WorldWideScience

Sample records for fuel sparks concern

  1. Utilization of Alcohol Fuel in Spark Ignition and Diesel Engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Don; Stengel, Ron

    These five units comprise a course intended to prepare and train students to conduct alcohol fuel utilization seminars in spark ignition and diesel engines. Introductory materials include objectives and a list of instructor requirements. The first four units cover these topics: ethanol as an alternative fuel (technical and economic advantages,…

  2. Particular bi-fuel application of spark ignition engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raţiu, S.; Alexa, V.; Kiss, I.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a comparative test concerning the operation of a spark-ignition engine, make: Dacia 1300, model: 810.99, fuelled alternatively with gasoline and LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas). The tests carried out show, on the one hand, the maintenance of power and torque performances in both engine fuelling cases, for all the engine operation regimes, and, on the other hand, a considerable decrease in CO and HC emissions when using poor mixtures related to LPG fuelling.

  3. Performance and fuel conversion efficiency of a spark ignition engine fueled with iso-butanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irimescu, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Iso-butanol use in a port injection spark ignition engine. ► Fuel conversion efficiency calculated based on chassis dynamometer measurements. ► Combined study of engine efficiency and air–fuel mixture temperature. ► Excellent running characteristics with minor fuel system modifications. ► Up to 11% relative drop in part load efficiency due to incomplete fuel vaporization. -- Abstract: Alcohols are increasingly used as fuels for spark ignition engines. While ethanol is most commonly used, long chain alcohols such as butanol feature several advantages like increased heating value and reduced corrosive action. This study investigated the effect of fueling a port injection engine with iso-butanol, as compared to gasoline operation. Performance levels were maintained within the same limits as with the fossil fuel without modifications to any engine component. An additional electronic module was used for increasing fuel flow by extending the injection time. Fuel conversion efficiency decreased when the engine was fueled with iso-butanol by up to 9% at full load and by up to 11% at part load, calculated as relative values. Incomplete fuel evaporation was identified as the factor most likely to cause the drop in engine efficiency.

  4. Experimental evaluation of a spark-ignited engine using biogas as fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Miguel Mantilla González

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Different CH4 and CO2 mixtures were used as fuel in this work; they were fed into a spark-ignited engine equipped with devices allowing spark advance, gas delivery and gas consumption to be measured. Engine bench-tests re-vealed changes in the main operation parameters and emissions. The results showed that increasing CO2 percen-tage in the mixture increased the spark angle, reduced maximum power and torque and reduced exhaust emissions (by 90% in some cases when DAMA resolution 1015/2005 was applied. The main components to be considered when an engine of this type operates with gas fuel were also recognised.

  5. Application of Alcohols to Dual - Fuel Feeding the Spark-Ignition and Self-Ignition Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelmasiak Zdzisław

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns analysis of possible use of alcohols for the feeding of self - ignition and spark-ignition engines operating in a dual- fuel mode, i.e. simultaneously combusting alcohol and diesel oil or alcohol and petrol. Issues associated with the requirements for application of bio-fuels were presented with taking into account National Index Targets, bio-ethanol production methods and dynamics of its production worldwide and in Poland. Te considerations are illustrated by results of the tests on spark- ignition and self- ignition engines fed with two fuels: petrol and methanol or diesel oil and methanol, respectively. Te tests were carried out on a 1100 MPI Fiat four- cylinder engine with multi-point injection and a prototype collector fitted with additional injectors in each cylinder. Te other tested engine was a SW 680 six- cylinder direct- injection diesel engine. Influence of a methanol addition on basic operational parameters of the engines and exhaust gas toxicity were analyzed. Te tests showed a favourable influence of methanol on combustion process of traditional fuels and on some operational parameters of engines. An addition of methanol resulted in a distinct rise of total efficiency of both types of engines at maintained output parameters (maximum power and torque. In the same time a radical drop in content of hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides in exhaust gas was observed at high shares of methanol in feeding dose of ZI (petrol engine, and 2-3 fold lower smokiness in case of ZS (diesel engine. Among unfavourable phenomena, a rather insignificant rise of CO and NOx content for ZI engine, and THC and NOx - for ZS engine, should be numbered. It requires to carry out further research on optimum control parameters of the engines. Conclusions drawn from this work may be used for implementation of bio-fuels to feeding the combustion engines.

  6. Development And Testing Of Biogas-Petrol Blend As An Alternative Fuel For Spark Ignition Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awogbemi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This research is on the development and testing of a biogas-petrol blend to run a spark ignition engine. A2080 ratio biogaspetrol blend was developed as an alternative fuel for spark ignition engine test bed. Petrol and biogas-petrol blend were comparatively tested on the test bed to determine the effectiveness of the fuels. The results of the tests showed that biogas petrol blend generated higher torque brake power indicated power brake thermal efficiency and brake mean effective pressure but lower fuel consumption and exhaust temperature than petrol. The research concluded that a spark ignition engine powered by biogas-petrol blend was found to be economical consumed less fuel and contributes to sanitation and production of fertilizer.

  7. Fuel Saving Strategy in Spark Ignition Engine Using Fuzzy Logic Engine Torque Control

    OpenAIRE

    Aris Triwiyatno; Sumardi

    2012-01-01

    In the case of injection gasoline engine, or better known as spark ignition engines, an effort to improve engine performance as well as to reduce fuel consumption is a fairly complex problem. Generally, engine performance improvement efforts will lead to increase in fuel consumption. However, this problem can be solved by implementing engine torque control based on intelligent regulation such as the fuzzy logic inference system. In this study, fuzzy logic engine torque regulation is used to c...

  8. Effect of spark plug and fuel injector location on mixture stratification in a GDI engine - A CFD analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, O. P.; Mallikarjuna, J. M.

    2017-09-01

    The mixture preparation in gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines operating at stratified condition plays an important role in deciding the combustion, performance and emission characteristics of the engine. In a wall-guided GDI engine, with a late fuel injection strategy, piston top surface is designed in such a way that the injected fuel is directed towards the spark plug to form a combustible mixture at the time of ignition. In addition, in these engines, location of spark-plug and fuel injector, fuel injection pressure and timing are also important to create a combustible mixture near the spark plug. Therefore, understanding the mixture formation under the influence of the location of spark plug and fuel injector is very essential for the optimization of the engine parameters. In this study, an attempt is made to understand the effect of spark plug and fuel injector location on the mixture preparation in a four-stroke, four-valve and wall-guided GDI engine operating under a stratified condition by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. All the CFD simulations are carried out at an engine speed of 2000 rev/min., and compression ratio of 10.6, at an overall equivalence ratio (ER) of about 0.65. The fuel injection and spark timings are maintained at 605 and 710 CADs respectively. Finally, it is concluded that, combination of central spark plug and side fuel injector results in better combustion and performance.

  9. Performance and emissions analysis on using acetone–gasoline fuel blends in spark-ignition engine

    OpenAIRE

    Ashraf Elfasakhany

    2016-01-01

    In this study, new blended fuels were formed by adding 3–10 vol. % of acetone into a regular gasoline. According to the best of the author's knowledge, it is the first time that the influence of acetone blends has been studied in a gasoline-fueled engine. The blended fuels were tested for their energy efficiencies and pollutant emissions using SI (spark-ignition) engine with single-cylinder and 4-stroke. Experimental results showed that the AC3 (3 vol.% acetone + 97 vol.% gasoline) blended fu...

  10. Performance enhancement of a spark ignition engine fed by different fuel types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedfi, Hachem; Jbara, Abdessalem; Jedli, Hedi; Slimi, Khalifa; Stoppato, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Biogas mixed with hydrogen is checked for a spark ignition engine. • An engine fed by biogas, hydrogen, natural gas or liquid petroleum gas is studied. • Efficiency is optimized with respect to consumption and exhaust gas recirculation. • Combustion reaction progress is characterized in real time. - Abstract: A numerical model based on thermodynamic and kinetic analyses has been established in order to evaluate biogas, hydrogen, natural gas or liquid petroleum gas as fuels in a spark ignition engine. For each fuel type, consumption as well as efficiency have been compared to gasoline in order to generate the same engine work (in the range of 0.28–0.43 W h/cycle). It was found that the spark ignition engine can be fed by an equimolar mixture of biogas and hydrogen. Moreover, thermal efficiency has been enhanced with respect to fuel consumption and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). It was shown that an equimolar mixture between biogas and hydrogen increases the ITE by around 2.2% and decreases the mass consumption by less than 0.01 g/cycle. In addition, the combustion reaction progresses as well as CO and CO_2 emissions have been characterized in real time.

  11. Simulated UO{sub 2} fuel containing CsI by spark plasma sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wangle, T. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU), Postfach 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Břehová 7, Praha 1, 115 19 (Czech Republic); Tyrpekl, V. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU), Postfach 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Cologna, M., E-mail: marco.cologna@ec.europa.eu [European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU), Postfach 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Somers, J. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU), Postfach 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    Herein, an innovative preparation procedure has been deployed enabling, for the first time, the incorporation of volatile fission product simulant into highly dense nuclear fuel pellets. Highly volatile fission products were embedded in a dense UO{sub 2} matrix in the form of CsI by simply mixing starting materials and consolidation in a Spark Plasma Sintering step at 1000 °C with a 5 min dwell time. CsI particles were evenly distributed throughout the pellet and were located at the grain boundaries. The sintering rate is dependent on the O/U ratio of the powder. Addition of CsI also acts as a sintering aid, reducing the temperature of maximum densification. - Highlights: • A new method was developed to incorporation of volatile fission products simulants into dense nuclear fuel pellets. • CsI doped UO{sub 2} pellets were synthetized for the first time, by Spark Plasma Sintering. • The sintering rate in Spark Plasma Sintering is dependent on the O/U ratio of UO{sub 2+x}.

  12. Smoking in diabetic nephropathy: sparks in the fuel tank?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakkarwar, Vishal Arvind

    2012-12-15

    Diabetic nephropathy is associated with high morbidity and mortality and the prevalence of this disease is continuously increasing worldwide. Long-term diabetes increases the likelihood of developing secondary complications like nephropathy, the most common cause of end stage renal disease. Usually, other factors like hypertension, alcoholism and smoking also partly contribute to the progression of diabetic nephropathy. Among this, cigarette smoking in diabetes has been repeatedly confirmed as an independent risk factor for the onset and progression of diabetic nephropathy. Various studies suggest that smoking is a major fuel in the development of high oxidative stress and subsequently hyperlipidemia, accumulation of advanced glycation end products, activation of the renin angiotensin system and Rho-kinase, which are observed to play a pathogenic role in the progression of diabetic nephropathy. Furthermore, cigarette smoking in diabetic patients with vascular complications produces a variety of pathological changes in the kidney, such as thickening of the glomerular basement membrane and mesangial expansion with progression in glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis, which ultimately results in end stage renal failure. Strong associations are consistently found between chronic cigarette smoking and diabetic microvascular complications. A diverse group of studies unveil potential mechanisms that may explain the role of cigarette smoking in the progression of diabetic nephropathy. Tremendous efforts are being made to control smoking mediated progression of diabetic nephropathy, but no promising therapy is yet available. The present review critically discusses the possible detrimental role of chronic cigarette smoking in the progression of diabetic nephropathy and various possible pharmacological interventions to attenuate the exacerbation of diabetic nephropathy.

  13. Full Load Performance of a Spark Ignition Engine Fueled with Gasoline-Isobutanol Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Irimescu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available With fossil fuels reserves coming ever closer to depletion and the issue of air pollution caused by automotive transport becoming more and more important, mankind has looked for various solutions in the field of internal combustion engines. One of these solutions is using biofuels, and while the internal combustion engine will most likely disappear along with the last fossil fuel source, studying biofuels and their impact on automotive power-trains is a necessity even if only on a the short term basis. While engines built to run on alcohol-gasoline blends offer good performance levels even at high concentrations of alcohol, unmodified engines fueled with blends of biofuels and fossil fuels can exhibit a drop in power. The object of this study is evaluating such phenomena when a spark ignition engine is operated at full load.

  14. THE EFFECT OF VARIABLE COMPRESSION RATIO ON FUEL CONSUMPTION IN SPARK IGNITION ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakup SEKMEN

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to lack of energy sources in the world, we are obliged to use our current energy sources in the most efficient way. Therefore, in the automotive industry, research works to manufacture more economic cars in terms of fuelconsumption and environmental friendly cars, at the same time satisfying the required performance have been intensively increasing. Some positive results have been obtained by the studies, aimed to change the compression ratio according to the operating conditions of engine. In spark ignition engines in order to improve the combustion efficiency, fuel economy and exhaust emission in the partial loads, the compression ratio must be increased; but, under the high load and low speed conditions to prevent probable knock and hard running compression ratio must be decreased slightly. In this paper, various research works on the variable compression ratio with spark ignition engines, the effects on fuel economy, power output and thermal efficiency have been investigated. According to the results of the experiments performed with engines having variable compression ratio under the partial and mid-load conditions, an increase in engine power, a decrease in fuel consumption, particularly in partial loads up to 30 percent of fuel economy, and also severe reductions of some exhaust emission values were determined.

  15. Demonstration of Subscale Cermet Fuel Specimen Fabrication Approach Using Spark Plasma Sintering and Diffusion Bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Marvin W.; Tucker, Dennis S.; Benensky, Kelsa M.

    2018-01-01

    Nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) has the potential to expand the limits of human space exploration by enabling crewed missions to Mars and beyond. The viability of NTP hinges on the development of a robust nuclear fuel material that can perform in the harsh operating environment (> or = 2500K, reactive hydrogen) of a nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) engine. Efforts are ongoing to develop fuel material and to assemble fuel elements that will be stable during the service life of an NTR. Ceramic-metal (cermet) fuels are being actively pursued by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) due to their demonstrated high-temperature stability and hydrogen compatibility. Building on past cermet fuel development research, experiments were conducted to investigate a modern fabrication approach for cermet fuel elements. The experiments used consolidated tungsten (W)-60vol%zirconia (ZrO2) compacts that were formed via spark plasma sintering (SPS). The consolidated compacts were stacked and diffusion bonded to assess the integrity of the bond lines and internal cooling channel cladding. The assessment included hot hydrogen testing of the manufactured surrogate fuel and pure W for 45 minutes at 2500 K in the compact fuel element environmental test (CFEET) system. Performance of bonded W-ZrO2 rods was compared to bonded pure W rods to access bond line integrity and composite stability. Bonded surrogate fuels retained structural integrity throughout testing and incurred minimal mass loss.

  16. Performance and emissions analysis on using acetone–gasoline fuel blends in spark-ignition engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Elfasakhany

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, new blended fuels were formed by adding 3–10 vol. % of acetone into a regular gasoline. According to the best of the author's knowledge, it is the first time that the influence of acetone blends has been studied in a gasoline-fueled engine. The blended fuels were tested for their energy efficiencies and pollutant emissions using SI (spark-ignition engine with single-cylinder and 4-stroke. Experimental results showed that the AC3 (3 vol.% acetone + 97 vol.% gasoline blended fuel has an advantage over the neat gasoline in exhaust gases temperature, in-cylinder pressure, brake power, torque and volumetric efficiency by about 0.8%, 2.3%, 1.3%, 0.45% and 0.9%, respectively. As the acetone content increases in the blends, as the engine performance improved where the best performance obtained in this study at the blended fuel of AC10. In particular, exhaust gases temperature, in-cylinder pressure, brake power, torque and volumetric efficiency increase by about 5%, 10.5%, 5.2%, 2.1% and 3.2%, respectively, compared to neat gasoline. In addition, the use of acetone with gasoline fuel reduces exhaust emissions averagely by about 43% for carbon monoxide, 32% for carbon dioxide and 33% for the unburnt hydrocarbons. The enhanced engine performance and pollutant emissions are attributed to the higher oxygen content, slight leaning effect, lower knock tendency and high flame speeds of acetone, compared to the neat gasoline. Finally the mechanism of acetone combustion in gasoline-fueled engines is proposed in this work; two main pathways for acetone combustion are highlighted; furthermore, the CO, CO2 and UHC (unburnt hydrocarbons mechanisms of formation and oxidation are acknowledged. Such acetone mechanism is employed for further understanding acetone combustion in spark-ignition engines.

  17. Efficiency and exhaust gas analysis of variable compression ratio spark ignition engine fuelled with alternative fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seshaiah, N. [Mechanical Engineering Department, M.I.T.S, Madanapalle, Angallu-517325, A.P. (India)

    2010-07-01

    Considering energy crises and pollution problems today, investigations have been concentrated on decreasing fuel consumption by using alternative fuels and on lowering the concentration of toxic components in combustion products. In the present work, the variable compression ratio spark ignition engine designed to run on gasoline has been tested with pure gasoline, LPG (Isobutene), and gasoline blended with ethanol 10%, 15%, 25% and 35% by volume. Also, the gasoline mixed with kerosene at 15%, 25% and 35% by volume without any engine modifications has been tested and presented the result. Brake thermal and volumetric efficiency variation with brake load is compared and presented. CO and CO2 emissions have been also compared for all tested fuels.

  18. Characterization of Lean Misfire Limits of Mixture Alternative Gaseous Fuels Used for Spark Ignition Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miqdam Tariq Chaichan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Increasing on gaseous fuels as clean, economical and abundant fuels encourages the search for optimum conditions of gas-fueled internal combustion engines. This paper presents the experimental results on the lean operational limits of Recardo E6 engine using gasoline, LPG, NG and hydrogen as fuels. The first appearance of almost motoring cycle was used to define the engine lean limit after the fuel flow was reduced gradually. The effects of compression ratio, engine speed and spark timing on the engine operational limits are presented and discussed in detailed. Increasing compression ratio (CR extend the lean limits, this appears obviously with hydrogen, which has a wide range of equivalence ratios, while for hydrocarbon fuel octane number affect gasoline, so it can' t work above CR=9:1, and for LPG it reaches CR=12:1, NG reaches CR=15:1 at lean limit operation. Movement from low speeds to medium speeds extended lean misfire limits, while moving from medium to high speeds contracted the lean misfiring limits. NOx, CO and UBHC concentrations increased with CR increase for all fuels, while CO2 concentrations reduced with this increment. NOx concentration increased for medium speeds and reduced for high speeds, but the resulted concentrations were inconcedrable for these lean limits. CO and CO2 increased with engine speed increase, while UBHC reduced with this increment. The hydrogen engine runs with zero CO, CO2 and UNHC concentrations, and altra low levels of NOx concentrations at studied lean misfire limits

  19. Performance concerns for high duty fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esposito, V.J.; Gutierrez, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    One of the goals of the nuclear industry is to achieve economic performance such that nuclear power plants are competitive in a de-regulated market. The manner in which nuclear fuel is designed and operated lies at the heart of economic viability. In this sense reliability, operating flexibility and low costs are the three major requirements of the NPP today. The translation of these three requirements to the design is part of our work. The challenge today is to produce a fuel design which will operate with long operating cycles, high discharge burnup, power up-rating and while still maintaining all design and safety margins. European Fuel Group (EFG) understands that to achieve the required performance high duty/energy fuel designs are needed. The concerns for high duty design includes, among other items, core design methods, advanced Safety Analysis methodologies, performance models, advanced material and operational strategies. The operational aspects require the trade-off and evaluation of various parameters including coolant chemistry control, material corrosion, boiling duty, boron level impacts, etc. In this environment MAEF is the design that EFG is now offering based on ZIRLO alloy and a robust skeleton. This new design is able to achieve 70 GWd/tU and Lead Test Programs are being executed to demonstrate this capability. A number of performance issues which have been a concern with current designs have been resolved such as cladding corrosion and incomplete RCCA insertion (IRI). As the core duty becomes more aggressive other new issues need to be addressed such as Axial Offset Anomaly. These new issues are being addressed by combination of the new design in concert with advanced methodologies to meet the demanding needs of NPP. The ability and strategy to meet high duty core requirements, flexibility of operation and maintain acceptable balance of all technical issues is the discussion in this paper. (authors)

  20. Hydrogen-ethanol blending as an alternative fuel of spark ignition engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Baghdadi, M.A.S. [University of Babylon (Iraq). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2003-07-01

    The performance and pollutant emission of a four-stroke spark ignition engine using hydrogen-ethanol blends as fuel have been studied. The tests were performed using 2, 4, 6, 8, 1 0 and 12 mass% hydrogen-ethanol blends. Gasoline fuel was used as a basis for comparison. The effect of using different blends of hydrogen-ethanol on engine power, specific fuel consumption, CO and NO{sub x} emission was studied. Operating test results for a range of compression ratio (CR) and equivalent ratio are presented. The results show that the supplemental hydrogen in the ethanol-air mixture improves the combustion process and hence improves the combustion efficiency, expands the range of combustibility of the ethanol fuel, increases the power, reduces the s.f.c. and reduces toxic emissions. The important improvement of hydrogen addition is to reduce the s.f.c. of ethanol engines. Results were compared to those with gasoline fuel at 7 CR and stoichiometric equivalence ratio. (author)

  1. Knock investigation by flame and radical species detection in spark ignition engine for different fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merola, Simona S.; Vaglieco, Bianca M.

    2007-01-01

    The present paper aims to evaluate the phenomena of normal combustion and knocking in a single cylinder, ported fuel injection, four-stroke spark-ignition engine with a four-valve production head. All the measurements were realized in an optically accessible engine equipped with a wide quartz window in the bottom of the chamber. The study was carried out using optical techniques based on flame natural emission imaging and spectroscopy from UV to visible. Radical species such as OH and HCO were detected and correlated to the onset and the duration of knock and presence of hot-spots in end-gas. Measurements were carried out at 1000 rpm with wide-open throttle and stoichiometric mixture. Pure iso-octane, suitable mixtures of iso-octane and n-heptane and commercial gasoline were used

  2. CONVERSION OF DIESEL ENGINE INTO SPARK IGNITION ENGINE TO WORK WITH CNG AND LPG FUELS FOR MEETING NEW EMISSION NORMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Kaleemuddin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluctuating fuel prices and associated pollution problems of largely exploited petroleum liquid fuel has stimulated the research on abundantly available gaseous fuels to keep the mobility industry intact. In the present work an air cooled diesel engine was modified suitably into a spark ignition engine incorporating electronic ignition and variable speed dependant spark timing to accommodate both LPG and CNG as fuels. Engine was optimized for stoichiometric operation on engine dynamometer. Materials of a few intricate engine components were replaced to suit LPG and CNG application. Ignition timing was mapped to work with gaseous fuels for different speeds. Compensation was done for recovering volumetric efficiency when operated with CNG by introducing more volume of air through resonator. Ignition timing was observed to be the pertinent parameter in achieving good performance with gaseous fuels under consideration. Performance and emission tests were carried out on engine dynamometer and chassis dynamometer. Under wide open throttle and at rated speed condition, it was observed that the peak pressure with LPG was lying between diesel fuel and CNG fuel operation due to slow burning nature of gaseous fuels. As compression ratio was maintained same for LPG and CNG fuel operation, low CO emissions were observed with LPG where as HC + NOx emissions were lower with CNG fuel operation. Chassis dynamometer based emission tests yielded lower CO2 levels with CNG operation.

  3. UO2 fuel pellets fabrication via Spark Plasma Sintering using non-standard molybdenum die

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papynov, E. K.; Shichalin, O. O.; Mironenko, A. Yu; Tananaev, I. G.; Avramenko, V. A.; Sergienko, V. I.

    2018-02-01

    The article investigates spark plasma sintering (SPS) of commercial uranium dioxide (UO2) powder of ceramic origin into highly dense fuel pellets using non-standard die instead of usual graphite die. An alternative and formerly unknown method has been suggested to fabricate UO2 fuel pellets by SPS for excluding of typical problems related to undesirable carbon diffusion. Influence of SPS parameters on chemical composition and quality of UO2 pellets has been studied. Also main advantages and drawbacks have been revealed for SPS consolidation of UO2 in non-standard molybdenum die. The method is very promising due to high quality of the final product (density 97.5-98.4% from theoretical, absence of carbon traces, mean grain size below 3 μm) and mild sintering conditions (temperature 1100 ºC, pressure 141.5 MPa, sintering time 25 min). The results are interesting for development and probable application of SPS in large-scale production of nuclear ceramic fuel.

  4. THE EFFECT OF GASOLINE-LIKE FUEL PRODUCED FROM WASTE AUTOMOBILE TIRES ON EMISSIONS IN SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZTOP, H. F.; VAROL, Y.; ALTUN, Ş.; FIRAT, M.

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper, the effect of Gasoline-Like Fuel (GLF) on emissions was investigated for direct injection spark-ignited engine. The GLF was obtained from waste automobile tires by using the pyrolysis. The tires are installed to oven without any procedure such as cutting, melding etc. Obtained GLF was then used in a four-cylinder, four-stroke, water-cooled and direct injection spark-ignited engine as blended with unleaded gasoline from 0% to 60% with an increment of 10%. Engine tests res...

  5. Final environmental statement concerning rule making. Exemption from licensing requirements for spark-gap irradiators that contain cobalt-60. Docket No. PRM 30-54

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    The potential environmental impacts and adverse environmental effects from distribution, use only in commercial-sized oil burners, and disposal of 6000 spark-gap irradiators per year that contain 60 Co are summarized. On the basis of the analysis and evaluation set forth in this statement and after weighing the environmental, economic, technical, and other benefits against environmental costs and after considering available alternatives, it is concluded that the action called for under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and 10 CFR Part 51 is the issuance of an exemption from licensing requirements for spark-gap irradiators that contain 60 Co, subject to the following conditions for the protection of the environment: persons who apply 60 Co to, or persons who incorporate 60 Co into, spark-gap irradiators or persons who import for sale or distribution spark-gap irradiators containing 60 Co are not exempt from the requirements for a license; each spark-gap irradiator shall contain no more than 1 μCi of 60 Co; and the 60 Co shall be applied to the spark-gap irradiators for use in electrically ignited fuel-oil burners having a firing rate of at least 3 gal/h

  6. Improving the performance and fuel consumption of dual chamber stratified charge spark ignition engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorenson, S.C.; Pan, S.S.; Bruckbauer, J.J.; Gehrke, G.R.

    1979-09-01

    A combined experimental and theoretical investigation of the nature of the combustion processes in a dual chamber stratified charge spark ignition engine is described. This work concentrated on understanding the mixing process in the main chamber gases. A specially constructed single cylinder engine was used to both conduct experiments to study mixing effects and to obtain experimental data for the validation of the computer model which was constructed in the theoretical portion of the study. The test procedures are described. Studies were conducted on the effect of fuel injection timing on performance and emissions using the combination of orifice size and prechamber to main chamber flow rate ratio which gave the best overall compromise between emissions and performance. In general, fuel injection gave slightly higher oxides of nitrogen, but considerably lower hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions than the carbureted form of the engine. Experiments with engine intake port redesign to promote swirl mixing indicated a substantial increase in the power output from the engine and, that an equivalent power levels, the nitric oxide emissions are approximately 30% lower with swirl in the main chamber than without swirl. The development of a computer simulation of the combustion process showed that a one-dimensional combustion model can be used to accurately predict trends in engine operation conditions and nitric oxide emissions even though the actual flame in the engine is not completely one-dimensional, and that a simple model for mixing of the main chamber and prechamber intake gases at the start of compression proved adequate to explain the effects of swirl, ignition timing, overall fuel air ratio, volumetric efficiency, and variations in prechamber air fuel ratio and fuel rate percentage on engine power and nitric oxide emissions. (LCL)

  7. Problems concerned in fuel design of CARR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luzheng, Yuan; Yalun, Kang

    1998-01-01

    For a multipurpose research reactor with rather high performance like CARR, to lower the fuel meet temperature, to control the oxide layer growth and to ensure the structural stability of fuel assembly are the main problems to be solved in the fuel design and briefly described in this paper. (author)

  8. Co-Optimization of Fuels & Engines (Co-Optima) Initiative: Recent Progress on Light-Duty Boosted Spark-Ignition Fuels/Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrell, John

    2017-07-03

    This presentation reports recent progress on light-duty boosted spark-ignition fuels/engines being developed under the Co-Optimization of Fuels and Engines initiative (Co-Optima). Co-Optima is focused on identifying fuel properties that optimize engine performance, independent of composition, allowing the market to define the best means to blend and provide these fuels. However, in support of this, we are pursuing a systematic study of blendstocks to identify a broad range of feasible options, with the objective of identifying blendstocks that can provide target ranges of key fuel properties, identifying trade-offs on consistent and comprehensive basis, and sharing information with stakeholders.

  9. Romanian concern for advanced fuels development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohai, Dumitru

    2001-01-01

    The Institute for Nuclear Research (ICN), a subsidiary of Romanian Authority for Nuclear Activities, at Pitesti - Romania, has developed a preliminary design of a fuel bundle with 43 elements named SEU 43 for high burnup in CANDU Reactor. A very high experience in nuclear fuels manufacturing and control has also been accumulated. Additionally, on the nuclear site Pitesti there is the Nuclear Fuel Plant (NFP) qualified to manufacturing CANDU 6 type fuel, the main fuel supplier for NPP Cernavoda. A very good collaboration of ICN with NFP can lead to a low cost upgrading the facilities which ensure at present the CANDU standard fuel fabrication to be able of manufacturing also SEU 43 fuel for extended burnup. The financial founds are allocated by Romanian Authority for Nuclear Activities of the Ministry of Industry and Resources to sustain the departmental R and D program 'Nuclear Fuel'. This Program has the main objective to establish a technology for manufacturing a new CANDU fuel type destined for extended burnup. It is studied the possibility to use the Recovered Uranium (RU) resulted from LWR spent fuel reprocessing facility existing in stockpiles. The International Agency for Atomic Energy (IAEA) sustains also this program. By ROM/4/025/ Model Project, IAEA helps ICN to solve the problems regarding materials (RU, Zircaloy 4 tubes) purchasing, devices' upgrading and personnel training. The paper presents the main actions needing to be create the technical base for SEU 43 fuel bundle manufacturing. First step, the technological experiments and experimental fuel element manufacturing, will be accomplished in ICN installations. Second step, the industrial scale, need thorough studies for each installation from NFP to determine tools and technology modification imposed by the new CANDU fuel bundle manufacturing. All modifications must be done such as to the NFP, standard CANDU and SEU fuel bundles to be manufactured alternatively. (author)

  10. Availability analysis of a syngas fueled spark ignition engine using a multi-zone combustion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakopoulos, C.D.; Michos, C.N.; Giakoumis, E.G.

    2008-01-01

    A previously developed and validated zero-dimensional, multi-zone, thermodynamic combustion model for the prediction of spark ignition (SI) engine performance and nitric oxide (NO) emissions has been extended to include second-law analysis. The main characteristic of the model is the division of the burned gas into several distinct zones, in order to account for the temperature and chemical species stratification developed in the burned gas during combustion. Within the framework of the multi-zone model, the various availability components constituting the total availability of each of the multiple zones of the simulation are identified and calculated separately. The model is applied to a multi-cylinder, four-stroke, turbocharged and aftercooled, natural gas (NG) SI gas engine running on synthesis gas (syngas) fuel. The major part of the unburned mixture availability consists of the chemical contribution, ranging from 98% at the inlet valve closing (IVC) event to 83% at the ignition timing of the total availability for the 100% load case, which is due to the presence of the combustible fuel. On the contrary, the multiple burned zones possess mainly thermomechanical availability. Specifically, again for the 100% load case, the total availability of the first burned zone at the exhaust valve opening (EVO) event consists of thermomechanical availability approximately by 90%, with similar percentages for all other burned zones. Two definitions of the combustion exergetic efficiency are used to explore the degree of reversibility of the combustion process in each of the multiple burned zones. It is revealed that the crucial factor determining the thermodynamic perfection of combustion in each burned zone is the level of the temperatures at which combustion occurs in the zone, with minor influence of the whole temperature history of the zone during the complete combustion phase. The availability analysis is extended to various engine loads. The engine in question is

  11. Near-frictionless carbon coatings for spark-ignited direct-injected fuel systems. Final report, January 2002.; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hershberger, J.; Ozturk, O.; Ajayi, O. O.; Woodford, J. B.; Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G. R.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes an investigation by the Tribology Section of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) into the use of near-frictionless carbon (NFC) coatings for spark-ignited, direct-injected (SIDI) engine fuel systems. Direct injection is being pursued in order to improve fuel efficiency and enhance control over, and flexibility of, spark-ignited engines. SIDI technology is being investigated by the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) as one route towards meeting both efficiency goals and more stringent emissions standards. Friction and wear of fuel injector and pump parts were identified as issues impeding adoption of SIDI by the OTT workshop on ''Research Needs Related to CIDI and SIDI Fuel Systems'' and the resulting report, Research Needs Related to Fuel Injection Systems in CIDI and SIDI Engines. The following conclusions were reached: (1) Argonne's NFC coatings consistently reduced friction and wear in existing and reformulated gasolines. (2) Compared to three commercial DLC coatings, NFC provided the best friction reduction and protection from wear in gasoline and alternative fuels. (3) NFC was successfully deposited on production fuel injectors. (4) Customized wear tests were performed to simulate the operating environment of fuel injectors. (5) Industry standard lubricity test results were consistent with customized wear tests in showing the friction and wear reduction of NFC and the lubricity of fuels. (6) Failure of NFC coatings by tensile crack opening or spallation did not occur, and issues with adhesion to steel substrates were eliminated. (7) This work addressed several of the current research needs of the OAAT SIDI program, as defined by the OTT report Research Needs Related to Fuel Injection Systems in CIDI and SIDI Engines

  12. Investigation of emissions characteristics of secondary butyl alcohol-gasoline blends in a port fuel injection spark ignition engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusri I.M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exhaust emissions especially from light duty gasoline engine are a major contributor to air pollution due to the large number of vehicles on the road. The purpose of this study is to experimentally analyse the exhaust pollutant emissions of a four-stroke port fuel spark ignition engines operating using secondary butyl alcohol–gasoline blends by percentage volume of 5% (GBu5, 10% (GBu10 and 15% (GBu15 of secondary butyl- alcohol (2-butanol additives in gasoline fuels at 50% of wide throttle open. The exhaust emissions characteristics of the engine using blended fuels was compared to the exhaust emissions of the engine with gasoline fuels (G100 as a reference fuels. Exhaust emissions analysis results show that all of the blended fuels produced lower CO by 8.6%, 11.6% and 24.8% for GBu5, GBu10 and GBu15 respectively from 2500 to 4000 RPM, while for HC, both GBu10 and GBu15 were lower than that G100 fuels at all engine speeds. In general, when the engine was operated using blended fuels, the engine produced lower CO and HC, but higher CO2.

  13. The safe operation zone of the spark ignition engine working with dual renewable supplemented fuels (hydrogen+ethyl alcohol)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Baghdadi, Maher Abdul-Resul Sadiq [Babylon Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Babylon (Iraq)

    2001-04-01

    The effect of the amount of hydrogen/ethyl alcohol addition on the performance and pollutant emission of a four-stroke spark ignition engine has been studied. The results of the study show that all engine performance parameters have been improved when operating the gasoline spark ignition engine with dual addition of hydrogen and ethyl alcohol. The important improvements of alcohol addition are to reduce the NOx emission while increasing the higher useful compression ratio and output power of hydrogen-supplemented engine. An equation has been derived from experimental data to specify the least quantity of ethyl alcohol blended with gasoline and satisfying constant NOx emission when hydrogen is added. A chart limiting the safe operation zone of the engine fueled with dual renewable supplemented fuel, (hydrogen and ethyl alcohol) has been produced. The safe zone provides lower NOx and CO emission, lower s.f.c. and higher brake power compared to an equivalent gasoline engine. When ethyl alcohol is increased over 30%, it causes unstable engine operation which can be related to the fact that the fuel is not vaporized, and this causes a reduction in both brake power and efficiency. (Author)

  14. Wavelet analysis of cyclic variability in a spark ignition engine powered by gasoline-hydrogen fuel blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Asok K. [Richard G. Lugar Centre for Renewable Energy, and Department of Mathematical Sciences, Indiana University, (United States)], email: asen@iupui.edu; Akif Ceviz, M.; Volkan Oner, I. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ataturk (Turkey)], email: aceviz@atauni.edu.tr

    2011-07-01

    The cycle-to-cycle variations (CCV) of the indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) in a spark ignition engine fuelled by gasoline and gasoline-hydrogen blends is investigated. CCVs are estimated by using the coefficient of variation (COV) and the overall spectral power given by the global wavelet spectrum (GWS). It was found that the addition of hydrogen reduces the CCV of the IMEP. Analysis of the wavelet can also identify the dominant modes of variability and delineate the engine cycles over which these modes can persist. Air-fuel ratio was varied from 1.0 to 1.3, and hydrogen was added up to 7.74% by volume. The engine was operated at 2000 rpm. Results demonstrate that subject to air-fuel ratio and % of hydrogen added, IMEP time series can exhibit multiscale dynamics consisting of persistent oscillations and intermittent fluctuations. These results can help develop effective control strategies to reduce cyclic variability in a spark ignition engine fuelled by gasoline-hydrogen mixtures.

  15. Ordinance concerning the filing of transport of nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This Order provides provisions concerning nuclear fuel substances requiring notification (nuclear fuel substance, material contaminated with nuclear fuel substances, fissionable substances, etc.), procedure for notification (to prefectural public safety commission), certificate of transpot (issued via public safety commission), instructions (speed of vehicle for transporting nuclear fuel substances, parking of vehicle, place for loading and unloading of nuclear fuel substances, method for loading and unloading, report to police, measures for disaster prevention during transport, etc.), communication among members of public safety commission (for smooth transport), notification of alteration of data in transport certificate (application to be submitted to public safety commission), application of reissue of transport certificate, return of transport certificate, inspection concerning transport (to be performed by police), submission of report (to be submitted by refining facilities manager, processing facilities manager, nuclear reactor manager, master of foreign nuclear powered ship, reprocessing facilities manager, waste disposal facilities manager; concerning stolen or missing nuclear fuel substances, traffic accident, unusual leakage of nuclear fuel substances, etc.). (Nogami, K.)

  16. The regulations concerning the uses of nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The Regulations are established on the basis of ''The law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors'' and the ''Provisions concerning the usage of nuclear fuel materials'' in the Enforcement Ordinance of the Law, to enforce such provisions. Terms are explained, such as exposure radiation dose, cumulative dose, control area, surrounding inspection area, persons engaging in works, area for incoming and outgoing of materials, batch, real stocks, effective value and main measuring points. In the applications for the permission to use nuclear fuel materials, the expected period and quantity of usage of each kind of such materials and the other party and the method of selling, lending and returning spent fuel or the process of disposal of such fuel must be written. Explanations concerning the technical ability required for the usage of nuclear fuel materials shall be attached to the applications. Applications shall be filed for the inspection of facilities for use, in which the name and the address of the applicant, the name and the address of the factory or the establishment, the range of the facilities for use, the maximum quantity of nuclear fuel materials to be used or stocked, and the date, the place and the kind of the expected inspection are written. Prescriptions cover the records to be held, safety regulations, the technical standards for usage, the disposal, transport and storage of nuclear fuel materials and the reports to be filed. (Okada, K.)

  17. Measurements of some parameters of thermal sparks with respect to their ability to ignite aviation fuel/air mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigh, S. J.; Hardwick, C. J.; Baldwin, R. E.

    1991-01-01

    A method used to generate thermal sparks for experimental purposes and methods by which parameters of the sparks, such as speed, size, and temperature, were measured are described. Values are given of the range of such parameters within these spark showers. Titanium sparks were used almost exclusively, since it is particles of this metal which are found to be ejected during simulation tests to carbon fiber composite (CFC) joints. Tests were then carried out in which titanium sparks and spark showers were injected into JP4/(AVTAG F40) mixtures with air. Single large sparks and dense showers of small sparks were found to be capable of causing ignition. Tests were then repeated using ethylene/air mixtures, which were found to be more easily ignited by thermal sparks than the JP4/ air mixtures.

  18. Improvement of performance and reduction of pollutant emission of a four stroke spark ignition engine fueled with hydrogen-gasoline fuel mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Baghdadi, Maher Abdul-Resul Sadiq; Al-Janabi, Haroun Abdul-Kadim Shahad [Babylon Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Babylon (Iraq)

    2000-07-01

    The effect of the amount of hydrogen/ethyl alcohol addition on the performance and pollutant emissions of a four stroke spark ignition engine has been studied. A detailed model to simulate a four stroke cycle of a spark ignition engine fueled with hydrogen-ethyl alcohol-gasoline has been used to study the effect of hydrogen and ethyl alcohol blending on the thermodynamic cycle of the engine. The results of the study show that all engine performance parameters have been improved when operating the gasoline S.I.E. with dual addition of hydrogen and ethyl alcohol. It has been found that 4% of hydrogen and 30% of ethyl alcohol blending causes a 49% reduction in CO emission, a 39% reduction in NO{sub x} emission, a 49% reduction in specific fuel consumption and increases in the thermal efficiency and output power by 5 and 4%, respectively. When ethyl alcohol is increased over 30%, it causes unstable engine operation which can be related to the fact that the fuel is not vaporised, and this causes a reduction in both the brake power and efficiency. (Author)

  19. Comparison of aldehyde emissions simulation with FTIR measurements in the exhaust of a spark ignition engine fueled by ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarante, Paola Helena Barros; Sodré, José Ricardo

    2018-02-01

    This work presents a numerical simulation model for aldehyde formation and exhaust emissions from ethanol-fueled spark ignition engines. The aldehyde simulation model was developed using FORTRAN software, with the input data obtained from the dedicated engine cycle simulation software AVL BOOST. The model calculates formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations from post-flame partial oxidation of methane, ethane and unburned ethanol. The calculated values were compared with experimental data obtained from a mid-size sedan powered by a 1.4-l spark ignition engine, tested on a chassis dynamometer. Exhaust aldehyde concentrations were determined using a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy analyzer. In general, the results demonstrate that the concentrations of aldehydes and the source elements increased with engine speed and exhaust gas temperature. The measured acetaldehyde concentrations showed values from 3 to 6 times higher than formaldehyde in the range studied. The model could predict reasonably well the qualitative experimental trends, with the quantitative results showing a maximum discrepancy of 39% for acetaldehyde concentration and 21 ppm for exhaust formaldehyde.

  20. Optical sensor system for time-resolved quantification of methane densities in CH4-fueled spark ignition engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golibrzuch, Kai; Digulla, Finn-Erik; Bauke, Stephan; Wackerbarth, Hainer; Thiele, Olaf; Berg, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    We present the development and the first application of an optical sensor system that allows single-cycle determination of methane (CH 4 ) concentration inside internal combustion (IC) engines. We use non-dispersive infrared absorption spectroscopy to detect the CH 4 density with a time resolution up to 33 μs at acquisition rates of 30 kHz. The measurement scheme takes advantage of the strong temperature dependence of the absorption band applying two detection channels for CH 4 that detect different spectral regions of the ν 3 anti-symmetric C-H-stretch absorption. The strategy allows the simultaneous determination of fuel concentration as well as gas temperature. We show the proof-of-concept by validation of the measurement strategy in static pressure cell experiments as well as its application to a methane-fueled IC engine using a modified spark plug probe. Our results clearly demonstrate that it is crucial to determine the CH 4 temperature in the probe volume. Due to thermal influences of the sensor probe, the temperature needed to calculate the desired quantities (fuel density, fuel concentration) significantly differs from the gas phase temperature in the rest of the combustion chamber and estimations from standard thermodynamic models, e.g., polytropic compression, will fail.

  1. Numerical analysis of a downsized spark-ignition engine fueled by butanol/gasoline blends at part-load operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scala, F.; Galloni, E.; Fontana, G.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Bio-fuels will reduce the overall CO_2 emission. • The properties of butanol/gasoline–air mixtures have been determined. • A 1-D model of a SI engine has been calibrated and validated. • The butanol content reduces the combustion duration. • The optimal ignition timing slightly changes. - Abstract: In this paper, the performance of a turbocharged SI engine, firing with butanol/gasoline blends, has been investigated by means of numerical simulations of the engine behavior. When engine fueling is switched from gasoline to alcohol/gasoline mixture, engine control parameters must be adapted. The main necessary modifications in the Electronic Control Unit have been highlighted in the paper. Numerical analyses have been carried out at partial load operation and at two different engine speeds (3000 and 4000 rpm). Several n-butanol/gasoline mixtures, differing for the alcohol contents, have been analyzed. Such engine performances as torque and indicated efficiency have been evaluated. Both these characteristics decrease with the alcohol contents within the mixtures. On the contrary, when the engine is fueled by neat n-butanol, torque and efficiency reach values about 2% higher than those obtained with neat gasoline. Furthermore, the optimal spark timing, for alcohol/gasoline mixture operation, must be retarded (up to 13%) in comparison with the correspondent values of the gasoline operation. In general, engine performance and operation undergo little variations when fuel supplying is switched from gasoline to alcohol/gasoline blends.

  2. Research of performance on a spark ignition engine fueled by alcohol–gasoline blends using artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapusuz, Murat; Ozcan, Hakan; Yamin, Jehad Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate various alcohol–unleaded gasoline mixtures that can be used with no modifications in a spark-ignition engine. The mixtures consisted of 5%, 10% and 15% ethanol, methanol together and separately. Based on the recommendations of the Jordanian Petroleum Company (JoPetrol), total alcohol content should not exceed 15–20% owing to safety and ignition hazards. Optimizations for the use of alcohol were made for the maximum torque, maximum power and minimum specific fuel consumption values. For torque 0.9906, for brake power 0.997, and for brake specific fuel consumption 0.9312 regression values for tests have been obtained from models generated by the neural network. According to the modeling and optimizations, use of fuel mixture containing 11% methanol–1% ethanol for performance, and fuel mixture containing 2% methanol for BSFC were found to have better results. Moreover, the paper demonstrates that ANN (Artificial Neural Network) can be used successfully as an alternative type of modeling technique for internal combustion engines. - Highlights: • ANN model was developed and verified. • Effects of alcohol–gasoline blends on performance of a SI engine are fairly simulated. • Effects of alcohol–gasoline blends on performance of a SI engine are optimized.

  3. The Application of High Energy Ignition and Boosting/Mixing Technology to Increase Fuel Economy in Spark Ignition Gasoline Engines by Increasing EGR Dilution Capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keating, Edward [General Motors LLC, Pontiac, MI (United States); Gough, Charles [General Motors LLC, Pontiac, MI (United States)

    2015-07-07

    This report summarizes activities conducted in support of the project “The Application of High Energy Ignition and Boosting/Mixing Technology to Increase Fuel Economy in Spark Ignition Gasoline Engines by Increasing EGR Dilution Capability” under COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NUMBER DE-EE0005654, as outlined in the STATEMENT OF PROJECT OBJECTIVES (SOPO) dated May 2012.

