damaged fuel, involvement of microbial processes, dry storage scenarios, ability to identify microbial activity, definitions of water quality, and the use of biocides. Information was also obtained at international meetings in the area of biological mediated problems in spent fuel and high level wastes. Topics dis cussed included receiving foreign reactor research fuels into existing pools, synergism between different microbes and other forms of corrosion, and cross contamination.

  14. MCO Pressurization analysis of spent nuclear fuel transporation and storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogden, D.M., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-20

    A series of analysis were performed to evaluate the pressurization of the Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) during the stages of transport, processing and storage for expected operational and off normal events. The study examined both MCO sealing and venting issues. Computer models were developed for the MCO and its transport and storage environments using the GOTH and COBRA-TF computer codes. These thermal- hydraulic models included chemical corrosion and ranged in complexity from simple scoping models to full three-dimensional models. Results of the evaluation indicate that overpressurization of the MCO can occur within hours given the bounding reaction surface area and 3.0 Kg of residual water during shipping or 2.5 Kg of residual water during storage. Overpressurization can be prevented during shipping if the MCO reaction surface area is shown to be less than 80,000 cm{sup 2}. During storage the overpressurization can be prevented by limiting the available water.

  15. Fuel quality of Norway spruce stumps - influence of harvesting technique and storage method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anerud, Erik; Jirjis, Raida (Dept. of Energy and Technology, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Science, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2011-04-15

    The interest in using stump biomass as a biofuel has recently increased in Sweden. The uneven consumption of wood fuel during the year creates a need for storage. This study examined the properties of stump biomass and how they vary at two sites in Sweden depending on harvesting technique, storage method and storage period. Norway spruce stumps, extracted using three different stump harvesting heads (Pallari, Rotary Cutter and Aalto), were stored in windrows or heaps. After 3 months, stumps stored in heaps were gathered into windrows. The fuel quality parameters moisture content (MC), ash content (AC) and calorific value (CV) were evaluated on five occasions in the period May 2008 - September 2009. After 16 months of storage, the MC in all treatments had decreased to <25% (wet basis). Average AC decreased from 3.8% to around 1% (dry basis), whereas CV marginally increased. Stumps split during harvesting dried better than those harvested in one piece. The influence of storage method was minimal, although initial storage in heaps allowed better drying in the stumps harvested in one piece. In general, fuel quality improved in all treatments after storage

  16. Criticality safety of the ET-RR-1 new spent fuel storage pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massoud, E.; Sallam, O.H.; Amin, E

    2001-03-01

    A new ET-RR-1 spent fuel storage pool is now under construction on the reactor site at Inshass. In addition, the pool is designed to accommodate spent fuel of MTR type as well. Criticality safety of this pool for the different fuel types has been evaluated as a function of U{sup 235} loading. The effect of fuel element separation (rows and columns) on the eigenvalue has been studied. As a conservative assumption, the pool is assumed to be filled with fresh fuel. The eigenvalue considering a realistic degree of fuel burn-up was determined in order to determine the safety margin. The calculations have been carried out using the code packages of the National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control.

  17. Down Select Report of Chemical Hydrogen Storage Materials, Catalysts, and Spent Fuel Regeneration Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, Kevin; Linehan, Sue; Lipiecki, Frank; Aardahl, Christopher L.

    2008-08-24

    The DOE Hydrogen Storage Program is focused on identifying and developing viable hydrogen storage systems for onboard vehicular applications. The program funds exploratory research directed at identifying new materials and concepts for storage of hydrogen having high gravimetric and volumetric capacities that have the potential to meet long term technical targets for onboard storage. Approaches currently being examined are reversible metal hydride storage materials, reversible hydrogen sorption systems, and chemical hydrogen storage systems. The latter approach concerns materials that release hydrogen in endothermic or exothermic chemical bond-breaking processes. To regenerate the spent fuels arising from hydrogen release from such materials, chemical processes must be employed. These chemical regeneration processes are envisioned to occur offboard the vehicle.

  18. Reversible energy storage on a fuel cell-supercapacitor hybrid device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerpa Unda, Jesus Enrique

    2011-02-18

    A new concept of energy storage based on hydrogen which operates reversibly near ambient conditions and without important energy losses is investigated. This concept involves the hybridization between a proton exchange membrane fuel cell and a supercapacitor. The main idea consists in the electrochemical splitting of hydrogen at a PEM fuel cell-type electrode into protons and electrons and then in the storage of these two species separately in the electrical double layer of a supercapacitor-type electrode which is made of electrically conductive large-surface area carbon materials. The investigation of this concept was performed first using a two-electrode fuel cell-supercapacitor hybrid device. A three-electrode hybrid cell was used to explore the application of this concept as a hydrogen buffer integrated inside a PEM fuel cell to be used in case of peak power demand. (orig.)

  19. SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL STORAGE BASIN WATER CHEMISTRY: ELECTROCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF ALUMINUM CORROSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hathcock, D

    2007-10-30

    The factors affecting the optimal water chemistry of the Savannah River Site spent fuel storage basin must be determines in order to optimize facility efficiency, minimize fuel corrosion, and reduce overall environmental impact from long term spent nuclear fuel storage at the Savannah River Site. The Savannah River National Laboratory is using statistically designed experiments to study the effects of NO{sub 3}{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, and Cl{sup -} concentrations on alloys commonly used not only as fuel cladding, but also as rack construction materials The results of cyclic polarization pitting and corrosion experiments on samples of Al 6061 and 1100 alloys will be used to construct a predictive model of the basin corrosion and its dependence on the species in the basin. The basin chemistry model and corrosion will be discussed in terms of optimized water chemistry envelope and minimization of cladding corrosion.

  20. A Novel Hybrid-Fuel Storage System of Compressed Air Energy for China

    OpenAIRE

    Wenyi Liu; Linzhi Liu; Gang Xu; Feifei Liang; Yongping Yang; Weide Zhang; Ying Wu

    2014-01-01

    Compressed air energy storage (CAES) is a large-scale technology that provides long-duration energy storage. It is promising for balancing the large-scale penetration of intermittent and dispersed sources of power, such as wind and solar power, into electric grids. The existing CAES plants utilize natural gas (NG) as fuel. However, China is rich in coal but is deficient in NG; therefore, a hybrid-fuel CAES is proposed and analyzed in this study. Based on the existing CAES plants, the hybrid-f...

  1. Intelligent Power Management of hybrid Wind/ Fuel Cell/ Energy Storage Power Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hajizadeh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an intelligent power management strategy for hybrid wind/ fuel cell/ energy storage power generation system. The dynamic models of wind turbine, fuel cell and energy storage have been used for simulation of hybrid power system. In order to design power flow control strategy, a fuzzy logic control has been implemented to manage the power between power sources. The optimal operation of the hybrid power system is a main goal of designing power management strategy. The hybrid power system is simulated in MATLAB/ SIMIULINK environment and different operating conditions have been considered to evaluate the response of power management strategy.

  2. Multidimensional shielding analysis of the JASPER in-vessel fuel storage experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucholz, J.A.

    1993-03-01

    The In-Vessel Fuel Storage (IVFS) experiments analyzed in this report were conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Tower Shielding Reactor (TSR) as part of the Japanese-American Shielding Program for Experimental Research (JASPER). These IVFS experiments were designed to study source multiplication and three-dimensional effects related to in-vessel storage of spent fuel elements in liquid metal reactor (LMR) systems. The present report describes the 2-D and 3-D models, analyses, and calculated results corresponding to a limited subset of those IVFS experiments in which the US LMR program has a particular interest.

  3. Replacement of the spent fuel storage racks at the Ginna NPP in the U.S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatibouet, J. [ATEA/Framatome, 44 - Carquefou (France)

    1999-03-01

    In June 1996, ATEA and Framatome Technologies Inc. obtained a re-racking contract to replace part of the fuel storage racks of the Ginna nuclear power plant, near Rochester, NY (USA). The operations consisted in removing three old racks from the spent fuel pool and replacing them with even new compact storage racks. After a design and manufacturing phase, the final part of the project - the re-racking operation per se - was completed in mid-November, two weeks ahead of schedule

  4. 2013 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Lewis

    2014-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (WRU-I-0160-01, formerly LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2012 through October 31, 2013. The report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Groundwater monitoring data • Status of special compliance conditions • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2013 reporting year, an estimated 9.64 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 17 million gallons per year. The concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the applicable Idaho Department of Environmental Quality’s groundwater quality standard levels.

  5. A Preliminary Evaluation of Using Fill Materials to Stabilize Used Nuclear Fuel During Storage and Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheras, Steven J.; Best, Ralph; Ross, Steven B.; Lahti, Erik A.; Richmond, David J.

    2012-08-01

    This report contains a preliminary evaluation of potential fill materials that could be used to fill void spaces in and around used nuclear fuel contained in dry storage canisters in order to stabilize the geometry and mechanical structure of the used nuclear fuel during extended storage and transportation after extended storage. Previous work is summarized, conceptual descriptions of how canisters might be filled were developed, and requirements for potential fill materials were developed. Elements of the requirements included criticality avoidance, heat transfer or thermodynamic properties, homogeneity and rheological properties, retrievability, material availability and cost, weight and radiation shielding, and operational considerations. Potential fill materials were grouped into 5 categories and their properties, advantages, disadvantages, and requirements for future testing were discussed. The categories were molten materials, which included molten metals and paraffin; particulates and beads; resins; foams; and grout. Based on this analysis, further development of fill materials to stabilize used nuclear fuel during storage and transportation is not recommended unless options such as showing that the fuel remains intact or canning of used nuclear fuel do not prove to be feasible.

  6. Conceptual design report for the ICPP spent nuclear fuel dry storage project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The conceptual design is presented for a facility to transfer spent nuclear fuel from shipping casks to dry storage containers, and to safely store those containers at ICPP at INEL. The spent fuels to be handled at the new facility are identified and overall design and operating criteria established. Physical configuration of the facility and the systems used to handle the SNF are described. Detailed cost estimate for design and construction of the facility is presented.

  7. Alkaline fuel cells for the regenerative fuel cell energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    The development of the alkaline Regenerative Fuel Cell System, whose fuel cell module would be a derivative of the 12-kW fuel cell power plant currently being produced for the Space Shuttle Orbiter, is reviewed. Long-term endurance testing of full-size fuel cell modules has demonstrated: (1) the extended endurance capability of potassium titanate matrix cells, (2) the long-term performance stability of the anode catalyst, and (3) the suitability of a lightweight graphite structure for use at the anode. These approaches, developed in the NASA-sponsored fuel cell technology advancement program, would also reduce cell weight by nearly one half.

  8. Removal plan for Shippingport pressurized water reactor core 2 blanket fuel assemblies form T plant to the canister storage building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lata

    1996-09-26

    This document presents the current strategy and path forward for removal of the Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor Core 2 blanket fuel assemblies from their existing storage configuration (wet storage within the T Plant canyon) and transport to the Canister Storage Building (designed and managed by the Spent Nuclear Fuel. Division). The removal plan identifies all processes, equipment, facility interfaces, and documentation (safety, permitting, procedures, etc.) required to facilitate the PWR Core 2 assembly removal (from T Plant), transport (to the Canister storage Building), and storage to the Canister Storage Building. The plan also provides schedules, associated milestones, and cost estimates for all handling activities.

  9. Radiolysis Model Sensitivity Analysis for a Used Fuel Storage Canister

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittman, Richard S.

    2013-09-20

    This report fulfills the M3 milestone (M3FT-13PN0810027) to report on a radiolysis computer model analysis that estimates the generation of radiolytic products for a storage canister. The analysis considers radiolysis outside storage canister walls and within the canister fill gas over a possible 300-year lifetime. Previous work relied on estimates based directly on a water radiolysis G-value. This work also includes that effect with the addition of coupled kinetics for 111 reactions for 40 gas species to account for radiolytic-induced chemistry, which includes water recombination and reactions with air.

  10. Evaluation of safety margins during dry storage of CANDU fuel in MACSTOR/KN-400 module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaudoin, R.; Shill, R. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Lee, K.-H.; Chung, S.-H.; Yoon, J.-H.; Choi, B.-I.; Lee, H.-Y.; Song, M.-J. [KHNP, Nuclear Environment Technology Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    This paper covers an evaluation of the available safety margin against fuel bundle degradation during dry storage of CANDU spent fuel bundles in a MACSTOR/KN-400 module, considering normal, off-normal and postulated accidental conditions. Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power (KHNP), in collaboration with Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), are developing a new module for the dry storage of spent fuel from the four CANDU 6 nuclear reactors at the Wolsong site in South Korea. The module provides the benefit of occupying significantly less area than the concrete canisters presently used. The modules are designed for a minimum service life of 50 years. During that period, the spent fuel bundles shall be safely stored. This imposes that failure of a fuel bundle element or unacceptable degradation of an existing defect (from reactor operation) does not occur during the dry storage period. The fuel bundles are stored in an air-filled fuel basket that releases 365 Watts on average and a maximum of 390 Watts when rare fuel loading conditions are postulated. In addition, specific accidental air flow cooling conditions are postulated that consist of 100% blockage of all air inlets on one side of the module. These conditions can generate a peak daily fuel temperature of up to 155{sup o}C during a reference hot summer day during the first year of operation. The fuel temperature decreases over the years and also fluctuates due to daily and seasonal temperature variations. At this temperature, fuel elements with intact Zircaloy sheathing will not experience damage. However, for the few fuel bundle elements that are non-leaktight (less than 1 per 37,000), some re-oxidation of UO{sub 2} into higher oxides such as U{sub 3}O{sub 7} / U{sub 4}O{sub 9} and U{sub 3}O{sub 8} will occur. This latter form of Uranium oxide is undesirable due to its lower density that results in a volumetric increase of the pellet that can overstress the fuel element sheathing. The level of fuel pellet

  11. Signatures of Extended Storage of Used Nuclear Fuel Comprehensive Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauch, Eric Benton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-21

    This report serves as a comprehensive overview of the Extended Storage of Used Nuclear Fuel work performed for the Material Protection, Accounting and Control Technologies campaign under the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy. This paper describes a signature based on the source and fissile material distribution found within a population of used fuel assemblies combined with the neutron absorbers found within cask design that is unique to a specific cask with its specific arrangement of fuel. The paper describes all the steps used in producing and analyzing this signature from the beginning to the project end.

  12. Energy storage using high pressure electrolysis and methods for reconversion. [in automobile fuel synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, W. L.

    1973-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies on high pressure electrolysis producing hydrogen and oxygen for energy storage and reconversion are reported. Moderate temperature, high pressure hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells with nickel electrodes are investigated for effects of pressure, temperature, and membrane porosity. Test results from an aphodid burner turbine generator combination obtained 40 percent kilowatt hours out of the fuel cell divided by kilowatt hours into the electrolyzer. It is concluded that high pressure hydrogenation of organic materials can be used to synthesize hydrozenes and methanes for making synthetic vehicular fuels.

  13. Environmental Impact Statement. March 2011. Interim storage, encapsulation and final disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-01

    An Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) shall be prepared and submitted along with applications for permissibility and a licence under the Environmental Code and a licence under the Nuclear Activities Act for new nuclear facilities. This Environmental Impact Statement has been prepared by Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, SKB) to be included in the licence applications for continued operation of Clab (central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel) in Simpevarp in Oskarshamn Municipality and construction and operation of facilities for encapsulation (integrated with Clab) and final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark in Oesthammar Municipality

  14. Behavior of spent fuel and cask components after extended periods of dry storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneally, R. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Rockville, MD (United States); Kessler, J. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) promulgated 10 CFR Part 72, Title 10, for the independent storage of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste outside reactor spent fuel pools. Part 72 currently limits the license term for an independent spent fuel storage installation to 20 years from the date of issuance. Licenses may be renewed by the Commission at or before the expiration of the license term. Applications for renewal of a license should be filed at least two years prior to the expiration of the existing license. In preparation for possible license renewal, the NRC Office of Nuclear Material and Safeguards, Spent Fuel Project Office, is developing the technical basis for renewals of licenses and Certificates of Compliance for dry storage systems for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at independent spent fuel storage installation sites. An analysis of past performance of selected components of these systems is required as part of that technical basis. In the years 1980 through the early 1990, the Department of Energy (DOE) procured four prototype dry storage casks for testing at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL): Castor-V/21, MC-10, TN-24P, and VSC-17. The primary purpose of the testing was to benchmark thermal and radiological codes and to determine the thermal and radiological characteristics of the casks. A series of examinations in 1999 and early 2000 to investigate the integrity of the Castor V/21 cask were undertaken. There is no evidence of significant degradation of the Castor V/21 cask systems important to safety from the time of initial loading of the cask in 1985 up to the time of testing in 1999. (author)

  15. Thermal performance sensitivity studies in support of material modeling for extended storage of used nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuta, Judith M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Suffield, Sarah R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fort, James A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Adkins, Harold E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-08-15

    The work reported here is an investigation of the sensitivity of component temperatures of a storage system, including fuel cladding temperatures, in response to age-related changes that could degrade the design-basis thermal behavior of the system. The purpose of these sensitivity studies is to provide a realistic example of how changes in the physical properties or configuration of the storage system components can affect temperatures and temperature distributions. The magnitudes of these sensitivities can provide guidance for identifying appropriate modeling assumptions for thermal evaluations extending long term storage out beyond 50, 100, 200, and 300 years.

  16. Radiotoxicity and decay heat power of spent nuclear fuel of VVER type reactors at long-term storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergelson, B R; Gerasimov, A S; Tikhomirov, G V

    2005-01-01

    Radiotoxicity and decay heat power of the spent nuclear fuel of VVER-1000 type reactors are calculated during storage time up to 300,000 y. Decay heat power of radioactive waste (radwaste) determines parameters of the heat removal system for the safe storage of spent nuclear fuel. Radiotoxicity determines the radiological hazard of radwaste after its leakage and penetration into the environment.

  17. 10 CFR 51.61 - Environmental report-independent spent fuel storage installation (ISFSI) or monitored retrievable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental report-independent spent fuel storage...) Environmental Reports-Materials Licenses § 51.61 Environmental report—independent spent fuel storage... “Applicant's Environmental Report—ISFSI License” or “Applicant's Environmental Report—MRS License,”...

  18. A Novel Hybrid-Fuel Storage System of Compressed Air Energy for China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyi Liu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Compressed air energy storage (CAES is a large-scale technology that provides long-duration energy storage. It is promising for balancing the large-scale penetration of intermittent and dispersed sources of power, such as wind and solar power, into electric grids. The existing CAES plants utilize natural gas (NG as fuel. However, China is rich in coal but is deficient in NG; therefore, a hybrid-fuel CAES is proposed and analyzed in this study. Based on the existing CAES plants, the hybrid-fuel CAES incorporates an external combustion heater into the power generation subsystem to heat the air from the recuperator and the air from the high-pressure air turbine. Coal is the fuel for the external combustion heater. The overall efficiency and exergy efficiency of the hybrid-fuel CAES are 61.18% and 59.84%, respectively. Given the same parameters, the cost of electricity (COE of the hybrid-fuel CAES, which requires less NG, is $5.48/MW∙h less than that of the gas-fuel CAES. Although the proposed CAES requires a relatively high investment in the current electricity system in North China, the proposed CAES will be likely to become competitive in the market, provided that the energy supplies are improved and the large scale grid-connection of wind power is realized.

  19. Results from Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Series 3 spent fuel dissolution tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, C.N.

    1990-06-01

    The dissolution and radionuclide release behavior of spent fuel in groundwater is being studied by the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP), formerly the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project. Specimens prepared from pressurized water reactor fuel rod segments were tested in sealed stainless steel vessels in Nevada Test Site J-13 well water at 85{degree}C and 25{degree}C. The test matrix included three specimens of bare-fuel particles plus cladding hulls, two fuel rod segments with artificially defected cladding and water-tight end fittings, and an undefected fuel rod section with watertight end fittings. Periodic solution samples were taken during test cycles with the sample volumes replenished with fresh J-13 water. Test cycles were periodically terminated and the specimens restarted in fresh J-13 water. The specimens were run for three cycles for a total test duration of 15 months. 22 refs., 32 figs., 26 tabs.

  20. Flood water storage as a resource for agriculture and groundwater recharge: the empting of artificial leaking ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Oria, M.; Tanda, M.; Zanini, A.

    2008-12-01

    The large industrialization, intensive agriculture and the increasing population is giving rise to a lack of water resources. There is the need of capturing runoff for storing the water and using it during dry periods, but people now opposes to the realization of new dams. In Italy Public Authorities are showing a great interest in using ponds or small lakes located in the fluvial surroundings for storing water. The reservoirs can be filled up during flood events and can become, maintaining the water for a certain period, a resource for agriculture and a source of artificial recharge of groundwater. The hydraulic risks in the management of such small structures and the economic budget are lower than those involved in traditional reservoirs. In this work we propose a set of relationships with the aim of describing the interactions between the pond lakes and the beneath groundwater. This methodology allows to estimate the emptying time of the lake and its relative flow rate in a very fast way. It requires only a few parameters: the geometry of the problem, the initial lake and groundwater level and the hydraulic parameters of the aquifer and of the bottom of the lake. The solution of the problem was split in two cases: groundwater level always below the lakebed and groundwater level interacting with the lake level. It is possible to identify the two cases comparing the maximum flow rate drained from the aquifer (QS) to the one provided by the lake (QL). If QS is greater than QL the groundwater level maintains below the lakebed and vice versa. The two cases are well represented by simple relationships developed by the authors. These relationships were obtained using the results provided by a numerical model developed using MODFLOW 2000 with the LAKE3 package. Considering the first case, the relationship between the lake, groundwater level, the time and the leakance is represented by a straight line in a semi-logarithmic plane. In the case of the lake interconnected

  1. Storage of LWR spent fuel in air. Volume 3, Results from exposure of spent fuel to fluorine-contaminated air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, M.E.; Thomas, L.E.

    1995-06-01

    The Behavior of Spent Fuel in Storage (BSFS) Project has conducted research to develop data on spent nuclear fuel (irradiated U0{sub 2}) that could be used to support design, licensing, and operation of dry storage installations. Test Series B conducted by the BSFS Project was designed as a long-term study of the oxidation of spent fuel exposed to air. It was discovered after the exposures were completed in September 1990 that the test specimens had been exposed to an atmosphere of bottled air contaminated with an unknown quantity of fluorine. This exposure resulted in the test specimens reacting with both the oxygen and the fluorine in the oven atmospheres. The apparent source of the fluorine was gamma radiation-induced chemical decomposition of the fluoro-elastomer gaskets used to seal the oven doors. This chemical decomposition apparently released hydrofluoric acid (HF) vapor into the oven atmospheres. Because the Test Series B specimens were exposed to a fluorine-contaminated oven atmosphere and reacted with the fluorine, it is recommended that the Test Series B data not be used to develop time-temperature limits for exposure of spent nuclear fuel to air. This report has been prepared to document Test Series B and present the collected data and observations.

  2. Movement of Fuel Ashore: Storage, Capacity, Throughput, and Distribution Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    planning and forecasting approach. It is the aim of this study to understand the connection between the GCE’s operational behavior and its fuel demand...of the seabased logistics network will depend on the use of a modern planning and forecasting approach. It is the aim of this study to understand the...capability and interoperability. These systems, while innovative , lack the capacity to efficiently resupply and sustain the forces ashore. Even with

  3. Decay heat power of spent nuclear fuel of power reactors with high burnup at long-term storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternovykh, Mikhail; Tikhomirov, Georgy; Saldikov, Ivan; Gerasimov, Alexander

    2017-09-01

    Decay heat power of actinides and fission products from spent nuclear fuel of power VVER-1000 type reactors at long-term storage is calculated. Two modes of storage are considered: mode in which single portion of actinides or fission products is loaded in storage facility, and mode in which actinides or fission products from spent fuel of one VVER reactor are added every year in storage facility during 30 years and then accumulated nuclides are stored without addition new nuclides. Two values of fuel burnup 40 and 70 MW·d/kg are considered for the mode of storage of single fuel unloading. For the mode of accumulation of spent fuel with subsequent storage, one value of burnup of 70 MW·d/kg is considered. Very long time of storage 105 years accepted in calculations allows to simulate final geological disposal of radioactive wastes. Heat power of fission products decreases quickly after 50-100 years of storage. The power of actinides decreases very slow. In passing from 40 to 70 MW·d/kg, power of actinides increases due to accumulation of higher fraction of 244Cm. These data are important in the back end of fuel cycle when improved cooling system of the storage facility will be required along with stronger radiation protection during storage, transportation and processing.

  4. Structural design of concrete storage pads for spent-fuel casks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, Y.R.; Nickell, R.E.; James, R.J. (ANATECH Research Corp., San Diego, CA (United States))

    1993-04-01

    The loading experienced by spent fuel dry storage casks and storage pads due to potential drop or tip-over accidents is evaluated using state-of-the-art concrete structural analysis methodology. The purpose of this analysis is to provide simple design charts and formulas so that design adequacy of storage pads and dry storage casks can be demonstrated. The analysis covers a wide range of slab-design parameters, e.g., reinforcement ratio, slab thickness, concrete compressive strength, and sub-base soil compaction, as well as variations in drop orientation and drop height. The results are presented in the form of curves, giving the force on the cask as a function of storage pad hardness for various drop heights. In addition, force-displacement curves, deformed shapes, crack patterns, stresses and strains are given for various slab-design conditions and drop events. The utility of the results in design are illustrated through examples.

  5. New Methods for Evaluation of Spent Fuel Condition during Long-Term Storage in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mikloš

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiences with an advanced spent nuclear fuel management in Slovakia are presented in this paper. The evaluation and monitoring procedures are based on practices at the Slovak wet interim spent fuel storage facility in NPP Jaslovské Bohunice. Since 1999, leak testing of WWER-440 fuel assemblies are provided by special leak tightness detection system “Sipping in pool” delivered by Framatomeanp with external heating for the precise defects determination. In 2006, a new inspection stand “SVYP-440” for monitoring of spent nuclear fuel condition was inserted. This stand has the possibility to open WWER-440 fuel assemblies and examine fuel elements. Optimal ways of spent fuel disposal and monitoring of nuclear fuel condition were designed. With appropriate approach of conservativeness, new factor for specifying spent fuel leak tightness is introduced in the paper. By using computer simulations (based on SCALE 4.4a code for fission products creation and measurements by system “Sipping in pool,” the limit values of leak tightness were established.

  6. Interim storage of power reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and its potential application to SNF separations and closed fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, Salomon, E-mail: slevy112@aol.com

    2009-10-15

    Interim, centralized, engineered (dry cask) storage facilities for USA light water power reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) should be implemented to complement and to offer much needed flexibility while the Nuclear Regulatory Commission is funded to complete its evaluation of the Yucca Mountain License and to subject it to public hearings. The interim sites should use the credo reproduced in Table 1 [Bunn, M., 2001. Interim Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel. Harvard University and University of Tokyo] and involve both the industry and government. The sites will help settle the 50 pending lawsuits against the government and the $11 billion of potential additional liabilities for SNF delay damages if Yucca Mountain does not being operation in 2020 [DOE, 2008a. Report to Congress on the Demonstration of the Interim Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel from Decommissioned Nuclear Power Stations (December)]. Under the developing consensus to proceed with closed fuel cycles, it will be necessary to develop SNF separation facilities with stringent requirements upon separation processes and upon generation of only highly resistant waste forms. The location of such facilities at the interim storage sites would offer great benefits to those sites and assure their long term viability by returning them to their original status. The switch from once-through to closed fuel cycle will require extensive time and development work as illustrated in 'The Path to Sustainable Nuclear Energy' [DOE, 2005. The Path to Sustainable Nuclear Energy. Basic and Applied Research Opportunities for Advanced Fuel Cycles. DOE (September)]. A carefully crafted long term program, funded for at least 5 years, managed by a strong joint government-industry team, and subjected to regular independent reviews should be considered to assure the program stability and success. The new uncertainty about Yucca Mountain role raises two key issues: (a) what to do with the weapons and other high level government

  7. 78 FR 66858 - Waste Confidence-Continued Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ...; ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 51 RIN 3150-AJ20 Waste Confidence--Continued Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule; extension of comment period. SUMMARY: On September 13, 2013, the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published for public...

  8. 10 CFR 72.240 - Conditions for spent fuel storage cask reapproval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 72.240 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C... adversely affected structures, systems, and components important to safety....

  9. Neutron spectrometry at the interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel

    CERN Document Server

    Králik, M; Studeny, J

    2002-01-01

    Dosimetric characteristics of neutron and photon components of mixed fields around casks for spent nuclear fuel have been determined at various places at the dry interim storage facility. The results obtained with metrological grade instruments were compared with data provided by usual survey meters for both neutrons and photons.

  10. A software tool integrated risk assessment of spent fuel transpotation and storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Mi Rae; Almomani, Belal; Ham, Jae Hyun; Kang, Hyun Gook [Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Christian, Robby [Dept. of Mechanical, Aerospace, and Nuclear Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Bo Gyung [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Hoon [Dept. of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Keimyung University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    When temporary spent fuel storage pools at nuclear power plants reach their capacity limit, the spent fuel must be moved to an alternative storage facility. However, radioactive materials must be handled and stored carefully to avoid severe consequences to the environment. In this study, the risks of three potential accident scenarios (i.e., maritime transportation, an aircraft crashing into an interim storage facility, and on-site transportation) associated with the spent fuel transportation process were analyzed using a probabilistic approach. For each scenario, the probabilities and the consequences were calculated separately to assess the risks: the probabilities were calculated using existing data and statistical models, and the consequences were calculated using computation models. Risk assessment software was developed to conveniently integrate the three scenarios. The risks were analyzed using the developed software according to the shipment route, building characteristics, and spent fuel handling environment. As a result of the risk analysis with varying accident conditions, transportation and storage strategies with relatively low risk were developed for regulators and licensees. The focus of this study was the risk assessment methodology; however, the applied model and input data have some uncertainties. Further research to reduce these uncertainties will improve the accuracy of this mode.

  11. A software tool for integrated risk assessment of spent fuel transportation and storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirae Yun

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available When temporary spent fuel storage pools at nuclear power plants reach their capacity limit, the spent fuel must be moved to an alternative storage facility. However, radioactive materials must be handled and stored carefully to avoid severe consequences to the environment. In this study, the risks of three potential accident scenarios (i.e., maritime transportation, an aircraft crashing into an interim storage facility, and on-site transportation associated with the spent fuel transportation process were analyzed using a probabilistic approach. For each scenario, the probabilities and the consequences were calculated separately to assess the risks: the probabilities were calculated using existing data and statistical models, and the consequences were calculated using computation models. Risk assessment software was developed to conveniently integrate the three scenarios. The risks were analyzed using the developed software according to the shipment route, building characteristics, and spent fuel handling environment. As a result of the risk analysis with varying accident conditions, transportation and storage strategies with relatively low risk were developed for regulators and licensees. The focus of this study was the risk assessment methodology; however, the applied model and input data have some uncertainties. Further research to reduce these uncertainties will improve the accuracy of this model.

  12. Data compliation report: K West Basin fuel storage canister liquid samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trimble, D.J.

    1995-12-21

    Sample analysis data from the 222-S Laboratory are reported. The data are for liquid samples taken from spent fuel storage canisters in the 105 K West Basin during March 1995. An analysis and data report from the Special Analytical Studies group of Westinghouse Hanford Company regarding these samples is also included. Data analysis is not included herein.

  13. 78 FR 16601 - List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: MAGNASTOR® System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995 (Pub. L. 104-113) requires that Federal agencies... spent fuel storage regulations by revising the NAC International, Inc. (NAC) Modular Advanced Generation... explains why the rule would be inappropriate, including challenges to the rule's underlying premise...

  14. A study on safety analysis methodology in spent fuel dry storage facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Che, M. S.; Ryu, J. H.; Kang, K. M.; Cho, N. C.; Kim, M. S. [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-15

    Collection and review of the domestic and foreign technology related to spent fuel dry storage facility. Analysis of a reference system. Establishment of a framework for criticality safety analysis. Review of accident analysis methodology. Establishment of accident scenarios. Establishment of scenario analysis methodology.

  15. FIELD-DEPLOYABLE SAMPLING TOOLS FOR SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL INTERROGATION IN LIQUID STORAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, T.; Milliken, C.; Martinez-Rodriguez, M.; Hathcock, D.; Heitkamp, M.

    2012-09-12

    Methodology and field deployable tools (test kits) to analyze the chemical and microbiological condition of aqueous spent fuel storage basins and determine the oxide thickness on the spent fuel basin materials were developed to assess the corrosion potential of a basin. this assessment can then be used to determine the amount of time fuel has spent in a storage basin to ascertain if the operation of the reactor and storage basin is consistent with safeguard declarations or expectations and assist in evaluating general storage basin operations. The test kit was developed based on the identification of key physical, chemical and microbiological parameters identified using a review of the scientific and basin operations literature. The parameters were used to design bench scale test cells for additional corrosion analyses, and then tools were purchased to analyze the key parameters. The tools were used to characterize an active spent fuel basin, the Savannah River Site (SRS) L-Area basin. The sampling kit consisted of a total organic carbon analyzer, an YSI multiprobe, and a thickness probe. The tools were field tested to determine their ease of use, reliability, and determine the quality of data that each tool could provide. Characterization confirmed that the L Area basin is a well operated facility with low corrosion potential.

  16. 75 FR 9452 - Solicitation of Topics for Discussion at a Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation Licensing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ... COMMISSION Solicitation of Topics for Discussion at a Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation Licensing Conference AGENCY: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Solicitation of Topics for Discussion at a... Commission (NRC) is soliciting input on topics for discussion at a proposed June 23-24, 2010, public meeting...

  17. Design and analysis of microalgal open pond systems for the purpose of producing fuels: A subcontract report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weissman, J.C.; Goebel, R.P.

    1987-04-01

    The designs and systems developed include many innovative concepts and experiments, including the design and operation of a low-cost system. Cost-effectiveness is realized by minimizing capital costs of the system and achieving efficient use of inputs. Extensive engineering analysis of carbonation, mixing, and harvesting subsystems has elucidated both the lowest cost, most efficient options and the essential parameters needed to construct, test, and evaluate these subsystems. The use of growth ponds sealed with clay and lined with crushed rock results in construction cost savings of 50% over ponds lined with synthetic membranes. In addition a low-cost but efficient design allows improvements in technology to have maximum impact on final product cost reductions. In addition to the innovations in low-cost construction, the operational efficiency of the design is both higher and more feasible than that attained by any previous system concept of comparable scale. The water analysis has led to operational specifications that minimize water use and virtually eliminate losses of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. The carbon dioxide injection system is designed for 95% efficiency, but is still low in cost. The construction of a large-scale, covered anaerobic lagoon to recycle carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus has not been attempted at the scale analyzed here. Yet efficient recycling is essential for achieving economic affordability. 23 refs., 21 figs., 53 tabs.

  18. Templated assembly of photoswitches significantly increases the energy-storage capacity of solar thermal fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucharski, TJ; Ferralis, N; Kolpak, AM; Zheng, JO; Nocera, DG; Grossman, JC

    2014-04-13

    Large-scale utilization of solar-energy resources will require considerable advances in energy-storage technologies to meet ever-increasing global energy demands. Other than liquid fuels, existing energy-storage materials do not provide the requisite combination of high energy density, high stability, easy handling, transportability and low cost. New hybrid solar thermal fuels, composed of photoswitchable molecules on rigid, low-mass nanostructures, transcend the physical limitations of molecular solar thermal fuels by introducing local sterically constrained environments in which interactions between chromophores can be tuned. We demonstrate this principle of a hybrid solar thermal fuel using azobenzene-functionalized carbon nanotubes. We show that, on composite bundling, the amount of energy stored per azobenzene more than doubles from 58 to 120 kJ mol(-1), and the material also maintains robust cyclability and stability. Our results demonstrate that solar thermal fuels composed of molecule-nanostructure hybrids can exhibit significantly enhanced energy-storage capabilities through the generation of template-enforced steric strain.

  19. Templated assembly of photoswitches significantly increases the energy-storage capacity of solar thermal fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharski, Timothy J; Ferralis, Nicola; Kolpak, Alexie M; Zheng, Jennie O; Nocera, Daniel G; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2014-05-01

    Large-scale utilization of solar-energy resources will require considerable advances in energy-storage technologies to meet ever-increasing global energy demands. Other than liquid fuels, existing energy-storage materials do not provide the requisite combination of high energy density, high stability, easy handling, transportability and low cost. New hybrid solar thermal fuels, composed of photoswitchable molecules on rigid, low-mass nanostructures, transcend the physical limitations of molecular solar thermal fuels by introducing local sterically constrained environments in which interactions between chromophores can be tuned. We demonstrate this principle of a hybrid solar thermal fuel using azobenzene-functionalized carbon nanotubes. We show that, on composite bundling, the amount of energy stored per azobenzene more than doubles from 58 to 120 kJ mol(-1), and the material also maintains robust cyclability and stability. Our results demonstrate that solar thermal fuels composed of molecule-nanostructure hybrids can exhibit significantly enhanced energy-storage capabilities through the generation of template-enforced steric strain.

  20. Used Fuel Logistics: Decades of Experience with transportation and Interim storage solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orban, G.; Shelton, C.

    2015-07-01

    Used fuel inventories are growing worldwide. While some countries have opted for a closed cycle with recycling, numerous countries must expand their interim storage solutions as implementation of permanent repositories is taking more time than foreseen. In both cases transportation capabilities will have to be developed. AREVA TN has an unparalleled expertise with transportation of used fuel. For more than 50 years AREVA TN has safely shipped more than 7,000 used fuel transport casks. The transportation model that was initially developed in the 1970s has been adapted and enhanced over the years to meet more restrictive regulatory requirements and evolving customer needs, and to address public concerns. The numerous “lessons learned” have offered data and guidance that have allowed for also efficient and consistent improvement over the decades. AREVA TN has also an extensive experience with interim dry storage solutions in many countries on-site but also is working with partners to developed consolidated interim storage facility. Both expertise with storage and transportation contribute to safe, secure and smooth continuity of the operations. This paper will describe decades of experience with a very successful transportation program as well as interim storage solutions. (Author)

  1. Cosmic ray muon computed tomography of spent nuclear fuel in dry storage casks

    CERN Document Server

    Poulson, D; Guardincerri, E; Morris, C L; Bacon, J D; Plaud-Ramos, K; Morley, D; Hecht, A

    2016-01-01

    Radiography with cosmic ray muon scattering has proven to be a successful method of imaging nuclear material through heavy shielding. Of particular interest is monitoring dry storage casks for diversion of plutonium contained in spent reactor fuel. Using muon tracking detectors that surround a cylindrical cask, cosmic ray muon scattering can be simultaneously measured from all azimuthal angles, giving complete tomographic coverage of the cask interior. This paper describes the first application of filtered back projection algorithms, typically used in medical imaging, to cosmic ray muon imaging. The specific application to monitoring spent nuclear fuel in dry storage casks is investigated via GEANT4 simulations. With a cylindrical muon tracking detector surrounding a typical spent fuel cask, the cask contents can be confirmed with high confidence in less than two days exposure. Similar results can be obtained by moving a smaller detector to view the cask from multiple angles.

  2. Alkaline regenerative fuel cell energy storage system for manned orbital satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R. E.; Gitlow, B.; Sheibley, D. W.

    1982-01-01

    It is pointed out that the alkaline regenerative fuel cell system represents a highly efficient, lightweight, reliable approach for providing energy storage in an orbiting satellite. In addition to its energy storage function, the system can supply hydrogen and oxygen for attitude control of the satellite and for life support. A summary is presented of the results to date obtained in connection with the NASA-sponsored fuel cell technology advancement program, giving particular attention to the requirements of the alkaline regenerative fuel cell and the low-earth mission. Attention is given to system design guidelines, weight considerations, gold-platinum cathode cell performance, matrix development, the electrolyte reservoir plate, and the cyclical load profile tests.

  3. Optimizing energy management of decentralized photovoltaic. Fuel cell - direct storage - power supply units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocklisch, Thilo; Schufft, Wolfgang; Bocklisch, Steffen [Chemnitz Univ. of Technology (TUC) (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents a new optimizing energy management concept for decentralized power supply units. Main goal is the coordinated utilization of dynamically controllable combined-heat-and-power-plants (e.g. fuel cell cogeneration plants) and electrochemical direct storages (e.g. future electric car batteries) for the active balancing of fluctuating renewable energy generation (e.g. building integrated photovoltaics) and fluctuation electricity consumption. The self-utilization and partial storage of renewable energy helps to stabilize the grid in a ''bottom-up'' approach. The new energy mangement concept features a three-layer control structure, which aims for the optimization of the power flows, minimizing the fuel consumption and the dynamic stress imposed onto the fuel cell. (orig.)

  4. The electrical storage systems in energy networks with fuel cells and photovoltaic systems for residential use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taniguchi, Y.; Aki, H. [National Inst. of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    Fuel cell systems and photovoltaic systems are expected to penetrate Japan's residential sector as a distributed energy resource. However, in order to connect photovoltaic systems to the electricity grid in Japan, the power conditioner of the photovoltaic system should have a function to restrict output. The purpose of this study was to establish a cooperative operations method for fuel cells, photovoltaic cells and electrical storage devices. In the proposed networks of this study, electricity, hydrogen and hot water were interchanged and the equipment was shared for cooperative operation. The power generated by the photovoltaic system fluctuated widely. The power flow at the connecting point of the energy networks to the electric power distribution system was bidirectional and depended on the balance of the power produced by the photovoltaic system as well as the power consumption. The use of an electrical storage system for the proposed networks ensured the stability of the power system and enabled more flexible operation of fuel cell stacks. The cooperative operational method for fuel cell systems, photovoltaic systems and electrical storage systems involved the combination of an electrical double layer capacitor (EDLC) and a lithium-ion battery for residential dwellings. Simulation results showed that the use of an EDLC reduced the required capacity of electrical storage systems and the fluctuation of output power of fuel cell systems. The construction of an experimental facilities is being planned to evaluate the charge-discharge characteristics of the electric storage devices and auxiliary equipment, such as inverters. 1 ref., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  5. Critical experiments supporting close proximity water storage of power reactor fuel. Technical progress report, October 1, 1977-December 31, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, M.N.; Hoovler, G.S.

    1978-03-01

    Experiments are being conducted on critical configurations of clusters of fuel rods, mocking up LWR-type fuel elements in close proximity water storage. Spacings between fuel clusters and the intervening material are being varied to provide a variety of benchmark loadings. (DLC)

  6. 76 FR 17019 - List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: HI-STORM Flood/Wind Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    ... Reactor (BWR) fuel with high initial enrichment (up to 4.8 weight percent uranium-235 planer average...) The ability to store and transport BWR fuel with high initial enrichment (up to 4.8 weight percent... part 72, entitled ``General License for Storage of Spent Fuel at Power Reactor Sites'' (55 FR...

  7. Cladding stress during extended storage of high burnup spent nuclear fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynaud, Patrick A. C.; Einziger, Robert E.

    2015-09-01

    In an effort to assess the potential for low temperature creep and delayed hydride cracking failures in high burnup spent fuel cladding during extended dry storage, the U.S. NRC analytical fuel performance tools were used to predict cladding stress during a 300 year dry storage period for UO2 fuel burned up to 65 GWd/MTU. Fuel swelling correlations were developed and used along with decay gas production and release fractions to produce circumferential average cladding stress predictions with the FRAPCON-3.5 fuel performance code. The resulting stresses did not result in cladding creep failures. The maximum creep strains accumulated were on the order of 0.54-1.04%, but creep failures are not expected below at least 2% strain. The potential for delayed hydride cracking was assessed by calculating the critical flaw size required to trigger this failure mechanism. The critical flaw size far exceeded any realistic flaw expected in spent fuel at end of reactor life.

  8. Seismic and structural analysis of high density/consolidated spent fuel storage racks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, S.J.; Biddle, J.R.; Bennett, S.M.; Schechter, C.B. [B and W Fuel Co., Lynchburg, VA (United States); Harstead, G.A. [Harstead Engineering Associates, Inc., Old Tappan, NJ (United States); Kopecky, B. [ATEA/FRAMATOME, Carquefou (France)

    1995-12-31

    In many nuclear power plants, existing storage racks are being replaced with high-density racks to accommodate the increasing inventory of spent fuel. In the hypothetical design considered here, the high-density arrangement of fuel assemblies, or consolidated fuel canisters, is accomplished through the use of borated stainless steel (BSS) plates acting as neutron absorbers. The high-density fuel racks are simply supported by the pool floor with no structural connections to adjacent racks or to the pool walls or floor. Therefore, the racks are free standing and may slide and tip. Several time history, nonlinear, seismic analyses are required to account for variations in the coefficient of friction, rack loading configuration, ad the type of the seismic event. This paper presents several of the mathematical models usually used. The models include features to allow sliding and tipping of the racks and to represent the hydrodynamic coupling which can occur between fuel assemblies and rack cells, between adjacent racks, and between the racks and the reinforced concrete walls. A detailed model representing a single rack is used to evaluate the 3-D loading effects. This model is a controlling case for the stress analysis. A 2-D multi-rack model representing a row of racks between the spent fuel pool walls is used to evaluate the change in gaps between racks. The racks are analyzed for the fuel loading conditions of consolidated, full, empty, and half-loaded with fuel assemblies.

  9. Computing Q-D Relationships for Storage of Rocket Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jester, Keith

    2005-01-01

    The Quantity Distance Measurement Tool is a GIS BASEP computer program that aids safety engineers by calculating quantity-distance (Q-D) relationships for vessels that contain explosive chemicals used in testing rocket engines. (Q-D relationships are standard relationships between specified quantities of specified explosive materials and minimum distances by which they must be separated from persons, objects, and other explosives to obtain specified types and degrees of protection.) The program uses customized geographic-information-system (GIS) software and calculates Q-D relationships in accordance with NASA's Safety Standard For Explosives, Propellants, and Pyrotechnics. Displays generated by the program enable the identification of hazards, showing the relationships of propellant-storage-vessel safety buffers to inhabited facilities and public roads. Current Q-D information is calculated and maintained in graphical form for all vessels that contain propellants or other chemicals, the explosiveness of which is expressed in TNT equivalents [amounts of trinitrotoluene (TNT) having equivalent explosive effects]. The program is useful in the acquisition, siting, construction, and/or modification of storage vessels and other facilities in the development of an improved test-facility safety program.

  10. Life-Cycle Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis for Bio-Liquid Jet Fuel from Open Pond-Based Micro-Algae under China Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiliang Zhang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A life-cycle analysis (LCA of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and energy use was performed to study bio-jet fuel (BJF production from micro-algae grown in open ponds under Chinese conditions using the Tsinghua University LCA Model (TLCAM. Attention was paid to energy recovery through biogas production and cogeneration of heat and power (CHP from the residual biomass after oil extraction, including fugitive methane (CH4 emissions during the production of biogas and nitrous oxide (N2O emissions during the use of digestate (solid residue from anaerobic digestion as agricultural fertilizer. Analyses were performed based on examination of process parameters, mass balance conditions, material requirement, energy consumptions and the realities of energy supply and transport in China (i.e., electricity generation and heat supply primarily based on coal, multiple transport modes. Our LCA result of the BJF pathway showed that, compared with the traditional petrochemical pathway, this new pathway will increase the overall fossil energy use and carbon emission by 39% and 70%, respectively, while decrease petroleum consumption by about 84%, based on the same units of energy service. Moreover, the energy conservation and emission reduction benefit of this new pathway may be accomplished by two sets of approaches: wider adoption of low-carbon process fuels and optimization of algae cultivation and harvest, and oil extraction processes.

  11. Key challenges and recent progress in batteries, fuel cells, and hydrogen storage for clean energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalk, Steven G.; Miller, James F.

    Reducing or eliminating the dependency on petroleum of transportation systems is a major element of US energy research activities. Batteries are a key enabling technology for the development of clean, fuel-efficient vehicles and are key to making today's hybrid electric vehicles a success. Fuel cells are the key enabling technology for a future hydrogen economy and have the potential to revolutionize the way we power our nations, offering cleaner, more efficient alternatives to today's technology. Additionally fuel cells are significantly more energy efficient than combustion-based power generation technologies. Fuel cells are projected to have energy efficiency twice that of internal combustion engines. However before fuel cells can realize their potential, significant challenges remain. The two most important are cost and durability for both automotive and stationary applications. Recent electrocatalyst developments have shown that Pt alloy catalysts have increased activity and greater durability than Pt catalysts. The durability of conventional fluorocarbon membranes is improving, and hydrocarbon-based membranes have also shown promise of equaling the performance of fluorocarbon membranes at lower cost. Recent announcements have also provided indications that fuel cells can start from freezing conditions without significant deterioration. Hydrogen storage systems for vehicles are inadequate to meet customer driving range expectations (>300 miles or 500 km) without intrusion into vehicle cargo or passenger space. The United States Department of Energy has established three centers of Excellence for hydrogen storage materials development. The centers are focused on complex metal hydrides that can be regenerated onboard a vehicle, chemical hydrides that require off-board reprocessing, and carbon-based storage materials. Recent developments have shown progress toward the 2010 DOE targets. In addition DOE has established an independent storage material testing center

  12. Hydrogen storage systems based on magnesium hydride: from laboratory tests to fuel cell integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rango, P.; Marty, P.; Fruchart, D.

    2016-02-01

    The paper reviews the state of the art of hydrogen storage systems based on magnesium hydride, emphasizing the role of thermal management, whose effectiveness depends on the effective thermal conductivity of the hydride, but also depends of other limiting factors such as wall contact resistance and convective exchanges with the heat transfer fluid. For daily cycles, the use of phase change material to store the heat of reaction appears to be the most effective solution. The integration with fuel cells (1 kWe proton exchange membrane fuel cell and solid oxide fuel cell) highlights the dynamic behaviour of these systems, which is related to the thermodynamic properties of MgH2. This allows for "self-adaptive" systems that do not require control of the hydrogen flow rate at the inlet of the fuel cell.

  13. A COMPARISON OF CHALLENGES ASSOCIATED WITH SLUDGE REMOVAL & TREATMENT & DISPOSAL AT SEVERAL SPENT FUEL STORAGE LOCATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PERES, M.W.

    2007-01-09

    Challenges associated with the materials that remain in spent fuel storage pools are emerging as countries deal with issues related to storing and cleaning up nuclear fuel left over from weapons production. The K Basins at the Department of Energy's site at Hanford in southeastern Washington State are an example. Years of corrosion products and piles of discarded debris are intermingled in the bottom of these two pools that stored more 2,100 metric tons (2,300 tons) of spent fuel. Difficult, costly projects are underway to remove radioactive material from the K Basins. Similar challenges exist at other locations around the globe. This paper compares the challenges of handling and treating radioactive sludge at several locations storing spent nuclear fuel.

  14. Criticality benchmark guide for light-water-reactor fuel in transportation and storage packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichtenwalter, J.J.; Bowman, S.M.; DeHart, M.D.; Hopper, C.M.

    1997-03-01

    This report is designed as a guide for performing criticality benchmark calculations for light-water-reactor (LWR) fuel applications. The guide provides documentation of 180 criticality experiments with geometries, materials, and neutron interaction characteristics representative of transportation packages containing LWR fuel or uranium oxide pellets or powder. These experiments should benefit the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and licensees in validation of computational methods used in LWR fuel storage and transportation concerns. The experiments are classified by key parameters such as enrichment, water/fuel volume, hydrogen-to-fissile ratio (H/X), and lattice pitch. Groups of experiments with common features such as separator plates, shielding walls, and soluble boron are also identified. In addition, a sample validation using these experiments and a statistical analysis of the results are provided. Recommendations for selecting suitable experiments and determination of calculational bias and uncertainty are presented as part of this benchmark guide.

  15. Thermal analysis of a storage cask for 24 spent PWR fuel assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.C.; Bang, K.S.; Seo, K.S.; Kim, H.D. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Daejeon (Korea); Choi, B.I.; Lee, H.Y.; Song, M.J. [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., Daejeon (Korea)

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to perform a thermal analysis of a spent fuel storage cask in order to predict the maximum concrete and fuel cladding temperatures. Thermal analyses have been carried out for a storage cask under normal and off-normal conditions. The environmental temperature is assumed to be 27 {open_square} under the normal condition. The off-normal condition has an environmental temperature of 40 {open_square}. An additional off-normal condition is considered as a partial blockage of the air inlet ducts. Four of the eight inlet ducts are assumed to be completely blocked. The storage cask is designed to store 24 PWR spent fuel assemblies with a burn-up of 55,000 MWD/MTU and a cooling time of 7 years. The decay heat load from the 24 PWR assemblies is 25.2 kW. Thermal analyses of ventilation system have been carried out for the determination of the optimum duct size and shape. The finite volume computational fluid dynamics code FLUENT was used for the thermal analysis. In the results of the analysis, the maximum temperatures of the fuel rod and concrete overpack were lower than the allowable values under the normal condition and off-normal conditions.

  16. Evaluation of limiting mechanisms for long-term spent fuel dry storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, J. [ANATECH Research Corp., San Diego, CA (United States); Machiels, A. [EPRI, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Several failure mechanisms have been postulated that could become limiting for spent fuel in dry storage. These are: stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC), Delayed Hydride Cracking (DHC) and Creep Rupture (CR). These mechanisms are examined in some detail from two perspectives: their initial environments in which they were developed and applied, and in relation to their applicability to dry storage. Extrapolation techniques are used to transfer the mechanisms from their initial in-reactor and laboratory domains to out-of-reactor spent fuel dry storage environments. This transfer is accomplished both qualitatively where necessary and quantitatively when possible, with fracture toughness used as the transfer function. In this regard, the paper provides useful information on cladding fracture toughness estimates that recognize the specific physical conditions of the cladding, which would not be found elsewhere in the literature. The arguments presented in this paper confirm the general technical consensus that creep is the governing mechanism for spent fuel in long-term dry storage. (author)

  17. Design of a new wet storage rack for spent fuels from IEA-R1 reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Antonio C.I.; Madi Filho, Tufic; Siqueira, Paulo T.D.; Ricci Filho, Walter, E-mail: acirodri@ipen.br, E-mail: tmfilho@ipen.br, E-mail: ptsiquei@ipen.br, E-mail: wricci@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The IEA-R1 research reactor operates in a regimen of 64h weekly, at the power of 4.5 MW. In these conditions, the racks of the spent fuel elements have less than half of its initial capacity. Thus, maintaining these operating conditions, the storage will have capacity for about six years. Since the estimated useful life of the IEA-R1 is about another 20 years, it will be necessary to increase the storage capacity of spent fuel. Dr. Henrik Grahn, expert of the International Atomic Energy Agency on wet storage, visiting the IEA-R1 Reactor (September/2012) made some recommendations: among them, the design and installation of racks made with borated stainless steel and internally coated with an aluminum film, so that corrosion of the fuel elements would not occur. After an extensive literature review of material options given for this type of application we got to Boral® manufactured by 3M due to numerous advantages. This paper presents studies on the analysis of criticality using the computer code MCNP 5, demonstrating the possibility of doubling the storage capacity of current racks to attend the demand of the IEA-R1 reactor while attending the safety requirements the International Atomic Energy Agency. (author)

  18. Recent findings on the oxidation of UO{sub 2} fuel under nominally dry storage conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, P.; McEachern, R.J.; Sunder, S.; Wasywich, K.M.; Miller, N.H.; Wood, D.D

    1995-07-01

    This paper is an overview of fuel-storage demonstration experiments, supporting research on UO{sub 2} oxidation, and associated model development, in progress at AECL's Whiteshell Laboratories. The work is being performed to determine the time/temperature limits for safe storage of irradiated CANDU fuel in dry air. The most significant recent experimental finding has been the detection of small quantities of U{sub 3}O{sub 8}, formed over periods of one to several years in a variety of experiments at 150-170 deg C. Another important trading is the slight suppression of U{sub 3}O{sub 8} formation in SIMFUEL and other doped U0{sub 2} formulations. The development of a nucleation-and-growth model for U{sub 3}O{sub 8} formation is discussed, along with available activation energy data. These provide a basis for predicting U{sub 3}O{sub 8} formation rates under dry-storage conditions, and hence optimizing fuel storage strategies. (author)

  19. Advanced chemical hydride-based hydrogen generation/storage system for fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breault, R.W.; Rolfe, J. [Thermo Power Corp., Waltham, MA (United States)

    1998-08-01

    Because of the inherent advantages of high efficiency, environmental acceptability, and high modularity, fuel cells are potentially attractive power supplies. Worldwide concerns over clean environments have revitalized research efforts on developing fuel cell vehicles (FCV). As a result of intensive research efforts, most of the subsystem technology for FCV`s are currently well established. These include: high power density PEM fuel cells, control systems, thermal management technology, and secondary power sources for hybrid operation. For mobile applications, however, supply of hydrogen or fuel for fuel cell operation poses a significant logistic problem. To supply high purity hydrogen for FCV operation, Thermo Power`s Advanced Technology Group is developing an advanced hydrogen storage technology. In this approach, a metal hydride/organic slurry is used as the hydrogen carrier and storage media. At the point of use, high purity hydrogen will be produced by reacting the metal hydride/organic slurry with water. In addition, Thermo Power has conceived the paths for recovery and regeneration of the spent hydride (practically metal hydroxide). The fluid-like nature of the spent hydride/organic slurry will provide a unique opportunity for pumping, transporting, and storing these materials. The final product of the program will be a user-friendly and relatively high energy storage density hydrogen supply system for fuel cell operation. In addition, the spent hydride can relatively easily be collected at the pumping station and regenerated utilizing renewable sources, such as biomass, natural, or coal, at the central processing plants. Therefore, the entire process will be economically favorable and environmentally friendly.

  20. STABILIZATION PONDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunarsih Sunarsih

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model for natural syst ems used in Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP Sewon Bantul. The model is m odeling development, derived from the physical and biochemical phenomena involved in the biological treatment process. The numerical solution of the resulting on 13 simultaneous systems of nonlinear equations by the Quasi_Newton. Data validation is measured by facultative pond at the inlet and outlet of the pond to the concentration of b acteria, algae, zooplankton, organic matter, detritus, organic nitrogen, NH3, organi c phosphor, dissolved phosphorus, Dissolved Oxygen (DO, total coliform, faecal coliform and Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD. A simulation model is presented to predict performance regime steady state of domestic wastewater treatment facultative stabilization pond. The high degree of significant of at least 10% indicates that the effluent parameters can be reasonably accurately predicted.

  1. Corrosion Surveillance for Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel in Wet Basin Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, J.P.

    1998-10-16

    Foreign and domestic test and research reactor fuel is currently being shipped from locations over the world for storage in water filled basins at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The fuel was provided to many of the foreign countries as a part of the "Atoms for Peace" program in the early 1950's. In support of the wet storage of this fuel at the research reactor sites and at SRS, corrosion surveillance programs have been initiated. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) established a Coordinated Research Program (CRP) in 1996 on "Corrosion of Research Reactor Aluminum-Clad Spent Fuel in Water" and scientists from ten countries worldwide were invited to participate. This paper presents a detailed discussion of the IAEA sponsored CRP and provides the updated results from corrosion surveillance activities at SRS. In May 1998, a number of news articles around the world reported stories that microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) was active on the aluminum-clad spent fuel stored in the RBOF basin at SRS. This assessment was found to be in error with details presented in this paper. A biofilm was found on aluminum coupons, but resulted in no corrosion. Cracks seen on the surface were not caused by corrosion, but by stresses from the volume expansion of the oxide formed during pre-conditioning autoclaving. There has been no pitting caused by MIC or any other corrosion mechanism seen in the RBOF basin since initiation of the SRS Corrosion Surveillance Program in 1993.

  2. An information management system for a spent nuclear fuel interim storage facility.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finch, Robert J.; Chiu, Hsien-Lang (Taiwan Power Co., Taipei, 10016 Taiwan); Giles, Todd; Horak, Karl Emanuel; Jow, Hong-Nian (Jow International, Kirkland, WA)

    2010-12-01

    We describe an integrated information management system for an independent spent fuel dry-storage installation (ISFSI) that can provide for (1) secure and authenticated data collection, (2) data analysis, (3) dissemination of information to appropriate stakeholders via a secure network, and (4) increased public confidence and support of the facility licensing and operation through increased transparency. This information management system is part of a collaborative project between Sandia National Laboratories, Taiwan Power Co., and the Fuel Cycle Materials Administration of Taiwan's Atomic Energy Council, which is investigating how to implement this concept.

  3. Alkaline water electrolysis technology for Space Station regenerative fuel cell energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, F. H.; Hoberecht, M. A.; Le, M.

    1986-01-01

    The regenerative fuel cell system (RFCS), designed for application to the Space Station energy storage system, is based on state-of-the-art alkaline electrolyte technology and incorporates a dedicated fuel cell system (FCS) and water electrolysis subsystem (WES). In the present study, emphasis is placed on the WES portion of the RFCS. To ensure RFCS availability for the Space Station, the RFCS Space Station Prototype design was undertaken which included a 46-cell 0.93 cu m static feed water electrolysis module and three integrated mechanical components.

  4. A fuel cell energy storage system concept for the Space Station Freedom Extravehicular Mobility Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlhart, Otto J.; Rosso, Matthew J., Jr.; Marmolejo, Jose

    1989-01-01

    An update is given on work to design and build a Fuel Cell Energy Storage System (FCESS) bench-tested unit for the Space Station Freedom Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). Fueled by oxygen and hydride-stored hydrogen, the FCESS is being considered as an alternative to the EMU zinc-silver oxide battery. Superior cycle life and quick recharge are the main attributes of FCESS. The design and performance of a nonventing, 28 V, 34 Ahr system with 7 amp rating are discussed.

  5. Report on the possibilities of long-term storage of irradiated nuclear fuels; Rapport sur les possibilites d'entreposage a long terme de combustibles nucleaires irradies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This report aims at giving a legislative aspect to the many rules that govern the activities of the back-end of the fuel cycle in France. These activities concern the unloading of spent nuclear fuels, their reprocessing, storage, recycling and definitive disposal. The following points are reviewed and commented: the management of non-immediately reprocessed fuels (historical reasons of the 'all wastes reprocessing' initial choice, evolution of the economic and political context, the future reprocessing or the definitive disposal of spent fuels in excess); the inevitable long-term storage of part of the spent fuels (quantities and required properties of long-term stored fuels, the eventuality of a definitive disposal of spent fuels); the criteria that long-term storage facilities must fulfill (confinement measures, reversibility, surveillance and control during the whole duration of the storage); storage concept to be retained (increase of storage pools capacity, long-term storage in pools of reprocessing plants, centralized storage in pools, surface dry-storage on power plant sites, reversible underground storage, subsurface storage and storage/disposal in galleries, surface dry-storage facilities); the preliminary studies for the creation of long-term storage facilities (public information, management by a public French organization, clarifying of the conditions of international circulation of spent fuels); problems linked with the presence of foreign spent fuels in France (downstream of the reprocessing cycle, foreign plutonium and wastes re-shipment); conclusions and recommendations. (J.S.)

  6. Hazard analysis for 300 Area N Reactor Fuel Fabrication and Storage Facilty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.J.; Brehm, J.R.

    1994-01-25

    This hazard analysis (HA) has been prepared for the 300 Area N Reactor Fuel Fabrication and Storage Facility (Facility), in compliance with the requirements of Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) controlled manual WHC-CM-4-46, Nonreactor Facility Safety Analysis Manual, and to the direction of WHC-IP-0690, Safety Analysis and Regulation Desk Instructions, (WHC 1992). An HA identifies potentially hazardous conditions in a facility and the associated potential accident scenarios. Unlike the Facility hazard classification documented in WHC-SD-NR-HC-004, Hazard Classification for 300 Area N Reactor Fuel Fabrication and Storage Facility, (Huang 1993), which is based on unmitigated consequences, credit is taken in an HA for administrative controls or engineered safety features planned or in place. The HA is the foundation for the accident analysis. The significant event scenarios identified by this HA will be further evaluated in a subsequent accident analysis.

  7. Analysis of H2 storage needs for early market non-motive fuel cell applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Terry Alan; Moreno, Marcina; Arienti, Marco; Pratt, Joseph William; Shaw, Leo; Klebanoff, Leonard E.

    2012-03-01

    Hydrogen fuel cells can potentially reduce greenhouse gas emissions and the United States dependence on foreign oil, but issues with hydrogen storage are impeding their widespread use. To help overcome these challenges, this study analyzes opportunities for their near-term deployment in five categories of non-motive equipment: portable power, construction equipment, airport ground support equipment, telecom backup power, and man-portable power and personal electronics. To this end, researchers engaged end users, equipment manufacturers, and technical experts via workshops, interviews, and electronic means, and then compiled these data into meaningful and realistic requirements for hydrogen storage in specific target applications. In addition to developing these requirements, end-user benefits (e.g., low noise and emissions, high efficiency, potentially lower maintenance costs) and concerns (e.g., capital cost, hydrogen availability) of hydrogen fuel cells in these applications were identified. Market data show potential deployments vary with application from hundreds to hundreds of thousands of units.

  8. Evaluation of maximum allowable temperature inside basket of dry storage module for CANDU spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Ho; Yoon, Jeong Hyoun; Chae, Kyoung Myoung; Choi, Byung Il; Lee, Heung Young; Song, Myung Jae [Nuclear Environment Technology Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Gyu Seong [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-10-01

    This study provides a maximum allowable fuel temperature through a preliminary evaluation of the UO{sub 2} weight gain that may occur on a failed (breached sheathing) element of a fuel bundle. Intact bundles would not be affected as the UO{sub 2} would not be in contact with the air for the fuel storage basket. The analysis is made for the MACSTOR/KN-400 to be operated in Wolsong ambient air temperature conditions. The design basis fuel is a 6-year cooled fuel bundle that, on average has reached a burnup of 7,800 MWd/MTU. The fuel bundle considered for analysis is assumed to have a high burnup of 12,000 MWd/MTU and be located in a hot basket. The MACSTOR/KN-400 has the same air circuit as the MACSTOR and the air circuit will require a slightly higher temperature difference to exit the increased heat load. The maximum temperature of a high burnup bundle stored in the new MACSTOR/KN-400 is expected to be about 9 .deg. C higher than the fuel temperature of the MACSTOR at an equivalent constant ambient temperature. This temperature increase will in turn increase the UO{sub 2} weight gain from 0.06% (MACSTOR for Wolsong conditions) to an estimated 0.13% weight gain for the MACSTOR/KN-400. Compared to an acceptable UO{sub 2} weight gain of 0.6%, we are thus expecting to maintain a very acceptable safety factor of 4 to 5 for the new module against unacceptable stresses in the fuel sheathing. For the UO{sub 2} weight gain, the maximum allowable fuel temperature was shown by 164 .deg. C.

  9. Design Verification Report Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Canister Storage Building (CSB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PICKETT, W.W.

    2000-09-22

    The Sub-project W379, ''Spent Nuclear Fuel Canister Storage Building (CSB),'' was established as part of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project. The primary mission of the CSB is to safely store spent nuclear fuel removed from the K Basins in dry storage until such time that it can be transferred to the national geological repository at Yucca Mountain Nevada. This sub-project was initiated in late 1994 by a series of studies and conceptual designs. These studies determined that the partially constructed storage building, originally built as part of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) Project, could be redesigned to safely store the spent nuclear fuel. The scope of the CSB facility initially included a receiving station, a hot conditioning system, a storage vault, and a Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) Handling Machine (MHM). Because of evolution of the project technical strategy, the hot conditioning system was deleted from the scope and MCO welding and sampling stations were added in its place. This report outlines the methods, procedures, and outputs developed by Project W379 to verify that the provided Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs): satisfy the design requirements and acceptance criteria; perform their intended function; ensure that failure modes and hazards have been addressed in the design; and ensure that the SSCs as installed will not adversely impact other SSCs. Because this sub-project is still in the construction/start-up phase, all verification activities have not yet been performed (e.g., canister cover cap and welding fixture system verification, MCO Internal Gas Sampling equipment verification, and As-built verification.). The verification activities identified in this report that still are to be performed will be added to the start-up punchlist and tracked to closure.

  10. Special equipment support the fuel storage; Equipos especiales para apoyos al almacenamiento de combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, M. E.

    2014-10-01

    In the current juncture one of the keys to any company that works in a market that is as demanding as the nuclear, is its ability to developed new technological products that they can adapt to the different special situations/needs of nuclear Power Plants during their operating life. As an example, below are some of the specialized equipment that ENSA has been developing for more than thirty years that has been doing work in the area of fuel storage. (Author)

  11. Frozen ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, M; Westermann, S.; Anthony, K. Walter

    2015-01-01

    Lakes and ponds play a key role in the carbon cycle of permafrost ecosystems, where they are considered to be hotspots of carbon dioxide CO2 and methane CH4 emission. The strength of these emissions is, however, controlled by a variety of physical and biogeochemical processes whose responses to a...

  12. Sulphur impacts during pulverised coal combustion in oxy-fuel technology for carbon capture and storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanger, Rohan; Wall, Terry [Chemical Engineering, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW (Australia)

    2011-02-15

    The oxy-fuel process is one of three carbon capture technologies which supply CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration - the others being post-combustion capture and IGCC with carbon capture. As yet no technology has emerged as a clear winner in the race to commercial deployment. The oxy-fuel process relies on recycled flue gas as the main heat carrier through the boiler and results in significantly different flue gas compositions. Sulphur has been shown in the study to have impacts in the furnace, during ash collection, CO{sub 2} compression and transport as well as storage, with many options for its removal or impact control. In particular, the effect of sulphur containing species can pose a risk for corrosion throughout the plant and transport pipelines. This paper presents a technical review of all laboratory and pilot work to identify impacts of sulphur impurities from throughout the oxy-fuel process, from combustion, gas cleaning, compression to sequestration with removal and remedial options. An economic assessment of the optimum removal is not considered. Recent oxy-fuel pilot trials performed in support of the Callide Oxy-fuel Project and other pilot scale data are interpreted and combined with thermodynamic simulations to develop a greater fundamental understanding of the changes incurred by recycling the flue gas. The simulations include a sensitivity analysis of process variables and comparisons between air fired and oxy-fuel fired conditions - such as combustion products, SO{sub 3} conversion and limestone addition. (author)

  13. Storage of LWR (light-water-reactor) spent fuel in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, L.E.; Charlot, L.A.; Coleman, J.E. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Knoll, R.W. (Johnson Controls, Inc., Madison, WI (USA))

    1989-12-01

    An experimental program is being conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to determine the oxidation response of light-water-reactor (LWR) spent fuels under conditions appropriate to fuel storage in air. The program is designed to investigate several independent variables that might affect the oxidation behavior of spent fuel. Included are temperature (135 to 230{degree}C), fuel burnup (to about 34 MWd/kgM), reactor type (pressurized and boiling water reactors), moisture level in the air, and the presence of a high gamma field. In continuing tests with declad spent fuel and nonirradiated UO{sub 2} specimens, oxidation rates were monitored by weight-gain measurements and the microstructures of subsamples taken during the weighing intervals were characterized by several analytical methods. The oxidation behavior indicated by weight gain and time to form powder will be reported in Volume III of this series. The characterization results obtained from x-ray diffractometry, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Auger electron spectrometry of oxidized fuel samples are presented in this report. 28 refs., 21 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Analysis of dose consequences arising from the release of spent nuclear fuel from dry storage casks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durbin, Samuel G.; Morrow, Charles.

    2013-01-01

    The resulting dose consequences from releases of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) residing in a dry storage casks are examined parametrically. The dose consequences are characterized by developing dose versus distance curves using simplified bounding assumptions. The dispersion calculations are performed using the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS2) code. Constant weather and generic system parameters were chosen to ensure that the results in this report are comparable with each other and to determine the relative impact on dose of each variable. Actual analyses of site releases would need to accommodate local weather and geographic data. These calculations assume a range of fuel burnups, release fractions (RFs), three exposure scenarios (2 hrs and evacuate, 2 hrs and shelter, and 24 hrs exposure), two meteorological conditions (D-4 and F-2), and three release heights (ground level 1 meter (m), 10 m, and 100 m). This information was developed to support a policy paper being developed by U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff on an independent spent fuel storage installation (ISFSI) and monitored retrievable storage installation (MRS) security rulemaking.

  15. Mass minimization of a discrete regenerative fuel cell (RFC) system for on-board energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaojin; Xiao, Yu; Shao, Zhigang; Yi, Baolian

    RFC combined with solar photovoltaic (PV) array is the advanced technologic solution for on-board energy storage, e.g. land, sky, stratosphere and aerospace applications, due to its potential of achieving high specific energy. This paper focuses on mass modeling and calculation for a RFC system consisting of discrete electrochemical cell stacks (fuel cell and electrolyzer), together with fuel storage, a PV array, and a radiator. A nonlinear constrained optimization procedure is used to minimize the entire system mass, as well as to study the effect of operating conditions (e.g. current densities of fuel cell and electrolyzer) on the system mass. According to the state-of-the-art specific power of both electrochemical stacks, an energy storage system has been designed for the conditions of stratosphere applications and a rated power output of 12 kW. The calculation results show that the optimization of the current density of both stacks is of importance in designing the light weight on-board energy system.

  16. Thermal performance sensitivity studies in support of material modeling for extended storage of used nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuta, Judith M.; Suffield, Sarah R.; Fort, James A.; Adkins, Harold E.

    2013-08-15

    The work reported here is an investigation of the sensitivity of component temperatures of a storage system, including fuel cladding temperatures, in response to age-related changes that could degrade the design-basis thermal behavior of the system. Three specific areas of interest were identified for this study. • degradation of the canister backfill gas from pure helium to a mixture of air and helium, resulting from postulated leakage due to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of canister welds • changes in surface emissivity of system components, resulting from corrosion or other aging mechanisms, which could cause potentially significant changes in temperatures and temperature distributions, due to the effect on thermal radiation exchange between components • changes in fuel and basket temperatures due to changes in fuel assembly position within the basket cells in the canister The purpose of these sensitivity studies is to provide a realistic example of how changes in the physical properties or configuration of the storage system components can affect temperatures and temperature distributions. The magnitudes of these sensitivities can provide guidance for identifying appropriate modeling assumptions for thermal evaluations extending long term storage out beyond 50, 100, 200, and 300 years.

  17. Progress on Fuel Receiving and Storage Decontamination Work at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jablonski, J. F.; Al-Daouk, A. M.; Moore, H. R.

    2003-02-25

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) removed the last of its spent nuclear fuel assemblies from an on-site storage pool last year and is now decontaminating its Fuel Receiving and Storage (FRS) Facility. The decontamination project will reduce the long-lived curie inventory, associated radiological hazards, and the operational costs associated with the maintenance of this facility. Workers at the WVDP conducted the first phase of the FRS decontamination project in late 2001 by removing 149 canisters that previously contained spent fuel assemblies from the pool. Removal of the canisters from the pool paved the way for nuclear divers to begin removing canister storage racks and other miscellaneous material from the FRS pool in February 2002. This was only the third time in the history of the WVDP that nuclear divers were used to perform underwater work. After decontaminating the pool, it will be drained slowly until all of the water is removed. The water will be processed through an ion exchanger to remove radioactive contaminants as it is being drained, and a fixative will be applied to the walls above the water surface to secure residual contamination.

  18. Structural evaluation and analysis under normal conditions for spent fuel concrete storage cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Taechul; Baeg, Changyeal; Yoon, Sitae [Korea Radioactive waste Management Agency, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Insoo [Korea Nuclear Engineering and Service Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The purpose of this paper is the verification of stabilities of the structural elements that influence the safety of a concrete storage cask. The evaluation results were reviewed with respect to every design criterion, in terms of whether the results satisfy the criteria, provided by 10CFR 72 and NUREG-1536. The basic information on the design is partially explained in 2. Description of spent fuel storage system and the maintainability and assumptions included in the analysis were confirmed through detailed explanations of the acceptable standards, analysis model, and analysis method. ABAQUS 6.10, a widely used finite element analysis program, was used in the structural analysis. The storage cask shall maintain the sub-criticality, shielding, structural integrity, thermal capability and confinement in accordance with the requirements specified in US 10 CFR 72. The safety of storage cask is analyzed and it has been confirmed to meet the requirements of US 10 CFR 72. This paper summarizes the structural stability evaluation results of a concrete storage cask with respect to the design criteria. The evaluation results of this paper show that the maximum stress was below the allowable stress under every condition, and the concrete storage cask satisfied the design criteria.

  19. Thermodynamic Analysis of Three Compressed Air Energy Storage Systems: Conventional, Adiabatic, and Hydrogen-Fueled

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Safaei

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We present analyses of three families of compressed air energy storage (CAES systems: conventional CAES, in which the heat released during air compression is not stored and natural gas is combusted to provide heat during discharge; adiabatic CAES, in which the compression heat is stored; and CAES in which the compression heat is used to assist water electrolysis for hydrogen storage. The latter two methods involve no fossil fuel combustion. We modeled both a low-temperature and a high-temperature electrolysis process for hydrogen production. Adiabatic CAES (A-CAES with physical storage of heat is the most efficient option with an exergy efficiency of 69.5% for energy storage. The exergy efficiency of the conventional CAES system is estimated to be 54.3%. Both high-temperature and low-temperature electrolysis CAES systems result in similar exergy efficiencies (35.6% and 34.2%, partly due to low efficiency of the electrolyzer cell. CAES with high-temperature electrolysis has the highest energy storage density (7.9 kWh per m3 of air storage volume, followed by A-CAES (5.2 kWh/m3. Conventional CAES and CAES with low-temperature electrolysis have similar energy densities of 3.1 kWh/m3.

  20. Design and Operation of Equipment to Detect and Remove Water within Used Nuclear Fuel Storage Bottles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.C. Baker; T.M. Pfeiffer; J.C. Price

    2013-09-01

    Inspection and drying equipment has been implemented in a hot cell to address the inadvertent ingress of water into used nuclear fuel storage bottles. Operated with telemanipulators, the system holds up to two fuel bottles and allows their threaded openings to be connected to pressure transducers and a vacuum pump. A prescribed pressure rebound test is used to diagnose the presence of moisture. Bottles found to contain moisture are dried by vaporization. The drying process is accelerated by the application of heat and vacuum. These techniques detect and remove virtually all free water (even water contained in a debris bed) while leaving behind most, if not all, particulates. The extracted water vapour passes through a thermoelectric cooler where it is condensed back to the liquid phase for collection. Fuel bottles are verified to be dry by passing the pressure rebound test.

  1. Study on the fire-protection-system for interim storage facilities of spent nuclear fuel and transportation ships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S. O; Choi, M. H.; Lee, S. C. and others [Dongbang Electron Industry Corporation, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-12-15

    This study consists of : the fire risk and it's fire protection for the storage facilities and transportation equipments of dangerous goods, the fire risk and it's fire protection for the interim storage facilities of spent nuclear fuel, the fire risk and it's fire protection for the dangerous goods transportation ships, the necessary equipment for safety of ships and regulations of fire fighting equipment for ships, technical specification of spent nuclear fuel transportation ships which are operated in foreign countries, draft of fire protection guideline for interim storage facilities of spent nuclear fuel, inspection items of fire fighting equipment, scope of education and training. On the basis of the aforementioned, a draft of fire protection guideline for interim storage facilities of spent nuclear fuel is proposed and the regulations for ship engaged in the a carrage of dangerous goods that should be considered in design and operation stage are proposed.

  2. An Electrical Energy Storage System Based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, T.; Shao, L.; Qian, J. Q.; Wang, S. R.; Zhan, Z. L.

    2013-07-01

    This work studies a proof-of-concept integrated electrical energy storage system of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) by using Fe as original fuel and Ca(OH)2 as additive. The design and operation of this cell are based on a conventional anode-supported tubular SOFC, with Ni-SSZ, SSZ, and SSZ-LSM as anode, electrolyte and cathode, respectively. In this design, Fe reacts with H2O generated from the decomposition of Ca(OH)2 at high temperature, as a result, H2 is produced in situ as SOFC fuel. The charging process is realized by electrolysis of water in the SOEC mode along with the reduction of Fe3O4 by the generated H2. It is demonstrated that the open circuit voltage (OCV) for the Fe-Fe3O4 system is above 1.0V at 1073K. By using such fuel, the maximum power density of 124 mW cm-2 has been achieved. Two stable charge/discharge cycles have been tested. Combined with the advantages of environmental friendliness, sustainability promise and excellent performance, the novel SOFC system will be a new choice of grid-scale energy storage.

  3. SHIELDING ANALYSIS OF DUAL PURPOSE CASKS FOR SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL UNDER NORMAL STORAGE CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAE-HUN KO

    2014-08-01

    The design of the cask is based on the safety requirements for normal storage conditions under 10 CFR Part 72. A radiation shielding analysis of the metal storage cask optimized for loading 21 design basis fuels was performed for two cases; one for a single cask and the other for a 2×10 cask array. For the single cask, dose rates at the external surface of the metal cask, 1m and 2m away from the cask surface, were evaluated. For the 2×10 cask array, dose rates at the center point of the array and at the center of the casks’ height were evaluated. The results of the shielding analysis for the single cask show that dose rates were considerably higher at the lower side (from the bottom of the cask to the bottom of the neutron shielding of the cask, at over 2mSv/hr at the external surface of the cask. However, this is not considered to be a significant issue since additional shielding will be installed at the storage facility. The shielding analysis results for the 2×10 cask array showed exponential decrease with distance off the sources. The controlled area boundary was calculated to be approximately 280m from the array, with a dose rate of 25mrem/yr. Actual dose rates within the controlled area boundary will be lower than 25mrem/yr, due to the decay of radioactivity of spent fuel in storage.

  4. Chemical storage of renewable electricity in hydrocarbon fuels via H{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eilers, H.; Iglesias Gonzalez, M.; Schaub, G. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Engler-Bunte-Institute I

    2012-07-01

    The increased generation of renewable electricity leads to an increasing demand for storage due to its fluctuating production. Electrical energy can be stored as chemical energy carriers e.g. in form of H{sub 2} that can be further processed to hydrocarbons. Storage in form of hydrocarbons is advantageous compared to H{sub 2} storage since (i) a higher volumetric energy density in the product can be achieved and (ii) the infrastructure for hydrocarbon distribution, storage and utilization already exists. The present contribution introduces the potential of H{sub 2} integration in upgrading/production processes to hydrocarbon fuels, based on stoichiometry and kind of carbon feedstock. Processes include petroleum refining, vegetable oil hydrogenation, production of synfuel from lignocellulosic biomass and substitute natural gas from H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2}. In the case of fossil raw materials, yields per feedstock can be increased and fossil CO{sub 2} emissions decreased since fossil resources for H{sub 2} production can be avoided. In the case of biomass conversion to synfuels, product yields per biomass/hectare can be increased. If CO{sub 2} is hydrogenated to fuels, no gasification step is needed, however lower hydrocarbon product yields per H{sub 2} are achieved since CO{sub 2} has the highest oxygen content. (orig.)

  5. Effect of biodiesel addition on microbial community structure in a simulated fuel storage system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo-Flórez, Juan-Manuel; Bassi, Amarjeet; Rehmann, Lars; Thompson, Michael R

    2013-11-01

    Understanding changes in microbial structure due to biodiesel storage is important both for protecting integrity of storage systems and fuel quality management. In this work a simulated storage system was used to study the effect of biodiesel (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%) on a microbial population, which was followed by community level physiological profiling (CLPP), 16s rDNA analysis and plating in selective media. Results proved that structure and functionality were affected by biodiesel. CLPP showed at least three populations: one corresponding to diesel, one to biodiesel and one to blends of diesel and biodiesel. Analysis of 16s rDNA revealed that microbial composition was different for populations growing in diesel and biodiesel. Genera identified are known for degradation of hydrocarbons and emulsifier production. Maximum growth was obtained in biodiesel; however, microbial counts in standard media were lower for this samples. Acidification of culture media was observed at high biodiesel concentration.