  4. Ordinance concerning the filing of transport of nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The ordinance is defined under the law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors and the order for execution of the law. Any person who reports the transport of nuclear fuel materials shall file four copies of a notification according to the form attached to the public safety commission of the prefecture in charge of the dispatching place. When the transportation extends over the area in charge of another public safety commission, the commission which has received the notice shall report without delay date and route of the transport, kind and quantity of nuclear fuel materials and other necessary matters to the commission concerned and hear from the latter opinions on the items informed. The designation by the ordinance includes speed of the vehicle loaded with nuclear fuel materials, disposition of an accompanying car, arrangement of the line of the loaded vehicle and accompanying and other escorting cars, location of the parking, place of unloading and temporary storage, etc. Reports concerning troubles and measures taken shall be filed in ten days to the public safety commission which has received the notification, when accidents occur on the way, such as: theft or loss of nuclear fuel materials; traffic accident; irregular leaking of nuclear fuel materials and personal trouble by the transport. (Okada, K.)

  5. Saving clauses in international contracts concerning the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virole, J.; Roubin, J.

    1983-01-01

    This paper concerns saving clauses in international contracts relating to the fuel cycle. It deals in particular with economic upheavals affecting those contracts and the usual clauses to protect the financial interests of the co-contractors. The paper also examines such economic upheavals in the context of clauses intended to preserve the contracts. (NEA) [fr

  6. A Soft Sensor-Based Fault-Tolerant Control on the Air Fuel Ratio of Spark-Ignition Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jia Zhai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The air/fuel ratio (AFR regulation for spark-ignition (SI engines has been an essential and challenging control problem for engineers in the automotive industry. The feed-forward and feedback scheme has been investigated in both academic research and industrial application. The aging effect can often cause an AFR sensor fault in the feedback loop, and the AFR control performance will degrade consequently. In this research, a new control scheme on AFR with fault-tolerance is proposed by using an artificial neural network model based on fault detection and compensation, which can provide the satisfactory AFR regulation performance at the stoichiometric value for the combustion process, given a certain level of misreading of the AFR sensor.

  7. The relative effects of fuel concentration, residual-gas fraction, gas motion, spark energy and heat losses to the electrodes on flame-kernel development in a lean-burn spark ignition engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleiferis, P.G.; Taylor, A.M.K.P. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Ishii, K. [Honda International Technical School, Saitama (Japan); Urata, Y. [Honda R and D Co., Ltd., Tochigi (Japan). Tochigi R and D Centre

    2004-04-01

    The potential of lean combustion for the reduction in exhaust emissions and fuel consumption in spark ignition engines has long been established. However, the operating range of lean-burn spark ignition engines is limited by the level of cyclic variability in the early-flame development stage that typically corresponds to the 0-5 per cent mass fraction burned duration. In the current study, the cyclic variations in early flame development were investigated in an optical stratified-charge spark ignition engine at conditions close to stoichiometry [air-to-fuel ratio (A/F) = 15] and to the lean limit of stable operation (A/F = 22). Flame images were acquired through either a pentroof window ('tumble plane' of view) or the piston crown ('swirl plane' of view) and these were processed to calculate the intra-cycle flame-kernel radius evolution. In order to quantify the relative effects of local fuel concentration, gas motion, spark-energy release and heat losses to the electrodes on the flame-kernel growth rate, a zero-dimensional flame-kernel growth model, in conjunction with a one-dimensional spark ignition model, was employed. Comparison of the calculated flame-radius evolutions with the experimental data suggested that a variation in A/F around the spark plug of {delta}(A/F) {approx} 4 or, in terms of equivalence ratio {phi}, a variation in {delta}{phi} {approx} 0.15 at most was large enough to account for 100 per cent of the observed cyclic variability in flame-kernel radius. A variation in the residual-gas fraction of about 20 per cent around the mean was found to account for up to 30 per cent of the variability in flame-kernel radius at the timing of 5 per cent mass fraction burned. The individual effect of 20 per cent variations in the 'mean' in-cylinder velocity at the spark plug at ignition timing was found to account for no more than 20 per cent of the measured cyclic variability in flame kernel radius. An individual effect of

  8. Natural-gas fueled spark-ignition (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) engine performance and emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korakianitis, T.; Namasivayam, A.M.; Crookes, R.J. [School of Engineering and Materials Science, Queen Mary University of London (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    Natural gas is a fossil fuel that has been used and investigated extensively for use in spark-ignition (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) engines. Compared with conventional gasoline engines, SI engines using natural gas can run at higher compression ratios, thus producing higher thermal efficiencies but also increased nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions, while producing lower emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), unburned hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO). These engines also produce relatively less power than gasoline-fueled engines because of the convergence of one or more of three factors: a reduction in volumetric efficiency due to natural-gas injection in the intake manifold; the lower stoichiometric fuel/air ratio of natural gas compared to gasoline; and the lower equivalence ratio at which these engines may be run in order to reduce NO{sub x} emissions. High NO{sub x} emissions, especially at high loads, reduce with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). However, EGR rates above a maximum value result in misfire and erratic engine operation. Hydrogen gas addition increases this EGR threshold significantly. In addition, hydrogen increases the flame speed of the natural gas-hydrogen mixture. Power levels can be increased with supercharging or turbocharging and intercooling. Natural gas is used to power CI engines via the dual-fuel mode, where a high-cetane fuel is injected along with the natural gas in order to provide a source of ignition for the charge. Thermal efficiency levels compared with normal diesel-fueled CI-engine operation are generally maintained with dual-fuel operation, and smoke levels are reduced significantly. At the same time, lower NO{sub x} and CO{sub 2} emissions, as well as higher HC and CO emissions compared with normal CI-engine operation at low and intermediate loads are recorded. These trends are caused by the low charge temperature and increased ignition delay, resulting in low combustion temperatures. Another factor is

  9. Symbolic Analysis of the Cycle-to-Cycle Variability of a Gasoline–Hydrogen Fueled Spark Engine Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Reyes-Ramírez

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available An study of temporal organization of the cycle-to-cycle variability (CCV in spark ignition engines fueled with gasoline–hydrogen blends is presented. First, long time series are generated by means of a quasi-dimensional model incorporating the key chemical and physical components, leading to variability in the time evolution of energetic functions. The alterations in the combustion process, for instance the composition of reactants, may lead to quantitative changes in the time evolution of the main engine variables. It has been observed that the presence of hydrogen in the fuel mixture leads to an increased laminar flame speed, with a corresponding decrease in CCV dispersion. Here, the effects of different hydrogen concentrations in the fuel are considered. First, it is observed that return maps of heat release sequences exhibit different patterns for different hydrogen concentrations and fuel–air ratios. Second, a symbolic analysis is used to characterize time series. The symbolic method is based on the probability of occurrence of consecutive states (a word in a symbolic sequence histogram (SSH. Modified Shannon entropy is computed in order to determine the adequate word length. Results reveal the presence of non-random patterns in the sequences and soft transitions between states. Moreover, the general behavior of CCV simulations results and three types of synthetic noises: white, log-normal, and a noisy logistic map, are compared. This analysis reveals that the non-random features observed in heat release sequences are quite different from synthetic noises.

  10. Prediction of small spark ignited engine performance using producer gas as fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Homdoung

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Producer gas from biomass gasification is expected to contribute to greater energy mix in the future. Therefore, effect of producer gas on engine performance is of great interest. Evaluation of engine performances can be hard and costly. Ideally, they may be predicted mathematically. This work was to apply mathematical models in evaluating performance of a small producer gas engine. The engine was a spark ignition, single cylinder unit with a CR of 14:1. Simulation was carried out on full load and varying engine speeds. From simulated results, it was found that the simple mathematical model can predict the performance of the gas engine and gave good agreement with experimental results. The differences were within ±7%.

  11. COGEMA's national advertising campaign concerning nuclear fuel recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallot, Christine

    1999-01-01

    Goals of COGEMA's advertising campaign concerning nuclear fuel recycling are to: speak out in an area where COGEMA has legitimacy and is expected; and to take part in the discussion to support and defend an activity that is important for COGEMA. Targets are: back up opinion relays by reaching the general public; and back COGEMA personnel. The advertising strategy can be defined as follows: what is recommended for other industries (sorting and then recycling) is COGEMA's practice for spent fuel, with very significant advantages for the community in terms of economy and ecology

  12. The regulations concerning the uses of nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The regulations are defined under the law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors and provisions concerning the uses of nuclear fuel materials in the order for execution of the law. Basic concepts and terms are explained, such as: exposure dose; accumulative dose; controlled area; inspected surrounding area and employee. The application for permission shall state the expected period and amount of the uses for each kind of nuclear fuel materials. Persons to whom spent fuels shall be sold, lent or returned and the method of disposal of such fuels shall be also indicated. Records shall be made and kept for particular periods for each works and enterprise on inspection of facilities, control of dose, maintenance and accident of facilities in use. The application for permission of the safeguard regulations shall report rules for each works and enterprise on the faculty and organization of controllers of facilities in use, safeguard education of employees, operation of apparatus which needs special control for prevention of disaster, establishment of controlled and inspected surrounding areas, entrance limitation, inspection of exposure dose, etc. Technical standards of the uses of nuclear fuel materials, disposal and transportation in the works and the enterprise and storage are stipulated in detail. Reports on exposure dose of employees and other specified matters shall be submitted every year to the Director General of Science and Technology Agency according to the forms attached. (Okada, K.)

  13. Regulations concerning the fabricating business of nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The Regulation is revised on the basis of ''The law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors'' and the ''Provisions concerning the enterprises processing nuclear fuel materials'' in the Enforcement Ordinance for the Law, to enforce such provisions. This is the complete revision of the regulation of the same name in 1957. Terms are explained, such as exposure radiation dose, cumulative dose, control area, surrounding inspection area, persons engaged in works, radioactive wastes, area for incoming and outgoing of materials, fluctuation of stocks, batch, real stocks, effective value and main measuring points. For the applications for the permission of the enterprises processing nuclear fuel materials, the location of an enterprise, the construction of buildings and the construction of and the equipments for facilities of chemical processing, forming, coating, assembling, storage of nuclear fuel materials, disposal of radioactive wastes and radiation control must be written. Records shall be made and maintained for the periods specified on the inspection of processing facilities, nuclear fuel materials, radiation control, operation, maintainance, accidents of processing facilities and weather. Limit to entrance into the control area, measures for exposure radiation dose, patrol and inspection, operation of processing facilities, transport of materials, disposal of radioactive wastes, safety regulations are provided for. Reports to be filed by the persons engaging in the enterprises processing nuclear fuel materials are prescribed. (Okada, K.)

  14. Determination of optimal wet ethanol composition as a fuel in spark ignition engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fagundez, J.L.S.; Sari, R.L.; Mayer, F.D.; Martins, M.E.S.; Salau, N.P.G.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Batch distillation to produce HEF and fuel blends of wet ethanol. • Conversion efficiency of a SI engine operating with HEF and wet ethanol. • NEF as a new metric to calculate the energy efficiency of HEF and wet ethanol. • Optimal wet ethanol composition as a fuel in SI engine based on NEF. - Abstract: Studies are unanimous that the greatest fraction of the energy necessary to produce hydrous ethanol fuel (HEF), i.e. above 95%v/v of ethanol in water, is spent on water removal (distillation). Previous works have assessed the energy efficiency of HEF; but few, if any, have done the same for wet ethanol fuel (sub-azeotropic hydrous ethanol). Hence, a new metric called net energy factor (NEF) is proposed to calculate the energy efficiency of wet ethanol and HEF. NEF calculates the ratio of Lower Heating Value (LHV) derived from ethanol fuel, total energy out, to energy used to obtain ethanol fuel as distillate, total energy in. Distillation tests were performed batchwise to obtain as distillate HEF and four different fuel blends of wet ethanol with a range from 60%v/v to 90%v/v of ethanol and the amount of energy spent to distillate each ethanol fuel calculated. The efficiency parameters of a SI engine operating with the produced ethanol fuels was tested to calculate their respective conversion efficiency. The results of net energy factors show a clear advantage of wet ethanol fuels over HEF; the optimal efficiency was wet ethanol fuel with 70%v/v of ethanol.

  15. Regulations concerning the fabricating business of nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    In the Law for the Regulations of Nuclear Source Material, Nuclear Fuel Material and Reactors, the regulations have all been revised on the fabrication business of nuclear fuel materials. The revised regulations are given : application for permission of the fabrication business, application for permission of the alteration, application for approval of the design and the construction methods, application for approval of the alteration, application for the facilities inspection, facilities inspection, recordings, entry limitations etc. for controlled areas, measures concerning exposure radiation doses etc., operation of the fabrication facilities, transport within the site of the business, storage, disposal within the site of the business, security regulations, designation etc. of the licensed engineer of nuclear fuels, collection of reports, etc. (Mori, K.)

  16. The regulations concerning the uses of nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Regulations specified here cover application for permission for use of nuclear fuel substances, application for alteration (of method for spent fuel disposal, etc.), application for inspection of facilities, execution of inspection of facilities, (airtight properties test, watertight properties test, corrosion resistance test, chemical analytical test, non-destructive test, mechanical test, pressure resistance test, leakage test), issue of certificate, technical standards concerning construction (geometry, resistance to earthquake, airtight performance, shielding wall, alarm system, waste disposal capacity, emergency power source, etc.), facilities subject to welding inspection, application for welding inspection, execution of welding inspection, facilities not subject to welding inspection, certificate of welding method, resord keeping, safety rules, technical standards for operation, technical standards for waste disposal within plant or for operation premises, transportation within plant or operation premises, technical standards for storage, submission of report, measures for emergency, notice of abolition of business operation, notice of disorganization, measures concerning cancellation of permission, identification card, etc. (Nogami, K.)

  17. Cycle-by-cycle variations in a spark ignition engine fueled with natural gas-hydrogen blends combined with EGR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Bin; Hu, Erjiang; Huang, Zuohua; Zheng, Jianjun; Liu, Bing; Jiang, Deming [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, 710049 Xi' an (China)

    2009-10-15

    Study of cycle-by-cycle variations in a spark ignition engine fueled with natural gas-hydrogen blends combined with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was conducted. The effects of EGR ratio and hydrogen fraction on engine cycle-by-cycle variations are analyzed. The results show that the cylinder peak pressure, the maximum rate of pressure rise and the indicated mean effective pressure decrease and cycle-by-cycle variations increase with the increase of EGR ratio. Interdependency between the above parameters and their corresponding crank angles of cylinder peak pressure is decreased with the increase of EGR ratio. For a given EGR ratio, combustion stability is promoted and cycle-by-cycle variations are decreased with the increase of hydrogen fraction in the fuel blends. Non-linear relationship is presented between the indicated mean effective pressure and EGR ratio. Slight influence of EGR ratio on indicated mean effective pressure is observed at low EGR ratios while large influence of EGR ratio on indicated mean effective pressure is demonstrated at high EGR ratios. The high test engine speed has lower cycle-by-cycle variations due to the enhancement of air flow turbulence and swirls in the cylinder. Increasing hydrogen fraction can maintain low cycle-by-cycle variations at high EGR ratios. (author)

  18. Performance and emissions assessment of n-butanol–methanol–gasoline blends as a fuel in spark-ignition engi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Elfasakhany

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The sleek of using alternatives to gasoline fuel in internal combustion engines becomes a necessity as the environmental problems of fossil fuels as well as their depleted reserves. This research presents an experimental investigation into a new blended fuel; the effects of n-butanol–methanol–gasoline fuel blends on the performance and pollutant emissions of an SI (spark-ignition engine were examined. Four test fuels (namely 0, 3, 7 and 10 volumetric percent of n-butanol–methanol blends at equal rates, e.g., 0%, 1.5%, 3.5% and 5% for n-butanol and methanol, in gasoline were investigated in an engine speed range of 2600–3400 r/min. In addition, the dual alcohol (methanol and n-butanol–gasoline blends were compared with single alcohol (n-butanol–gasoline blends (for the first time as well as with the neat gasoline fuel in terms of performance and emissions. The experimental results showed that the addition of low content rates of n-butanol–methanol to neat gasoline adversely affects the engine performance and exhaust gas emissions as compared to the results of neat gasoline and single alcohol–gasoline blends; in particular, a reduction in engine volumetric efficiency, brake power, torque, in-cylinder pressure, exhaust gas temperature and CO2 emissions and an increase in concentrations of CO and UHC (unburned hydrocarbons emissions were observed for the dual alcohols. However, higher rates of n-butanol–methanol blended in gasoline were observed to improve the SI engine performance parameters and emission concentration. Oppositely the higher rates of single alcohol–gasoline blends were observed to provide adverse results, e.g., higher emissions and lower performance than those of lower rates of single alcohol. Finally, dual alcohol–gasoline blends could exceed (i.e. provide higher performance and lower emissions single alcohol–gasoline blends and pure gasoline at higher rates (>10 vol.% in the blend and, in turn, it is

  19. The regulations concerning the reprocessing business of spent fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This rule is stipulated under the provisions of reprocessing business in the law concerning regulation of nuclear raw materials, nuclear fuel materials and nuclear reactors and to execute them. Basic terms are defined, such as exposure radiation dose, cumulative dose, control area, security area, surrounding monitoring area, worker, radioactive waste and facility for discharging into the sea. The application for the designation for reprocessing business under the law shall include the maximum reprocessing capacities per day and per year of each kind of spent fuel, to be reprocessed and the location, structure and equipment of reprocessing facilities as specified in the regulation. Records shall be made in each works or enterprise on the inspection, operation and maintenance of reprocessing facilities, radiation control, accidents and weather, and kept for particular periods respectively. Reprocessing enterprisers shall set up control area, security area and surrounding monitoring area to restrict entrance, etc. Specified measures shall be taken by these enterprisers concerning the exposure radiation doses of workers. Reprocessing facilities shall be inspected and examined more than once a day. The regular self-inspection and operation of reprocessing facilities, the transport and storage of nuclear fuel materials, the disposal of radioactive wastes in works or enterprises where reprocessing facilities are located, and security rules are defined in detail, respectively. (Okada, K.)

  20. Fuel effects on knock, heat releases and CARS temperatures in a spark ignition engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalghatgi, G.T.; Golombok, M.; Snowdon, P.

    1995-01-01

    Net heat release, knock characteristics and temperature were derived from in-cylinder pressure and end-gas CARS measurements for different fuels in a single-cylinder engine. The maximum net heat release rate resulting from the final phase of autoignition is closely associated with knock intensity.

  1. Experimental investigation of a spark ignition engine fueled with acetone-butanol-ethanol and gasoline blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yuqiang; Meng, Lei; Nithyanandan, Karthik; Lee, Timothy H.; Lin, Yilu; Lee, Chia-fon F.; Liao, Shengming

    2017-01-01

    Bio-butanol is typically produced by acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation, however, the recovery of bio-butanol from the ABE mixture involves high costs and energy consumption. Hence it is of interest to study the intermediate fermentation product, i.e. ABE, as a potentially alternative fuel. In this study, an experimental investigation of the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of a port fuel-injection SI engine fueled with ABE-gasoline blends was carried out. By testing different ABE-gasoline blends with varying ABE content (0 vol%, 10 vol%, 30 vol% and 60 vol% referred to as G100, ABE10, ABE30 and ABE60), ABE formulation (A:B:E of 1:8:1, 3:6:1 and 5:4:1 referred to as ABE(181), ABE(361) and ABE(541)), and water content (0.5 vol% and 1 vol% water referred to as W0.5 and W1), it was found that ABE(361)30 performed well in terms of engine performance and emissions, including brake thermal efficiency (BTE), brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) and nitrogen oxides (NO_x) emissions. Then, ABE(361)30 was compared with conventional fuels, including E30, B30 (30 vol% ethanol or butanol blended with gasoline) and pure gasoline (G100) under various equivalence ratios and engine loads. Overall, a higher BTE (0.2–1.4%) and lower CO (1.4–4.4%), UHC (0.3–9.9%) and NO_x (4.2–14.6%) emissions were observed for ABE(361)30 compared to those of G100 in some cases. Therefore, ABE could be a good alternative fuel to gasoline due to the environmentally benign manufacturing process (from non-edible biomass feedstock and without a recovery process), and the potential to improve energy efficiency and reduce pollutant emissions. - Highlights: • ABE (acetone-butanol-ethanol) was used as a green alternative fuel. • ABE-gasoline blends with various ratios of ABE, ABE component and water were test. • Combustion, performance and emissions characteristics were investigated. • Adding ABE into

  2. Regulations concerning the fabricating business of nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Regulations specified here cover application for such matters as permission for an undertaking of processing, alteration (of location, structure, arrangements, processing method, etc.), approval of design and construction plan, approval of alteration (of design and construction plan of processing facilities), and inspection of the facilities. The regulations also cover execution of facilities inspection, certificate of facilities inspection, processing facilities subject to welding inspection, application for welding inspection, execution of welding inspection, facilities not subject to welding inspection, approval of welding method, welding inspection for imported equipment, certificate of welding inspection, application for approval of joint management, notice of alteration, etc., cancellation of permission, record keeping, restriction on access to areas under management measures concerning exposure to radioactive rays, patrol and checking in processing facilities, operation of processing equipment, transportation within plant or operation premises, storage, waste disposal within plant or operation premises, safety rules, public notification concerning examination and successful applicants, procedure for application for examination, reissue of certificate for nuclear fuel handling expert, return of certificate for nuclear fuel handling expert, submission of report, measures for emergency, notice of abolition of business, measures concerning cancellation of permission, identification card, etc. (Nogami, K.)

  3. Fuel conversion efficiency improvements in a highly boosted spark-ignition engine with ultra-expansion cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Tie; Zheng, Bin; Yin, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Ultra-expansion cycle SI engine is investigated. • An improvement of 9–26% in BSFC at most frequently operated conditions is obtained. • At high and medium loads, BSFC improvement is attributed to the increased combustion efficiency and reduced exhaust energy. • At low loads, reduction in pumping loss and exhaust energy is the primary contributors to BSFC improvement. • Technical challenge in practical application of this type of engine is discussed. - Abstract: A four-cylinder, intake boosted, port fuel injection (PFI), spark-ignition (SI) engine is modified to a three-cylinder engine with the outer two cylinders working in the conventional four stroke cycle and with the inner cylinder working only with the expansion and exhausting strokes. After calibration and validation of the engine cycle simulation models using the experimental data in the original engine, the performance of the three-cylinder engine with the ultra-expansion cycle is numerically studied. Compared to the original engine, the fuel consumptions under the most-frequently operated conditions are improved by 9–26% and the low fuel consumption area on the operating map are drastically enlarged for the ultra-expansion cycle engine with the proper design. Nonetheless, a higher intake boosting is needed for the ultra-expansion cycle engine to circumvent the significant drop in the wide-open-throttle (WOT) performance, and compression ratio of the combustion cylinder must be reduced to avoid knocking combustion. Despite of the reduced compression ratio, however, the total expansion ratio is increased to 13.8 with the extra expansion of the working gas in the inner cylinder. Compared to the conventional engine, the theoretical thermal efficiency is therefore increased by up to above 4.0% with the ultra-expansion cycle over the most load range. The energy balance analysis shows that the increased combustion efficiency, reduced exhaust energy and the extra expansion work in the

  4. Study of cycle-by-cycle variations of a spark ignition engine fueled with natural gas-hydrogen blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jinhua; Chen, Hao; Liu, Bing; Huang, Zuohua [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2008-09-15

    Cycle-by-cycle variations of a spark ignition engine fueled with natural gas-hydrogen blends with hydrogen volumetric fraction of 0%, 12%, 23%, 30% and 40% were studied. The effect of hydrogen addition on cycle-by-cycle variations of the natural gas engine was analyzed. The results showed that the peak cylinder pressure, the maximum rate of pressure rise and the indicated mean effective pressure increased and their corresponding cycle-by-cycle variations decreased with the increase of hydrogen fraction at lean mixture operation. The interdependency between the combustion parameters and the corresponding crank angle tended to be strongly correlated with the increase of hydrogen fraction under lean mixture operation. Coefficient of variation of the indicated mean effective pressure gave a low level and is slightly influenced by hydrogen addition under the stoichiometric and relatively rich mixture operation while it decreased remarkably with the increase of hydrogen fraction under the lean mixture operation. The excessive air ratio at CoV{sub imep} = 10% extended to the leaner mixture side with the increase of hydrogen fraction and this indicated that the engine lean operating limit could be extended with hydrogen addition. (author)

  5. Fuelling regulation with Electronic fuel injection for small spark ignition engine using Fuzzy Logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.R.; Sahir, M.H.

    2004-01-01

    The use of Electronic Control systems in automotive applications gives the design engineer greater control over various processes compared with mechanical methods Examples of such electronic control systems are Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI), Traction Control Systems (TCS) and Anti-lock Braking Systems (ABS). In addition, the development of inexpensive and fast microcontrollers has remarkably improve, performance of passive and active safety systems of automobiles, without causing excessive increase in prices of vehicles -a favourable factor from the consumer's perspective. This paper deals with a possible electronic aid for the improvement of power control in a motorcycle. Controlling the speed and power of a motorcycle is difficult; especially on bumpy and uneven terrain. In this paper, the development of an EPI system is discussed, incorporating artificial intelligence to regulate the fuel supplied to the engine. It would minimize wheel slippage and jerky and sudden acceleration which potentially dangerous. It would also reduce production of large quantities of pollutant like hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide. Fuel consumption would also improve during stop-and-go traffic. (author)

  6. Spark Channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haydon, S. C. [Department of Physics, University of New England, Armidale, NSW (Australia)

    1968-04-15

    A brief summary is given of the principal methods used for initiating spark channels and the various highly time-resolved techniques developed recently for studies with nanosecond resolution. The importance of the percentage overvoltage in determining the early history and subsequent development of the various phases of the growth of the spark channel is discussed. An account is then given of the recent photographic, oscillographic and spectroscopic investigations of spark channels initiated by co-axial cable discharges of spark gaps at low [{approx} 1%] overvoltages. The phenomena observed in the development of the immediate post-breakdown phase, the diffuse glow structure, the growth of the luminous filament and the final formation of the spark channel in hydrogen are described. A brief account is also given of the salient features emerging from corresponding studies of highly overvolted spark gaps in which the spark channel develops from single avalanche conditions. The essential differences between the two types of channel formation are summarized and possible explanations of the general features are indicated. (author)

  7. Critical firing and misfiring boundary in a spark ignition methanol engine during cold start based on single cycle fuel injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhaohui; Gong, Changming; Qu, Xiang; Liu, Fenghua; Sun, Jingzhen; Wang, Kang; Li, Yufeng

    2015-01-01

    The influence of the mass of methanol injected per cycle, ambient temperature, injection and ignition timing, preheating methods, and supplying additional liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) injection into the intake manifold on the critical firing and misfiring boundary of an electronically injection controlled spark ignition (SI) methanol engine during cold start were investigated experimentally based on a single cycle fuel injection with cycle-by-cycle control strategy. The critical firing and misfiring boundary was restricted by all parameters. For ambient temperatures below 16 °C, methanol engines must use auxiliary start-aids during cold start. Optimal control of the methanol injection and ignition timing can realize ideal next cycle firing combustion after injection. Resistance wire and glow plug preheating can provide critical firing down to ambient temperatures of 5 °C and 0 °C, respectively. Using an additional LPG injection into the intake manifold can provide critical firing down to an ambient temperature of −13 °C during cold start. As the ambient temperature decreases, the optimal angle difference between methanol injection timing and LPG injection timing for critical firing of a methanol engine increases rapidly during cold start. - Highlights: • A single cycle fuel injection and cycle-by-cycle control strategy are used to study. • In-cylinder pressure and instantaneous speed were used to determine firing boundary. • For the ambient temperatures below 16 °C, an auxiliary start-aids must be used. • A preheating and additional LPG were used to expand critical firing boundary. • Additional LPG can result in critical firing down to ambient temperature of −13 °C

  8. Thermodynamic simulation model for predicting the performance of spark ignition engines using biogas as fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes de Faria, Mário M.; Vargas Machuca Bueno, Juan P.; Ayad, Sami M.M. Elmassalami; Belchior, Carlos R. Pereira

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A 0-D model for performance prediction of SI ICE fueled with biogas is proposed. • Relative difference between simulated and experimental values was under 5%. • Can be adapted for different biogas compositions and operating ranges. • Could be a valuable tool for predicting trends and guiding experimentation. • Is suitable for use with biogas supplies in developing regions. - Abstract: Biogas found its way from developing countries and is now an alternative to fossil fuels in internal combustion engines and with the advantage of lower greenhouse gas emissions. However, its use in gas engines requires engine modifications or adaptations that may be costly. This paper reports the results of experimental performance and emissions tests of an engine-generator unit fueled with biogas produced in a sewage plant in Brazil, operating under different loads, and with suitable engine modifications. These emissions and performance results were in agreement with the literature and it was confirmed that the penalties to engine performance were more significant than emission reduction in the operating range tested. Furthermore, a zero dimensional simulation model was employed to predict performance characteristics. Moreover, a differential thermodynamic equation system was solved, obtaining the pressure inside the cylinder as a function of the crank angle for different engine conditions. Mean effective pressure and indicated power were also obtained. The results of simulation and experimental tests of the engine in similar conditions were compared and the model validated. Although several simplifying assumptions were adopted and empirical correlations were used for Wiebe function, the model was adequate in predicting engine performance as the relative difference between simulated and experimental values was lower than 5%. The model can be adapted for use with different raw or enriched biogas compositions and could prove to be a valuable tool to guide

  9. The regulations concerning the reprocessing business of spent fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    In compliance with ''The law for the regulations of nuclear source material, nuclear fuel material and reactors'' these regulations prescribe concerning reprocessing facilities: The procedures to apply for the approval of the design and method of construction and the approval of the change thereof; as well as the procedure to apply for the inspection of the facilities, and details of the inspection (in sections 2-6). After that, the regulations require the enterpriser of reprocessing business to keep necessary records and take necessary measures for safety concerning the facilities, operation of reprocessing equipments, and transportation, storage on disposal of used fuel, materials separated therefrom or materials contaminated by either of them (in sections 8-16). Further, the regulations prescribe the procedure to apply for the approval of the safety rule required to the enterpriser of reprocessing business by above mentioned law and specifies items which should be included into the rule (section 17). Moreover, the regulations require the enterpriser to submit reports of each use of the internationally controllled material and specifies the items which should be included into these reports (section 19). (Matsushima, A.)

  10. The regulations concerning the reprocessing business of spent fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The office ordinance is established under the provisions related to reprocessing businesses of the law concerning regulation of nuclear raw materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors, to enforce the provisions. The basic terms are defined, such as exposure radiation dose; accumulated dose; controlled area; maintenance area; surrounding watch area; employee; radioactive waste; the facilities for discharge to sea. An application for the designation of reprocessing businesses shall be filed, listing the following matters: the maximum daily and yearly reprocessing capacities for each kind of spent fuel; the location and general structure of reprocessing facilities; the structures of buildings; the structure and equipments of main reprocessing facilities, the storage facilities for products and the disposal facilities for radioactive wastes; the equipments of measuring and control system facilities and radiation control facilities, etc. Records shall be made on the inspection of reprocessing facilities, radiation control, operation, maintenance, the accidents of reprocessing facilities and weather, and kept for the period from one to ten years, respectively. Any person engaging in reprocessing businesses shall set up control, maintenance and surrounding watch areas, and take specified measures to restrict the entrance of persons. The measures to be taken against exposure radiation dose, the inspection, regular independent examination and operation of reprocessing facilities and other related matters are stipulated in detail. (Okada, K.)

  11. The regulations concerning the reprocessing business of spent fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The regulations are defined under provisions concerning the reprocessing business in the law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors. The basic concepts and terms are explained, such as: exposure dose; accumulative dose; controlled area; safeguarded area; inspected surrounding area; employee; radioactive waste and marine discharging facilities. Any person who gets permission for design of reprocessing facilities and method of the construction shall file an application, listing name and address of the person and the works or the place of enterprise where reprocessing facilities are to be set up, design of such facilities and method of the construction, in and out-put chart of nuclear fuel materials in reprocessing course, etc. Records shall be made and kept for particularly periods in each works or enterprise on inspection of reprocessing facilities, control of dose, operation, maintenance, accident of reprocessing facilities and weather. Detailed prescriptions are settled on entrance limitation to controlled area, exposure dose, inspection and check, regular independent examination and operation of reprocessing facilities, transportation in the works or the enterprise, storage, disposal, safeguard and measures in dangerous situations, etc. Reports shall be filed on exposure dose of employees and other specified matters in the forms attached and in the case otherwise defined. (Okada, K.)

  12. Regulations concerning the fabricating business of nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The regulations are entirely revised under the law for the regulations of nuclear materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors and provisions concerning the fabricating business in the order for execution of the law. Basic concepts and terms are defined, such as: exposure dose; accumulative dose; controlled area; inspected surrounding area; employee and radioactive waste. The application for permission of the fabricating business shall include: location of processing facilities; structure of building structure and equipment of chemical processing facilities; molding facilities; structure and equipment of covering and assembling facilities, storage facilities of nuclear fuel materials and disposal facilities of radioactive waste, etc. Records shall be made and kept for particular periods in each works and place of enterprise on inspection of processing facilities, control of dose, operation, maintenance, accident of processing facilities and weather. Specified measures shall be taken in controlled area and inspected surrounding area to restrict entrance. Measures shall be made not to exceed permissible exposure dose for employees defined by the Director General of Science and Technology Agency. Inspection and check up of processing facilities shall be carried on by employees more than once a day. Operation of processing facilities, transportation in the works and enterprise, storage, disposal, safety securing, report and measures in dangerous situations, etc. are in detail prescribed. (Okada, K.)

  13. Influence of swirl ratio on fuel distribution and cyclic variation under flash boiling conditions in a spark ignition direct injection gasoline engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jie; Xu, Min; Hung, David L.S.; Wu, Qiang; Dong, Xue

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Influence of swirl on fuel distribution studied using laser induced fluorescence. • Gradient is sufficient for fuel spatial distribution variation analysis. • Close relation between fuel distribution and flame initiation/development. • Quantitative analysis shows high swirl suppresses variation of fuel distribution. • High order modes capable of identifying the distribution fluctuation patterns. - Abstract: One effective way of suppressing the cycle-to-cycle variation in engine is to design a combustion system that is robust to the root causes of engine variation over the entire engine working process. Flash boiling has been demonstrated as an ideal technique to produce stable fuel spray. But the generation of stable intake flow and fuel mixture remains challenging. In this study, to evaluate the capability of enhanced swirl flow to produce repeatable fuel mixture formation, the fuel distribution inside a single cylinder optical engine under two swirl ratios were measured using laser induced fluorescence technique. The swirl ratio was regulated by a swirl control valve installed in one of the intake ports. A 266 nm wavelength laser sheet from a frequency-quadrupled laser was directed into the optical engine through the quartz liner 15 mm below the tip of the spark plug. The fluorescence signal from the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in gasoline was collected by applying a 320–420 nm band pass filter mounted in front of an intensified charge coupled device camera. Test results show that the in-cylinder fuel distribution is strongly influenced by the swirl ratio. Specifically, under high swirl condition, the fuel is mainly concentrated on the left side of the combustion chamber. While under the low swirl flow, fuel is distributed more randomly over the observing plane. This agrees well with the measurements of the stable flame location. Additionally, the cycle-to-cycle variation of the fuel distribution were analyzed. Results show that well

  14. Part-load performance and emissions of a spark ignition engine fueled with RON95 and RON97 gasoline: Technical viewpoint on Malaysia’s fuel price debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad, Taib Iskandar; How, Heoy Geok

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Recent Malaysia’s gasoline price hike affects mass perception and vehicle sales. • Effects of RON95 and RON97 on a representative engine was experimentally studied. • RON95 produced better torque, power, fuel efficiency and lower NO x . • RON97 gasoline resulted in lower BSFC and lower emissions of CO 2 , CO and HC. • Performance-emission-price cross-analysis indicated RON95 as the better option. - Abstract: Due to world crude oil price hike in the recent years, many countries have experienced increase in gasoline price. In Malaysia, where gasoline are sold in two grades; RON95 and RON97, and fuel price are regulated by the government, gasoline price have been gradually increased since 2009. Price rise for RON97 is more significant. By 2014, its per liter price is 38% more than that of RON95. This has resulted in escalated dissatisfaction among the mass. People argued they were denied from using a better fuel (RON97). In order to evaluate the claim, there is a need to investigate engine response to these two gasoline grades. The effect of gasoline RON95 and RON97 on performance and exhaust emissions in spark ignition engine was investigated on a representative engine: 1.6L, 4-cylinder Mitsubishi 4G92 engine with CR 11:1. The engine was run at constant speed between 1500 and 3500 rpm with 500 rpm increment at various part-load conditions. The original engine ECU, a hydraulic dynamometer and control, a combustion analyzer and an exhaust gas analyzer were used to determine engine performance, cylinder pressure and emissions. Results showed that RON95 produced higher engine performance for all part-load conditions within the speed range. RON95 produced on average 4.4% higher brake torque, brake power, brake mean effective pressure as compared to RON97. The difference in engine performance was more significant at higher engine speed and loads. Cylinder pressure and ROHR were evaluated and correlated with engine output. With RON95, the engine

  15. Studies and research concerning BNFP: LWR spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shallo, F.A.

    1978-08-01

    This report describes potential spent fuel storage expansion programs using the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant--Fuel Receiving and Storage Station (BNFP-FRSS) as a model. Three basic storage arrangements are evaluated with cost and schedule estimates being provided for each configuration. A general description of the existing facility is included with emphasis on the technical and equipment requirements which would be necessary to achieve increased spent fuel storage capacity at BNFP-FRSS

  16. Cyclic variations of fuel-droplet distribution during the early intake stroke of a lean-burn stratified-charge spark-ignition engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleiferis, P.G. [Imperial College London, Department of Mechanical Engineering, London (United Kingdom); University College London, Department of Mechanical Engineering, London (United Kingdom); Hardalupas, Y.; Taylor, A.M.K.P. [Imperial College London, Department of Mechanical Engineering, London (United Kingdom); Ishii, K. [Honda International Technical School, Saitama (Japan); Urata, Y. [Tochigi R and D Centre, Honda R and D Co., Ltd, Tochigi (Japan)

    2005-11-01

    Lean-burn spark-ignition engines exhibit higher efficiency and lower specific emissions in comparison with stoichiometrically charged engines. However, as the air-to-fuel (A/F) ratio of the mixture is made leaner than stoichiometric, cycle-by-cycle variations in the early stages of in-cylinder combustion, and subsequent indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP), become more pronounced and limit the range of lean-burn operation. Viable lean-burn engines promote charge stratification, the mixture near the spark plug being richer than the cylinder volume averaged value. Recent work has shown that cycle-by-cycle variations in the early stages of combustion in a stratified-charge engine can be associated with variations in both the local value of A/F ratio near the spark plug around ignition timing, as well as in the volume averaged value of the A/F ratio. The objective of the current work was to identify possible sources of such variability in A/F ratio by studying the in-cylinder field of fuel-droplet distribution during the early intake stroke. This field was visualised in an optical single-cylinder 4-valve pentroof-type spark-ignition engine by means of laser-sheet illumination in planes parallel to the cylinder head gasket 6 and 10 mm below the spark plug. The engine was run with port-injected isooctane at 1500 rpm with 30% volumetric efficiency and air-to-fuel ratio corresponding to both stoichiometric firing (A/F=15, {phi} =1.0) and mixture strength close to the lean limit of stable operation (A/F=22, {phi} =0.68). Images of Mie intensity scattered by the cloud of fuel droplets were acquired on a cycle-by-cycle basis. These were studied in order to establish possible correlations between the cyclic variations in size, location and scattered-light intensity of the cloud of droplets with the respective variations in IMEP. Because of the low level of Mie intensity scattered by the droplets and because of problems related to elastic scattering on the walls of the

  17. Legal questions concerning the termination of spent fuel element reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, Michele

    2005-01-01

    The thesis on legal aspects of the terminated spent fuel reprocessing in Germany is based on the legislation, jurisdiction and literature until January 2004. The five chapters cover the following topics: description of the problem; reprocessing of spent fuel elements in foreign countries - practical and legal aspects; operators' responsibilities according to the atomic law with respect to the reprocessing of Geman spent fuel elements in foreign countries; compatibility of the prohibition of Geman spent fuel element reprocessing in foreign countries with international law, European law and German constitutional law; results of the evaluation

  18. Fuel and Combustor Concerns for Future Commercial Combustors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Clarence T.

    2017-01-01

    Civil aircraft combustor designs will move from rich-burn to lean-burn due to the latter's advantage in low NOx and nvPM emissions. However, the operating range of lean-burn is narrower, requiring premium mixing performance from the fuel injectors. As the OPR increases, the corresponding combustor inlet temperature increase can benefit greatly with fuel composition improvements. Hydro-treatment can improve coking resistance, allowing finer fuel injection orifices to speed up mixing. Selective cetane number control across the fuel carbon-number distribution may allow delayed ignition at high power while maintaining low-power ignition characteristics.

  19. Performance study of a four-stroke spark ignition engine working with both of hydrogen and ethyl alcohol as supplementary fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Baghdadi, M.A.-R.S. [Babylon Univ. (Iraq). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2000-10-01

    The effect of the amount of hydrogen/ethyl alcohol addition on the performance and pollutant emission of a four-stroke spark ignition engine has been studied. The results of the study show that all engine performance parameters have been improved when operating the gasoline spark ignition engine with dual addition of hydrogen and ethyl alcohol. The important improvements of alcohol addition are to reduce the NO{sub x} emission with increase in the higher useful compression ratio and output power of hydrogen-supplemented engine. The addition of 8 mass% of hydrogen, with 30 vol% of ethyl alcohol into a gasoline engine operating at 9 compression ratio and 1500 rpm causes a 48.5% reduction in CO emission, 31.1% reduction in NO{sub x} emission and 58.5% reduction in specific fuel consumption. Moreover, the engine thermal efficiency and output power increased by 10.1 and 4.72%, respectively. When ethyl alcohol is increased over 30%, it causes unstable engine operation which can be related to the fact that the fuel is not vaporized, and this causes a reduction in both the break power and efficiency. (Author)

  20. Effect of compression ratio, equivalence ratio and engine speed on the performance and emission characteristics of a spark ignition engine using hydrogen as a fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadiq Al-Baghdadi, M.A.R. [University of Babylon (Iraq). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2004-12-01

    The present energy situation has stimulated active research interest in non-petroleum and non-polluting fuels, particularly for transportation, power generation, and agricultural sectors. Researchers have found that hydrogen presents the best and an unprecedented solution to the energy crises and pollution problems, due to its superior combustion qualities and availability. This paper discusses analytically and provides data on the effect of compression ratio, equivalence ratio and engine speed on the engine performance, emissions and pre-ignition limits of a spark ignition engine operating on hydrogen fuel. These data are important in order to understand the interaction between engine performance and emission parameters, which will help engine designers when designing for hydrogen. (author)

  1. Studies and research concerning BNFP. Nuclear spent fuel transportation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.T.; Maier, J.B.

    1979-11-01

    Currently, there are a number of institutional problems associated with the shipment of spent fuel assemblies from commercial nuclear power plants: new and conflicting regulations, embargoing of certain routes, imposition of transport safeguards, physical security in-transit, and a lack of definition of when and where the fuel will be moved. This report presents a summary of these types and kinds of problems. It represents the results of evaluations performed relative to fuel receipt at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant. Case studies were made which address existing reactor sites with near-term spent fuel transportation needs. Shipment by either highway, rail, water, or intermodal water-rail was considered. The report identifies the impact of new regulations and uncertainty caused by indeterminate regulatory policy and lack of action on spent fuel acceptance and storage. This stagnant situation has made it impossible for industry to determine realistic transportation scenarios for business planning and financial risk analysis. A current lack of private investment in nuclear transportation equipment is expected to further prolong the problems associated with nuclear spent fuel and waste disposition. These problems are expected to intensify in the 1980's and in certain cases will make continuing reactor plant operation difficult or impossible

  2. International safeguards concerns of Spent Fuel Disposal Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to stimulate discussions on the subjects of safeguarding large quantities of plutonium contained in spent fuels to be disposed of in geologic respositories. All the spent fuel disposal scenarios examined here pose a variety of safeguards problems, none of which are adequately addressed by the international safeguards community. The spent fuels from once-through fuel cycles in underground repositories would become an increasingly attractive target for diversion because of their plutonium content and decreasing radioactivity. Current design of the first geologic repository in the US will have the capacity to accommodate wastes equivalent to 70,000 Mt of uranium from commercial and defense fuel cycles. Of this, approximately 62,000 Mt uranium equivalent will be commerical spent fuel, containing over 500 Mt of plutonium. International safeguards commitments may require us to address the safeguards issues of disposing of such large quanities of plutonium in a geologic repository, which has the potential to become a plutonium mine in the future. This paper highlights several issues that should be addressed in the near term by US industries and the DOE before geologic repositories for spent fuels become a reality

  3. Coke-free dry reforming of model diesel fuel by a pulsed spark plasma at low temperatures using an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekine, Yasushi; Furukawa, Naotsugu; Matsukata, Masahiko; Kikuchi, Eiichi, E-mail: ysekine@waseda.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, Waseda University, 65-301, Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)

    2011-07-13

    Dry reforming of diesel fuel, an endothermic reaction, is an attractive process for on-board hydrogen/syngas production to increase energy efficiency. For operating this dry reforming process in a vehicle, we can use the exhaust gas from an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system as a source of carbon dioxide. Catalytic dry reforming of heavy hydrocarbon is a very difficult reaction due to the high accumulation of carbon on the catalyst. Therefore, we attempted to use a non-equilibrium pulsed plasma for the dry reforming of model diesel fuel without a catalyst. We investigated dry reforming of model diesel fuel (n-dodecane) with a low-energy pulsed spark plasma, which is a kind of non-equilibrium plasma at a low temperature of 523 K. Through the reaction, we were able to obtain syngas (hydrogen and carbon monoxide) and a small amount of C{sub 2} hydrocarbon without coke formation at a ratio of CO{sub 2}/C{sub fuel} = 1.5 or higher. The reaction can be conducted at very low temperatures such as 523 K. Therefore, it is anticipated as a novel and effective process for on-board syngas production from diesel fuel using an EGR system.