  6. Evaluation of strategies for end storage of high-level reactor fuel; Vurdering av strategier for sluttlagring av hoeyaktivt reaktorbrensel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This report evaluates a national strategy for end-storage of used high-level reactor fuel from the research reactors at Kjeller and in Halden. This strategy presupposes that all the important phases in handling the high-level material, including temporary storage and deposition, are covered. The quantity of spent fuel from Norwegian reactors is quite small. In addition to the technological issues, ethical, environmental, safety and economical requirements are emphasized.

  7. Review of SERI Solar Pond Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangrando, F.; Johnson, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    Development of models of pond thermal performance; analysis of solar pond use for building space heat and hot water production; use of low-temperature pond-produced heat for industrial processes, desalination, and electricity production; development of direct-contact heat exchanger to reduce conversion equipment cost; determination of effects of extracted heat and mass from the storage layer on pond performance; and investigation of factors which determine gradient layer stability and the stability of this interface between this level and the upper and lower convecting layers were described.

  8. Thermal analysis for a spent reactor fuel storage test in granite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montan, D.N.

    1980-09-01

    A test is conducted in which spent fuel assemblies from an operating commercial nuclear power reactor are emplaced in the Climax granite at the US Department of Energy`s Nevada Test Site. In this generic test, 11 canisters of spent PWR fuel are emplaced vertically along with 6 electrical simulator canisters on 3 m centers, 4 m below the floor of a storage drift which is 420 m below the surface. Two adjacent parallel drifts contain electrical heaters, operated to simulate (in the vicinity of the storage drift) the temperature fields of a large repository. This test, planned for up to five years duration, uses fairly young fuel (2.5 years out of core) so that the thermal peak will occur during the time frame of the test and will not exceed the peak that would not occur until about 40 years of storage had older fuel (5 to 15 years out of core) been used. This paper describes the calculational techniques and summarizes the results of a large number of thermal calculations used in the concept, basic design and final design of the spent fuel test. The results of the preliminary calculations show the effects of spacing and spent fuel age. Either radiation or convection is sufficient to make the drifts much better thermal conductors than the rock that was removed to create them. The combination of radiation and convection causes the drift surfaces to be nearly isothermal even though the heat source is below the floor. With a nominal ventilation rate of 2 m{sup 3}/s and an ambient rock temperature of 23{sup 0}C, the maximum calculated rock temperature (near the center of the heat source) is about 100{sup 0}C while the maximum air temperature in the drift is around 40{sup 0}C. This ventilation (1 m{sup 3}/s through the main drift and 1/2 m{sup 3}/s through each of the side drifts) will remove about 1/3 of the heat generated during the first five years of storage.

  9. Evaluation of Effect of Fuel Assembly Loading Patterns on Thermal and Shielding Performance of a Spent Fuel Storage/Transportation Cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuta, Judith M.; Jenquin, Urban P.; McKinnon, Mikal A.

    2001-11-20

    The licensing of spent fuel storage casks is generally based on conservative analyses that assume a storage system being uniformly loaded with design basis fuel. The design basis fuel typically assumes a maximum assembly enrichment, maximum burn up, and minimum cooling time. These conditions set the maximum decay heat loads and radioactive source terms for the design. Recognizing that reactor spent fuel pools hold spent fuel with an array of initial enrichments, burners, and cooling times, this study was performed to evaluate the effect of load pattern on peak cladding temperature and cask surface dose rate. Based on the analysis, the authors concluded that load patterns could be used to reduce peak cladding temperatures in a cask without adversely impacting the surface dose rates.

  10. Hazard Evaluation for Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Sludge at the Solid Waste Treatment Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SCHULTZ, M.V.

    2000-08-22

    As part of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) storage basin clean-up project, sludge that has accumulated in the K Basins due to corrosion of damaged irradiated N Reactor will be loaded into containers and placed in interim storage. The Hanford Site Treatment Complex (T Plant) has been identified as the location where the sludge will be stored until final disposition of the material occurs. Long term storage of sludge from the K Basin fuel storage facilities requires identification and analysis of potential accidents involving sludge storage in T Plant. This report is prepared as the initial step in the safety assurance process described in DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports and HNF-PRO-704, Hazards and Accident Analysis Process. This report documents the evaluation of potential hazards and off-normal events associated with sludge storage activities. This information will be used in subsequent safety analyses, design, and operations procedure development to ensure safe storage. The hazards evaluation for the storage of SNF sludge in T-Plant used the Hazards and Operability Analysis (HazOp) method. The hazard evaluation identified 42 potential hazardous conditions. No hazardous conditions involving hazardous/toxic chemical concerns were identified. Of the 42 items identified in the HazOp study, eight were determined to have potential for onsite worker consequences. No items with potential offsite consequences were identified in the HazOp study. Hazardous conditions with potential onsite worker or offsite consequences are candidates for quantitative consequence analysis. The hazardous conditions with potential onsite worker consequences were grouped into two event categories, Container failure due to overpressure - internal to T Plant, and Spill of multiple containers. The two event categories will be developed into accident scenarios that will be quantitatively analyzed to determine release consequences. A third category, Container failure due to

  11. Quivers For Special Fuel Rods-Disposal Of Special Fuel Rods In CASTOR V Casks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannani, Amin; Cebula, Wojciech; Buchmuller, Olga; Huggenberg, Roland [GNS, Essen (Germany); Helmut Kuhl [WTI, Julich (Germany)

    2015-05-15

    While GNS casks of the CASTOR family are a suitable means to transfer fuel assemblies (FA) from the NPP to an interim dry storage site, Germanys phase-out of nuclear energy has triggered the demand for an additional solution to dispose of special fuel rods (SFR), normally remaining in the fuel pond until the final shutdown of the NPP. SFR are fuel rods that had to be removed from fuel assemblies mainly due to their special condition, e. g. damages in the cladding of the fuel rods which may have occurred during reactor operations. SFR are usually stored in the spent fuel pond after they are removed from the FA. The quiver for special fuel rods features a robust yet simple design, with a high mechanical stability, a reliable leak-tightness and large safety margins for future requirements on safety analysis. The quiver for special fuel rods can be easily adapted to a large variety of different damaged fuel rods and tailored to the specific need of the customer. The quiver for special fuel rods is adaptable e.g. in length and diameter for use in other types of transport and storage casks and is applicable in other countries as well. The overall concept presented here is a first of its kind solution for the disposal of SFRs via Castor V-casks. This provides an important precondition in achieving the status 'free from nuclear fuel' of the shut down German NPPs.

  12. Solar pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    Shallow pools of liquid to collect low-temperature solar generated thermal energy are described. Narrow elongated trenches, grouped together over a wide area, are lined with a heat-absorbing black liner. The heat-absorbing liquid is kept separate from the thermal energy removing fluid by means such as clear polyethylene material. The covering for the pond may be a fluid or solid. If the covering is a fluid, fire fighting foam, continuously generated, or siloons are used to keep the surface covering clean and insulated. If the thermal energy removing fluid is a gas, a fluid insulation layer contained in a flat polyethlene tubing is used to cover the pond. The side of the tube directed towards the sun is treated to block out ultraviolet radiation and trap in infrared radiation.

  13. Reversible transient hydrogen storage in a fuel cell-supercapacitor hybrid device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unda, Jesus E Zerpa; Roduner, Emil

    2012-03-21

    A new concept is investigated for hydrogen storage in a supercapacitor based on large-surface-area carbon material (Black Pearls 2000). Protons and electrons of hydrogen are separated on a fuel cell-type electrode and then stored separately in the electrical double layer, the electrons on the carbon and the protons in the aqueous electrolyte of the supercapacitor electrode. The merit of this concept is that it works spontaneously and reversibly near ambient pressure and temperature. This is in pronounced contrast to what has been known as electrochemical hydrogen storage, which does not involve hydrogen gas and where electrical work has to be spent in the loading process. With the present hybrid device, a H(2) storage capacity of 0.13 wt% was obtained, one order of magnitude more than what can be stored by conventional physisorption on large-surface-area carbons at the same pressure and temperature. Raising the pressure from 1.5 to 3.5 bar increased the capacity by less than 20%, indicating saturation. A capacitance of 11 μF cm(-2), comparable with that of a commercial double layer supercapacitor, was found using H(2)SO(4) as electrolyte. The chemical energy of the stored H(2) is almost a factor of 3 larger than the electrical energy stored in the supercapacitor. Further developments of this concept relate to a hydrogen buffer integrated inside a proton exchange membrane fuel cell to be used in case of peak power demand. This serial setup takes advantage of the suggested novel concept of hydrogen storage. It is fundamentally different from previous ways of operating a conventional supercapacitor hooked up in parallel to a fuel cell.

  14. Modelling of a solid oxide fuel cell CHP system coupled with a hot water storage tank for a single household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liso, Vincenzo; Zhao, Yingru; Yang, Wenyuan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system for cogeneration of heat and power integrated with a stratified heat storage tank is studied. The use of a storage tank with thermal stratification allows one to increase the annual operating hours of CHP: heat can be produced when the request...

  15. Frozen ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, M; Westermann, S.; Anthony, K. Walter;

    2015-01-01

    on the thermal state of the surrounding permafrost; during the freezing period they prolong the period of time during which thawed soil material is available for microbial decomposition.  This study presents net CH4 production rates during the freezing period from ponds within a typical lowland tundra landscape...... in northern Siberia. Rate estimations were based on CH4 concentrations measured in surface lake ice from a variety of waterbody types. Vertical profiles along ice blocks showed an exponential increase in CH4 concentration with depth. These CH4 profiles were reproduced by a 1-D mass balance model and the net...... (0.01 to 0.14 mgCH4 m-2 day-1). In contrast, ponds exhibiting clear signs of erosion yielded net CH4 production rates of the order of 10-7 mol m-2 s-1 (140 mg CH4 m-2 day-1). Our results therefore indicate that once a particular threshold in thermal erosion has been crossed, ponds can develop into major CH4...

  16. A Structural Analytic Evaluation of a Connote Pad In a Spent Fuel Dry Storage Cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Hak; Seo, Ki Seog; Lee, Ju Chan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yeon Do; Cho, Chun Hyung; Lee, Dae Ki [Nuclear Environment Technology Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-06-15

    A spent fuel storage cask is required to prove the safety of a canister under a hypothetical accidental drop condition. A hypothetical accidental drop condition means that a canister is assumed to be a lee drop on to a pad of the storage cask during loading it into a storage cask. A pad of the storage cask absorbs shock to maintain the structural integrities of a canister under a hypothetical accidental drop condition. In this paper a finite element analysis for various pad structures was carried out to improve the structural integrity of a canister under a hypothetical accidental drop condition. A pad of a storage cask was designed a steel structure with concrete. The 1/4 height of a pad was modified with a structure composed of a steel and a polyurethane foam as a impact limiter. The effect of a shape of a steel structure was studied. The effects of the thickness of a steel structure and the density of a polyurethane foam was also studied.

  17. Sorbent Material Property Requirements for On-Board Hydrogen Storage for Automotive Fuel Cell Systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahluwalia, R. K.; Peng, J-K; Hua, T. Q.

    2015-05-25

    Material properties required for on-board hydrogen storage in cryogenic sorbents for use with automotive polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems are discussed. Models are formulated for physical, thermodynamic and transport properties, and for the dynamics of H-2 refueling and discharge from a sorbent bed. A conceptual storage configuration with in-bed heat exchanger tubes, a Type-3 containment vessel, vacuum insulation and requisite balance-of-plant components is developed to determine the peak excess sorption capacity and differential enthalpy of adsorption for 5.5 wt% system gravimetric capacity and 55% well-to-tank (WTT) efficiency. The analysis also determines the bulk density to which the material must be compacted for the storage system to reach 40 g.L-1 volumetric capacity. Thermal transport properties and heat transfer enhancement methods are analyzed to estimate the material thermal conductivity needed to achieve 1.5 kg.min(-1) H-2 refueling rate. Operating temperatures and pressures are determined for 55% WTT efficiency and 95% usable H-2. Needs for further improvements in material properties are analyzed that would allow reduction of storage pressure to 50 bar from 100 bar, elevation of storage temperature to 175-200 K from 150 K, and increase of WTT efficiency to 57.5% or higher.

  18. Development and Validation of a Slurry Model for Chemical Hydrogen Storage in Fuel Cell Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Pires, Richard P.; Simmons, Kevin L.

    2014-07-25

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence (HSECoE) is developing models for hydrogen storage systems for fuel cell-based light duty vehicle applications for a variety of promising materials. These transient models simulate the performance of the storage system for comparison to the DOE’s Technical Targets and a set of four drive cycles. The purpose of this research is to describe the models developed for slurry-based chemical hydrogen storage materials. The storage systems of both a representative exothermic system based on ammonia borane and endothermic system based on alane were developed and modeled in Simulink®. Once complete the reactor and radiator components of the model were validated with experimental data. The model was then run using a highway cycle, an aggressive cycle, cold-start cycle and hot drive cycle. The system design was adjusted to meet these drive cycles. A sensitivity analysis was then performed to identify the range of material properties where these DOE targets and drive cycles could be met. Materials with a heat of reaction greater than 11 kJ/mol H2 generated and a slurry hydrogen capacity of greater than 11.4% will meet the on-board efficiency and gravimetric capacity targets, respectively.

  19. Development and validation of a slurry model for chemical hydrogen storage in fuel cell vehicle applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Pires, Richard P.; Simmons, Kevin L.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence (HSECoE) is developing models for hydrogen storage systems for fuel cell-based light duty vehicle applications for a variety of promising materials. These transient models simulate the performance of the storage system for comparison to the DOE's Technical Targets and a set of four drive cycles. PNNL developed models to simulate the performance and suitability of slurry-based chemical hydrogen storage materials. The storage systems of both a representative exothermic system based on ammonia borane and an endothermic system based on alane were developed and modeled in Simulink®. Once complete, the reactor and radiator components of the model were validated with experimental data. The system design parameters were adjusted to allow the model to successfully meet a highway cycle, an aggressive cycle, a cold-start cycle, and a hot drive cycle. Finally, a sensitivity analysis was performed to identify the range of material properties where these DOE targets and drive cycles could be met. Materials with a heat of reaction >11 kJ mol-1 H2 generated and a slurry hydrogen capacity of >11.4% will meet the on-board efficiency and gravimetric capacity targets, respectively.

  20. Dangerous (toxic) atmospheres in UK wood pellet and wood chip fuel storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Andrew T.; Hemingway, Michael A.; Seymour, Cliff

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT There is growing use of wood pellet and wood chip boilers in the UK. Elsewhere fatalities have been reported, caused by carbon monoxide poisoning following entry into wood pellet storage areas. The aim of this work was to obtain information on how safely these two fuels are being stored in the UK. Site visits were made to six small-scale boiler systems and one large-scale pellet warehouse, to assess storage practice, risk management systems and controls, user knowledge, and potential for exposure to dangerous atmospheres. Real time measurements were made of gases in the store rooms and during laboratory tests on pellets and chips. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted and the microbiological content of the fuel was also determined. Knowledge of the hazards associated with these fuels, including confined space entry, was found to be limited at the smaller sites, but greater at the large pellet warehouse. There has been limited risk communication between companies supplying and maintaining boilers, those manufacturing and supplying fuel, and users. Risk is controlled by restricting access to the store rooms with locked entries; some store rooms have warning signs and carbon monoxide alarms. Nevertheless, some store rooms are accessed for inspection and maintenance. Laboratory tests showed that potentially dangerous atmospheres of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, with depleted levels of oxygen may be generated by these fuels, but this was not observed at the sites visited. Unplanned ventilation within store rooms was thought to be reducing the build-up of dangerous atmospheres. Microbiological contamination was confined to wood chips. PMID:27030057

  1. CPP-603 Underwater Fuel Storage Facility Site Integrated Stabilization Management Plan (SISMP), Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denney, R.D.

    1995-10-01

    The CPP-603 Underwater Fuel Storage Facility (UFSF) Site Integrated Stabilization Management Plan (SISMP) has been constructed to describe the activities required for the relocation of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from the CPP-603 facility. These activities are the only Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) actions identified in the Implementation Plan developed to meet the requirements of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 94-1 to the Secretary of Energy regarding an improved schedule for remediation in the Defense Nuclear Facilities Complex. As described in the DNFSB Recommendation 94-1 Implementation Plan, issued February 28, 1995, an INEL Spent Nuclear Fuel Management Plan is currently under development to direct the placement of SNF currently in existing INEL facilities into interim storage, and to address the coordination of intrasite SNF movements with new receipts and intersite transfers that were identified in the DOE SNF Programmatic and INEL Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Environmental Impact Statement Record, of Decision. This SISMP will be a subset of the INEL Spent Nuclear Fuel Management Plan and the activities described are being coordinated with other INEL SNF management activities. The CPP-603 relocation activities have been assigned a high priority so that established milestones will be meet, but there will be some cases where other activities will take precedence in utilization of available resources. The Draft INEL Site Integrated Stabilization Management Plan (SISMP), INEL-94/0279, Draft Rev. 2, dated March 10, 1995, is being superseded by the INEL Spent Nuclear Fuel Management Plan and this CPP-603 specific SISMP.

  2. Spent fuel dry storage technology development: thermal evaluation of isolated drywells containing spent fuel (1 kW PWR spent fuel assembly)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unterzuber, R; Wright, J B

    1980-09-01

    A spent fuel Isolated Drywell Test was conducted at the Engine-Maintenance, Assembly and Disassembly (E-MAD) facility on the Nevada Test Site. Two PWR spent fuel assemblies having a decay heat level of approximately 1.1 kW were encapsulated inside the E-MAD Hot Bay and placed in instrumented near-surface drywell storage cells. Temperatures from the two isolated drywells and the adjacent soil have been recorded throughout the 19 month Isolated Drywell Test. Canister and drywell liner temperatures reached their peak values (254{sup 0}F and 203{sup 0}F, respectively) during August 1979. Thereafter, all temperatures decreased and showed a cycling pattern which responded to seasonal atmospheric temperature changes. A computer model was utilized to predict the thermal response of the drywell. Computer predictions of the drywell temperatures and the temperatures of the surrounding soil are presented and show good agreement with the test data.

  3. Case Studies of Energy Storage with Fuel Cells and Batteries for Stationary and Mobile Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Belmonte

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, hydrogen coupled with fuel cells and lithium-ion batteries are considered as alternative energy storage methods. Their application on a stationary system (i.e., energy storage for a family house and a mobile system (i.e., an unmanned aerial vehicle will be investigated. The stationary systems, designed for off-grid applications, were sized for photovoltaic energy production in the area of Turin, Italy, to provide daily energy of 10.25 kWh. The mobile systems, to be used for high crane inspection, were sized to have a flying range of 120 min, one being equipped with a Li-ion battery and the other with a proton-exchange membrane fuel cell. The systems were compared from an economical point of view and a life cycle assessment was performed to identify the main contributors to the environmental impact. From a commercial point of view, the fuel cell and the electrolyzer, being niche products, result in being more expensive with respect to the Li-ion batteries. On the other hand, the life cycle assessment (LCA results show the lower burdens of both technologies.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF METHODOLOGY AND FIELD DEPLOYABLE SAMPLING TOOLS FOR SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL INTERROGATION IN LIQUID STORAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, T.; Milliken, C.; Martinez-Rodriguez, M.; Hathcock, D.; Heitkamp, M.

    2012-06-04

    This project developed methodology and field deployable tools (test kits) to analyze the chemical and microbiological condition of the fuel storage medium and determine the oxide thickness on the spent fuel basin materials. The overall objective of this project was to determine the amount of time fuel has spent in a storage basin to determine if the operation of the reactor and storage basin is consistent with safeguard declarations or expectations. This project developed and validated forensic tools that can be used to predict the age and condition of spent nuclear fuels stored in liquid basins based on key physical, chemical and microbiological basin characteristics. Key parameters were identified based on a literature review, the parameters were used to design test cells for corrosion analyses, tools were purchased to analyze the key parameters, and these were used to characterize an active spent fuel basin, the Savannah River Site (SRS) L-Area basin. The key parameters identified in the literature review included chloride concentration, conductivity, and total organic carbon level. Focus was also placed on aluminum based cladding because of their application to weapons production. The literature review was helpful in identifying important parameters, but relationships between these parameters and corrosion rates were not available. Bench scale test systems were designed, operated, harvested, and analyzed to determine corrosion relationships between water parameters and water conditions, chemistry and microbiological conditions. The data from the bench scale system indicated that corrosion rates were dependent on total organic carbon levels and chloride concentrations. The highest corrosion rates were observed in test cells amended with sediment, a large microbial inoculum and an organic carbon source. A complete characterization test kit was field tested to characterize the SRS L-Area spent fuel basin. The sampling kit consisted of a TOC analyzer, a YSI

  5. Sydlangeland Fjernvarme A.m.b.a. Feasibility study on 10-20.000 m{sup 3} pond heat storage[Denmark]; Sydlangeland Fjernvarme A.m.b.a. Forundersoegelse for 10-20.000 m{sup 3} damvarmelager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visbjerg, L. [Sydlangeland Fjernvarme A.m.b.a. (Denmark); Wesenberg, C.; Bliksted, T. [NIRAS Raadgivende Ingenioerer og Planlaeggere A/S (Denmark); Porsvig, M. [Geoteknisk Institut (Denmark); Duer, K. [DTU, Solenergi Center Danmark (Denmark)

    2000-11-01

    The project includes siting analyses, geotechnical feasibility studies and evaluations of operating economy for establishing a seasonal heat storage carried out as a 10-20,000 m{sup 3} pilot pond heat storage at Sydlangeland straw-fired district heating plant. (EHS)

  6. Spent Fuel and Waste Management Activities for Cleanout of the 105 F Fuel Storage Basin at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, M. R.; Rodovsky, T. J.; Day, R. S.

    2002-02-25

    Clean-out of the F Reactor fuel storage basin (FSB) by the Environmental Restoration Contractor (ERC) is an element of the FSB decontamination and decommissioning and is required to complete interim safe storage (ISS) of the F Reactor. Following reactor shutdown and in preparation for a deactivation layaway action in 1970, the water level in the F Reactor FSB was reduced to approximately 0.6 m (2 ft) over the floor. Basin components and other miscellaneous items were left or placed in the FSB. The item placement was performed with a sense of finality, and no attempt was made to place the items in an orderly manner. The F Reactor FSB was then filled to grade level with 6 m (20 ft) of local surface material (essentially a fine sand). The reactor FSB backfill cleanout involves the potential removal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) that may have been left in the basin unintentionally. Based on previous cleanout of four water-filled FSBs with similar designs (i.e., the B, C, D, and DR FSBs in the 1980s), it was estimated that up to five SNF elements could be discovered in the F Reactor FSB (1). In reality, a total of 10 SNF elements have been found in the first 25% of the F Reactor FSB excavation. This paper discusses the technical and programmatic challenges of performing this decommissioning effort with some of the controls needed for SNF management. The paper also highlights how many various technologies were married into a complete package to address the issue at hand and show how no one tool could be used to complete the job; but by combining the use of multiple tools, progress is being made.

  7. MACSTOR, an on-site, dry, spent-fuel storage system developed by AECL for use by U. S. utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durante, R.; Feinroth, H.; Pattanyus, P. (AECL Technologies, Bethesda, MD (United States))

    1992-01-01

    The continuing delay in the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain and monitored retrievable storage spent-fuel disposal and storage programs has prompted U.S. utilities to consider expanding on-site storage of spent reactor fuel. Long-term, on-site storage has certain advantages to U.S. utilities since it eliminates the need for costly and difficult shipping and puts control of the spent fuel completely under the direction of the owner-utility. AECL Technologies (AECL), through its research company and Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) engineering services division, has been developing on-site storage for Canadian heavy water nuclear plants for almost 20 yr. AECL has developed a design for a dry storage unit, designated MACSTOR (modular air-cooled storage), that can accommodate U.S. light water reactor (LWR) fuel elements and could become a candidate for the U.S. market. This paper describes MACSTOR and its evolution from the original silos and CANSTOR system that was developed and used in Canada. These systems are subject to regulatory controls by the Atomic Energy Control Board of Canada and have proven to be safe, convenient, and cost effective.

  8. Seismic justification of free standing spent fuel storage racks: experimental versus computed behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Champomier, F.P. [FRAMATOME, 92 - Paris-La-Defence (France); Peron, J.Y. [ATEA, 44 - Carquefou (France)

    2001-07-01

    Most spent fuel storage racks now designed for nuclear power plants are of the free standing type. They consist in a series of independent modules of varying size (typically, 2 m long and wide and 5 m high) immersed in water but simply left standing on the bottom of the spent fuel storage pool. The ever increasing need for additional storage room leads power plants to wish to have compact modules positioned as close to each other as possible. The reduced clearance is essentially limited by the possible interaction of a module with its neighbors in case of a seismic event. In fact, during an earthquake, it is anticipated that each module may have a complex and different movement relative to the pool floor: sliding, uplifting, rocking may occur depending on various parameters related to module geometry and load and seismic excitation. Minimum clearance between modules is to be defined and justified. Two approaches are possible: each module may be demonstrated to stay wide from its neighbors or to impact them with no significant resulting damage. Though experimental work is sometimes possible, it certainly cannot be routinely or systematically envisaged. Thus, approaches to evaluation and justification basically rely on numerical simulation of the problem. Actually, the entire calculation scheme is often repeated a large number of times with varying parameters (seismic input in the three directions, friction coefficients, fuel loading characteristics, etc.) for additional treatment and confidence. The object of this paper is to provide some insight on the kind of information one can reasonably expect to obtain from such studies. (author)

  9. Multi-fuel reformers for fuel cells used in transportation: Assessment of hydrogen storage technologies. Phase 2: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    During Phase 1 of this program, the authors evaluated all known hydrogen storage technologies (including those that are now practiced and those that are development) in the context of fuel cell vehicles. They determined that among the development technologies, carbon sorbents could most benefit from closer scrutiny. During Phase 2 of this program, they tested ten different carbon sorbents at various practical temperatures and pressures, and developed the concept of the usable Capacity Ratio, which is the ratio of the mass of hydrogen that can be released from a carbon-filled tank to the mass of hydrogen that can be released from an empty tank. The authors also commissioned the design, fabrication, and NGV2 (Natural Gas Vehicle) testing of an aluminum-lined, carbon-composite, full-wrapped pressure vessel to store hydrogen at 78 K and 3,000 psi. They constructed a facility to pressure cycle the tank at 78 K and to temperature cycle the tank at 3,000 psi, tested one such tank, and submitted it for a burst test. Finally, they devised a means by which cryogenic compressed hydrogen gas tanks can be filled and discharged using standard hardware--that is, without using filters, valves, or pressure regulators that must operate at both low temperature and high pressure. This report describes test methods and test results of carbon sorbents and the design of tanks for cold storage. 7 refs., 91 figs., 10 tabs.

  10. Protective Coatings for Wet Storage of Aluminium-Clad Spent Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, S.M.C.; Correa, O.V.; Souza, J.A. De; Ramanathan, L.V. [Materials science and Technology Center, Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Corrosion protection of spent RR fuel for long term wet storage was considered important, primarily from the safety standpoint and the use of conversion coatings was proposed in 2008. This paper presents the results of: (a) on-going field tests in which un-coated and lanthanide-based conversion coated Al alloy coupons were exposed to the IEA-R1 reactor spent fuel basin for durations of up to a year; (b) preparation of cerium modified hydrotalcite coatings and cerium sealed boehmite coatings on AA 6061 alloy; (c) corrosion resistance of coated specimens in NaCl solutions. The field studies indicated that the oxidized and cerium dioxide coated coupons were the most corrosion resistant. The cerium modified hydrotalcite and cerium sealed boehmite coated specimens showed marked increase in pitting corrosion resistance. (author)

  11. Elimination and accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban stormwater wet detention ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Istenič, Daria; Arias, Carlos Alberto; Matamoros, Victor

    2011-01-01

    The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water and sediments of seven wet detention ponds receiving urban stormwater were investigated. The ponds comprised traditional wet detention ponds with a permanent wet volume and a storage volume as well as ponds that were expanded...

  12. Renewable Fuel Utilization in a Cogeneration Arrangement with Hydrate Storage Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naing, Soe; Yamada, Takanobu; Nakanishi, Kimio

    According to the third conference of parties (COP3), Japan has set a target of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 6% by the year 2010. Many believe that the bulk utilization of fossil fuel influences to the damaging environmental effect. The objective of this paper is to propose an effective method for this goad which is possible to clarify a noticeable utilization of renewable fuel in a micro gas turbine cogeneration system in cold region. Moreover, analysis of renewable fuel, biogas production indicates that production amount becomes largest in hot season, while the total heat energy demand is lowest on during three years. Biogas storage is also adapted for the delay between peak energy supply and demand. Biogas hydrate formation is examined by resource from laboratory experiments and simulation of integration into an existing cogeneration arrangement. The proposed system can be successfully supported the use and reuse of renewable fuel for providing to substantial emission and clean development mechanism for reducing greenhouse gas emission.

  13. Study on containerisation of irradiated fuel at JRC ISPRA for medium/long-term storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertelli, S.; Bielli, G.; Covini, R.

    2001-07-01

    During the last 40 years big amounts of wastes arising from past experiments have been generated at JRC Ispra. These wastes are now stored on site in unconditioned form and must be characterised and re-conditioned to ensure their acceptance by future repositories. Among the several types of wastes produced, spent fuel has a great importance in JRC waste management. In fact, there are more than the tons of irradiated material, varying widely from commercial to experimental fuel elements or pins, in form of oxides and metal fuel, with very different geometry, dry and wet stored. The biggest part of it can be considered as unirradiated, according to the IAEA regulations (ST-1, 1996), while a relatively small amount (nearly 720 kg U total) are to be considered as irradiated and treated accordingly. Studies on the most suitable solutions for medium/long term storage for such irradiated experimental fuel are being performed, taking into account two main options, containerisation of the nuclear materials, as it is, in suitable casks or reprocessing. The technical aspects of the project for containerisation are here discussed. (Author)

  14. [Forest carbon storage and fuel carbon emission in Tanjiang River basin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiliang; Xia, Nianhe; Wu, Zhifeng; Cheng, Jiong; Liu, Ping

    2006-10-01

    The investigation on the forest carbon storage and fuel carbon emission in Tanjiang River basin showed that since 1990, the forests in Tanjiang River basin acted as a carbon sink, and this action was increased with time and with economic development. The net carbon uptake by the forests was 1.0579 x 10 (7) t in 1990 and 1.28061 x 10 (7) t in 2002, with an annual increment of 1.856 x 10(5) t, while the fuel carbon emission was 9. 508 x 10(5) t in 1990 and 1.8562 x 10(6) t in 2002, with an annual increment of 7.0 x 10(4) t. In 2003, the fuel carbon emission was up to 2.1968 x 10(6) t, 3.406 x 105 t more than that in 2002. In 2002, the energy consumption per 10(4) yuan GDP in Tanjiang River basin was 2.21 t standard coal, higher than the average consumption (1.81 t standard coal) in the Pearl River delta. If the fuel consumption decreased to the average level, the carbon emission in Tanjiang River basin would be reduced by 3.360 x 10(5) t, which was higher than the annual increment of forest net carbon uptake in the basin. From the viewpoint of net carbon uptake and emission in a basin, more attention should be paid to the relations between forest carbon sink and human activities.

  15. Evaluation of the shielding design of the fuel handling and storage system in the prototype FBR Monju

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikami, Hisashi [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan); Matumiya, Hisato [Toshiba Corp., Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Fujimoto, Takeshi; Tabayashi, Masao [Japan Atomic Power Co., Tokyo (Japan); Deshimaru, Takehide [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute, Tsuruga, Fukui (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    Shielding performance tests of the fuel handling and storage system were carried out at Monju in October 1993. The performance of the shielding of the fresh fuel storage rack against neutron and gamma radiation from fresh fuel assemblies, that of the in-vessel fuel transfer machine (IVTM) and the ex-vessel fuel transfer machine (EVTM) against neutron and secondary gamma-rays generated in the shielding or structural materials from the neutron source assembly ({sup 252}Cf), were assessed. Dose rates were measured using rem-counters and solid-state track-detectors (SSTDs) for neutrons and ionization chamber survey-meters and film dosimeters for gamma-rays. This paper presents an outline of the measurement methods, and results, the design requirements and the design margins, which were evaluated by comparing the measurements with the calculations based on FBR shielding analysis methods. (author)

  16. Design Verification Report Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Canister Storage Building (CSB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BAZINET, G.D.

    2000-11-03

    The Sub-project W379, ''Spent Nuclear Fuel Canister Storage Building (CSB),'' was established as part of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project. The primary mission of the CSB is to safely store spent nuclear fuel removed from the K Basins in dry storage until such time that it can be transferred to the national geological repository at Yucca Mountain Nevada. This sub-project was initiated in late 1994 by a series of studies and conceptual designs. These studies determined that the partially constructed storage building, originally built as part of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) Project, could be redesigned to safely store the spent nuclear fuel. The scope of the CSB facility initially included a receiving station, a hot conditioning system, a storage vault, and a Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) Handling Machine (MHM). Because of evolution of the project technical strategy, the hot conditioning system was deleted from the scope and MCO welding and sampling stations were added in its place. This report outlines the methods, procedures, and outputs developed by Project W379 to verify that the provided Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs): satisfy the design requirements and acceptance criteria; perform their intended function; ensure that failure modes and hazards have been addressed in the design; and ensure that the SSCs as installed will not adversely impact other SSCs. The original version of this document was prepared by Vista Engineering for the SNF Project. The purpose of this revision is to document completion of verification actions that were pending at the time the initial report was prepared. Verification activities for the installed and operational SSCs have been completed. Verification of future additions to the CSB related to the canister cover cap and welding fixture system and MCO Internal Gas Sampling equipment will be completed as appropriate for those components. The open items related to verification of those

  17. Licensing schedule for away-from-reactor (AFR) spent fuel storage facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, P.L.

    1981-08-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has authority to issue licenses for Away-From-Reactor (AFR) installations for the storage of spent nuclear fuel. This report presents a detailed estimate of the time required to prosecute a licensing action. The projected licensing schedule shows that the elapsed time between filing an application and issuance of a license will be about 32 months, assuming intervention. The legal procedural steps will determine the time schedule and will override considerations of technical complexity. A license could be issued in about 14 months in the absence of intervention.

  18. Graphene-based electrochemical energy conversion and storage: fuel cells, supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Junbo; Shao, Yuyan; Ellis, Michael W; Moore, Robert B; Yi, Baolian

    2011-09-14

    Graphene has attracted extensive research interest due to its strictly 2-dimensional (2D) structure, which results in its unique electronic, thermal, mechanical, and chemical properties and potential technical applications. These remarkable characteristics of graphene, along with the inherent benefits of a carbon material, make it a promising candidate for application in electrochemical energy devices. This article reviews the methods of graphene preparation, introduces the unique electrochemical behavior of graphene, and summarizes the recent research and development on graphene-based fuel cells, supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries. In addition, promising areas are identified for the future development of graphene-based materials in electrochemical energy conversion and storage systems.

  19. STORAGE OF COMMINUTED AND UNCOMMINUTED FOREST BIOMASS AND ITS EFFECT ON FUEL QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad T. Afzal

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available White birch was stored in the form of bundles, wood chips, and loose slash for a period of one year to examine the changes in biomass fuel properties. The samples were collected at regular quarterly intervals to measure moisture content, CNS content, ash content, and calorific value. Data loggers were also placed into the stored woody biomass to measure the temperature change inside the piles. After the first quarter of the storage period and continuing into the next three months of storage, the moisture content showed the most significant change. The moisture content of the biomass bundles increased from 29 % to above 80 % (db. The moisture content of the pile of wood chips covered with a tarp decreased from 51% to 26% and showed a continuous decline in moisture content to the end of storage period to an average range of 16.5% (db. However, the moisture content of uncovered wood chip pile was observed to continuously increase throughout the storage period, resulting in more than double in magnitude from 59% to 160% (db. The dry matter loss was higher in wood chip piles (8~27% than in bundles (~3%. Among the other properties, there was slightly higher loss of calorific value in wood chips (~1.6% as compared to bundles (~0.7% at the end of one year.

  20. Hydrogen storage performance of functionalized hexagonal boron nitride for fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthu, R. Naresh; Rajashabala, S.; Kannan, R.

    2017-05-01

    Developing light weight, safe, efficient and compact hydrogen storage medium are still the major concerns for the blooming of hydrogen based energy economy. In the present article, activated hexagonal boron nitride (ABN) and ABN functionalized with lithium borohydride (ABN-LiBH4) nanocomposite based hydrogen storage medium are synthesized. where a facile solvent-assistant technique was adopted for the preparation of ABN-LiBH4 nanocomposite. The prepared hydrogen storage medium was subjected to various characterization techniques such as XRD, FTIR, SEM, EDX, CHNS - elemental analysis and TGA. Sievert's-like hydrogenation setup has been utilized for hydrogenation studies. It is noticed that the ABN-LiBH4 nanocomposite exhibits an attractive high gravimetric density of 1.67 wt% at 100 °C than pristine ABN. Moreover the stored hydrogen is released in the temperature range of 115 - 150 °C and possesses an average binding energy of 0.31 eV. These results indicate that the prepared ABN-LiBH4 nanocomposite paves a way to potential solid state hydrogen storage medium towards fuel cell technology as per the targets set by US Department of Energy (DOE).

  1. Basic Considerations for Dry Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuels and Revisited CFD Thermal Analysis on the Concrete Cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Jae Soo [ACT Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Younwon; Song, Sub Lee [BEES Inc., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyeun Min [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The integrity of storage facility and also of the spent nuclear fuel itself is considered very important. Storage casks can be located in a designated area on a site or in a designated storage building. A number of different designs for dry storage have been developed and used in different countries. Dry storage system was classified into two categories by IAEA. One is container including cask and silo, the other one is vault. However, there is various way of categorization for dry storage system. Dry silo and cask are usually classified separately, so the dry storage system can be classified into three different types. Furthermore, dry cask storage can be categorized into two types based on the type of the materials, concrete cask and metal cask. In this paper, the design characteristics of dry storage cask are introduced and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based thermal analysis for concrete cask is revisited. Basic principles for dry storage cask design were described. Based on that, thermal analysis of concrete dry cask was introduced from the study of H. M. Kim et al. From the CFD calculation, the temperature of concrete wall was maintained under the safety criteria. From this fundamental analysis, further investigations are expected. For example, thermal analysis on the metal cask, thermal analysis on horizontally laid spent nuclear fuel assemblies for transportation concerns, and investigations on better performance of natural air circulation in dry cask can be promising candidates.

  2. Analysis of Underground Storage Tanks System Materials to Increased Leak Potential Associated with E15 Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kass, Michael D [ORNL; Theiss, Timothy J [ORNL; Janke, Christopher James [ORNL; Pawel, Steven J [ORNL

    2012-07-01

    include model year 2001 light-duty vehicles, but specifically prohibited use in motorcycles and off-road vehicles and equipment. UST stakeholders generally consider fueling infrastructure materials designed for use with E0 to be adequate for use with E10, and there are no known instances of major leaks or failures directly attributable to ethanol use. It is conceivable that many compatibility issues, including accelerated corrosion, do arise and are corrected onsite and, therefore do not lead to a release. However, there is some concern that higher ethanol concentrations, such as E15 or E20, may be incompatible with current materials used in standard gasoline fueling hardware. In the summer of 2008, DOE recognized the need to assess the impact of intermediate blends of ethanol on the fueling infrastructure, specifically located at the fueling station. This includes the dispenser and hanging hardware, the underground storage tank, and associated piping. The DOE program has been co-led and funded by the Office of the Biomass Program and Vehicle Technologies Program with technical expertise from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The infrastructure material compatibility work has been supported through strong collaborations and testing at Underwriters Laboratories (UL). ORNL performed a compatibility study investigating the compatibility of fuel infrastructure materials to gasoline containing intermediate levels of ethanol. These results can be found in the ORNL report entitled Intermediate Ethanol Blends Infrastructure Materials Compatibility Study: Elastomers, Metals and Sealants (hereafter referred to as the ORNL intermediate blends material compatibility study). These materials included elastomers, plastics, metals and sealants typically found in fuel dispenser infrastructure. The test fuels evaluated in the ORNL study were SAE standard test fuel formulations used to assess material-fuel compatibility within a

  3. Frozen ponds: production and storage of methane during the Arctic winter in a lowland tundra landscape in northern Siberia, Lena River Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Langer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Lakes and ponds play a key role in the carbon cycle of permafrost ecosystems, where they are considered to be hotspots of carbon dioxide CO2 and methane CH4 emission. The strength of these emissions is, however, controlled by a variety of physical and biogeochemical processes whose responses to a warming climate are complex and only poorly understood. Small waterbodies have been attracting an increasing amount of attention since recent studies demonstrated that ponds can make a significant contribution to the CO2 and CH4 emissions of tundra ecosystems. Waterbodies also have a marked effect on the thermal state of the surrounding permafrost; during the freezing period they prolong the period of time during which thawed soil material is available for microbial decomposition. This study presents net CH4 production rates during the freezing period from ponds within a typical lowland tundra landscape in northern Siberia. Rate estimations were based on CH4 concentrations measured in surface lake ice from a variety of waterbody types. Vertical profiles along ice blocks showed an exponential increase in CH4 concentration with depth. These CH4 profiles were reproduced by a 1-D mass balance model and the net CH4 production rates then inferred through inverse modeling. Results revealed marked differences in early winter net CH4 production among various ponds. Initial state ponds underlain by stable permafrost with little or no signs of degradation yielded low net production rates, of the order of 10–11 to 10–10 mol m−2 s−1 (0.01 to 0.14 mgCH4 m−2 d−1. In contrast, advanced state ponds exhibiting clear signs of thermal erosion yielded net CH4 production rates of the order of 10–7 mol m−2 s−1 (140 mgCH4 m−2 d−1. The net production rate per square meter of advanced state ponds exceeded the maximum summer CH4 emission rates per square meter which was measured for the average tundra landscape at the study site. Our results therefore

  4. Rapid surface-water volume estimations in beaver ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karran, Daniel J.; Westbrook, Cherie J.; Wheaton, Joseph M.; Johnston, Carol A.; Bedard-Haughn, Angela

    2017-02-01

    Beaver ponds are surface-water features that are transient through space and time. Such qualities complicate the inclusion of beaver ponds in local and regional water balances, and in hydrological models, as reliable estimates of surface-water storage are difficult to acquire without time- and labour-intensive topographic surveys. A simpler approach to overcome this challenge is needed, given the abundance of the beaver ponds in North America, Eurasia, and southern South America. We investigated whether simple morphometric characteristics derived from readily available aerial imagery or quickly measured field attributes of beaver ponds can be used to approximate surface-water storage among the range of environmental settings in which beaver ponds are found. Studied were a total of 40 beaver ponds from four different sites in North and South America. The simplified volume-area-depth (V-A-h) approach, originally developed for prairie potholes, was tested. With only two measurements of pond depth and corresponding surface area, this method estimated surface-water storage in beaver ponds within 5 % on average. Beaver pond morphometry was characterized by a median basin coefficient of 0.91, and dam length and pond surface area were strongly correlated with beaver pond storage capacity, regardless of geographic setting. These attributes provide a means for coarsely estimating surface-water storage capacity in beaver ponds. Overall, this research demonstrates that reliable estimates of surface-water storage in beaver ponds only requires simple measurements derived from aerial imagery and/or brief visits to the field. Future research efforts should be directed at incorporating these simple methods into both broader beaver-related tools and catchment-scale hydrological models.

  5. New fuel vault criticality analysis at Chinshan nuclear power station with new approaches to improve the storage flexibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, P. H., E-mail: u808966@taipower.com.t [Taiwan Power Company, Department of Nuclear Generation, 242 Roosevelt Rd., Sec. 3, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2010-10-15

    The Chinshan new fuel vault (NFV) consists of 13 fuel storage racks, each rack may store 10 fuel assemblies. Prior to 2008, the NFV had never been used and the practice by the Taiwan Power Company (TPC) was to temporarily store the fuel assemblies in the shipping containers after received, until the inspection work was performed shortly before the outage, and then assemblies were loaded directly into the spent fuel pool (SFP). Starting from 2009, this practice has been revised since the new fuel contract would only supply a small amount of containers for storage, and the SFP would lose full-core-off load capability soon; therefore, use of NFV to store fuel assemblies following inspection becomes extremely crucial. The original Chinshan NFV criticality analysis was performed for the initial fuel design. Although many new fuel designs had been used (e.g., Atrium-10 reported in PBNC-14), no reanalysis had been performed because it was not anticipated that NFV would be used. Therefore, TPC requested the vendor to perform the analysis for Atrium-10. Originally, the vendor estimated that number of assemblies allowed to be stored would be limited severely to about 60. To enhance storage flexibility, Tpc proposed some new approaches: 1) All assemblies are assumed in vendor's standard method to contain a single limiting lattice for entire fuel length, it is suggested that axially zoned limiting lattices be selected based on characteristics of reloads to be delivered, and this significantly improves flexibility. 2) The maximum k-effective equation used by vendor was corrected (manufacturing tolerances were conservatively mistreated). Also, the vendor typically used 0.95 k-effective as the criterion, it is suggested that NUREG-0800 requirement ({<=}0.98 for optimum moderation conditions) be applied. After several iterations, all the 130 locations are allowed to store fuel. The analysis report has been approved by the authority in June 2008. (Author)

  6. Storage stability of poultry fat and diesel fuel mixtures: Specific gravity and viscosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel P. Geller; Thomas T. Adams; John W. Goodrum; Joshua Pendergrass [University of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Faculty of Engineering

    2008-01-15

    Poultry fat (biofuel) and its 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% mixtures with no. 2 pump diesel fuel were stored for 1 year at bench scale (1 L) under controlled laboratory conditions at 4, 38, 54.4{sup o}C and at ambient room temperature. Poultry fat (100%) was studied under these same conditions with and without an antioxidant additive. Poultry fat mixtures (20% and 80%) were also stored at pilot scale (250 gallons) under outdoor, ambient conditions. Physical properties and phenomenon relevant to the use of these mixtures as biofuels for industrial boilers were studied and tracked. These properties include specific gravity, dynamic viscosity, sedimentation accumulation and separation (layering). Corrosive effects of these fuels on various metals were also examined. Viscosity and specific gravity of these biofuels changed very little over the course of the 1 year storage period. Sediment accumulation was present in all treatments, with increasing sedimentation correlating with increasing biofuel concentrations. The addition of antioxidant to 100% biofuel minimized changes in physical properties and sedimentation over the course of this study. Layering occurred in all mixtures of poultry fat and diesel fuel. Results also include the approximate amount of energy required to insure proper mixing of each treatment. After mixing, homogenization was maintained for considerable time periods. This suggests that mixing should only be performed immediately before the fuels are utilized. Corrosive properties of these biofuels were generally as expected; brass and copper were susceptible to attack by these fuels where as 316 stainless steel and carbon steel were not. 13 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Estimating the ratio of pond size to irrigated soybean land in Mississippi: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Ouyang; G. Feng; J. Read; T. D. Leininger; J. N. Jenkins

    2016-01-01

    Although more on-farm storage ponds have been constructed in recent years to mitigate groundwater resources depletion in Mississippi, little effort has been devoted to estimating the ratio of on-farm water storage pond size to irrigated crop land based on pond metric and its hydrogeological conditions.  In this study, two simulation scenarios were chosen to...

  8. Analysis of ICPP fuel storage rack inner tie and corner tie substructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitzel, M.E.; Rahl, R.G.

    1996-01-01

    Finite element models were developed and analyses performed for the tie plate, inner tie block assembly, and corner tie block assembly of a 25 port fuel rack assembly designed for installation in Pool 1 of Building 666 at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. These models were specifically developed to investigate the adequacy of certain welds joining components of the fuel storage rack assembly. The work scope for the task was limited to an investigation of the stress levels in the subject subassemblies when subjected to seismic loads. Structural acceptance criteria used for the elastic calculations performed were as found in the overall rack design report as issued by the rack`s designer, Holtec International. Structural acceptance criteria used for the plastic calculations performed as part of this effort were as defined in Subsection NF and Appendix F of the ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code. The results of the analyses will also apply to the 30 port fuel storage rack design that is also scheduled for installation in Pool 1 of ICPP 666. The results obtained from the analyses performed for this task indicate that the welds joining the inner tie block and corner tie block to the surrounding rack structure meet the acceptance criteria. Further, the structural members (plates and blocks) were also found to be within the allowable stress limits established by the acceptance criteria. The separate analysis performed on the inner tie plate confirmed the structural adequacy for both the inner tie plate, corner tie plate, and tie block bolts. The analysis results verified that the inner tie and corner tie block should be capable of transferring the expected seismic load without structural failure.

  9. Modelling of a solid oxide fuel cell CHP system coupled with a hot water storage tank for a single household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liso, Vincenzo; Zhao, Yingru; Yang, Wenyuan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system for cogeneration of heat and power integrated with a stratified heat storage tank is studied. The use of a storage tank with thermal stratification allows one to increase the annual operating hours of CHP: heat can be produced when the request...... produced by gasification and natural gas. The tank model considers the temperature gradients over the tank height. The results of the numerical simulation are used to size the SOFC system and storage heat tank to provide energy for a small household using two different fuels. In particular it was shown...... is low (for instance during the night), taking advantage of thermal stratification to increases the heat recovery performance. A model of the SOFC system is presented to estimate the energy required to meet the average electric energy demand of the residence. Two fuels are considered, namely syngas...

  10. Storage study with waste fuels based on municipal solid wastes; Lagringsfoersoek med avfallsbraenslen baserade paa hushaallsavfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakesson, M.; Bramryd, T.; Hogland, W. [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Waste Management and Recovery

    1991-12-31

    A storage study with waste fuels based on Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) has been carried out. Four different types of waste fuels have been examined; pelletized RDF (BRINI), reject RDF from a separation/composting plant, the dry fraction of the source separation trials with `Wet and Dry`, and household waste from a row house area where a source separation program with kitchen garbage grinder is in progress. Three different types of storage have been tested, well ventilated wood boxes with approx. size of 20 m{sup 3} which were covered with plastic coated paper, compartments in a tent with approx. size of 50 m{sup 3} and finally 100 m{sup 3} piles covered with wood chips. Continuous monitoring of the biological activities including temperatures and concentrations of the gas components O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} has been carried out. The material analyses consist of moisture and ash content, substance losses, material compositions, heating values and fungi spore concentration. An investigation concerning how the heating value on a dry and ash free basis of a waste fuel is changed during a microbiological degradation has been carried out. A water balance over the pile of pelletized RDF has been formulated. The results of our study show that the materials can be placed in order of rank from the most to the least biological active in the following way: RDF, pelletized RDF, household waste, and dry fraction. This shows that the substance losses is considerable in the two mechanically separated materials (RDFs), while losses in the other two source separated materials are not detectable. Heat generation in the two most biologically active waste fuels seems to be considerable that a pronounced drying effect takes place. This leads to the fact that the heating value on a as-received-basis is increasing. This phenomena does not occur in the other two biologically more stable waste fuels. Any concentrations that show a risk of allergic alveolitis has not been observed.

  11. Drop Test of the Candu Spent Fuel Storage Basket in MACSTOR/KN-400

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, W.S.; Jeon, J.Y.; Seo, K.S. [KAERI, 1045 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Park, J.E.; Yoo, G.S.; Park, W.G. [Korea Hydro Nuclear Power - KHNP (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    The MACSTOR/KN-400 of Wolsung power plant in Korea is a dry interim storage facilities. There are 400 long slender cylinders in MACSTOR/KN-400. In one cylinder, ten baskets where Candu spent fuels are loaded are stacked and stored. For this MACSTOR/KN-400 facilities, analyses and tests for the hypothetical accident conditions that might happen during moving and storing baskets into a cylinder were performed. The hypothetical accident conditions to be considered are two cases. One is the case of basket dropping onto the bottom plate of a cylinder. The other is the case of basket dropping onto the other basket top plate stored in the cylinder. For the drop analyses, the case of hanging cylinder and the case of cylinder on the unyielding target surface were considered. Based on the dropping analysis, testing condition was determined as the latter case that is for the cylinder on the target surface. In a basket, 60 dummy fuel bundles are loaded which have the same weight of real spent fuel bundles. On the external surface of the basket, 8 strain gauges and 4 accelerometers were attached for the data acquisition. In order to measure the velocity when a basket impacts, three different devices were utilized. And the impact velocity results were compared and cross-checked. After the dropping tests, helium leak tests were conducted to evaluate the leakage rate. (authors)

  12. Risk Analysis of a Fuel Storage Terminal Using HAZOP and FTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Fuentes-Bargues

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The size and complexity of industrial chemical plants, together with the nature of the products handled, means that an analysis and control of the risks involved is required. This paper presents a methodology for risk analysis in chemical and allied industries that is based on a combination of HAZard and OPerability analysis (HAZOP and a quantitative analysis of the most relevant risks through the development of fault trees, fault tree analysis (FTA. Results from FTA allow prioritizing the preventive and corrective measures to minimize the probability of failure. An analysis of a case study is performed; it consists in the terminal for unloading chemical and petroleum products, and the fuel storage facilities of two companies, in the port of Valencia (Spain. HAZOP analysis shows that loading and unloading areas are the most sensitive areas of the plant and where the most significant danger is a fuel spill. FTA analysis indicates that the most likely event is a fuel spill in tank truck loading area. A sensitivity analysis from the FTA results show the importance of the human factor in all sequences of the possible accidents, so it should be mandatory to improve the training of the staff of the plants.

  13. Spent Fuel Test-Climax: An evaluation of the technical feasibility of geologic storage of spent nuclear fuel in granite: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick, W.C. (comp.)

    1986-03-30

    In the Climax stock granite on the Nevada Test Site, eleven canisters of spent nuclear reactor fuel were emplaced, and six electrical simulators were energized. When test data indicated that the test objectives were met during the 3-year storage phase, the spent-fuel canisters were retrieved and the thermal sources were de-energized. The project demonstrated the feasibility of packaging, transporting, storing, and retrieving highly radioactive fuel assemblies in a safe and reliable manner. In addition to emplacement and retrieval operations, three exchanges of spent-fuel assemblies between the SFT-C and a surface storage facility, conducted during the storage phase, furthered this demonstration. The test led to development of a technical measurements program. To meet these objectives, nearly 1000 instruments and a computer-based data acquisition system were deployed. Geotechnical, seismological, and test status data were recorded on a continuing basis for the three-year storage phase and six-month monitored cool-down of the test. This report summarizes the engineering and scientific endeavors which led to successful design and execution of the test. The design, fabrication, and construction of all facilities and handling systems are discussed, in the context of test objectives and a safety assessment. The discussion progresses from site characterization and experiment design through data acquisition and analysis of test data in the context of design calculations. 117 refs., 52 figs., 81 tabs.

  14. NDE to Manage Atmospheric SCC in Canisters for Dry Storage of Spent Fuel: An Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Ryan M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pardini, Allan F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cuta, Judith M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Adkins, Harold E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Casella, Andrew M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Qiao, Hong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Larche, Michael R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Diaz, Aaron A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Doctor, Steven R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This report documents efforts to assess representative horizontal (Transuclear NUHOMS®) and vertical (Holtec HI-STORM) storage systems for the implementation of non-destructive examination (NDE) methods or techniques to manage atmospheric stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in canisters for dry storage of used nuclear fuel. The assessment is conducted by assessing accessibility and deployment, environmental compatibility, and applicability of NDE methods. A recommendation of this assessment is to focus on bulk ultrasonic and eddy current techniques for direct canister monitoring of atmospheric SCC. This assessment also highlights canister regions that may be most vulnerable to atmospheric SCC to guide the use of bulk ultrasonic and eddy current examinations. An assessment of accessibility also identifies canister regions that are easiest and more difficult to access through the ventilation paths of the concrete shielding modules. A conceivable sampling strategy for canister inspections is to sample only the easiest to access portions of vulnerable regions. There are aspects to performing an NDE inspection of dry canister storage system (DCSS) canisters for atmospheric SCC that have not been addressed in previous performance studies. These aspects provide the basis for recommendations of future efforts to determine the capability and performance of eddy current and bulk ultrasonic examinations for atmospheric SCC in DCSS canisters. Finally, other important areas of investigation are identified including the development of instrumented surveillance specimens to identify when conditions are conducive for atmospheric SCC, characterization of atmospheric SCC morphology, and an assessment of air flow patterns over canister surfaces and their influence on chloride deposition.

  15. Vision and framework for technical and management support to facilitate foreign spent fuel storage and geologic disposal in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsey, W G; Jardine, L J; Smith, C F

    1999-07-01

    This ''Technical and Management Support'' program would facilitate the transfer of spent fuel from commercial power plants in Taiwan to a storage and geologic repository site near Krasnoyarsk, Russia. This program resolves issues of disposition of Taiwan spent fuel (including US origin fuel) and provides revenue for Russia to develop an integrated spent fuel storage and radioactive waste management system including a geologic repository. LLNL has ongoing contracts and collaborations with all the principal parties and is uniquely positioned to facilitate the development of such a program. A three-phase approach over 20 years is proposed: namely, an initial feasibility investigation followed by an engineering development phase, and then implementation.

  16. Select Generic Dry-Storage Pilot Plant Design for Safeguards and Security by Design (SSBD) per Used Fuel Campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demuth, Scott Francis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sprinkle, James K. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-05-26

    As preparation to the year-end deliverable (Provide SSBD Best Practices for Generic Dry-Storage Pilot Scale Plant) for the Work Package (FT-15LA040501–Safeguards and Security by Design for Extended Dry Storage), the initial step was to select a generic dry-storage pilot plant design for SSBD. To be consistent with other DOE-NE Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR&D) activities, the Used Fuel Campaign was engaged for the selection of a design for this deliverable. For the work Package FT-15LA040501–“Safeguards and Security by Design for Extended Dry Storage”, SSBD will be initiated for the Generic Dry-Storage Pilot Scale Plant described by the layout of Reference 2. SSBD will consider aspects of the design that are impacted by domestic material control and accounting (MC&A), domestic security, and international safeguards.

  17. Gross gamma-ray measurements of light water reactor spent-fuel assemblies in underwater storage arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, C.E.; Lee, D.M.

    1980-12-01

    Two gross gamma-ray detection systems have been developed for rapid measurement of spent-fuel assemblies in underwater storage racks. One system uses a scintillator as the detector and has a 2% crosstalk between a fuel assembly and an adjacent void. The other system uses an ion chamber as the detector. The measurements with both detectors correlate well with operator-declared burnup and cooling-time values.

  18. Analysis of Underground Storage Tanks System Materials to Increased Leak Potential Associated with E15 Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kass, Michael D [ORNL; Theiss, Timothy J [ORNL; Janke, Christopher James [ORNL; Pawel, Steven J [ORNL

    2012-07-01

    include model year 2001 light-duty vehicles, but specifically prohibited use in motorcycles and off-road vehicles and equipment. UST stakeholders generally consider fueling infrastructure materials designed for use with E0 to be adequate for use with E10, and there are no known instances of major leaks or failures directly attributable to ethanol use. It is conceivable that many compatibility issues, including accelerated corrosion, do arise and are corrected onsite and, therefore do not lead to a release. However, there is some concern that higher ethanol concentrations, such as E15 or E20, may be incompatible with current materials used in standard gasoline fueling hardware. In the summer of 2008, DOE recognized the need to assess the impact of intermediate blends of ethanol on the fueling infrastructure, specifically located at the fueling station. This includes the dispenser and hanging hardware, the underground storage tank, and associated piping. The DOE program has been co-led and funded by the Office of the Biomass Program and Vehicle Technologies Program with technical expertise from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The infrastructure material compatibility work has been supported through strong collaborations and testing at Underwriters Laboratories (UL). ORNL performed a compatibility study investigating the compatibility of fuel infrastructure materials to gasoline containing intermediate levels of ethanol. These results can be found in the ORNL report entitled Intermediate Ethanol Blends Infrastructure Materials Compatibility Study: Elastomers, Metals and Sealants (hereafter referred to as the ORNL intermediate blends material compatibility study). These materials included elastomers, plastics, metals and sealants typically found in fuel dispenser infrastructure. The test fuels evaluated in the ORNL study were SAE standard test fuel formulations used to assess material-fuel compatibility within a

  19. Neutron intensity of fast reactor spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takamatsu, Misao; Aoyama, Takafumi [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1998-03-01

    Neutron intensity of spent fuel of the JOYO Mk-II core with a burnup of 62,500 MWd/t and cooling time of 5.2 years was measured at the spent fuel storage pond. The measured data were compared with the calculated values based on the JOYO core management code system `MAGI`, and the average C/E approximately 1.2 was obtained. It was found that the axial neutron intensity didn`t simply follow the burnup distribution, and the neutron intensity was locally increased at the bottom end of the fuel region due to an accumulation of {sup 244}Cm. (author)

  20. Critical Analysis of Dry Storage Temperature Limits for Zircaloy-Clad Spent Nuclear Fuel Based on Diffusion Controlled Cavity Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, T.A.; Rosen, R.S.; Kassner, M.E.

    1999-12-01

    Interim dry storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) rods is of critical concern because a shortage of existing SNF wet storage capacity combined with delays in the availability of a permanent disposal repository has led to an increasing number of SNF rods being placed into interim dry storage. Safe interim dry storage must be maintained for a minimum of twenty years according to the Standard Review Plan for Dry Cask Storage Systems [1] and the Code of Federal Regulations, 10 CFR Part 72 [2]. Interim dry storage licensees must meet certain safety conditions when storing SNF rods to ensure that there is a ''very low probability (e.g. 0.5%) of cladding breach during long-term storage'' [1]. Commercial SNF typically consists of uranium oxide pellets surrounded by a thin cladding. The cladding is usually an {alpha}-zirconium based alloy know as ''Zircaloy''. In dry storage, the SNF rods are confined in one of several types of cask systems approved by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). ''The cask system must be designed to prevent degradation of fuel cladding that results in a type of cladding breach, such as axial-splits or ductile fracture, where irradiated UO{sub 2} particles may be released. In addition, the fuel cladding should not degrade to the point where more than one percent of the fuel rods suffer pinhole or hairline crack type failure under normal storage conditions [1].'' The NRC has approved two models [3,4] for use by proposed dry storage licensees to determine the maximum initial temperature limit for nuclear fuel rods in dry storage that supposedly meet the above criteria and yield consistent temperature limits. Though these two models are based on the same fundamental failure theory, different assumptions have been made including the choice of values for material constants in the failure equation. This report will examine and compare the similarities and inconsistencies of these two models

  1. Discussion of Available Methods to Support Reviews of Spent Fuel Storage Installation Cask Drop Evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witte, M.

    2000-03-28

    Applicants seeking a Certificate of Compliance for an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) cask must evaluate the consequences of a handling accident resulting in a drop or tip-over of the cask onto a concrete storage pad. As a result, analytical modeling approaches that might be used to evaluate the impact of cylindrical containers onto concrete pads are needed. One such approach, described and benchmarked in NUREG/CR-6608,{sup 1} consists of a dynamic finite element analysis using a concrete material model available in DYNA3D{sup 2} and in LS-DYNA,{sup 3} together with a method for post-processing the analysis results to calculate the deceleration of a solid steel billet when subjected to a drop or tip-over onto a concrete storage pad. The analysis approach described in NUREG/CR-6608 gives a good correlation of analysis and test results. The material model used for the concrete in the analyses in NUREG/CR-6608 is, however, somewhat troublesome to use, requiring a number of material constants which are difficult to obtain. Because of this a simpler approach, which adequately evaluates the impact of cylindrical containers onto concrete pads, is sought. Since finite element modeling of metals, and in particular carbon and stainless steel, is routinely and accurately accomplished with a number of finite element codes, the current task involves a literature search for and a discussion of available concrete models used in finite element codes. The goal is to find a balance between a concrete material model with a limited number of required material parameters which are readily obtainable, and a more complex model which is capable of accurately representing the complex behavior of the concrete storage pad under impact conditions. The purpose of this effort is to find the simplest possible way to analytically represent the storage cask deceleration during a cask tip-over or a cask drop onto a concrete storage pad. This report is divided into three sections

  2. Computational model of pond re-storage times in Jianghuai hilly area based on SCS model%基于径流曲线数模型的江淮丘陵区塘坝复蓄次数计算模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋尚明; 金菊良; 许浒; 曹秀清; 吴成国

    2013-01-01

    Pond re-storage times refers to the ratio of effective utilization of water and pond capacity, and is one of the important characteristic values reflecting the water supply capacity of a pond. It is the important parameters indicating water supply estimates and capacity determination of a pond. It has great guiding significance for regional pond planning and regulation of water resources in irrigation. At present, domestic and foreign scholars have carried out considerable research work on rainwater utilization, but fewer relevant outcomes have been projected on pond re-storage times in a hilly region. A pond in a hilly region has the features that small-scale projects monomer pond, a small amount of water, its water storage capacity is small, and its controlled irrigation area is small, but the distribution is wide, with a large number of groups, groups of large capacity, and so on. For this type of small water storage facilities, generally not hydrology and runoff observation points, there are almost no measured hydrological and runoff observations, and this has caused great difficulties for hydrological calculations. Predictions in ungauged basins (PUB) has been the focus of hydrology research and one of the difficult problems, and has been a widespread concern of scholars at home and abroad. A SCS model was the design flood of a small watershed model that was presented by United States Department of agriculture soil conservation service in the 1950s. It has the features that make the calculation process simple, with fewer required parameters of data readily available, especially for areas without data or lack of data. That has been widely used in various hydrologic problems, such as river engineering planning, soil and water conservation, flood control, city hydrology, and in ungaged basins, and achieved good results. On this basis, the pond irrigation area of Jianghuai Hilly as an example was selected, with hydrological simulation without any data of the pond

  3. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 321: Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE/NV

    1999-01-28

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the US Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUs) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs). According to the FFACO (1996), CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites. A CAU consists of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at the CAU 321 Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage, CAS 22-99-05 Fuel Storage Area. For purposes of this discussion, this site will be referred to as either CAU 321 or the Fuel Storage Area. The Fuel Storage Area is located in Area 22 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The NTS is approximately 105 kilometers (km) (65 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1) (DOE/NV, 1996a). The Fuel Storage Area (Figure 1-2) was used to store fuel and other petroleum products necessary for motorized operations at the historic Camp Desert Rock facility which was operational from 1951 to 1958 at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada. The site was dismantled after 1958 (DOE/NV, 1996a).

  4. Impact of a Diesel High Pressure Common Rail Fuel System and Onboard Vehicle Storage on B20 Biodiesel Blend Stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, Earl; McCormick, Robert L.; Sigelko, Jenny; Johnson, Stuart; Zickmann, Stefan; Lopes, Shailesh; Gault, Roger; Slade, David

    2016-04-01

    Adoption of high-pressure common-rail (HPCR) fuel systems, which subject diesel fuels to higher temperatures and pressures, has brought into question the efficacy of ASTM International specifications for biodiesel and biodiesel blend oxidation stability, as well as the lack of any stability parameter for diesel fuel. A controlled experiment was developed to investigate the impact of a light-duty diesel HPCR fuel system on the stability of 20% biodiesel (B20) blends under conditions of intermittent use and long-term storage in a relatively hot and dry climate. B20 samples with Rancimat induction periods (IPs) near the current 6.0-hour minimum specification (6.5 hr) and roughly double the ASTM specification (13.5 hr) were prepared from a conventional diesel and a highly unsaturated biodiesel. Four 2011 model year Volkswagen Passats equipped with HPCR fuel injection systems were utilized: one on B0, two on B20-6.5 hr, and one on B20-13.5 hr. Each vehicle was operated over a one-hour drive cycle in a hot running loss test cell to initially stress the fuel. The cars were then kept at Volkswagen's Arizona Proving Ground for two (35 degrees C average daily maximum) to six months (26 degrees C average daily maximum). The fuel was then stressed again by running a portion of the one-hour dynamometer drive cycle (limited by the amount of fuel in the tank). Fuel rail and fuel tank samples were analyzed for IP, acid number, peroxide content, polymer content, and ester profile. The HPCR fuel pumps were removed, dismantled, and inspected for deposits or abnormal wear. Analysis of fuels collected during initial dynamometer tests showed no impact of exposure to HPCR conditions. Long-term storage with intermittent use showed that IP remained above 3 hours, acid number below 0.3 mg KOH/g, peroxides low, no change in ester profile, and no production of polymers. Final dynamometer tests produced only small changes in fuel properties. Inspection of the HPCR fuel pumps revealed no

  5. Studies and research concerning BNFP: life of project operating expenses for away-from-reactor (AFR) spent fuel storage facility. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shallo, F. A.

    1979-09-01

    Life of Project operating expenses for a licensed Away-From-Reactor (AFR) Spent Fuel Storage Facility are developed in this report. A comprehensive business management structure is established and the functions and responsibilities for the facility organization are described. Contractual provisions for spent fuel storage services are evaluated.

  6. 100-D Ponds closure plan. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, S.W.

    1997-09-01

    The 100-D Ponds is a Treatment, Storage, and Disposal (TSD) unit on the Hanford Facility that received both dangerous and nonregulated waste. This Closure Plan (Rev. 1) for the 100-D Ponds TSD unit consists of a RCRA Part A Dangerous Waste Permit Application (Rev. 3), a RCRA Closure Plan, and supporting information contained in the appendices to the plan. The closure plan consists of eight chapters containing facility description, process information, waste characteristics, and groundwater monitoring data. There are also chapters containing the closure strategy and performance standards. The strategy for the closure of the 100-D Ponds TSD unit is clean closure. Appendices A and B of the closure plan demonstrate that soil and groundwater beneath 100-D Ponds are below cleanup limits. All dangerous wastes or dangerous waste constituents or residues associated with the operation of the ponds have been removed, therefore, human health and the environment are protected. Discharges to the 100-D Ponds, which are located in the 100-DR-1 operable unit, were discontinued in June 1994. Contaminated sediment was removed from the ponds in August 1996. Subsequent sampling and analysis demonstrated that there is no contamination remaining in the ponds, therefore, this closure plan is a demonstration of clean closure.

  7. Ceramicrete: A novel ceramic packaging system for spent-fuel transport and storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, D.; Jeong, S. Y.; Dwyer, K.; Abesadze, T.

    2000-02-25

    This presentation summarizes efforts to develop and apply chemically bonded phosphate ceramic (Ceramicrete{trademark}) technology for radiation shielding applications. The specific application being targeted is a packaging system for spent-fuel transport and storage. Using Ceramicrete technology under ambient conditions, the authors can produce dense and hard ceramic forms that incorporate second-phase material. Ceramicrete inherently is a superior shielding material because it contains large amounts of bound water in its crystal structure and can be cast in any shape. A parametric study was conducted on Ceramicrete that contained second-phase additions of metals and other ceramic powders. Results of various standardized tests that included mechanical performance and shielding from neutrons are presented. The fabrication of complex shapes and structures by Ceramicrete technology is discussed. Ceramicrete is compared with other currently available shielding systems that are based on concrete and polymers.

  8. Investigation of Battery/Ultracapacitor Energy Storage Rating for a Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltz, Erik; Khaligh, A.; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2008-01-01

    Combining high energy density batteries and high power density ultracapacitors in Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles (FCHEV) results in a high efficient, high performance, low size, and light system. Often the batteries are rated with respect to their energy requirement in order to reduce...... their volume and mass. This does not prevent deep discharges of the batteries, which is critical to their lifetime. In this paper, the ratings of the batteries and ultracapacitors in a FCHEV are investigated. Comparison of system volume, mass, efficiency, and battery lifetime due to the rating of the energy...... storage devices are presented. It is concluded, that by sufficient rating of the battery or ultracapacitors, an appropriate balance between system volume, mass, efficiency, and battery lifetime is achievable....

  9. Structural design concept and static analysis of CANDU spent fuel compact dry storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, K. S.; Yang, K. H.; Paek, C. R.; Jung, J. S.; Lee, H. Y. [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Company, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    In this study, an structural design concept on CANDU spent fuel compact dry storage system MACSTOR/KN-400 module has been established with a view to optimally design the structural members of the system. Design loads, loading combination and structural safety criteria of the module were reviewed assuming W olsung Site. The static analysis of the module showed that compressive stress concentration due to dead load and live load occurred around the center of roof slab. Maximum stress resulted from dead load is about twice as much as the stress from live load, and structural behavior of module caused by wind load was not significant. The static analysis results will have influence on the reinforcement bar design of structural members with other structural analyses.

  10. 78 FR 73566 - Standard Format and Content for a License Application for an Independent Spent Fuel Storage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... COMMISSION Standard Format and Content for a License Application for an Independent Spent Fuel Storage... public comment draft regulatory guide (DG), DG-3042, ``Standard Format and Content for a License... Waste'' (Ref. 1), Subpart B, ``License Application, Form, and Contents,'' specifies the information...

  11. Evolution of spent nuclear fuel during drying storage conditions; Evolucion del combustible nuclear gastado durante almacenamiento en condiciones de sequedad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duro, L.; Riba, O.; Martinez-Esparza, A.; Bruno, J.

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this paper is a critical discussion of the main processes that determine the structure and radiological inventory CG UOX type and the very conditions of temporary storage. This study has allowed the configuration of state CG in potential function of oxygen affects the physico-chemical characteristics of irradiated fuel.

  12. Hydrogen as a fuel for today and tomorrow: expectations for advanced hydrogen storage materials/systems research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Katsuhiko

    2011-01-01

    History shows that the evolution of vehicles is promoted by several environmental restraints very similar to the evolution of life. The latest environmental strain is sustainability. Transport vehicles are now facing again the need to advance to use sustainable fuels such as hydrogen. Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles are being prepared for commercialization in 2015. Despite intensive research by the world's scientists and engineers and recent advances in our understanding of hydrogen behavior in materials, the only engineering phase technology which will be available for 2015 is high pressure storage. Thus industry has decided to implement the high pressure tank storage system. However the necessity of smart hydrogen storage is not decreasing but rather increasing because high market penetration of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles is expected from around 2025 onward. In order to bring more vehicles onto the market, cheaper and more compact hydrogen storage is inevitable. The year 2025 seems a long way away but considering the field tests and large scale preparation required, there is little time available for research. Finding smart materials within the next 5 years is very important to the success of fuel cells towards a low carbon sustainable world.

  13. Review of ALARA plan for activities at the 105 K-East fuel storage basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargo, G.J.; Durham, J.S.; Hickey, E.E.; Stansbury, P.S.; Cicotte, G.R.

    1994-09-01

    As part of its ongoing efforts to reduce doses to workers to levels as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) tasked the Health Protection Department of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to review operations at the 105 K-East Fuel Storage Basin (105 K-East). This review included both routine operations and a proposed campaign to encapsulate N-Reactor fuel stored there. This report summarizes the results of PNL`s reviews of policy, procedures, and practices for operations at 105 K-East as well as an evaluation of the major sources of occupational radiation exposures. Where possible, data previously collected by WHC and its predecessors were used. In addition, PNL staff developed a three-dimensional model of the radiological environment within 105 K-East to assess the relative contributions of different radiation sources to worker dose and to provide a decision tool for use in evaluating alternative methods of dose rate reduction. The model developed by PNL indicates that for most areas in the basin the primary source of occupational radiation exposure is the contaminated concrete surfaces of the basin near the waterline. Basin cooling water piping represents a significant source in a number of areas, particularly the Technical Viewing Pit. This report contains specific recommendations to reduce the impact of these sources of occupational radiation exposure in 105 K-East. Other recommendations to reduce doses to workers during activities such as filter changes and filter sampling are also included.

  14. IMPACT ANALYSES AND TESTS OF CONCRETE OVERPACKS OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL STORAGE CASKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANGHOON LEE

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A concrete cask is an option for spent nuclear fuel interim storage. A concrete cask usually consists of a metallic canister which confines the spent nuclear fuel assemblies and a concrete overpack. When the overpack undergoes a missile impact, which might be caused by a tornado or an aircraft crash, it should sustain an acceptable level of structural integrity so that its radiation shielding capability and the retrievability of the canister are maintained. A missile impact against a concrete overpack produces two damage modes, local damage and global damage. In conventional approaches [1], those two damage modes are decoupled and evaluated separately. The local damage of concrete is usually evaluated by empirical formulas, while the global damage is evaluated by finite element analysis. However, this decoupled approach may lead to a very conservative estimation of both damages. In this research, finite element analysis with material failure models and element erosion is applied to the evaluation of local and global damage of concrete overpacks under high speed missile impacts. Two types of concrete overpacks with different configurations are considered. The numerical simulation results are compared with test results, and it is shown that the finite element analysis predicts both local and global damage qualitatively well, but the quantitative accuracy of the results are highly dependent on the fine-tuning of material and failure parameters.

  15. The fuel characteristics of logging residue and their response to storage; Puupolttoaineen laadunvalvonta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurmi, J. [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Kannus (Finland). Kannus Research Station

    1997-12-01

    Logging residue is one of the major biomass reserves of Finland available for energy production. Some 29 million m{sup 3} of this residue material is left in the forest annually in conjunction with logging operations. The technically harvestable annual reserve is estimated to consist of 8.6 million m{sup 3} biomass needles included, or 5.6 million m{sup 3} needles excluded. The present technology is based on the mechanised harvesting of stemwood with single-grip harvesters, off- road transport of residue to road side with forwarders, chipping at the road side and truck transport of chips. The amount used at heating plants in 1995 was estimated to only 50 000 m{sup 3} solid or less than 1 % of the harvestable reserve. The aim of the Project 125 is to find out how the fuel characteristics and the elemental composition of logging residue change over time in different storage conditions. Based on the information from the first year experiments it can be concluded that the season of comminution is of importance. The enforced paper cover that was used to protect the residue from precipitation did not improve the fuel quality. In addition the release of elements from the needle was found to be very slow. (orig.)

  16. Preliminary decommissioning plan for Clab (Central interim storage for spent fuels); Preliminaer avvecklingsplan foer Clab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gatter, Patrik; Wikstroem, Nina [SWECO, Stockholm (Sweden); Hallberg, Bengt [Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2005-12-15

    In the The Swedish Radiation Protection Authority's Regulations SSI FS 2002:04 and The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate's Regulations SKI FS 2004:1 it is stated that the owner of a nuclear facility must have a preliminary plan for decommissioning of the plant. The present report is a preliminary plan for decommissioning the Central interim storage for spent fuels (Clab). Clab will be decommissioned when all spent fuels and reactor core components have been sent to final disposal. The time for the decommissioning is dependent on the time for phasing out the last Swedish nuclear reactor. At present it is thought that Clab will remain in operation until after year 2050. During the work with this project, nothing has been found that indicates that decommissioning Clab could be more complicated than other plants whose decommissioning is closer in time. On the contrary, smaller radiation doses to the personnel are expected, as well as limited amounts of low and medium activity waste. This plan will be updated and more detailed as the time for decommissioning approaches.

  17. Regulatory supervision of sites for spent fuel and radioactive waste storage in the Russian northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shandala, N K; Sneve, M K; Smith, G M; Kiselev, M F; Kochetkov, O A; Savkin, M N; Simakov, A V; Novikova, N Ya; Titov, A V; Romanov, V V; Seregin, V A; Filonova, A V; Semenova, M P

    2008-12-01

    In the 1960s two technical bases for the Northern Fleet were created in the Russian northwest at Andreeva Bay in the Kola Peninsula and Gremikha village on the coast of the Barents Sea. They maintained nuclear submarines, receiving and storing radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. No further waste was received after 1985, and the technical bases have since been re-categorised as temporary storage sites. The handling of these materials to put them into a safe condition is especially hazardous because of their degraded state. This paper describes regulatory activities which have been carried out to support the supervision of radiological protection during recovery of waste and spent fuel, and to support regulatory decisions on overall site remediation. The work described includes: an assessment of the radiation situation on-site; the development of necessary additional regulatory rules and standards for radiation protection assurance for workers and the public during remediation; and the completion of an initial threat assessment to identify regulatory priorities. Detailed consideration of measures for the control of radiation exposure of workers and radiation exposure of the public during and after operations and emergency preparedness and response are complete and provided in sister papers. The continuing requirements for regulatory activities relevant to the development and implementation of on-going and future remediation activities are also outlined. The Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority supports the work, as part of the Norwegian Government's plan of action to promote improvements in radiation protection and nuclear safety in northwest Russia.

  18. The Feasibility of Cask "Fingerprinting" as a Spent-Fuel, Dry-Storage Cask Safeguards Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziock, K P; Vanier, P; Forman, L; Caffrey, G; Wharton, J; Lebrun, A

    2005-07-27

    This report documents a week-long measurement campaign conducted on six, dry-storage, spent-nuclear-fuel storage casks at the Idaho National Laboratory. A gamma-ray imager, a thermal-neutron imager and a germanium spectrometer were used to collect data on the casks. The campaign was conducted to examine the feasibility of using the cask radiation signatures as unique identifiers for individual casks as part of a safeguards regime. The results clearly show different morphologies for the various cask types although the signatures are deemed insufficient to uniquely identify individual casks of the same type. Based on results with the germanium spectrometer and differences between thermal neutron images and neutron-dose meters, this result is thought to be due to the limitations of the extant imagers used, rather than of the basic concept. Results indicate that measurements with improved imagers could contain significantly more information. Follow-on measurements with new imagers either currently available as laboratory prototypes or under development are recommended.

  19. Programming of Energy Storage System in an Island Microgrid with Photovoltaic and Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein KHORRAMDEL

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV systems in island microgrids (MGs are becoming increasingly attractive as a means of energy generation, due to new developments in technologies, environmental concerns, and transmission congestion management. Usually, the energy storage system (ESS is used to store the excess power generated during off-peak hours, and to return it to the system when power from PV is not enough for the system, or generation is more expensive. A real-time dynamic programming algorithm for energy storage in a PV/battery system, based on the battery charge and discharge characteristics, and current and temperature dependence of the capacity of the battery, is presented in this paper. The work aims to extend existing battery- aware programming techniques. It differs from previous works, as it takes into consideration many aspects of battery characteristics that were not considered previously. This allows better use of the battery bank and can prolong the battery service time. This paper also builds a simple PV/battery system in an island microgrid. In this paper, fuel cell power plants (FCPPs are permanently used to operate in island microgrids, and 2 batteries are used as reserves for charge and discharge in various hours.

  20. State of the Art Report for Conceptual Design of Fuel Storage and Handling System of SMART-P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Hwan; Lee, Jae Seon; Yu, Je Yong; Kim, Dong Ok; Kim, Jong In; Zee, Sung Kyun

    2003-08-15

    The state of the art for domestic and international reactors which are in operation or under development was reviewed for the purpose of conceptual design of SMART-P fuel storage and handling system. For domestic reactors, pressurized light water reactor and pressurized heavy water reactor in operation, and fast breeder reactor under development called by KALIMER, were investigated. The fuel handling systems of IRIS, KLT-40, and CAREM were reviewed for the state of the art for international integral reactors. Russian pressurized-water reactor, VVER was also investigated. The systems of Monju in Japan and PFBR in India was selected for international fast breed reactor. Fugen in Japan and LUNGMEN in Tiwan was selected for pressurized boiling water reactors. According to the results of the state of the art, all reactor is composed of similar subsystems which are new fuel storage and handling system, spent fuel storage and handling system, and refueling system. However, those subsystems have particular designs suitable for each reactor characteristics so that the refueling process could be performed effectively. Therefore, the design of fuel handling system for SMART-P should be accomplished in optimal concept compatible with its characteristic.