  4. Optical diagnostics of early flame development in a DISI (direct injection spark ignition) engine fueled with n-butanol and gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merola, Simona Silvia; Tornatore, Cinzia; Irimescu, Adrian; Marchitto, Luca; Valentino, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    Given the instability in supply and finite nature of fossil fuels, alternative renewable energy sources are continuously investigated throughout the production–distribution-use chain. Within this context, the research presented in this work is focused on using butanol as gasoline replacement in a Direct Injection Spark Ignition engine. The impact of this fuel on the combustion processes was investigated using optical diagnostics and conventional methods in a transparent single cylinder engine. Three different load settings were investigated at fixed engine speed, with combined throttling and mixture strength control. The engine was operated in homogenous charge mode, with commercial gasoline and pure n-butanol fueling. High spatial and temporal resolution visualization was applied in the first phase of the combustion process in order to follow the early flame development for the two fuels. The optical data were completed with conventional measurements of thermodynamic data and pollutants emission at the exhaust. Improved performance was obtained in throttled stoichiometric mode when using the alternative fuel, while at wide open throttle, gasoline featured higher indicated mean effective pressure at both air–fuel ratio settings. These overall findings were correlated to flame characteristics; the alcohol was found to feature more distorted flame contour compared to gasoline, especially in lean conditions. Differences were reduced during throttled stoichiometric operation, confirming that mass transfer processes, along with fuel chemistry and physical properties, exert a significant influence on local phenomena during combustion. - Highlights: • Butanol can replace gasoline without performance penalties in throttled, stoichiometric operation. • Butanol induces higher flame contour distortion than gasoline, especially in lean case. • Fuel chemical–physical properties strongly influence local phenomena during combustion. • Butanol ensured lower smoke

  5. Dual Spark Plugs For Stratified-Charge Rotary Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, John; Bracco, Frediano V.

    1996-01-01

    Fuel efficiency of stratified-charge, rotary, internal-combustion engine increased by improved design featuring dual spark plugs. Second spark plug ignites fuel on upstream side of main fuel injector; enabling faster burning and more nearly complete utilization of fuel.

  6. Comments on fuel cycle concepts and impacts on nonproliferation and safeguards concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persiani, P.J.

    1997-01-01

    Fuel cycle technologies have inherently differing levels of proliferation risk profiles. Institutional and/or multi-national arrangements have been effective in reducing the proliferation risk concerns. The implementation of international safeguards further reduces the proliferation risk concerns by the timely detection of a possible physical diversion of SNM from fuel cycle facilities. Fuel cycles are safeguardable, but the proliferation risk characteristics of fuel cycles concepts differ significantly with consequent impacts on the international level of technical safeguards measures. The paper comments on proliferation characteristics of some of the fuel cycle concepts for the purpose of exploring development of advanced nonproliferation and safeguards measures

  7. Some aspects concerning the implementation of a fuel technology project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreescu, N.; Alecu, M.; Mirion, I.

    1977-01-01

    The nuclear power programme in Romania envisages that until 1990 there will be installed about 6000 MWe in nuclear power plants. In order to put into practice such a nuclear programme there will be necessary high investments, possible to be achieved only by the ever increasing participation of the Romanian industry. With a view to this purpose, the Romanian authorities pay great attention to the research and development of the nuclear fuel manufacturing technology. Some research started in 1968-1969 and was intensified later in 1971 when the Institute for Nuclear Technology was founded and in 1972 when the IAEA-UNDP programme ''Development of Nuclear Technology in Romania'' started. This programme was conceived to deal with; 1. technology of UO2 powder and pellet fabrication; 2. manufacturing technology of fuel rods and bundle; 3. irradiation test of fuel rods; 4. development of various activities connected to fuel technology (thermal transfer loops, corrosion tests, neutronic, thermal and hydrodynamical calculations). Within the IAEA-UNDP project a demonstration facility was installed at INT where a great number of the works, resulting from the above mentioned directions, were performed. As a result of these works, at the end of 1975 in the demonstration facility there were manufactured in a reproducible way fuel rods according to the required specifications. The paper further presents the adopted irradiation testing programme, the out-of-pile testing programme, as well as some performances obtained during the different phases of the whole project. There have been conceived and manufactured some equipment meant for fabrication, tests, or for current control. The paper also shows some aspects connected to the personnel formation, as well as some aspects that will have to be solved in order to make possible the step from the demonstration facility to a fuel plant

  8. The regulations concerning the reprocessing business of spent fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Regulations specified here cover application for such matters as designation of reprocessing undertaking, permission of construction of reprocessing facilities, permission and approval of alteration (of plan for reprocessing facilities), etc. The regulations also cover application for prior inspection, execution of prior inspection, technical standards concerning performance of reprocessing facilities, certificate of prior inspection, reprocessing facilities subject to welding inspection, application for welding inspection, execution of welding inspection, facilities not subject to welding inspection, approval of welding method, welding inspection for imported equipment, certificate of welding inspection, reprocessing facilities subject to regular inspection, application for regular inspection, technical standards for regular inspection, operation plan, application for approval of joint management, record keeping, restriction on access to areas under management, measures concerning exposure to radioactive rays, patrol and checking in reprocessing facilities, operation of reprocessing facilities, self-imposed regular inspection of reprocessing facilities, transportation within plant or operation premises, storage, waste disposal within plant or operation premises, safety rules, notice of disassembly, measures for emergency, notice of abolition of business, notice of disorganization, measures concerning cancellation of designation, submission of report, etc. (Nogami, K.)

  9. Combustion and emissions characteristics of a spark-ignition engine fueled with hydrogen–methanol blends under lean and various loads conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Bo; Ji, Changwei; Wang, Shuofeng; Liu, Xiaolong

    2014-01-01

    Methanol is a promising alternative fuel for the spark-ignition engines. This paper experimentally investigated the performance of a hydrogen-blended methanol engine at lean and various load conditions. The test was conducted on a four-cylinder commercial spark-ignition engine equipped with an electronically controlled hydrogen port injection system. The test was conducted under a typical city driving speed of 1400 rpm and a constant excess air ratio of 1.20. Two hydrogen volume fractions in the intake of 0 and 3% were adopted to investigate the effect of hydrogen addition on combustion and emissions performance of the methanol engine. The test results showed that brake thermal efficiency was improved after the hydrogen addition. When manifolds absolute pressure increased from about 38 to 83 kPa, brake thermal efficiencies after the hydrogen addition were increased by 6.5% and 4.2%. The addition of hydrogen availed shortening flame development and propagation periods. The peak cylinder temperature was raised whereas cylinder temperature at the exhaust valve opening was decreased after the hydrogen addition. The addition of hydrogen contributed to the dropped hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide. However, nitrogen oxides were slightly raised after the hydrogen enrichment. - Highlights: • Load characteristics of a H 2 -blended methanol engine are experimentally studied. • H 2 addition is more effective on raising engine efficiency at low loads. • Flame development and propagation periods are shortened after H 2 addition. • H 2 enrichment contributes to the smooth operation of the methanol engine. • HC and CO emissions from the methanol engine are reduced after H 2 addition

  10. Regulations concerning the fabricating business of nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    As regards an application for permission of an fabricating business of nuclear fuel materials, it should describe the site of the fabricating facilities and the structure and equipments of buildings (fire-resistant, aseismatic, waterproof, ventilating and air-tight structures), etc. The business plan to be attached to the foregoing application should contain 1) scheduled date when the fabricating business starts, 2) scheduled amounts of products classified by the kinds in each business year within 5 years since the business starts, 3) the amount and the procurement plan of funds necessary for the operation, etc. For the permission of change of a fabricating business, an application must be filed. One who wants to obtain the permission of design and construction of fabricating facilities must file an application. One who wants to undergo inspection of the construction of fabricating facilities must file an application in which various items must be written. After such inspection has been done and it is regarded as passable, a certificate of passing inspection will be given. (Rikitake, Y.)

  11. Effect of Operating Conditions on Pollutants Concentration Emitted from a Spark Ignition Engine Fueled with Gasoline Bioethanol Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroun A. K. Shahad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is an experimental investigation of the effect of bioethanol gasoline blending on exhaust emissions in terms of carbon dioxide CO2, carbon monoxide CO, unburnt hydrocarbons UHC, and nitric oxide NOx of a spark ignition engine. Tests are conducted at controlled throttle and variable speed condition over the range of 1200 to 2000 rpm with intervals 400 rpm. Different compression ratios are tested for each speed, namely (7,8,10, and 11. Pure gasoline and bioethanol gasoline blends are used. The bioethanol used is produced from Iraqi date crop (Zehdi. Blending is done on energy replacement bases. Ethanol energy ratio (EER used is 5%, 10%, and 15%. At each of the three designated engine speeds, the torque is set as 0, 3, 7, 10, and 14 N·m. It is found that ethanol blending reduces CO and UHC concentration in the exhaust gases by about 45% and 40.15%, respectively, and increases NOx and CO2 concentrations in the exhaust gases by about 16.18% and 7.5%, respectively. It is found also that load and speed increase causes an increase in CO2 and NOx concentrations and reduces CO and UHC concentrations. It is also found that increasing the compression ratio causes the emissions of CO2 and NOx to decrease and those of CO and UHC to increase.

  12. Cycle Engine Modelling Of Spark Ignition Engine Processes during Wide-Open Throttle (WOT) Engine Operation Running By Gasoline Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahim, M F Abdul; Rahman, M M; Bakar, R A

    2012-01-01

    One-dimensional engine model is developed to simulate spark ignition engine processes in a 4-stroke, 4 cylinders gasoline engine. Physically, the baseline engine is inline cylinder engine with 3-valves per cylinder. Currently, the engine's mixture is formed by external mixture formation using piston-type carburettor. The model of the engine is based on one-dimensional equation of the gas exchange process, isentropic compression and expansion, progressive engine combustion process, and accounting for the heat transfer and frictional losses as well as the effect of valves overlapping. The model is tested for 2000, 3000 and 4000 rpm of engine speed and validated using experimental engine data. Results showed that the engine is able to simulate engine's combustion process and produce reasonable prediction. However, by comparing with experimental data, major discrepancy is noticeable especially on the 2000 and 4000 rpm prediction. At low and high engine speed, simulated cylinder pressures tend to under predict the measured data. Whereas the cylinder temperatures always tend to over predict the measured data at all engine speed. The most accurate prediction is obtained at medium engine speed of 3000 rpm. Appropriate wall heat transfer setup is vital for more precise calculation of cylinder pressure and temperature. More heat loss to the wall can lower cylinder temperature. On the hand, more heat converted to the useful work mean an increase in cylinder pressure. Thus, instead of wall heat transfer setup, the Wiebe combustion parameters are needed to be carefully evaluated for better results.

  13. The Use of Large Valve Overlap in Scavenging a Supercharged Spark-ignition Engine Using Fuel Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schey, Oscar W; Young, Alfred W

    1932-01-01

    This investigation was conducted to determine the effect of more complete scavenging on the full throttle power and the fuel consumption of a four-stroke-cycle engine. The NACA single-cylinder universal test engine equipped with both a fuel-injection system and a carburetor was used. The engine was scavenged by using a large valve overlap and maintaining a pressure in the inlet manifold of 2 inches of mercury above atmospheric. The maximum valve overlap used was 112 degrees. Tests were conducted for a range of compression ratios from 5.5 to 8.5. Except for variable speed tests, all tests were conducted at an engine speed of 1,500 r.p.m. The results of the tests show that the clearance volume of an engine can be scavenged by using a large valve overlap and about 2 to 5 inches of mercury pressure difference between the inlet and exhaust valve. With a fuel-injection system when the clearance volume was scavenged, a b.m.e.p. of over 185 pounds per square inch and a fuel consumption of 9.45 pound per brake horsepower per hour were obtained with a 6.5 compression ratio. An increase of approximately 10 pounds per square inch b.m.e.p. was obtained with a fuel-injection system over that with a carburetor.

  14. Status of work on the final repository concept concerning direct disposal of spent fuel rods in fuel rod casks (BSK)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filbert, W.; Wehrmann, J.; Bollingerfehr, W.; Graf, R.; Fopp, S.

    2008-01-01

    The reference concept in Germany on direct final storage of spent fuel rods is the burial of POLLUX containers in the final repository salt dome. The POLLUX container is self-shielded. The final storage concept also includes un-shielded borehole storage of high-level waste and packages of compacted waste. GNS has developed a spent fuel container (BSK-3) for unshielded borehole storage with a mass of 5.2 tons that can carry the fuel rods of three PWR reactors of 9 BWR reactors. The advantages of BSK storage include space saving, faster storage processes, less requirements concerning technical barriers, cost savings for self-shielded casks.

  15. Studies and research concerning BNFP: spent fuel dry storage studies at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, K.J.

    1980-09-01

    Conceptual designs are presented utilizing the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant for the dry interim storage of spent light water reactor fuel. Studies were conducted to determine feasible approaches to storing spent fuel by methods other than wet pool storage. Fuel that has had an opportunity to cool for several years, or more, after discharge from a reactor is especially adaptable to dry storage since its thermal load is greatly reduced compared to the thermal load immediately following discharge. A thermal analysis was performed to help in determining the feasibility of various spent fuel dry storage concepts. Methods to reject the heat from dry storage are briefly discussed, which include both active and passive cooling systems. The storage modes reviewed include above and below ground caisson-type storage facilities and numerous variations of vault, or hot cell-type, storage facilities

  16. Validation concerns for dry storage of foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trumble, E.F.

    1994-01-01

    Recent decisions by the Department of Energy have accelerated the need for storage options to support the return of foreign research reactor (FRR) fuel to the United States. Many of these returns consist of fuel types which contain highly enriched uranium and are aluminum clad. These attributes present many challenges not experienced in the fuel storage designs for commercial nuclear fuels where the fuels have lower enrichment and the cladding is more robust. Historically, returned FRR fuel has been stored for short periods in basins where it is cooled and then sent to be reprocessed. However, a severe lack of basin space and questionable availability of reprocessing facilities necessitates the development of other proposals. One proposed option is to store the FRR fuel in a dry state, thus reducing the corrosion problems associated with aluminum cladding. A drawback to this type of storage, however, is the lack of experimental data for this type of fuel under dry storage conditions. This lack of data has led to recent discussions over the accuracy of some of the current multigroup cross section libraries when applied to dry, fast systems of uranium and aluminum. This concern is evaluated for the specific case of Material Test Reactor (MTR) fuel (MTR is >60% of FRR fuel), a review of applicable experiments is presented and a new experiment is proposed

  17. Experimental study of a spark-gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruzzone, H.; Moreno, C.; Vieytes, R.

    1990-01-01

    Some experimental results concerning to the resistance of an atmospheric pressure spark-gap, operating in the self breakdown regime are presented. The influence of the energy discharging through the gap on this resistance is discussed. (Author)

  18. Regulations concerning the transport of nuclear fuel materials outside the works or the enterprise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The regulations are defined under the law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors and the order for execution of the law. Basic concepts and terms are explained, such as: vehicle transport; easy transport; nuclear fuel material load, exclusive loading, employee, accumulative dose and exposure dose. Technical standards of vehicle transport are specified in detail on nucler fuel materials as nuclear fuel load, L,A, EM and BU type of load, nuclear fuel load of fission substances, the second and third type of fission load and materials contaminated by nuclear fuel substances to be carried not as nuclear fuel loads. Special exceptional measures to such transport and technical standards of easy transport are also designated. The application for confirmation of the transport shall be filed to the Director General of Science and Technology Agency according to the form attached with documents explaining nuclear fuel materials to be transferred, the vessel of such materials and construction, material and method of production of such a vessel, safety of nuclear materials contained, etc. Measures in dangerous situations shall be taken to fight a fire or prohibit the entrance of persons other than the staff concerned. Reports shall be presented in 10 days to the Director, when theft, loss or irregular leaking of nuclear fuel materials or personal troubles occur on the way. (Okada, K.)

  19. Development and validation of a multi-zone combustion model for performance and nitric oxide formation in syngas fueled spark ignition engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakopoulos, C.D.; Michos, C.N.

    2008-01-01

    The development of a zero-dimensional, multi-zone combustion model is presented for predicting the performance and nitric oxide (NO) emissions of a spark ignition (SI) engine. The model is validated against experimental data from a multi-cylinder, four-stroke, turbocharged and aftercooled, SI gas engine running with syngas fuel. This alternative fuel, the combustible part of which consists mainly of CO and H 2 with the rest containing non-combustible gases, has been recently identified as a promising substitute of fossil fuels in view of environmentally friendly engine operation. The basic concept of the model is the division of the burned gas into several distinct zones, unlike the simpler two-zone models, for taking into account the temperature stratification of the burned mixture during combustion. This is especially important for accurate NO emissions predictions, since NO formation is strongly temperature dependent. The multi-zone formulation provides the chemical species concentrations gradient existing in the burned zones, as well as the relative contribution of each burned zone to the total in-cylinder NO formation. The burning rate required as input to the model is expressed as a Wiebe function, fitted to experimentally derived burn rates. All model's constants are calibrated at one operating point and then kept unchanged. Zone-resolved combustion related information is obtained, assisting in the understanding of the complex phenomena occurring during combustion in SI engines. Combustion characteristics of the lean-burn gas engine tested are provided for the complete load range, aiding the interpretation of its performance and knocking tendency. Computed NO emissions from the multi-zone model for various values of the engine load (i.e. air-fuel ratios) are presented and found to be in good agreement with the respective experimental ones, providing confidence for the predictive capability of the model. The superiority of the multi-zone model over its two

  20. COMBUSTION SIMULATION IN A SPARK IGNITION ENGINE CYLINDER: EFFECTS OF AIR-FUEL RATIO ON THE COMBUSTION DURATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nureddin Dinler

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Combustion is an important subject of internal combustion engine studies. To reduce the air pollution from internal combustion engines and to increase the engine performance, it is required to increase combustion efficiency. In this study, effects of air/fuel ratio were investigated numerically. An axisymmetrical internal combustion engine was modeled in order to simulate in-cylinder engine flow and combustion. Two dimensional transient continuity, momentum, turbulence, energy, and combustion equations were solved. The k-e turbulence model was employed. The fuel mass fraction transport equation was used for modeling of the combustion. For this purpose a computational fluid dynamics code was developed by using the finite volume method with FORTRAN programming code. The moving mesh was utilized to simulate the piston motion. The developed code simulates four strokes of engine continuously. In the case of laminar flow combustion, Arrhenius type combustion equations were employed. In the case of turbulent flow combustion, eddy break-up model was employed. Results were given for rich, stoichiometric, and lean mixtures in contour graphs. Contour graphs showed that lean mixture (l = 1.1 has longer combustion duration.

  1. Notification determining technical details concerning measures for transportation of nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    These provisions are established on the basis of and to enforce ''The regulation for installation and operation of reactor'', ''The regulation concerning the fabricating business of nuclear fuel'' and ''The regulations concerning the reprocessing business of spent fuel''. The terms used hereinafter are according to those used in such regulations. The limit of radioactivity concentration of things contaminated by the nuclear fuel materials which are not required to be enclosed in vessels is defined in the lists attached. In the applications for the approval of the measures concerning the transport of things remarkably difficult to be enclosed in vessels, the name and the address of the applicant, the kind, quantity, form and constitution of the thing contaminated by the nuclear fuel materials to be transported, the date and route of the transport and the measures for the prevention of injuries during the transport must be written. The limit of quantity of nuclear fuel materials classifying the performance of vessels is defined respectively in the lists attached. The radiation dose rates provided for by the Director General of the Science and Technology Agency concerning transported things and transporting apparatuses are 200 millirem per hour on the surfaces of such things and containers. The nuclear fission materials specified, for which the measures for the prevention of criticality are especially required, include uranium 233, uranium 235, plutonium 238, plutonium 239, plutonium 241, and the chemical compounds of such substances, and the nuclear fuel materials containing one or two and more of such substances, excluding the nuclear fuel materials with less than 15 grams of such uranium and plutonium. (Okada, K.)

  2. Concerning enactment of regulations on burying of waste of nuclear fuel material or waste contaminated with nuclear fuel material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Atomic Safety Commission of Japan, after examining a report submitted by the Science and Technology Agency concerning the enactment of regulations on burying of waste of nuclear fuel material or waste contaminated with nuclear fuel material, has approved the plan given in the report. Thus, laws and regulations concerning procedures for application for waste burying business, technical standards for implementation of waste burying operation, and measures to be taken for security should be established to ensure the following. Matters to be described in the application for the approval of such business and materials to be attached to the application should be stipulated. Technical standards concerning inspection of waste burying operation should be stipulated. Measures to be taken for the security of waste burying facilities and security concerning the transportation and disposal of nuclear fuel material should be stipulated. Matters to be specified in the security rules should be stipulated. Matters to be recorded by waste burying business operators, measures to be taken to overcome dangers and matters to be reported to the Science and Technology Agency should be stipulated. (Nogami, K.)

  3. Alternative Fuels DISI Engine Research ? Autoignition Metrics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoberg, Carl Magnus Goran [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vuilleumier, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2018-02-01

    Improved engine efficiency is required to comply with future fuel economy standards. Alternative fuels have the potential to enable more efficient engines while addressing concerns about energy security. This project contributes to the science base needed by industry to develop highly efficient direct injection spark igniton (DISI) engines that also beneficially exploit the different properties of alternative fuels. Here, the emphasis is on quantifying autoignition behavior for a range of spark-ignited engine conditions, including directly injected boosted conditions. The efficiency of stoichiometrically operated spark ignition engines is often limited by fuel-oxidizer end-gas autoignition, which can result in engine knock. A fuel’s knock resistance is assessed empirically by the Research Octane Number (RON) and Motor Octane Number (MON) tests. By clarifying how these two tests relate to the autoignition behavior of conventional and alternative fuel formulations, fuel design guidelines for enhanced engine efficiency can be developed.

  4. Concerning permission of change in nuclear fuel processing business of Japan Nuclear Fuel Co. , Ltd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-12-01

    In response to an inquiry on the title issue received on Jun. 17, 1988, the Nuclear Safety Commission made a study and submitted the findings to the Prime Minister on Jul. 21, 1988. The study was intended to determine the conformity of the permission to the applicable criteria specified in laws relating to control of nuclear material, nuclear fuel and nuclear reactor. The proposed modification plan included changes in the facilities in the No.1 processing building and changes in processing methods which were required to perform processing of blanket fuel assemblies for fast breeder reactor. It also included changes in the facilities in the No.2 building which were required to improve the processes. The safety study covered the anti-earthquake performance, fire/explosion prevention, criticality control, containment performance, radioactive waste disposal, and other major safety issues. Other investigations included exposure dose evaluation and accident analysis. Study results were examined on the basis of the Basic Guidelines for Nuclear Fuel Facilities Safety Review and the Uranium Processing Safety Review Guidelines. It was concluded that the modifications would not have adverse effect on the safety of the facilities. (Nogami, K.).

  5. Concerning permission of change in nuclear fuel processing business of Japan Nuclear Fuel Co., Ltd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    In response to an inquiry on the title issue received on Jun. 17, 1988, the Nuclear Safety Commission made a study and submitted the findings to the Prime Minister on Jul. 21, 1988. The study was intended to determine the conformity of the permission to the applicable criteria specified in laws relating to control of nuclear material, nuclear fuel and nuclear reactor. The proposed modification plan included changes in the facilities in the No.1 processing building and changes in processing methods which were required to perform processing of blanket fuel assemblies for fast breeder reactor. It also included changes in the facilities in the No.2 building which were required to improve the processes. The safety study covered the anti-earthquake performance, fire/explosion prevention, criticality control, containment performance, radioactive waste disposal, and other major safety issues. Other investigations included exposure dose evaluation and accident analysis. Study results were examined on the basis of the Basic Guidelines for Nuclear Fuel Facilities Safety Review and the Uranium Processing Safety Review Guidelines. It was concluded that the modifications would not have adverse effect on the safety of the facilities. (Nogami, K.)

  6. Scattering profiles of sparks and combustibility of filter against hot sparks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asazuma, Shinichiro; Okada, Takashi; Kashiro, Kashio

    2004-01-01

    The glove-box dismantling facility in the Plutonium Fuel Production Facility is developed to dismantle after-service glove-boxes with remote-controlled devices such as an arm-type manipulator. An abrasive wheel cutter, which is used to size reduce the gloveboxes, generates sparks during operation. This dispersing spark was a problem from the fire prevention point of view. A suitable spark control measures for this operation were required. We developed panels to minimize spark dispersion, shields to prevent the income of sparks to the pre-filter, and incombustible pre-filters. The equipment was tested and effectiveness was confirmed. This report provides the results of these tests. (author)

  7. The regulations concerning refining business of nuclear source material and nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This rule is established under the provisions concerning refining business in the law concerning the regulation of nuclear raw materials, nuclear fuel materials and nuclear reactors and the ordinance for the execution of this law, and to enforce them. Basic terms are defined, such as: exposure radiation dose, cumulative dose, control area, surrounding monitoring area and worker. The application for the designation for refining business under the law shall be classified into the facilities for crushing and leaching-filtration, thikening, and refining, the storage facilities for nuclear raw materials and nuclear fuel materials, and the disposal facilities for radioactive wastes, etc. To the application, shall be attached business plans, the explanations concerning the technical abilities of applicants and the prevention of hazards by nuclear raw materials and nuclear fuel materials regarding refining facilities, etc. Records shall be made on the accept, delivery and stock of each kind of nuclear raw materials and nuclear fuel materials, radiation control, the maintenance of and accidents in refining facilities, and kept for specified periods, respectively. Security regulations shall be enacted for each works or enterprise on the functions and organizations of persons engaged in the control of refining facilities, the operation of the apparatuses which must be controlled for the prevention of accidents, and the establishment of control area and surrounding monitoring area, etc. The report on the usage of internationally regulated goods and the measures taken at the time of danger are defined particularly. (Okada, K.)

  8. Over compression influence to the performances of the spark ignition engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakosi, E.; Talif, S. G.; Manolache, G.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents the theoretical and experimental results of some procedures used in improving the performances of the automobile spark ignition engines. The study uses direct injection and high over-compression applied to a standard engine. To this purpose, the paper contains both the constructive solutions and the results obtained from the test bed concerning the engine power indices, fuel consumption and exhaust emissions.

  9. The NRC activities concerning Boraflex use in spent-fuel storage racks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopp, L.I.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has issued several generic communications to the nuclear industry identifying two issues with respect to using Boraflex in spent-fuel storage racks. The first issue related to gamma-radiation-induced shrinkage of Boraflex and the potential to develop tears or gaps in the material. This phenomenon is typically accounted for in criticality analyses of spent-fuel storage racks. The second issue concerned long-term Boraflex performance throughout the intended service life of the racks as a result of both gamma irradiation and exposure to the wet pool environment

  10. Fastdata processing with Spark

    CERN Document Server

    Karau, Holden

    2013-01-01

    This book will be a basic, step-by-step tutorial, which will help readers take advantage of all that Spark has to offer.Fastdata Processing with Spark is for software developers who want to learn how to write distributed programs with Spark. It will help developers who have had problems that were too much to be dealt with on a single computer. No previous experience with distributed programming is necessary. This book assumes knowledge of either Java, Scala, or Python.

  11. New concepts, requirements and methods concerning the periodic inspection of the CANDU fuel channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denis, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    Periodic inspection of fuel channels is essential for a proper assessment of the structural integrity of these vital components of the reactor. The development of wet channel technologies for non-destructive examination (NDE) of pressure tubes and the high technical performance and reliability of the CIGAR equipment have led, in less than 1 0 years, to the accumulation of a very significant volume of data concerning the flaw mechanisms and structural behaviour of the CANDU fuel channels. On this basis, a new form of the CAN/CSA-N285.4 Standard for Periodic Inspection of CANDU Nuclear Power Plant components was elaborated, introducing new concepts and requirements, in accord with the powerful NDE methods now available. This paper presents these concepts and requirements, and discusses the NDE methods, presently used or under development, to satisfy these requirements. Specific features regarding the fuel channel inspections of Cernavoda NGS Unit 1 are also discussed. (author)

  12. Addressing Concerns Related to the Use of Ethanol-Blended Fuels in Marine Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory W. Davis

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol blended fuels have become increasingly prevalent in the on-road transportation sector due to the benefits they provide in energy security, sustainability and reduced environmental impact. However, ethanol usage has led to material compatibility concerns causing corrosion and degradation in materials that are commonly used in engines and fuel storage/delivery systems. The on-road transportation sector continues to study and develop alternatives to minimize potential material challenges. Although, marine vehicles represent a smaller segment of the transportation sector, they represent many vehicles, particularly in the United States. Concerns related to the use of ethanol blended fuels in the marine environment have been expressed by many individuals and groups. Unfortunately, relatively little work has gone into the study of gasoline mixed with approximately 10% ethanol usage and potential material incompatibilities in marine engines. The objective of this article is to provide some factual answers to these concerns. In order to understand the extent of material incompatibilities, a literature survey of published material compatibility data and marine engine manufacturer recommendations was conducted. Next field samples of marine fuels were gathered to estimate the extent of ethanol usage in marine gasoline. Finally, samples of new and in-use marine components were exposed to either gasoline mixed with approximately 10% ethanol or gasoline with 0% ethanol for 1,960 hours to determine whether gasoline mixed with approximately 10% ethanol presented degradation beyond that seen with gasoline (gasoline with 0% ethanol alone. This work has shown that many marine engine manufacturers have used ethanol compatible materials in current products and that exposure of older marine engine components to gasoline mixed with approximately 10% ethanol by did not reveal any significant degradation. Finally, marine fuel samples gathered in 2013, reveal that

  13. 77 FR 8254 - Notice of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced From Palm Oil Under the RFS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced From Palm Oil Under the RFS Program; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY... of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced From Palm Oil Under the RFS Program'' (the notice is herein referred to as the ``palm oil NODA''). EPA published a NODA, which included a request...

  14. 77 FR 19663 - Notice of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced from Palm Oil Under the RFS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced from Palm Oil Under the RFS Program; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY... of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced from Palm Oil under the RFS Program'' (the notice is herein referred to as the ``palm oil NODA''). EPA published a NODA, which included a request...

  15. Proposed nuclear weapons nonproliferation policy concerning foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel: Appendix B, foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel characteristics and transportation casks. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This is Appendix B of a draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on a Proposed Nuclear Weapons Nonproliferation Policy Concerning Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel. It discusses relevant characterization and other information of foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel that could be managed under the proposed action. It also discusses regulations for the transport of radioactive materials and the design of spent fuel casks

  16. Regulations concerning the transport of nuclear fuel materials outside the works or the enterprise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This rule is established under the provisions of the law concerning the regulation of nuclear raw materials, nuclear fuel materials and nuclear reactors and the ordinance for its execution, and to enforce the law. Basic terms are defined, such as vehicle transport, simplified transport, nuclear fuel transport goods, exclusive loading, worker, cumulative dose and exposure radiation dose. Nuclear fuel transport goods are classified into types of L, A, BM and BU according to their radioactivities. Radiation dose rate shall not exceed 0.5 milli-rem an hour on the surface of the type L, and 200 milli-rem an hour on the surface of the type A. For the type BM, the rate shall not surpass 1,000 milli-rem an hour at the distance of 1 meter from the surface in the special test conditions. The transport goods of fissile materials must not reach criticality on the way, but also shall conform to the stipulated technical standards. The particular things contaminated by nuclear fuel materials can be transported without specifying as nuclear fuel transport goods, and their radiation dose rate shall not go beyond 0.5 milli-rem an hour on the surface. The transport by special measures, the technical standards of simplified transport and measures to be taken in danger in transit are defined, respectively.(Okada, K.)

  17. On the geometry of the fuel rod supports concerning a fretting wear failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung-Kyu; Lee, Young-Ho; Lee, Kang-Hee

    2008-01-01

    Geometrical conditions of spacer grid springs and dimples of a light water reactor fuel assembly are studied in this paper concerning a fuel rod's fretting wear failure. In this framework, the springs/dimples are categorized from the aspects of their orientation with respect to the fuel axis and the contact types. Possible motions on the contacts between the springs/dimples and fuel rods are estimated by conducting a flow-induced vibration test. Features of the wear scar and depth are investigated by independent fretting wear tests carried out with spring and dimple specimens of typical contact geometries. It is also attempted here to apply the contact mechanics theory to a fuel fretting wear analysis such as the prediction of a wear depth profile and its rate, which is influenced by the contact shape of the springs/dimples. It is shown that the theory can be applied to a dimensional control of a coining for the springs/dimples, which is usually carried out in a thin plate fabrication. From the results, the necessary conditions for a spring/dimple geometry for restraining a fretting wear failure are discussed

  18. Improvement of performance and reduction of pollutant emissions of a four-stroke spark ignition engine fuelled with a mixture of hydrogen and methane as a supplementary fuel to alcohol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Bagdhadi, M.A.-R.S. [University of Babylon (Iraq). College of Engineering

    2004-05-01

    Owing to the energy crisis and pollution problems of today, investigations have concentrated on decreasing fuel consumption and on lowering the concentration of toxic components in combustion products by using non-petroleum, renewable, sustainable and non-polluting fuels. While conventional energy sources such as natural gas, oil and coal are non-renewable, hydrogen and alcohol can be coupled to renewable and sustainable energy sources. The usage of a mixture of hydrogen and methane as a supplementary fuel to an alcohol-air mixture for spark ignition engines results in a considerable improvement in engine performance and in the reduction of the toxic components in exhaust gases in comparison with the conventional spark ignition gasoline engine. In tests, the gas comprising 40 per cent H, and 60 per cent CH{sub 4} by volume was added to alcohol as 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 per cent by mass. Operating test results for a range of compression ratio (CR) and equivalent ratio are presented. Gasoline fuel was used as a basis for comparison. The important improvement in methane addition reduced the specific fuel consumption (s.f.c.) and CO emission of alcohol engines. The performance of the engine is enhanced when relatively small amounts of hydrogen are present with methane. This improvement in performance, which is especially pronounced at operational equivalence ratios that are much leaner than the stoichiometric value, can be attributed largely to the faster and cleaner burning characteristics of hydrogen in comparison with methane or alcohol. Moreover, the addition of hydrogen decreases the s.f.c. of the engine. The possibility of an engine power quality adjustment has also been studied. (author)

  19. The regulations concerning refining business of nuclear source material and nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The regulations are provided for under the law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors and provisions concerning refining business in the enforcement order for the law. The basic concepts and terms are defined, such as: exposure dose, accumulative dose; controlled area; inspected surrounding area and employee. Refining facilities listed in the application for designation shall be classified into clushing and leaching, thickning, refining facilities, storage facilities of nuclear source materials and nuclear fuel materials, disposal facilities of contaminated substances and building for refining, etc. Business program attached to the application shall include expected time of beginning of refining, estimated production amount of nuclear source materials or nuclear fuel materials for the first three years and funds necessary for construction, etc. Records shall be made and kept for particular periods on delivery and storage of nuclear source materials and nuclear fuel materials, control of radiation, maintenance and accidents of refining facilities. Safety securing, application of internationally regulated substances and measures in dangerous situations are stipulated respectively. Exposure dose of employees and other specified matters shall be reported by the refiner yearly to the Director General of Science and Technology Agency and the Minister of International Trade and Industry. (Okada, K.)

  20. Optical spark chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1971-01-01

    An optical spark chamber developed for use in the Omega spectrometer. On the left the supporting frame is exceptionally thin to allow low momentum particles to escape and be detected outside the magnetic field.

  1. Laser spark distribution and ignition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Steven [Morgantown, WV; McIntyre, Dustin L [Morgantown, WV

    2008-09-02

    A laser spark distribution and ignition system that reduces the high power optical requirements for use in a laser ignition and distribution system allowing for the use of optical fibers for delivering the low peak energy pumping pulses to a laser amplifier or laser oscillator. An optical distributor distributes and delivers optical pumping energy from an optical pumping source to multiple combustion chambers incorporating laser oscillators or laser amplifiers for inducing a laser spark within a combustion chamber. The optical distributor preferably includes a single rotating mirror or lens which deflects the optical pumping energy from the axis of rotation and into a plurality of distinct optical fibers each connected to a respective laser media or amplifier coupled to an associated combustion chamber. The laser spark generators preferably produce a high peak power laser spark, from a single low power pulse. The laser spark distribution and ignition system has application in natural gas fueled reciprocating engines, turbine combustors, explosives and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy diagnostic sensors.

  2. Influence of Compression Ratio on High Load Performance and Knock Behavior for Gasoline Port-Fuel Injection, Natural Gas Direct Injection and Blended Operation in a Spark Ignition Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pamminger, Michael; Sevik, James; Scarcelli, Riccardo; Wallner, Thomas; Hall, Carrie

    2017-03-28

    Natural Gas (NG) is an alternative fuel which has attracted a lot of attention recently, in particular in the US due to shale gas availability. The higher hydrogen-to-carbon (H/C) ratio, compared to gasoline, allows for decreasing carbon dioxide emissions throughout the entire engine map. Furthermore, the high knock resistance of NG allows increasing the efficiency at high engine loads compared to fuels with lower knock resistance. NG direct injection (DI) allows for fuel to be added after intake valve closing (IVC) resulting in an increase in power density compared to an injection before IVC. Steady-state engine tests were performed on a single-cylinder research engine equipped with gasoline (E10) port-fuel injection (PFI) and NG DI to allow for in-cylinder blending of both fuels. Knock investigations were performed at two discrete compression ratios (CR), 10.5 and 12.5. Operating conditions span mid-load, wide-open-throttle and boosted conditions, depending on the knock response of the fuel blend. Blended operation was performed using E10 gasoline and NG. An additional gasoline type fuel (E85) with higher knock resistance than E10 was used as a high-octane reference fuel, since the octane rating of E10-NG fuel blends is unknown. Spark timing was varied at different loads under stoichiometric conditions in order to study the knock response as well as the effects on performance and efficiency. As anticipated, results suggest that the knock resistance can be increased significantly by increasing the NG amount. Comparing the engine operation with the least knock resistant fuel, E10 PFI, and the fuel blend with the highest knock resistance, 75% NG DI, shows an increase in indicated mean effective pressure of about 9 bar at CR 12.5. The usage of reference fuels with known knock characteristics allowed an assessment of knock characteristic of intermediate E10-NG blend levels. Mathematical correlations were developed allowing characterizing the occurrence of knocking

  3. Studies and research concerning BNFP: evaluation of spent-fuel-examination techniques for the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.T.; Gray, J.H.; Rogell, M.L.

    1982-09-01

    A study was made of various examinations which could be remotely performed on a production basis with spent fuel at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP). These techniques could form an integral portion of fuel disassembly and canning operations. Their benefits accrue to either improved fuel storage, reprocessing, or both. In conjunctoin with these studies, evaluations have been made of the operational impact of receiving failed or canned fuel at the BNFP

  4. COMPENDIUM: SURVEYS EVALUATING KNOWLEDGE AND OPINIONS CONCERNING HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truett, Lorena Faith [ORNL; Cooper, Christy [U.S. Department of Energy; Schmoyer, Richard L [ORNL

    2008-10-01

    information for many of the surveys is collected face-to-face or electronically; however, all of the DOE surveys are conducted via telephone interviews. Most of the surveys concentrated on a specific population group, while the DOE surveys addressed five different populations (general public, students, government agencies, end users, and safety and codes officials). No survey (except the DOE survey) conducted since 2003 surveyed students knowledge and opinions of hydrogen and fuel cells. Although several surveys have solicited opinions of users (e.g., passengers of fuel-cell vehicles), no surveys were conducted of end users (industrial users needing large power supplies, commercial users needing uninterrupted power, or transportation businesses). While the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has surveyed its membership concerning standards, the population of safety and codes officials has not been surveyed. The greatest impact and importance of the DOE surveys is that five distinct population groups are surveyed for both knowledge and opinions on hydrogen and fuel cells. Knowledge levels can be computed for each population group and can be compared across the populations and across time. Opinions can be compared with knowledge levels. A baseline of knowledge levels was derived using the results of the 2004 surveys; this baseline will be compared with the results of the knowledge evaluation for the surveys of 2008/2009 and 2011/2012. The DOE knowledge and opinion surveys are unique in coverage and purpose. It must be noted, however, that response rates for telephone surveys have decreased dramatically over time. Developments in survey methodology research will have to be followed over the next few years so that necessary adjustments are made in the 20112012 DOE hydrogen survey design, to account for cell-phone-only individuals as well as other changes in telephone usage demographics.

  5. Problem concerning the use of secondary fuel energy systems in ferrous metallurgy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shchelokov, Ia M

    1981-01-01

    Ferrous metallurgy makes available significant amount of secondary fuel energy resources: the possible output of secondary energy resources amounts to about 400 to 450 million gigajoules, the capacity of using secondary energy resources amount to 140 to 150 million gigajoules. Eighty percent of the general amount of the used secondary fuel energy resources is used in mills of open-hearth, rolling, and aneealing production. In the last twenty-five years and in connection with the change in the technological plans in the metallurgical industry, the specific output of secondary energy resources by branch decreased from 4.5 to 2.25 gigajoules per one ton of steel. The designs of mass produced boiler users does not correspond to the technical needs of the developing technology of smelting and annealing production. The Uralenergochermet together with the Ural branch of the F. Dzerzhinski All-Union Heat Engineering Institute, in 1970, introduced into use at the Orsko-Knalilov metallurgical plant, an impulse purification boiler user system. Note is made of the positive test of the operation of the Seversk pipe plant in respect to the dispersion and burning of the grease and fuel oil by products hydrated up to 30 to 40% by using the heat in the boiler users. In a number of Ural metallurgy plants, a 100% use of secondary energy resources in the course of the year was insured. Excellent results were obtained concerning the insurance of the stable operation of the system of the used thermal energy center at the Magnezit Satkin plant.

  6. SparkRS - Spark for Remote Sensing, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is Spark-RS, an open source software project that enables GPU-accelerated remote sensing workflows in an Apache Spark distributed computing...

  7. 76 FR 31467 - Guide Concerning Fuel Economy Advertising for New Automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... the Fuel Economy Guide \\1\\ in 1975 to prevent deceptive fuel economy advertising for new automobiles... Economy Guide. That rulemaking will increase the coverage of EPA's new fuel economy labels to include... issue to new vehicle advertisers in the FTC's Fuel Economy Guide. Therefore, the Commission has...

  8. Studies and research concerning BNFP. Nuclear transportation studies related to use of the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.T.

    1981-11-01

    It will be necessary to transport radioactive material on a routine basis if the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP) is to be utilized. This report examines the current and projected status of transport of high-level nuclear material, with particular application directed toward the operation of the BNFP. The current domestic US status is one of comparative inactivity in the movement of utility spent fuel. Pending the successful disposition of fuel cycle options such as either Away-from-Reactor (AFR) storage or reprocessing, spent fuel transport to the BNFP will be dormant through the mid-1980's. If fuel movement is initiated, the primary areas of concern will be the maze of local, state, and federal regulations on routing, the availability of spent fuel casks, and the logistic concerns of fuel loading and unloading capability at the reactor and the BNFP. The report examines the application of overweight truck (OWT) shipments of spent fuel casks patterned on current European practice. Overweight shipments, whether by truck or intermodal movement (rail or barge combined with truck shipment), can have a significant impact on resolving logistics problems. It seems obvious from our studies that OWT casks will be utilized, along with legal weight truck and rail shipment. Water transport was also examined. It appears that this mode will only be used in the event that highway and rail problems are insuperable

  9. 2-Methylfuran: A bio-derived octane booster for spark-ignition engines

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani; Shankar, Vijai; Tripathi, Rupali; Pitsch, Heinz; Sarathy, Mani

    2018-01-01

    The efficiency of spark-ignition engines is limited by the phenomenon of knock, which is caused by auto-ignition of the fuel-air mixture ahead of the spark-initiated flame front. The resistance of a fuel to knock is quantified by its octane index

  10. Physical Protection of Spent Fuel Shipments: Resolution of Stakeholder Concerns Through Rulemaking - 12284

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballard, James D. [Department of Sociology, California State University, Northridge, Northridge, CA 91330 (United States); Halstead, Robert J. [State of Nevada Agency for Nuclear Projects Carson City, NV 89706 (United States); Dilger, Fred [Black Mountain Research, Henderson, NV 81012 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    In 1999, the State of Nevada brought its concerns about physical protection of current spent nuclear fuel (SNF) shipments, and future SNF shipments to a federal repository, before the NRC in a 1999 petition for rulemaking (PRM-73-10). In October 2010, the NRC published a rulemaking decision which would significantly strengthen physical protection of SNF in transit. The newest articulation of the rule (10 CFR 73.37) incorporates regulatory clarifications and security enhancements requested in Nevada's 1999 petition for rulemaking, codifies the findings of the Nuclear NRC and DOE consequence analyses into policy guidance documents and brings forward into regulations the agency and licensee experience gained since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. Although at present DOE SNF shipments would continue to be exempt from these NRC regulations, Nevada considers the rule to constitute a largely satisfactory resolution to stakeholder concerns raised in the original petition and in subsequent comments submitted to the NRC. This paper reviews the process of regulatory changes, assesses the specific improvements contained in the new rules and briefly describes the significance of the new rule in the context of a future national nuclear waste management program. Nevada's petition for rulemaking led to a generally satisfactory resolution of the State's concerns. The decade plus timeframe from petition to rulemaking conclusion saw a sea change in many aspects of the relevant issues - perhaps most importantly the attacks on 9/11 led to the recognition by regulatory bodies that a new threat environment exists wherein shipments of SNF and HLW pose a viable target for human initiated events. The State of Nevada has always considered security a critical concern for the transport of these highly radioactive materials. This was one of the primary reasons for the original rulemaking petition and subsequent advocacy by Nevada on related issues. NRC decisions on

  11. The Influence of fuel Diversification Concerning Vapour and Gas Electric Power Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiral-Aziz; Panca-Porakusuma

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays consumption of electricity in Indonesia has increased. The oil fuel as the primary fuel for power plant installation has decreased the amount of resources and makes the oil fuel prices very high. In the recent years it has been developed the Combined Cycle technology with Fuel Diversification from the oil fuel (HSD) to natural gas in power plant installation. From the investigation it could be concluded that in the Combined Cycle power plant the production cost using natural gas for the primary fuel cheaper than HSD fuel. The production cost of the combined cycle with configuration of 1-1-1 for 199 MW load is Rp. 172/kWh for natural gas fuel and Rp 941/kWh for HSD fuel. (author)

  12. Order for execution of the law concerning regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Chapeter 1 specifies regulations concerning business management for refining and processing, which cover application for designation of refining operation, application for permission for processing operation, and approval of personnel responsible for handling nuclear fuel. Chapter 2 specifies regulations concerning construction and operation of nuclear reactors, which cover application for construction of nuclear reactors, reactors in a research and development stage, application for permission concerning nuclear reactors mounted on foreign nuclear powered ships, application for permission for alteration concerning construction of nuclear reactors, application for permission for alteration concerning nuclear reactors mounted on foreign nuclear powered ships, nuclear reactor facilities to be subjected to regular inspection, nuclear reactor for which submission of operation plan is not required, and application for permission for transfer of nuclear reactor. Chapter 2 also specifies regulations concerning business management for reprocessing and waste disposal. Chapter 3 stipulates regulations concerning use of nuclear fuel substances, nuclear material substances and other substances covered by international regulations, which include rules for application for permission for use of nuclear fuel substances, etc. Supplementary provisions are provided in Chapter 4. (Nogami, K.)