  1. Results from NNWSI [Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations] Series 2 bare fuel dissolution tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, C.N.

    1990-09-01

    The dissolution and radionuclide release behavior of spent fuel in groundwater is being studied by the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project. Two bare spent fuel specimens plus the empty cladding hulls were tested in NNWSI J-13 well water in unsealed fused silica vessels under ambient hot cell air conditions (25{degree}C) in the currently reported tests. One of the specimens was prepared from a rod irradiated in the H. B. Robinson Unit 2 reactor and the other from a rod irradiated in the Turkey Point Unit 3 reactor. Results indicate that most radionuclides of interest fall into three groups for release modeling. The first group principally includes the actinides (U, Np, Pu, Am, and Cm), all of which reached solubility-limited concentrations that were orders of magnitude below those necessary to meet the NRC 10 CFR 60.113 release limits for any realistic water flux predicted for the Yucca Mountain repository site. The second group is nuclides of soluble elements such as Cs, Tc, and I, for which release rates do not appear to be solubility-limited and may depend on the dissolution rate of fuel. In later test cycles, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 129}I were continuously released at rates between about 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} and 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} of inventory per year. The third group is radionuclides that may be transported in the vapor phase, of which {sup 14}C is of primary concern. Detailed test results are presented and discussed. 17 refs., 15 figs., 21 tabs.

  2. Seismic Soil-Structure Interaction Analysis of a Consolidated Dry Storage Module for CANDU Spent Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Young Gon; Yoon, Jeong Hyoun; Cho, Chun Hyung; Lee, Heung Young [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Kyu Sup; Jeong, In Su; Kim, Jong Soo [KONES Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    The MACSTOR/KN-400 module has been developed as an effective alternative to the existing stand alone concrete canister for dry storage of CANDU spent fuel. The structure is a concrete monolith of 21.67 m long and 12.66 m wide and has a height equal to 7.518 m including the bottom slab. Inside of the concrete module are built 40 storage cylinders accommodating ten 60- bundle dry storage baskets, which are suspended from the top slab and eventually constrained at 10 cm above the bottom slab with horizontal seismic restraints. The main cooling process of the MACSTOR/KN-400 module is by air convection through air inlets and outlets. The civil design parameters, with respect to meteorological and seismic loads applied to the module are identical to those specified for the Wolsung CANDU 3 and 4 plants except for local geologic characteristics. As per USNRC SRP Section 3.7.2 and current US practices, Soil-Structure Interaction (SSI) effect shall be considered for all structures not supported by a rock or rock-like soil foundation materials. An SSI is a very complicated phenomenon of the structure coupled with the soil medium that is usually semi-infinite in extent and highly nonlinear in its behavior. And the effect of the SSI is noticeable especially for stiff and massive structures resting on relatively soft ground. Thus the SSI effect has to be considered in the seismic design of MACSTOR/KN-400 module resting on soil medium. The scope of the this paper is to carry out a seismic SSI analysis of the MACSTOR/KN-400 module, in order to show how much the SSI gives an effect on the structural responses by comparing with the fixed-base analysis.

  3. Performance of a solid oxide fuel cell CHP system coupled with a hot water storage tank for single household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liso, Vincenzo; Zhao, Yingru; Yang, Wenyuan

    2014-01-01

    of heat used for thermal loads of the residence. Two fuels are considered, namely syngas and natural gas. The tank model considers the temperature gradients over the tank height. The results of the numerical simulation is used to size the SOFC system and storage heat tank to provide energy for a small...... household using two different fuels. In particular it was shown that in the case of syngas, due to larger system heat output, a larger tank volume was required in order to accumulate unused heat over the night. The detailed description of the tank model will be useful to energy system modelers when sizing......In this paper a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system for cogeneration of heat and power integrated with a stratified heat storage tank is studied. Thermal stratification in the tank increases the heat recovery performance as it allows existence of a temperature gradient with the benefit...

  4. Feasibility study in aspect of thermal integrity on the dry storage expansion options for CANDU spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K. H.; Yoon, J. H.; Choi, B. I.; Lee, H. Y.; Song, M. J. [Nuclear Environment Technology Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, K. S. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-10-01

    In order to expand the capability of the CANDU spent fuel dry storage facilities of the at Wolsong, the alternative concepts based on MACSTOR are suggested to replace with existing concrete silo of Wolsong. For this, the feasibility of its design changes from original MACSTOR is examined in term of heat transfer and thermal hydraulic. In this study, the configuration of the module was conceptually changed from its original 2 rows to 3 and 4 rows for review. Under normal operation, the results of heat transfer and thermal hydraulic shows that storage module can feasibly accomodate four rows of storage cylinders within allowable range in terms of maximum allowable temperature of the fuel basket.

  5. Thermal assessment of Shippingport pressurized water reactor blanket fuel assemblies within a multi-canister overpack within the canister storage building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HEARD, F.J.

    1999-04-09

    A series of analyses were performed to assess the thermal performance characteristics of the Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor Core 2 Blanket Fuel Assemblies as loaded within a Multi-Canister Overpack within the Canister Storage Building. A two-dimensional finite element was developed, with enough detail to model the individual fuel plates: including the fuel wafers, cladding, and flow channels.

  6. Optimizing energy management of fuel cell-direct storage-hybrid systems; Optimierendes Energiemanagement von Brennstoffzelle-Direktspeicher-Hybridsystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocklisch, Thilo

    2010-03-29

    The dissertation presents a new optimizing energy management concept for fuel cell-direct storage-hybrid systems. Initially, the characteristics of specific energy time series are investigated on the basis of real measurement data. A new concept for the multi-scale analysis, modelling and prediction of fluctuating photovoltaic supply and electric load demand profiles is developed. The second part of the dissertation starts with a discussion of the benefits of and the basic coupling and control principles for fuel cell-direct storage-hybrid systems. The typical characteristics of a PEM-fuel cell, a metal hydride hydrogen storage, a lithium-ion battery and a supercap unit are presented. A new modular DC/DC-converter is described. Results from experimental and theoretical investigations of the individual components and the overall hybrid system are discussed. New practicable models for the voltage-current-curve, the state of charge behaviour and the conversion losses are presented. The third part of the dissertation explains the new energy management concept. The optimization of power flows is achieved by a control-oriented approach, employing a) the primary control of bus voltage and fuel cell current, b) the secondary control to limit fuel cell current gradient and operating range and to perform direct storage charge control, and c) the system control to optimally adjust secondary control parameters aiming for a reduction of dynamic fuel cell stress and hydrogen consumption. Results from simulations and experimental investigations demonstrate the benefits and high capabilities of the new optimizing energy management concept. Examples of stationary and portable applications conclude the dissertation. (orig.)

  7. Thermal modeling of a vertical dry storage cask for used nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jie, E-mail: jieli@anl.gov; Liu, Yung Y., E-mail: yyliu@anl.gov

    2016-05-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Thermal performance of a 3-D vertical dry cask under various conditions has been numerically studied by using ANSYS/FLUENT code. • The simulation was validated by comparing the results against data obtained from the temperature measurements of a commercial cask. • The results indicated that the basket with higher thermal conductivity dissipates decay heat out of the cask more efficiently than that with a lower thermal conductivity (aluminum composite vs. stainless steel). A heavier cooling gas is also helpful to enhance heat transfer via enhanced natural convection (N{sub 2} vs. He). • Coolant release from the fuel canister results in temperature change of the canister external surfaces. The simulation shows that such a change is large enough and detectable, which can provide a mechanism for leak detection by continuously monitoring this temperature change at the top center of the canister surface. • Partial blockage of the cask air inlets affects the temperature profiles marginally for both the fuel canister and those components inside. In contrast, fully blocked air inlets will lead to remarkable increases of the component temperatures. - Abstract: Thermal modeling of temperature profiles of dry casks has been identified as a high-priority item in a U.S. Department of Energy gap analysis. In this work, a three-dimensional model of a vertical dry cask has been constructed for computer simulation by using the ANSYS/FLUENT code. The vertical storage cask contains a welded canister for 32 Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) used-fuel assemblies with a total decay heat load of 34 kW. To simplify thermal calculations, an effective thermal conductivity model for a 17 × 17 PWR used (or spent)-fuel assembly was developed and used in the simulation of thermal performance. The effects of canister fill gas (helium or nitrogen), internal pressure (1–6 atm), and basket material (stainless steel or aluminum alloy) were studied to

  8. Capacity enhancement of aqueous borohydride fuels for hydrogen storage in liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, David [U.S. Borax Inc., Rio Tinto, CO (United States); Neiner, Doinita [U.S. Borax Inc., Rio Tinto, CO (United States); Bowden, Mark [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Whittemore, Sean [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Holladay, Jamie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Huang, Zhenguo [Univ. of Wollongong, NSW (Australia); Autrey, Tom [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    In this work we demonstrate enhanced hydrogen storage capacities through increased solubility of sodium borate product species in aqueous media achieved by adjusting the sodium (NaOH) to boron (B(OH)3) ratio, i.e., M/B, to obtain a distribution of polyborate anions. For a 1:1 mole ratio of NaOH to B(OH)3, M/B = 1, the ratio of the hydrolysis product formed from NaBH4 hydrolysis, the sole borate species formed and observed by 11B NMR is sodium metaborate, NaB(OH)4. When the ratio is 1:3 NaOH to B(OH)3, M/B = 0.33, a mixture of borate anions is formed and observed as a broad peak in the 11B NMR spectrum. The complex polyborate mixture yields a metastable solution that is difficult to crystallize. Given the enhanced solubility of the polyborate mixture formed when M/B = 0.33 it should follow that the hydrolysis of sodium octahydrotriborate, NaB3H8, can provide a greater storage capacity of hydrogen for fuel cell applications compared to sodium borohydride while maintaining a single phase. Accordingly, the hydrolysis of a 23 wt% NaB3H8 solution in water yields a solution having the same complex polyborate mixture as formed by mixing a 1:3 molar ratio of NaOH and B(OH)3 and releases >8 eq of H2. By optimizing the M/B ratio a complex mixture of soluble products, including B3O3(OH)52-, B4O5(OH)42-, B3O3(OH)4-, B5O6(OH)4- and B(OH)3, can be maintained as a single liquid phase throughout the hydrogen release process. Consequently, hydrolysis of NaB3H8 can provide a 40% increase in H2 storage density compared to the hydrolysis of NaBH4 given the decreased solubility of sodium metaborate. The authors would like to thank Jim Sisco and Paul Osenar of

  9. Managing aging effects on dry cask storage systems for extended long-term storage and transportation of used fuel - rev. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopra, O.K.; Diercks, D.; Fabian, R.; Ma, D.; Shah, V.; Tam, S.W.; Liu, Y. (Decision and Information Sciences); ( EVS); ( NE)

    2012-07-06

    The cancellation of the Yucca Mountain repository program in the United States raises the prospect of extended long-term storage (i.e., >120 years) and deferred transportation of used fuel at operating and decommissioned nuclear power plant sites. Under U.S. federal regulations contained in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 72.42, the initial license term for an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) must not exceed 40 years from the date of issuance. Licenses may be renewed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at the expiration of the license term upon application by the licensee for a period not to exceed 40 years. Application for ISFSI license renewals must include the following: (1) Time-limited aging analyses (TLAAs) that demonstrate that structures, systems, and components (SSCs) important to safety will continue to perform their intended function for the requested period of extended operation; and (2) a description of the aging management program (AMP) for management of issues associated with aging that could adversely affect SSCs important to safety. In addition, the application must also include design bases information as documented in the most recent updated final safety analysis report as required by 10 CFR 72.70. Information contained in previous applications, statements, or reports filed with the Commission under the license may be incorporated by reference provided that those references are clear and specific. The NRC has recently issued the Standard Review Plan (SRP) for renewal of used-fuel dry cask storage system (DCSS) licenses and Certificates of Compliance (CoCs), NUREG-1927, under which NRC may renew a specific license or a CoC for a term not to exceed 40 years. Both the license and the CoC renewal applications must contain revised technical requirements and operating conditions (fuel storage, surveillance and maintenance, and other requirements) for the ISFSI and DCSS that address aging effects that

  10. Capacity enhancement of aqueous borohydride fuels for hydrogen storage in liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, David; Neiner, Doinita [U.S. Borax Inc., Rio Tinto, Greenwood Village, CO (United States); Bowden, Mark [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Whittemore, Sean; Holladay, Jamie [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Huang, Zhenguo [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2500 (Australia); Autrey, Tom [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • Adjusting ratio of Q = Na/B will maximize H{sub 2} storage capacity of liquid carrier. • Mixtures of hydrolysis products are desirable to maximize solubility. • 6.5 wt.% hydrogen and remains liquid from beginning to end. - Abstract: In this work we demonstrate enhanced hydrogen storage capacities through increased solubility of sodium borate product species in aqueous media achieved by adjusting the sodium (NaOH) to boron (B(OH){sub 3}) ratio, i.e., M/B, to obtain a distribution of polyborate anions. For a 1:1 mol ratio of NaOH to B(OH){sub 3}, M/B = 1, the ratio of the hydrolysis product formed from NaBH{sub 4} hydrolysis, the sole borate species formed and observed by {sup 11}B NMR is sodium metaborate, NaB(OH){sub 4}. When the ratio is 1:3 NaOH to B(OH){sub 3}, M/B = 0.33, a mixture of borate anions is formed and observed as a broad peak in the {sup 11}B NMR spectrum. The complex polyborate mixture yields a metastable solution that is difficult to crystallize. Given the enhanced solubility of the polyborate mixture formed when M/B = 0.33 it should follow that the hydrolysis of sodium octahydrotriborate, NaB{sub 3}H{sub 8}, can provide a greater storage capacity of hydrogen for fuel cell applications compared to sodium borohydride while maintaining a single phase. Accordingly, the hydrolysis of a 23 wt.% NaB{sub 3}H{sub 8} solution in water yields a solution having the same complex polyborate mixture as formed by mixing a 1:3 M ratio of NaOH and B(OH){sub 3} and releases >8 eq of H{sub 2}. By optimizing the M/B ratio a complex mixture of soluble products, including B{sub 3}O{sub 3}(OH){sub 5}{sup 2−}, B{sub 4}O{sub 5}(OH){sub 4}{sup 2−}, B{sub 3}O{sub 3}(OH){sub 4}{sup −}, B{sub 5}O{sub 6}(OH){sub 4}{sup −} and B(OH){sub 3}, can be maintained as a single liquid phase throughout the hydrogen release process. Consequently, hydrolysis of NaB{sub 3}H{sub 8} can provide a 40% increase in H{sub 2} storage density compared to the hydrolysis

  11. Experience with the transport and storage casks CASTOR (registered) MTR 2 for spent nuclear fuel assemblies from research reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack, Allen; Rettenbacher, Katharina; Skrzyppek, Juergen [GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH, Essen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The CASTOR (registered) MTR 2 cask was designed and manufactured by the company GNS during the 1990's for the transport and interim storage of spent nuclear fuel assemblies from various types of research reactors. Casks of this type have been used at the VKTA Research Centre in Rossendorf near Dresden, Germany as well as at the European Commission's Joint Research Centre at Petten and at the HOR reactor at Delft in the Netherlands. A total of 24 units have been used for the functions of transport and storage with various spent fuel types (VVER, HFR-HEU, and HOR-HEU) for more than ten years now. This type of packaging for radioactive material is a member of the CASTOR (registered) family of spent nuclear fuel casks used worldwide. Over 1000 units are loaded and in storage in Europe, Asia, Africa and North America. This paper presents the experience from the use of the casks for transport and storage in the past, as well as the prospects for the future. (author)

  12. Biodegradation of international jet A-1 aviation fuel by microorganisms isolated from aircraft tank and joint hydrant storage systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itah, A Y; Brooks, A A; Ogar, B O; Okure, A B

    2009-09-01

    Microorganisms contaminating international Jet A-1 aircraft fuel and fuel preserved in Joint Hydrant Storage Tank (JHST) were isolated, characterized and identified. The isolates were Bacillus subtillis, Bacillus megaterium, Flavobacterium oderatum, Sarcina flava, Micrococcus varians, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus brevis. Others included Candida tropicalis, Candida albicans, Saccharomyces estuari, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladosporium resinae, Penicillium citrinum and Penicillium frequentans. The viable plate count of microorganisms in the Aircraft Tank ranged from 1.3 (+/-0.01) x 104 cfu/mL to 2.2 (+/-1.6) x 104 cfu/mL for bacteria and 102 cfu/mL to 1.68 (+/-0.32) x 103 cfu/mL for fungi. Total bacterial counts of 1.79 (+/-0.2) x 104 cfu/mL to 2.58 (+/-0.04) x 104 cfu/mL and total fungal count of 2.1 (+/-0.1) x 103 cfu/mL to 2.28 (+/-0.5) x 103 cfu/mL were obtained for JHST. Selected isolates were re-inoculated into filter sterilized aircraft fuels and biodegradation studies carried out. After 14 days incubation, Cladosporium resinae exhibited the highest degradation rate with a percentage weight loss of 66 followed by Candida albicans (60.6) while Penicillium citrinum was the least degrader with a weight loss of 41.6%. The ability of the isolates to utilize the fuel as their sole source of carbon and energy was examined and found to vary in growth profile between the isolates. The results imply that aviation fuel could be biodegraded by hydrocarbonoclastic microorganisms. To avert a possible deterioration of fuel quality during storage, fuel pipe clogging and failure, engine component damage, wing tank corrosion and aircraft disaster, efficient routine monitoring of aircraft fuel systems is advocated.

  13. Metal cask RT-5000 for the dry storage and transportation of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorobyov, A.I.; Kazeev, V.G.; Krayev, V.S.; Shcherbina, A.N.; Churikov, Y.I. [All-Russian Research Inst. of Technical Physics, Snezhinsk (Russian Federation)

    2003-05-01

    Presentation of new-type cask, developed at RFNC-VNIITF, is in the article. The prototype model of the shipping cask was subjected to tests imitating normal shipment conditions (free fall, pressing, and impact) and to tests imitating emergency situation during shipment (a drop from the 9-m height onto a pin is replaced by acceleration of the shipping cask at a guide rail of the rocket-catapult installation (RCI), a 1-m drop onto a pin, heat tests a 30-minutes fire at the temperature of for 8500 C, submergence to the depth of 15 and 200 meters). After each test the hermeticity preservation is examined. Parallel with the real testing, a mathematical simulation of physical processes induced by the corresponding tests was conducted at the RFNC-VNIITF. The required parameters obtained from the tests are used to calibrate the calculation methods. As a result it has been possible to obtain a good agreement between the results of calculations and experiments; this will allow the mathematic simulation to be used wider. The advantage of the RT-5000 metal cask in comparison with metal-concrete analogs are as follows: SFA are placed into the RT-5000 entirely without cutting into two bunches of fuel elements; the expensive hot doom is not required for automatic cutting the SFA and for loading the bunches of fuel elements into intermediate cases; the possibility remains to transport the RT-5000 without reloading SFA after 50-year storage, although this is a problem for the metal-concrete casks.

  14. ORIGAMI Automator Primer. Automated ORIGEN Source Terms and Spent Fuel Storage Pool Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieselquist, William A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Thompson, Adam B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bowman, Stephen M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Peterson, Joshua L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Source terms and spent nuclear fuel (SNF) storage pool decay heat load analyses for operating nuclear power plants require a large number of Oak Ridge Isotope Generation and Depletion (ORIGEN) calculations. SNF source term calculations also require a significant amount of bookkeeping to track quantities such as core and assembly operating histories, spent fuel pool (SFP) residence times, heavy metal masses, and enrichments. The ORIGEN Assembly Isotopics (ORIGAMI) module in the SCALE code system provides a simple scheme for entering these data. However, given the large scope of the analysis, extensive scripting is necessary to convert formats and process data to create thousands of ORIGAMI input files (one per assembly) and to process the results into formats readily usable by follow-on analysis tools. This primer describes a project within the SCALE Fulcrum graphical user interface (GUI) called ORIGAMI Automator that was developed to automate the scripting and bookkeeping in large-scale source term analyses. The ORIGAMI Automator enables the analyst to (1) easily create, view, and edit the reactor site and assembly information, (2) automatically create and run ORIGAMI inputs, and (3) analyze the results from ORIGAMI. ORIGAMI Automator uses the standard ORIGEN binary concentrations files produced by ORIGAMI, with concentrations available at all time points in each assembly’s life. The GUI plots results such as mass, concentration, activity, and decay heat using a powerful new ORIGEN Post-Processing Utility for SCALE (OPUS) GUI component. This document includes a description and user guide for the GUI, a step-by-step tutorial for a simplified scenario, and appendices that document the file structures used.

  15. Managing aging effects on dry cask storage systems for extended long-term storage and transportation of used fuel - rev. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopra, O.K.; Diercks, D.; Fabian, R.; Ma, D.; Shah, V.; Tam, S.W.; Liu, Y. (Decision and Information Sciences); ( EVS); ( NE)

    2012-07-06

    The cancellation of the Yucca Mountain repository program in the United States raises the prospect of extended long-term storage (i.e., >120 years) and deferred transportation of used fuel at operating and decommissioned nuclear power plant sites. Under U.S. federal regulations contained in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 72.42, the initial license term for an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) must not exceed 40 years from the date of issuance. Licenses may be renewed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at the expiration of the license term upon application by the licensee for a period not to exceed 40 years. Application for ISFSI license renewals must include the following: (1) Time-limited aging analyses (TLAAs) that demonstrate that structures, systems, and components (SSCs) important to safety will continue to perform their intended function for the requested period of extended operation; and (2) a description of the aging management program (AMP) for management of issues associated with aging that could adversely affect SSCs important to safety. In addition, the application must also include design bases information as documented in the most recent updated final safety analysis report as required by 10 CFR 72.70. Information contained in previous applications, statements, or reports filed with the Commission under the license may be incorporated by reference provided that those references are clear and specific. The NRC has recently issued the Standard Review Plan (SRP) for renewal of used-fuel dry cask storage system (DCSS) licenses and Certificates of Compliance (CoCs), NUREG-1927, under which NRC may renew a specific license or a CoC for a term not to exceed 40 years. Both the license and the CoC renewal applications must contain revised technical requirements and operating conditions (fuel storage, surveillance and maintenance, and other requirements) for the ISFSI and DCSS that address aging effects that

  16. Modeling evaporation from spent nuclear fuel storage pools: A diffusion approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, Bruce Robert

    Accurate prediction of evaporative losses from light water reactor nuclear power plant (NPP) spent fuel storage pools (SFPs) is important for activities ranging from sizing of water makeup systems during NPP design to predicting the time available to supply emergency makeup water following severe accidents. Existing correlations for predicting evaporation from water surfaces are only optimized for conditions typical of swimming pools. This new approach modeling evaporation as a diffusion process has yielded an evaporation rate model that provided a better fit of published high temperature evaporation data and measurements from two SFPs than other published evaporation correlations. Insights from treating evaporation as a diffusion process include correcting for the effects of air flow and solutes on evaporation rate. An accurate modeling of the effects of air flow on evaporation rate is required to explain the observed temperature data from the Fukushima Daiichi Unit 4 SFP during the 2011 loss of cooling event; the diffusion model of evaporation provides a significantly better fit to this data than existing evaporation models.

  17. Modeling a reversible solid oxide fuel cell as a storage device within AC power networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, J.; Roscoe, A.J.; Burt, G. [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Royal College, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Gamble, S.R.; Irvine, J.T.S. [School of Chemistry, University of St. Andrews, Purdie Building, St. Andrews (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-15

    A reversible solid oxide fuel cell (RSOFC) system, consisting of a RSOFC stack, heat store, and electrical inverters to convert DC to AC power, is shown by computer modeling to have the potential to efficiently store electrical energy. This paper describes the modeling of a single RSOFC, based on a proposed cell geometry, empirical data on the resistivities of the components, and calculation of activation and diffusion polarization resistances from electrochemical theory. Data from ac impedance spectroscopy measurements on symmetrical cells are used to model RSOFC impedance. A RSOFC stack is modeled by electrically linking the individual cells inside a pressurized vessel. A phase change heat store is added to improve energy storage efficiency. The model is implemented in MATLAB {sup registered} /Simulink {sup registered}. Two competing inverter control schemes are compared, trading off DC bus ripple against AC power quality. It is found that selection of appropriate DC bus capacitance is important in certain scenarios, with potential system cost implications. It is shown that the system can store electrical energy at an efficiency of 64% over a single discharge-charge cycle, i.e., hydrogen to electricity and heat to hydrogen. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Heat transfer analysis of the MACSTOR/KN-400 storage module for CANDU spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K. H.; Youn, J. H.; Choi, B. I.; Lee, H. Y. [Nuclear Environment Technology Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-01

    It was verified through heat transfer analysis that a consolidated dry storage system for CANDU spent fuel, MACSTOR/KN-400 was safe in thermal aspect. In order to validate the computer code of CATHENA which was employed to perform the analysis, the comparison between actual measurement data of MACSTOR-200 at Getilly-2 NPP in Canada and computed values from the code has been carried out. The comparison represented that the computed values acceptably agreed to the measurement data and thus the computer code was verified for its application to MACSTOR/KN-400. The identical K-values(parameter to describe head loss inside the module) and convective heat transfer coefficient of the module obtained by the validation was applied to the heat transfer analysis modelling of MACSTOR/KN-400. The result from the analysis showed that under 40 .deg. C of ambient temperature, maximum average and local temperatures of the concrete module were represented by 53 .deg. C and 69 .deg. C, respectively, which fulfilled well the allowable temperature limit of the concrete structure given by ACI349(American Concrete Institute)

  19. Studies of Modified Hydrogen Storage Intermetallic Compounds Used as Fuel Cell Anodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui F. M. Lobo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of substituting Pt/C with the hydrogen storage alloy MlNi3.6Co0.85Al0.3Mn0.3 as the anode active material of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell system has been analyzed. The electrochemical properties indicate that a much more electrochemically active anode is obtained by impregnating the active material loaded anode in a Nafion proton conducting polymer. Such performance improvement might result from the increase of three-phase boundary sites or length in the gas diffusion electrode where the electrochemical reaction occurs. The experimental data revealed that the membrane electrode assembly (MEA shows better results when the anode active material, MlNi3.6Co0.85Al0.3Mn0.3, is treated with a hot alkaline KBH4 solution, and then chemically coated with 3 wt.% Pd. The MEA with the aforesaid modification presents an enhanced surface capability for hydrogen adsorption, and has been studied by molecular beam-thermal desorption spectrometry.

  20. Development method of Hybrid Energy Storage System, including PEM fuel cell and a battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustinov, A.; Khayrullina, A.; Borzenko, V.; Khmelik, M.; Sveshnikova, A.

    2016-09-01

    Development of fuel cell (FC) and hydrogen metal-hydride storage (MH) technologies continuously demonstrate higher efficiency rates and higher safety, as hydrogen is stored at low pressures of about 2 bar in a bounded state. A combination of a FC/MH system with an electrolyser, powered with a renewable source, allows creation of an almost fully autonomous power system, which could potentially replace a diesel-generator as a back-up power supply. However, the system must be extended with an electro-chemical battery to start-up the FC and compensate the electric load when FC fails to deliver the necessary power. Present paper delivers the results of experimental and theoretical investigation of a hybrid energy system, including a proton exchange membrane (PEM) FC, MH- accumulator and an electro-chemical battery, development methodology for such systems and the modelling of different battery types, using hardware-in-the-loop approach. The economic efficiency of the proposed solution is discussed using an example of power supply of a real town of Batamai in Russia.

  1. Increased storage capacity for spent fuel re racking the east pool; Aumento de la capacidad de almacenamiento de combustible gastado: reracking de la piscina este

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diego, J. L. de; Laserna, J. A.; Orive Moreno, R.; Rodriguez Quesada, B.

    2009-07-01

    The storage capacity of the Cofrentes NPP spent fuel pools has recently been increased from 4186 fuel assembly positions to 5387 after the re racking of the east spent fuel storage pool (PACE), a project funded entirely by ENRESA. Based on the current level of occupation and considering a typical unloading of spent fuel assemblies in one refueling, it is concluded that, with the current configuration, the last refueling would take place in September 2019 (R22). After that refueling, the positions reserved for complete core unloading would permit plant operation until September 2021. (Author)

  2. Influence of Battery/Ultracapacitor Energy-Storage Sizing on Battery Lifetime in a Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltz, Erik; Rasmussen, Peter Omand; Khaligh, Alireza

    2009-01-01

    Combining high-energy-density batteries and high-power-density ultracapacitors in fuel cell hybrid electric vehicles (FCHEVs) results in a high-performance, highly efficient, low-size, and light system. Often, the battery is rated with respect to its energy requirement to reduce its volume and mass....... This does not prevent deep discharges of the battery, which are critical to the lifetime of the battery. In this paper, the ratings of the battery and ultracapacitors are investigated. Comparisons of the system volume, the system mass, and the lifetime of the battery due to the rating of the energy storage...... devices are presented. It is concluded that not only should the energy storage devices of a FCHEV be sized by their power and energy requirements, but the battery lifetime should also be considered. Two energy-management strategies, which sufficiently divide the load power between the fuel cell stack...

  3. Estimating the ratio of pond size to irrigated soybeans land in Mississippi: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although more on-farm storage ponds have been constructed in recent years to mitigate groundwater resources depletion in Mississippi, little effort has been devoted to estimating the ratio of pond size to irrigated crop land based on pond matric and its hydrological conditions. Knowledge of this ra...

  4. AB5-type Hydrogen Storage Alloy Modified with Ti/Zr Used as Anodic Materials in Borohydride Fuel Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lianbang WANG; Chunan MA; Xinbiao MAO; Yuanming SUN; Seijiro SUDA

    2005-01-01

    Fuel cell using borohydride as the fuel has received much attention. AB5-type hydrogen storage alloy used as the anodic material instead of noble metals has been investigated. In order to restrain the generation of hydrogen and enhance the utilization of borohydride, Ti/Zr metal powders has been added into the parent LmNi4.78Mn0.22 (where Lm is La-richened mischmetal) alloy (LNM) by ball milling and heat treatment methods. It is found that the addition of Ti/Zr metal powders lowers the electrochemical catalytic activity of the electrodes, at the same time, restrains the generation of hydrogen and enhances the utilization of the fuel. All the results show that the hydrogen generation rate or the utilization of the fuel is directly relative to the electrochemical catalytic activity or the discharge capability of the electrodes. The utilization of the fuel increases with discharge current density. It is very important to find a balance between the discharge capability and the utilization of the fuel.

  5. Standard guide for evaluation of materials used in extended service of interim spent nuclear fuel dry storage systems

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 Part of the total inventory of commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is stored in dry cask storage systems (DCSS) under licenses granted by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The purpose of this guide is to provide information to assist in supporting the renewal of these licenses, safely and without removal of the SNF from its licensed confinement, for periods beyond those governed by the term of the original license. This guide provides information on materials behavior under conditions that may be important to safety evaluations for the extended service of the renewal period. This guide is written for DCSS containing light water reactor (LWR) fuel that is clad in zirconium alloy material and stored in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), at an independent spent-fuel storage installation (ISFSI). The components of an ISFSI, addressed in this document, include the commercial SNF, canister, cask, and all parts of the storage installation including the ISFSI pad. The language of t...

  6. Effects of the concrete crack on radiation shielding in spent fuel dry storage facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Min

    2007-02-15

    The saturation of South Korea's at-reactor (AR) spent fuel storage pools has created necessity for additional spent fuel storage capacity. The Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Company is planning to construct a MACSTOR-400 composed of reinforced concrete. In concrete structures, cracks occur due to thermal stress, hydration heat, weather, load and other reasons, and shielding performance changes according to the crack width. However, there are no design criteria providing the allowable crack size for shielding. This research presents to estimate the effect of concrete cracking on gamma-ray shielding performance in MACSTOR-400. In order to estimate the crack effect on spent fuel storage facility, this research assume the two cases : crack effect on surface dose rate and crack effect on dose rate in site boundary. For estimating the surface dose rate according to the event by crack, two cases were assumed. One is a 'Normal State,' which is based upon the assumption that crack is formed. The other is a 'Abnormal State,' which assumes that spalling by reinforcement corrosion occurs. Normal state is based on deduction of a correlation between intensity and crack width through experiments. For the experiment, the measuring system is designed and fabricated. With this system, test is carried out and the accuracy is estimated through comparing result of simulation with result of experiment. It is confirmed that result of simulation and experiment has a similar trend with 5% error. The surface dose rate increased logarithmically according to the increase in crack width. According to the results, if the thickness of shield is over 30cm and the crack width is 0.4mm, crack effect is under 10%. If the thickness of wall is 90cm and the crack width is 0.4mm in MACSTOR-400, because it is estimated that surface dose rate exceed the design criteria, the proper measures are demanded. The present results are used to formulate an attenuation equation for gamma

  7. Urban ponds as an aquatic biodiversity resource in modified landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Matthew J; Biggs, Jeremy; Thornhill, Ian; Briers, Robert A; Gledhill, David G; White, James C; Wood, Paul J; Hassall, Christopher

    2017-03-01

    Urbanization is a global process contributing to the loss and fragmentation of natural habitats. Many studies have focused on the biological response of terrestrial taxa and habitats to urbanization. However, little is known regarding the consequences of urbanization on freshwater habitats, especially small lentic systems. In this study, we examined aquatic macro-invertebrate diversity (family and species level) and variation in community composition between 240 urban and 782 nonurban ponds distributed across the United Kingdom. Contrary to predictions, urban ponds supported similar numbers of invertebrate species and families compared to nonurban ponds. Similar gamma diversity was found between the two groups at both family and species taxonomic levels. The biological communities of urban ponds were markedly different to those of nonurban ponds, and the variability in urban pond community composition was greater than that in nonurban ponds, contrary to previous work showing homogenization of communities in urban areas. Positive spatial autocorrelation was recorded for urban and nonurban ponds at 0-50 km (distance between pond study sites) and negative spatial autocorrelation was observed at 100-150 km and was stronger in urban ponds in both cases. Ponds do not follow the same ecological patterns as terrestrial and lotic habitats (reduced taxonomic richness) in urban environments; in contrast, they support high taxonomic richness and contribute significantly to regional faunal diversity. Individual cities are complex structural mosaics which evolve over long periods of time and are managed in diverse ways. This facilitates the development of a wide range of environmental conditions and habitat niches in urban ponds which can promote greater heterogeneity between pond communities at larger scales. Ponds provide an opportunity for managers and environmental regulators to conserve and enhance freshwater biodiversity in urbanized landscapes whilst also facilitating

  8. Used fuel storage monitoring using novel 4He scintillation fast neutron detectors and neutron energy discrimination analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Ryan P.

    With an increasing quantity of spent nuclear fuel being stored at power plants across the United States, the demand exists for a new method of cask monitoring. Certifying these casks for transportation and long-term storage is a unique dilemma: their sealed nature lends added security, but at the cost of requiring non-invasive measurement techniques to verify their contents. This research will design and develop a new method of passively scanning spent fuel casks using 4He scintillation detectors to make this process more accurate. 4He detectors are a relatively new technological development whose full capabilities have not yet been exploited. These detectors take advantage of the high 4He cross section for elastic scattering at fast neutron energies, particularly the resonance around 1 MeV. If one of these elastic scattering interactions occurs within the detector, the 4He nucleus takes energy from the incident neutron, then de-excites by scintillation. Photomultiplier Tubes (PMTs) at either end of the detector tube convert this emitted light into an electrical signal. The goal of this research is to use the neutron spectroscopy features of 4He scintillation detectors to maintain accountability of spent fuel in storage. This project will support spent fuel safeguards and the detection of fissile material, in order to minimize the risk of nuclear proliferation and terrorism.

  9. NDE of copper canisters for long-term storage of spent nuclear fuel from the Swedish nuclear power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepinski, Tadeusz

    2003-07-01

    Sweden has been intensively developing methods for long term storage of spent fuel from the nuclear power plants for twenty-five years. A dedicated research program has been initiated and conducted by the Swedish company SKB (Swedish Nuclear Fuels and Waste Management Co.). After the interim storage SKB plans to encapsulate spent nuclear fuel in copper canisters that will be placed at a deep repository located in bedrock. The canisters filled with fuel rods will be sealed by an electron beam weld. This paper presents three complementary NDE techniques used for assessing the sealing weld in copper canisters, radiography, ultrasound, and eddy current. A powerful X-ray source and a digital detector are used for the radiography. An ultrasonic array system consisting of a phased ultrasonic array and a multi-channel electronics is used for the ultrasonic examination. The array system enables electronic focusing and rapid electronic scanning eliminating the use of a complicated mechanical scanner. A specially designed eddy current probe capable of detecting small voids at the depth up to 4 mm in copper is used for the eddy current inspection. Presently, all the NDE techniques are verified in SKB's Canister Laboratory where full scale canisters are welded and examined.

  10. Evaluation of Storage for Transportation Equipment, Unfueled Convertors, and Fueled Convertors at the INL for the Radioisotope Power Systems Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. G. Johnson; K. L. Lively

    2010-05-01

    This report contains an evaluation of the storage conditions required for several key components and/or systems of the Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Program at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). These components/systems (transportation equipment, i.e., type ‘B’ shipping casks and the radioisotope thermo-electric generator transportation systems (RTGTS), the unfueled convertors, i.e., multi-hundred watt (MHW) and general purpose heat source (GPHS) RTGs, and fueled convertors of several types) are currently stored in several facilities at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) site. For various reasons related to competing missions, inherent growth of the RPS mission at the INL and enhanced efficiency, it is necessary to evaluate their current storage situation and recommend the approach that should be pursued going forward for storage of these vital RPS components and systems. The reasons that drive this evaluation include, but are not limited to the following: 1) conflict with other missions at the INL of higher priority, 2) increasing demands from the INL RPS Program that exceed the physical capacity of the current storage areas and 3) the ability to enhance our current capability to care for our equipment, decrease maintenance costs and increase the readiness posture of the systems.

  11. Numerical Modeling of the Effect of Thawing of Soil in the Area of Placing Tanks for Storage Fuel of Thermal Power Plants and Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polovnikov V.Yu.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the numerical modeling of heat transfer in the area placing of the tank for storage fuel of thermal power plant and boiler with considering the influence of thawing of the soil. We have established that the thawing of the soil in the area of placing of the tank for storage fuel of thermal power plant and boiler have little effect on the change of heat loss.

  12. Thermal Mode of Tanks for Storage Fuel of Thermal Power Plants and Boiler with the Influence of Engineering Facilities in the Area of their Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polovnikov, V. Yu.; Makhsutbek, F. T.; Ozhikenova, Zh. F.

    2016-02-01

    This paper describes the numerical modeling of heat transfer in the area placing of the tank for storage fuel of thermal power plant and boiler with the influence of engineering construction. We have established that the presence of engineering structures in the area of placing of the tank for storage fuel of thermal power plant and boiler have little effect on the change of heat loss.

  13. Thermal Efficiency for Each Zone of a Solar Pond

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BEZ(I)R C(I)CEK Nalan; SAH(I)N SENCAN Arzu

    2011-01-01

    A salt gradient solar pond with a surface area of 3.5×3.5 m2 and a depth of 2m is built.Two collapsible covers are used to reduce thermal energy loss from the surface of the solar pond during the night and to increase the thermal efficiency of the pond solar energy harvesting during daytime.The covers can be rotated between 0 and 180° by a controlled electric motor and has insulation and reflection properties.The thermal efficiency for each solar pond zone is investigated theoretically and experimentally.A salt gradient solar pond (SGSP) can store a portion of solar radiation as thermal energy for longterm use.Long-term energy storage in a solar pond is important for many applications,i.e.greenhouse heating or heating in buildings.%A salt gradient solar pond with a surface area of 3.5×3.5 m2 and a depth of 2m is built. Two collapsible covers are used to reduce thermal energy loss from the surface of the solar pond during the night and to increase the thermal efficiency of the pond solar energy harvesting during daytime. The covers can be rotated between 0 and 180° by a controlled electric motor and has insulation and reflection properties. The thermal efficiency for each solar pond zone is investigated theoretically and experimentally.

  14. 78 FR 56775 - Waste Confidence-Continued Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... generated in light-water nuclear power reactors. It also covers mixed oxide (MOX) fuel,\\4\\ since the MOX... (see Section 2.1.1.3 of the DGEIS). \\4\\ Mixed oxide fuel (often called MOX fuel) is a type of...

  15. Evaluation of Aluminum-Boron Carbide Neutron Absorbing Materials for Interim Storage of Used Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lumin [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Science; Wierschke, Jonathan Brett [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Science

    2015-04-08

    The objective of this work was to understand the corrosion behavior of Boral® and Bortec® neutron absorbers over long-term deployment in a used nuclear fuel dry cask storage environment. Corrosion effects were accelerated by flowing humidified argon through an autoclave at temperatures up to 570°C. Test results show little corrosion of the aluminum matrix but that boron is leaching out of the samples. Initial tests performed at 400 and 570°C were hampered by reduced flow caused by the rapid build-up of solid deposits in the outlet lines. Analysis of the deposits by XRD shows that the deposits are comprised of boron trioxide and sassolite (H3BO3). The collection of boron- containing compounds in the outlet lines indicated that boron was being released from the samples. Observation of the exposed samples using SEM and optical microscopy show the growth of new phases in the samples. These phases were most prominent in Bortec® samples exposed at 570°C. Samples of Boral® exposed at 570°C showed minimal new phase formation but showed nearly the complete loss of boron carbide particles. Boron carbide loss was also significant in Boral samples at 400°C. However, at 400°C phases similar to those found in Bortec® were observed. The rapid loss of the boron carbide particles in the Boral® is suspected to inhibit the formation of the new secondary phases. However, Material samples in an actual dry cask environment would be exposed to temperatures closer to 300°C and less water than the lowest test. The results from this study conclude that at the temperature and humidity levels present in a dry cask environment, corrosion and boron leaching will have no effect on the performance of Boral® and Bortec® to maintain criticality control.

  16. Technical Basis for Peak Reactivity Burnup Credit for BWR Spent Nuclear Fuel in Storage and Transportation Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, William BJ J [ORNL; Ade, Brian J [ORNL; Bowman, Stephen M [ORNL; Gauld, Ian C [ORNL; Ilas, Germina [ORNL; Mertyurek, Ugur [ORNL; Radulescu, Georgeta [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission have initiated a multiyear project to investigate application of burnup credit for boiling-water reactor (BWR) fuel in storage and transportation casks. This project includes two phases. The first phase (1) investigates applicability of peak reactivity methods currently used in spent fuel pools (SFPs) to storage and transportation systems and (2) evaluates validation of both reactivity (keff) calculations and burnup credit nuclide concentrations within these methods. The second phase will focus on extending burnup credit beyond peak reactivity. This paper documents the first phase, including an analysis of lattice design parameters and depletion effects, as well as both validation components. Initial efforts related to extended burnup credit are discussed in a companion paper. Peak reactivity analyses have been used in criticality analyses for licensing of BWR fuel in SFPs over the last 20 years. These analyses typically combine credit for the gadolinium burnable absorber present in the fuel with a modest amount of burnup credit. Gadolinium burnable absorbers are used in BWR assemblies to control core reactivity. The burnable absorber significantly reduces assembly reactivity at beginning of life, potentially leading to significant increases in assembly reactivity for burnups less than 15–20 GWd/MTU. The reactivity of each fuel lattice is dependent on gadolinium loading. The number of gadolinium-bearing fuel pins lowers initial lattice reactivity, but it has a small impact on the burnup and reactivity of the peak. The gadolinium concentration in each pin has a small impact on initial lattice reactivity but a significant effect on the reactivity of the peak and the burnup at which the peak occurs. The importance of the lattice parameters and depletion conditions are primarily determined by their impact on the gadolinium depletion. Criticality code validation for BWR burnup

  17. An analysis of harmful factors to storage stability of the reduced metallic fuel produced by the advanced spent fuel management process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, J. S.; You, G. S.; Cho, I. J.; Kook, D. H.; Lee, J. C.; Seo, G. S.; Lee, E. P.; Seo, H. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    This study was performed for the selection of alloying elements to make the metallic fuel alloys having a good stability to oxidation. Harmful factors on oxidation were also analyzed. Several basic properties such as microstructure, immiscibility, thermal and fission product effects were surveyed. The oxidation properties of metal uranium and uranium alloys were also studied. The results from this study are applicable to the selection of the alloying elements to stabilize the reduced uranium metal in the 2nd year research in phase 2, and also do an important role to increase the storage temperature. 29 refs., 37 figs., 5 tabs. (Author)

  18. A quasi-Delphi study on technological barriers to the uptake of hydrogen as a fuel for transport applications-Production, storage and fuel cell drivetrain considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, David; Anghel, Alexandra T.; Huijsmans, Joep; Vuille, François

    The introduction of hydrogen in transport, particularly using fuel cell vehicles, faces a number of technical and non-technical hurdles. However, their relative importance is unclear, as are the levels of concern accorded them within the expert community conducting research and development within this area. To understand what issues are considered by experts working in the field to have significant potential to slow down or prevent the introduction of hydrogen technology in transport, a study was undertaken, primarily during 2007. Three key technology areas within hydrogen transport were selected - hydrogen storage, fuel cell drivetrains, and small-scale hydrogen production - and interviews with selected experts conducted. Forty-nine experts from 34 organisations within the fuel cell, automotive, industrial gas and other related industries participated, in addition to some key academic and government figures. The survey was conducted in China, Japan, North America and Europe, and analysed using conventional mathematical techniques to provide weighted and averaged rankings of issues viewed as important by the experts. It became clear both from the interviews and the subsequent analysis that while a primary concern in China was fundamental technical performance, in the other regions cost and policy were rated more highly. Although a few individual experts identified possible technical showstoppers, the overall message was that pre-commercial hydrogen fuel cell vehicles could realistically be on the road in tens of thousands within 5 years, and that full commercialisation could take place within 10-15 years, without the need for radical technical breakthroughs. Perhaps surprisingly, the performance of hydrogen storage technologies was not viewed as a showstopper, though cost was seen as a significant challenge. Overall, however, coherent policy development was more frequently identified as a major issue to address.

  19. Application of Framework for Integrating Safety, Security and Safeguards (3Ss) into the Design Of Used Nuclear Fuel Storage Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badwan, Faris M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Demuth, Scott F [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-01-06

    Department of Energy’s Office of Nuclear Energy, Fuel Cycle Research and Development develops options to the current commercial fuel cycle management strategy to enable the safe, secure, economic, and sustainable expansion of nuclear energy while minimizing proliferation risks by conducting research and development focused on used nuclear fuel recycling and waste management to meet U.S. needs. Used nuclear fuel is currently stored onsite in either wet pools or in dry storage systems, with disposal envisioned in interim storage facility and, ultimately, in a deep-mined geologic repository. The safe management and disposition of used nuclear fuel and/or nuclear waste is a fundamental aspect of any nuclear fuel cycle. Integrating safety, security, and safeguards (3Ss) fully in the early stages of the design process for a new nuclear facility has the potential to effectively minimize safety, proliferation, and security risks. The 3Ss integration framework could become the new national and international norm and the standard process for designing future nuclear facilities. The purpose of this report is to develop a framework for integrating the safety, security and safeguards concept into the design of Used Nuclear Fuel Storage Facility (UNFSF). The primary focus is on integration of safeguards and security into the UNFSF based on the existing Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approach to addressing the safety/security interface (10 CFR 73.58 and Regulatory Guide 5.73) for nuclear power plants. The methodology used for adaptation of the NRC safety/security interface will be used as the basis for development of the safeguards /security interface and later will be used as the basis for development of safety and safeguards interface. Then this will complete the integration cycle of safety, security, and safeguards. The overall methodology for integration of 3Ss will be proposed, but only the integration of safeguards and security will be applied to the design of the

  20. Surface modification of a proton exchange membrane and hydrogen storage in a metal hydride for fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Lisa

    promising option. Effective hydrogen storage methods must be used as sources of available hydrogen. One possibility is to use hydrogen stored in a solid chemical compound such as magnesium hydride. The kinetics of hydrogen release from the hydrolysis of magnesium hydride with 2 wt% acetic acid was examined. The hydrogen produced was supplied to a fuel cell and the amount of hydrogen consumed by the fuel cell was determined. Carbon nanotubes also can play a role in energy sources and as components in fuel cells. VUV photo-oxidized single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) paper was grafted with polyacrylic acid and analyzed using XPS.

  1. Fast stack activation procedure and effective long-term storage for high-performance polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Seung Yong; Seo, Dong-Jun; Kim, Myeong-Ri; Seo, Min Ho; Hwang, Sun-Mi; Jung, Yong-Min; Kim, Beom-Jun; Yoon, Young-Gi; Han, Byungchan; Kim, Tae-Young

    2016-10-01

    Time-saving stack activation and effective long-term storage are one of most important issues that must be resolved for the commercialization of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Herein, we developed the cost-effective stack activation method to finish the whole activation within 30 min and the long-term storage method by using humidified N2 without any significant decrease in cell's performance for 30 days. Specifically, the pre-activation step with the direct injection of DI water into the stack and storage at 65 or 80 °C for 2 h increases the distinctive phase separation between the hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions in Nafion membrane, which significantly reduces the total activation time within 30 min. Additionally, the long-term storage with humidified N2 has no effect on the Pt oxidation and drying of Nafion membrane for 30 days due to its exergonic reaction in the cell. As a result, the high water content in Nafion membrane and the decrease of Pt oxidation are the critical factors that have a strong influence on the activation and long-term storage for high-performance PEMFC.

  2. Determination of the steam volume fraction in the event of loss of cooling of the spent fuel storage pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sledkov, R. M.; Galkin, I. Yu.; Stepanov, O. E.; Strebnev, N. A.

    2017-01-01

    When one solves engineering problems related to the cooling of fuel assemblies (FAs) in a spent fuel storage pool (SFSP) and the assessment of nuclear safety of FA storage in an SFSP in the initial event of loss of SFSP cooling, it is essential to determine the coolant density and, consequently, steam volume fractions φ in bundles of fuel elements at a pressure of 0.1-0.5 MPa. Such formulas for calculating φ that remain valid in a wide range of operating parameters and geometric shapes of channels and take the conditions of loss of SFSP cooling into account are currently almost lacking. The results of systematization and analysis of the available formulas for φ are reported in the present study. The calculated values were compared with the experimental data obtained in the process of simulating the conditions of FA cooling in an SFSP in the event of loss of its cooling. Six formulas for calculating the steam volume fraction, which were used in this comparison, were chosen from a total of 11 considered relations. As a result, the formulas producing the most accurate values of φ in the conditions of loss of SFSP cooling were selected. In addition, a relation that allows one to perform more accurate calculations of steam volume fractions in the conditions of loss of SFSP cooling was derived based on the Fedorov formula in the two-group approximation.

  3. COBRA-SFS (Spent Fuel Storage): A thermal-hydraulic analysis computer code: Volume 2, User's manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rector, D.R.; Cuta, J.M.; Lombardo, N.J.; Michener, T.E.; Wheeler, C.L.

    1986-11-01

    COBRA-SFS (Spent Fuel Storage) is a general thermal-hydraulic analysis computer code used to predict temperatures and velocities in a wide variety of systems. The code was refined and specialized for spent fuel storage system analyses for the US Department of Energy's Commercial Spent Fuel Management Program. The finite-volume equations governing mass, momentum, and energy conservation are written for an incompressible, single-phase fluid. The flow equations model a wide range of conditions including natural circulation. The energy equations include the effects of solid and fluid conduction, natural convection, and thermal radiation. The COBRA-SFS code is structured to perform both steady-state and transient calculations; however, the transient capability has not yet been validated. This volume contains the input instructions for COBRA-SFS and an auxiliary radiation exchange factor code, RADX-1. It is intended to aid the user in becoming familiar with the capabilities and modeling conventions of the code.

  4. CFD Analysis on the Passive Heat Removal by Helium and Air in the Canister of Spent Fuel Dry Storage System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Do Young; Jeong, Ui Ju; Kim, Sung Joong [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In the current commercial design, the canister of the dry storage system is mainly backfilled with helium gas. Helium gas shows very conductive behavior due to high thermal conductivity and small density change with temperature. However, other gases such as air, argon, or nitrogen are expected to show effective convective behavior. Thus these are also considered as candidates for the backfill gas to provide effective coolability. In this study, to compare the dominant cooling mechanism and effectiveness of cooling between helium gas and air, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis for the canister of spent fuel dry storage system with backfill gas of helium and air is carried out. In this study, CFD simulations for the helium and air backfilled gas for dry storage system canister were carried out using ANSYS FLUENT code. For the comparison work, two backfilled fluids were modeled with same initial and boundary conditions. The observed major difference can be summarized as follows. - The simulation results showed the difference in dominant heat removal mechanism. Conduction for helium, and convection for air considering Reynolds number distribution. - The temperature gradient inside the fuel assembly showed that in case of air, more effective heat mixing occurred compared to helium.

  5. Nickel-based anode with water storage capability to mitigate carbon deposition for direct ethanol solid oxide fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Su, Chao; Ran, Ran; Zhao, Bote; Shao, Zongping; Tade, Moses O; Liu, Shaomin

    2014-06-01

    The potential to use ethanol as a fuel places solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) as a sustainable technology for clean energy delivery because of the renewable features of ethanol versus hydrogen. In this work, we developed a new class of anode catalyst exemplified by Ni+BaZr0.4Ce0.4Y0.2O3 (Ni+BZCY) with a water storage capability to overcome the persistent problem of carbon deposition. Ni+BZCY performed very well in catalytic efficiency, water storage capability and coking resistance tests. A stable and high power output was well maintained with a peak power density of 750 mW cm(-2) at 750 °C. The SOFC with the new robust anode performed for seven days without any sign of performance decay, whereas SOFCs with conventional anodes failed in less than 2 h because of significant carbon deposition. Our findings indicate the potential applications of these water storage cermets as catalysts in hydrocarbon reforming and as anodes for SOFCs that operate directly on hydrocarbons.

  6. Solar ponds: a selected bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-11-01

    This bibliography contains citations on: regular solar ponds; shallow solar ponds; and patents. Certain references are specifically recommended. The data bases searched for the bibliography are listed. (LEW)

  7. Assessment of shielding analysis methods, codes, and data for spent fuel transport/storage applications. [Radiation dose rates from shielded spent fuels and high-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parks, C.V.; Broadhead, B.L.; Hermann, O.W.; Tang, J.S.; Cramer, S.N.; Gauthey, J.C.; Kirk, B.L.; Roussin, R.W.

    1988-07-01

    This report provides a preliminary assessment of the computational tools and existing methods used to obtain radiation dose rates from shielded spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). Particular emphasis is placed on analysis tools and techniques applicable to facilities/equipment designed for the transport or storage of spent nuclear fuel or HLW. Applications to cask transport, storage, and facility handling are considered. The report reviews the analytic techniques for generating appropriate radiation sources, evaluating the radiation transport through the shield, and calculating the dose at a desired point or surface exterior to the shield. Discrete ordinates, Monte Carlo, and point kernel methods for evaluating radiation transport are reviewed, along with existing codes and data that utilize these methods. A literature survey was employed to select a cadre of codes and data libraries to be reviewed. The selection process was based on specific criteria presented in the report. Separate summaries were written for several codes (or family of codes) that provided information on the method of solution, limitations and advantages, availability, data access, ease of use, and known accuracy. For each data library, the summary covers the source of the data, applicability of these data, and known verification efforts. Finally, the report discusses the overall status of spent fuel shielding analysis techniques and attempts to illustrate areas where inaccuracy and/or uncertainty exist. The report notes the advantages and limitations of several analysis procedures and illustrates the importance of using adequate cross-section data sets. Additional work is recommended to enable final selection/validation of analysis tools that will best meet the US Department of Energy's requirements for use in developing a viable HLW management system. 188 refs., 16 figs., 27 tabs.

  8. Nuclear Industry Input to the Development of Concepts for the Consolidated Storage of Used Nuclear Fuel - 13411

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Chris; Thomas, Ivan; McNiven, Steven [EnergySolutions Federal EPC., 2345 Stevens Drive, Richland, WA, 99354 (United States); Lanthrum, Gary [NAC International, 3930 East Jones Bridge Road, Norcross, GA, 30092 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    EnergySolutions and its team partners, NAC International, Exelon Nuclear Partners, Talisman International, TerranearPMC, Booz Allen Hamilton and Sargent and Lundy, have carried out a study to develop concepts for a Consolidated Storage Facility (CSF) for the USA's stocks of commercial Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF), and the packaging and transport provisions required to move the UNF to the CSF. The UNF is currently stored at all 65 operating nuclear reactor sites in the US, and at 10 shutdown sites. The study was funded by the US Department of Energy and followed the recommendations of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future (BRC), one of which was that the US should make prompt efforts to develop one or more consolidated storage facilities for commercial UNF. The study showed that viable schemes can be devised to move all UNF and store it at a CSF, but that a range of schemes is required to accommodate the present widely varying UNF storage arrangements. Although most UNF that is currently stored at operating reactor sites is in water-filled pools, a significant amount is now dry stored in concrete casks. At the shutdown sites, the UNF is dry stored at all but two of the ten sites. Various types of UNF dry storage configurations are used at the operating sites and shutdown sites that include vertical storage casks that are also licensed for transportation, vertical casks that are licensed for storage only, and horizontally orientated storage modules. The shutdown sites have limited to nonexistent UNF handling infrastructure and several no longer have railroad connections, complicating UNF handling and transport off the site. However four methods were identified that will satisfactorily retrieve the UNF canisters within the storage casks and transport them to the CSF. The study showed that all of the issues associated with the transportation and storage of UNF from all sites in the US can be accommodated by adopting a staged approach to the

  9. Study on disposal method of graphite blocks and storage of spent fuel for modular gas-cooled reactor. Joint research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumita, Junya; Sawa, Kazuhiro; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Tsuchie, Yasuo; Urakami, Masao [Japan Atomic Power Co., Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-02-01

    This report describes the result of study on disposal method of graphite blocks in future block-type reactor. Present study was carried out within a framework of joint research, ''Research of Modular High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (No. 3)'', between Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and the Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPCO), in 2000. In this study, activities in fuel and reflector graphite blocks were evaluated and were compared with the disposal limits defined as low-level of radioactive waste. As a result, it was found that the activity for only C-14 was higher than disposal limits for the low-level of radioactive waste and that the amount of air in the graphite is important to evaluate precisely of C-14 activity. In addition, spent fuels can be stored in air-cooled condition at least after two years cooling in the storage pool. (author)

  10. Storage Free Smart Energy Management for Frequency Control in a Diesel-PV-Fuel Cell-Based Hybrid AC Microgrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhar, P C; Mishra, S

    2016-08-01

    This paper proposes a novel, smart energy management scheme for a microgrid, consisting of a diesel generator and power electronic converter interfaced renewable energy-based generators, such as photovoltaic (PV) and fuel cell, for frequency regulation without any storage. In the proposed strategy, output of the PV is controlled in coordination with other generators using neurofuzzy controller, either only for transient frequency regulation or for both transient and steady-state frequency regulation, depending on the load demand, thereby eliminating the huge storage requirements. The option of demand response control is also explored along with the generation control. For accurate and quick tracking of maximum power point and its associated reserve power from the PV generator, this paper also proposes a novel adaptive-predictor-corrector-based tracking mechanism.

  11. Best Available Techniques (BAT) in solid biomass fuel processing, handling, storage and production of pellets from biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindberg, J.P.; Tana, J. [AaF-Industri Ab, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-09-15

    With the increasing use of biomass fuels the varieties of sources for biomass have expanded to almost all possible combustible matter with biological origin. The increasing scale in solid biomass fuel production and utilization at the combustion plants of the wide variety of biomass fuels have contributed to littering, dust, odor and noise emissions of the production chain. The report aims to provide information for operators, environmental consultants and competent environmental authorities on what is considered BAT, as defined in the IPPC directive (2008/1/EC), in biomass processing and handling as well as the production of pellets from biomass. The project gives a brief description of commonly used solid biomass fuels and the processes, handling and storage of these biomasses in the Nordic countries covering processes from production site to the point of use. Environmental emissions, sources of waste and other relevant environmental aspects from commonly used processes, included raw material and energy use, chemical use and emissions to soil are also included in the report. (Author)

  12. 76 FR 2243 - List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: NUHOMS ® HD System Revision 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... Federal Regulations is sold by the Superintendent of Documents. #0;Prices of new books are listed in the... Combustion Engineering 16x16 class fuel assemblies as authorized contents; reduce the minimum off-normal... Engineering 16x16 class fuel assemblies as authorized contents; reduce the minimum off-normal...

  13. 75 FR 36449 - Yankee Atomic Electric Co.; Yankee Atomic Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation; Issuance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... Transportation, Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington...-MPC, Certificate of Compliance (CoC) No. 1025, to store spent nuclear fuel under a general license in... Nuclear Power Station, located at Rowe, Massachusetts. YAEC stores spent fuel in fifteen NAC-MPC casks...

  14. Safety aspects of long-term dry interim storage of type-B spent fuel and HLW transport casks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, D.; Probst, U.; Voelzke, H.; Droste, B.; Roedel, R. [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Based on the German decision to minimise transports of spent fuel casks between nuclear power plants, reprocessing plants and central storage facilities several on-site storage facilities have been licensed till the end of 2003. Because of the large amount of type-B transport casks which are going to be used for long-term interim storage the question of time limited type-B license maintenance during the storage period of up to 40 years has been discussed under different aspects. This paper describes present technical aspects of the discussion. A main aspect of transport cask qualification for interim storage is the long-term behaviour of the metallic seal lid system. Concerning this results from current experimental long-term tests with metallic ''Helicoflex''-seals in which pool water is enclosed are presented. The test series has been performed by the Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM) on behalf of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) since 2001. Finally, the paper presents a German concept for an authorities' and technical experts' exchange of experience, know-how and state of the art referring to cask dispatch in nuclear facilities. BAM has taken over a central role in this so-called ''co-ordinating institution for cask dispatching information'' (''KOBAF'') which contains an online data base and a technical working group meeting twice a year. The goal is to keep comparable technical standards for all nuclear sites and storage facilities which are going to load and dispatch casks of the same or similar types under the responsibility of different German state governments for the next decades.

  15. Material Storage for Cassava Based Fuel Ethanol Production%木薯燃料乙醇的原料储藏

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅永刚; 张丙龙

    2012-01-01

    Cassava accumulates during harvest period which is unsuitable for the requirement of continuous production of fuel ethanol manufacturing enterprises. Therefore, the storage of cassava material is necessary. The efficient solutions of this problem are safe material water maintenance, suitable storage container, scientific storage method, and proper trouble shooting method which ensure the long storage of cassava.%木薯收获期集中,不适应车用燃料乙醇企业的连续生产要求,因此进行木薯原料的储藏十分必要。安全的原料储藏水分、符合要求的仓储设施、科学合理的储藏方法、及时正确的问题防治保证了木薯燃料乙醇原料的长期储藏,从而有效解决了“原料集中供应”和“企业连续生产”之间的矛盾。

  16. Reforming fossil fuel use : the merits, costs and risks of carbon dioxide capture and storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen, Kay J.

    2007-01-01

    The sense of urgency in achieving large reductions in anthropogenic CO2 emissions has increased the interest in carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS). CCS can be defined as the separation and capture of CO2 produced at large stationary sources, followed by transport and storage in geological

  17. Reforming fossil fuel use : the merits, costs and risks of carbon dioxide capture and storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen, Kay J.

    2007-01-01

    The sense of urgency in achieving large reductions in anthropogenic CO2 emissions has increased the interest in carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS). CCS can be defined as the separation and capture of CO2 produced at large stationary sources, followed by transport and storage in geological rese

  18. Influence of physical properties of solid biomass fuels on the design and cost of storage installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Fernández, Roberto; Pizarro García, Consuelo; Gutiérrez Lavín, Antonio; Bueno de Las Heras, Julio L; Pis, José Juan

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this work consists on determining biomass fuels properties and studying their relation with fixed and variable costs of stores and handling systems. To do that, dimensions (length and diameter), bulk density, particle density and durability of several brands and batches of wood pellets and briquettes were tested, according to international standards. Obtained results were compared with those in literature. Bulk density tests were applied for several other biomass fuels too, and later used to determinate which ones of all the biomass-fuels tested are economically more profitable for a typical transport/store system made of a screw conveyor and a concrete bunker silo.

  19. Could Blobs Fuel Storage-Based Convergence between HPC and Big Data?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matri, Pierre; Alforov, Yevhen; Brandon, Alvaro; Kuhn, Michael; Carns, Philip; Ludwig, Thomas

    2017-09-05

    The increasingly growing data sets processed on HPC platforms raise major challenges for the underlying storage layer. A promising alternative to POSIX-IO- compliant file systems are simpler blobs (binary large objects), or object storage systems. Such systems offer lower overhead and better performance at the cost of largely unused features such as file hierarchies or permissions. Similarly, blobs are increasingly considered for replacing distributed file systems for big data analytics or as a base for storage abstractions such as key-value stores or time-series databases. This growing interest in such object storage on HPC and big data platforms raises the question: Are blobs the right level of abstraction to enable storage-based convergence between HPC and Big Data? In this paper we study the impact of blob-based storage for real-world applications on HPC and cloud environments. The results show that blobbased storage convergence is possible, leading to a significant performance improvement on both platforms

  20. 76 FR 29280 - Diablo Canyon Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation; Notice of Docketing for Amendment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ...) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model, b. Remove the requirement for 100% fuel failure coincident with 100... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Introduction The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC or Commission)...

  1. Analysis of stationary fuel cell dynamic ramping capabilities and ultra capacitor energy storage using high resolution demand data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meacham, James R.; Jabbari, Faryar; Brouwer, Jacob; Mauzey, Josh L.; Samuelsen, G. Scott

    Current high temperature fuel cell (HTFC) systems used for stationary power applications (in the 200-300 kW size range) have very limited dynamic load following capability or are simply base load devices. Considering the economics of existing electric utility rate structures, there is little incentive to increase HTFC ramping capability beyond 1 kWs -1 (0.4% s -1). However, in order to ease concerns about grid instabilities from utility companies and increase market adoption, HTFC systems will have to increase their ramping abilities, and will likely have to incorporate electrical energy storage (EES). Because batteries have low power densities and limited lifetimes in highly cyclic applications, ultra capacitors may be the EES medium of choice. The current analyses show that, because ultra capacitors have a very low energy storage density, their integration with HTFC systems may not be feasible unless the fuel cell has a ramp rate approaching 10 kWs -1 (4% s -1) when using a worst-case design analysis. This requirement for fast dynamic load response characteristics can be reduced to 1 kWs -1 by utilizing high resolution demand data to properly size ultra capacitor systems and through demand management techniques that reduce load volatility.

  2. Protection of spent aluminum-clad research reactor fuels during extended wet storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Stela M.C.; Correa, Olandir V.; Souza, Jose A.; Ramanathan, Lalgudi V., E-mail: lalgudi@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Antunes, Renato A. [Universidade Federal do ABC (CECS/UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia, Modelagem e Ciencias Sociais; Ramanathan, Lalgudi V. [Electrocell Ind. Com. Equip. Elet. LTDA (CIETEC), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Aluminum-clad spent nuclear fuel from research reactors (RR) is stored in light water filled pools or basins worldwide. Many incidences of pitting corrosion of the fuel cladding has been reported and attributed to synergism in the effect of certain water parameters. Protection of spent Al-clad RR fuel with a conversion coating was proposed in 2008. Preliminary results revealed increased pitting corrosion resistance of cerium oxide coated aluminum alloys AA 1050 and AA 6061, used as RR fuel plate cladding. Further development of conversion coatings for Al alloys was carried out and this paper presents: (a) the preparation and characterization of hydrotalcite (HTC) coatings; (b) the results of laboratory tests in which the corrosion behavior of coated Al alloys in NaCl solutions was determined; (c) the results of field tests in which un-coated, boehmite coated, HTC coated and cerium modified boehmite / HTC coated AA 1050 and AA 6061 coupons were exposed to the IEA-R1 reactor spent fuel basin for extended periods. In these field tests the coupons coated with HTC from a high temperature (HT) bath and subsequently modified with Ce were the most resistant to pitting corrosion. In laboratory tests also, HT- hydrotalcite + Ce coated specimens were the most corrosion resistant in 0.01 M NaCl. The role of cerium in increasing the corrosion resistance imparted by the different conversion coatings of spent Al-clad RR fuel elements is presented. (author)

  3. Evaluation of Corrosion of Aluminum Based Reactor Fuel Cladding Materials During Dry Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peacock, H.B. Jr.

    1999-10-21

    This report provides an evaluation of the corrosion behavior of aluminum cladding alloys and aluminum-uranium alloys at conditions relevant to dry storage. The details of the corrosion program are described and the results to date are discussed.

  4. Elimination and accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban stormwater wet detention ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Istenič, Daria; Arias, Carlos Alberto; Matamoros, Victor

    2011-01-01

    The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water and sediments of seven wet detention ponds receiving urban stormwater were investigated. The ponds comprised traditional wet detention ponds with a permanent wet volume and a storage volume as well as ponds that were expanded...... concentrations in the sediments integrated the pollutant load over time. Pond systems expanded with sand filters and other technologies to enhance removal of micropollutants consistently had concentrations of PAHs in the effluents below the detection level. © IWA Publishing 2011....

  5. Energy storage and grid for electricity, gas, fuel and heat. A system-wide approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benesch, Wolfgang A. [STEAG Energy Services GmbH, Essen (Germany); Kakaras, Emmanouil [Mitsubishi Hitachi Power Systems Europe GmbH, Duisburg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Renewable energies are asked for more and more worldwide. Even though they cannot generate electricity 8760 h/a year. This can be accomplished by flexible conventional power stations as well as storage systems. Especially the storage systems have to be developed technical wise and especially economic wise. An example of an integrated approach is the methanol production with a coal fired power plant. An overview showing the technical features as well as the strategic opportunities of such kind of approach is given.

  6. BWR spent fuel transport and storage system for KKL: TN trademark 52L, TN trademark 97L, TN trademark 24 BHL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sicard, D.; Verdier, A. [COGEMA Logistics (AREVA Group) (France); Monsigny, P.A. [NOK/KKL (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    The LEIBSTADT (KKL) nuclear power plant in Switzerland has opted to ship spent fuel to a central facility called ZWILAG for interim storage. In the mid-nineties, COGEMA LOGISTICS was contracted by KKL for the supply of the TN trademark a52L and TN trademark 97L transport and storage casks for BWR fuel types. In 2003, KKL also ordered from COGEMA LOGISTICS the supply of six TNae24 BHL transport and storage casks. This paper shows how all the three cask designs have responded to the KKL needs to ship and store BWR spent fuel. In addition, it highlights the already significant operational feedback of the TN trademark 52L and TN trademark 97L casks by the KKL and ZWILAG operators.

  7. Analysis of dust samples collected from spent nuclear fuel interim storage containers at Hope Creek, Delaware, and Diablo Canyon, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Charles R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Enos, David George [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Potentially corrosive environments may form on the surface of spent nuclear fuel dry storage canisters by deliquescence of deposited dusts. To assess this, samples of dust were collected from in-service dry storage canisters at two near-marine sites, the Hope Creek and Diablo Canyon storage installations, and have been characterized with respect to mineralogy, chemistry, and texture. At both sites, terrestrially-derived silicate minerals, including quartz, feldspars, micas, and clays, comprise the largest fraction of the dust. Also significant at both sites were particles of iron and iron-chromium metal and oxides generated by the manufacturing process. Soluble salt phases were minor component of the Hope Creek dusts, and were compositionally similar to inland salt aerosols, rich in calcium, sulfate, and nitrate. At Diablo Canyon, however, sea-salt aerosols, occurring as aggregates of NaCl and Mg-sulfate, were a major component of the dust samples. The seasalt aerosols commonly occurred as hollow spheres, which may have formed by evaporation of suspended aerosol seawater droplets, possibly while rising through the heated annulus between the canister and the overpack. The differences in salt composition and abundance for the two sites are attributed to differences in proximity to the open ocean and wave action. The Diablo Canyon facility is on the shores of the Pacific Ocean, while the Hope Creek facility is on the shores of the Delaware River, several miles from the open ocean.

  8. Analysis of dust samples collected from spent nuclear fuel interim storage containers at Hope Creek, Delaware, and Diablo Canyon, California.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Charles R.; Enos, David George

    2014-07-01

    Potentially corrosive environments may form on the surface of spent nuclear fuel dry storage canisters by deliquescence of deposited dusts. To assess this, samples of dust were collected from in-service dry storage canisters at two near-marine sites, the Hope Creek and Diablo Canyon storage installations, and have been characterized with respect to mineralogy, chemistry, and texture. At both sites, terrestrially-derived silicate minerals, including quartz, feldspars, micas, and clays, comprise the largest fraction of the dust. Also significant at both sites were particles of iron and iron-chromium metal and oxides generated by the manufacturing process. Soluble salt phases were minor component of the Hope Creek dusts, and were compositionally similar to inland salt aerosols, rich in calcium, sulfate, and nitrate. At Diablo Canyon, however, sea-salt aerosols, occurring as aggregates of NaCl and Mg-sulfate, were a major component of the dust samples. The seasalt aerosols commonly occurred as hollow spheres, which may have formed by evaporation of suspended aerosol seawater droplets, possibly while rising through the heated annulus between the canister and the overpack. The differences in salt composition and abundance for the two sites are attributed to differences in proximity to the open ocean and wave action. The Diablo Canyon facility is on the shores of the Pacific Ocean, while the Hope Creek facility is on the shores of the Delaware River, several miles from the open ocean.

  9. A storage module evaluation for the hydrogen fuel cell on toy design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pa, P.S.; Lin, S.H.

    2011-01-15

    One aim of modern science is the search for non-polluting methods of energy production. The fuel cell is one of the most important power sources devised in the 21st century and has all the characteristics for environmental protection. It is pollution-free and highly efficient, converting the chemical energy of hydrogen gas directly into electricity. This study concerns the development of the 'hydrogen fuel cell generates electricity module' and demonstrates this in the design and use of a toy. A systematized analysis of power operation using existing fuel cell products and a setup of the module was carried out. The Taguchi method was used to arrive at the best parameter combination between fuel cell and toy. An assessment was made of the arrangement of a non-pressurized single fuel cell that best suit the requirement for use in the toy. It is hoped this can be applied on a larger scale to provide non-polluting power for many applications.

  10. Potential health and safety impacts from distribution and storage of alcohol fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, S.E.; Gasper, J.R.

    1980-06-01

    This assessment includes three major sections. Section 1 is a synopsis of literature on the health and safety aspects of neat alcohols, alcohol-gasoline blends, and typical gasoline. Section 2 identifies the toxic properties of each fuel type and describes existing standards and regulations and suggests provisions for establishing others. Section 3 analyzes the major safety and health risks that would result from the increased use of each type of alcohol fuel. Potential accidents are described and their probable impacts on occupational and public populations are determined. An attempt was made to distill the important health and safety issues and to define gaps in our knowledge regarding alcohol fuels to highlight the further research needed to circumvent potential helth and safety problems.

  11. A study of thermal, structural and shielding safety analysis for dry storage of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, S. H. [Kyungpook Nationl Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-03-15

    As a replaced method for MRS, the dry storage has been intensively developed by the advanced countries of nuclear power technology. Currently, the domestic technology for the dry storage is also under development. In the present study, the developed technical standards for USNRC and its operation are summarized. Futhermore, the SAR for VECTRA's NUHOMES satisfied with DOE and NRC's requirements is inversely analyzed and combined with both USNRC's regulatory guide and LLNL's SARS. In the safety analysis of a dry storage, the principal design criteria which identifies the structural and mechanical safety criteria is investigated. Based on the design criteria, hypothetical accident analysis as well as off-normal operation analysis are investigated.

  12. Inspection and Gamma-Ray Dose Rate Measurements of the Annulus of the VSC-17 Concrete Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. L. Winston

    2007-09-01

    The air cooling annulus of the Ventilated Storage Cask (VSC)-17 spent fuel storage cask was inspected using a Toshiba 7 mm (1/4”) CCD video camera. The dose rates observed in the annular space were measured to provide a reference for the activity to which the camera(s) being tested were being exposed. No gross degradation, pitting, or general corrosion was observed.

  13. Status of nuclear fuel reprocessing, spent fuel storage, and high-level waste disposal. Overview and summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varanini, E.E. III; Maullin, R.L.

    1978-01-11

    With regard to the specific question embodied in California's nuclear statutes about the demonstrated and approved permanent terminal disposal of nuclear waste (assuming that the reprocessing question is now most for legislative purposes), the finding of the Energy Commission is that such a technology has not been demonstrated and that it is even questionable to assume that one will be demonstrated before the mid 1980s. Following upon this finding and addressing the broader question of continued implementation of the policy expressed by the nuclear fuel cycle statutes, the evidence indicates that it is not prudent to continue siting nuclear powerplants based on an optimistic assumption that waste management technologies to handle nuclear waste will be developed and scientifically demonstrated. The California Legislature has questioned that optimistic assumption by placing the burden of proof on the developers of a demonstrated, scientifically tested process for the permanent and terminal disposal of nuclear wastes. Such a process does not exist at this time. There are many who are optimistic that the development of such a technology will become a reality in the near future. This overview and the supporting report indicate that this optimism is not warranted. Weapons proliferation and degradation of the biosphere by radioactive waste have proved to be unanticipated, difficult and possibly intractable problems in spite of an overriding confidence that nuclear technology would not present such problems. On the basis of the evidence received by this Commission, there are substantial scientific gaps which preclude proceeding on the basis of faith that all the attendant risks and issues will be resolved.

  14. Probabilistic risk assessment of aircraft impact on a spent nuclear fuel dry storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almomani, Belal, E-mail: balmomani@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sanghoon, E-mail: shlee1222@kmu.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Keimyung University, Dalgubeol-daero 1095, Dalseo-gu, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Dongchan, E-mail: dongchan.jang@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hyun Gook, E-mail: kangh6@rpi.edu [Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • A new risk assessment frame is proposed for aircraft impact into an interim dry storage. • It uses event tree analysis, response-structural analysis, consequence analysis, and Monte Carlo simulation. • A case study of the proposed procedure is presented to illustrate the methodology’s application. - Abstract: This paper proposes a systematic risk evaluation framework for one of the most significant impact events on an interim dry storage facility, an aircraft crash, by using a probabilistic approach. A realistic case study that includes a specific cask model and selected impact conditions is performed to demonstrate the practical applicability of the proposed framework. An event tree analysis of an occurred aircraft crash that defines a set of impact conditions and storage cask response is constructed. The Monte-Carlo simulation is employed for the probabilistic approach in consideration of sources of uncertainty associated with the impact loads onto the internal storage casks. The parameters for representing uncertainties that are managed probabilistically include the aircraft impact velocity, the compressive strength of the reinforced concrete wall, the missile shape factor, and the facility wall thickness. Failure probabilities of the impacted wall and a single storage cask under direct mechanical impact load caused by the aircraft crash are estimated. A finite element analysis is applied to simulate the postulated direct engine impact load onto the cask body, and a source term analysis for associated releases of radioactive materials as well as an off-site consequence analysis are performed. Finally, conditional risk contribution calculations are represented by an event tree model. Case study results indicate that no severe risk is presented, as the radiological consequences do not exceed regulatory exposure limits to the public. This risk model can be used with any other representative detailed parameters and reference design concepts for

  15. Fuel-efficiency of hydrogen and heat storage technologies for integration of fluctuating renewable energy sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology and results of analysing the use of different energy storage technologies in the task of integration of fluctuating renewable energy sources (RES) into the electricity supply. The analysis is done on the complete electricity system including renewable energy...... sources as well as power plants and CHP (Combined heat and power production). Emphasis is put on the need for ancillary services. Devices to store electricity as well as devices to store heat can be used to help the integration of fluctuating sources. Electricity storage technologies can be used...

  16. Optimal design considering structural efficiency of compressed natural gas fuel storage vessels for automobiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Myung-Chang KANG; Hyung Woo LEE; Chul KIM

    2011-01-01

    The shape and thickness of the dome were investigated with the aim of optimizing the type Ⅱ CNG storage vessels by using a finite element analysis technique. The thickness of the liners and reinforcing materials was optimized based on the requirement of the cylinder and dome parts. In addition, the shape of the dome, which is most suitable for type Ⅱ CNG storage vessels, was proposed by a process of review and analysis of various existing shapes, and the minimum thickness was established in this sequence: metal liners, composite materials and dome parts. Therefore, the new proposed shape products give a mass reduction of 4.8 kg(5. 1%)

  17. Box Energy: rental of energy-storage systems and alternative fuel technologies for vehicles; Box-energy. Rental of energy. Storage systems and alternative-fuel. Technologies for vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bautz, R.

    2004-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of study on the rental of energy-storage systems and alternative fuel technologies for vehicles. Experience gained in the area of battery-rental is discussed. The aims of the 'Box Energy' project are described, as is its market environment. The 'Box Energy' concept is described and possible customers and partners listed. Logistics aspects are discussed. The organisation of 'Box Energy' is described and the concept's chances and weaknesses are discussed. The launching of a pilot project in Switzerland is discussed. Recommendations on further work to be done are made.

  18. Hydrogen Storage Experiments for an Undergraduate Laboratory Course--Clean Energy: Hydrogen/Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Alla; Andrews, Lisa; Khot, Ameya; Rubin, Lea; Young, Jun; Allston, Thomas D.; Takacs, Gerald A.

    2015-01-01

    Global interest in both renewable energies and reduction in emission levels has placed increasing attention on hydrogen-based fuel cells that avoid harm to the environment by releasing only water as a byproduct. Therefore, there is a critical need for education and workforce development in clean energy technologies. A new undergraduate laboratory…

  19. Determining Fuel Losses in Storage Tanks Based on Factual Saturation Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitin, R. E.; Tryascin, R. A.

    2016-10-01

    At present, evaluation of fuel evaporative losses is based on a number of indirect parameters. Accuracy of such methods leaves much to be desired. The paper presents a method developed following the author's laboratory tests. An effective operation range of pressure vent valves in various tanks is provided, as well as low A92 gasoline losses for horizontal steel tanks at all operation temperatures.

  20. 75 FR 12315 - Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Diablo Canyon Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ... fuel and associated radioactive materials resulting from the operation of the Diablo Canyon Nuclear... Ninth Circuit in San Luis Obispo Mothers for Peace v. NRC, 493 F.3d 1016 (9th Cir. 2006), and a related... SFSC Loading, Unloading, and Preparation Program,'' to clarify the maintenance of the required...

  1. Hydrogen Storage Experiments for an Undergraduate Laboratory Course--Clean Energy: Hydrogen/Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Alla; Andrews, Lisa; Khot, Ameya; Rubin, Lea; Young, Jun; Allston, Thomas D.; Takacs, Gerald A.

    2015-01-01

    Global interest in both renewable energies and reduction in emission levels has placed increasing attention on hydrogen-based fuel cells that avoid harm to the environment by releasing only water as a byproduct. Therefore, there is a critical need for education and workforce development in clean energy technologies. A new undergraduate laboratory…

  2. Environmental Assessment. Increase Fuel Storage Capacity, Dover Air Force Base, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    in 1998. Grasshopper Sparrow 2 Observed on Bergold Farm 16 July 2003 and in 1998. Great blue heron 2 Observed many times foraging along both Pipe...ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES Increase Fuels Capacity Dover Air Force Base, Delaware 28 calculations were derived from the same EPA software utilized to

  3. 78 FR 37927 - List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: MAGNASTOR® System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... Federal Regulations is sold by the Superintendent of Documents. #0;Prices of new books are listed in the... revises authorized contents to include: pressurized water reactor (PWR) damaged fuel contained in damaged.... Tanious, Office of Federal and State Materials and Environmental Management Programs, U.S....