  13. Laser ignition - Spark plug development and application in reciprocating engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavel, Nicolaie; Bärwinkel, Mark; Heinz, Peter; Brüggemann, Dieter; Dearden, Geoff; Croitoru, Gabriela; Grigore, Oana Valeria

    2018-03-01

    Combustion is one of the most dominant energy conversion processes used in all areas of human life, but global concerns over exhaust gas pollution and greenhouse gas emission have stimulated further development of the process. Lean combustion and exhaust gas recirculation are approaches to improve the efficiency and to reduce pollutant emissions; however, such measures impede reliable ignition when applied to conventional ignition systems. Therefore, alternative ignition systems are a focus of scientific research. Amongst others, laser induced ignition seems an attractive method to improve the combustion process. In comparison with conventional ignition by electric spark plugs, laser ignition offers a number of potential benefits. Those most often discussed are: no quenching of the combustion flame kernel; the ability to deliver (laser) energy to any location of interest in the combustion chamber; the possibility of delivering the beam simultaneously to different positions, and the temporal control of ignition. If these advantages can be exploited in practice, the engine efficiency may be improved and reliable operation at lean air-fuel mixtures can be achieved, making feasible savings in fuel consumption and reduction in emission of exhaust gasses. Therefore, laser ignition can enable important new approaches to address global concerns about the environmental impact of continued use of reciprocating engines in vehicles and power plants, with the aim of diminishing pollutant levels in the atmosphere. The technology can also support increased use of electrification in powered transport, through its application to ignition of hybrid (electric-gas) engines, and the efficient combustion of advanced fuels. In this work, we review the progress made over the last years in laser ignition research, in particular that aimed towards realizing laser sources (or laser spark plugs) with dimensions and properties suitable for operating directly on an engine. The main envisaged

  14. Determination of technical details concerning measures for transportation of nuclear fuel materials in the works or the enterprise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The determination is defined under the regulations concerning the fabricating business of nuclear fuel materials, the regulation concerning installation and operation of test reactor, the regulations concerning the reprocessing business of spent fuel and the regulations concerning the uses of nuclear source materials. The notification determining technical details concerning measures for transportation of nuclear fuel materials is abolished. Measures for prevention of hazard designated by the Director General of Science and Technology Agency include such ones not to let radioactive materials easily fly about or leak in regular transport, not to let rain water easily penetrate or make each exterior side of a cubic load more than 10 centi-meters. The application for permission shall be filed for transportation of things highly difficult to be sealed in a vessel, listing name and address of the applicant, kind, quantity, form and nature of the load contaminated by nuclear fuel materials, date and route of transfer and measures taken for prevention of hazard in transport. Radiation doses of load and transporting apparatus are stipulated by the Director for an hour as 200 mili-rem on the surface of load, 10 mili-rem at the distance of 1 meter from the surface of load, and 200 mili-rem on the surface of the vehicle, etc. Dangerous things, signals and radiation dose of particular loads are specified respectively. (Okada, K.)

  15. The relationship between income and personal vehicle fuel efficiency and associated equity concerns for the fuel tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    The fuel tax, which is assessed on the physical amount of fuel purchased by the consumer, is the primary : means of funding roadway development at the state and national level. However, because it is assessed on a : gallon basis, drivers of vehicles ...

  16. Nuclear nonproliferation: Concerns with US delays in accepting foregin research reactors' spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    One key US nonproliferation goal is to discourage use of highly enriched uranium fuel (HEU), which can be used to make nuclear bombs, in civilian nuclear programs worldwide. DOE's Off-Site Fuels Policy for taking back spent HEU from foreign research reactors was allowed to expire due to environmental reasons. This report provides information on the effects of delays in renewing the Off-Site Fuels Policy on US nonproliferation goals and programs (specifically the reduced enrichment program), DOE's efforts to renew the fuels policy, and the price to be charged to the operators of foreign reactors for DOE's activities in taking back spent fuel

  17. Effect of cooled EGR on performance and exhaust gas emissions in EFI spark ignition engine fueled by gasoline and wet methanol blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohadi, Heru; Syaiful, Bae, Myung-Whan

    2016-06-01

    Fuel needs, especially the transport sector is still dominated by fossil fuels which are non-renewable. However, oil reserves are very limited. Furthermore, the hazardous components produced by internal combustion engine forces many researchers to consider with alternative fuel which is environmental friendly and renewable sources. Therefore, this study intends to investigate the impact of cooled EGR on the performance and exhaust gas emissions in the gasoline engine fueled by gasoline and wet methanol blends. The percentage of wet methanol blended with gasoline is in the range of 5 to 15% in a volume base. The experiment was performed at the variation of engine speeds from 2500 to 4000 rpm with 500 intervals. The re-circulated exhaust gasses into combustion chamber was 5%. The experiment was performed at the constant engine speed. The results show that the use of cooled EGR with wet methanol of 10% increases the brake torque up to 21.3%. The brake thermal efficiency increases approximately 39.6% using cooled EGR in the case of the engine fueled by 15% wet methanol. Brake specific fuel consumption for the engine using EGR fueled by 10% wet methanol decreases up to 23% at the engine speed of 2500 rpm. The reduction of CO, O2 and HC emissions was found, while CO2 increases.

  18. Formation of small sparks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreto, E.; Jurenka, H.; Reynolds, S.I.

    1977-01-01

    The formation of a small incendiary spark at atmospheric pressure is identified with the transition from a weakly to a strongly ionized plasma. It is shown that initial gaseous ionization produced by avalanches and/or streamers always creates a high-temperature ideal electron gas that can shield the applied voltage difference and reduce ionization in the volume of the gas. The electron gas is collision dominated but able to maintain its high temperature, for times long compared to discharge events, through long-range Coulomb forces. In fact, electrons in the weakly ionized plasma constitute a collisionless independent fluid with a thermodynamic state that can be affected directly by field or density changes. Accordingly, with metal electrodes, cathode spot emission is always associated with the transition to a strongly ionized plasma. Neutral heating can be accomplished in two different ways. Effective dispersal of the electrons from the cathode leads to electron heating dominated by diffusion effects. Conversely, a fast rate of emission or rapid field changes can produce nonlinear wave propagation. It is shown that solitary waves are possible, and it is suggested that some spark transitions are associated with shock waves in the collisionless electron gas. In either the diffuse or nonlinear regime, neutral gas heating is controlled by collisions of ions with isotropic thermal electrons. This interaction is always subsequent to changes in state of the electron gas population. The basic results obtained should apply to all sparks

  19. Measured and Predicted Vapor Liquid Equilibrium of Ethanol-Gasoline Fuels with Insight on the Influence of Azeotrope Interactions on Aromatic Species Enrichment and Particulate Matter Formation in Spark Ignition Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratcliff, Matthew A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McCormick, Robert L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burke, Stephen [Colorado State University; Rhoads, Robert [University of Colorado; Windom, Bret [Colorado State University

    2018-04-03

    A relationship has been observed between increasing ethanol content in gasoline and increased particulate matter (PM) emissions from direct injection spark ignition (DISI) vehicles. The fundamental cause of this observation is not well understood. One potential explanation is that increased evaporative cooling as a result of ethanol's high HOV may slow evaporation and prevent sufficient reactant mixing resulting in the combustion of localized fuel rich regions within the cylinder. In addition, it is well known that ethanol when blended in gasoline forms positive azeotropes which can alter the liquid/vapor composition during the vaporization process. In fact, it was shown recently through a numerical study that these interactions can retain the aromatic species within the liquid phase impeding the in-cylinder mixing of these compounds, which would accentuate PM formation upon combustion. To better understand the role of the azeotrope interactions on the vapor/liquid composition evolution of the fuel, distillations were performed using the Advanced Distillation Curve apparatus on carefully selected samples consisting of gasoline blended with ethanol and heavy aromatic and oxygenated compounds with varying vapor pressures, including cumene, p-cymene, 4-tertbutyl toluene, anisole, and 4-methyl anisole. Samples collected during the distillation indicate an enrichment of the heavy aromatic or oxygenated additive with an increase in initial ethanol concentration from E0 to E30. A recently developed distillation and droplet evaporation model is used to explore the influence of dilution effects versus azeotrope interactions on the aromatic species enrichment. The results suggest that HOV-cooling effects as well as aromatic species enrichment behaviors should be considered in future development of predictive indices to forecast the PM potential of fuels containing oxygenated compounds with comparatively high HOV.

  20. Results of tests under normal and abnormal operating conditions concerning LMFBR fuel element behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Languille, A.; Bergeonneau, P.; Essig, C.; Guerin, Y.

    1985-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to improve the knowledge on LMFBR fuel element behaviour during protected and unprotected transients in RAPSODIE and PHENIX reactors in order to evaluate its reliability. The range of the tests performed in these reactors is sufficiently large to cover normal and also extreme off normal conditions such as fuel melting. Results of such tests allow to better establish transient design limits for reactor structural components in particular for fuel pin cladding which play a lead role in controlling the accident sequence. Three main topics are emphasized in this paper: fuel melting during slow over-power excursions; influence of the fuel element geometrical evolution on reactivity feedback effects and reactor dynamic behaviour; clad damage evaluation during a transient (essentially very severe loss of flow)

  1. Experimental investigation of the concomitant injection of gasoline and CNG in a turbocharged spark ignition engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momeni Movahed, M.; Basirat Tabrizi, H.; Mirsalim, M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Concomitant injection of gasoline and CNG is compared with gasoline and CNG modes. • BSFC, HC and CO emissions of the concomitant injection are lower than gasoline mode. • Deteriorations of the concomitant injection are negligible compared to gasoline mode. • Cylinder peak pressure and heat loss to coolant of the concomitant injection are lower than CNG mode. • Some shortcomings in CNG mode can be solved by changing the spark timing and lambda. - Abstract: Concomitant injection of gasoline and CNG is a new concept to overcome problems of bi-fueled spark ignition engines, which operate in single fuel mode, either in gasoline or in CNG mode. This experimental study indicates how some problems of gasoline mode such as retarded ignition timings for knock prevention and rich air–fuel mixture for component protection can be resolved with the concomitant injection of gasoline and CNG. Results clearly show that the concomitant injection improves thermal efficiency compared to gasoline mode. On the other hand, simultaneous injection of gasoline and CNG reduces some problems of CNG mode such as high cylinder pressure and heat loss to the engine coolant. This decreases the stringent requirements for thermal and mechanical strength of the engine components in CNG mode. In addition, it is shown that by modifying the spark advance and air fuel ratio in CNG mode, the engine operation improves in terms of NOx emissions and maximum in-cylinder pressure as the concomitant injection does. Nevertheless, new requirements such as an intercooler with higher cooling capacity are implied to the engine configuration. Finally, the most important concerns in control strategies of the engine control unit for a vehicle with concomitant injection of gasoline and CNG are discussed

  2. Fonctionnement transitoire et controle de la richesse des moteurs à allumage commandé à injection multipoint Transient Operation and Air-Fuel Ratio Control of Spark-Ignition Port-Injected Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Moyne L.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Sur les moteurs à allumage commandé à injection multipoint on observe des désadaptations de richesse lors de fonctionnement transitoire. Ces désadaptations sont dues au dépôt, sous forme de film liquide, du carburant injecté dans le collecteur. Elles peuvent être compensées par une gestion adéquate de la masse injectée. Ainsi, afin d'obtenir la masse de carburant qui maintient la richesse constante, nous avons développé un modèle bidimensionnel des écoulements dans le collecteur au cours du cycle moteur. Ce modèle décrit l'écoulement des gaz frais, des gouttes injectées, des gaz brûlés refoulés vers l'admission et du film sur les parois, sur le principe de la séparation des phases. Nous montrons que le modèle reproduit correctement le signal de richesse et comment il permet de supprimer les désadaptations. La mesure de richesse est faite à l'échappement avec une sonde à oxygène dont nous validons le fonctionnement en transitoire avec une corrélation à la pression maximale du cycle dans le cylindre. Air-fuel ratio excursions are observed on port-injected spark ignition engines during transients. This excursions result from the liquid fuel film deposited on intake port. They can be compensated by controlling the injected fuel mass. In order to have the amount of fuel that keeps air-fuel ratio constant, we have developed a 2D model of flows in the intake port during engine cycle. This separate phases model describes the flow of fresh gases, injected droplets, hot burned gases and film on port walls. We show that the model effectively predicts the equivalence ratio and how it allows to eliminate excursions. Equivalence ratio measures are made with an oxygen sensor which functioning is validated during transients by correlating it to maximal pressure during engine cycle.

  3. History of the great decisions concerning the nuclear fuel cycle in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapin, M.

    1989-01-01

    The paper presents a brief review of the major activities and programmes of the CEA since its foundation in 1945, up to the adoption of the first five-year plan in 1952. Then, the important decisions taken in France up to the present are summarized, explaining their effects on the fuel cycle development in terms of political commitment and of technological development, illustrating their impact by reviewing the major strategies such as those for reprocessing, plutonium fuels, enrichment, and LWR fuel element development. This review also refers to the strategy adopted for waste management, and the main decisions and measures taken within the evolution of the waste management regime. (orig.)

  4. Development of a device to valuate the effect of ethanol on the vapor pressure and vaporization enthalpy of fuel gasolines

    OpenAIRE

    Cataluña, Renato; Silva, Rosângela

    2006-01-01

    The quality of the gasoline utilized for fueling internal combustion engines with spark ignition is directly affected by the gasoline's properties. Thus, the fuel's properties must be in perfect equilibrium to allow the engine to perform optimally, not only insofar as fuel consumption is concerned, but also in order to reduce the emission of pollutants. Vapor pressure and vaporization enthalpy are important properties of a gasoline determining the fuel's behavior under different operating con...

  5. Proposed nuclear weapons nonproliferation policy concerning foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel: Appendix A, environmental justice analysis. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This is Appendix A to a draft Environmental Impact Statement on a Proposed Nuclear Weapons Nonproliferation Policy Concerning Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel. This appendix addresses environmental justice for the acceptance of foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel containing uranium enriched in the United States. Analyses of environmental justice concerns are provided in three areas: (1) potential ports of entry, (2) potential transportation routes from candidate ports of entry to interim management sites, and (3) areas surrounding potential interim management sites. These analyses lead to the conclusion that the alternatives analyzed in this Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) would result in no disproportionate adverse effects on minority populations or low-income communities surrounding the candidate ports, transport routes, or interim management sites

  6. Principles of provision concerning the back-end of the fuel cycle of nuclear power plants find application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The Ministry of the Interior has asked the Laender on the 14th June 1977, to apply forthwith the 'principles of provision concerning the back-end of the fuel cycle of nuclear power plants' as a minimum pre-condition for waste management in licensing procedures for nuclear power stations. The 'principles' were part of a report, elaborated by a Bund/Laender working group at a undersecretary-of-state level on questions concerning the back-end of the fuel cycle of nuclear power plants. The report was favourably acknowledged during a meeting of the Federal Chancellor and the Minister-Presidents of the Laender on May 6th, 1977. The principles are presented. (orig./HP) [de

  7. Concerning permission of commercial processing of nuclear fuel substances at Rokkasho plant of Japan Nuclear Fuel Industries, Ltd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Nuclear Safety Commission on Dec. 19, 1987 directed the Nuclear Fuel Safety Expert Group to carry out a study on it, made deliberations after receiving a report from the Group on July 13, 1988, and submitted the findings to the Prime Minister on July 21. The study and deliberations were intended to determine the conformity of the permission to the applicable criteria specified in laws relating to control of nuclear material, nuclear fuel and nuclear reactor. The investigation on the location covered the site conditions, meteorology, ground conditions, hydrology, seismic environments, and social environment. The investigations on the safety design addressed the anti-earthquake performance, fire/explosion prevention, criticality control, thermal stability, containment performance, safety against natural phenomena other than earthquake, radioactive waste management, and radiation control. Other investigations included exposure evaluation and accident analysis. It was concluded that the permission would not have adverse effects on the safety of the processing business. (Nogami, K.)

  8. Concerning permission of commercial processing of nuclear fuel substances at Rokkasho plant of Japan Nuclear Fuel Industries, Ltd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-12-01

    The Nuclear Safety Commission on Dec. 19, 1987 directed the Nuclear Fuel Safety Expert Group to carry out a study on it, made deliberations after receiving a report from the Group on July 13, 1988, and submitted the findings to the Prime Minister on July 21. The study and deliberations were intended to determine the conformity of the permission to the applicable criteria specified in laws relating to control of nuclear material, nuclear fuel and nuclear reactor. The investigation on the location covered the site conditions, meteorology, ground conditions, hydrology, seismic environments, and social environment. The investigations on the safety design addressed the anti-earthquake performance, fire/explosion prevention, criticality control, thermal stability, containment performance, safety against natural phenomena other than earthquake, radioactive waste management, and radiation control. Other investigations included exposure evaluation and accident analysis. It was concluded that the permission would not have adverse effects on the safety of the processing business. (Nogami, K.).

  9. Fast data processing with Spark

    CERN Document Server

    Sankar, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Fast Data Processing with Spark - Second Edition is for software developers who want to learn how to write distributed programs with Spark. It will help developers who have had problems that were too big to be dealt with on a single computer. No previous experience with distributed programming is necessary. This book assumes knowledge of either Java, Scala, or Python.

  10. Tool grinding and spark testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widener, Edward L.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives were the following: (1) to revive the neglected art of metal-sparking; (2) to promote quality-assurance in the workplace; (3) to avoid spark-ignited explosions of dusts or volatiles; (4) to facilitate the salvage of scrap metals; and (5) to summarize important references.

  11. Primary Science Interview: Science Sparks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Lynne

    2016-01-01

    In this "Primary Science" interview, Lynne Bianchi talks with Emma Vanstone about "Science Sparks," which is a website full of creative, fun, and exciting science activity ideas for children of primary-school age. "Science Sparks" started with the aim of inspiring more parents to do science at home with their…

  12. The regulations concerning refining business of nuclear source material and nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Regulations specified here cover application for designation of undertakings of refining (spallation and eaching filtration facilities, thickening facilities, refining facilities, nuclear material substances or nuclear fuel substances storage facilities, waste disposal facilities, etc.), application for permission for alteration (business management plan, procurement plan, fund raising plan, etc.), application for approval of merger (procedure, conditions, reason and date of merger, etc.), submission of report on alteration (location, structure, arrangements processes and construction plan for refining facilities, etc.), revocation of designation, rules for records, rules for safety (personnel, organization, safety training for employees, handling of important apparatus and tools, monitoring and removal of comtaminants, management of radioactivity measuring devices, inspection and testing, acceptance, transport and storage of nuclear material and fuel, etc.), measures for emergency, submission of report on abolition of an undertaking, submission of report on disorganization, measures required in the wake of revocation of designation, submission of information report (exposure to radioactive rays, stolen or missing nuclear material or nuclear fuel, unusual leak of nuclear fuel or material contaminated with nuclear fuel), etc. (Nogami, K.)

  13. Technological aspects concerning the production procedures of UO2-Gd2O3 nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durazzo, Michelangelo; Riella, Humberto Gracher

    2007-01-01

    The direct incorporation of Gd 2 O 3 powder into UO 2 powder by dry mechanical blending is the most attractive process for producing UO 2 -Gd 2 O 3 nuclear fuel. However, previous experimental results by our group indicated that pore formation due to the Kirkendall effect delays densification and, consequently, diminishes the final density of this type of nuclear fuel. Considering this mechanism as responsible for the poor sintering behavior of UO 2 -Gd 2 O 3 fuel prepared by the mechanical blending method, it was possible to propose, discuss and, in certain cases, preliminarily test feasible adjustments in fabrication procedures that would minimize, or even totally compensate, the negative effects of pore formation due to the Kirkendall effect. This work presents these considerations. (author)

  14. Proposed nuclear weapons nonproliferation policy concerning foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    The United States Department of Energy and United States Department of State are jointly proposing to adopt a policy to manage spent nuclear fuel from foreign research reactors. Only spent nuclear fuel containing uranium enriched in the United States would be covered by the proposed policy. The purpose of the proposed policy is to promote U.S. nuclear weapons nonproliferation policy objectives, specifically by seeking to reduce highly-enriched uranium from civilian commerce. This is a summary of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Environmental effects and policy considerations of three Management Alternative approaches for implementation of the proposed policy are assessed. The three Management Alternatives analyzed are: (1) acceptance and management of the spent nuclear fuel by the Department of Energy in the United States, (2) management of the spent nuclear fuel at one or more foreign facilities (under conditions that satisfy United States nuclear weapons nonproliferation policy objectives), and (3) a combination of components of Management Alternatives 1 and 2 (Hybrid Alternative). A No Action Alternative is also analyzed. For each Management Alternative, there are a number of alternatives for its implementation. For Management Alternative 1, this document addresses the environmental effects of various implementation alternatives such as varied policy durations, management of various quantities of spent nuclear fuel, and differing financing arrangements. Environmental impacts at various potential ports of entry, along truck and rail transportation routes, at candidate management sites, and for alternate storage technologies are also examined. For Management Alternative 2, this document addresses two subalternatives: (1) assisting foreign nations with storage; and (2) assisting foreign nations with reprocessing of the spent nuclear fuel

  15. Environmental impact statements concerning final deposition of spent nuclear fuels a.o

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, B.; Schibbye, K.; Andersson, Johan; Norrby, S.; Timm, T.; Haegg, C.; Johansson, Gunnar

    1995-02-01

    Five governmental authorities concerned in licensing a swedish nuclear waste repository have outlined recommendations for what should be covered by an environmental impact statement, i.e. defined which laws should be applied, tried to develop a consensus on the handling the EIS in the licensing procedure, to identify potential problems due to prevailing (or non-existing) rules on EIS especially concerning roles and conflicts of objective

  16. Towards constrained optimal control of spark-ignition engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feru, E.; Luo, X.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the torque control problem for spark-ignition engines is considered. The objective is to provide good output torque tracking with minimum fuel consumption, while avoiding engine knock and misre. To this end, three control strategies are proposed: a feed-forward controller with

  17. Legal aspects concerning the requirement for completion of the backend of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strassburg, W. Dr.

    1987-01-01

    Most european states are forced by their political institutions, parliaments or governments to establish integrated programmes about the recycling and safe disposal of all kinds of radioactive materials resulting from the application of nuclear energy. A proper solution is not an option as on other continents, but an obligation, due to environmental and economical reasons. First, I will outline the ''Fuel Management Concept'' in the Federal Republic of Germany, than, I will say something about the institutional responsibilities, the package deal clause and the actual practice of management and disposal. We will look into the legal aspects of the atomic energy act, the hazard protection and precaution, the administrative requirements, the discretionary rules of law and some undefined legal conceptions, the practice of public licencing, the advanced public participation and the immediate effectiveness as the substance of my reflections. Finally there shall be some closing remarks on assessing the German fuel management concept

  18. Passenger Car Spark Ignition Data Base : Volume 3. Miscellaneous Data. Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    Test data was obtained from spark ignition production and preproduction engines at the engine and vehicle level. The engines were applicable for vehicles 2000 to 3000 pounds in weight. The data obtained provided trade-offs between fuel economy, power...

  19. Passenger Car Spark Ignition Data Base : Volume 3. Miscellaneous Data. Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    Test data was obtained from spark ignition production and preproduction engines at the engine and vehicle level. The engines were applicable for vehicles 2000 to 3000 pounds in weight. The data obtained provided trade-offs between fuel economy, power...

  20. Preliminary project concerning the straw-fueled combined power-heat plant to be constructed at Glamsbjerg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, S.; Koch, T.

    1994-06-01

    Power and heat generation based on biomass gasification is of great importance due to its beneficial environmental effects and good economy. This report concerns a preliminary project on feasibility and problems of implementing a dual-purpose power plant, supplying both power and district heating to several schools, swimming pools and other public facilities at Glamsbjerg (Funen). The plant is to be based on thermal gasification (pyrolysis) of straw and use of the gas in a diesel engine. The diesels operate the power generator, and their waste heat should be utilized in the local district heating network. In order to establish a stable and flexible straw supply to the plant an evaluation of resources in the area has been carried out. Apart from straw-derived fuel the plant is planned to use natural gas for start and maintenance of the process. The prices of the combined plant and of the fuel processing are estimated in the report. (EG)

  1. Safety concerning the alteration in fuel material usage (new installation of the uranium enrichment pilot plant) at Ningyo Pass Mine of Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    A report of the Committee on Examination of Nuclear Fuel Safety was presented to the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan, which is concerned with the safety in the alteration of fuel material usage (new installation of the uranium enrichment pilot plant) at the Ningyo Pass Mine. Its safety was confirmed. The alteration, i.e. installation of the uranium enrichment pilot plant, is as follows. Intended for the overall test of centrifugal uranium enrichment technology, the pilot plant includes a two-storied main building of about 9,000 m 2 floor space, containing centrifuges, UF 6 equipment, etc., a uranium storage of about 1,000 m 2 floor space, and a waste water treatment facility, two-storied with about 300 m 2 floor space. The contents of the examination are safety of the facilities, criticality control, radiation control, waste treatment, and effects of accidents on the surrounding environment. (Mori, K

  2. Evaluation of Butanol–Gasoline Blends in a Port Fuel-injection, Spark-Ignition Engine Évaluation de mélange butanol-essence dans un moteur à allumage commandé à injection indirecte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dernotte J.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses different butanol–gasoline blends used in a port fuel-injection, spark-ignition engine to quantify the influence of butanol addition on the emission of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxide. Furthermore, in-cylinder pressure was measured to quantify combustion stability and to compare the ignition delay and fully developed turbulent combustion phases as given by 0%–10% and 10%–90% Mass Fraction Burned (MFB. The main findings are: 1 a 40% butanol/60% gasoline blend by volume (B40 minimizes HC emissions; 2 no significant change in NOx emissions were observed, with the exception of the 80% butanol/20% gasoline blend; 3 the addition of butanol improves combustion stability as measured by the COV of IMEP; 4 butanol added to gasoline reduces ignition delay (0%–10% MFB; and 5 the specific fuel consumption of B40 blend is within 10% of that of pure gasoline for stoichiometric mixture. Cet article évalue le potentiel de l’utilisation de différents mélanges butanolessence dans un moteur à allumage commandé à injection indirecte afin de quantifier l’influence de l’ajout de butanol sur les émissions des hydrocarbures imbrûlés (HC, le monoxyde de carbone (CO et les oxydes d’azote (NOx. De plus, l’influence sur la stabilité de combustion, le délai d’inflammation et sur la durée de la phase de combustion turbulente développée y sont également présentés. Les principaux résultats: 1 un mélange de 40% butanol et 60% essence (B40 par volume diminue les émissions de HC; 2 aucun effet significatif sur les émissions de NOx n’a été observé à l’exception du mélange 80% butanol/20% essence; 3 l’ajout de butanol améliore la stabilité de combustion ; 4 l’ajout de butanol réduit le délai d’inflammation, quantifié par la durée pour consommer 10% de masse de gaz frais; et 5 la consommation spécifique de carburant pour un mélange stoechiométrique de B40 est 10% sup

  3. On the efforts (man-day) concerned with inspection in uranium fuel fabrication facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, T.; Tanaka, T.; Seki, Y.

    1990-01-01

    Taking notice of inspection efforts (man·day) of STA·IAEA and those of MNF concerned with them, their change and various factors affecting the change have been studied. Namely, first, main topics concerning inspection in our Tokai plant are mentioned and secondly the relation between the inspection efforts and such factors as PIV period, number of items, number of DA sampling and NDA measurements, and so forth is studied. According to our study, though efforts of STA·IAEA and MNF required for both routine FLOW inspection and PIT have been nearly unchanged each year, our efforts for PIV have been increasing gradually. The factors relating to this increase of our efforts are the PIV period, inspection efforts of STA·IAEA for PIV and the number of DA sampling and NDA measurements. Finally, a suggestion on the future inspection system has been mentioned and then some items for improvement under the current inspection system have been exemplified. (author)

  4. Status of spent fuel dry storage concepts: concerns, issues and developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    This report is intended to provide the reader with a general understanding of the various dry storage concepts and facilities required to support them. The outstanding technical concerns relative to dry storage installations, as well as, past and planned demonstration programs are briefly described. Such other activities as the development and approval of a design criteria standard is presented. An updated review of the cost of the various concepts are discussed

  5. Nonlinear control of a spark ignition engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bidan, P [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 31 - Toulouse (France); Boverie, S; Chaumerliac, V [Siemens AutomotiveSA, MIRGAS Laboratory, 31 - Toulouse (France)

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes the improvements which can be made to spark ignition engine by extensive use of automatic control. Particular emphasis is placed on fast transient phases produced by simultaneous action on the throttle and the electronic fuel injection device. The aim is to achieve better performance for the fuel/air ratio regulation system, thereby improving engine efficiency and exhaust emission during these transient phases. The authors begin by presenting an average dynamic model of the intake manifold validated on an engine test bench and goes on to develop a closed-loop system controlling average pressure in the intake manifold using the reference tracking model method. The air supply control system is combined with a predictor to compensate for delays in the injection procedure. The paper concludes with a comparison between the results obtained using simulation and those obtained experimentally from the engine. (author) 10 refs.

  6. Cost studies concerning decontamination and dismantling. The interim store for spent fuel at Studsvik

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeblom, Rolf; Sjoeoe, Cecilia; Lindskog, Staffan; Cato, Anna

    2006-04-01

    The interim store for spent fuel at Studsvik was designed and constructed in 1962-64. It has been used for wet storage of fuel from the Aagesta Nuclear Power Plant as well as the R2 reactor at Studsvik. The interim store comprises three cylindrical pools for fuel storage as well as equipment for handling and decontamination. The purpose of the present work is to develop methodology for calculation of future costs for decontamination and dismantling of nuclear research facilities. The analysis is based on information from Studsvik as well as results from information searches. The requirements on precision of cost calculations is high, also at early stages. The reason for this is that the funds are to be collected now but are to be used some time in the future. At the same time they should neither be insufficient nor superfluous. It is apparent from the compilation and analysis that when methodology that has been developed for the purpose of cost calculations for power reactors is applied to research facilities certain drawbacks become apparent, e.g. difficulties to carry out variation analyses. Generally, feedback of data on incurred costs for the purpose of cost calculations can be achieved by using one or more scaling factors together with weighing factors which are established based on e.g. expert judgement. For development and utilisation of such tools it is necessary to have access to estimated costs together with incurred ones. In the report, the following combination of aspects is identified as being of primary significance for achieving a high precision: Calculations with the possibility to calibrate against incurred costs; Radiological surveying tailored to the needs for calculations; Technical planning including selection of techniques to be used; Identification of potential sources for systematic deviations. In the case of the interim store, some of the sources of uncertainty are as follows: Damaged surface layers in the pools; Maintenance status for the

  7. Public Acceptance Activities Concerning Nuclear Fuel Cycle Project in Amour Prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akizuki, Harumi; Manager, Deputy

    1993-01-01

    Following the Chernobyl accident, a campaign against the use of nuclear power was staged throughout the prefecture. However, after a series of elections, including the Amour Prefecture elections held in February 1991, opposition against the use of nuclear power has gradually diminished. According to an opinion poll conducted by a local paper prior to the Upper House elections of July last year, over 60% of Amour residents approved of the construction of the nuclear fuel cycle facility. In July last year, the project management organization was incorporated and the head office moved to Amour Prefecture. Prompted by this, the company, intends to show Amour residents that it is committed to living in harmony with the prefecture

  8. Determination of the details of technical standard concerning the transport of nuclear fuel materials outside the works or the enterprise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The determination is defined under the regulations concerning the transport of nuclear fuel materials outside the works or the enterprise. The least dangerous nuclear fuel materials designated by the Director General of Science and Technology Agency include, besides such materials listed and corresponding to the particular terms, natural or depleted uranium, natural thorium and their compounds whose surface is covered by corrosion resistance metal. The permissible density of surface stipulated by the Director is 1/100,000 micro-curie per centi-meter 2 for radioactive substances not emitting alpha rays and 1/10,000 micro-curie per centi-meter 2 for radioactive substances emitting alpha rays. General test conditions of A, BM and BU type of loads are in detail provided for. The nuclear fuel materials defined by the Director not as fission materials are uranium 233 and 235, plutonium 238 or 241, whose quantity or combined quantity of such substances do not exceed 15 grams and natural or depleted uranium. The permissible accumulative dose specified for employees is the figure (unit rem) calculated by the formula D=5 (N-18), when D means the permissible accumulative dose and N number of the age. The permissible exposure dose shall be 3 rem for 3 months for employees and 1.5 rem for a year for persons other than employees. (Okada, K.)

  9. The Swedish Radiation Protection Institute's regulations concerning the final management of spent nuclear fuel and nuclear waste - with background and comments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-11-01

    This report presents and comments on the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute's Regulations concerning the Protection of Human Health and the Environment in connection with the Final Management of Spent Nuclear Fuel or Nuclear Waste, SSI FS 1998: 1

  10. Order for execution of the law concerning regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This ordinance is stipulated under the law concerning the regulation of nuclear raw materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors. The designation for refining and processing businesses under the law shall be obtained for each works or enterprise where these operations are to be practiced. Persons who intend to accept the designation shall file applications attaching business plans and the other documents specified by the ordinances of the Prime Minister's Office and other ministry orders. The permission for the installation of nuclear reactors under the law shall be received for each works or enterprise where reactors are to be set up. Persons who intend to get the permission shall file applications attaching the financing plans required for the installation of reactors and the other documents designated by the orders of the competent ministry. The permission concerning the reactors installed on foreign ships shall be obtained for each ship which is going to enter into the Japanese waters. Persons who ask for the permission shall file applications attaching the documents which explain the safety of reactor facilities and the other documents defined by the orders of the Ministry of Transportation. The designation for reprocessing business and the application for it are provided for, respectively. The usage of nuclear fuel materials, nuclear raw materials and internationally regulated goods is ruled in detail.(Okada, K.)

  11. Order for execution of the law concerning regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This ordinance is stipulated under the law concerning the regulation of nuclear raw materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors. The designation for refining and processing businesses under the law shall be obtained for each works or enterprise where these operations are to be practiced. Persons who intend to accept the designation shall file applications attaching business plans and the other documents specified by the ordinances of the Prime Minister's Office and other ministry orders. The permission for the installation of nuclear reactors under the law shall be received for each works or enterprise where reactors are to be set up. Persons who intend to get the permission shall file applications attaching the financing plans required for the installation of reactors and the other documents designated by the orders of the competent ministry. The permission concerning the reactors installed on foreign ships shall be obtained for each ship which is going to enter into the Japanese waters. Persons who ask for the permission shall file applications attaching the documents which explain the safety of reactor facilities and the other documents defined by the orders of the Ministry of Transportation. The designation for reprocessing business and the application for it are provided for, respectively. The usage of nuclear fuel materials, nuclear raw materials and internationally regulated goods is ruled in detail. (Kubozone, M.)

  12. Behaviour analysis of the fuel injected in the intake manifold of port-injected spark ignition engines: modeling and experimental validation; Analyse du comportement du carburant injecte dans les conduits d`admission des moteurs a allumage commande a injection multipoint: modelisation et validation experimentale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sches, C

    1999-01-27

    In order to limit pollutant emissions resulting from transient engine operation, the mastering of mixture formation is essential. In this context, an interactive work was undertaken between a modeling job and an experimental study, to get better understanding of the mechanisms of fuel dynamic behavior in the intake manifold of port-injected spark-ignition engines. The experimental study, elaborated thanks to experimental designs, showed out two essential factors: injection timing and coolant liquid temperature, which act on the fuel dynamic behavior through a second order filter. Then, a phenomenological modeling was established and validated, to analyze the various phenomena influencing mixture formation and to calculate the air/fuel ratio evolutions during transient operation. This program uses the results of a 3D model describing the fuel spray transportation, evaporation and impact on the port walls. The calculation does not need any boundary conditions and the running times are vary satisfactory. We showed that a correct description of the liquid fuel film was necessary to get good prediction of the mixture fuel/air ratio. The spray modeling, which is necessary, can however be kept simple. Future work may develop either in the engine control filed (injection strategies development, optimization of the injection system configuration, ...), or in the theoretical field (better modeling of fuel film displacement or of secondary atomization of the fuel on the intake valve). (author) 79 refs.

  13. Views of West Valley area residents concerning the Nuclear Fuel Services facility at West Valley, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamieniecki, S.; Milbrath, L.W.

    1978-06-01

    A number of major findings have emerged from this analysis. Although most people have heard or read about the Nuclear Fuel Services plant at West Valley, few exhibit a high level of knowledge about the issue area. A clear majority of residents living in the region are concerned about the presence of the facility. Many are particularly concerned about the health dangers that can result from radioactive contamination of the environment. People want to see something done about the facility, but do not know exactly what. When forced to choose one out of three possible alternatives, twice as many people preferred to ''completely remove the plant and restore the area'' than either of the two remaining alternatives. People who are concerned about the facility tend to favor removal of the plant and restoration of the area. Nearly three-fourths of West Valley area residents who believe that the plant did not employ enough people to significantly help the economy of the region favor removal of the facility and restoration of the area. The results of this study may help policymakers choose the most acceptable course of action

  14. 78 FR 44075 - Notice of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced From Barley Under the RFS Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... and diesel fuel or renewable fuels such as biodiesel and renewable diesel. Regulated categories... production plants. Fuel and feedstock transport includes emissions from transporting bushels of harvested..., Mean (Low/High) 11,290 (2,784/21,679) Fuel Production 39,069 19,200 Fuel and Feedstock Transport 4,861...

  15. Are Crab nanoshots Schwinger sparks?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stebbins, Albert [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Yoo, Hojin [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-05-21

    The highest brightness temperature ever observed are from "nanoshots" from the Crab pulsar which we argue could be the signature of bursts of vacuum e± pair production. If so this would be the first time the astronomical Schwinger effect has been observed. These "Schwinger sparks" would be an intermittent but extremely powerful, ~103 L, 10 PeV e± accelerator in the heart of the Crab. These nanosecond duration sparks are generated in a volume less than 1 m3 and the existence of such sparks has implications for the small scale structure of the magnetic field of young pulsars such as the Crab. As a result, this mechanism may also play a role in producing other enigmatic bright short radio transients such as fast radio bursts.

  16. Bright Sparks of Our Future!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riordan, Naoimh

    2016-04-01

    My name is Naoimh Riordan and I am the Vice Principal of Rockboro Primary School in Cork City, South of Ireland. I am a full time class primary teacher and I teach 4th class, my students are aged between 9-10 years. My passion for education has developed over the years and grown towards STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) subjects. I believe these subjects are the way forward for our future. My passion and beliefs are driven by the unique after school programme that I have developed. It is titled "Sparks" coming from the term Bright Sparks. "Sparks" is an after school programme with a difference where the STEM subjects are concentrated on through lessons such as Science, Veterinary Science Computer Animation /Coding, Eco engineering, Robotics, Magical Maths, Chess and Creative Writing. All these subjects are taught through activity based learning and are one-hour long each week for a ten-week term. "Sparks" is fully inclusive and non-selective which gives all students of any level of ability an opportunity to engage into these subjects. "Sparks" is open to all primary students in County Cork. The "Sparks" after school programme is taught by tutors from the different Universities and Colleges in Cork City. It works very well because the tutor brings their knowledge, skills and specialised equipment from their respective universities and in turn the tutor gains invaluable teaching practise, can trial a pilot programme in a chosen STEM subject and gain an insight into what works in the physical classroom.

  17. Concerning change in nuclear fuel material processing business at Tokai plant of Japan Nuclear Fuel Conversion Co., Ltd. Report to Prime Minister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Nuclear Safety Committee of Japan on April 7, 1988, directed the Nuclear Safety Expert Group to make a study concerning the proposed changes in the nuclear fuel material processing business at the Tokai plant of Japan Nuclear Fuel Conversion Co., Ltd., and after receiving and reviewing the report from the Group, concluded that the proposed changes should be approved. The conclusions together with results of the study were reported to the Prime Minister on June 9. 1988. The proposed plan included changes in the maximum processing capacity of the No.2 processing facilities; construction of a new powder warehouse and changes in the maximum capacity of the No.3 powder storage room and No.2 powder warehouse; reuse of No.1 powder warehouse as No.3 solid waste warehouse; and abolition of UF 6 dispensing equipment installed at the No.1 processing facilities and changes in procedures for criticality control of the hydrolysis facilities. The safety of these facilities were studied in terms of resistance to earthquakes, prevention of fire and explosion, criticality control, operations of waste processing, and radiation management. Exposure doses expected during normal operations were also examined to confirm that the possible exposure doses to the public would be sufficiently small. (N.K.)

  18. Review and comment on the advanced spent fuel management process (1): Technical aspects and non-proliferation concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Yo Taik

    2001-01-01

    Efforts are made to analyze the project, the Advanced Spent Fuel Management Technology (ASFMT), which is currently carried out at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, on the technical feasibility and validity as well as on the nuclear non-proliferation concerns. The project is a part of a program under the 'Long and Midterm Nuclear Development Program'. On the technical analysis, reviewed the papers presented at the national and international meetings on the subject by KAERI staffs, and also participated to various technical discussions on the 'Mock-up Test', currently in progress. On the non-proliferation concerns, the ASFMT project was reviewed and analyzed in reference to various programs currently in progress or in a formulation stages in US, such as the DOE TOPS and ATW. Further reviewed the past JASNEC process and programs for possible application of the ASFMT project for JASNEC project. Provided a few thoughts for effectively carrying out the ASFMT project, and a plan for the next phase is presented

  19. Review and comment on the advanced spent fuel management process (1): Technical aspects and non-proliferation concerns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Yo Taik

    2001-01-01

    Efforts are made to analyze the project, the Advanced Spent Fuel Management Technology (ASFMT), which is currently carried out at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, on the technical feasibility and validity as well as on the nuclear non-proliferation concerns. The project is a part of a program under the 'Long and Midterm Nuclear Development Program'. On the technical analysis, reviewed the papers presented at the national and international meetings on the subject by KAERI staffs, and also participated to various technical discussions on the 'Mock-up Test', currently in progress. On the non-proliferation concerns, the ASFMT project was reviewed and analyzed in reference to various programs currently in progress or in a formulation stages in US, such as the DOE TOPS and ATW. Further reviewed the past JASNEC process and programs for possible application of the ASFMT project for JASNEC project. Provided a few thoughts for effectively carrying out the ASFMT project, and a plan for the next phase is presented.

  20. Spark channel propagation in a microbubble liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panov, V. A.; Vasilyak, L. M., E-mail: vasilyak@ihed.ras.ru; Vetchinin, S. P.; Pecherkin, V. Ya.; Son, E. E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-15

    Experimental study on the development of the spark channel from the anode needle under pulsed electrical breakdown of isopropyl alcohol solution in water with air microbubbles has been performed. The presence of the microbubbles increases the velocity of the spark channel propagation and increases the current in the discharge gap circuit. The observed rate of spark channel propagation in microbubble liquid ranges from 4 to 12 m/s, indicating the thermal mechanism of the spark channel development in a microbubble liquid.

  1. Pressure dependence of the spark constant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, H; Radtke, R; Deparade, W [Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Berlin. Zentralinstitut fuer Elektronenphysik

    1978-02-21

    The author's theory on the development of LTE plasmas in low-inductance spark discharges has proved to be a useful tool in predicting the electric behaviour of such sparks. Their earlier experimental work was restricted to only one initial pressure, and in this paper they extend the examined pressure range to obtain some general conclusions on the pressure dependence of the spark behaviour.

  2. Large-Eddy Simulations of Motored Flow and Combustion in a Homogeneous-Charge Spark-Ignition Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhawat, Yajuvendra Singh

    Cycle-to-cycle variations (CCV) of flow and combustion in internal combustion engines (ICE) limit their fuel efficiency and emissions potential. Large-eddy simulation (LES) is the most practical simulation tool to understand the nature of these CCV. In this research, multi-cycle LES of a two-valve, four-stroke, spark-ignition optical engine has been performed for motored and fired operations. The LES mesh quality is assessed using a length scale resolution parameter and a energy resolution parameter. For the motored operation, two 50-consecutive-cycle LES with different turbulence models (Smagorinsky model and dynamic structure model) are compared with the experiment. The pressure comparison shows that the LES is able to capture the wave-dynamics in the intake and exhaust ports. The LES velocity fields are compared with particle-image velocimetry (PIV) measurements at three cutting planes. Based on the structure and magnitude indices, the dynamic structure model is somewhat better than the Smagorinsky model as far as the ensemble-averaged velocity fields are concerned. The CCV in the velocity fields is assessed by proper-orthogonal decomposition (POD). The POD analysis shows that LES is able to capture the level of CCV seen in the experiment. For the fired operation, two 60-cycle LES with different combustion models (thickened frame model and coherent frame model) are compared with experiment. The in-cylinder pressure and the apparent heat release rate comparison shows higher CCV for LES compared to the experiment, with the thickened frame model showing higher CCV than the coherent frame model. The correlation analysis for the LES using thickened frame model shows that the CCV in combustion/pressure is correlated with: the tumble at the intake valve closing, the resolved and subfilter-scale kinetic energy just before spark time, and the second POD mode (shear flow near spark gap) of the velocity fields just before spark time.

  3. Fiber coupled optical spark delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalin, Azer; Willson, Bryan; Defoort, Morgan

    2008-08-12

    A spark delivery system for generating a spark using a laser beam is provided, the spark delivery system including a laser light source and a laser delivery assembly. The laser delivery assembly includes a hollow fiber and a launch assembly comprising launch focusing optics to input the laser beam in the hollow fiber. In addition, the laser delivery assembly includes exit focusing optics that demagnify an exit beam of laser light from the hollow fiber, thereby increasing the intensity of the laser beam and creating a spark. In accordance with embodiments of the present invention, the assembly may be used to create a spark in a combustion engine. In accordance with other embodiments of the present invention, a method of using the spark delivery system is provided. In addition, a method of choosing an appropriate fiber for creating a spark using a laser beam is also presented.

  4. Order for execution of the law concerning regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The order is enacted under the law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors. Any person who engages in refining business shall get designation for each works or place of enterprise. The application shall be filed through the director of International Trade and Industry Office in charge of the location of the works or the enterprise with a business program and other specified documents attached. Any person who undertakes processing business shall get permission for each works or place of enterprise. The application shall be submitted with a business program and other documents defined by the Ordinance of the Prime Minister's Office. Any person who sets up reactor shall get permission for each works or place of enterprise. The application shall be presented with a financial project and other documents stipulated by the ordinance. Fast breeding reactor, heavy-water moderated boiling water reactor and light-water moderated pressurized water reactor are designated as reactor in the phase of research and development. Each foreign nuclear ship equipped with reactor which enters into Japanese waters shall get permission of the Minister of Transport. The application shall be presented with the papers explaining safety of reactor facilities and other documents provided by the ordinance of the ministry concerned. (Okada, K.)