  4. Evaluation of the preservation value and location of farm ponds in Yunlin County, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Wen-Wen; Lee, Soen-Han; Wu, Chen-Fa

    2013-12-31

    Farm ponds in Yunlin County first appeared in 1,622 and have played roles in habitation, production, the ecology, culture, and disaster reduction. Farm ponds largely disappeared with the development of urban areas and the industrial sector; thus, effective preservation of the remaining ponds is critical. The criteria to evaluate the preservation value of farm ponds is established by expert questionnaires which follow the Fuzzy Delphi Method (FDM) and Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP), and GIS, which are integrated into a spatial analysis of the remaining 481 farm ponds in Yunlin County. The results show that 28 ponds should be preserved to continue the cultural interaction between farm ponds and settlements; 36 ponds should preserved to connect coasts and streams, which are important habitats for birds; 30 ponds should be preserved to increase storage capacity, recharge groundwater, and reduce land subsidence; four ponds should be preserved as Feng-Shui ponds in front of temples in settlements or as recreation areas for local citizens; and four farms should be preserved (high priority) in agricultural production areas to support irrigation. In short, FAHP and GIS are integrated to evaluate the number and locations of farm ponds that provide water for habitation, production, the ecology, culture, and disaster reduction and maintain the overall preservation value in Yunlin County. The results could inform governmental departments when considering conservation policies.

  5. Evaluation of the Preservation Value and Location of Farm Ponds in Yunlin County, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Wen Chou

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Farm ponds in Yunlin County first appeared in 1,622 and have played roles in habitation, production, the ecology, culture, and disaster reduction. Farm ponds largely disappeared with the development of urban areas and the industrial sector; thus, effective preservation of the remaining ponds is critical. The criteria to evaluate the preservation value of farm ponds is established by expert questionnaires which follow the Fuzzy Delphi Method (FDM and Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP, and GIS, which are integrated into a spatial analysis of the remaining 481 farm ponds in Yunlin County. The results show that 28 ponds should be preserved to continue the cultural interaction between farm ponds and settlements; 36 ponds should preserved to connect coasts and streams, which are important habitats for birds; 30 ponds should be preserved to increase storage capacity, recharge groundwater, and reduce land subsidence; four ponds should be preserved as Feng-Shui ponds in front of temples in settlements or as recreation areas for local citizens; and four farms should be preserved (high priority in agricultural production areas to support irrigation. In short, FAHP and GIS are integrated to evaluate the number and locations of farm ponds that provide water for habitation, production, the ecology, culture, and disaster reduction and maintain the overall preservation value in Yunlin County. The results could inform governmental departments when considering conservation policies.

  6. Study of the oxidation of the matrix of irradiated fuel under conditions of dry storage; Estudio de la oxidacion de la matriz del combustible irradiado en condiciones de almacenamiento en seco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elorrieta, J. M.; Bonales, L. J.; Rodriguez, N.; Gutierrez, L.; Cobos, J.; Baonza, V. G.

    2014-07-01

    Spain holds the open cycle for the management of spent fuel of nuclear power stations. The solution adopted, given the urgent need for greater storage capacity, has been the construction of a centralized temporary storage, with an expected 100-year life, which will be stored from 2017 both spent fuel from nuclear power plants and other waste high activity of NPPs. (Author)

  7. Slow heat release - solid fuel stove with acetat-trihydrate heat storage sodium; Slow heat release - Braendeovn med salthydratvarmelager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zielke, U.; Bjerrum, M.; Noergaard, T. (Teknologisk Institut, Aarhus (Denmark))

    2012-07-01

    Of the 700,000 solid fuel stoves in Denmark, 600,000 are installed in permanent residences, and 100,000 are installed in summer cottages. Recent examinations have shown that in the heating season, these stoves contribute with a not negligible share of air pollution in the cities. The reason is often inexpedient firing and an inappropriate performance of the stove. In many cases the thermal output of the stove exceeds the heating demand of a modern residence; and the user typically reduces the stove's combustion air supply with the purpose of lowering the temperature of the accommodation space. The result is a sooting combustion followed by undesired and environmentally damaging emissions. In worst case the user fires throughout the night reducing the air to an absolutely minimum. In these situations the fuel smoulders all night, and the stove emits large amounts of undesirable and unhealthy emissions. By constructing the stove with a heat storage that can accumulate the heat from the stove and emit the heat later (when not firing), the problem with the unhealthy ''night firings'' should be eliminated. The project started with a pre-examination regarding suitable materials for a heat storage and a literature study of the subject. By using an OGC material, in this case sodiumacetat-trihydrat, the weight of the stove, in spite of the heat storage, could be held within reasonable frames, since 130 kg PCM can contain the same heat amount as 1,200 kg stone. The great challenge was to compensate for PCM's poor heat conductivities, to distribute the heat in the whole heat storage, making it melt regularly without generating local boiling. This problem was solved by construction measures. The system with sodiumacetat-trihydrat, which melts by 58 deg. C, came to function satisfactorily. 14 hours after the last firing, the temperature of the heat storage was 30 deg. C. The tests with PCM were followed by an extensive emission measuring program

  8. Assessment of degradation concerns for spent fuel, high-level wastes, and transuranic wastes in monitored retrievalbe storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, R.J.; Gilbert, E.R.; Slate, S.C.; Partain, W.L.; Divine, J.R.; Kreid, D.K.

    1984-01-01

    It has been concluded that there are no significant degradation mechanisms that could prevent the design, construction, and safe operation of monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facilities. However, there are some long-term degradation mechanisms that could affect the ability to maintain or readily retrieve spent fuel (SF), high-level wastes (HLW), and transuranic wastes (TRUW) several decades after emplacement. Although catastrophic failures are not anticipated, long-term degradation mechanisms have been identified that could, under certain conditions, cause failure of the SF cladding and/or failure of TRUW storage containers. Stress rupture limits for Zircaloy-clad SF in MRS range from 300 to 440/sup 0/C, based on limited data. Additional tests on irradiated Zircaloy (3- to 5-year duration) are needed to narrow this uncertainty. Cladding defect sizes could increase in air as a result of fuel density decreases due to oxidation. Oxidation tests (3- to 5-year duration) on SF are also needed to verify oxidation rates in air and to determine temperatures below which monitoring of an inert cover gas would not be required. Few, if any, changes in the physical state of HLW glass or canisters or their performance would occur under projected MRS conditions. The major uncertainty for HLW is in the heat transfer through cracked glass and glass devitrification above 500/sup 0/C. Additional study of TRUW is required. Some fraction of present TRUW containers would probably fail within the first 100 years of MRS, and some TRUW would be highly degraded upon retrieval, even in unfailed containers. One possible solution is the design of a 100-year container. 93 references, 28 figures, 17 tables.

  9. An Assessment of Alternative Diesel Fuels: Microbiological Contamination and Corrosion Under Storage Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    example, Clados- parium (Hormoconis) resinae grew in 80 mg water per 1 of kerosene and after 4 weeks incubation, the concentration of water increased...common isolate related to aircraft fuel and MIC is the fungus Hormoeonis resinae (Churchill 1963; Hendey 1964; Videla et al. 1993). de Mele et al. (1979...Videla (1996) demonstrated acid-etched traces of fungal mycelia on aluminum surfaces colonized by //. resinae . de Meybaum and de Schiapparelli

  10. Thermal Behavior of a Single Spent Fuel in Water Pool Storage Under Partially Uncovered Condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Woo Ram; Park, Hee Sung; Song, Sub Lee; Lee, Jae Young [Handong Global Univ, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    LOCA in SFP can be led by a partial drain-down or a boil off scenario. In order to predict the response and consequence in such case, exact model on the partially uncovered SFP has to be established. Most studies on accidents in SFP have been done by safety analysis codes such as ATHLET-CD, ASTEC, MAAP, and MELCOR. However, an experimental investigation has not been conducted so far. Schultz et al.(2014) studied experimentally the response of air cooled BWR fuel assembly which is blocked at lower side fluid path. In this study, we experimentally investigated the thermal response of a partially uncovered single nuclear fuel rod (SNFR) in the SFP. The SNFR was 1/4 scaled down in axial length. 1-dimensional numerical analysis model was developed and compared with the result of experiment. An experimental study was conducted for obtaining transient temperature profile data of a modeled single nuclear fuel rod in heating condition under partially uncovered condition. Numerical prediction model was developed also and the prediction result was compared with the experimental result.

  11. Regenerative fuel cell energy storage system for a low earth orbit space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R. E.; Garow, J.; Michaels, K. B.

    1988-01-01

    A study was conducted to define characteristics of a Regenerative Fuel Cell System (RFCS) for low earth orbit Space Station missions. The RFCS's were defined and characterized based on both an alkaline electrolyte fuel cell integrated with an alkaline electrolyte water electrolyzer and an alkaline electrolyte fuel cell integrated with an acid solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) water electrolyzer. The study defined the operating characteristics of the systems including system weight, volume, and efficiency. A maintenance philosophy was defined and the implications of system reliability requirements and modularization were determined. Finally, an Engineering Model System was defined and a program to develop and demonstrate the EMS and pacing technology items that should be developed in parallel with the EMS were identified. The specific weight of an optimized RFCS operating at 140 F was defined as a function of system efficiency for a range of module sizes. An EMS operating at a nominal temperature of 180 F and capable of delivery of 10 kW at an overall efficiency of 55.4 percent is described. A program to develop the EMS is described including a technology development effort for pacing technology items.

  12. Seismic analysis and design of a spent nuclear fuel dry storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kyu-Sup; Jeong, In-Su; Kim, Kap-Sun; Kim, Jong-Soo [KONES Corporation, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Jeong-Hyoun; Kang, Young-Gon; Cho, Chun-Hyung; Lee, Heung-Young [Nuclear Environment Technology Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-11-15

    A comprehensive seismic analysis has been conducted in this paper by using the computer programs, SHAKE and SASSI, for a consolidated dry storage module named MACSTOR/KN-400, which will be constructed in Wolsung CANDU Nuclear Power Plant site. Especially seismic soil-structure interaction effects have been investigated in terms of transfer functions, maximum floor acceleration and floor response spectrum, and finally those effects are to be incorporated in the detailed structure design.

  13. Characterization and Hydrogen Storage of Surface-Modified Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes for Fuel Cell Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuen-Song Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis, identification, and H2 storage of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs have been investigated in the present work. MWCNTs were produced from the catalytic-assembly solvent (benzene-thermal (solvothermal route. Reduction of C6Cl6 with metallic potassium was carried out in the presence of Co/Ni catalyst precursors at 503–623 K for 12 h. XRD patterns indicated that the abstraction of Cl from hexachlorobenzene and the formation of KCl precipitates were involved in the early stage of the synthesis process of MWCNTs. This result offers further explanation for the formation of MWCNT structure and yield using the solvothermal route depending on the Co/Ni catalyst precursors. The diameter of MWCNTs ranged between 30 and 100 nm and the H2 storage capacity of MWCNTs improved when 2.7–3.8 wt% Pd or NaAlH4 were doped. The XANES/EXAFS spectra revealed that the Co/Ni catalyst precursors of the MWCNT synthesis were in metallic form and Pd atoms possessed a Pd–Pd bond distance of 2.78 Å with a coordination number of 9.08. Ti-NaAlH4 or Pd nanoparticles were dispersed on MWCNTs and facilitated to improve the H2 storage capacity significantly with the surface modification process.

  14. 75 FR 39680 - Houston Pipe Line Company LP, Worsham-Steed Gas Storage, L.P., Energy Transfer Fuel, LP, Mid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-12

    ... Storage, L.P., Energy Transfer Fuel, LP, Mid Continent Market Center, L.L.C., Oasis Pipeline, LP (Not... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR10-44-000; Docket No. PR10-46-000; Docket No....

  15. Heat transfer analysis of consolidated dry storage system for CANDU spent fuel considering environmental conditions of Wolsong site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K. H.; Yoon, J. H.; Choi, B. I.; Lee, H. Y. [Korea Hydraulic and Nuclear Power Company, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to perform heat transfer analysis of the MACSTOR/KN-400 dry storage system for CANDU spent fuel in order to predict maximum concrete temperatures and temperature gradients. This module has twice the capacity of the existing MACSTOR-200, which is in operation at Gentilly-2. In the thermal design of the MACSTOR/KN-400, Thermal Insulation Panels(TIP) were introduced to reduce concrete temperatures and temperature gradients in the module caused by the high fuel heat loads. Environmental factors such as solar heat, daily temperature variations and ambient temperatures in summer and winter at Wolsong site and the assumed presence of hot baskets were taken into consideration in the simulations. Two cases were performed for the MACSTOR/KN-400: Off-normal cases in summer and winter. The maximum local concrete temperatures were predicted to be 63 .deg. C for the off-normal case. The temperature gradients in the concrete walls and roof are predicted to be 28C and 25C for off-normal operation in summer, incorporating a 3C uncertainty. In conclusion, this paper shows that the maximum temperature for the module is expected to meet the temperature limitations of ACI 349.

  16. Pond dyes are Culex mosquito oviposition attractants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natali Ortiz Perea

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background British mosquito population distribution, abundance, species composition and potential for mosquito disease transmission are intimately linked to the physical environment. The presence of ponds and water storage can significantly increase the density of particular mosquito species in the garden. Culex pipiens is the mosquito most commonly found in UK gardens and a potential vector of West Nile Virus WNV, although the current risk of transmission is low. However any factors that significantly change the distribution and population of C. pipiens are likely to impact subsequent risk of disease transmission. Pond dyes are used to control algal growth and improve aesthetics of still water reflecting surrounding planting. However, it is well documented that females of some species of mosquito prefer to lay eggs in dark water and/or containers of different colours and we predict that dyed ponds will be attractive to Culex mosquitoes. Methods Black pond dye was used in oviposition choice tests using wild-caught gravid C. pipiens. Larvae from wild-caught C. pipiens were also reared in the pond dye to determine whether it had any impact on survival. An emergence trap caught any adults that emerged from the water. Water butts (80 L were positioned around university glasshouses and woodland and treated with black pond dye or left undyed. Weekly sampling over a six month period through summer and autumn was performed to quantified numbers of larvae and pupae in each treatment and habitat. Results Gravid female Culex mosquitoes preferred to lay eggs in dyed water. This was highly significant in tests conducted under laboratory conditions and in a semi-field choice test. Despite this, survivorship in black dyed water was significantly reduced compared to undyed water. Seasonal analysis of wild larval and pupal numbers in two habitats with and without dye showed no impact of dye but a significant impact of season and habitat. Mosquitoes were more

  17. Standard specification for boron-Based neutron absorbing material systems for use in nuclear spent fuel storage racks

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This specification defines criteria for boron-based neutron absorbing material systems used in racks in a pool environment for storage of nuclear light water reactor (LWR) spent-fuel assemblies or disassembled components to maintain sub-criticality in the storage rack system. 1.2 Boron-based neutron absorbing material systems normally consist of metallic boron or a chemical compound containing boron (for example, boron carbide, B4C) supported by a matrix of aluminum, steel, or other materials. 1.3 In a boron-based absorber, neutron absorption occurs primarily by the boron-10 isotope that is present in natural boron to the extent of 18.3 ± 0.2 % by weight (depending upon the geological origin of the boron). Boron, enriched in boron-10 could also be used. 1.4 The materials systems described herein shall be functional – that is always be capable to maintain a B10 areal density such that subcriticality Keff <0.95 or Keff <0.98 or Keff < 1.0 depending on the design specification for the service...

  18. Concrete Materials with Ultra-High Damage Resistance and Self- Sensing Capacity for Extended Nuclear Fuel Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Mo [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Nakshatrala, Kalyana [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States); William, Kasper [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States); Xi, Yungping [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-02-08

    The objective of this project is to develop a new class of multifunctional concrete materials (MSCs) for extended spent nuclear fuel (SNF) storage systems, which combine ultra-high damage resistance through strain-hardening behavior with distributed multi-dimensional damage self-sensing capacity. The beauty of multifunctional concrete materials is two-fold: First, it serves as a major material component for the SNF pool, dry cask shielding and foundation pad with greatly improved resistance to cracking, reinforcement corrosion, and other common deterioration mechanisms under service conditions, and prevention from fracture failure under extreme events (e.g. impact, earthquake). This will be achieved by designing multiple levels of protection mechanisms into the material (i.e., ultrahigh ductility that provides thousands of times greater fracture energy than concrete and normal fiber reinforced concrete; intrinsic cracking control, electrochemical properties modification, reduced chemical and radionuclide transport properties, and crack-healing properties). Second, it offers capacity for distributed and direct sensing of cracking, strain, and corrosion wherever the material is located. This will be achieved by establishing the changes in electrical properties due to mechanical and electrochemical stimulus. The project will combine nano-, micro- and composite technologies, computational mechanics, durability characterization, and structural health monitoring methods, to realize new MSCs for very long-term (greater than 120 years) SNF storage systems.

  19. Decontamination of nuclear liquid wastes using ion exchange. Case of the treatment of the water of the storage pond of the EDF Bugey 1 nuclear reactor; Decontamination d'effluents nucleaires par echange d'ions. Cas du traitement de l'eau de la piscine d'entreposage du reacteur nucleaire EDF Bugey-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doury-Berthod, M. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Institut National des Sciences et Techniques Nucleaires

    2006-12-15

    The paper explains in detail the works carried out in order to decontaminate before dismantling the water contained in a cooling pond where were stored spent nuclear fuels from the Bugey 1 reactor. The studies included laboratory tests, the design and the operation of pilot and industrial units. The process was based on the use of ion exchange resins on several steps in order to completely fix the contaminating elements, especially cesium, strontium and plutonium.The procedure applied and the detailed results are given. (authors)

  20. SSH2S: Hydrogen storage in complex hydrides for an auxiliary power unit based on high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baricco, Marcello; Bang, Mads; Fichtner, Maximilian; Hauback, Bjorn; Linder, Marc; Luetto, Carlo; Moretto, Pietro; Sgroi, Mauro

    2017-02-01

    The main objective of the SSH2S (Fuel Cell Coupled Solid State Hydrogen Storage Tank) project was to develop a solid state hydrogen storage tank based on complex hydrides and to fully integrate it with a High Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane (HT-PEM) fuel cell stack. A mixed lithium amide/magnesium hydride system was used as the main storage material for the tank, due to its high gravimetric storage capacity and relatively low hydrogen desorption temperature. The mixed lithium amide/magnesium hydride system was coupled with a standard intermetallic compound to take advantage of its capability to release hydrogen at ambient temperature and to ensure a fast start-up of the system. The hydrogen storage tank was designed to feed a 1 kW HT-PEM stack for 2 h to be used for an Auxiliary Power Unit (APU). A full thermal integration was possible thanks to the high operation temperature of the fuel cell and to the relative low temperature (170 °C) for hydrogen release from the mixed lithium amide/magnesium hydride system.

  1. A FRAMEWORK TO DEVELOP FLAW ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA FOR STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY ASSESSMENT OF MULTIPURPOSE CANISTERS FOR EXTENDED STORAGE OF USED NUCLEAR FUEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, P.; Sindelar, R.; Duncan, A.; Adams, T.

    2014-04-07

    A multipurpose canister (MPC) made of austenitic stainless steel is loaded with used nuclear fuel assemblies and is part of the transfer cask system to move the fuel from the spent fuel pool to prepare for storage, and is part of the storage cask system for on-site dry storage. This weld-sealed canister is also expected to be part of the transportation package following storage. The canister may be subject to service-induced degradation especially if exposed to aggressive environments during possible very long-term storage period if the permanent repository is yet to be identified and readied. Stress corrosion cracking may be initiated on the canister surface in the welds or in the heat affected zone because the construction of MPC does not require heat treatment for stress relief. An acceptance criteria methodology is being developed for flaw disposition should the crack-like defects be detected by periodic Inservice Inspection. The external loading cases include thermal accident scenarios and cask drop conditions with the contribution from the welding residual stresses. The determination of acceptable flaw size is based on the procedure to evaluate flaw stability provided by American Petroleum Institute (API) 579 Fitness-for-Service (Second Edition). The material mechanical and fracture properties for base and weld metals and the stress analysis results are obtained from the open literature such as NUREG-1864. Subcritical crack growth from stress corrosion cracking (SCC), and its impact on inspection intervals and acceptance criteria, is not addressed.

  2. Structural analysis of a metal spent-fuel storage cask in an aircraft crash for risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almomani, Belal, E-mail: balmomani@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sanghoon, E-mail: shlee1222@kmu.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Keimyung University, Dalgubeol-daero 1095, Dalseo-gu, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hyun Gook, E-mail: hyungook@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Several engine-applied loads with different locations of impact on the storage cask body were implemented. • Cask structural responses due to the influence of engine impact loadings were analyzed. • Leakage path areas from lid closure openings were numerically calculated. • Release fractions that depend on the generated seal opening areas and fuel damage ratios were estimated. - Abstract: Evaluations of the impact resistance of a dry storage cask under mechanical impact loadings resulting from a large commercial aircraft crash have become an important issue for designers and evaluators, in order to promote interim dry storage activities and to evaluate design safety margins. This study presents a method to evaluate the structural integrity of a generic metal cask subjected to various mechanical loading conditions, which represent aircraft engine impacts, on different locations of the cask body. Thirty representative impact conditions are analyzed to provide a comprehensive evaluation of cask damage response. The applied engine impact load–time functions were carefully re-derived by utilizing CRIEPI’s proposed curve through Riera’s approach for six impact velocities, and applied to five locations on a freestanding cask: lateral impacts on the lower half, center of gravity, and upper half of the cask body, corner impact on the lid closure, and vertical impact on the center of the lid closure. A nonlinear dynamic finite element analysis is performed to evaluate the dynamic response of the cask lid closure system and to calculate the lid gaps. The release fractions from the cask to the environment for each impact condition are preliminarily estimated by referring to a proposed methodology from literature. It is believed that this paper presents a systematic process to connect the mechanical analysis of a cask response at the moment of aircraft engine impact with its radiological consequence analysis.

  3. Kealia Pond - Ungulate Exclusion Fence

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project will contribute to the building of a fence around the Kealia Pond National Wildlife Refuge. Kealia Pond NWR is home to two endangered waterbird species,...

  4. Review Facility Design Drawings M3FT-16LA040105011 - Safeguards and Security by Design for Used Fuel Extended Storage: 1.02.04.01.05 FT – 16LA04010501

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherer, Carolynn P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rauch, Eric Benton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-04-14

    This work package focuses on developing Best Practices for the design of security for, and domestic safeguarding (e.g. MC&A) of, a pilot-scale independent spent/used fuel storage facility consistent with conceptual design efforts in Nuclear Fuels Storage and Transportation (NFST) and Used Fuel Disposal (UFD) campaigns. This is a review of the basic design of the facility to determine a candidate list of accounting and control requirements that could be considered for safeguards and security purposes.

  5. Review Facility Design Drawings M3FT-16LA040105011 - Safeguards and Security by Design for Used Fuel Extended Storage: 1.02.04.01.05 FT – 16LA04010501

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherer, Carolynn P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rauch, Eric Benton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-04-14

    This work package focuses on developing Best Practices for the design of security for, and domestic safeguarding (e.g. MC&A) of, a pilot-scale independent spent/used fuel storage facility consistent with conceptual design efforts in Nuclear Fuels Storage and Transportation (NFST) and Used Fuel Disposal (UFD) campaigns. This is a review of the basic design of the facility to determine a candidate list of accounting and control requirements that could be considered for safeguards and security purposes.

  6. Ageing management program for the Spanish low and intermediate level waste disposal and spent fuel and high-level waste centralised storage facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade C.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The generic design of the centralised spent fuel storage facility was approved by the Spanish Safety Authority in 2006. The planned operational life is 60 years, while the design service life is 100 years. Durability studies and surveillance of the behaviour have been considered from the initial design steps, taking into account the accessibility limitations and temperatures involved. The paper presents an overview of the ageing management program set in support of the Performance Assessment and Safety Review of El Cabril low and intermediate level waste (LILW disposal facility. Based on the experience gained for LILW, ENRESA has developed a preliminary definition of the Ageing Management Plan for the Centralised Interim Storage Facility of spent Fuel and High Level Waste (HLW, which addresses the behaviour of spent fuel, its retrievability, the confinement system and the reinforced concrete structure. It includes tests plans and surveillance design considerations, based on the El Cabril LILW disposal facility.

  7. A Model of Carbon Capture and Storage with Demonstration of Global Warming Potential and Fossil Fuel Resource Use Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suebsiri, Jitsopa

    Increasing greenhouse gas concentration in the atmosphere influences global climate change even though the level of impact is still unclear. Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) is increasingly seen as an important component of broadly based greenhouse gas reduction measures. Although the other greenhouse gases are more potent, the sheer volume of CO 2 makes it dominant in term of its effect in the atmosphere. To understand the implications, CCS activities should be studied from a full life cycle perspective. This thesis outlines the successful achievement of the objectives of this study in conducting life cycle assessment (LCA), reviewing the carbon dioxide implications only, combining two energy systems, coal-fired electrical generations and CO2 used for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). LCA is the primary approach used in this study to create a tool for CCS environmental evaluation. The Boundary Dam Power Station (BDPS) and the Weyburn-Midale CO 2 EOR Project in Saskatchewan, Canada, are studied and adopted as case scenarios to find the potential for effective application of CCS in both energy systems. This study demonstrates two levels of retrofitting of the BDPS, retrofit of unit 3 or retrofit of all units, combined with three options for CO 2 geological storage: deep saline aquifer, CO2 EOR, and a combination of deep saline aquifer storage and CO2 EOR. Energy output is considered the product of combining these two energy resources (coal and oil). Gigajoules (GJ) are used as the fundamental unit of measurement in comparing the combined energy types. The application of this tool effectively demonstrates the results of application of a CCS system concerning global warming potential (GWP) and fossil fuel resource use efficiency. Other environmental impacts could be analyzed with this tool as well. In addition, the results demonstrate that the GWP reduction is directly related to resource use efficiency. This means the lower the GWP of CCS, the lower resource use

  8. Criticality Safety Evaluation Report CSER-96-019 for Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Processing and Storage Facilities Multi Canister Overpack (MCO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KESSLER, S.F.

    1999-10-20

    This criticality evaluation is for Spent N Reactor fuel unloaded from the existing canisters in both KE and KW Basins, and loaded into multiple canister overpack (MCO) containers with specially built baskets containing a maximum of either 54 Mark IV or 48 Mark IA fuel assemblies. The criticality evaluations include loading baskets into the cask-MCO, operation at the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility,a nd storage in the Canister Storage Building. Many conservatisms have been built into this analysis, the primary one being the selection of the K{sub eff} = 0.95 criticality safety limit. This revision incorporates the analyses for the sampling/weld station in the Canister Storage Building and additional analysis of the MCO during the draining at CVDF. Additional discussion of the scrap basket model was added to show why the addition of copper divider plates was not included in the models.

  9. Storage facilities of spent nuclear fuel in dry for Mexican nuclear facilities; Instalaciones de almacenamiento de combustible nuclear gastado en seco para instalaciones nucleares mexicanas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmeron V, J. A.; Camargo C, R.; Nunez C, A.; Mendoza F, J. E.; Sanchez J, J., E-mail: juan.salmeron@cnsns.gob.mx [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Jose Ma. Barragan No. 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    In this article the relevant aspects of the spent fuel storage and the questions that should be taken in consideration for the possible future facilities of this type in the country are approached. A brief description is proposed about the characteristics of the storage systems in dry, the incorporate regulations to the present Nuclear Regulator Standard, the planning process of an installation, besides the approaches considered once resolved the use of these systems; as the modifications to the system, the authorization periods for the storage, the type of materials to store and the consequent environmental impact to their installation. At the present time the Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias (CNSNS) considers the possible generation of two authorization types for these facilities: Specific, directed to establish a new nuclear installation with the authorization of receiving, to transfer and to possess spent fuel and other materials for their storage; and General, focused to those holders that have an operation license of a reactor that allows them the storage of the nuclear fuel and other materials that they possess. Both authorizations should be valued according to the necessities that are presented. In general, this installation type represents a viable solution for the administration of the spent fuel and other materials that require of a temporary solution previous to its final disposal. Its use in the nuclear industry has been increased in the last years demonstrating to be appropriate and feasible without having a significant impact to the health, public safety and the environment. Mexico has two main nuclear facilities, the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde of the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) and the facilities of the TRIGA Reactor of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) that will require in a future to use this type of disposition installation of the spent fuel and generated wastes. (Author)

  10. Actinide-only and full burn-up credit in criticality assessment of RBMK-1500 spent nuclear fuel storage cask using axial burn-up profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkauskas, V., E-mail: vytenis.barkauskas@ftmc.lt; Plukiene, R., E-mail: rita.plukiene@ftmc.lt; Plukis, A., E-mail: arturas.plukis@ftmc.lt

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • RBMK-1500 fuel burn-up impact on k{sub eff} in the SNF cask was calculated using SCALE 6.1. • Positive end effect was noticed at certain burn-up for the RBMK-1500 spent nuclear fuel. • The non-uniform uranium depletion is responsible for the end effect in RBMK-1500 SNF. • k{sub eff} in the SNF cask does not exceed a value of 0.95 which is set in the safety requirements. - Abstract: Safe long-term storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is one of the main issues in the field of nuclear safety. Burn-up credit application in criticality analysis of SNF reduces conservatism of usually used fresh fuel assumption and implies a positive economic impact for the SNF storage. Criticality calculations of spent nuclear fuel in the CONSTOR® RBMK-1500/M2 cask were performed using pre-generated ORIGEN-ARP spent nuclear fuel composition libraries, and the results of the RBMK-1500 burn-up credit impact on the effective neutron multiplication factor (k{sub eff}) have been obtained and are presented in the paper. SCALE 6.1 code package with the STARBUCKS burn-up credit evaluation tool was used for modeling. Pre-generated ARP (Automatic Rapid Processing) crosssection libraries based on ENDF/B-VII cross section library were used for fast burn-up inventory modeling. Different conditions in the SNF cask were modeled: 2.0% and 2.8% initial enrichment fuel of various burn-up and water density inside cavities of the SNF cask. The fuel composition for the criticality analysis was chosen taking into account main actinides and most important fission products used in burn-up calculations. A significant positive end effect is noticed from 15 GWd/tU burn-up for 2.8% enrichment fuel and from 9 GWd/tU for 2.0% enrichment fuel applying the actinide-only approach. The obtained results may be applied in further evaluations of the RBMK type reactor SNF storage as well as help to optimize the SNF storage volume inside the CONSTOR® RBMK-1500/M2 cask without compromising criticality

  11. A Well Established System For The Dry Storage Of Spent Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skrzyppek, Juergen; Kim, Josef Du-III [SMART Power Company, Essen (Germany)

    2015-05-15

    The German company GNS Gesellschaft fur Nuklear-Service mbH today looks back on more than 30 years of operational experience with dual-purpose casks. Following customer demands, GNS developed two different cask types for SNF the CASTOR and the CONSTOR cask type. While the CASTOR type is optimized for high thermal loads which allows loading after extremely short cooling times and/or high burn-up of the SNF the CONSTOR type is cost optimized for the cost-efficient storage of large quantities of cooler SNF. By now almost 1,300 GNS-casks are in operation worldwide. In Germany alone, more than 1000 CASTOR casks are stored with individual storage periods of up to 30 years. Taking into account the additional casks that have to be manufactured, loaded and stored during the final years of the German Nuclear Phase-Out, there will be 2000 casks by GNS in operation worldwide. The presentation will give an overview over several national and international projects and show the bandwidth of customized solutions by GNS.

  12. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF SOLAR POND PERFORMANCE IN KARABUK ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet ÖZKAYMAK

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The solar energy, one of the alternative energy sources, can be economically and cheaply and efficiently collected with solar ponds. In this study, varying concentrations of sodium carbonate dilution in the solar pond in terms of heat storage performance has been examined. Experiment apparatus has been located Zonguldak Karaelmas University Karabük Technical Education Faculty. Five experiments with different density levels have been done and the changes in the temperature and density have been presented graphically within the solar pond. The experiments show that the temperature difference between the bottom and top level of solar pond is max. 21 °C and the highest temperature in lower convective zone (LCZ has been measured as 49 °C.

  13. Primeval procreative comet pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, B C

    1988-01-01

    It is speculated that life originated in a small, shallow body of water containing concentrated prebiotic organic feedstocks, inorganic compounds, and catalytic agents in a diversity of microenvironments. This pond was formed by an improbable, fortuitous soft-landing of a cometary nucleus, or fragment thereof, on the surface of a suitable planet with an atmosphere in an appropriate thermodynamic state, such as Earth.

  14. A model to estimate hydrological processes and water budget in an irrigation farm pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Ouyang; Joel O. Paz; Gary Feng; John J. Read; Ardeshir Adeli; Johnie N. Jenkins

    2017-01-01

    With increased interest to conserve groundwater resources without reducing crop yield potential, more on-farm water storage ponds have been constructed in recent years in USA and around the world. However, the hydrological processes, water budget, and environmental benefits and consequences of these ponds have not yet been fully quantified. This study developed a...

  15. Radiolytic and Thermal Processes Relevant to Dry Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Theodore E. Madey

    2001-10-01

    Characterize the effects of temperature and radiation processes on the interactions of H20 with oxide surfaces. Our experiments focused on the fundamental interaction of H20 molecules with surfaces of U02. We characterized the surface chemistry of adsorbed H2O using thermal desorption methods and radiotracer methods, as well as x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and low energy ion scattering (LEIS). In parallel with these measurements of thermal effects, we examined the effects of secondary electrons and high-energy photons on hydrogen and oxygen generation and, and how this related to corrosion of spent nuclear fuel. These studies concentrated on neutral and ionic (cation and anion) desorption products of low-energy electron irradiation of water-covered UO2.

  16. Investigation on the spontaneous combustion of refuse-derived fuels during storage using a chemiluminescence technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matunaga, Atsushi; Yasuhara, Akio; Shimizu, Yoshitada; Wakakura, Masahide; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2008-12-01

    Refuse-derived fuel (RDF), a high-caloric material, is used by various combustion processes, such as power plants, as alternative fuel. Several explosion accidents, however, possibly initiated by the spontaneous combustion of stored RDF, have been reported in Japan. Therefore the spontaneous combustion of RDF prepared from domestic garbage was investigated using chemiluminescence. RDF samples were heated either under air or under nitrogen for 1, 2, or 4 h at 120 or 140 degrees C and then cooled by an air or nitrogen stream. All RDF samples exhibited chemiluminescence. In air-treated RDF samples (heated and cooled by air), chemiluminescence after ageing was shown to be slightly lower than before ageing, whereas in nitrogen-treated samples (both heated and cooled by nitrogen) chemiluminescence decreased significantly after ageing. When nitrogen was replaced with air during aging, however, a sudden increase of chemiluminescence was observed. On the other hand, when cooling was done with air, chemiluminescence increased. Higher chemiluminescence was also observed during high-temperature treatment. Further experiments on cellulose, one of the major components of domestic garbage, exhibited similar chemiluminescence patterns to those of RDF when treated by the same methods as those used for RDF ageing. Chemiluminescence from cellulose increased significantly when the atmospheric gas was changed from nitrogen to air, suggesting that oxygen in the air promoted the formation of hydroperoxide from cellulose. Therefore, it is hypothesized that cellulose plays an important role in the formation of chemiluminescence from RDF. The formation of chemiluminescence indicated that radicals are formed from RDF by oxidation or thermal degradation at room or atmospheric temperatures and may subsequently lead to spontaneous combustion.

  17. Energy Storage in a fuel cell with bipolar membranes burning acid and hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emren, A. T.; Holmstrom, V. J. M.

    1983-04-01

    A battery is described, in which bipolar membranes are used to split water into acid and hydroxide. The liquids may be stored for an indefinite time, and energy may be recovered at room temperature. It is shown that the liquids are able to store about 400 kJ/litre, which roughly corresponds to pumping water up to an altitude of 40 km. Bipolar membranes of low area resistance have been made and tested. The area resistance appears to have been 2-3 ohm sq cm. A battery containing 7 unit cells has been constructed and tested. The maximum output voltage has been 1.8 V. The cost for enrgy storage is estimated to range from $0.1 to 2.5 per kWh depending on the mode of operation.

  18. Performance of electric forklift with low-temperature polymer exchange membrane fuel cell power module and metal hydride hydrogen storage extension tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lototskyy, Mykhaylo V.; Tolj, Ivan; Parsons, Adrian; Smith, Fahmida; Sita, Cordellia; Linkov, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    We present test results of a commercial 3-tonne electric forklift (STILL) equipped with a commercial fuel cell power module (Plug Power) and a MH hydrogen storage tank (HySA Systems and TF Design). The tests included: (i) performance evaluation of "hybrid" hydrogen storage system during refuelling at low (pressures; (ii) comparison of the forklift performances during heavy-duty operation when changing the powering in the series: standard battery - fuel cell power module (alone) - power module with integrated MH tank; and (iii) performance tests of the forklift during its operation under working conditions. It was found that (a) the forklift with power module and MH tank can achieve 83% of maximum hydrogen storage capacity during 6 min refuelling (for full capacity 12-15 min); (b) heavy-duty operation of the forklift is characterised by 25% increase in energy consumption, and during system operation more uniform power distribution occurs when operating in the fuel cell powering mode with MH, in comparison to the battery powering mode; (c) use of the fully refuelled fuel cell power module with the MH extension tank allows for uninterrupted operation for 3 h 6 min and 7 h 15 min, for heavy- and light-duty operation, respectively.

  19. Final environmental impact statement for the construction and operation of an independent spent fuel storage installation to store the Three Mile Island Unit 2 spent fuel at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Docket Number 72-20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) contains an assessment of the potential environmental impacts of the construction and operation of an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) for the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) fuel debris at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental laboratory (INEEL). US Department of Energy-Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) is proposing to design, construct, and operate at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). The TMI-2 fuel debris would be removed from wet storage, transported to the ISFSI, and placed in storage modules on a concrete basemat. As part of its overall spent nuclear fuel (SNF) management program, the US DOE has prepared a final programmatic environmental impact statement (EIS) that provides an overview of the spent fuel management proposed for INEEL, including the construction and operation of the TMI-2 ISFSI. In addition, DOE-ID has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) to describe the environmental impacts associated with the stabilization of the storage pool and the construction/operation of the ISFSI at the ICPP. As provided in NRC`s NEPA procedures, a FEIS of another Federal agency may be adopted in whole or in part in accordance with the procedures outlined in 40 CFR 1506.3 of the regulations of the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ). Under 40 CFR 1506.3(b), if the actions covered by the original EIS and the proposed action are substantially the same, the agency adopting another agency`s statement is not required to recirculate it except as a final statement. The NRC has determined that its proposed action is substantially the same as actions considered in DOE`s environmental documents referenced above and, therefore, has elected to adopt the DOE documents as the NRC FEIS.

  20. Temperature, thermal efficiency, and gradient performance from two seawater-SZ solar ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collado, F.; Lowrey, P. (San Diego State Univ., CA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents 10 months of experience with two seawater-SZ (Storage Zone) solar ponds operated as a source of warm seawater which could have been used in an adjacent mariculture facility. Observations and extensive temperature, gradient and efficiency data are presented. This work demonstrated operation of and heat extraction from seawater-SZ solar ponds over a much longer interval than in previous work. It confirmed that seawater-SZ solar ponds can consistently give useful temperature elevations. A few phenomena not characteristic of conventional solar ponds were identified and are discussed.

  1. Hazard categorization for 300 area N reactor fuel fabrication and storage facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brehm, J.R., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-12

    A final hazard categorization has been prepared for the 300 Area Fuel Supply Shutdown (FSS) facility in accordance with DOE-STD-1027-92, ''Hazard Categorization and Accident Analysis Techniques for Compliance with DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports'' (DOE 1992). Prior to using the hazard category methodology, hazard classifications were prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) controlled manual, WHC-CM-4-46, ''Safety Analysis Manual'', Chapter 4.0, ''Hazard Classification.'' A hazard classification (Huang 1995) was previously prepared for the FSS in accordance with WHC-CM-4-46. The analysis lead to the conclusion that the FSS should be declared a Nuclear facility with a Moderate Hazard Class rating. The analysis and results contained in the hazard classification can be used to provide additional information to support other safety analysis documentation. Also, the hazard classification provides analyses of the toxicological hazards inherent with the FSS inventory: whereas, a hazard categorization prepared in accordance with DOE-STD-1027-92, considers only the radiological component of the inventory.

  2. Seismic Structure-Soil-Structure Interaction Analysis of a Consolidated Dry Storage Module for CANDU Spent Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Young Gon; Yoon, Jeong Hyoun; Kim, Sung Hwan; Yang, Ke Hyung; Lee, Heung Young; Cho, Chun Hyung [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Kyu Sup; Jeong, In Su [KONES Corporation, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    The MACSTOR/KN-400 module has been developed as an effective alternative to the existing stand alone concrete canister for dry storage of CANDU spent fuel. The structure is a concrete monolith of 21.67 m long and 12.66 m wide and has a height equal to 7.518 m including the bottom slab. Inside the concrete module consists of 40 storage cylinders accommodating ten 60-bundle dry storage baskets, which are suspended from the top slab and eventually restrained at 10 cm above the bottom slab with horizontal seismic restraints. The main cooling process of the MACSTOR/KN-400 module shall be by air convection through air inlets and outlets. The civil design parameters, with respect to meteorological and seismic loads applied to the module are identical to those specified for the Wolsung CANDU 3 and 4 plants, except for local site characteristics required for soilstructure interaction (SSI) analysis. It is required for the structural integrity to fulfill the licensing requirements. As per USNRC SRP Section 3.7.2, it shall be reviewed how to consider the phenomenon of coupling of the dynamic response of adjacent structures through the soil, which is referred to as structure-soil-structure interaction (SSSI). The presence of closely spaced multiple structural foundations creates coupling between the foundations of individual structures . Some observations of the actual seismic response of structures have indicated that SSSI effects do exist, but they are generally secondary for the overall structural response motions. SSSI effects, however, may be important for a relatively small structure which is to be close to a relatively large structure, while they may be generally neglected for overall structural response of a large massive structure, such as nuclear power plant. As such the scope of the present paper is to carry out a seismic SSSI analysis in case of the MACSTOR/KN- 400 module, in order to investigate whether or not SSSI effect shall be included in the overall seismic

  3. An integrated approach to risk-based remediation of a former bulk fuel storage facility adjacent a marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, L.; Hers, I. [Golder Associates Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    An integrated approach to risk-based remediation of a former bulk fuel storage facility adjacent to a marine environment was discussed. The presentation provided an introduction and illustration to the site location and history, located close to Skagway, Alaska and northwestern British Columbia. The site investigation and conceptual model were also presented. The remedial approach was also described with reference to a risk-based action approach, remedial objectives, soil vapour extraction (SVE)-bioventing, and air sparging-biosparging. The objectives were to minimize potential exposure to aquatic receptors by minimizing non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL) mobility and dissolved transport of petroleum hydrocarbons. Groundwater modeling to assess the attenuation rate and to determine remedial targets was also discussed. Model validation and results of groundwater modeling as well as remediation system details and performance were then provided. It was determined that significant attenuation is occurring and that effective mass removal and concentrations have been decreasing over time. It was demonstrated that risk-based remedial goals and hydrogeology can change with land use/development. tabs., figs.

  4. Maine Yankee: Making the Transition from an Operating Plant to an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, W.; McGough, M. S.

    2002-02-26

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the challenges faced by Maine Yankee Atomic Power Company in making the transition from an operating nuclear power plant to an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI). Maine Yankee (MY) is a 900-megawatt Combustion Engineering pressurized water reactor whose architect engineer was Stone & Webster. Maine Yankee was put into commercial operation on December 28, 1972. It is located on an 820-acre site, on the shores of the Back River in Wiscasset, Maine about 40 miles northeast of Portland, Maine. During its operating life, it generated about 1.2 billion kilowatts of power, providing 25% of Maine's electric power needs and serving additional customers in New England. Maine Yankee's lifetime capacity factor was about 67% and it employed more than 450 people. The decision was made to shutdown Maine Yankee in August of 1997, based on economic reasons. Once this decision was made planning began on how to accomplish safe and cost effective decommissioning of the plant by 2004 while being responsive to the community and employees.

  5. Re-energizing energy supply: Electrolytically-produced hydrogen as a flexible energy storage medium and fuel for road transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emonts, Bernd; Schiebahn, Sebastian; Görner, Klaus; Lindenberger, Dietmar; Markewitz, Peter; Merten, Frank; Stolten, Detlef

    2017-02-01

    ;Energiewende;, which roughly translates as the transformation of the German energy sector in accordance with the imperatives of climate change, may soon become a byword for the corresponding processes most other developed countries are at various stages of undergoing. Germany's notable progress in this area offers valuable insights that other states can draw on in implementing their own transitions. The German state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) is making its own contribution to achieving the Energiewende's ambitious objectives: in addition to funding an array of 'clean and green' projects, the Virtual Institute Power to Gas and Heat was established as a consortium of seven scientific and technical organizations whose aim is to inscribe a future, renewable-based German energy system with adequate flexibility. Thus, it is tasked with conceiving of and evaluating suitable energy path options. This paper outlines one of the most promising of these pathways, which is predicated on the use of electrolytically-produced hydrogen as an energy storage medium, as well as the replacement of hydrocarbon-based fuel for most road vehicles. We describe and evaluate this path and place it in a systemic context, outlining a case study from which other countries and federated jurisdictions therein may draw inspiration.

  6. Formate: an Energy Storage and Transport Bridge between Carbon Dioxide and a Formate Fuel Cell in a Single Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Tracy; Purohit, Krutarth; Nguyen, Christopher; Biggs, Brenna; Mayoral, Salvador; Haan, John L

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate the first device to our knowledge that uses a solar panel to power the electrochemical reduction of dissolved carbon dioxide (carbonate) into formate that is then used in the same device to operate a direct formate fuel cell (DFFC). The electrochemical reduction of carbonate is carried out on a Sn electrode in a reservoir that maintains a constant carbon balance between carbonate and formate. The electron-rich formate species is converted by the DFFC into electrical energy through electron release. The product of DFFC operation is the electron-deficient carbonate species that diffuses back to the reservoir bulk. It is possible to continuously charge the device using alternative energy (e.g., solar) to convert carbonate to formate for on-demand use in the DFFC; the intermittent nature of alternative energy makes this an attractive design. In this work, we demonstrate a proof-of-concept device that performs reduction of carbonate, storage of formate, and operation of a DFFC.

  7. 军队油料储运高等教育60年%Sixty-year higher education of storage and transportation of army fuel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒲家宁

    2012-01-01

    记述了1952年军队油料储运高等教育从无到有、艰苦创业、突地成长的创建经历以及随后的发展情况,介绍了军队油料储运高等教育在储存、运输、加注3个基本领域大发展的历史,描述了学科建设和科学研究的兴起、发展和取得的成就.总体上,军事斗争准备的深入,牵引了军队油料储运教育的发展;学科建设的推进,促进了军队油料储运教育水平的攀升;科学研究的崛起,为学科建设提供了强有力的支持.最后指出,军队油料储运高等教育应为军事斗争后勤准备和全面建设现代后勤服务,在为部队培养输送人才的同时,推进学科建设.%This paper summarizes the establishment history of higher education for storage and transportation of army feel from scratch, hardworking and enterprising, and the subsequent development situation, introduces its development history of higher education in storage and transportation of army fuel in three basic fields of fuel storage, transportation and filling, and describes the establishment, development and achievements of the construction and science research of the discipline. In general the author considers that the deep preparation to the military struggle has driven the development of higher education in storage and transportation of army fuel; the advancement of discipline construction has promoted the improvement of higher education levels in storage and transportation of army fuel and the improvement of science and research has offered a strong support to the discipline's construction. The paper finally pointes out that the higher education in storage and transportation of army fuel should serve the logistical preparation to the military struggle and comprehensive construction of modern logistics, and should not only train talents for army, but also promote discipline construction.

  8. Ultrasonic Guided Wave Technology for Noninvasive Assessment of Corrosion-induced Damage in Piping for Pollution Prevention in DOD Fuel Storage Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    1  1.4  IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES .............................................................................. 2  2.0  INTRODUCTION ...3 2.0 INTRODUCTION The Oil Pollution Act (OPA) of 1990 sets up operational and maintenance requirements for DoD and civilian fuel/oil storage and... magnetostrictive metal strips to the pipe surface by room-temperature cured epoxy. This was preceded by the removal of protective coating from the pipe

  9. Spent Fuel Working Group report on inventory and storage of the Department`s spent nuclear fuel and other reactor irradiated nuclear materials and their environmental, safety and health vulnerabilities. Volume 3, Site team reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    A self assessment was conducted of those Hanford facilities that are utilized to store Reactor Irradiated Nuclear Material, (RINM). The objective of the assessment is to identify the Hanford inventories of RINM and the ES & H concerns associated with such storage. The assessment was performed as proscribed by the Project Plan issued by the DOE Spent Fuel Working Group. The Project Plan is the plan of execution intended to complete the Secretary`s request for information relevant to the inventories and vulnerabilities of DOE storage of spent nuclear fuel. The Hanford RINM inventory, the facilities involved and the nature of the fuel stored are summarized. This table succinctly reveals the variety of the Hanford facilities involved, the variety of the types of RINM involved, and the wide range of the quantities of material involved in Hanford`s RINM storage circumstances. ES & H concerns are defined as those circumstances that have the potential, now or in the future, to lead to a criticality event, to a worker radiation exposure event, to an environmental release event, or to public announcements of such circumstances and the sensationalized reporting of the inherent risks.

  10. Microbiology of solar salt ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javor, B.

    1985-01-01

    Solar salt ponds are shallow ponds of brines that range in salinity from that of normal seawater (3.4 percent) through NaCl saturation. Some salterns evaporate brines to the potash stage of concentration (bitterns). All the brines (except the bitterns, which are devoid of life) harbor high concentrations of microorganisms. The high concentrations of microorganisms and their adaptation to life in the salt pond are discussed.

  11. On tentative decommissioning cost analysis with specific authentic cost calculations with the application of the Omega code on a case linked to the Intermediate storage facility for spent fuel in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasko, Marek; Daniska, Vladimir; Ondra, Frantisek; Bezak, Peter; Kristofova, Kristina; Tatransky, Peter; Zachar, Matej [DECOM Slovakia, spol. s.r.o., J. Bottu 2, SK-917 01 Trnava (Slovakia); Lindskog, Staffan [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-03-15

    The presented report is focused on tentative calculations of basic decommissioning parameters such as costs, manpower and exposure of personnel for activities of older nuclear facility decommissioning in Sweden represented by Intermediate storage facility for spent fuel in Studsvik, by means of calculation code OMEGA. This report continuously follows up two previous projects, which described methodology of cost estimates of decommissioning with an emphasis to derive cost functions for alpha contaminated material and implementation of the advanced decommissioning costing methodology for Intermediate Storage facility for Spent Fuel in Studsvik. The main purpose of the presented study is to demonstrate the trial application of the advanced costing methodology using OMEGA code for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel in Studsvik. Basic work packages presented in report are as follows: 1. Analysis and validation input data on Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel and assemble a database suitable for standardised decommissioning cost calculations including radiological parameters, 2. Proposal of range of decommissioning calculations and define an extent of decommissioning activities, 3. Defining waste management scenarios for particular material waste streams from Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel, 4. Developing standardised cost calculation structure applied for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel decommissioning calculation and 5. Performing tentative decommissioning calculations for Intermediate Storage Facility for Spent Fuel by OMEGA code. Calculated parameters of decommissioning are presented in structure according to Proposed Standardized List of Items for Costing Purposes. All parameters are documented and summed up in both table and graphic forms in text and Annexes. The presented report documents availability and applicability of methodology for evaluation of costs and other parameters of decommissioning in a form implemented

  12. Simulation of the heat transfer of a irradiated fuel storage container with code CFD STAR- CCM+; Simulacion de la transferencia de calor de un contenedor de almacenamiento de combustible irradiado con el codigo CFD STAR-CCM+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera matalla, J. E.; Hernandez Gomez, J.; Riverala Gurruchaga, J.

    2012-07-01

    Irradiated fuel has become an object of interest in the industry by the importance of ensuring its safety during long periods of storage time. New containers, stores, methods and codes will be used to ensure a suitable cooling and residual heat removal, and secure the safety of fuel elements in dry storage. The codes CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) have great potential to help in design of containers and stores, improving thermal-hydraulic performance and the extraction of heat generated.

  13. 76 FR 12825 - List of Approved Spent Fuel Storage Casks: NUHOMS® HD System Revision 1; Confirmation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... Federal Regulations is sold by the Superintendent of Documents. #0;Prices of new books are listed in the...; add definitions for Fuel Class and Reconstituted Fuel Assembly; add Combustion Engineering 16x16...

  14. TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT AND DEPLOYMENT OF SYSTEMS FOR THE RETRIEVAL AND PROCESSING OF REMOTE-HANDLED SLUDGE FROM HANFORD K-WEST FUEL STORAGE BASIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RAYMOND RE

    2011-12-27

    In 2011, significant progress was made in developing and deploying technologies to remove, transport, and interim store remote-handled sludge from the 105-K West Fuel Storage Basin on the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. The sludge in the 105-K West Basin is an accumulation of degraded spent nuclear fuel and other debris that collected during long-term underwater storage of the spent fuel. In 2010, an innovative, remotely operated retrieval system was used to successfully retrieve over 99.7% of the radioactive sludge from 10 submerged temporary storage containers in the K West Basin. In 2011, a full-scale prototype facility was completed for use in technology development, design qualification testing, and operator training on systems used to retrieve, transport, and store highly radioactive K Basin sludge. In this facility, three separate systems for characterizing, retrieving, pretreating, and processing remote-handled sludge were developed. Two of these systems were successfully deployed in 2011. One of these systems was used to pretreat knockout pot sludge as part of the 105-K West Basin cleanup. Knockout pot sludge contains pieces of degraded uranium fuel ranging in size from 600 {mu}m to 6350 {mu}m mixed with pieces of inert material, such as aluminum wire and graphite, in the same size range. The 2011 pretreatment campaign successfully removed most of the inert material from the sludge stream and significantly reduced the remaining volume of knockout pot product material. Removing the inert material significantly minimized the waste stream and reduced costs by reducing the number of transportation and storage containers. Removing the inert material also improved worker safety by reducing the number of remote-handled shipments. Also in 2011, technology development and final design were completed on the system to remove knockout pot material from the basin and transport the material to an onsite facility for interim storage. This system is

  15. A comparison of high-speed flywheels, batteries, and ultracapacitors on the bases of cost and fuel economy as the energy storage system in a fuel cell based hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucette, Reed T.; McCulloch, Malcolm D.

    Fuel cells aboard hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are often hybridized with an energy storage system (ESS). Batteries and ultracapacitors are the most common technologies used in ESSs aboard HEVs. High-speed flywheels are an emerging technology with traits that have the potential to make them competitive with more established battery and ultracapacitor technologies in certain vehicular applications. This study compares high-speed flywheels, ultracapacitors, and batteries functioning as the ESS in a fuel cell based HEV on the bases of cost and fuel economy. In this study, computer models were built to simulate the powertrain of a fuel cell based HEV where high-speed flywheels, batteries, and ultracapacitors of a range of sizes were used as the ESS. A simulated vehicle with a powertrain using each of these technologies was run over two different drive cycles in order to see how the different ESSs performed under different driving patterns. The results showed that when cost and fuel economy were both considered, high-speed flywheels were competitive with batteries and ultracapacitors.

  16. Assess How Changes in Fuel Cycle Operation Impact Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobin, Stephen Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Nuclear Engineering and Nonproliferation Division; Adigun, Babatunde John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Nuclear Engineering and Nonproliferation Division; Fugate, Michael Lynn [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Nuclear Engineering and Nonproliferation Division; Trellue, Holly Renee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Nuclear Engineering and Nonproliferation Division; Sprinkle, James K. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Nuclear Engineering and Nonproliferation Division

    2016-10-31

    In this report two research topics of interest to Concepts and Approaches are investigated. The motivation of joining them into one project is that both require (1) the simulation of fuel irradiation in a reactor and (2) the transport of gamma and neutron irradiation from the fuel to safeguards detectors. In the next two subsections the merits of each of the two safeguards applications are further introduced. Given the cumulative impact of the enhancements listed above, it is not surprising that both fuel assembly design and fuel assembly irradiation optimization have improved over the past 50+ years. The purpose of the research summarized in this sub-­section is to investigate what, if any, consequence this evolution in reactor operation might have for nuclear safeguards. It is anticipated that the burnup and isotopics of the spent fuel should exhibit less variation over the decades as reactor operators irradiate each assembly to the optimum amount. In contrast, older spent fuel is anticipated to vary more in burnup and resulting isotopics for a given initial enrichment. Continuing with this thesis, modern fuel should be more uniform in composition, and thus, measured safeguards results should be easier to interpret than results from older spent fuel. With spent fuel ponds filling up, interim and long-­term storage of spent fuel will need to be addressed. Additionally after long periods of storage, spent fuel is no longer self-­protecting and as such the IAEA will categorize it as more attractive; in approximately 20 years many of the assemblies from early commercial cores will no longer be considered self-­protecting. This study will assess how more recent changes in the reactor operation could impact the interpretation of safeguards measurements.

  17. Determining initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of pressurized-water-reactor spent fuel assemblies by analyzing passive gamma spectra measured at the Clab interim-fuel storage facility in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favalli, A., E-mail: afavalli@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vo, D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Grogan, B. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jansson, P. [Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Liljenfeldt, H. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mozin, V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Schwalbach, P. [European Commission, DG Energy, Euratom Safeguards Luxemburg, Luxemburg (Luxembourg); Sjöland, A. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company, Stockholm (Sweden); Tobin, S.J.; Trellue, H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vaccaro, S. [European Commission, DG Energy, Euratom Safeguards Luxemburg, Luxemburg (Luxembourg)

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI)–Spent Fuel (SF) project is to strengthen the technical toolkit of safeguards inspectors and/or other interested parties. The NGSI–SF team is working to achieve the following technical goals more easily and efficiently than in the past using nondestructive assay measurements of spent fuel assemblies: (1) verify the initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of facility declaration; (2) detect the diversion or replacement of pins; (3) estimate the plutonium mass [which is also a function of the variables in (1)]; (4) estimate the decay heat; and (5) determine the reactivity of spent fuel assemblies. Since August 2013, a set of measurement campaigns has been conducted at the Central Interim Storage Facility for Spent Nuclear Fuel (Clab), in collaboration with Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB). One purpose of the measurement campaigns was to acquire passive gamma spectra with high-purity germanium and lanthanum bromide scintillation detectors from Pressurized Water Reactor and Boiling Water Reactor spent fuel assemblies. The absolute {sup 137}Cs count rate and the {sup 154}Eu/{sup 137}Cs, {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs, {sup 106}Ru/{sup 137}Cs, and {sup 144}Ce/{sup 137}Cs isotopic ratios were extracted; these values were used to construct corresponding model functions (which describe each measured quantity’s behavior over various combinations of burnup, cooling time, and initial enrichment) and then were used to determine those same quantities in each measured spent fuel assembly. The results obtained in comparison with the operator declared values, as well as the methodology developed, are discussed in detail in the paper.

  18. Determining initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of pressurized-water-reactor spent fuel assemblies by analyzing passive gamma spectra measured at the Clab interim-fuel storage facility in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favalli, A.; Vo, D.; Grogan, B.; Jansson, P.; Liljenfeldt, H.; Mozin, V.; Schwalbach, P.; Sjöland, A.; Tobin, S. J.; Trellue, H.; Vaccaro, S.

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI)-Spent Fuel (SF) project is to strengthen the technical toolkit of safeguards inspectors and/or other interested parties. The NGSI-SF team is working to achieve the following technical goals more easily and efficiently than in the past using nondestructive assay measurements of spent fuel assemblies: (1) verify the initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of facility declaration; (2) detect the diversion or replacement of pins; (3) estimate the plutonium mass [which is also a function of the variables in (1)]; (4) estimate the decay heat; and (5) determine the reactivity of spent fuel assemblies. Since August 2013, a set of measurement campaigns has been conducted at the Central Interim Storage Facility for Spent Nuclear Fuel (Clab), in collaboration with Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB). One purpose of the measurement campaigns was to acquire passive gamma spectra with high-purity germanium and lanthanum bromide scintillation detectors from Pressurized Water Reactor and Boiling Water Reactor spent fuel assemblies. The absolute 137Cs count rate and the 154Eu/137Cs, 134Cs/137Cs, 106Ru/137Cs, and 144Ce/137Cs isotopic ratios were extracted; these values were used to construct corresponding model functions (which describe each measured quantity's behavior over various combinations of burnup, cooling time, and initial enrichment) and then were used to determine those same quantities in each measured spent fuel assembly. The results obtained in comparison with the operator declared values, as well as the methodology developed, are discussed in detail in the paper.

  19. A 37.5-kW point design comparison of the nickel-cadmium battery, bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery, and regenerative hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell energy storage subsystems for low earth orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, M. A.; Hoberecht, M. A.

    1984-01-01

    Nickel-cadmium batteries, bipolar nickel-hydrogen batteries, and regenerative fuel cell storage subsystems were evaluated for use as the storage subsystem in a 37.5 kW power system for Space Station. Design requirements were set in order to establish a common baseline for comparison purposes. The storage subsystems were compared on the basis of effective energy density, round trip electrical efficiency, total subsystem weight and volume, and life.

  20. Investigation of the thermal performance of a vertical two-phase closed thermosyphon as a passive cooling system for a nuclear reactor spent fuel storage pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusuma, Mukhsinun Hadi; Putra, Nandy; Imawan, Ficky Augusta [Heat Transfer Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering Universitas Indonesia, Kampus (Indonesia); Antariksawan, Anhar Riza [Centre for Nuclear Reactor Safety and Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia (BATAN), Kawasan Puspiptek Serpong (Indonesia)

    2017-04-15

    The decay heat that is produced by nuclear reactor spent fuel must be cooled in a spent fuel storage pool. A wickless heat pipe or a vertical two-phase closed thermosyphon (TPCT) is used to remove this decay heat. The objective of this research is to investigate the thermal performance of a prototype model for a large-scale vertical TPCT as a passive cooling system for a nuclear research reactor spent fuel storage pool. An experimental investigation and numerical simulation using RELAP5/MOD 3.2 were used to investigate the TPCT thermal performance. The effects of the initial pressure, filling ratio, and heat load were analyzed. Demineralized water was used as the TPCT working fluid. The cooled water was circulated in the water jacket as a cooling system. The experimental results show that the best thermal performance was obtained at a thermal resistance of 0.22°C/W, the lowest initial pressure, a filling ratio of 60%, and a high evaporator heat load. The simulation model that was experimentally validated showed a pattern and trend line similar to those of the experiment and can be used to predict the heat transfer phenomena of TPCT with varying inputs.

  1. Wet storage integrity update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, W.J.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.

    1983-09-01

    This report includes information from various studies performed under the Wet Storage Task of the Spent Fuel Integrity Project of the Commercial Spent Fuel Management (CSFM) Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. An overview of recent developments in the technology of wet storage of spent water reactor fuel is presented. Licensee Event Reports pertaining to spent fuel pools and the associated performance of spent fuel and storage components during wet storage are discussed. The current status of fuel that was examined under the CSFM Program is described. Assessments of the effect of boric acid in spent fuel pool water on the corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel and the stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel piping containing stagnant water at spent fuel pools are discussed. A list of pertinent publications is included. 84 references, 21 figures, 11 tables.

  2. Interstitial hydrogen storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gell, H.A.

    1980-09-30

    A metal hydride fuel system is described that incorporates a plurality of storage elements that may be individually replaced to provide a hydrogen fuel system for combustion engines having a capability of partial refueling is presented.

  3. License considerations of the temporary storage in dry of the nuclear spent fuel of light water reactors; Consideraciones de licenciamiento del almacenamiento temporal en seco del combustible gastado nuclear de reactores de agua ligera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazan L, A.; Vargas A, A.; Cardenas J, J. B., E-mail: ariadna.bazan@cfe.gob.mx [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde, Carretera Cardel-Nautla Km 42.5, Alto Lucero, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2011-11-15

    The spent fuel of the nuclear power plants of light water is usually stored in cells or frames inside steel coating pools. The water of the spent fuel pool has a double function: it serves as shielding or barrier for the radiation that emits the spent fuel and, on the other hand, to cool it in accordance with its decay in the time. The administration policies of the spent fuel vary of some countries to other, resulting common to all the cases this initial stage of cooling in the pools, after its irradiation in the reactor. When is not possible to increase more this capacity, usually, technologies of temporary storage in dry of the spent fuel in independent facilities are used. The storage in dry of the spent fuel differs of the storage in the fuel pools making use of gas instead of water as coolant and using metal or concrete instead of the water like barrier against the radiation. The storage industry in dry offers a great variety of technologies, which should be certified by the respective nuclear regulator entity before its use. (Author)

  4. Criticality and shielding study for reracking of the spent fuel storage of NPP Jaragua; Estudio de la criticalidad y el blindaje del almacen de combustible irradiado de la Central Electronuclear de Juragua para redes compactas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra Valdes, Ramiro; Lopez Aldama, Daniel; Rodriguez Gual, Maritza; Garcia Yip, Fernando; Alvarez Cardona, Caridad [Centro de Tecnologia Nuclear, La Habana (Cuba)

    1996-07-01

    Annually one third of the fuel assemblies are discharged from VVER-440 reactor core. After 2 years of decay in the refueling pool, these assemblies are transferred to the spent fuel storage pool. With two units in operation, it would exhaust its storage capability in about 10 years. According to the trend of extending the interim storage period, the reracking of the spent fuel storage pool has become a viable option to enlarge storage capability at the nuclear power plant. The present paper deals with the criticality and shielding analysis for reracking of the spent fuel storage pool of NPP Juragua. The WIMS/D4 lattice code is used for the criticality study. For doses calculations, the source strength is estimated with ORIGEN 2 and the shielding problem is solved with the combination of the code ANISN and the multigroup library CASK. It is shown that it is possible to compact the storage rack in a factor of 1.98 using 3 mm thick boron steel clads. While the source is nearly doubled in the pool, the doses in its boundaries are increased approximately in only 1.24 times. (author)

  5. Bed geometries, fueling strategies and optimization of heat exchanger designs in metal hydride storage systems for automotive applications: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzucco, Andrea; Dornheim, Martin; Sloth, Michael

    2014-01-01

    given to metal hydride storage tanks for light duty vehicles, since this application is the most promising one for such storage materials and has been widely studied in the literature. Enhancing cooling/heating during hydrogen uptake and discharge has found to be essential to improve storage systems......This review presents recent developments for effective heat management systems to be integrated in metal hydride storage tanks, and investigates the performance improvements and limitations of each particular solution. High pressures and high temperatures metal hydrides can lead to different design...

  6. Detection of changes in fuel quality during storage of sawdust from pine and spruce by using gas chromatography - Mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and VIS-NIR-spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arshadi, Mehrdad; Nilsson, David; Geladi, Paul (Unit of Biomass Technology and Chemistry, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, SE-904 03 Umeaa (Sweden)). e-mail: mehrdad.arshadi@btk.slu.se

    2008-10-15

    Fuel pellets made of sawdust represent a renewable energy source for heat production. The raw material comes from sawmills and sawdust is used in the pellet mills and for reasons of logistics there is a need for storage of large quantities of the raw material. Long-term storage induces changes in the sawdust and therefore processing parameters for pellets production have to be adapted. This makes knowledge of storage time or maturity necessary. Two examples of experimental studies are presented: An industrial storage of pine and spruce sawdust was carried out over a period of 16 weeks in order to monitor the changes in the quality of sawdust during storage. Samples were taken out every week and all samples were analysed by VIS-NIR spectroscopy while some samples were analysed by GC-MS for their composition of fatty- and resin acids. The resulting data were subjected to multivariate data analysis. GC-MS data showed the difference between pine and spruce sawdust and the influence of maturity. This maturity effect could be associated with the decrease in fatty- and resin acids due to auto oxidative reactions. Multivariate analysis of the VIS-NIR data showed a major effect due to maturity associated with a colour change and also weaker effects of fatty- and resin acids differences. PLS regression was used to predict the storage time with RMSEP values between 10 and 15 days. However, since weather conditions, precipitation and seasonal variation have high influence on the speed of maturing of sawdust it will be necessary to continuously determine the degree of maturity. A second similar study is used as a complementary way of corroborating the results of the first one

  7. Materials and Fuels Complex Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Storage and Treatment Permit Reapplication, Environmental Protection Agency Number ID4890008952

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzemer, Michael J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hart, Edward [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Storage and Treatment Permit Reapplication for the Idaho National Laboratory Materials and Fuels Complex Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Partial Permit, PER-116. This Permit Reapplication is required by the PER-116 Permit Conditions I.G. and I.H., and must be submitted to the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality in accordance with IDAPA 58.01.05.012 [40 CFR §§ 270.10 and 270.13 through 270.29].

  8. CASTOR {sup ®} and CONSTOR {sup ®}. A well established system for the dry storage of spent fuel and high level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wimmer, Hannes; Skrzyppek, Juergen; Koebl, Michael [GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH, Essen (Germany)

    2015-06-01

    The German company GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH today looks back on more than 30 years of operational experience with dual-purpose casks for the transport and storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from nuclear power plants and high level waste (HLW) from reprocessing. Following customer demands, GNS developed two different cask types for SNF. By now, almost 1,300 GNS-casks are in operation worldwide. This article gives an overview over several national and international projects and shows the bandwidth of customised solutions by GNS.

  9. Review of NDE Methods for Detection and Monitoring of Atmospheric SCC in Welded Canisters for the Storage of Used Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Ryan M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pardini, Allan F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hanson, Brady D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sorenson, Ken B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-01-14

    Dry cask storage systems (DCSSs) for used nuclear fuel (UNF) were originally envisioned for storage periods of short duration (~ a few decades). However, uncertainty challenges the opening of a permanent repository for UNF implying that UNF will need to remain in dry storage for much longer durations than originally envisioned (possibly for centuries). Thus, aging degradation of DCSSs becomes an issue that may not have been sufficiently considered in the design phase and that can challenge the efficacy of very long-term storage of UNF. A particular aging degradation concern is atmospheric stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of DCSSs located in marine environments. In this report, several nondestructive (NDE) methods are evaluated with respect to their potential for effective monitoring of atmospheric SCC in welded canisters of DCSSs. Several of the methods are selected for evaluation based on their usage for in-service inspection applications in the nuclear power industry. The technologies considered include bulk ultrasonic techniques, acoustic emission, visual techniques, eddy current, and guided ultrasonic waves.

  10. A witness to history : the reclamation of Suncor's Pond 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisner, M.

    2010-09-15

    This article described the reclamation of Suncor Energy's very first oil sands tailings pond at Fort McMurray. What had been a tailings pond for the past 43 years years in now inhabited by animals and hundreds of thousands of trees and shrubs. Covering 220 hectares adjacent to the Athabasca River, Suncor's Pond 1 was part of the first commercial-scale oil sands operation in Canada. After decades in operation, the pond is being closed in a highly regulated environment with a considerable knowledge base of reclamation techniques, well-defined reclamation goals and clear land use targets. The initial design of the Pond 1 tailings storage facility consisted of a 12-metre high retention dyke built over Tar Island. Suncor adopted a 3-phase approach to accelerate reclamation activities. In phase 1, the northern half of the pond began receiving reclamation material in 2007. In phase 2, the southern half of the pond continued to receive tailings while the phase 1 area underwent surface reclamation. Phase 3 consisted of a small area of soft tailings that was mechanically stabilized using geo-grid and tailings sand, and was the last area to undergo surface reclamation. Once the water and fine tailings had been removed, the pond was filled with 30 million tonnes of clean sand in 2009. Topsoil was then placed on the pond so that trees and shrubs could be planted. A series of on-site monitoring systems will allow Suncor to track the site. The total cost of the project was within expectations. In January 2010, Suncor began work in on the 440 hectare Pond 5 which was decommissioned in November 2009. To date, coke roadways have been established on Pond 5 to enable dewatering activities using wick drains. 2 figs.

  11. Do forests best mitigate CO2 emissions to the atmosphere by setting them aside for maximization of carbon storage or by management for fossil fuel substitution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taeroe, Anders; Mustapha, Walid Fayez; Stupak, Inge; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten

    2017-07-15

    Forests' potential to mitigate carbon emissions to the atmosphere is heavily debated and a key question is if forests left unmanaged to store carbon in biomass and soil provide larger carbon emission reductions than forests kept under forest management for production of wood that can substitute fossil fuels and fossil fuel intensive materials. We defined a modelling framework for calculation of the carbon pools and fluxes along the forest energy and wood product supply chains over 200 years for three forest management alternatives (FMA): 1) a traditionally managed European beech forest, as a business-as-usual case, 2) an energy poplar plantation, and 3) a set-aside forest left unmanaged for long-term storage of carbon. We calculated the cumulative net carbon emissions (CCE) and carbon parity times (CPT) of the managed forests relative to the unmanaged forest. Energy poplar generally had the lowest CCE when using coal as the reference fossil fuel. With natural gas as the reference fossil fuel, the CCE of the business-as-usual and the energy poplar was nearly equal, with the unmanaged forest having the highest CCE after 40 years. CPTs ranged from 0 to 156 years, depending on the applied model assumptions. CCE and CPT were especially sensitive to the reference fossil fuel, material alternatives to wood, forest growth rates for the three FMAs, and energy conversion efficiencies. Assumptions about the long-term steady-state levels of carbon stored in the unmanaged forest had a limited effect on CCE after 200 years. Analyses also showed that CPT was not a robust measure for ranking of carbon mitigation benefits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. ALGORITHM FOR THE CREATION OF THE WIREFRAME MODEL OF A FIXED ROOF FOR A FUEL STORAGE TANK IN FORM OF GEODESIC DOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamill Santiago Campos Pérez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A geodesic dome is a mesh of bars and nodes arranged along the edges and vertices of a polyhedron on a surface that can be in the form of a sphere, parabola or ellipse. From knowing the advantages of this type of structure, they have been widely used in various constructions such as: housing, commercial offices, greenhouses, fair stand, fixed ceilings fuel storage tanks, among others. Many researchers have studied modeling and geometry of geodesic domes. The purpose of this paper is to present, from the review and compilation of information from several researches, an algorithm for generating a wireframe model of a geodesic dome for fixed roofs of spherical fuel storage tanks, for a further analysis of resistance by the method of finite elements. In this paper, we describe in detail the procedure and geometric expressions that were used. Finally, a computer program was developed in order to evaluate mathematical expressions and the procedure described in this paper and also to have a tool for generating computational model of a geodesic dome.

  13. A Summary Description of a Computer Program Concept for the Design and Simulation of Solar Pond Electric Power Generation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    A solar pond electric power generation subsystem, an electric power transformer and switch yard, a large solar pond, a water treatment plant, and numerous storage and evaporation ponds. Because a solar pond stores thermal energy over a long period of time, plant operation at any point in time is dependent upon past operation and future perceived generation plans. This time or past history factor introduces a new dimension in the design process. The design optimization of a plant must go beyond examination of operational state points and consider the seasonal variations in solar, solar pond energy storage, and desired plant annual duty-cycle profile. Models or design tools will be required to optimize a plant design. These models should be developed in order to include a proper but not excessive level of detail. The model should be targeted to a specific objective and not conceived as a do everything analysis tool, i.e., system design and not gradient-zone stability.

  14. Conceptual design of the Truscott brine lake solar-pond system, volume 1: Utility-independent scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    A conceptual design was performed for a series of solar pond systems to provide pumping power for chloride control in the Red River Basin. In the chloride control project, briny waters are diverted so as not to pollute portable water. The diverted brine is stored in a dammed natural basin where, with the aid of natural evaporation, the brine is concentrated to the salinities required for the solar ponds. The brine is transferred to the ponds and injected at the proper levels to establish the gradients and storage layers. The solar ponds are to be located within the Truscott, Texas brine impoundment lake. Heat will be extracted from the ponds and used to drive organic Rankine-cycle turbine generators. The electricity produced will serve the pumping needs of the chloride control project, pump brine from the natural source to the evaporation ponds, pump concentrated brine from the evaporation ponds to the solar ponds, maintain the solar ponds, and supply all system parasitic loads. It was found that five solar ponds with eight organic Rankine-cycle turbine-generators would serve both the average and peaking power requirements of the pumping stations in the Truscott area as they come on-line.

  15. Strategy of Quality Improvement of Pond Shrimp Post Harvest Management (Penaeus monodon Fabricius in Mahakam Delta (Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Noor Asikin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Mahakam Delta area, which is situated in Kutai Kartanegara Regency, has become a pond center that gives a significant contribution to shrimp export of East Kalimantan Province. Pond-produced shrimps, however, do not always accord to the intention of cold storage companies at expected price. The companies even sometimes reject the request due to poor quality of the product. The decreasing shrimp quality may be due to maintenance process by the pond farmers as well as the improper collectors. In the other hand, importing countries have decided more and more restricted requirements for the imported fishing products. This study was held in Muara Jawa, Anggana, and Muara Badak Districts using techniques of data collection of in-depth interview with twelve respondents. In order to improve shrimp quality, farmers or the producers have to formulate a strategy towards the improvement of the post harvest shrimps from the pond using an Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP. Results of the AHP consist of as follows: (1 application of pond shrimp post harvest technology and improvement of facilities and accommodation that support the quality improvement of the pond shrimps, (2 human resource quality improvement of pond farmers, collectors, and field instructors, (3 development of pond culture by applying best practices principle and local policies in order to improve the quality of the pond shrimps, and (4 improvement of interagency coordination, monitoring, and evaluation to enhance the pond shrimp quality

  16. A quasi-Delphi study on technological barriers to the uptake of hydrogen as a fuel for transport applications : production, storage and fuel cell drivetrain considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, David; Anghel, Alexandra T.; Huijsmans, Joep; Vuille, François

    2009-01-01

    The introduction of hydrogen in transport, particularly using fuel cell vehicles, faces a number of technical and non-technical hurdles. However, their relative importance is unclear, as are the levels of concern accorded them within the expert community conducting research and development within this area. To understand what issues are considered by experts working in the field to have significant potential to slow down or prevent the introduction of hydrogen technology in transport, a study...

  17. Fission product release model for failed plate-type fuel element and storage under water; Modelo para liberacao de produtos de fissao por placa combustivel falhada e armazenada sob agua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terremoto, L.A.A.; Zeituni, C.A.; Silva, J.E.R. da; Castanheira, M.; Lucki, G.; Silva, A.T. e; Teodoro, C.A.; Damy, M. de A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia Nuclear]. E-mail: laaterre@ipen.br

    2005-07-01

    Plate-type fuel elements burned-up inside the core of nuclear research reactors are stored mainly under deionized water of storage pools. When cladding failure occurs in such elements, radioactive fission products are released into the storage pool water. This work proposes a model to describe the release mechanism considering the diffusion through a postulated small cylindrical failure. As a consequence, an analytical expression is obtained for the activity released into the water as a function of the total storage time of a failed fuel plate. The proposed model reproduces the linear increasing of {sup 137}Cs specific activity observed in sipping tests already performed on failed plate-type fuel elements. (author)

  18. Specific outcomes of the research on the spent fuel long-term evolution in interim dry storage and deep geological disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, C.; Poinssot, C.; Cappelaere, C.; Desgranges, L.; Jegou, C.; Miserque, F.; Piron, J. P.; Roudil, D.; Gras, J. M.

    2006-06-01

    This paper presents an overview of the main results of the French research on the long-term evolution of spent fuel. The behavior of the spent fuel rods in the various conditions likely to be encountered during dry storage and deep geological disposal, i.e., in a closed system, in air and in water were investigated. It appears that in a closed system the effects of helium production on the mechanical stability of grain boundaries remain the major unanswered question. In air, microscopic characterization of the UO2 oxidation leads to introduce a new phase in the classical oxidation scheme. The limiting step assumption on which the oxidation kinetics are based is only partially valid. In water, the effect of the alpha radiolysis which accelerates UO2 dissolution was demonstrated for anoxic conditions. However this effect could be counteracted by the environmental conditions, such as the presence of H2 produced by the container corrosion. The effects of the environmental parameters on the fuel matrix dissolution still need to be assessed.

  19. LWR spent fuel reduction by the removal of U and the compact storage of Pu with FP for long-term nuclear sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukasawa, T.; Hoshino, K. [Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd, 3-1-1 Saiwai, Hitachi, Ibaraki, 317-0073 (Japan); Takano, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 3-1-1 Saiwai, Hitachi, Ibaraki, 317-0073 (Japan); Sato, S. [Hokkaido University, 3-1-1 Saiwai, Hitachi, Ibaraki, 317-0073 (Japan); Shimazu, Y. [Fukui University, 3-1-1 Saiwai, Hitachi, Ibaraki, 317-0073 (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    Fast breeder reactors (FBR) nuclear fuel cycle is needed for long-term nuclear sustainability while preventing global warming and maximum utilizing the limited uranium (U) resources. The 'Framework for Nuclear Energy Policy' by the Japanese government on October 2005 stated that commercial FBR deployment will start around 2050 under its suitable conditions by the successive replacement of light water reactors (LWR) to FBR. Even after Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident which made Japanese tendency slow down the nuclear power generation activities, Japan should have various options for energy resources including nuclear, and also consider the delay of FBR deployment and increase of LWR spent fuel (LWR-SF) storage amounts. As plutonium (Pu) for FBR deployment will be supplied from LWR-SF reprocessing and Japan will not possess surplus Pu, the authors have developed the flexible fuel cycle initiative (FFCI) for the transition from LWR to FBR. The FFCI system is based on the possibility to stored recycled materials (U, Pu)temporarily for a suitable period according to the FBR deployment rate to control the Pu demand/supply balance. This FFCI system is also effective after the Fukushima accident for the reduction of LWR-SF and future LWR-to-FBR transition. (authors)

  20. Temporary storage in dry of the spent nuclear fuel in the Nuclear Power Plant of Laguna Verde; Almacenamiento temporal en seco del combustible nuclear gastado en la Central Nuclear Laguna Verde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez M, N.; Vargas A, A., E-mail: natividad.hernandez@cfe.gob.mx [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Centrales Nucleoelectricas, Carretera Veracruz-Medellin Km. 7.5, 94270 Dos Bocas, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    To guarantee the continuity in the operation of the two nuclear reactors of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde (NPP-L V) is an activity of high priority of the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) in Mexico. At the present time, the CFE is working in the storage project in dry of the spent fuel with the purpose of to liberate space of the pools and to have the enlarged capacity of storage of the spent fuel that is discharged of the reactors. This work presents the storage option in dry of the spent fuel, considering that the original capacity of the spent fuel pools of the NPP-L V was of 1242 spaces each one and that in 1991, through a modification of the original design, the storage capacity was increased to 3177 spaces by pool. At present, the cells occupied by unit are of 2165 (68%) for the Unit-I and 1839 (58%) for the Unit-2, however, in 2017 and 2022 the capacity to discharge the complete core will be limited by what is required of a retirement option of spent fuel assemblies to liberate spaces. (author)