  5. Environmental concerns in regarding a materials test reactor fuel fabrication facility at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute - IPEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Glaucia R.T.; Durazzo, Michelangelo; Carvalho, Elita F.U.; Riella, Humberto G.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the industrial activities success, front to a more and more informed and demanding society and to a more and more competitive market demands an environmental administration policy which doesn't limit itself to assist the legislation but anticipate and prevent, in a responsible way, possible damages to the environment. One of the main programs of the Institute of Energetic and Nuclear Research of the national Commission of Nuclear Energy located in Brazil, through the Center of Nuclear Fuel -CCN- is to manufacture MTR-type fuel elements using low-enrichment uranium (20 wt % 235 U), to supply its IEA-R1 research reactor. Integrated in this program, this work aims at well developing and assuring a methodology to implant an environment, health and safety policy, foreseeing its management with the use of detailed data reports and through the adoption of new tools for improving the management, in order to fulfil the applicable legislation and accomplish all the environmental, operational and works aspects. The applied methodology for the effluents management comprises different aspects, including the specific environmental legislation of a country, main available effluents treatment techniques, process flow analyses from raw materials and intakes to products, generated effluents, residuals and emissions. Data collections were accomplished for points gathering and tests characterization, classification and compatibility of the generated effluents and their eventual environmental impacts.This study aims to implant the Sustainability Concept in order to guarantee access to financial resources, allowing cost reduction, maximizing long-term profits, preventing and reducing environmental accident risks and stimulating both the attraction and the keeping of a motivated manpower. Work on this project has already started and, even though many technical actions have not still ended, the results have being extremely valuable. These results can already give to CCN

  6. Environmental concerns regarding a materials test reactor fuel fabrication facility at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute - IPEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, G. R. T.; Durazzo, M.; Carvalho, E. F. U.; Riella, H. G.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the industrial activities success, front to a more and more informed and demanding society and to a more and more competitive market demands an environmental administration policy which doesn't limit itself to assist the legislation but anticipate and prevent, in a responsible way, possible damages to the environment. One of the maim programs of the Institute of Energetic and Nuclear Research of the national Commission of Nuclear Energy located in Brazil, through the Center of Nuclear Fuel - CCN - is to manufacture MTR-type fuel elements using low-enrichment uranium (20 wt% 2 35U), to supply its IEA-RI research reactor. Integrated in this program, this work aims at well developing and assuring a methodology to implant an environment, health and safety policy, foreseeing its management with the use of detailed data reports and through the adoption of new tools for improving the management, in order to fulfil the applicable legislation and accomplish all the environmental, operational and works aspects. The applied methodology for the effluents management comprises different aspects, including the specific environmental legislation of a country, main available effluents treatment techniques, process flow analyses from raw materials and intakes to products, generated effluents, residuals and emissions. Data collections were accomplished for points gathering and tests characterization, classification and compatibility of the generated effluents and their eventual environmental impacts. This study aims to implant the Sustainable Concept in order to guarantee access to financial resources, allowing cost reduction, maximizing long-term profits, preventing and reducing environmental accident risks and stimulating both the attraction and the keeping of a motivated manpower. Work on this project has already started and, even though many technical actions have not still ended, the results have being extremely valuable. These results can already give to CCN

  7. Progress Report Phase I: Use, access, and fire/fuels management attitudes and preferences of user groups concerning the Valles Caldera National Preserve (VCNP) and adjacent areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt F. Anschuetz; Carol B. Raish

    2010-01-01

    This document represents a progress report of activities completed during Phase I of the study titled, Use, Access, and Fire/Fuels Management Attitudes and Preferences of User Groups Concerning the Valles Caldera National Preserve (VCNP) and Adjacent Areas, and the preliminary findings of this work.

  8. The Swedish Radiation Protection Institute's regulations concerning the final management of spent nuclear fuel and nuclear waste - with background and comments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-11-01

    This report presents and comments on the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute's Regulations concerning the Protection of Human Health and the Environment in connection with the Final Management of Spent Nuclear Fuel or Nuclear Waste, SSI FS 1998: 1.

  9. Influence of hydrox on spark ignition engine performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naude, A.F.

    2003-01-01

    An experimental investigation was performed on the influence of the addition of small quantities of Hydrox (hydrogen and oxygen) as generated through electrolysis of water on the performance of a spark ignition engine. A Mazda 1600 cc fuel injected engine connected to a Superflow SF901 dynamometer system was used in this project. The engine was also equipped with a Unichip engine management system in order to enable changes in the spark timing and the amount of fuel injected. Hydrox was generated by an electrolysis process that could either be powered by the engine's alternator or from a separate power source. This hydrox gas produced from the electrolyzer was introduced into the engine's intake manifold and the influence of this was measured on the engine's performance, emissions and fuel consumption. For these tests a typical load condition as experienced for a light passenger car vehicle driven at 100 km/h on the open road was simulated. Typical results for the change in emissions with the hydrox introduction showed a significant reduction in hydrocarbons at lean air-fuel ratio operation of the engine. Additionally with the electrolysis process being driven by the engine a small improvement in fuel consumption was experienced. (author)

  10. THE EFFECT OF COMPRESSION RATIO VARIATIONS ON THE ENGINE PERFORMANCE PARAMETRES IN SPARK IGNITION ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakup SEKMEN

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance of the spark ignition engines may be increased by changing the geometrical compression ratio according to the amount of charging in cylinders. The designed geometrical compression ratio can be realized as an effective compression ratio under the full load and full open throttle conditions since the effective compression ratio changes with the amount of charging into the cylinder in spark ignition engines. So, this condition of the spark ignition engines forces designers to change their geometrical compression ratio according to the amount of charging into the cylinder for improvement of performance and fuel economy. In order to improve the combustion efficiency, fuel economy, power output, exhaust emissions at partial loads, compression ratio must be increased; but, under high load and low speed conditions to prevent probable knock and hard running the compression ratio must be decreased gradually. In this paper, relation of the performance parameters to compression ratio such as power, torque, specific fuel consumption, cylindir pressure, exhaust gas temperature, combustion chamber surface area/volume ratio, thermal efficiency, spark timing etc. in spark ignition engines have been investigated and using of engines with variable compression ratio is suggested to fuel economy and more clear environment.

  11. DNS of spark ignition and edge flame propagation in turbulent droplet-laden mixing layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neophytou, A.; Mastorakos, E.; Cant, R.S. [Hopkinson Laboratory, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-15

    A parametric study of forced ignition at the mixing layer between air and air carrying fine monosized fuel droplets is done through one-step chemistry direct numerical simulations to determine the influence of the size and volatility of the droplets, the spark location, the droplet-air mixing layer initial thickness and the turbulence intensity on the ignition success and the subsequent flame propagation. The propagation is analyzed in terms of edge flame displacement speed, which has not been studied before for turbulent edge spray flames. Spark ignition successfully resulted in a tribrachial flame if enough fuel vapour was available at the spark location, which occurred when the local droplet number density was high. Ignition was achieved even when the spark was offset from the spray, on the air side, due to the diffusion of heat from the spark, provided droplets evaporated rapidly. Large kernels were obtained by sparking close to the spray, since fuel was more readily available. At long times after the spark, for all flames studied, the probability density function of the displacement speed was wide, with a mean value in the range 0.55-0.75S{sub L}, with S{sub L} the laminar burning velocity of a stoichiometric gaseous premixed flame. This value is close to the mean displacement speed in turbulent edge flames with gaseous fuel. The displacement speed was negatively correlated with curvature. The detrimental effect of curvature was attenuated with a large initial kernel and by increasing the thickness of the mixing layer. The mixing layer was thicker when evaporation was slow and the turbulence intensity higher. However, high turbulence intensity also distorted the kernel which could lead to high values of curvature. The edge flame reaction component increased when the maximum temperature coincided with the stoichiometric contour. The results are consistent with the limited available experimental evidence and provide insights into the processes associated with

  12. Spent-fuel shipping and cask-handling studies in wet and dry environments. Studies and research concerning BNFP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCreery, P.N.

    1982-09-01

    A demonstration cask system has been constructed specifically to be used in examining unconventional techniques in handling spent fuel and fuel-hauling casks. This report demonstrates, through a series of photographs, some of these techniques and discusses others. It includes wet and dry operations, loading and unloading horizontally and vertically, mobile on-site carriers that can eliminate the need for some cranes and, in general, many of the operational options that are open in the design of future fuel handling systems

  13. Neutronic analysis concerning the utilization of mixed U N-Pu N nitride fuel for fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renke, C.A.C.; Batista, J.L.; Waintraub, M.; Santos Bastos, W. dos; Brito Aghina, L.O. de.

    1991-08-01

    Neutronic behavior of mixed UN-PuN nitride fuel in substitution of the mixed oxide U O 2 - Pu O 2 for fast reactors is discussed with focus on Super Phenix I. Characteristics parameters of both cores are calculated and compared and the results presented show a great advantage for the nitride fuel, pointing out a larger performance of fuel elements in the core and an effective reduction of reactivity loss during the cycle. (author)

  14. Sample preparations for spark source mass spectrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catlett, C.W.; Rollins, M.B.; Griffin, E.B.; Dorsey, J.G.

    1977-10-01

    Methods have been developed for the preparation of various materials for spark source mass spectrography. The essential features of these preparations (all which can provide adequate precision in a cost-effective manner) consist in obtaining spark-stable electrode sample pieces, a common matrix, a reduction of anomolous effects in the spark, the incorporation of a suitable internal standard for plate response normalization, and a reduction in time

  15. The pressure dependence of the spark constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, H.; Radtke, R.; Deparade, W.

    1978-01-01

    The author's theory on the development of LTE plasmas in low-inductance spark discharges has proved to be a useful tool in predicting the electric behaviour of such sparks. Their earlier experimental work was restricted to only one initial pressure, and in this paper they extend the examined pressure range to obtain some general conclusions on the pressure dependence of the spark behaviour. (author)

  16. New spark test device for material characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Kildemo, Morten

    2004-01-01

    An automated spark test system based on combining field emission and spark measurements, exploiting a discharging capacitor is investigated. In particular, the remaining charge on the capacitor is analytically solved assuming the field emitted current to follow the Fowler Nordheim expression. The latter allows for field emission measurements from pA to A currents, and spark detection by complete discharge of the capacitor. The measurement theory and experiments on Cu and W are discussed.

  17. Method for operating a spark-ignition, direct-injection internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanaswamy, Kushal; Koch, Calvin K.; Najt, Paul M.; Szekely, Jr., Gerald A.; Toner, Joel G.

    2015-06-02

    A spark-ignition, direct-injection internal combustion engine is coupled to an exhaust aftertreatment system including a three-way catalytic converter upstream of an NH3-SCR catalyst. A method for operating the engine includes operating the engine in a fuel cutoff mode and coincidentally executing a second fuel injection control scheme upon detecting an engine load that permits operation in the fuel cutoff mode.

  18. Studies and research concerning BNFP design and construction of a spent-fuel disassembly/encapsulation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabolt, R.J.

    1981-04-01

    Commercial light water power reactor operation in the United States is developing a cumbersome inventory of spent fuel. Systems for interim storage and handling of this fuel are being developed by the Federal Government and industry. Disassembly and canning of the spent fuel elements is one of these systems. It has the potential to double the storage capacity of a prereprocessing storage facility or to triple the capacity of conventional shipping casks. Prototype equipment and controls required to perform this operation in a dry environment have been primarily designed and fabricated at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP). Ridihalgh, Eggers, and Associates have provided design support and fabrication of the control system. This system is capable of extracting and canning the fuel pins and compacting the nonfuel-bearing components of spent fuel assemblies at processing rates of 10 to 12 assemblies per day. The process also provides the potential for enhanced inspection and assay of spent fuel by reducing the interference encountered from the high gamma fields of the nonfuel bearing hardware

  19. Programmable spark counter of tracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisov, A.E.; Nikolaev, V.A.; Vorobjev, I.B.

    2005-01-01

    For the purpose, a new set-the programmable all-automatic spark counter AIST-4-has been developed and manufactured. Compared to our previous automated spark counter ISTRA, which was operated by the integrated fixed program, the new set is operated completely by a personal computer. The mechanism for pressing and pulling the aluminized foil is put into action by a step motor operated by a microcontroller. The step motor turns an axle. The axle has two eccentrics. One of them moves a pressing plate up and down. The second eccentric moves the aluminized foil by steps of ∼15mm after the end of each pulse counting. One turnover of the axle corresponds to one pulse count cycle. The step motor, the high-voltage block and the pulse count block are operated by the microcontroller PIC 16C84 (Microstar). The set can be operated either manually by keys on the front panel or by a PC using dialogue windows for radon or neutron measurements (for counting of alpha or fission fragment tracks). A number of algorithms are developed: the general procedures, the automatic stopping of the pulse counting, the calibration curve, determination of the count characteristics and elimination of the short circuit in a track

  20. Some information about the radiological protection concerning the TRIGA spent fuel handling at the Medical University of Hanover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampel, Gabriele; Harke, Heinrich; Klaus, Uwe; Loercher, Gunther

    2008-01-01

    The Medical University of Hanover (MHH) returned its 76 spent TRIGA fuel elements to the United States in summer of 1999. For the transportation inside the MHH control areas were installed outside the reactor area, along the transfer route in the department of nuclear medicine and in the temporary building. During fuel handling at MHH a lot of radiation protection measures were necessary. This paper presents methods and results of the radiological protection measurements. (authors)

  1. Heat from renewable energy. Comparison of heating systems and fuels concerning environmental aspects; Waerme aus regenerativen Energien. Heizungssysteme und Brennstoffe im oekologischen Vergleich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinberg, Jana; Stegelmeier, Marina; Kaltschmitt, Martin [TU Hamburg-Harburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Umwelttechnik und Energiewirtschaft

    2013-02-01

    So far, residential buildings in Germany are mainly heated with fossil fuels like heating oil and natural gas. Those fuels are burned in more or less efficient conversion plants and in doing so produce besides noteworthy amounts of greenhouse gas emissions also nitrogen oxides and particulate matter. Those emissions are not being tolerated any longer with society growing more and more environmentally-conscious. Consequently more environmentally friendly alternatives of supplying heat for residential buildings are in public discussion. For instance this is true for the use of geothermal energy, renewable fuels like biogas or wood and solar energy. Further improvement in the standard on thermal insulation of buildings to lower the absolute heating demand is discussed in parallel. To be able to evaluate these different possibilities concerning selected environmental impacts, the following work focuses on such heating options by means of life-cycle analysis. (orig.)

  2. Results concerning a clean co-combustion technology of waste biomass with fossil fuel, in a pilot fluidised bed combustion facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ionel, Ioana; Trif-Tordai, Gavril; Ungureanu, Corneliu; Popescu, Francisc; Lontis, Nicolae [Politehnica Univ. Timisoara (Romania). Faculty for Mechanical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    The research focuses on a facility, the experimental results, interpretation and future plans concerning a new developed technology of using waste renewable energy by applying the cocombustion of waste biomass with coal, in a fluidised bed system. The experimental facility is working entirely in accordance to the allowed limits for the exhaust flue gas concentration, with special concern for typical pollutants. The experiments conclude that the technology is cleaner, has as main advantage the possibility to reduce both the SO{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} exhaust in comparison to standard fossil fuel combustion, under comparable circumstances. The combustion is occurring in a stable fluidised bed. (orig.)

  3. Draft Environmental Impact Statement on a proposed nuclear weapons nonproliferation policy concerning foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    The United States Department of Energy and United States Department of State are jointly proposing to adopt a policy to manage spent nuclear fuel from foreign research reactors. Only spent nuclear fuel containing uranium enriched in the United States would be covered by the proposed policy. The purpose of the proposed policy is to promote U.S. nuclear weapons nonproliferation policy objectives, specifically by seeking to reduce highly-enriched uranium from civilian commerce. Environmental effects and policy considerations of three Management Alternative approaches for implementation of the proposed policy are assessed. The three Management Alternatives analyzed are: (1) acceptance and management of the spent nuclear fuel by the Department of Energy in the United States, (2) management of the spent nuclear fuel at one or more foreign facilities (under conditions that satisfy United States nuclear weapons nonproliferation policy objectives), and (3) a combination of components of Management Alternatives 1 and 2 (Hybrid Alternative). A No Action Alternative is also analyzed. For each Management Alternative, there are a number of alternatives for its implementation. For Management Alternative 1, this document addresses the environmental effects of various implementation alternatives such as varied policy durations, management of various quantities of spent nuclear fuel, and differing financing arrangements. Environmental impacts at various potential ports of entry, along truck and rail transportation routes, at candidate management sites, and for alternate storage technologies are also examined. For Management Alternative 2, this document addresses two subalternatives: (1) assisting foreign nations with storage; and (2) assisting foreign nations with reprocessing of the spent nuclear fuel. Management Alternative 3 analyzes a hybrid alternative. This document is Vol. 1 of 2 plus summary volume

  4. Spark gap produced plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, H.Y.

    1990-01-01

    A Spark Gap (Applied voltage : 2-8KV, Capacitor : 4 Micro F. Dia of the tube : 1 inch, Electrode distance : .3 ∼.5 inch) was made to generate a small size dynamic plasma. To measure the plasma density and temperature as a function of time and position, we installed and have been installing four detection systems - Mach-Zehnder type Interferometer for the plasma refractivity, Expansion speed detector using two He-Ne laser beams, Image Processing using Lens and A Optical-Fiber Array for Pointwise Radiation Sensing, Faraday Rotation of a Optical Fiber to measure the azimuthal component of B-field generated by the plasma drift. These systems was used for the wire explosion diagnostics, and can be used for the Laser driven plasma also

  5. Spark-safe power source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mester, I M; Konushkin, N A; Nevozinskiy, A K; Rubinshteyn, B Sh; Serov, V I; Vasnev, M A

    1981-01-01

    A shortcoming of the known power sources is their low reliability. The purpose of the invention is to improve the reliability of the device. This is achieved because the spark-safe power source is equipped with a by-passing transistor and potentiometer, and also a generator of control interruptions in the circuit, an I-element, first separating transformer, control block, second separating transformer whose secondary winding has a relay winding whose contacts are connected to the load circuit are connected in series. The generator of control separations of the circuit is connected to the base of the by-passing transistor and to the power source outlet, the potentiometer is connected in series to the main thyristor. The middle point of the potentiometer is connected to the second inlet of the I-element.

  6. GeoSpark SQL: An Effective Framework Enabling Spatial Queries on Spark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Huang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the era of big data, Internet-based geospatial information services such as various LBS apps are deployed everywhere, followed by an increasing number of queries against the massive spatial data. As a result, the traditional relational spatial database (e.g., PostgreSQL with PostGIS and Oracle Spatial cannot adapt well to the needs of large-scale spatial query processing. Spark is an emerging outstanding distributed computing framework in the Hadoop ecosystem. This paper aims to address the increasingly large-scale spatial query-processing requirement in the era of big data, and proposes an effective framework GeoSpark SQL, which enables spatial queries on Spark. On the one hand, GeoSpark SQL provides a convenient SQL interface; on the other hand, GeoSpark SQL achieves both efficient storage management and high-performance parallel computing through integrating Hive and Spark. In this study, the following key issues are discussed and addressed: (1 storage management methods under the GeoSpark SQL framework, (2 the spatial operator implementation approach in the Spark environment, and (3 spatial query optimization methods under Spark. Experimental evaluation is also performed and the results show that GeoSpark SQL is able to achieve real-time query processing. It should be noted that Spark is not a panacea. It is observed that the traditional spatial database PostGIS/PostgreSQL performs better than GeoSpark SQL in some query scenarios, especially for the spatial queries with high selectivity, such as the point query and the window query. In general, GeoSpark SQL performs better when dealing with compute-intensive spatial queries such as the kNN query and the spatial join query.

  7. Document of the Commission for the Council concerning details of a joint strategy in the field of reprocessing of spent fuels and a draft of a resolution of the Council concerning the set-up of an ad-hoc committee for the reprocessing of spent fuels. Information by the Federal Government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The document contains the elements of a joint strategy by the countries of the European Communities concerning the reprocessing of fuels. The Communities' aims are as follows: Aims with a special emphasis on industry and energy policies, protection of population and environment and protection against the theft of nuclear material for purposes not authorised. (RB) [de

  8. Determination of technical details concerning measures for transportation of nuclear fuel materials in the works or the enterprise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The determination is defined under the regulation for installation and operation of reactors for power generation. The limit of radioactive concentration of things contaminated by nuclear fuel materials which need not be sealed in a vessel is designated by the Minister of International Trade and Industry as 1/10,000 of A2 value per gram provided by another notification on transport of nuclear fuel materials outside the works. Measures for prevention of hazards shall be taken to stop flying out or leaking of radioactive substances by solidifying them with concrete or other hardening materials, not to let rain water penetrate into or to make each exterior side of transferred cubic things more than 10 centi-meters. The application for permission of things highly difficult to be enclosed in a vessel shall list name and address of the applicant, kind, quantity, form and nature of conveyed things contaminated by nuclear fuel materials, data and route of transfer and measures for prevention of hazards in transport. Radioactive doses specified by the minister are for an hour 200 mili-rem on the surface and 10 mili-rem at the distance of 1 meter from the surface of load, vehicle and container. Radioactive doses for the special loads shall be for an hour 1,000 mili-rem on the surface and 10 mili-rem at the distance of 2 meters from the surface of transferred things. (Okada, K.)

  9. Identification of contaminants of concern for the postclosure assessment of the concept for the disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, B.W.; Mehta, K.K.

    1994-03-01

    The concept for the disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste involves the isolation of irradiated fuel in corrosion-resistant containers emplaced din din a vault located deep in crystalline rock of the Canadian Shield. To estimate potential impacts on members of a critical group far into the future, a postclosure assessment evaluates the long-term safety of the concept. Although the nuclear fuel waste from CANDU (Canada Deuterium Uranium) power generating stations contains several hundreds of potentially toxic radionuclides and chemical elements (referred to as contaminants), many of these would not lead to significant impacts. This report provides an upper bound on estimated radiation dose and chemical toxicity effects on humans from all potentially toxic contaminants, and it identifies those that require detailed consideration in the postclosure assessment. This report also examines the origins and properties of the contaminants. Properties of interest include radioactive half-life, inventory, mobility in groundwaters and sorption on rock, degree of toxicity, and precursors and progeny (or parents and daughters) for members of a decay chain. The report considers how these properties affect the behaviour of different contaminants in different parts of the disposal system. The discussion leads to suggested methods of treatment of different contaminants when simulating their fate within the disposal system. In particular, recommendations are made on how the actinide decay chains can be simplified for study in the postclosure assessment. (author). 56 refs., 22 tabs., 12 figs

  10. Bubbles, sparks, and the postwar laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galison, P.

    1989-01-01

    The development and use of bubble chambers and spark chambers in the 1950s form the main thrust of this article, the bubble chamber as an example of ''image-producing'' instruments and the spark chamber as a ''logic'' device. Work on a cloud chamber by Glaser led to the development of the bubble chamber detector using liquid hydrogen, which was later linked to a computer for accurate automatic track analysis. It made possible demonstrations of the existence of a particle or interaction. Spark chambers were easier to build and so soon became common, various types being developed across the world. The development of spark chambers originated in the need for timing devices for the Manhattan Project, but work on their design occurred in a number of units worldwide. (UK)

  11. SPARK: Adapting Keyword Query to Semantic Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qi; Wang, Chong; Xiong, Miao; Wang, Haofen; Yu, Yong

    Semantic search promises to provide more accurate result than present-day keyword search. However, progress with semantic search has been delayed due to the complexity of its query languages. In this paper, we explore a novel approach of adapting keywords to querying the semantic web: the approach automatically translates keyword queries into formal logic queries so that end users can use familiar keywords to perform semantic search. A prototype system named 'SPARK' has been implemented in light of this approach. Given a keyword query, SPARK outputs a ranked list of SPARQL queries as the translation result. The translation in SPARK consists of three major steps: term mapping, query graph construction and query ranking. Specifically, a probabilistic query ranking model is proposed to select the most likely SPARQL query. In the experiment, SPARK achieved an encouraging translation result.

  12. Turbulent spark-jet ignition in SI gas fuelled engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pielecha Ireneusz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains a thermodynamic analysis of a new combustion system that allows the combustion of stratified gas mixtures with mean air excess coefficient in the range 1.4-1.8. Spark ignition was used in the pre-chamber that has been mounted in the engine cylinder head and contained a rich mixture out of which a turbulent flow of ignited mixture is ejected. It allows spark-jet ignition and the turbulent combustion of the lean mixture in the main combustion chamber. This resulted in a two-stage combustion system for lean mixtures. The experimental study has been conducted using a single-cylinder test engine with a geometric compression ratio ε = 15.5 adapted for natural gas supply. The tests were performed at engine speed n = 2000 rpm under stationary engine load when the engine operating parameters and toxic compounds emissions have been recorded. Analysis of the results allowed to conclude that the evaluated combustion system offers large flexibility in the initiation of charge ignition through an appropriate control of the fuel quantities supplied into the pre-chamber and into the main combustion chamber. The research concluded with determining the charge ignition criterion for a suitably divided total fuel dose fed to the cylinder.

  13. Electro-spark deposition technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-12-01

    Electro-Spark Deposition (ESD) is a micro-welding process that uses short duration, high-current electrical pulses to deposit or alloy a consumable electrode material onto a metallic substrate. The ESD process was developed to produce coatings for use in severe environments where most other coatings fail. Because of the exceptional damage resistance of these coatings, and the versatility of the process to apply a wide variety of alloys, intermetallics, and cermets to metal surfaces, the ESD process has been designated critical to the life and economy of the advanced fossil energy systems as the higher temperatures and corrosive environments exceed the limits of known structural materials to accommodate the service conditions. Developments include producing iron aluminide-based coatings with triple the corrosion resistance of the best previous Fe{sub 3}Al coatings, coatings with refractory metal diffusion barriers and multi layer coatings for achieving functionally gradient properties between the substrate and the surface. A new development is the demonstration of advanced aluminide-based ESD coatings for erosion and wear applications. One of the most significant breakthroughs to occur in the last dozen years is the discovery of a process regime that yields an order of magnitude increase in deposition rates and achievable coating thicknesses. Achieving this regime has required the development of advanced ESD electronic capabilities. Development is now focused on further improvements in deposition rates, system reliability when operating at process extremes, and economic competitiveness.

  14. A prediction study of a spark ignition supercharged hydrogen engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Baghdadi, Maher A.R. Sadiq.; Al-Janabi, Haroun A.K. Shahad

    2003-01-01

    Hydrogen is found to be a suitable alternative fuel for spark ignition engines with certain drawbacks, such as high NO x emission and small power output. However, supercharging may solve such problems. In this study, the effects of equivalence ratio, compression ratio and inlet pressure on the performance and NO x emission of a four stroke supercharged hydrogen engine have been analyzed using a specially developed computer program. The results are verified and compared with experimental data obtained from tests on a Ricardo E6/US engine. A chart specifying the safe operation zone of the hydrogen engine has been produced. The safe operation zone means no pre-ignition, acceptable NO x emission, high engine efficiency and lower specific fuel consumption in comparison with the gasoline engine. The study also shows that supercharging is a more effective method to increase the output of a hydrogen engine rather than increasing the compression ratio of the engine at the knock limited equivalence ratio

  15. Order for execution of the law concerning regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Under the above mentioned law this order prescribes the procedures of controls given to the persons who wish to conduct refining and fabricating businesses, to construct and operate reactors, and to use nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and internationally controlled materials. The common controlling principle prescribed is that the permission or authorization necessary for above listed businesses should be applied for at each factory or each place of business. Based on the principle, the order prescribes: the procedures to apply for the authorization of the refining business, the permission of the change thereof, and the permission of the fabricating business and the change, thereof (the 1st chapter); the procedures to apply for the permission of the construction of reactors and of the change of the construction, as well as the procedure to do periodic inspections of reactor facilities (the 2nd chapter); the procedures to apply for the permission to use nuclear fuel materials and to change the use thereof, the submission of the report to use nuclear source materials, as well as the procedure to apply for the permission to use internationally controlled materials. In the 4th chapter the order lists up the items on which the competent Ministers may require reports from the person who carries on the relevant business. (Matsushima, A.)

  16. Concerns when designing a safeguards approach for the back-end of the Swedish nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritzell, Anni (Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden))

    2008-03-15

    In Sweden, the construction of an encapsulation plant and a geological repository for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel is planned to start within the next ten years. Due to Sweden's international agreements on non-proliferation, the Swedish safeguards regime must be extended to include these facilities. The geological repository has some unique features, which present the safeguards system with unprecedented challenges. These features include, inter alia, the long period of time that the facility will contain nuclear material and that the disposed nuclear material will be very difficult to access, implying that physical verification of its presence in the repository is not foreseen. This work presents the available techniques for creating a safeguards system for the backend of the Swedish nuclear fuel cycle. Important issues to consider in the planning and implementation of the safeguards system have been investigated, which in some cases has led to an identification of areas needing further research. The results include three proposed options for a safeguards approach, which have been evaluated on the basis of the safeguards authorities' requirements. Also, the evolution and present situation of the work carried out in connection to safeguards for geological repositories has been compiled

  17. Concerns when designing a safeguards approach for the back-end of the Swedish nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzell, Anni

    2006-03-01

    In Sweden, the construction of an encapsulation plant and a geological repository for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel is planned to start within the next ten years. Due to Sweden's international agreements on non-proliferation, the Swedish safeguards regime must be extended to include these facilities. The geological repository has some unique features, which present the safeguards system with unprecedented challenges. These features include, inter alia, the long period of time that the facility will contain nuclear material and that the disposed nuclear material will be very difficult to access, implying that physical verification of its presence in the repository is not foreseen. This work presents the available techniques for creating a safeguards system for the backend of the Swedish nuclear fuel cycle. Important issues to consider in the planning and implementation of the safeguards system have been investigated, which in some cases has led to an identification of areas needing further research. The results include three proposed options for a safeguards approach, which have been evaluated on the basis of the safeguards authorities' requirements. Also, the evolution and present situation of the work carried out in connection to safeguards for geological repositories has been compiled

  18. Posiva's application for a decision in principle concerning a disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel. STUK's statement and preliminary safety appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruokola, E.

    2000-03-01

    In May 1999, Posiva Ltd submitted to the Government an application, pursuant to the Nuclear Energy Act, for a Decision in Principle on a disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel from the Finnish nuclear power plants. The Ministry of Trade and Industry requested the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) to draw up a preliminary safety appraisal concerning the proposed disposal facility. In the beginning of this report, STUK's statement to the Ministry and Industry concerning the proposed disposal facility is given. In that statement, STUK concludes that the Decision in Principle is currently justified from the standpoint of safety. The statement is followed by a safety appraisal, where STUK deems, how the proposed disposal concept, site and facility comply with the safety requirements included in the Government's Decision (478/1999). STUK's preliminary safety appraisal was supported by contributions from a number of outside experts. A collective opinion by an international group of ten distinguished experts is appended to this report. (orig.)

  19. A Experimental Study of the Growth of Laser Spark and Electric Spark Ignited Flame Kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chi Ming

    1995-01-01

    Better ignition sources are constantly in demand for enhancing the spark ignition in practical applications such as automotive and liquid rocket engines. In response to this practical challenge, the present experimental study was conducted with the major objective to obtain a better understanding on how spark formation and hence spark characteristics affect the flame kernel growth. Two laser sparks and one electric spark were studied in air, propane-air, propane -air-nitrogen, methane-air, and methane-oxygen mixtures that were initially at ambient pressure and temperature. The growth of the kernels was monitored by imaging the kernels with shadowgraph systems, and by imaging the planar laser -induced fluorescence of the hydroxyl radicals inside the kernels. Characteristic dimensions and kernel structures were obtained from these images. Since different energy transfer mechanisms are involved in the formation of a laser spark as compared to that of an electric spark; a laser spark is insensitive to changes in mixture ratio and mixture type, while an electric spark is sensitive to changes in both. The detailed structures of the kernels in air and propane-air mixtures primarily depend on the spark characteristics. But the combustion heat released rapidly in methane-oxygen mixtures significantly modifies the kernel structure. Uneven spark energy distribution causes remarkably asymmetric kernel structure. The breakdown energy of a spark creates a blast wave that shows good agreement with the numerical point blast solution, and a succeeding complex spark-induced flow that agrees reasonably well with a simple puff model. The transient growth rates of the propane-air, propane-air -nitrogen, and methane-air flame kernels can be interpreted in terms of spark effects, flame stretch, and preferential diffusion. For a given mixture, a spark with higher breakdown energy produces a greater and longer-lasting enhancing effect on the kernel growth rate. By comparing the growth

  20. Concerning results of environmental monitoring around the reprocessing facilities of Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The Central Evaluation Expert Group for Environmental radiation Monitoring has been engaged in examinations of plants for and results of the environmental radiation monitoring performed by Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation around its reprocessing facilities. The present report outlines an examination of the results of monitoring carried out in 1987 (January to December). It is concluded that the methods used for the monitoring and its technical level are satisfactory in meeting the objectives of the monitoring plans. Expept for tritium in seawater, the level of radiations stays within the normal variation determined based on preliminary measurements of the background radiation. The procedure used for the calculation of exposure dose is also satisfactory in meeting the requirements specified in the monitoring plants. It is confirmed that the exposure dose of the residents around the facilities is well below the permissible exposure dose limite specified in law. (Nogami. K.)

  1. Assessment of degradation concerns for spent fuel, high-level wastes, and transuranic wastes in monitored retrievalbe storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenther, R.J.; Gilbert, E.R.; Slate, S.C.; Partain, W.L.; Divine, J.R.; Kreid, D.K.

    1984-01-01

    It has been concluded that there are no significant degradation mechanisms that could prevent the design, construction, and safe operation of monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facilities. However, there are some long-term degradation mechanisms that could affect the ability to maintain or readily retrieve spent fuel (SF), high-level wastes (HLW), and transuranic wastes (TRUW) several decades after emplacement. Although catastrophic failures are not anticipated, long-term degradation mechanisms have been identified that could, under certain conditions, cause failure of the SF cladding and/or failure of TRUW storage containers. Stress rupture limits for Zircaloy-clad SF in MRS range from 300 to 440 0 C, based on limited data. Additional tests on irradiated Zircaloy (3- to 5-year duration) are needed to narrow this uncertainty. Cladding defect sizes could increase in air as a result of fuel density decreases due to oxidation. Oxidation tests (3- to 5-year duration) on SF are also needed to verify oxidation rates in air and to determine temperatures below which monitoring of an inert cover gas would not be required. Few, if any, changes in the physical state of HLW glass or canisters or their performance would occur under projected MRS conditions. The major uncertainty for HLW is in the heat transfer through cracked glass and glass devitrification above 500 0 C. Additional study of TRUW is required. Some fraction of present TRUW containers would probably fail within the first 100 years of MRS, and some TRUW would be highly degraded upon retrieval, even in unfailed containers. One possible solution is the design of a 100-year container. 93 references, 28 figures, 17 tables

  2. Proposed nuclear weapons nonproliferation policy concerning foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel: Appendix C, marine transport and associated environmental impacts. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This is Appendix C to a Draft Environmental Statement on a Proposed Nuclear Weapon Nonproliferation Policy Concerning Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel. Shipment of any material via ocean transport entails risks to both the ship's crew and the environment. The risks result directly from transportation-related accidents and, in the case of radioactive or other hazardous materials, also include exposure to the effects of the material itself. This appendix provides a description of the approach used to assess the risks associated with the transport of foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel from a foreign port to a U.S. port(s) of entry. This appendix also includes a discussion of the shipping configuration of the foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel, the possible types of vessels that could be used to make the shipments, the risk assessment methodology (addressing both incident-free and accident risks), and the results of the analyses. Analysis of activities in the port(s) is described in Appendix D. The incident-free and accident risk assessment results are presented in terms of the per shipment risk and total risks associated with the basic implementation of Management Alternative 1and other implementation alternatives. In addition, annual risks from incident-free transport are developed

  3. Order for execution of the law concerning regulation of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The designations according to Item 1, Article 3 and Item 1, Article 13 of the Law must be obtained for each factory or business place where refining and fabrication of nuclear material are to be performed. One who wants to obtain such designation should file an application attached with a business plan and other documents via the director of a regional bureau of international trade and industry having jurisdiction over such factory or business place. When nuclear material refiners and nuclear material fabricators wish to obtain the approval for change stipulated in Item 1, Article 6 and Item 1, Article 16 of the Law, they must file applications to the Prime Minister and the Minister of International Trade and Industry via said directors. Chief handlers of nuclear fuel materials shall be approved among those meeting the strict requirements. One who wishes to install reactors must obtain the approval for each factory or business place where the reactors are to be installed. The permission must be obtained for each nuclear ship entering Japanese waters. The reactors proper and several facilities are subject to periodic inspection. (Rikitake, Y.)

  4. Notification determing the technical detail concerning disposal of nuyclear fuels materials outside the works or the enterprise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This rule is established under the provisions of the regulation on the disposal of nuclear fuel materials outside works or enterprises. Terms are used in this notification in the same meanings as in the regulation. The solidification method specified by the Director General of the Science and Technology Agency is the solidification into metal containers with hydraulic cement or the mixture of hydraulic cement, aggregate and additives. Cement shall have the strength and stability of cement specified under the Japan Industrial Standard JIS R 5210 or JIS R 5211 or exceeding those standards. Metal containers shall have the strength and air tightness of metal containers defined under the Japan Industrial Standard JIS Z 1600 or surpassing those standards. Radiation density is limited by the Director General to 1 curie, 0.1 curie, 100 curie and one million curie per ton for alpha-emitting substance, polonium 210, and radioactive materials with half-life longer or shorter than six months, respectively. The radiation dose rate on the surface of disposed wastes is defined to 50 milli-rem an hour by the Director General. Permissible cumulative dose is the value (unit rem) calculated by the following formula: D=5(N-18), in which D is permissible cumulative dose, and N is the number of age. Permissible exposure dose is 3 rem in three months for workers and 1.5 rem a year for persons other than workers. (Okada, K.)

  5. Preliminary report. Preliminary findings and views concerning the exemption of kerojet fuels from the Mandatory Petroleum Allocation and Price Regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    Preliminary findings indicate the following: kerojet fuel is not in short supply; it will not adversely impact on the supply of other petroleum products subject to the Emergency Petroleum Allocation Act; competition and market forces are adequate; and it will not result in inequitable prices for kerojet or other products. Chapter II provides background information on the use, production, and distribution of kerojet. Chapter III analyzes the historical interaction of supply, demand, and price, and explores the market structure for kerojet during 1968 to 1976, prior to and during imposition of allocation and price controls. Chapter IV examines the effect upon kerojet supply, demand, price, and market structure of exempting kerojet from controls and indicates the benefits to be derived from such exemption. In Chapter V, the potential economic impacts of exemption are evaluated. Chapter VI provides a final summary of the DOE's findings and views in support of its preliminary judgment that kerojet should be exempted from allocation and price regulations. (MCW)

  6. Development of Augmented Spark Impinging Igniter System for Methane Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, William M.; Osborne, Robin J.; Greene, Sandra E.

    2017-01-01

    The Lunar Cargo Transportation and Landing by Soft Touchdown (Lunar CATALYST) program is establishing multiple no-funds-exchanged Space Act Agreement (SAA) partnerships with U.S. private sector entities. The purpose of this program is to encourage the development of robotic lunar landers that can be integrated with U.S. commercial launch capabilities to deliver payloads to the lunar surface. NASA can share technology and expertise under the SAA for the benefit of the CATALYST partners. MSFC seeking to vacuum test Augmented Spark Impinging (ASI) igniter with methane and new exciter units to support CATALYST partners and NASA programs. ASI has previously been used/tested successfully at sea-level, with both O2/CH4 and O2/H2 propellants. Conventional ignition exciter systems historically experienced corona discharge issues in vacuum. Often utilized purging or atmospheric sealing on high voltage lead to remedy. Compact systems developed since PCAD could eliminate the high-voltage lead and directly couple the exciter to the spark igniter. MSFC developed Augmented Spark Impinging (ASI) igniter. Successfully used in several sea-level test programs. Plasma-assisted design. Portion of ox flow is used to generate hot plasma. Impinging flows downstream of plasma. Additional fuel flow down torch tube sleeve for cooling near stoichiometric torch flame. Testing done at NASA GRC Altitude Combustion Stand (ACS) facility 2000-lbf class facility with altitude simulation up to around 100,000 ft. (0.2 psia [10 Torr]) via nitrogen driven ejectors. Propellant conditioning systems can provide temperature control of LOX/CH4 up to test article.

  7. Evaluación de un motor de encendido por chispa trabajando con mezclas etanol-gasolina; Evaluation of the spark-ignition engine fueled with ethanol–gasoline blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliezer Ahmed Melo Espinosa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available En la presente investigación se realiza un análisis del rendimiento de un motor de encendido por chispa (Lada 1300 al usar como combustible mezclas de etanol con gasolina en un 10%, 20% y 30%. Los parámetros analizados en cada experimento fueron el torque efectivo, la potencia efectiva, el consumo específico de combustible y las emisiones de monóxido de carbono. Los resultados obtenidos se analizaron estadísticamente mediante una comparación de muestras múltiples en el software estadístico Statgraphics Centurion XV.II. Este análisis fue hecho con él con el objetivo de analizar las posibles diferencias entre los parámetros evaluados para cada combustible a una misma rpm. A partir de los resultados obtenidos se pudieron establecer satisfactoriamente dos porcientos adecuados de la mezcla etanol-gasolina para ser utilizado en motores de encendido por chispa (Lada en las condiciones de Cuba y sin hacer modificacionesen el motor. In this investigation an analysis based on the performances of an engine when using blends of anhydrous ethanol with regular gasoline as fuels is carried out. The experiments of the Lada 1300 engine were carriedout for different blends in 10%, 20% and 30% of ethanol in gasoline. The analyzed parameters for each experiment were the effective torque, the effective power, the specific fuel consumption and the carbon monoxide exhausts emissions. The obtained results were statistically analyzed through multiple-sample comparison in the software Statgraphics Centurion XV.II. This analysis was made with the objective of analyzing the possible differences among the evaluated parameters for each fuel to the same rpm. The appropriate percent of the anhydrous ethanol - regular gasoline blends for use in engine (Lada under the Cuba conditions and without making modifications were satisfactorily established.

  8. Prerequisites concerning SSI:s review of applications for an encapsulation facility and a repository for spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oehlen, Elisabeth

    2006-09-01

    The report outlines some fundamental prerequisites concerning SSI:s review of SKB coming applications for an encapsulation facility (according to the act on nuclear activities) and for the complete final disposal system (according to the act on nuclear activities and the environmental code). The report summarize how the SSI look at the decision making process considering radiation protection requirements according to SSI:s regulations and general advices and earlier standpoints regarding SKB:s RandD-programme. The report also describe the present reviewing capacity of SSI and constitute therefore the basis for the planning of SSI:s review organisation in the prospect of coming applications on nuclear waste facilities (encapsulation facility and a deep disposal repository). It should be noted that the report reflects the present situation. Due to a number of factors as for example changes in SKB:s coming RandD-programme, future governmental decisions, adjustments of SSI:s financial resources or new facts in the case, will of course have an effect on how SSI finally will organise the review work. SSI:s home page will continuously be updated with the latest information in this respect

  9. Spark - a modern approach for distributed analytics

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Kothuri, Prasanth

    2016-01-01

    The Hadoop ecosystem is the leading opensource platform for distributed storing and processing big data. It is a very popular system for implementing data warehouses and data lakes. Spark has also emerged to be one of the leading engines for data analytics. The Hadoop platform is available at CERN as a central service provided by the IT department. By attending the session, a participant will acquire knowledge of the essential concepts need to benefit from the parallel data processing offered by Spark framework. The session is structured around practical examples and tutorials. Main topics: Architecture overview - work distribution, concepts of a worker and a driver Computing concepts of transformations and actions Data processing APIs - RDD, DataFrame, and SparkSQL

  10. Using SPARK as a Solver for Modelica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetter, Michael; Wetter, Michael; Haves, Philip; Moshier, Michael A.; Sowell, Edward F.

    2008-06-30

    Modelica is an object-oriented acausal modeling language that is well positioned to become a de-facto standard for expressing models of complex physical systems. To simulate a model expressed in Modelica, it needs to be translated into executable code. For generating run-time efficient code, such a translation needs to employ algebraic formula manipulations. As the SPARK solver has been shown to be competitive for generating such code but currently cannot be used with the Modelica language, we report in this paper how SPARK's symbolic and numerical algorithms can be implemented in OpenModelica, an open-source implementation of a Modelica modeling and simulation environment. We also report benchmark results that show that for our air flow network simulation benchmark, the SPARK solver is competitive with Dymola, which is believed to provide the best solver for Modelica.

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Washington Transportation Data for

    Science.gov (United States)

    stations in Washington with alternative fuels Fuel Public Private Biodiesel (B20 and above) 8 33 Compressed Partnerships Spark Biodiesel Success for Essential Baking Company Partnerships Spark Biodiesel Success for Videos on YouTube Video thumbnail for Seattle Bakery Delivers With Biodiesel Trucks Seattle Bakery

  12. A new and efficient mechanism for spark ignition engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shadloo, M.S.; Poultangari, R.; Abdollahzadeh Jamalabadi, M.Y.; Rashidi, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new slider–crank mechanism, with superior performance is presented. • Thermodynamic processes as well as vibration and internal forces have been modeled. • Comparison with the conventional four-stroke spark ignition engines is made. • Advantages and disadvantages of the proposed mechanism are discussed. - Abstract: In this paper a new symmetrical crank and slider mechanism is proposed and a zero dimensional model is utilized to study its combustion performance enhancement in a four-stroke spark ignition (SI) engine. The main features of this new mechanism are superior thermodynamic efficiency, lower internal frictions, and lower pollutants. Comparison is made between its performance and that of the conventional four-stroke SI engines. Presented mechanism is designed to provide better fuel consumption of internal combustion engines. These advantages over standard engine are achieved through synthesis of new mechanism. Numerical calculation have been performed for several cases of different mechanism parameters, compression ratio and engine speed. A comprehensive comparison between their thermodynamic processes as well as vibration and internal forces has been done. Calculated efficiency and power diagrams are plotted and compared with performance of a conventional SI engine. Advantages and disadvantages of the proposed mechanism are discussed in details

  13. Possibility of surface carburization of refractory metals of electric spark alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verkhoturov, A.D.; Isaeva, L.P.; Timofeeva, I.I.; Tsyban', V.A.

    1981-01-01

    The paper is concerned with a study in the alloying layer formation under electric spark alloying of refractory (Ti, Zr, Nb, Mo, W, Co, Fe) metals with graphite in argon and in air using the EhFI-46A installation. It is shown that in electric spark alloying with graphite there appear certain specific conditions for the alloying layer formation manifested in the cathode mass decrease during treatment. In this case an alloying layer consisting of carbides, oxides of the corresponding metals and material of the base is formed on the metal surface. The best carburization conditions in the process of electric spark alloying are realized for group 4 metals when treating them in ''soft'' regime, specific time of alloying being 1-3 min/sm 2 and for group 5 and 6 metals - in ''rigid'' regime of treatment and specific time of alloying 3-5 min/cm 2 [ru

  14. High performance Spark best practices for scaling and optimizing Apache Spark

    CERN Document Server

    Karau, Holden

    2017-01-01

    Apache Spark is amazing when everything clicks. But if you haven’t seen the performance improvements you expected, or still don’t feel confident enough to use Spark in production, this practical book is for you. Authors Holden Karau and Rachel Warren demonstrate performance optimizations to help your Spark queries run faster and handle larger data sizes, while using fewer resources. Ideal for software engineers, data engineers, developers, and system administrators working with large-scale data applications, this book describes techniques that can reduce data infrastructure costs and developer hours. Not only will you gain a more comprehensive understanding of Spark, you’ll also learn how to make it sing. With this book, you’ll explore: How Spark SQL’s new interfaces improve performance over SQL’s RDD data structure The choice between data joins in Core Spark and Spark SQL Techniques for getting the most out of standard RDD transformations How to work around performance issues i...

  15. Diesel engines vs. spark ignition gasoline engines -- Which is ``greener``?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbanks, J.W. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Criteria emissions, i.e., NO{sub x}, PM, CO, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}, from recently manufactured automobiles, compared on the basis of what actually comes out of the engines, the diesel engine is greener than spark ignition gasoline engines and this advantage for the diesel engine increases with time. SI gasoline engines tend to get out of tune more than diesel engines and 3-way catalytic converters and oxygen sensors degrade with use. Highway measurements of NO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and CO revealed that for each model year, 10% of the vehicles produce 50% of the emissions and older model years emit more than recent model year vehicles. Since 1974, cars with SI gasoline engines have uncontrolled emission until the 3-way catalytic converter reaches operating temperature, which occurs after roughly 7 miles of driving. Honda reports a system to be introduced in 1998 that will alleviate this cold start problem by storing the emissions then sending them through the catalytic converter after it reaches operating temperature. Acceleration enrichment, wherein considerable excess fuel is introduced to keep temperatures down of SI gasoline engine in-cylinder components and catalytic converters so these parts meet warranty, results in 2,500 times more CO and 40 times more H{sub 2} being emitted. One cannot kill oneself, accidentally or otherwise, with CO from a diesel engine vehicle in a confined space. There are 2,850 deaths per year attributable to CO from SI gasoline engine cars. Diesel fuel has advantages compared with gasoline. Refinery emissions are lower as catalytic cracking isn`t necessary. The low volatility of diesel fuel results in a much lower probability of fires. Emissions could be improved by further reducing sulfur and aromatics and/or fuel additives. Reformulated fuel has become the term covering reducing the fuels contribution to emissions. Further PM reduction should be anticipated with reformulated diesel and gasoline fuels.

  16. Skip cycle system for spark ignition engines: An experimental investigation of a new type working strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutlar, Osman Akin; Arslan, Hikmet; Calik, Alper T.

    2007-01-01

    A new type working strategy for spark ignition engine, named skip cycle, is examined. The main idea is to reduce the effective stroke volume of an engine by cutting off fuel injection and spark ignition in some of the classical four stroke cycles. When the cycle is skipped, additionally, a rotary valve is used in the intake to reduce pumping losses in part load conditions. The effect of this strategy is similar to that of variable displacement engines. Alternative power stroke fractions in one cycle and applicability in single cylinder engines are specific advantageous properties of the proposed system. A thermodynamic model, besides experimental results, is used to explain the skip cycle strategy in more detail. This theoretical investigation shows considerable potential to increase the efficiency at part load conditions. Experimental results obtained with this novel strategy show that the throttle valve of the engine opens wider and the minimum spark advance for maximum brake torque decreases in comparison to those of the classical operation system. The brake specific fuel consumption decreases at very low speed and load, while it increases at higher speed and load due to the increased fuel loss within the skipped cycles. In this working mode, the engine operates at lower idle speed without any stability problem; and moreover with less fuel consumption

  17. Chaotic combustion in spark ignition engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendeker, Miroslaw; Czarnigowski, Jacek; Litak, Grzegorz; Szabelski, Kazimierz

    2003-01-01

    We analyse the combustion process in a spark ignition engine using the experimental data of an internal pressure during the combustion process and show that the system can be driven to chaotic behaviour. Our conclusion is based on the observation of unperiodicity in the time series, suitable stroboscopic maps and a complex structure of a reconstructed strange attractor. This analysis can explain that in some circumstances the level of noise in spark ignition engines increases considerably due to nonlinear dynamics of a combustion process

  18. Advanced Light-Duty SI Engine Fuels Research: Multiple Optical Diagnostics of Well-mixed and Stratified Operation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoberg, Carl Magnus Goran [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Vuilleumier, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2018-02-01

    Ever tighter fuel economy standards and concerns about energy security motivate efforts to improve engine efficiency and to develop alternative fuels. This project contributes to the science base needed by industry to develop highly efficient direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engines that also beneficially exploit the different properties of alternative fuels. Here, the emphasis is on lean operation, which can provide higher efficiencies than traditional non-dilute stoichiometric operation. Since lean operation can lead to issues with ignition stability, slow flame propagation and low combustion efficiency, the focus is on techniques that can overcome these challenges. Specifically, fuel stratification is used to ensure ignition and completeness of combustion but this technique has soot and NOx emissions challenges. For ultra-lean well-mixed operation, turbulent deflagration can be combined with controlled end-gas autoignition to render mixed-mode combustion for sufficiently fast heat release. However, such mixed-mode combustion requires very stable inflammation, motivating studies on the effects of near-spark flow and turbulence, and the use of small amounts of fuel stratification near the spark plug.

  19. The suppression of destructive sparks in parallel plate proportional counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockshott, R.A.; Mason, I.M.

    1984-02-01

    The authors find that high energy background events produce localised sparks in parallel plate counters when operated in the proportional mode. These sparks increase dead-time and lead to degradation ranging from electrode damage to spurious pulsing and continuous breakdown. The problem is particularly serious in low energy photon detectors for X-ray astronomy which are required to have lifetimes of several years in the high radiation environment of space. For the parallel plate imaging detector developed for the European X-ray Observatory Satellite (EXOSAT) they investigate quantitatively the spark thresholds, spark rates and degradation processes. They discuss the spark mechanism, pointing out differences from the situation in spark chambers and counters. They show that the time profile of the sparks allows them to devise a spark suppression system which reduces the degradation rate by a factor of ''200.

  20. Modelling Spark Integration in Science Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Paz E. Morales

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The study critically explored how a PASCO-designed technology (SPARK ScienceLearning System is meaningfully integrated into the teaching of selected topics in Earth and Environmental Science. It highlights on modelling the effectiveness of using the SPARK Learning System as a primary tool in learning science that leads to learning and achievement of the students. Data and observation gathered and correlation of the ability of the technology to develop high intrinsic motivation to student achievement were used to design framework on how to meaningfully integrate SPARK ScienceLearning System in teaching Earth and Environmental Science. Research instruments used in this study were adopted from standardized questionnaires available from literature. Achievement test and evaluation form were developed and validated for the purpose of deducing data needed for the study. Interviews were done to delve into the deeper thoughts and emotions of the respondents. Data from the interviews served to validate all numerical data culled from this study. Cross-case analysis of the data was done to reveal some recurring themes, problems and benefits derived by the students in using the SPARK Science Learning System to further establish its effectiveness in the curriculum as a forerunner to the shift towards the 21st Century Learning.

  1. Generation of Nanoparticles by Spark Discharge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salman Tabrizi, N.

    2009-01-01

    Spark discharge is a method for producing nanoparticles from conductive materials. Besides the general advantages of nanoparticle synthesis in the gas phase, the method offers additional advantages like simplicity, compactness and versatility. The synthesis process is continuous and is performed at

  2. Ambient fields generated by a laser spark

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rohlena, Karel; Mašek, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 2 (2016), s. 119-124 ISSN 0029-5922 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD14089; GA MŠk(CZ) LG13031 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : laser spark * radiation chemistry * field generation Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.760, year: 2016

  3. Electro-spark machining of cadmium antimonide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanovskij, V.N.; Stepakhina, K.A.

    1975-01-01

    Experimental data on electrical erosion of the semiconductor material (cadmium antimonide) alloyed with tellurium are given. The potentialisies and expediency of using the electric-spark method of cutting cadmium antimonide ingots with the resistivity of 1 ohm is discussed. Cutting has been carried out in distilled water and in the air

  4. Posiva's application for a decision in principle concerning a disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel. STUK's statement and preliminary safety appraisal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruokola, E. [ed.

    2000-03-01

    In May 1999, Posiva Ltd submitted to the Government an application, pursuant to the Nuclear Energy Act, for a Decision in Principle on a disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel from the Finnish nuclear power plants. The Ministry of Trade and Industry requested the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) to draw up a preliminary safety appraisal concerning the proposed disposal facility. In the beginning of this report, STUK's statement to the Ministry and Industry concerning the proposed disposal facility is given. In that statement, STUK concludes that the Decision in Principle is currently justified from the standpoint of safety. The statement is followed by a safety appraisal, where STUK deems, how the proposed disposal concept, site and facility comply with the safety requirements included in the Government's Decision (478/1999). STUK's preliminary safety appraisal was supported by contributions from a number of outside experts. A collective opinion by an international group of ten distinguished experts is appended to this report. (orig.)

  5. Efficiency calibration of solid track spark auto counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Mei; Wen Zhongwei; Lin Jufang; Liu Rong; Jiang Li; Lu Xinxin; Zhu Tonghua

    2008-01-01

    The factors influencing detection efficiency of solid track spark auto counter were analyzed, and the best etch condition and parameters of charge were also reconfirmed. With small plate fission ionization chamber, the efficiency of solid track spark auto counter at various experiment assemblies was re-calibrated. The efficiency of solid track spark auto counter at various experimental conditions was obtained. (authors)

  6. DeepSpark: A Spark-Based Distributed Deep Learning Framework for Commodity Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hanjoo; Park, Jaehong; Jang, Jaehee; Yoon, Sungroh

    2016-01-01

    The increasing complexity of deep neural networks (DNNs) has made it challenging to exploit existing large-scale data processing pipelines for handling massive data and parameters involved in DNN training. Distributed computing platforms and GPGPU-based acceleration provide a mainstream solution to this computational challenge. In this paper, we propose DeepSpark, a distributed and parallel deep learning framework that exploits Apache Spark on commodity clusters. To support parallel operation...

  7. Engine Torque Control of Spark Ignition Engine using Fuzzy Gain Scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    Aris Triwiyatno

    2012-01-01

    In the spark ignition engine system, driver convenience is very dependent on satisfying engine torque appropriate with the throttle position given by the driver. Unfortunately, sometimes the fulfillment of engine torque is not in line with fuel saving efforts. This requires the development of high performance and robust power train controllers. One way to potentially meet these performance requirements is to introduce a method of controlling engine torque using fuzzy gain scheduling. By using...

  8. Fuels and Combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Johansson, Bengt

    2016-08-17

    This chapter discusses the combustion processes and the link to the fuel properties that are suitable for them. It describes the basic three concepts, including spark ignition (SI) and compression ignition (CI), and homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI). The fuel used in a CI engine is vastly different from that in an SI engine. In an SI engine, the fuel should sustain high pressure and temperature without autoignition. Apart from the dominating SI and CI engines, it is also possible to operate with a type of combustion: autoignition. With HCCI, the fuel and air are fully premixed before combustion as in the SI engine, but combustion is started by the increased pressure and temperature during the compression stroke. Apart from the three combustion processes, there are also a few combined or intermediate concepts, such as Spark-Assisted Compression Ignition (SACI). Those concepts are discussed in terms of the requirements of fuel properties.

  9. Fuels and Combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Johansson, Bengt

    2016-01-01

    This chapter discusses the combustion processes and the link to the fuel properties that are suitable for them. It describes the basic three concepts, including spark ignition (SI) and compression ignition (CI), and homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI). The fuel used in a CI engine is vastly different from that in an SI engine. In an SI engine, the fuel should sustain high pressure and temperature without autoignition. Apart from the dominating SI and CI engines, it is also possible to operate with a type of combustion: autoignition. With HCCI, the fuel and air are fully premixed before combustion as in the SI engine, but combustion is started by the increased pressure and temperature during the compression stroke. Apart from the three combustion processes, there are also a few combined or intermediate concepts, such as Spark-Assisted Compression Ignition (SACI). Those concepts are discussed in terms of the requirements of fuel properties.

  10. Investigations on the effects of ethanol–methanol–gasoline blends in a spark-ignition engine: Performance and emissions analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Elfasakhany, Ashraf

    2015-01-01

    This study discusses performance and exhaust emissions from spark-ignition engine fueled with ethanol–methanol–gasoline blends. The test results obtained with the use of low content rates of ethanol–methanol blends (3–10 vol.%) in gasoline were compared to ethanol–gasoline blends, methanol–gasoline blends and pure gasoline test results. Combustion and emission characteristics of ethanol, methanol and gasoline and their blends were evaluated. Results showed that when the vehicle was fueled wit...

  11. Concerning major items in government ordinance requiring modification of part of enforcement regulation for law relating to control of nuclear material, nuclear fuel and nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The report describes major items planned to be incorporated into the enforcement regulations for laws relating to control of nuclear material, nuclear fuel and nuclear reactor. The modifications have become necessary for the nation to conclude a nuclear material protection treaty with other countries. The modification include the definitions of 'special nuclear fuel substances' and 'special nuclear fuel substances' and 'special nuclear fuel substances subject to protection'. The modifications require that protective measures be taken when handling and transporting special nuclear fuel substances subject to protection. Transport of special nuclear fuel substances requires approval from the Prime Minister or Transport Minister. Transport of special nuclear fuel substances subject to protection should be conducted after notifying the prefectural Public Safety Commission. Transport of special nuclear fuel substances subject to protection requires the conclusion of arrangements among responsible persons and approval of them from the Prime Minister. (N.K.)

  12. Trace amount analysis using spark mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefani, Rene

    1975-01-01

    Characteristics of spark mass spectrometers (ion source, properties of the ion beam, ion optics, and performance) and their use in qualitative and quantitative analysis are described. This technique is very interesting for the semi-quantitative analysis of trace amounts, down to 10 -8 atoms. Examples of applications such as the analysis of high purity materials and non-conducting mineral samples, and determination of carbon and gas trace amounts are presented. (50 references) [fr

  13. Neutron bursts from long laboratory sparks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochkin, P.; Lehtinen, N. G.; Montanya, J.; Van Deursen, A.; Ostgaard, N.

    2016-12-01

    Neutron emission in association with thunderstorms and lightning discharges was reported by different investigators from ground-based observation platforms. In both cases such emission is explained by photonuclear reaction, since high-energy gamma-rays in sufficient fluxes are routinely detected from both, lightning and thunderclouds. The required gamma-rays are presumably generated by high-energy electrons in Bremsstrahlung process after their acceleration via cold and/or relativistic runaway mechanisms. This phenomenon attracted moderate scientific attention until fast neutron bursts (up to 10 MeV) from long 1 MV laboratory sparks have been reported. Clearly, with such relatively low applied voltage the electrons are unable to accelerate to the energies required for photo/electro disintegration. Moreover, all known elementary neutron generation processes are not capable to explain this emission right away. We performed an independent laboratory experiment on long sparks with the aim to confirm or disprove the neutron emission from them. The experimental setup was assembled at High-Voltage Laboratory in Barcelona and contained a Marx generator in a cone-cone spark gap configuration. The applied voltage was as low as 800 kV and the gap distance was only 60 cm. Two ns-fast cameras were located near the gap capturing short-exposure images of the pre-breakdown phenomenon at the expected neutron generation time. A plastic scintillation detector sensitive to neutrons was covered in 11 cm of lead and placed near the spark gap. The detector was calibrated and showed good performance in neutron detection. Apart of it, voltage, currents through both electrodes, and three X-ray detectors were also monitored in sophisticated measuring system. We will give an overview of the previous experimental and theoretical work in this topic, and present the results of our new experimental campaign. The conclusions are based on good signal-to-noise ratio measurements and are

  14. SPARK Version 1.1 user manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissenburger, D.W.

    1988-01-01

    This manual describes the input required to use Version 1.1 of the SPARK computer code. SPARK 1.1 is a library of FORTRAN main programs and subprograms designed to calculate eddy currents on conducting surfaces where current flow is assumed zero in the direction normal to the surface. Surfaces are modeled with triangular and/or quadrilateral elements. Lorentz forces produced by the interaction of eddy currents with background magnetic fields can be output at element nodes in a form compatible with most structural analysis codes. In addition, magnetic fields due to eddy currents can be determined at points off the surface. Version 1.1 features eddy current streamline plotting with optional hidden-surface-removal graphics and topological enhancements that allow essentially any orientable surface to be modeled. SPARK also has extensive symmetry specification options. In order to make the manual as self-contained as possible, six appendices are included that present summaries of the symmetry options, topological options, coil options and code algorithms, with input and output examples. An edition of SPARK 1.1 is available on the Cray computers at the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center at Livermore, California. Another more generic edition is operational on the VAX computers at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory and is available on magnetic tape by request. The generic edition requires either the GKS or PLOT10 graphics package and the IMSL or NAG mathematical package. Requests from outside the United States will be subject to applicable federal regulations regarding dissemination of computer programs. 22 refs

  15. SPARK Version 1. 1 user manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weissenburger, D.W.

    1988-01-01

    This manual describes the input required to use Version 1.1 of the SPARK computer code. SPARK 1.1 is a library of FORTRAN main programs and subprograms designed to calculate eddy currents on conducting surfaces where current flow is assumed zero in the direction normal to the surface. Surfaces are modeled with triangular and/or quadrilateral elements. Lorentz forces produced by the interaction of eddy currents with background magnetic fields can be output at element nodes in a form compatible with most structural analysis codes. In addition, magnetic fields due to eddy currents can be determined at points off the surface. Version 1.1 features eddy current streamline plotting with optional hidden-surface-removal graphics and topological enhancements that allow essentially any orientable surface to be modeled. SPARK also has extensive symmetry specification options. In order to make the manual as self-contained as possible, six appendices are included that present summaries of the symmetry options, topological options, coil options and code algorithms, with input and output examples. An edition of SPARK 1.1 is available on the Cray computers at the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center at Livermore, California. Another more generic edition is operational on the VAX computers at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory and is available on magnetic tape by request. The generic edition requires either the GKS or PLOT10 graphics package and the IMSL or NAG mathematical package. Requests from outside the United States will be subject to applicable federal regulations regarding dissemination of computer programs. 22 refs.

  16. Spark plasma sintering of tantalum carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaleghi, Evan; Lin, Yen-Shan; Meyers, Marc A.; Olevsky, Eugene A.

    2010-01-01

    A tantalum carbide powder was consolidated by spark plasma sintering. The specimens were processed under various temperature and pressure conditions and characterized in terms of relative density, grain size, rupture strength and hardness. The results are compared to hot pressing conducted under similar settings. It is shown that high densification is accompanied by substantial grain growth. Carbon nanotubes were added to mitigate grain growth; however, while increasing specimens' rupture strength and final density, they had little effect on grain growth.

  17. SKI and SSI's recommendations to the government concerning long-term responsibility after closure of a repository for spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paeivioe Jonsson, Josefin

    2008-01-01

    Many activities will cease at the closure of a repository, but not responsibilities. The candidate municipalities in Sweden expressed concern about who will take over after the implementer is released from responsibility for the facility. The government thus commissioned SKI (Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate) and SSI (Swedish Radiation Protection Authority) to review the legal obligations of institutional players as laid out today in legislation in Sweden. After closure of the repository in about 100 years there will be post-closure monitoring, possibly for a few hundred years. This will be a part of the conditions on SKB (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company) which will be set out at the time. Some activities will end at the closure of the facility but monitoring and safeguards obligations may continue. The exact nature of this monitoring and safeguard work needs to be discussed and agreed upon. With the proposed approach most of the liabilities rest with the state in the long term, the waste producers only have liabilities in the short term but their decisions could have big impacts on long term liabilities

  18. Status report: Nuclear fuel operating experience in implementing the program for power generation increase at VVER NPPs of JSC concern Rosenergoatom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryabinin, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The power uprate program of operating WWER-1000 plants was performed by Rosenergoatom using FA-2M and FAA-PLUS for 18-month fuel cycles. Their operation was justified at 104% of the rated power, and extension to 18-month fuel cycles was carried out at WWER-1000 units (except for Kalinin NPP-1). The analysis of actual performance data confirmed the efficiency of the actions implemented, and issues addressed related to the introduction of new fuel type, extended fuel cycles and spent nuclear fuel storage and removal

  19. Spark Ignition Engine Combustion, Performance and Emission Products from Hydrous Ethanol and Its Blends with Gasoline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musaab O. El-Faroug

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the serviceability of hydrous ethanol as a clean, cheap and green renewable substitute fuel for spark ignition engines and discusses the comparative chemical and physical properties of hydrous ethanol and gasoline fuels. The significant differences in the properties of hydrous ethanol and gasoline fuels are sufficient to create a significant change during the combustion phase of engine operation and consequently affect the performance of spark-ignition (SI engines. The stability of ethanol-gasoline-water blends is also discussed. Furthermore, the effects of hydrous ethanol, and its blends with gasoline fuel on SI engine combustion characteristics, cycle-to-cycle variations, engine performance parameters, and emission characteristics have been highlighted. Higher water solubility in ethanol‑gasoline blends may be obviously useful and suitable; nevertheless, the continuous ability of water to remain soluble in the blend is significantly affected by temperature. Nearly all published engine experimental results showed a significant improvement in combustion characteristics and enhanced engine performance for the use of hydrous ethanol as fuel. Moreover, carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen emissions were also significantly decreased. It is also worth pointing out that unburned hydrocarbon and carbon dioxide emissions were also reduced for the use of hydrous ethanol. However, unregulated emissions such as acetaldehyde and formaldehyde were significantly increased.

  20. A prediction study of a spark ignition supercharged hydrogen engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Baghdadi, M.A.R.S.; Al-Janabi, H.A.K.S. [University of Babylon (Iraq). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2003-12-01

    Hydrogen is found to be a suitable alternative fuel for spark ignition engines with certain drawbacks, such as high NO{sub x} emission and small power output. However, supercharging may solve such problems. In this study, the effects of equivalence ratio, compression ratio and inlet pressure on the performance and NO{sub x} emission of a four stroke supercharged hydrogen engine have been analyzed using a specially developed computer program. The results are verified and compared with experimental data obtained from tests on a Ricardo E6/US engine. A chart specifying the safe operation zone of the hydrogen engine has been produced. The safe operation zone means no pre-ignition, acceptable NO{sub x} emission, high engine efficiency and lower specific fuel consumption in comparison with the gasoline engine. The study also shows that supercharging is a more effective method to increase the output of a hydrogen engine rather than increasing the compression ratio of the engine at the knock limited equivalence ratio. (author)

  1. The spark counting of etched fission-fragment tracks in polycarbonate for a personal neutron dosimetry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, K.G.; Hancock, I.B.; Holt, P.D.; Wylie, J.W.

    1977-10-01

    A new type of personal neutron dosimeter, in which neutron-induced fissions in a thin 237 Np foil are detected by a polycarbonate track-detector, is under development at Harwell for use in a nuclear-fuel reprocessing plant. As part of the development programme, an experimental dosimeter, etching facility and spark counter have been used to study the spark-counting method for counting fission-fragment tracks in polycarbonate. Emphasis has been placed on developing operating procedures for the counter consistent with good overall reproducibility. Existing methods for the optimizing and testing of spark counters is briefly reviewed and a practical operational testing procedure is devised. The optimized system is found to be relatively foolproof in operation and gives good results in unskilled use as well as under carefully-controlled laboratory conditions. (author)

  2. Environmental concerns regarding a materials test reactor fuel fabrication facility at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute - IPEN; Atomos para el desarrollo de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, G. R. T.; Durazzo, M.; Carvalho, E. F. U. [IPEN, CNEN-SP, P.O. Box 11049, CEP 05422-970, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Riella, H. G. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Campus Universitario, Florianopolis, CEP 88040-900 (Brazil)]. e-mail: grsantos@ipen.br

    2008-07-01

    The aim of the industrial activities success, front to a more and more informed and demanding society and to a more and more competitive market demands an environmental administration policy which doesn't limit itself to assist the legislation but anticipate and prevent, in a responsible way, possible damages to the environment. One of the maim programs of the Institute of Energetic and Nuclear Research of the national Commission of Nuclear Energy located in Brazil, through the Center of Nuclear Fuel - CCN - is to manufacture MTR-type fuel elements using low-enrichment uranium (20 wt% {sup 2}35U), to supply its IEA-RI research reactor. Integrated in this program, this work aims at well developing and assuring a methodology to implant an environment, health and safety policy, foreseeing its management with the use of detailed data reports and through the adoption of new tools for improving the management, in order to fulfil the applicable legislation and accomplish all the environmental, operational and works aspects. The applied methodology for the effluents management comprises different aspects, including the specific environmental legislation of a country, main available effluents treatment techniques, process flow analyses from raw materials and intakes to products, generated effluents, residuals and emissions. Data collections were accomplished for points gathering and tests characterization, classification and compatibility of the generated effluents and their eventual environmental impacts. This study aims to implant the Sustainable Concept in order to guarantee access to financial resources, allowing cost reduction, maximizing long-term profits, preventing and reducing environmental accident risks and stimulating both the attraction and the keeping of a motivated manpower. Work on this project has already started and, even though many technical actions have not still ended, the results have being extremely valuable. These results can already give to

  3. Big Data Analytics with Datalog Queries on Spark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkapsky, Alexander; Yang, Mohan; Interlandi, Matteo; Chiu, Hsuan; Condie, Tyson; Zaniolo, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    There is great interest in exploiting the opportunity provided by cloud computing platforms for large-scale analytics. Among these platforms, Apache Spark is growing in popularity for machine learning and graph analytics. Developing efficient complex analytics in Spark requires deep understanding of both the algorithm at hand and the Spark API or subsystem APIs (e.g., Spark SQL, GraphX). Our BigDatalog system addresses the problem by providing concise declarative specification of complex queries amenable to efficient evaluation. Towards this goal, we propose compilation and optimization techniques that tackle the important problem of efficiently supporting recursion in Spark. We perform an experimental comparison with other state-of-the-art large-scale Datalog systems and verify the efficacy of our techniques and effectiveness of Spark in supporting Datalog-based analytics.

  4. Effects of various intake valve timings and spark timings on combustion, cyclic THC and NOX emissions during cold start phase with idle operation in CVVT engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Kwan Hee; Lee, Hyung Min; Hwang, In Goo; Myung, Cha Lee; Park, Sim Soo

    2008-01-01

    In a gasoline SI engine, valve events and spark timings put forth a major influence on overall efficiency, fuel economy, and exhaust emissions. Residual gases controlled by the valve overlap can be used to reduce NOx emissions and the spark retardation technique can be used to improve raw THC emissions and catalyst light-off performance during the cold start phase. This paper investigated the behaviors of the engine and its combustion characteristics with various intake valve timings and spark timings during the fast idle condition and cold start. And cyclic THC and NOx emissions were measured at the exhaust port and their formation mechanisms were examined with fast response gas analyzers. As a result, THCs and NOx were reduced by 35% and 23% with optimizing valve overlap and spark advance during the cold transient start phase. Consequently, the valve events and ignition timings were found to significantly affect combustion phenomena and cold-start emissions

  5. Liquid-Arc/Spark-Excitation Atomic-Emission Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlagen, Kenneth J.

    1992-01-01

    Constituents of solutions identified in situ. Liquid-arc/spark-excitation atomic-emission spectroscopy (LAES) is experimental variant of atomic-emission spectroscopy in which electric arc or spark established in liquid and spectrum of light from arc or spark analyzed to identify chemical elements in liquid. Observations encourage development of LAES equipment for online monitoring of process streams in such industries as metal plating, electronics, and steel, and for online monitoring of streams affecting environment.

  6. Development of a SPARK Training Dataset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayre, Amanda M.; Olson, Jarrod R.

    2015-01-01

    In its first five years, the National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) sponsored more than 400 undergraduate, graduate, and post-doctoral students in internships and research positions (Wyse 2012). In the past seven years, the NGSI program has, and continues to produce a large body of scientific, technical, and policy work in targeted core safeguards capabilities and human capital development activities. Not only does the NGSI program carry out activities across multiple disciplines, but also across all U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/NNSA locations in the United States. However, products are not readily shared among disciplines and across locations, nor are they archived in a comprehensive library. Rather, knowledge of NGSI-produced literature is localized to the researchers, clients, and internal laboratory/facility publication systems such as the Electronic Records and Information Capture Architecture (ERICA) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). There is also no incorporated way of analyzing existing NGSI literature to determine whether the larger NGSI program is achieving its core safeguards capabilities and activities. A complete library of NGSI literature could prove beneficial to a cohesive, sustainable, and more economical NGSI program. The Safeguards Platform for Automated Retrieval of Knowledge (SPARK) has been developed to be a knowledge storage, retrieval, and analysis capability to capture safeguards knowledge to exist beyond the lifespan of NGSI. During the development process, it was necessary to build a SPARK training dataset (a corpus of documents) for initial entry into the system and for demonstration purposes. We manipulated these data to gain new information about the breadth of NGSI publications, and they evaluated the science-policy interface at PNNL as a practical demonstration of SPARK's intended analysis capability. The analysis demonstration sought to answer

  7. Hybrid employment recommendation algorithm based on Spark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zuoquan; Lin, Yubei; Zhang, Xingming

    2017-08-01

    Aiming at the real-time application of collaborative filtering employment recommendation algorithm (CF), a clustering collaborative filtering recommendation algorithm (CCF) is developed, which applies hierarchical clustering to CF and narrows the query range of neighbour items. In addition, to solve the cold-start problem of content-based recommendation algorithm (CB), a content-based algorithm with users’ information (CBUI) is introduced for job recommendation. Furthermore, a hybrid recommendation algorithm (HRA) which combines CCF and CBUI algorithms is proposed, and implemented on Spark platform. The experimental results show that HRA can overcome the problems of cold start and data sparsity, and achieve good recommendation accuracy and scalability for employment recommendation.

  8. Sparking investment in Ontario's power generation industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the business strategy needed to spark investment in Ontario's power generation industry. It examines the process of decision making and investing in an uncertain environment. The paper suggests that any strategy based on one view of the future courts trouble and that strategic flexibility can prepare for what cannot be predicted. Finally the paper suggests that Ontario needs to create a stable policy and regulatory environment that allows investors to fulfill reasonable expectations and investors need to place bets that provide the flexibility to respond quickly to changing market conditions

  9. Anticipating Change, Sparking Innovation: Framing the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnegan, John R.; Spencer, Harrison C.

    2015-01-01

    As the 100th anniversary of the 1915 Welch-Rose report approaches, the Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health (ASPPH) has been pursuing two initiatives to spark innovation in academic partnerships for enhancing population health: (1) Framing the Future: The Second 100 Years of Education for Public Health and (2) Reconnecting Public Health and Care Delivery to Improve the Health of Populations. We describe how ASPPH-member schools and programs accredited by the Council on Education for Public Health, along with their extraordinarily diverse array of partners, are working to improve education that better prepares health professionals to meet 21st-century population health needs. PMID:25706017

  10. Studies and research concerning BNFP: life of project operating expenses for away-from-reactor (AFR) spent fuel storage facility. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shallo, F.A.

    1979-09-01

    Life of Project operating expenses for a licensed Away-From-Reactor (AFR) Spent Fuel Storage Facility are developed in this report. A comprehensive business management structure is established and the functions and responsibilities for the facility organization are described. Contractual provisions for spent fuel storage services are evaluated

  11. Effects of spark plug configuration on combustion and emission characteristics of a LPG fuelled lean burn SI engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, K.; Khan, Manazir Ahmed; Pradeep Bhasker, J.; Porpatham, E.

    2017-11-01

    Introduction of technological innovation in automotive engines in reducing pollution and increasing efficiency have been under contemplation. Gaseous fuels have proved to be a promising way to reduce emissions in Spark Ignition (SI) engines. In particular, LPG settled to be a favourable fuel for SI engines because of their higher hydrogen to carbon ratio, octane rating and lower emissions. Wide ignition limits and efficient combustion characteristics make LPG suitable for lean burn operation. But lean combustion technology has certain drawbacks like poor flame propagation, cyclic variations etc. Based on copious research it was found that location, types and number of spark plug significantly influence in reducing cyclic variations. In this work the influence of single and dual spark plugs of conventional and surface discharge electrode type were analysed. Dual surface discharge electrode spark plug enhanced the brake thermal efficiency and greatly reduced the cyclic variations. The experimental results show that rate of heat release and pressure rise was more and combustion duration was shortened in this configuration. On the emissions front, the NOx emission has increased whereas HC and CO emissions were reduced under lean condition.

  12. Physical and chemical effects of low octane gasoline fuels on compression ignition combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Badra, Jihad; Viollet, Yoann; Elwardani, Ahmed Elsaid; Im, Hong G.; Chang, Junseok

    2016-01-01

    Gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engines running on low octane gasoline fuels are considered an attractive alternative to traditional spark ignition engines. In this study, three fuels with different chemical and physical characteristics have

  13. Compositional Effects of Gasoline Fuels on Combustion, Performance and Emissions in Engine

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Ahfaz; Waqas, Muhammad; Naser, Nimal; Singh, Eshan; Roberts, William L.; Chung, Suk-Ho; Sarathy, Mani

    2016-01-01

    to interpret differences in combustion behavior of gasoline fuels that show similar knock characteristics in a cooperative fuel research (CFR) engine, but may behave differently in direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engines or any other engine combustion

  14. Understanding premixed flame chemistry of gasoline fuels by comparing quantities of interest

    KAUST Repository

    Selim, Hatem; Mohamed, Samah; Dawood, Alaaeldin; Sarathy, Mani

    2016-01-01

    Gasoline fuels are complex mixtures that vary in composition depending on crude oil feedstocks and refining processes. Gasoline combustion in high-speed spark ignition engines is governed by flame propagation, so understanding fuel composition

  15. Experimental investigation concerning the influence of fuel type and properties on the injection and atomization of liquid biofuels in an optical combustion chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galle, J.; Defruyt, S.; Van de Maele, C.; Rodriguez, R. Piloto; Denon, Q.; Verliefde, A.; Verhelst, S.

    2013-01-01

    Due to the scarcity of fossil fuels and the future stringent emission limits, there is an increasing interest for the use of renewable biofuels in compression ignition engines. However, these fuels have different physical, chemical and thermodynamic properties affecting atomization, spray development and combustion processes. The results reported in this paper have been obtained by experimentation with a constant volume combustion chamber. The influences of physical fuel properties on injections under non-evaporating conditions are studied, using a pump-line-nozzle system from a medium speed diesel engine with injection pressures up to 1200 bar, by changing the fuel type and temperature. Experiments were conducted for diesel, biodiesel, straight vegetable oils and animal fats. Injection pressure and needle lift measurements were analyzed. A high speed camera was used to visualize the spray, which enabled us to study the spray penetration and spray angle. Our results show that the fuel temperature is an important parameter to control because it significantly affects the fuel properties. Both the injection timing and injection duration are affected by the fuel properties. The influences of these properties on the spray development were less pronounced. At low temperatures, a strongly deteriorated atomization of oils and fats was observed. -- Highlights: • Spray measurements in an optical combustion chamber. • Influence on the injections system is compared for different bio-fuels. •Temperature effects the fuel properties, with strong influence on the injection system. • Viscosity has significant influence on atomization, especially for viscous fuels. • No difference for spray penetration and angle unlike the mass distribution

  16. Silicon nanoparticles produced by spark discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vons, Vincent A.; Smet, Louis C. P. M. de; Munao, David; Evirgen, Alper; Kelder, Erik M.; Schmidt-Ott, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    On the example of silicon, the production of nanoparticles using spark discharge is shown to be feasible for semiconductors. The discharge circuit is modelled as a damped oscillator circuit. This analysis reveals that the electrode resistance should be kept low enough to limit energy loss by Joule heating and to enable effective nanoparticle production. The use of doped electrodes results in a thousand-fold increase in the mass production rate as compared to intrinsic silicon. Pure and oxidised uniformly sized silicon nanoparticles with a primary particle diameter of 3–5 nm are produced. It is shown that the colour of the particles can be used as a good indicator of the oxidation state. If oxygen and water are banned from the spark generation system by (a) gas purification, (b) outgassing and (c) by initially using the particles produced as getters, unoxidised Si particles are obtained. They exhibit pyrophoric behaviour. This continuous nanoparticle preparation method can be combined with other processing techniques, including surface functionalization or the immediate impaction of freshly prepared nanoparticles onto a substrate for applications in the field of batteries, hydrogen storage or sensors.

  17. Power source with spark-safe outlet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsesarenko, N P; Alekhin, A V

    1982-01-01

    The invention refers to the technique of electrical monitoring and control in systems operating in a spark-safe medium (for example, in coal mines). A more accurate area of application is mobile objects with autonomous source of electricity (mine diesel locomotives, battery electric locomotives etc.). The purpose of the invention is to simplify and to improve the reliability of the planned device, and also to expand the area of application for conditions when it is powered from an autonomous generator of direct voltage. This goal is achieved because the power source with spark-safe outlet (the source contains a thyristor of advance disconnection, connected by anode to the delimiting throttle, one outlet of which is connected to the capacitor included between the controlling electrode and the anode of the thyristor, and the capacitor is connected through the resistor parallel to the outlet clamps of the source, while the thyristor of emergency protection connected parallel to the inlet clamps of the power source) is additionally equipped with a current sensor, hercon, transistor key (included in series in the power circuit) and optron, whose emitter is connected parallel to the current sensor connected in series to the inlet of the power source, while the receiver of the optron is connected in a circuit for controlling the thyristor of emergency protection. Hercon is built into the core of the delimiting throttle and is connected to the circuit for controlling the transistor key.

  18. Development of a SPARK Training Dataset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayre, Amanda M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Olson, Jarrod R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    In its first five years, the National Nuclear Security Administration’s (NNSA) Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) sponsored more than 400 undergraduate, graduate, and post-doctoral students in internships and research positions (Wyse 2012). In the past seven years, the NGSI program has, and continues to produce a large body of scientific, technical, and policy work in targeted core safeguards capabilities and human capital development activities. Not only does the NGSI program carry out activities across multiple disciplines, but also across all U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/NNSA locations in the United States. However, products are not readily shared among disciplines and across locations, nor are they archived in a comprehensive library. Rather, knowledge of NGSI-produced literature is localized to the researchers, clients, and internal laboratory/facility publication systems such as the Electronic Records and Information Capture Architecture (ERICA) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). There is also no incorporated way of analyzing existing NGSI literature to determine whether the larger NGSI program is achieving its core safeguards capabilities and activities. A complete library of NGSI literature could prove beneficial to a cohesive, sustainable, and more economical NGSI program. The Safeguards Platform for Automated Retrieval of Knowledge (SPARK) has been developed to be a knowledge storage, retrieval, and analysis capability to capture safeguards knowledge to exist beyond the lifespan of NGSI. During the development process, it was necessary to build a SPARK training dataset (a corpus of documents) for initial entry into the system and for demonstration purposes. We manipulated these data to gain new information about the breadth of NGSI publications, and they evaluated the science-policy interface at PNNL as a practical demonstration of SPARK’s intended analysis capability. The analysis demonstration sought to answer the

  19. Studies and research concerning BNFP: converting reprocessing plant's fuel receiving and storage area to an away-from-reactor (AFR) storage facility. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottrell, J.E.; Shallo, F.A.; Musselwhite, E.L.; Wiedemann, G.F.; Young, M.

    1979-09-01

    Converting a reprocessing plant's fuel receiving and storage station into an Away-From-Reactor storage facility is evaluated in this report. An engineering analysis is developed which includes (1) equipment modifications to the facility including the physical protection system, (2) planning schedules for licensing-related activities, and (3) cost estimates for implementing such a facility conversion. Storage capacities are evaluated using the presently available pools of the existing Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant-Fuel Receiving and Storage Station (BNFP-FRSS) as a model

  20. Studies and research concerning BNFP: converting reprocessing plant's fuel receiving and storage area to an away-from-reactor (AFR) storage facility. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrell, Jim E.; Shallo, Frank A.; Musselwhite, E Larry; Wiedemann, George F.; Young, Moylen

    1979-09-01

    Converting a reprocessing plant's fuel receiving and storage station into an Away-From-Reactor storage facility is evaluated in this report. An engineering analysis is developed which includes (1) equipment modifications to the facility including the physical protection system, (2) planning schedules for licensing-related activities, and (3) cost estimates for implementing such a facility conversion. Storage capacities are evaluated using the presently available pools of the existing Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant-Fuel Receiving and Storage Station (BNFP-FRSS) as a model.

  1. Detector for recoil nuclei stopping in the spark chamber gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksanyan, A.S.; Asatiani, T.L.; Ivanov, V.I.; Mkrtchyan, G.G.; Pikhtelev, R.N.

    1974-01-01

    A detector consisting of the combination of a drift and a wide gap spark chambers and designed to detect recoil nuclei stopping in the spark chamber gas is described. It is shown, that by using an appropriate discrimination the detector allows to detect reliably the recoil nuclei in the presence of intensive electron and γ-quanta beams

  2. Combustion and operating characteristics of spark-ignition engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heywood, J. B.; Keck, J. C.; Beretta, G. P.; Watts, P. A.

    1980-01-01

    The spark-ignition engine turbulent flame propagation process was investigated. Then, using a spark-ignition engine cycle simulation and combustion model, the impact of turbocharging and heat transfer variations or engine power, efficiency, and NO sub x emissions was examined.

  3. 2-Methylfuran: A bio-derived octane booster for spark-ignition engines

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2018-04-02

    The efficiency of spark-ignition engines is limited by the phenomenon of knock, which is caused by auto-ignition of the fuel-air mixture ahead of the spark-initiated flame front. The resistance of a fuel to knock is quantified by its octane index; therefore, increasing the octane index of a spark-ignition engine fuel increases the efficiency of the respective engine. However, raising the octane index of gasoline increases the refining costs, as well as the energy consumption during production. The use of alternative fuels with synergistic blending effects presents an attractive option for improving octane index. In this work, the octane enhancing potential of 2-methylfuran (2-MF), a next-generation biofuel, has been examined and compared to other high-octane components (i.e., ethanol and toluene). A primary reference fuel with an octane index of 60 (PRF60) was chosen as the base fuel since it closely represents refinery naphtha streams, which are used as gasoline blend stocks. Initial screening of the fuels was done in an ignition quality tester (IQT). The PRF60/2-MF (80/20 v/v%) blend exhibited longer ignition delay times compared to PRF60/ethanol (80/20 v/v%) blend and PRF60/toluene (80/20 v/v%) blend, even though pure 2-MF is more reactive than both ethanol and toluene. The mixtures were also tested in a cooperative fuels research (CFR) engine under research octane number and motor octane number like conditions. The PRF60/2-MF blend again possesses a higher octane index than other blending components. A detailed chemical kinetic analysis was performed to understand the synergetic blending effect of 2-MF, using a well-validated PRF/2-MF kinetic model. Kinetic analysis revealed superior suppression of low-temperature chemistry with the addition of 2-MF. The results from simulations were further confirmed by homogeneous charge compression ignition engine experiments, which established its superior low-temperature heat release (LTHR) suppression compared to ethanol

  4. Public notice no. 23/77, concerning the application for a license to establish a rationalisation syndicate for nuclear fuel supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The public utilities Badenwerk AG, EVS, VEW, ELEKTROMARK (Hagen), Neckarwerke (Esslingen) and TW (Stuttgart) applied for a licence in order to conclude a syndicate contract according to article 5 paragraph 2 and 3 of the Corporation Law. The contract provides cooperation in the field of acquisition of nuclear fuel. The partners involved founded the 'Gesellschaft fuer Kernbrennstoff mbH (GKB) [Nuclear Fuel Company Limited] with a registered seat in Bonn. Essential contents of the contract is given in full. (HP) [de

  5. Protection of neutral-beam accelerator electrodes from spark discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praeg, W.F.

    1977-01-01

    The high-voltage (HV) electrodes of neutral beam sources (NBS's) must be protected from occasional sparks to ground. Spark currents can be limited with special transformers and reactors which introduce time delays that are long enough to quench the spark or to disconnect the energy source. A saturated time delay transformer (STDT) connected in series with the HV power supply detects spark faults and limits the current supplied by the power supply and its capacitance to ground; it also initiates spark quenching. Nonsaturated, longitudinal reactors limit the discharge current supplied by the energy stored in the circuit capacitance of the NBS filament and arc power supplies long enough to discharge this capacitance into a resistor. The design principles of these protective circuits are presented

  6. Protection of neutral-beam-accelerator electrodes from spark discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praeg, W.F.

    1977-01-01

    The high-voltage (HV) electrodes of neutral beam sources (NBS's) must be protected from occasional sparks to ground. Spark currents can be limited with special transformers and reactors which introduce time delays that are long enough to quench the spark or to disconnect the energy source. A saturated time delay transformer (STDT) connected in series with the HV power supply detects spark faults and limits the current supplied by the power supply and its capacitance to ground; it also initiates spark quenching. Nonsaturated, longitudinal reactors limit the discharge current supplied by the energy stored in the circuit capacitance of the NBS filament and arc power supplies long enough to discharge this capacitance into a resistor. The design principles of these protective circuits are presented in this paper

  7. Protection of neutral-beam-accelerator electrodes from spark discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praeg, W.F.

    1978-01-01

    The high-voltage (HV) electrodes of neutral beam sources (NBS's) must be protected from occasional sparks to ground. Spark currents can be limited with special transformers and reactors which introduce time delays that are long enough to quench the spark or to disconnect the energy source. A saturated time delay transformer (STDT) connected in series with the HV power supply detects spark faults and limits the current supplied by the power supply and its capacitance to ground; it also initiates spark quenching. Nonsaturated, longitudinal reactors limit the discharge current supplied by the energy stored in the circuit capacitance of the NBS filament and arc power supplies long enough to discharge this capacitance into a resistor. The design principles of these protective circuits are presented in this paper

  8. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaki, Masao; Nishida, Koji; Karasawa, Hidetoshi; Kanazawa, Toru; Orii, Akihito; Nagayoshi, Takuji; Kashiwai, Shin-ichi; Masuhara, Yasuhiro

    1998-01-01

    The present invention concerns a fuel assembly, for a BWR type nuclear reactor, comprising fuel rods in 9 x 9 matrix. The inner width of the channel box is about 132mm and the length of the fuel rods which are not short fuel rods is about 4m. Two water rods having a circular cross section are arranged on a diagonal line in a portion of 3 x 3 matrix at the center of the fuel assembly, and two fuel rods are disposed at vacant spaces, and the number of fuel rods is 74. Eight fuel rods are determined as short fuel rods among 74 fuel rods. Assuming the fuel inventory in the short fuel rod as X(kg), and the fuel inventory in the fuel rods other than the short fuel rods as Y(kg), X and Y satisfy the relation: X + Y ≥ 173m, Y ≤ - 9.7X + 292, Y ≤ - 0.3X + 203 and X > 0. Then, even when the short fuel rods are used, the fuel inventory is increased and fuel economy can be improved. (I.N.)

  9. Development of laser-induced fluorescence for precombustion diagnostics in spark-ignition engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neij, H.

    1998-11-01

    Motivated by a desire to understand and optimize combustion in spark-ignition (SI) engines, laser techniques have been developed for measurement of fuel and residual gas, respectively, in the precombustion mixture of an operating SI engine. The primary objective was to obtain two-dimensional, quantitative data in the vicinity of the spark gap at the time of ignition. A laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) technique was developed for fuel visualization in engine environments. Since the fluorescence signal from any commercial gasoline fuel would be unknown to its origin, with an unpredictable dependence on collisional partners, pressure and temperature, a non-fluorescent base fuel - isooctane - was used. For LIF detection, a fluorescent species was added to the fuel. An additive not commonly used in this context - 3-pentanone - was chosen based on its suitable vaporization characteristics and fluorescent properties. The LIF technique was applied to an optically accessible research engine. By calibration, the fluorescence signal from the additive was converted to fuel-to-air equivalence ratio ({phi}). The accuracy and precision of the acquired data were assessed. A statistical evaluation revealed that the spatially averaged equivalence ratio around the spark plug had a significant impact on the combustion event. The strong correlation between these two quantities suggested that the early combustion was sensitive to large-scale inhomogeneities in the precombustion mixture. A similar LIF technique, using acetone as a fluorescent additive in methane, was applied to a combustion cell for ion current evaluation. The local equivalence ratio around the spark gap at the time of ignition was extracted from LIF data. Useful relations were identified between different ion current parameters and the local equivalence ratio, although the impact of the flow field, the fuel type, and the electrode geometry were identified as areas for future research. A novel fuel - dimethyl ether (DME

  10. Investigating the influences of liquid LPG injection on spark ignition (SI engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tukiman Mohd Mustaqim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG is one of the alternative fuels that becoming popular to be use in spark ignition engine (SI. This paper briefly presents the influence of energy content to the engine output of 1.6L SI engine of Proton Gen 2. The engine was coupled to a chassis dynamometer and few related apparatus were employed in determine the engine behavior. All data collected were illustrated in graph for further analysis. The engine shows comparable engine output, however, the engine requires some tuning in order to fully utilize the energy content of LPG.

  11. Spark-safe mechanical fluctuation sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Retek, S; Galisz, T

    1979-04-20

    The subject of the invention is a mechanical fluctuation sensor in a spark-safe design for use at mines which are dangerous for gas, as an element of different systems for remote control information transfer. The patented sensor of mechanical fluctuations contains: magnetic-induction transformer characterized by the fact that its inert mass consists of a plane permanent magnet placed in the suspended state on springs between 2 coils, which together with their cores are rigidly fixed to the walls of the ferromagnetic vessels. The ends of the coil windings are interconnected, while the beginnings of the windings are lead out with connection to the outlet of the electronic amplifier with binary outlet signal. The electronic amplifier is placed between the transformer in the common ferromagnetic housing which is a screen for protection from the effect of external magnetic fields.

  12. Addressing Parental Vaccine Concerns: Engagement, Balance, and Timing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason M Glanz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The recent United States measles epidemic has sparked another contentious national discussion about childhood vaccination. A growing number of parents are expressing concerns about the safety of vaccines, often fueled by misinformation from the internet, books, and other nonmedical sources. Many of these concerned parents are choosing to refuse or delay childhood vaccines, placing their children and surrounding communities at risk for serious diseases that are nearly 100% preventable with vaccination. Between 10% and 15% of parents are asking physicians to space out the timing of vaccines, which often poses an ethical dilemma for physicians. This trend reflects a tension between personal liberty and public health, as parents fight to control the decisions that affect the health of their children and public health officials strive to maintain high immunization rates to prevent outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases. Interventions to address this emerging public health issue are needed. We describe a framework by which web-based interventions can be used to help parents make evidence-based decisions about childhood vaccinations.

  13. Spark formation as a moving boundary process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Ute

    2006-03-01

    The growth process of spark channels recently becomes accessible through complementary methods. First, I will review experiments with nanosecond photographic resolution and with fast and well defined power supplies that appropriately resolve the dynamics of electric breakdown [1]. Second, I will discuss the elementary physical processes as well as present computations of spark growth and branching with adaptive grid refinement [2]. These computations resolve three well separated scales of the process that emerge dynamically. Third, this scale separation motivates a hierarchy of models on different length scales. In particular, I will discuss a moving boundary approximation for the ionization fronts that generate the conducting channel. The resulting moving boundary problem shows strong similarities with classical viscous fingering. For viscous fingering, it is known that the simplest model forms unphysical cusps within finite time that are suppressed by a regularizing condition on the moving boundary. For ionization fronts, we derive a new condition on the moving boundary of mixed Dirichlet-Neumann type (φ=ɛnφ) that indeed regularizes all structures investigated so far. In particular, we present compact analytical solutions with regularization, both for uniformly translating shapes and for their linear perturbations [3]. These solutions are so simple that they may acquire a paradigmatic role in the future. Within linear perturbation theory, they explicitly show the convective stabilization of a curved front while planar fronts are linearly unstable against perturbations of arbitrary wave length. [1] T.M.P. Briels, E.M. van Veldhuizen, U. Ebert, TU Eindhoven. [2] C. Montijn, J. Wackers, W. Hundsdorfer, U. Ebert, CWI Amsterdam. [3] B. Meulenbroek, U. Ebert, L. Schäfer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 195004 (2005).

  14. Analysis of cyclic variations during mode switching between spark ignition and controlled auto-ignition combustion operations

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, T; Zhao, H; Xie, H; He, B

    2014-01-01

    © IMechE 2014. Controlled auto-ignition, also known as homogeneous charge compression ignition, has been the subject of extensive research because of their ability to provide simultaneous reductions in fuel consumption and NOx emissions from a gasoline engine. However, due to its limited operation range, switching between controlled auto-ignition and spark ignition combustion is needed to cover the complete operating range of a gasoline engine for passenger car applications. Previous research...

  15. COMBUSTION OPTIMIZATION IN SPARK IGNITION ENGINES

    OpenAIRE

    Barhm Mohamad; Gabor Szebesi; Betti Bollo

    2017-01-01

    The blending technique used in internal combustion engines can reduce emission of toxic exhaust components and noises, enhance overall energy efficiency and reduce fuel costs. The aim of the study was to compare the effects of dual alcohols (methanol and ethanol) blended in gasoline fuel (GF) against performance, combustion and emission characteristics. Problems arise in the fuel delivery system when using the highly volatile methanol - gasoline blends. This problem is reduced by using specia...

  16. Spectroscoping analysis of ignition in a spark ignition engine with jet-controlled combustion; Spektroskopische Untersuchung der Entflammung an einem Ottomotor mit strahlgefuehrtem Brennverfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palaveev, S. [MOT Forschungs- und Entwicklungsgesellschaft fuer Motorentechnik, Optik und Thermodynamik GmbH, Karlsruhe (Germany); Buri, S.; Xander, B.; Spicher, U. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Kolbenmaschinen

    2007-07-01

    The gasoline direct injection engine is one of the most promising strategies today to reduce the fuel consumption and CO{sub 2}-emissions of spark-ignition engines. The commercial launch of that combustion system was possible only through the development of new optical measurement techniques, which have been a major contribution for understanding the basics of the combustion in a stratified mode. In terms of space and time, compared to the homogeneous approach, the air-fuel-ratio for a stratified mode may vary significantly. This fluctuation affects in a critical way the process of ignition and combustion. The knowledge of the air-fuel-ratio in the spark plug area both at time of ignition and in during the combustion is therefore critical for the development of this combustion system and it components. This paper presents the spark-emission spectroscopy as a non invasive optical technique for measuring the air-fuel-ratio {lambda} in the spark gap at time of ignition. (orig.)

  17. Investigating the effects of LPG on spark ignition engine combustion and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayraktar, Hakan; Durgun, Orhan

    2005-01-01

    A quasi-dimensional spark ignition (SI) engine cycle model is used to predict the cycle, performance and exhaust emissions of an automotive engine for the cases of using gasoline and LPG. Governing equations of the mathematical model mainly consist of first order ordinary differential equations derived for cylinder pressure and temperature. Combustion is simulated as a turbulent flame propagation process and during this process, two different thermodynamic regions consisting of unburned gases and burned gases that are separated by the flame front are considered. A computer code for the cycle model has been prepared to perform numerical calculations over a range of engine speeds and fuel-air equivalence ratios. In the computations performed at different engine speeds, the same fuel-air equivalence ratios are selected for each fuel to make realistic comparisons from the fuel economy and fuel consumption points of view. Comparisons show that if LPG fueled SI engines are operated at the same conditions with those of gasoline fueled SI engines, significant improvements in exhaust emissions can be achieved. However, variations in various engine performance parameters and the effects on the engine structural elements are not promising

  18. Communication received on 12 September 2006 from the Permanent Mission of Japan to the Agency concerning arrangements for the assurance of nuclear fuel supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Secretariat has received on 12 September 2006 a communication from the Permanent Mission of Japan attaching a document entitled 'Japan's Proposal: IAEA Standby Arrangements System for the Assurance of Nuclear Fuel Supply'. As requested by the Permanent Mission, the text of the attachment is herewith reproduced for the information of Member States

  19. Target fabrication using laser and spark erosion machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, X.; Coudeville, A.; Eyharts, P.; Perrine, J.P.; Rouillard, R.

    1982-01-01

    Fabrication of laser fusion targets requires a number of special techniques. We have developed both laser and spark erosion machining to produce minute parts of complex targets. A high repetition rate YAG laser at double frequency is used to etch various materials. For example, marks or patterns are often necessary on structured or advanced targets. The laser is also used to thin down plastic coated stalks. A spark erosion system has proved to be a versatile tool and we describe current fabrication processes like cutting, drilling, and ultra precise machining. Spark erosion has interesting features for target fabrication: it is a highly controllable and reproducible technique as well as relatively inexpensive

  20. A spectroscopy study of gasoline partially premixed compression ignition spark assisted combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastor, J.V.; García-Oliver, J.M.; García, A.; Micó, C.; Durrett, R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► PPC combustion combined with spark assistance and gasoline fuel on a CI engine. ► Chemiluminescence of different chemical species describes the progress of combustion reaction. ► Spectra of a novel combustion mode under SACI conditions is described. ► UV–Visible spectrometry, high speed imaging and pressure diagnostic were employed for analysis. - Abstract: Nowadays many research efforts are focused on the study and development of new combustion modes, mainly based on the use of locally lean air–fuel mixtures. This characteristic, combined with exhaust gas recirculation, provides low combustion temperatures that reduces pollutant formation and increases efficiency. However these combustion concepts have some drawbacks, related to combustion phasing control, which must be overcome. In this way, the use of a spark plug has shown to be a good solution to improve phasing control in combination with lean low temperature combustion. Its performance is well reported on bibliography, however phenomena involving the combustion process are not completely described. The aim of the present work is to develop a detailed description of the spark assisted compression ignition mode by means of application of UV–Visible spectrometry, in order to improve insight on the combustion process. Tests have been performed in an optical engine by means of broadband radiation imaging and emission spectrometry. The engine hardware is typical of a compression ignition passenger car application. Gasoline was used as the fuel due to its low reactivity. Combining broadband luminosity images with pressure-derived heat-release rate and UV–Visible spectra, it was possible to identify different stages of the combustion reaction. After the spark discharge, a first flame kernel appears and starts growing as a premixed flame front, characterized by a low and constant heat-release rate in combination with the presence of remarkable OH radical radiation. Heat release increases

  1. Outlook on Standardization of Alternative Vehicle Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehnlund, B [Atrax Energi AB (Sweden)

    2008-10-15

    The use of fossil but in first hand biobased alternative fuels in transportation has increased over the last decades. This change is primarily driven by concerns about climate change that is caused by emissions of fossil carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, but also by the impact on health and environment, caused by emissions of regulated as well as non-regulated emissions from the transport sector. Most alternative fuels will help to reduce the emissions of regulated and non-regulated emissions, while alternative fuels based on biomass also will contribute to reduced net emissions of carbon dioxide. Since the mid 1990s, the use of biomass based fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel has reached levels high enough in for example Europe, Brazil and the U.S. to motivate national or regional specifications/standards. Especially from the vehicle/engine manufacturer's point of view standards are of high importance. From early 2000 onwards, the international trade of biofuels (for example from Brazil to the U.S. and Europe) has grown, and this has created a need for common international specifications/standards. This report presents information about national and regional standards for alternative fuels, but also, when existing and reported, standards on a global level are described and discussed. Ongoing work concerning new or revised standards on alternative fuels on national, regional or global level is also discussed. In this report we have covered standards on all kind of alternative fuels, exemplified below. However, the focus is on liquid biofuels for diesel engines and Otto engines. 1) Liquid fuels for diesel engines (compression ignition engines), such as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME), Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters (FAEE), alcohols, alcohol derivates and synthetic diesel fuels. 2) Liquid fuels for Otto engines (spark ignition engines), such as alcohols, ethers and synthetic gasoline. 3) Liquefied fossil petroleum gas (LPG). 4) Di-Methyl Ether (DME). 5) Fossil

  2. Outlook on Standardization of Alternative Vehicle Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehnlund, B. [Atrax Energi AB (Sweden)

    2008-10-15

    The use of fossil but in first hand biobased alternative fuels in transportation has increased over the last decades. This change is primarily driven by concerns about climate change that is caused by emissions of fossil carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, but also by the impact on health and environment, caused by emissions of regulated as well as non-regulated emissions from the transport sector. Most alternative fuels will help to reduce the emissions of regulated and non-regulated emissions, while alternative fuels based on biomass also will contribute to reduced net emissions of carbon dioxide. Since the mid 1990s, the use of biomass based fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel has reached levels high enough in for example Europe, Brazil and the U.S. to motivate national or regional specifications/standards. Especially from the vehicle/engine manufacturer's point of view standards are of high importance. From early 2000 onwards, the international trade of biofuels (for example from Brazil to the U.S. and Europe) has grown, and this has created a need for common international specifications/standards. This report presents information about national and regional standards for alternative fuels, but also, when existing and reported, standards on a global level are described and discussed. Ongoing work concerning new or revised standards on alternative fuels on national, regional or global level is also discussed. In this report we have covered standards on all kind of alternative fuels, exemplified below. However, the focus is on liquid biofuels for diesel engines and Otto engines. 1) Liquid fuels for diesel engines (compression ignition engines), such as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME), Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters (FAEE), alcohols, alcohol derivates and synthetic diesel fuels. 2) Liquid fuels for Otto engines (spark ignition engines), such as alcohols, ethers and synthetic gasoline. 3) Liquefied fossil petroleum gas (LPG). 4) Di-Methyl Ether (DME). 5

  3. Identification of contaminants of concern for the postclosure assessment of the concept for the disposal of Canada`s nuclear fuel waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodwin, B W; Mehta, K K

    1994-03-01

    The concept for the disposal of Canada`s nuclear fuel waste involves the isolation of irradiated fuel in corrosion-resistant containers emplaced din din a vault located deep in crystalline rock of the Canadian Shield. To estimate potential impacts on members of a critical group far into the future, a postclosure assessment evaluates the long-term safety of the concept. Although the nuclear fuel waste from CANDU (Canada Deuterium Uranium) power generating stations contains several hundreds of potentially toxic radionuclides and chemical elements (referred to as contaminants), many of these would not lead to significant impacts. This report provides an upper bound on estimated radiation dose and chemical toxicity effects on humans from all potentially toxic contaminants, and it identifies those that require detailed consideration in the postclosure assessment. This report also examines the origins and properties of the contaminants. Properties of interest include radioactive half-life, inventory, mobility in groundwaters and sorption on rock, degree of toxicity, and precursors and progeny (or parents and daughters) for members of a decay chain. The report considers how these properties affect the behaviour of different contaminants in different parts of the disposal system. The discussion leads to suggested methods of treatment of different contaminants when simulating their fate within the disposal system. In particular, recommendations are made on how the actinide decay chains can be simplified for study in the postclosure assessment. (author). 56 refs., 22 tabs., 12 figs.

  4. High pressure gas-filled cermet spark gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avilov, Eh.A.; Yur'ev, A.L.

    2000-01-01

    The results of modernization of the R-48 and R-49 spark gaps making it possible to improve their electrical characteristics are presented. The design is described and characteristics of gas-filled cermet spark gaps are presented. By the voltage rise time of 5-6 μs in the Marx generator scheme they provide for the pulse break-through voltage of 120 and 150 kV. By the voltage rise time of 0.5-1 μs the break-through voltage of these spark gaps may be increased up to 130 and 220 kV. The proper commutation time is equal to ≤ 0.5 ns. Practical recommendations relative to designing cermet spark gaps are given [ru

  5. Exploring the Performance of Spark for a Scientific Use Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehrish, Saba [Fermilab; Kowalkowski, Jim [Fermilab; Paterno, Marc [Fermilab

    2016-01-01

    We present an evaluation of the performance of a Spark implementation of a classification algorithm in the domain of High Energy Physics (HEP). Spark is a general engine for in-memory, large-scale data processing, and is designed for applications where similar repeated analysis is performed on the same large data sets. Classification problems are one of the most common and critical data processing tasks across many domains. Many of these data processing tasks are both computation- and data-intensive, involving complex numerical computations employing extremely large data sets. We evaluated the performance of the Spark implementation on Cori, a NERSC resource, and compared the results to an untuned MPI implementation of the same algorithm. While the Spark implementation scaled well, it is not competitive in speed to our MPI implementation, even when using significantly greater computational resources.

  6. Biofuel and Hydrogen Influence for Operation Parameters of Spark Ignition Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martynas Damaševičius

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents research of efficient and ecological parameters of gasoline engine working with biobuthanol (10% and 20% by volume and addi-tionaly supplying oxygen and hydrogen (HHO gas mixture (3.6 l/min, which was obtained from from water by electrolysis. Biobuthanol addition decreases rate of heat release, the combustion temperature and pressure are lower, which has an influence on lower nitrous oxide (NOx emission in exhaust gases. However, biobuthanol increases carbon monoxide (CO concentration. Biobuthanol fuel has a simplier molecular structure, therefore the concentration of HC in the exhaust gas is decreasing. Due to lower heating value of biobuthanol fuel and slower combustion process, the engine efficiency decreases and specific fuel consumptions increase. The change of engine energetical indicators due to biobuthanol, can be compensated with advanced ignition angle. Using experimental investigation, it was determined, that negative biobuthanol influence for the combustion process and engine efficient inicators can be compensated also by additional supplied HHO gas, in which the hydrogen element iprove fuel mixture com-bustion. Fuel combustion process analysis was carried out using AVL BOOST software. Experimental research and combustion process numerical simulation showed that using balanced biobuthanol and hydrogen addition, optimal efficient and ecological parameters could be achieved, when engine is working for petrol fuel typical optimal spark timing.

  7. Ultra Fast, High Rep Rate, High Voltage Spark Gap Pulser

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-07-01

    current rise time. The spark gap was designed to have a coaxial geometry reducing its inductance. Provisions were made to pass flowing gas between the...ULTRA FAST, HIGH REP RATE, HIGH VOLTAGE SPARK GAP PULSER Robert A. Pastore Jr., Lawrence E. Kingsley, Kevin Fonda, Erik Lenzing Electrophysics and...Modeling Branch AMSRL-PS-EA Tel.: (908)-532-0271 FAX: (908)-542-3348 U.S. Army Research Laboratory Physical Sciences Directorate Ft. Monmouth

  8. Radiofrequency spark chambers and delay line resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayag, Jacques

    1971-01-01

    According to a suggestion of A. Kastler, a spark chamber was excited by an undamped radiofrequency pulse and tracks about 1 mm wide obtained; the result was interpreted by computation of the coefficients of electronic amplification and partial ambipolar diffusion. This work led us to the construction of a new fast triggering undamped wave-train generator of very high tension (patent taken out by the C.E.A. under the no.: EN 7 134 650 the 27.9.1971). Since this apparatus uses a resonant storage line, its design implied a precise knowledge of high impedance delay lines. The experimental radiofrequency spectra of the input impedance of opened or short-circuited lines were plotted completely and analysed by the circuits theory, new measuring methods were established, dispersion relations accurately checked and the equivalence of the formulas, within the third order, with theses of Debye's Dipolar Absorption demonstrated. General properties of Hilbert's transform were also investigated. From the experimental point of view, the electromagnetic energy storage process was extended to the case of a liquid nitrogen-immersed resonant delay line. The good behavior of the cryogenic experiment, where the main difficulty of icing was overcame by the construction of special electrodes, offers great promise for extrapolation to superconductivity. (author) [fr

  9. Sparks Will Fly: engineering creative script conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, Tony; Valitutti, Alessandro

    2017-10-01

    Scripts are often dismissed as the stuff of good movies and bad politics. They codify cultural experience so rigidly that they remove our freedom of choice and become the very antithesis of creativity. Yet, mental scripts have an important role to play in our understanding of creative behaviour, since a deliberate departure from an established script can produce results that are simultaneously novel and familiar, especially when others stick to the conventional script. Indeed, creative opportunities often arise at the overlapping boundaries of two scripts that antagonistically compete to mentally organise the same situation. This work explores the computational integration of competing scripts to generate creative friction in short texts that are surprising but meaningful. Our exploration considers conventional macro-scripts - ordered sequences of actions - and the less obvious micro-scripts that operate at even the lowest levels of language. For the former, we generate plots that squeeze two scripts into a single mini-narrative; for the latter, we generate ironic descriptions that use conflicting scripts to highlight the speaker's pragmatic insincerity. We show experimentally that verbal irony requires both kinds of scripts - macro and micro - to work together to reliably generate creative sparks from a speaker's subversive intent.

  10. Going Concern eller Concerned Going

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haraszuk, Anni; Hartmann, Stig

    2012-01-01

    Højsæsonen for revision af årsrapporter 2011 er på trapperne; men hvordan håndterer revisorer egentlig going concern i praksis - i en tid præget af stejle op- og nedture?......Højsæsonen for revision af årsrapporter 2011 er på trapperne; men hvordan håndterer revisorer egentlig going concern i praksis - i en tid præget af stejle op- og nedture?...

  11. Automatic spark counting of alpha-tracks in plastic foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somogyi, G.; Medveczky, L.; Hunyadi, I.; Nyako, B.

    1976-01-01

    The possibility of alpha-track counting by jumping spark counter in cellulose acetate and polycarbonate nuclear track detectors was studied. A theoretical treatment is presented which predicts the optimum residual thickness of the etched foils in which completely through-etched tracks (i.e. holes) can be obtained for alpha-particles of various energies and angles of incidence. In agreement with the theoretical prediction it is shown that a successful spark counting of alpha-tracks can be performed even in polycarbonate foils. Some counting characteristics, such as counting efficiency vs particle energy at various etched foil thicknesses, surface spark density produced by electric breakdowns in unexposed foils vs foil thickness, etc. have been determined. Special attention was given to the spark counting of alpha-tracks entering thin detectors at right angle. The applicability of the spark counting technique is demonstrated in angular distribution measurements of the 27 Al(p,α 0 ) 24 Mg nuclear reaction at Ep = 1899 keV resonance energy. For this study 15 μm thick Makrofol-G foils and a jumping spark counter of improved construction were used. (orig.) [de

  12. Preliminary study on the combustion and emission in a direct injection LPG spark ignition engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Seungmook; Lee, Seokhwan [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-07-01

    In the energy sector, with the implementation of stringent regulations on combustion emissions and the depletion of conventional fuels, there is an important need for low carbon fuel and advanced engine technology. Korea is the country with the most LPG vehicles in the world and the aim of this study, performed by the Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, is to compare the performance of LPG direct injection spark ignition (DISI) with gasoline DISI. Heat release analyses were conducted to determine the combustion characteristics of both systems and experiments were performed to determine gaseous and nanoparticle emissions. Results showed that LPG provides a better thermal efficiency than gasoline and that THC, NOx, and particulate emissions were lower for LPG than for gasoline. This study demonstrated that LPG DISI can provide better combustion efficiency and lower emissions than gasoline DISI.

  13. Experimental investigation and phenomenological model development of flame kernel growth rate in a gasoline fuelled spark ignition engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvi, B.L.; Subramanian, K.A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental measurement of the flame kernel growth rate (FKGR) in SI engine. • FKGR is the highest at MBT timing as compared with retarded and advanced timings. • FKGR decreases with increase in engine speed. • FKGR is correlated with equivalence ratio, charge density, in-cylinder pressure and engine speed. - Abstract: As flame kernel growth plays a major role in combustion of premixed-charge in spark ignition engines for higher energy efficiency and less emission, the experimental study was carried out on a single cylinder spark ignition research engine for measurement of flame kernel growth rate (FKGR) using spark plug fibre optics probe (VisioFlame sensor). The FKGR was measured on the engine at different power output with varied spark ignition timings and different engine speeds. The experimental results indicate that the FKGR was the highest with the maximum brake torque (MBT) spark timing and it decreases with increase in the engine speed. The FKGR at engine speed of 1000 RPM was the highest of 1.81 m/s with MBT timing (20° bTDC) as compared to 1.6 m/s (15° bTDC), 1.67 m/s (25° bTDC), and 1.61 m/s (30° bTDC) with retarded and advanced timing. In addition to this, a phenomenological model was developed for calculation of FKGR. It was observed from the model that FKGR is function of equivalence ratio, engine speed, in-cylinder pressure and charge density. The experimental results and methodology emerged from this study would be useful for optimization of engine parameters using the FKGR and also further development of model for alternative fuels

  14. COMBUSTION AND PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF A SMALL SPARK IGNITION ENGINE FUELLED WITH HCNG

    OpenAIRE

    A. SONTHALIA; C. RAMESHKUMAR; U. SHARMA; A. PUNGANUR; S. ABBAS

    2015-01-01

    Due to environmental concerns and fossil fuel depletion, large scale researches were carried out involving the use of natural gas in internal combustion engines. Natural gas is a clean burning fuel that is available from large domestic natural reserve. When it is used as a fuel in SI engines, it reduces emissions to meet EURO-III norms with carburettors and EURO-IV norms with manifold injection. Countries like India with fewer natural fossil fuel reserves depend heavily on oil imported fro...

  15. Spark discharge and flame inception analysis through spectroscopy in a DISI engine fuelled with gasoline and butanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irimescu, A.; Merola, S. S.

    2017-10-01

    Extensive application of downsizing, as well as the application of alternative combustion control with respect to well established stoichiometric operation, have determined a continuous increase in the energy that is delivered to the working fluid in order to achieve stable and repeatable ignition. Apart from the complexity of fluid-arc interactions, the extreme thermodynamic conditions of this initial combustion stage make its characterization difficult, both through experimental and numerical techniques. Within this context, the present investigation looks at the analysis of spark discharge and flame kernel formation, through the application of UV-visible spectroscopy. Characterization of the energy transfer from the spark plug’s electrodes to the air-fuel mixture was achieved by the evaluation of vibrational and rotational temperatures during ignition, for stoichiometric and lean fuelling of a direct injection spark ignition engine. Optical accessibility was ensured from below the combustion chamber through an elongated piston design, that allowed the central region of the cylinder to be investigated. Fuel effects were evaluated for gasoline and n-butanol; roughly the same load was investigated in throttled and wide-open throttle conditions for both fuels. A brief thermodynamic analysis confirmed that significant gains in efficiency can be obtained with lean fuelling, mainly due to the reduction of pumping losses. Minimal effect of fuel type was observed, while mixture strength was found to have a stronger influence on calculated temperature values, especially during the initial stage of ignition. In-cylinder pressure was found to directly determine emission intensity during ignition, but the vibrational and rotational temperatures featured reduced dependence on this parameter. As expected, at the end of kernel formation, temperature values converged towards those typically found for adiabatic flames. The results show that indeed only a relatively small part

  16. Scattering profiles of sparks and combustibility of filter against hot sparks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobita, Noriyuki; Okada, Takashi; Kashiro, Kashio

    2004-12-01

    An event that a pre-filter burned on fire took place in the glove box dismantlement facility of Plutonium Production Facility, on April 21, 2003. The direct cause of this event was considered to be sparks generated by an abrasive wheel cutter, some of which reached the pre-filter and eventually burned the pre-filter. Further investigation revealed that there exist other deficiencies those of which formed indirect causes of the event, i.e., the wheel cutter was used without protective cover and adequate shield against sparks was not installed during the operation. To prevent similar event in the future, following corrective actions were introduced. Wheel cutter will not be used without protective cover; Incombustible pre-filter will be used; Shield will be place at the front of the pre-filter. We have conducted series of experimental tests in order to evaluate and confirm the validity of these corrective actions as well as determine the cause of the fire. This report present the results of these tests. (author)

  17. 40 CFR 79.56 - Fuel and fuel additive grouping system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... industry-sponsored or other independent brokering arrangements. (3) Manufacturers who enroll a fuel or fuel... Specification for Automotive Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel”, used to define the general characteristics of gasoline... shall be chemical-grade quality, at a minimum, and shall not contain a significant amount of other...

  18. Analysis of an Increase in the Efficiency of a Spark Ignition Engine Through the Application of an Automotive Thermoelectric Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkisz, Jerzy; Fuc, Pawel; Lijewski, Piotr; Ziolkowski, Andrzej; Galant, Marta; Siedlecki, Maciej

    2016-08-01

    We have analyzed the increase of the overall efficiency of a spark ignition engine through energy recovery following the application of an automotive thermoelectric generator (ATEG) of our own design. The design of the generator was developed following emission investigations during vehicle driving under city traffic conditions. The measurement points were defined by actual operation conditions (engine speed and load), subsequently reproduced on an engine dynamometer. Both the vehicle used in the on-road tests and the engine dynamometer were fit with the same, downsized spark ignition engine (with high effective power-to-displacement ratio). The thermodynamic parameters of the exhaust gases (temperature and exhaust gas mass flow) were measured on the engine testbed, along with the fuel consumption and electric current generated by the thermoelectric modules. On this basis, the power of the ATEG and its impact on overall engine efficiency were determined.

  19. Cost studies concerning decontamination and dismantling. The interim store for spent fuel at Studsvik; Kaerntekniska kostnadsstudier avseende dekontaminering och nedlaeggning. Mellanfoervaret foer anvaent kaernbraensle i Studsvik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoeblom, Rolf; Sjoeoe, Cecilia [Tekedo AB, Nykoeping (Sweden); Lindskog, Staffan; Cato, Anna [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-04-15

    The interim store for spent fuel at Studsvik was designed and constructed in 1962-64. It has been used for wet storage of fuel from the Aagesta Nuclear Power Plant as well as the R2 reactor at Studsvik. The interim store comprises three cylindrical pools for fuel storage as well as equipment for handling and decontamination. The purpose of the present work is to develop methodology for calculation of future costs for decontamination and dismantling of nuclear research facilities. The analysis is based on information from Studsvik as well as results from information searches. The requirements on precision of cost calculations is high, also at early stages. The reason for this is that the funds are to be collected now but are to be used some time in the future. At the same time they should neither be insufficient nor superfluous. It is apparent from the compilation and analysis that when methodology that has been developed for the purpose of cost calculations for power reactors is applied to research facilities certain drawbacks become apparent, e.g. difficulties to carry out variation analyses. Generally, feedback of data on incurred costs for the purpose of cost calculations can be achieved by using one or more scaling factors together with weighing factors which are established based on e.g. expert judgement. For development and utilisation of such tools it is necessary to have access to estimated costs together with incurred ones. In the report, the following combination of aspects is identified as being of primary significance for achieving a high precision: Calculations with the possibility to calibrate against incurred costs; Radiological surveying tailored to the needs for calculations; Technical planning including selection of techniques to be used; Identification of potential sources for systematic deviations. In the case of the interim store, some of the sources of uncertainty are as follows: Damaged surface layers in the pools; Maintenance status for the

  20. Bridgman's concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    In 1956 P.W. Bridgman published a letter to the editor in the Journal of Applied Physics reporting results of electrical resistance measurements on iron under static high pressure. The work was undertaken to verify the existence of a polymorphic phase transition at 130 kbar (13 GPa) reported in the same journal and year by the Los Alamos authors, Bancroft, Peterson and Minshall for high pressure, shock-compression loading. In his letter, Bridgman reported that he failed to find any evidence for the transition. Further, he raised some fundamental concerns as to the state of knowledge of shock-compression processes in solids. Later it was determined that Bridgman's static pressure scale was in error, and the shock observations became the basis for calibration of pressure values in static high pressure apparatuses. In spite of the error in pressure scales, Bridgman's concerns on descriptions of shock-compression processes were perceptive and have provided the basis for subsequent fundamental studies of shock-compressed solids. The present paper, written in response to receipt of the 1993 American Physical Society Shock-Compression Science Award, provides a brief contemporary assessment of those shock-compression issues which were the basis of Bridgman's 1956 concerns

  1. Future technology of the spark-ignition engine: spray-guided direct injection with piezo injector; Die Zukunftstechnologie des Ottomotors: Strahlgefuehrte Direkteinspritzung mit Piezo-Injektor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waltner, A.; Lueckert, P.; Schaupp, U.; Rau, E.; Kemmler, R.; Weller, R. [DaimlerChrysler AG, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The completely new-style second-generation direct-injection for spark-ignition engines from Mercedes-Benz offers clear improvements in fuel consumption, power and emission levels. Faced with the necessity of further reducing fuel consumption, primarily in spark-ignition engines, the Mercedes-Benz combustion system represents a significant leap in technology. It was possible to noticeably expand the mapping range in which stratified operation can be used compared with the first generation. This significant improvement in efficiency results in more useable energy and a substantial reduction in consumption in city traffic, and also on cross-country and highway trips at roughly constant speeds. These benefits make themselves felt not only in the test cycle, but also in the real-world consumption achieved by the customer. Development proceeded from the base aspirated engine on the principle of the modular expansion of technology. Since production development of this combustion system was not possible using the hydraulic and ignition components available on the market, a new outward-opening piezo fuel injector had to be developed for production readiness, along with a 200-bar high-pressure fuel system, which is being introduced here for the first time world-wide. The injection spray stability and excellent mixture preparation that it achieves produce an optimally combustible mixture at the spark plug. The potential of multiple injection, along with stability in stratified operation, brings further benefits and possibilities for direct injection in fuel consumption and emissions. (orig.)

  2. Performance analyses of a spark-ignition engine firing with gasoline–butanol blends at partial load operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galloni, E.; Fontana, G.; Staccone, S.; Scala, F.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The potential of butanol has been investigated at partial load operation. • Torque and thermal efficiency slightly decrease when the alcohol content increases. • At part load, spark advance does not require changes when alcohol content increases. - Abstract: Biofuels seem to represent one of the most promising means for the limitation of the greenhouse gas emissions coming from traditional energy systems. In this paper, the performance of a “downsized” spark-ignition engine, fueled by gasoline and bio-butanol blends (20% and 40% butanol mass percentage), has been analyzed. In the first phase of this activity, the experimental tests have been carried out at operating points ranging from low to medium engine speed and load. The first investigations were aimed to assess the main differences among the different fuels in terms of output torque, thermal efficiency, combustion duration and optimal spark timing. In order to study the engine behavior in a wide range of fuel mixtures, these parameters have been evaluated for equivalence ratio values ranging from 1.25 to 0.83. The results obtained in this step show that both the engine torque and thermal efficiency slightly decrease (meanly about 4%) when the blend alcohol content increases. However, butanol increases the burning rate of lean mixtures and an interesting result is that the spark advance does not require adjustments when fueling changes from neat gasoline to bio-butanol/gasoline blends. Later, the pollutant emissions and the CO_2 emissions, for both rich and lean mixtures of pure gasoline and gasoline bio-butanol blends, have been measured. In general, firing with alcohol blends, NO_x and CO emissions remain quite the same, HC emissions slightly decrease while the CO_2 emissions slightly increase. At the end, in order to reproduce the real world urban driving cycle, stoichiometric mixtures have been analyzed. In these conditions, the engine thermal efficiency, at given speed and torque

  3. Experimental analysis on a spark ignition petrol engine fuelled with LPG (liquefied petroleum gas)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masi, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    The use of LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) as alternative fuel to petrol is common practise in spark ignition engines. While the main driving force to the use of LPG still remains the low cost for the end user, its favourable pollutant emissions, in particular carbon dioxide, will in the middle term probably increase interest in LPG as an IC engine fuel. In addition, there are both theoretical and technical reasons to consider LPG as an attractive fuel also in terms of engine performance. Despite the continuously increasing stock production of dual-fuel (petrol–LPG) passenger car models, doubts still exist about both real engine performance in LPG operation and the reliability of the dual-fuel feeding system. This paper deals with the theoretical advantages of using LPG as fuel for SI engines. Brake performance tests of a passenger car engine fed with petrol and LPG are analysed and compared. The stock engine has been equipped with a “third-generation” standard kit for dual-fuel operation. The performance reductions in LPG operation are discussed in both steady state and transient condition. The results of some modifications to the set-up of both the petrol and LPG metering devices, designed for a better justification of the measured performance, are also presented. -- Highlights: ► Experimental research on the actual performances of an SI engine fed with petrol and gaseous LPG. ► Theoretical advantages and drawbacks of fuelling SI ICE’s with LPG. ► Brake performance analysis shows a noticeable gap between LPG and petrol operation. ► Local measurements confirm that the thermodynamic operation of the evaporator-pressure reducer device is crucial for the engine performance. ► The performance of the up-to-date kit for petrol–LPG dual-fuel operation is greatly affected by the settings of the mechanical components of the LPG evaporator device.

  4. Lean hydrous and anhydrous bioethanol combustion in spark ignition engine at idle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuepeng, Sathaporn; Srisuwan, Sudecha; Tongroon, Manida

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Anhydrous ethanol burns fastest in uncalibrated engine at equal equivalence ratio. • The leaner hydrous ethanol combustion tends to elevate the COV in imep. • Hydrous ethanol consumption was 10% greater than anhydrous ethanol at ϕ = 0.67 limit. • Optimizing alternative fuel engine at idle for stability and emission is suggested. - Abstract: The applications of anhydrous bioethanol to substitute or replace gasoline fuel have shown to attain benefits in terms of engine thermal efficiency, power output and exhaust emissions from spark ignition engines. A hydrous bioethanol has also been gained more attention due to its energy and cost effectiveness. The main aim of this work is to minimize fuel quantity injected to the intake ports of a four-cylinder engine under idle condition. The engine running with hydrous ethanol undergoes within lean-burn condition as its combustion stability is analyzed using an engine indicating system. Coefficient of variation in indicated mean effective pressure is an indicator for combustion stability with hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emission monitoring as a supplement. Anhydrous ethanol burns faster than hydrous ethanol and gasoline in the uncalibrated engine at the same fuel-to-air equivalence ratio under idle condition. The leaner hydrous ethanol combustion tends to elevate the coefficient of variation in indicated mean effective pressure. The experimental results have found that the engine consumes greater hydrous ethanol by 10% on mass basis compared with those of anhydrous ethanol at the lean limit of fuel-to-air equivalence ratio of 0.67. The results of exhaust gas analysis were compared with those predicted by chemical equilibrium analysis of the fuel-air combustion; the resemble trends were found. Calibrating the alternative fueled engine for fuel injection quantity should be accomplished at idle with combustion stability and emissions optimization.

  5. Sparking protection for MFTF-B Neutral Beam Power Supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, D.B.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the upgrade of MFTF-B Neutral Beam Power Supplies for sparking protection. High performance ion sources spark repeatedly so ion source power supplies must be insensitive to sparking. The hot deck houses the series tetrode, arc and filament supplies, and controls. Hot deck shielding has been upgraded and a continuous shield around the arc, filament, gradient grid, and control cables now extends from the hot deck, through the core snubber, to the source. The shield carries accelerating current and connects only to the source. Shielded source cables go through an outer duct which now connects to a ground plane under the hot deck. This hybrid transmission line is a low inductance path for sparks discharging the stray capacitance of the hot deck and isolation transformers, reducing coupling to building steel. Parallel DC current return cables inside the duct lower inductance to reduce inductive turn-off transients. MOVs to ground further limit surges in the remote power supply return. Single point grounding is at the source. No control or rectifier components have been damaged nor are there any known malfunctions due to sparking up to 80 kV output

  6. Research on spark discharge of floating roof tank shunt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi, Xiaolei; Liu, Quanzhen; Liu, Baoquan; Gao, Xin; Hu, Haiyan; Liu, Juan

    2013-01-01

    In order to quantitatively analyze the spark discharge risk of floating roof tank shunts, the breakdown voltage of shunt has been calculated by Townsend theory, the shunt spark discharge experiment is carried out by using 1.2/50 μs impulse voltage wave, and the relationship between breakdown voltage of shunt spark discharge and air gap is analyzed. It has been indicated by theoretical analysis and experimental study that the small gap is more easily cause spark discharge than the big gap when the contact between shunt and tank shell is poor. When air gap distance is equal to 0.1 cm, average breakdown voltage is 5280 V. When the air gap distance is less than 0.3 cm, experiment data agree well with Townsend theory. Therefore, in the condition of small gap, Townsend theory can be used to calculated breakdown voltage of shunt. Finally, based on the above conclusions, improvements for avoiding the spark discharge risk of shunt of floating roof tanks have been proposed.

  7. Spark counting technique with an aluminium oxide film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, H.; Koga, T.; Morishima, H.; Niwa, T.; Nishiwaki, Y.

    1980-01-01

    Automatic spark counting of etch-pits on a polycarbonate film produced by nuclear fission fragments is now used for neutron monitoring in several countries. A method was developed using an aluminium oxide film instead of a polycarbonate as the neutron detector. Aluminium oxide films were prepared as follows: A cleaned aluminium plate as an anode and a nickel plate as a cathode were immersed in dilute sulfuric acid solution and electric current flowed between the electrodes at 12degC for 10-30 minutes. Electric current density was about 10 mA/cm 2 . The aluminium plate was then kept in boiling water for 10-30 minutes for sealing. The thickness of the aluminium oxide layer formed was about 1μm. The aluminium plate attached to a plate of suitable fissionable material, such as uranium or thorium, was irradiated with neutrons and set in a usual spark counter for fission track counting. One electrode was the aluminium plate and the other was an aluminized polyester sheet. Sparked pulses were counted with a usual scaler. The advantage of using spark counting with an aluminium oxide film for neutron monitoring is rapid measurement of neutron exposure, since chemical etching which is indispensable for spark counting with a polycarbonate detector film, is not needed. (H.K.)

  8. Sparking protection for MFTF-B neutral beam power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, D.B.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the upgrade of MFTF-B Neutral Beam Power Supplies for sparking protection. High performance ion sources spark repeatedly so ion source power supplies must be insensitive to sparking. The hot deck houses the series tetrode, arc and filament supplies, and controls. Hot deck shielding has been upgraded and a continuous shield around the arc, filament, gradient grid, and control cables now extends from the hot deck, through the core snubber, to the source. The shield carries accelerating current and connects only to the source. Shielded source cables go through an outer duct which now connects to a ground plane under the hot deck. This hybrid transmission line is a low inductance path for sparks discharging the stray capacitance of the hot deck and isolation transformers, reducing coupling to building steel. Parallel dc current return cables inside the duct lower inductance to reduce inductive turn-off transients. MOVs to ground further limit surges in the remote power supply return. Single point grounding is at the source. No control or rectifier components have been damaged nor are there any known malfunctions due to sparking up to 80 kV output

  9. Study of ignition in a high compression ratio SI (spark ignition) methanol engine using LES (large eddy simulation) with detailed chemical kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhen, Xudong; Wang, Yang

    2013-01-01

    Methanol has been recently used as an alternative to conventional fuels for internal combustion engines in order to satisfy some environmental and economical concerns. In this paper, the ignition in a high compression ratio SI (spark ignition) methanol engine was studied by using LES (large eddy simulation) with detailed chemical kinetics. A 21-species, 84-reaction methanol mechanism was adopted to simulate the auto-ignition process of the methanol/air mixture. The MIT (minimum ignition temperature) and MIE (minimum ignition energy) are two important properties for designing safety standards and understanding the ignition process of combustible mixtures. The effects of the flame kernel size, flame kernel temperature and equivalence ratio were also examined on MIT, MIE and IDP (ignition delay period). The methanol mechanism was validated by experimental test. The simulated results showed that the flame kernel size, temperature and energy dramatically affected the values of the MIT, MIE and IDP for a methanol/air mixture, the value of the ignition delay period was not only related to the flame kernel energy, but also to the flame kernel temperature. - Highlights: • We used LES (large eddy simulation) coupled with detailed chemical kinetics to simulate methanol ignition. • The flame kernel size and temperature affected the minimum ignition temperature. • The flame kernel temperature and energy affected the ignition delay period. • The equivalence ratio of methanol–air mixture affected the ignition delay period

  10. Measurements of Radon Concentration in Yemen Using Spark Counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arafa, W.; Abou-Leila, M.; Hafiz, M.E.; Al-Glal, N.

    2011-01-01

    Spark counter has been designed and realized and the optimum applied voltage was found to be 600 V. Excellent consistent agreements was observed between counted number of tracks by spark counter and reading by optical microscope. Radon concentration in some houses in Sana'a and Hodeidah cities in Yemen had been performed using LR-115 SSNTD and spark counter system. The average radon concentration in both cities was far lower the alert value. The results showed that radon concentration in the metropolitan area Sana'a was higher than that in Hodeidah city. Also, it was observed that old residential houses had higher levels of radon concentrations have compared to newly built houses in the metropolitan area Sana'a

  11. A miniature spark counter for public communication and education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, C.H.; Weng, P.S.

    1987-01-01

    The fabrication of a miniature spark counter for public communication and education using naturally occurring radon as a radioactive source without involving any man-made radioactivity is described. The battery-powered miniature spark counter weighs 2.07 kg with a volume of 4.844 x 10/sup -4/ m/sup 3/. The circuitry consists of seven major components: timer, high-voltage power supply, attenuator, noninverting amplifier, low-pass filter, one-shot generator, and counter. Cellulose nitrate films irradiated with alpha particles from radon emanating from soil were etched and counted. The visible sparks during counting are rather heuristic, which can be used to demonstrate naturally occurring radioactivity in classrooms or showplaces

  12. Synthesis of dense yttrium-stabilised hafnia pellets for nuclear applications by spark plasma sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyrpekl, Vaclav; Holzhäuser, Michael; Hein, Herwin; Vigier, Jean-Francois; Somers, Joseph; Svora, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Densification of HfO 2 –Y 2 O 3 micro-beads by Spark Plasma Sintering High density pellets with homogenous distribution of Hf and Y serve as neutron absorbers. - Abstract: Dense yttrium–stabilised hafnia pellets (91.35 wt.% HfO 2 and 8.65 wt.% Y 2 O 3 ) were prepared by spark plasma sintering consolidation of micro-beads synthesised by the “external gelation” sol–gel technique. This technique allows a preparation of HfO 2 –Y 2 O 3 beads with homogenous yttria–hafnia solid solution. A sintering time of 5 min at 1600 °C was sufficient to produce high density pellets (over 90% of the theoretical density) with significant reproducibility. The pellets have been machined in a lathe to the correct dimensions for use as neutron absorbers in an experimental test irradiation in the High Flux Reactor (HFR) in Petten, Holland, in order to investigate the safety of americium based nuclear fuels

  13. Spark plasma sintering and microstructural analysis of pure and Mo doped U3Si2 pellets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Denise Adorno; Benarosch, Anna; Middleburgh, Simon; Johnson, Kyle D.

    2017-12-01

    U3Si2 has been considered as an alternative fuel for Light Water Reactors (LWRs) within the Accident Tolerant Fuels (ATF) initiative, begun after the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear accidents. Its main advantages are high thermal conductivity and high heavy metal density. Despite these benefits, U3Si2 presents an anisotropic crystallographic structure and low solubility of fission products, which can result in undesirable effects under irradiation conditions. In this paper, spark plasma sintering (SPS) of U3Si2 pellets is studied, with evaluation of the resulting microstructure. Additionally, exploiting the short sintering time in SPS, a molybdenum doped pellet was produced to investigate the early stages of the Mo-U3Si2 interaction, and analyze how this fission product is accommodated in the fuel matrix. The results show that pellets of U3Si2 with high density (>95% TD) can be obtained with SPS in the temperature range of 1200°C-1300 °C. Moreover, the short time employed in this technique was found to generate a unique microstructure for this fuel, composed mainly of closed nano-pores (uranium with small quantities of dissolved Si and Mo at the front of the reaction.

  14. Vehicle driving cycle performance of the spark-less di-ji hydrogen engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boretti, Alberto A. [School of Science and Engineering, University of Ballarat, PO Box663, Ballarat, VIC 3353 (Australia)

    2010-05-15

    The paper describes coupled CFD combustion simulations and CAE engine performance computations to describe the operation over the full range of load and speed of an always lean burn, Direct Injection Jet Ignition (DI-JI) hydrogen engine. Jet ignition pre-chambers and direct injection are enablers of high efficiencies and load control by quantity of fuel injected. Towards the end of the compression stroke, a small quantity of hydrogen is injected within the spark-less pre-chamber of the DI-JI engine, where it mixes with the air entering from the main chamber and auto-ignites because of the high temperature of the hot glow plug. Then, jets of partially combusted hot gases enter the main chamber igniting there in the bulk, over multiple ignition points, lean stratified mixtures of air and fuel. Engine maps of brake specific fuel consumption vs. speed and brake mean effective pressure are computed first. CAE vehicle simulations are finally performed evaluating the fuel consumption over emission cycles of a vehicle equipped with this engine. (author)

  15. Analysis of Plant Breeding on Hadoop and Spark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangxi Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of crop breeding technology is one of the important means of computer-assisted breeding techniques which have huge data, high dimensions, and a lot of unstructured data. We propose a crop breeding data analysis platform on Spark. The platform consists of Hadoop distributed file system (HDFS and cluster based on memory iterative components. With this cluster, we achieve crop breeding large data analysis tasks in parallel through API provided by Spark. By experiments and tests of Indica and Japonica rice traits, plant breeding analysis platform can significantly improve the breeding of big data analysis speed, reducing the workload of concurrent programming.

  16. Vacuum spark breakdown model based on exploding metal wire phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaland, J.

    1984-06-01

    Spark source mass spectra (SSMS) indicates that ions are extracted from an expanding and decaying plasma. The intensity distribution shows no dependance on vaporization properties of individual elements which indicates explosive vapour formation. This seems further to be a requirement for bridging a vacuum gap. A model including plasma ejection from a superheated anode spot by a process similar to that of an exploding metal wire is proposed. The appearance of hot plasma points in low inductance vacuum sparks can then be explained as exploding micro particles ejected from a final central anode spot. The phenomenological model is compared with available experimental results from literature, but no extensive quantification is attempted

  17. A note on preserving the spark of a matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Skrzynski

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Let Mm× n(F be the vector space of all m× n matrices over a field F. In the case where m ≥ n, char (F ≠ 2 and F has at least five elements, we give a complete characterization of linear maps Φ : Mm× n(F → Mm× n(F such that spark(Φ (A = spark(A for any A ∈ Mm× n(F.

  18. Phase characterisation in spark plasma sintered TiPt alloy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chikosha, S

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info chikosha_2011.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 4354 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name chikosha_2011.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 PHASE CHARACTERISATION IN SPARK... to form “necks”  Radiant Joule heat and pressure drives “neck” growth and material transfer © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za Page 6 Objective  Produce TiPt alloy compacts by Spark plasma sintering (SPS) of equiatomic...

  19. Life cycle models of conventional and alternative-fueled automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclean, Heather Louise

    This thesis reports life cycle inventories of internal combustion engine automobiles with feasible near term fuel/engine combinations. These combinations include unleaded gasoline, California Phase 2 Reformulated Gasoline, alcohol and gasoline blends (85 percent methanol or ethanol combined with 15 percent gasoline), and compressed natural gas in spark ignition direct and indirect injection engines. Additionally, I consider neat methanol and neat ethanol in spark ignition direct injection engines and diesel fuel in compression ignition direct and indirect injection engines. I investigate the potential of the above options to have a lower environmental impact than conventional gasoline-fueled automobiles, while still retaining comparable pricing and consumer benefits. More broadly, the objective is to assess whether the use of any of the alternative systems will help to lead to the goal of a more sustainable personal transportation system. The principal tool is the Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Analysis model which includes inventories of economic data, environmental discharges, and resource use. I develop a life cycle assessment framework to assemble the array of data generated by the model into three aggregate assessment parameters; economics, externalities, and vehicle attributes. The first step is to develop a set of 'comparable cars' with the alternative fuel/engine combinations, based on characteristics of a conventional 1998 gasoline-fueled Ford Taurus sedan, the baseline vehicle for the analyses. I calculate the assessment parameters assuming that these comparable cars can attain the potential thermal efficiencies estimated by experts for each fuel/engine combination. To a first approximation, there are no significant differences in the assessment parameters for the vehicle manufacture, service, fixed costs, and the end-of-life for any of the options. However, there are differences in the vehicle operation life cycle components and the state of technology

  20. Energetic and exergetic analyses of a variable compression ratio spark ignition gas engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javaheri, A.; Esfahanian, V.; Salavati-Zadeh, A.; Darzi, M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Effects of CR and λ on CNG SI ICE 1st and 2nd law analyses are experimentally studied. • The performance of pure methane and a real CNG are observed and compared. • The ratio of actual to Otto cycle thermal efficiencies is 0.78 for all cases. • At least 25.5% of destructed availability is due to combustion irreversibility. • With decrease in methane content, CNG shows more combustion irreversibility. - Abstract: Considering the significance of obtaining higher efficiencies from internal combustion engines (ICE) along with the growing role of natural gas as a fuel, the present work is set to explore the effects of compression ratio (CR hereafter) and air/fuel equivalence ratio (AFER hereafter) on the energy and exergy potentials in a gas-fueled spark ignition internal combustion engine. Experiments are carried out using a single cylinder, port injection, water cooled, variable compression ratio (VCR hereafter), spark ignition engine at a constant engine speed of 2000 rpm. The study involves CRs of 12, 14 and 16 and 10 AFERs between 0.8 and 1.25. Pure methane is utilized for the analysis. In addition, a natural gas blend with the minimum methane content among Iranian gas sources is also tested in order to investigate the effect of real natural gas on findings. The energy analysis involves input fuel power, indicated power and losses due to high temperature of exhaust gases and their unburned content, blow-by and heat loss. The exergy analysis is carried out for availability input and piston, exhaust, and losses availabilities along with destructed entropy. The analysis indicates an increase in the ratio of thermo-mechanical exhaust availability to fuel availability by CR with a maximum near stoichiometry, whereas it is shown that chemical exhaust exergy is not dependent on CR and reduces with AFER. In addition, it is indicated that the ratio of actual cycle to Otto cycle thermal efficiencies is about constant (about 0.784) with changing CR

  1. Assessment of the Potential Impact of Combustion Research on Internal Combustion Engine Emission and Fuel Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    A review of the present level of understanding of the basic thermodynamic, fluid dynamic, and chemical kinetic processes which affect the fuel economy and levels of pollutant exhaust products of Diesel, Stratified Charge, and Spark Ignition engines i...

  2. Environmental Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alma, Peter

    1995-04-01

    This series of A-level social biology topic books responds to the changing demands of social biology syllabuses, with each text dealing with a particular area of interest. Although the series is primarily intended for students of A-level social biology, the books will appeal to students studying a wide range of biological subjects at A-level. Environmental Concerns covers topics common to several A-level human and social biology syllabuses. It is particularly relevant to the human ecology and conservation options. The text focuses on the social and economic implications of current ecological issues as well as the basic biological concepts involved. It deals with the causes, effects and prevention of atmospheric and water pollution as well as with the disruption of ecosystems by changes in land use. The conflict of interests between conservation and exploitation is discussed, along with management techniques including the controversial method of culling to maintain diversity. The moral and aesthetic aspects of conservation and management are emphasised throughout, in addition to the scientific background of these techniques.

  3. Practice and Exploration of New Rural Construction in West Bank of Taiwan Strait Led by Spark Science and Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chaocan

    2013-01-01

    According to practice and exploration of spark program for 26 years in Quanzhou, the main model and their effects of new rural construction in west bank of Taiwan Strait led by spark science and technology were expounded. Six spark program systems were established, consisting of policy support guide, science and technology project lead, experts’ intelligence support, spark science and technology training, sci-tech information service and spark program demonstration. Five spark projects were...

  4. A Comparative Study of Cycle Variability of Laser Plug Ignition vs Classical Spark Plug Ignition in Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Done, Bogdan

    2017-10-01

    Over the past 30 years numerous studies and laboratory experiments have researched the use of laser energy to ignite gas and fuel-air mixtures. The actual implementation of this laser application has still to be fully achieved in a commercial automotive application. Laser Plug Ignition as a replacement for Spark Plug Ignition in the internal combustion engines of automotive vehicles, offers several potential benefits such as extending lean burn capability, reducing the cyclic variability between combustion cycles and decreasing the total amount of ignition costs, and implicitly weight and energy requirements. The paper presents preliminary results of cycle variability study carried on a SI Engine equipped with laser Plug Ignition system. Versus classic ignition system, the use of the laser Plug Ignition system assures the reduction of the combustion process variability, reflected in the lower values of the coefficient of variability evaluated for indicated mean effective pressure, maximum pressure, maximum pressure angle and maximum pressure rise rate. The laser plug ignition system was mounted on an experimental spark ignition engine and tested at the regime of 90% load and 2800 rev/min, at dosage of λ=1.1. Compared to conventional spark plug, laser ignition assures the efficiency at lean dosage.

  5. Performance simulation of a spark ignited free-piston engine generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikalsen, R.; Roskilly, A.P. [Sir Joseph Swan Institute for Energy Research, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2008-10-15

    Free-piston engines are under investigation by a number of research groups worldwide due to potential fuel efficiency and engine emissions advantages. The free-piston engine generator, in which a linear electric generator is fixed to the mover to produce electric power, has been proposed as an alternative prime mover for hybrid-electric vehicles. This paper investigates the performance of a spark ignited free-piston engine generator and compares it to a conventional engine using a computational fluid dynamics simulation model. The particular operating characteristics of the free-piston engine were not found to give noticeable performance advantages, and it is concluded that the main potential of this technology lies in the simplicity and flexibility of the concept. (author)

  6. Development of an empirical correlation for combustion durations in spark ignition engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayraktar, Hakan; Durgun, Orhan

    2004-01-01

    Development of an empirical correlation for combustion duration is presented. For this purpose, the effects of variations in compression ratio engine speed, fuel/air equivalence ratio and spark advance on combustion duration have been determined by means of a quasi-dimensional SI engine cycle model previously developed by the authors. Burn durations at several engine operating conditions were calculated from the turbulent combustion model. Variations of combustion duration with each operating parameter obtained from the theoretical results were expressed by second degree polynomial functions. By using these functions, a general empirical correlation for the burn duration has been developed. In this correlation, the effects of engine operating parameters on combustion duration were taken into account. Combustion durations predicted by means of this correlation are in good agreement with those obtained from experimental studies and a detailed combustion model

  7. Evaluation of performance and emissions characteristics of methanol blend (gasohol) in a naturally aspirated spark ignition engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandru, Dima; Ilie, Dumitru; Dragos, Tutunea

    2017-10-01

    Alternative fuels for use in internal combustion engines have become recently in attention due the strict regulations regarding the environmental protection, emissions and to reduce the dependency of the fossil fuels. One choice is the use of methanol as it can be produce from renewable sources and blended with gasoline in any proportion. The aim of this study is to compare the effects of methanol - gasoline blends regarding performance, combustion and emission characteristics with gasoline. Five different blends M5, M10, M15, M20 and M25 were tested in a single cylinder spark ignition engine typically used in scooters applications. The experimental results in engine performance show a decrease of torque and power up to 10 %and in emissions characteristics a CO, CO2, HC. It can be concluded that gasohol is viable option to be used in gasoline engines to replace partially the fossil fuel.

  8. SparkText: Biomedical Text Mining on Big Data Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Karen Y.; Wang, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Background Many new biomedical research articles are published every day, accumulating rich information, such as genetic variants, genes, diseases, and treatments. Rapid yet accurate text mining on large-scale scientific literature can discover novel knowledge to better understand human diseases and to improve the quality of disease diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. Results In this study, we designed and developed an efficient text mining framework called SparkText on a Big Data infrastructure, which is composed of Apache Spark data streaming and machine learning methods, combined with a Cassandra NoSQL database. To demonstrate its performance for classifying cancer types, we extracted information (e.g., breast, prostate, and lung cancers) from tens of thousands of articles downloaded from PubMed, and then employed Naïve Bayes, Support Vector Machine (SVM), and Logistic Regression to build prediction models to mine the articles. The accuracy of predicting a cancer type by SVM using the 29,437 full-text articles was 93.81%. While competing text-mining tools took more than 11 hours, SparkText mined the dataset in approximately 6 minutes. Conclusions This study demonstrates the potential for mining large-scale scientific articles on a Big Data infrastructure, with real-time update from new articles published daily. SparkText can be extended to other areas of biomedical research. PMID:27685652

  9. Stopping particles in the Mont Blanc spark chamber telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergamasco, L; Bilokon, H; Piazzoli, B E; Mannocchi, G; Picchi, P [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Turin (Italy). Lab. di Cosmo-Geofisica; Turin Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Generale)

    1982-02-01

    We present the final results on the ratio of stopping to traversing muons as measured by two spark chamber telescopes in the Mont Blanc Station, Italy, at 4300 hg/cm/sup 2/. The experimental results are in agreement with the theoretical values within the limits of the error.

  10. Evolution of Spark plasma using nitrogen laser shadowgraphy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiekwene, G.C.

    1994-07-01

    A simple, low cost, home built high power nitrogen laser is used as the light source for a shadowgraphy system. A series of shadowgrams depicting the temporal growth of a spark plasma discharge is obtained. The results could be useful in plasma diagnostic studies. (author). 5 refs, 6 figs

  11. knock characteristics analysis of a supercharged spark ignition

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The power output of a spark ignition engine could be improved by boosting the ... that the presence of aromatics was responsible for the better anti-knock ..... System, a Master's Thesis in the Institutionen för ... Maintenance and Reliability, Vol.

  12. SPARK RttT: Year One Fidelity and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochford, Joseph A.; O'Neill, Adrienne; Gelb, Adele; Ross, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Developed in 2003 by the Sisters of Charity Foundation of Canton with a grant from the Kellogg Foundation, "Supporting Partnerships to Assure Ready Kids" ("SPARK Ohio") is a family-centered kindergarten readiness program that works with families, schools, and the community. From its initial sites in Stark County, "SPARK…

  13. SparkText: Biomedical Text Mining on Big Data Framework.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Ye

    Full Text Available Many new biomedical research articles are published every day, accumulating rich information, such as genetic variants, genes, diseases, and treatments. Rapid yet accurate text mining on large-scale scientific literature can discover novel knowledge to better understand human diseases and to improve the quality of disease diagnosis, prevention, and treatment.In this study, we designed and developed an efficient text mining framework called SparkText on a Big Data infrastructure, which is composed of Apache Spark data streaming and machine learning methods, combined with a Cassandra NoSQL database. To demonstrate its performance for classifying cancer types, we extracted information (e.g., breast, prostate, and lung cancers from tens of thousands of articles downloaded from PubMed, and then employed Naïve Bayes, Support Vector Machine (SVM, and Logistic Regression to build prediction models to mine the articles. The accuracy of predicting a cancer type by SVM using the 29,437 full-text articles was 93.81%. While competing text-mining tools took more than 11 hours, SparkText mined the dataset in approximately 6 minutes.This study demonstrates the potential for mining large-scale scientific articles on a Big Data infrastructure, with real-time update from new articles published daily. SparkText can be extended to other areas of biomedical research.

  14. SparkText: Biomedical Text Mining on Big Data Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhan; Tafti, Ahmad P; He, Karen Y; Wang, Kai; He, Max M

    Many new biomedical research articles are published every day, accumulating rich information, such as genetic variants, genes, diseases, and treatments. Rapid yet accurate text mining on large-scale scientific literature can discover novel knowledge to better understand human diseases and to improve the quality of disease diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. In this study, we designed and developed an efficient text mining framework called SparkText on a Big Data infrastructure, which is composed of Apache Spark data streaming and machine learning methods, combined with a Cassandra NoSQL database. To demonstrate its performance for classifying cancer types, we extracted information (e.g., breast, prostate, and lung cancers) from tens of thousands of articles downloaded from PubMed, and then employed Naïve Bayes, Support Vector Machine (SVM), and Logistic Regression to build prediction models to mine the articles. The accuracy of predicting a cancer type by SVM using the 29,437 full-text articles was 93.81%. While competing text-mining tools took more than 11 hours, SparkText mined the dataset in approximately 6 minutes. This study demonstrates the potential for mining large-scale scientific articles on a Big Data infrastructure, with real-time update from new articles published daily. SparkText can be extended to other areas of biomedical research.

  15. Material machining with pseudo-spark electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benker, W.; Christiansen, J.; Frank, K.; Gundel, H.; Redel, T.; Stetter, M.

    1989-01-01

    The authors give a brief description of the production of pseudo-spark (low pressure gas discharge) electron beams. They illustrate the use of these electron beams for machining not only conducting, semiconducting and insulating materials, but also thin layers of such materials as high temperature superconducting ceramics

  16. Multi-spark discharge system for preparation of nutritious water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaso, Tetsushi; Harigai, Toru; Kusumawan, Sholihatta Aziz; Shimomura, Tomoya; Tanimoto, Tsuyoshi; Suda, Yoshiyuki; Takikawa, Hirofumi

    2018-01-01

    The nitrogen compound concentration in water is increased by atmospheric-pressure plasma discharge treatment. A rod-to-water electrode discharge treatment system using plasma discharge has been developed by our group to obtain water with a high concentration of nitrogen compounds, and this plasma-treated water improves the growth of chrysanthemum roots. However, it is difficult to apply the system to the agriculture because the amount of treated water obtained by using the system too small. In this study, a multi-spark discharge system (MSDS) equipped multiple spark plugs is presented to obtain a large amount of plasma-treated water. The MSDS consisted of inexpensive parts in order to reduce the system introduction cost for agriculture. To suppress the temperature increase of the spark plugs, the 9 spark plugs were divided into 3 groups, which were discharged in order. The plasma-treated water with a NO3- concentration of 50 mg/L was prepared using the MSDS for 90 min, and the treatment efficiency was about 6 times higher than that of our previous system. It was confirmed that the NO2-, O3, and H2O2 concentrations in the water were also increased by treating the water using the MSDS.

  17. Saffman-Taylor streamers: Mutual finger interaction in spark formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luque, A.; Brau, F.; Ebert, U.

    2008-01-01

    Bunches of streamers form the early stages of sparks and lightning but theory presently concentrates on single streamers or on coarse approximations of whole breakdown trees. Here a periodic array of interacting streamer discharges in a strong homogeneous electric field is studied in density or

  18. The physics of photoconductive spark gap switching : pushing the frontiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, J.

    2006-01-01

    Photoconductive switching of an atmospheric, air-¯lled spark gap by a high-power fem- tosecond laser is a novel approach for switching high voltages into pulses with a very fast rise time (order ps) and almost no shot-to-shot time variation (jitter). Such a switch makes it possible to synchronize

  19. Simulation of muon transport through the aragats spark chamber calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asatiani, T.L.; Ter-Antonyan, S.V.

    1981-01-01

    The algorithm is presented of the program on simulation of muon transport through Aragats spark calorimeter. Statistic test method with account of fluctuations and angular distributions of cascade showers is used. The program is worked out on the Fortran algorithm language for EVM BESM-6 and is calibrated by experimental data of Aragats complex installation [ru

  20. Dynamic knock detection and quantification in a spark ignition engine by means of a pressure based method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galloni, Enzo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Experimental data have been analyzed by a pressure based method. ► Knock intensity level depends on a threshold varying with the engine operating point. ► A dynamic method is proposed to overcome the definition of a predetermined threshold. ► The knock intensity of each operating point is quantified by a dimensionless index. ► The knock limited spark advance can be detected by means of this index. - Abstract: In spark ignition engines, knock onset limits the maximum spark advance. An inaccurate identification of this limit penalises the fuel conversion efficiency. Thus it is very important to define a knock detection method able to assess the knock intensity of an engine operating point. Usually, in engine development, knock event is evaluated by analysing the in-cylinder pressure trace. Data are filtered and processed in order to obtain some indices correlated to the knock intensity, then the calculated value is compared to a predetermined threshold. The calibration of this threshold is complex and difficult; statistical approach should be used, but often empirical values are considered. In this paper a method that dynamically calculates the knock threshold necessary to determine the knock event is proposed. The purpose is to resolve cycle by cycle the knock intensity related to an individual engine cycle without setting a predetermined threshold. The method has been applied to an extensive set of experimental data relative to a gasoline spark-ignition engine. Results are correlated to those obtained considering a traditional method, where a statistical approach has been used to detect knock.

  1. Theoretical investigation of a photoconductively switched high-voltage spark gap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broks, B.H.P.; Hendriks, J.; Brok, W.J.M.; Brussaard, G.J.H.; Mullen, van der J.J.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    In this contribution, a photoconductively switched high-voltage spark gap with an emphasis on theswitching behavior is modeled. It is known experimentally that not all of the voltage that is present at the input of the spark gap is switched, but rather a fraction of it drops across the spark gap.

  2. The Results of a Randomized Control Trial Evaluation of the SPARK Literacy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Curtis J.; Christian, Michael; Rice, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of a two-year randomized control trial evaluation of the SPARK literacy program. SPARK is an early grade literacy program developed by Boys & Girls Clubs of Greater Milwaukee. In 2010, SPARK was awarded an Investing in Innovation (i3) Department of Education grant to further develop the…

  3. INFLUENCE OF ELECTRIC SPARK ON HARDNESS OF CARBON STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Vakulenko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of work is an estimation of influence of an electric spark treatment on the state of mouldable superficial coverage of carbon steel. Methodology. The steel of fragment of railway wheel rim served as material for research with chemical composition 0.65% С, 0.67% Mn, 0.3% Si, 0.027% P, 0.028% S. Structural researches were conducted with the use of light microscopy and methods of quantitative metallography. The structural state of the probed steel corresponded to the state after hot plastic deformation. The analysis of hardness distribution in the micro volumes of cathode metal was carried out with the use of microhardness tester of type of PMT-3. An electric spark treatment of carbon steel surface was executed with the use of equipment type of EFI-25M. Findings. After electric spark treatment of specimen surface from carbon steel the forming of multi-layered coverage was observed. The analysis of microstructure found out the existence of high-quality distinctions in the internal structure of coverage metal, depending on the probed area. The results obtained in the process are confirmed by the well-known theses, that forming of superficial coverage according to technology of electric spark is determined by the terms of transfer and crystallization of metal. The gradient of structures on the coverage thickness largely depends on development of structural transformation processes similar to the thermal character influence. Originality. As a result of electric spark treatment on the condition of identical metal of anode and cathode, the first formed layer of coverage corresponds to the monophase state according to external signs. In the volume of coverage metal, the appearance of carbide phase particles is accompanied by the decrease of microhardness values. Practical value. Forming of multi-layered superficial coverage during electric spark treatment is accompanied by the origin of structure gradient on a thickness. The effect

  4. Fuel spacer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, Koji; Yokomizo, Osamu; Kanazawa, Toru; Kashiwai, Shin-ichi; Orii, Akihito.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention concerns a fuel spacer for a fuel assembly of a BWR type reactor and a PTR type reactor. Springs each having a vane are disposed on the side surface of a circular cell which supports a fuel rods. A vortex streams having a vertical component are formed by the vanes in the flowing direction of a flowing channel between adjacent cylindrical cells. Liquid droplets carried by streams are deposited on liquid membrane streams flowing along the fuel rod at the downstream of the spacer by the vortex streams. In view of the above, the liquid droplets can be deposited to the fuel rod without increasing the amount of metal of the spacer. Accordingly, the thermal margin of the fuel assembly can be improved without losing neutron economy. (I.N.)

  5. A study of operating parameters on the linear spark ignition engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Ocktaeck; Hung, Nguyen Ba; Oh, Seokyoung; Kim, Gangchul; Song, Hanho; Iida, Norimasa

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An experimental and simulation study of a linear engine is conducted. • The effects of operating parameters on the generating power are investigated. • The air gap length has a significant influence on the generating power. • The generating power of the linear engine is optimized with the value of 111.3 W. • There are no problems for the linear engine after 100 h of durable test. - Abstract: In this paper, we present our experiment and simulation study of a free piston linear engine based on operating conditions and structure of the linear engine for generating electric power. The free piston linear engine includes a two-stroke free piston engine, linear generators, and compressors. In the experimental study, the effects of key parameters such as input caloric value, equivalence ratio, spark timing delay, electrical resistance, and air gap length on the piston dynamics and electric power output are investigated. Propane is used as a fuel in the free piston linear engine, and it is premixed with the air to make a homogeneous charge before go into the cylinder. The air and fuel mass flow rate are varied by a mass flow controller. The experimental results show that the maximum generating power is found with the value of 111 W at the input caloric value of 5.88 kJ/s, spark timing delay of 1.5 ms, equivalence ratio of 1.0, electric resistance of 30 Ω, and air gap length of 1.0 mm. In order to check the durability of the linear engine, a durable test is conducted during 100 h. The experimental results show that there are no problems for the linear engine after about one hundred hours of the durable test. Beside experimental study, a simulation study is conducted to predict operating behavior of the linear engine. In the simulation study, the two-stroke free piston linear engine is modeled and simulated through a combination of three mathematical models including a dynamic model, a linear alternator model and a thermodynamic model. These

  6. Erosion on spark plug electrodes; Funkenerosion an Zuendkerzenelektroden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rager, J.

    2006-07-01

    Durability of spark plugs is mainly determined by spark gap widening, caused by electrode wear. Knowledge about the erosion mechanisms of spark plug materials is of fundamental interest for the development of materials with a high resistance against electrode erosion. It is therefore crucial to identify those parameters which significantly influence the erosion behaviour of a material. In this work, a reliable and reproducible testing method is presented which produces and characterizes electrode wear under well-defined conditions and which is capable of altering parameters specifically. Endurance tests were carried out to study the dependence of the wear behaviour of pure nickel and platinum on the electrode temperature, gas, electrode gap, electrode diameter, atmospheric pressure, and partial pressure of oxygen. It was shown that erosion under nitrogen is negligible, irrespective of the material. This disproves all common mechanism discussed in the literature explaining material loss of spark plug electrodes. Based on this observation and the variation of the mentioned parameters a new erosion model was deduced. This relies on an oxidation of the electrode material and describes the erosion of nickel and platinum separately. For nickel, electrode wear is caused by the removal of an oxide layer by the spark. In the case of platinum, material loss occurs due to the plasma-assisted formation and subsequent evaporation of volatile oxides in the cathode spot. On the basis of this mechanism a new composite material was developed whose erosion resistance is superior to pure platinum. Oxidation resistant metal oxide particles were added to a platinum matrix, thus leading to a higher erosion resistance of the composite. However, this can be decreased by a side reaction, the separation of oxygen from the metal oxides, which effectively assists the oxidation of the matrix. This reaction can be suppressed by using highly stable oxides, characterized by a large negative Gibbs

  7. Sparking connections: An exploration of adolescent girls' relationships with science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Kathryn A.

    Despite progress in narrowing the gender gap, fewer women than men pursue science careers. Adolescence is a critical age when girls' science interest is sparked or smothered. Prior research provides data on who drops out of the "science pipeline" and when, but few studies examine why and how girls disconnect from science. This thesis is an in-depth exploratory study of adolescent girls' relationships with science based on a series of interviews with four middle-class Caucasian girls---two from public schools, two homeschooled. The girls' stones about their experiences with, feelings about, and perspectives on science, the science process, and their science learning environments are examined with a theoretical and analytic approach grounded in relational psychology. The potential link between girls' voices and their involvement in science is investigated. Results indicate that girls' relationships with science are multitiered. Science is engaging and familiar in the sense that girls are curious about the world, enjoy learning about scientific phenomena, and informally use science in their everyday fives. However, the girls in this study differentiated between the science they do and the field of science, which they view as a mostly male endeavor (often despite real life experiences to the contrary) that uses rather rigid methods to investigate questions of limited scope and interest. In essence, how these girls defined science defined their relationship with science: those with narrow conceptions of science felt distant from it. Adolescent girls' decreased involvement in science activities may be a relational act---a move away from a patriarchical process, pedagogy, and institution that does not resonate with their experiences, questions, and learning styles. Girls often feel like outsiders to science; they resist considering science careers when they have concerns that implicitly or explicitly, doing so would involve sacrificing their knowledge, creativity, or

  8. Stability of liquid fuels with biogenic content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Winfried; Hoffmann, Hajo; Pohland vom Schloss, Heide [OWI - Oel-Waerme-Institut GmbH, Herzogenrath (Germany)

    2013-06-01

    Mineral-based fuels for diesel- and spark-ignition engines are always mixtures of many components with a wide distillation range. These insure, for example, a low viscosity and good cold starting properties. Therefore, the fuel system components are designed for mineral-based diesel and gasoline fuels. Biofuels like biodiesel and bioethanol, which only partially show these physical properties, are introduced into the fuel market because of political and ecological aspects. Currently common biofuels, such as ethanol and biodiesel, are investigated in uncommon high blend levels of 10 vol.-% and 30 vol.-% as well as future biofuels. Biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester, FAME) has poor cold-flow properties concerning to the CP and CFPP. Therefore, biodiesel has the tendency to form crystalline deposits at sub-zero temperatures. For bioethanol applications, an adjustment of the materials used, for example for sealing, is necessary. It is well known that the negative implications of biofuels require an additive treatment for an optimal performance. In contrast to previous examinations, in which technical components were analyzed by their own, in the presented investigations (''GObio''-project), the complete system of sensitive fuel tank and feed system with auxiliary units like independent vehicle heaters is used to determine the influences of the biofuels. The investigations are based on hardware in the loop testing. A target of the project was to modify the application technology like the independent vehicle heater and the in-tank pumps to use the biofuels in the conventional systems. Furthermore, it was an objective to upgrade the performance of the fuels through the development and the treatment with additives. During operation with low blend levels no problems were detected so that safe operation using diesel with up to 7 vol.-% FAME according to EN 590 is ensured. At the temperature levels present in the fuel leading parts during operation

  9. Effects of Heat of Vaporization and Octane Sensitivity on Knock-Limited Spark Ignition Engine Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratcliff, Matthew A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burton, Jonathan L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sindler, Petr [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McCormick, Robert L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, Earl D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fouts, Lisa A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-04-03

    Knock-limited loads for a set of surrogate gasolines all having nominal 100 research octane number (RON), approximately 11 octane sensitivity (S), and a heat of vaporization (HOV) range of 390 to 595 kJ/kg at 25 degrees C were investigated. A single-cylinder spark-ignition engine derived from a General Motors Ecotec direct injection (DI) engine was used to perform load sweeps at a fixed intake air temperature (IAT) of 50 degrees C, as well as knock-limited load measurements across a range of IATs up to 90 degrees C. Both DI and pre-vaporized fuel (supplied by a fuel injector mounted far upstream of the intake valves and heated intake runner walls) experiments were performed to separate the chemical and thermal effects of the fuels' knock resistance. The DI load sweeps at 50 degrees C intake air temperature showed no effect of HOV on the knock-limited performance. The data suggest that HOV acts as a thermal contributor to S under the conditions studied. Measurement of knock-limited loads from the IAT sweeps for DI at late combustion phasing showed that a 40 vol% ethanol (E40) blend provided additional knock resistance at the highest temperatures, compared to a 20 vol% ethanol blend and hydrocarbon fuel with similar RON and S. Using the pre-vaporized fuel system, all the high S fuels produced nearly identical knock-limited loads at each temperature across the range of IATs studied. For these fuels RON ranged from 99.2 to 101.1 and S ranged from 9.4 to 12.2, with E40 having the lowest RON and highest S. The higher knock-limited loads for E40 at the highest IATs examined were consistent with the slightly higher S for this fuel, and the lower engine operating condition K values arising from use of this fuel. The study highlights how fuel HOV can affect the temperature at intake valve closing, and consequently the pressure-temperature history of the end gas leading to more negative values of K, thereby enhancing the effect of S on knock resistance.

  10. Cycle-skipping strategies for pumping loss reduction in spark ignition engines: An experimental approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yüksek, Levent; Özener, Orkun; Sandalcı, Tarkan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A cycle density variation technique called cycle-skipping was applied. ► Effect on fuel consumption and gaseous emissions was investigated. ► Fuel consumption and gaseous tail-pipe emissions improved at partial loading conditions. - Abstract: Spark ignition (SI) engines are widely used for power generation, especially in the automotive industry. SI engines have a lower thermal efficiency than diesel engines due to a lower compression ratio, higher charge-induction work and lower end of compression stroke pressure. A significant amount of charge induction work is lost when an SI engine runs under partial loading conditions. Under partial loading conditions, a lower intake charge is required, which can be theoretically achieved by varying the displacement volume or the stroke number of the engine without using a throttle. Reducing the displacement volume to control the engine load can be achieved by skipping cycles in single-cylinder engines. This study investigates the effect of cycle-skipping strategies on the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and exhaust emissions of an SI engine under partial loading conditions. Three different skipping modes were applied: normal, normal-skip and normal-normal-skip. A significant improvement in BSFC and carbon monoxide emission was obtained by applying cycle-skipping strategies.

  11. Skip cycle method with a valve-control mechanism for spark ignition engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baykara, Cemal; Akin Kutlar, O.; Dogru, Baris; Arslan, Hikmet

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A normal four-stroke cycle followed by a skip cycle without gas exchange is tested. • The normal and skipped mode results are compared at equal power levels. • The throttle valve is opened wider, thereby resulting in a higher volumetric efficiency. • The pumping work during the gas exchange decreases significantly. • The fuel consumption (BSFC) is reduced by approximately 14–26% under part load conditions. - Abstract: The efficiency decrease of spark ignition (SI) engines under part-load conditions is a considerable issue. Changing the effective stroke volume based on the load level is one of the methods using to improve the part-load efficiency. In this study, a novel alternative engine valve control technique in order to perform a cycle without gas exchange (skip cycle), is examined. The goal of skip cycle strategy is to reduce the effective stroke volume of an engine under part load conditions by skipping several of the four stroke cycles by cutting off the fuel injection and simultaneously deactivating the inlet and exhaust valves. To achieve the same power level in the skip cycle, the cylinder pressure level reaches higher values compared to those in a normal four stroke cycle operation, but inherently not higher than the maximum one at full load of normal cycle. According to the experimental results, the break specific fuel consumption (BSFC) was reduced by 14–26% at a 1–3 bar break mean effective pressure (BMEP) and a 1200–1800 rpm engine speed of skip cycle operation, in comparison to normal engine operation. The significant decrease in the pumping work from the gas exchange is one of the primary factors for an increase in efficiency under part load conditions. As expected, the fuel consumption reduction rate at lower load conditions was higher. These experimental results indicate a promising potential of the skip cycle system for reducing the fuel consumption under part load conditions.

  12. Magnetic field influence on substructure formed by electric spark treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reza Rahbari, G.; Ivanov, A.N.

    1996-01-01

    The substructure of surface layer (about 10 microns thick) has been studied by x-ray line broadening technique in the samples of plain carbon steel (0.45%C) after electric spark doping with and without magnetic field (MF). The applied spark pulse energy was 0.12 J and MF induction varied from 0 to 0.08 T. The electrode material was the same as that of the treated sample. It has been observed that the MF reduces the tensile residual surface stresses from 660 ± 15MPa (no MF) to 260 ± 15MPa (B=0.053 T). The analysis of x-ray line broadening has revealed only the existence of microstrains, which are dependent of the MF magnitude. The microstrains have been related to the randomly distributed dislocation with the density of about 3x10 sup 11 cm sup -2

  13. 100 kV reliable accurately-synchronized spark gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosamykin, V.S.; Gerasimov, A.I.; Zenkov, D.I.

    1987-01-01

    100 kV three-electrode spark gap filled with 40% SF 6 +60% N 2 mixture under the pressure of ∼ 1 MPa, which has spread Δt ≤ ± 5 ns of operating time delay in the range of 10 4 triggerings and commutation energy of 2.5 kJ, providing electric strength is 100%, is described; at 10 kJ Δt is less than ± 10 ns for 10 3 triggerings. Parallel connection of 16 groups, each consisting of 5 spark gaps with series connection, electric strength being 100%, in the pulse charging unit of Arkadiev-Marx generator being in operation for several years manifested their high efficiency; mutual group spread is ≤ ± 15 ns

  14. Striated filamentary sparks produced by a CO2 TEA laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmieder, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    Sparks in the form of long, thin filaments having quasi-periodic longitudinal light and dark regions (striations) in time-integrated images have been ovserved in various gases using a CO 2 TEA laser. Typically, a 50-mJ pulse will produce a filament 1 cm long and 130 μm in diameter, with more than 150 striations spaced 50 μm apart in atmospheric air. Each striation is associated with the formation of a plasma region by one pulse in train of pulses from the mode-locked laser, and the filament results from the formation of successive (nearly identical) region, each displaced from the previous one toward the laser. The possible use of these sparks as a light source in diagnostics is noted

  15. Large area spark counters with fine time and position resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, A.; Atwood, W.B.; Fujiwara, N.; Pestov, Yu.N.; Sugahara, R.

    1983-10-01

    Spark counters trace their history back over three decades but have been used in only a limited number of experiments. The key properties of these devices include their capability of precision timing (at the sub 100 ps level) and of measuring the position of the charged particle to high accuracy. At SLAC we have undertaken a program to develop these devices for use in high energy physics experiments involving large detectors. A spark counter of size 1.2 m x 0.1 m has been constructed and has been operating continuously in our test setup for several months. In this talk I will discuss some details of its construction and its properties as a particle detector. 14 references

  16. CMS Analysis and Data Reduction with Apache Spark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutsche, Oliver [Fermilab; Canali, Luca [CERN; Cremer, Illia [Magnetic Corp., Waltham; Cremonesi, Matteo [Fermilab; Elmer, Peter [Princeton U.; Fisk, Ian [Flatiron Inst., New York; Girone, Maria [CERN; Jayatilaka, Bo [Fermilab; Kowalkowski, Jim [Fermilab; Khristenko, Viktor [CERN; Motesnitsalis, Evangelos [CERN; Pivarski, Jim [Princeton U.; Sehrish, Saba [Fermilab; Surdy, Kacper [CERN; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey [Princeton U.

    2017-10-31

    Experimental Particle Physics has been at the forefront of analyzing the world's largest datasets for decades. The HEP community was among the first to develop suitable software and computing tools for this task. In recent times, new toolkits and systems for distributed data processing, collectively called "Big Data" technologies have emerged from industry and open source projects to support the analysis of Petabyte and Exabyte datasets in industry. While the principles of data analysis in HEP have not changed (filtering and transforming experiment-specific data formats), these new technologies use different approaches and tools, promising a fresh look at analysis of very large datasets that could potentially reduce the time-to-physics with increased interactivity. Moreover these new tools are typically actively developed by large communities, often profiting of industry resources, and under open source licensing. These factors result in a boost for adoption and maturity of the tools and for the communities supporting them, at the same time helping in reducing the cost of ownership for the end-users. In this talk, we are presenting studies of using Apache Spark for end user data analysis. We are studying the HEP analysis workflow separated into two thrusts: the reduction of centrally produced experiment datasets and the end-analysis up to the publication plot. Studying the first thrust, CMS is working together with CERN openlab and Intel on the CMS Big Data Reduction Facility. The goal is to reduce 1 PB of official CMS data to 1 TB of ntuple output for analysis. We are presenting the progress of this 2-year project with first results of scaling up Spark-based HEP analysis. Studying the second thrust, we are presenting studies on using Apache Spark for a CMS Dark Matter physics search, comparing Spark's feasibility, usability and performance to the ROOT-based analysis.

  17. Loits skandaalitses gaalal. Sparks Rabarockil. Pärimusmuusika Ait

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Pärnu Kontserdimajas Eesti muusikaauhindade galal üle astunud rockansambel Loits röövis koostöös kultuskirjaniku Sven Kivisildnikuga aasta metal/punk-artisti auhinna, mis pidi minema industrial-metal-artistile Finish Me Off. Ameerika bänd Sparks 14. juunil Järvakandis Rabarockil. Viljandis Tasuja pst.6 avati Eesti Pärimusmuusika Keskuse uus kodu - Pärimusmuusika Ait

  18. effect of gasket of varying thickness on spark ignition engines

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    In the study of Toyota, In-line, 4 cylinders, spark ignition engine using gaskets of varying thicknesses. (1.75mm, 3.5mm, 5.25mm, 7mm and 8.75mm) between the cylinder head and the engine block, the performance characteristics of the engine was investigated via the effect of engine speed on brake power, brake thermal ...

  19. High repetition rate burst-mode spark gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faltens, A.; Reginato, L.; Hester, R.; Chesterman, A.; Cook, E.; Yokota, T.; Dexter, W.

    1978-01-01

    Results are presented on the design and testing of a pressurized gas blown spark gap switch capable of high repetition rates in a burst mode of operation. The switch parameters which have been achieved are as follows: 220-kV, 42-kA, a five pulse burst at 1-kHz, 12-ns risetime, 2-ns jitter at a pulse width of 50-ns

  20. Modeling of the Inductance of a Blumlein Circuit Spark Gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboites, V; Rendón, L; Hernández, A I; Valdés, E

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present an analysis of the time-varying inductance in the spark gap of a Blumlein circuit. We assume several mathematical expressions to describe the inductance and compare theoretical and computational calculations with experimental results. The time-varying inductance is approximated by a constant, a straight line and two parables which differ in their concavity. This is the first time to our knowledge, in which the time-varying ignition inductance of a nitrogen laser is modeled

  1. SparkJet characterizations in quiescent and supersonic flowfields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerick, T.; Ali, M. Y.; Foster, C.; Alvi, F. S.; Popkin, S.

    2014-12-01

    The aerodynamic community has studied active flow control actuators for some time, and developments have led to a wide variety of devices with various features and operating mechanisms. The design requirements for a practical actuator used for active flow control include reliable operation, requisite frequency and amplitude modulation capabilities, and a reasonable lifespan while maintaining minimal cost and design complexity. An active flow control device called the SparkJet actuator has been developed for high-speed flight control and incorporates no mechanical/moving parts, zero net mass flux capabilities and the ability to tune the operating frequency and momentum throughput. This actuator utilizes electrical power to deliver high-momentum flow with a very fast response time. The SparkJet actuator was characterized on the benchtop using a laser-based microschlieren visualization technique and maximum blast wave and jet front velocities of ~400 and ~310 m/s were, respectively, measured in the flowfield. An increase in jet front velocity from 240 to 310 m/s during subatmospheric (60 kPa) testing reveals that the actuator may have greater control authority at lower ambient pressures, which correspond to high-altitude flight conditions for air vehicles. A SparkJet array was integrated into a flat plate and tested in a Mach 1.5 crossflow. Phase-conditioned shadowgraph results revealed a maximum flow deflection angle of 5° created by the SparkJet 275 µs after the actuator was triggered in single-shot mode. Burst mode operation of frequencies up to 700 Hz revealed similar results during wind tunnel testing. Following these tests, the actuator trigger mechanism was improved and the ability of the actuator to be discharged in burst mode at a frequency of 1 kHz was achieved.

  2. The time response function of spark counters and RPCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gobbi, A.; Mangiarotti, A.

    2003-01-01

    The fluctuation theory for the avalanche growth with and without space charge effects is briefly summarized and compared to a broad field of applications. These include spark counters as well as timing and trigger RPCs operated in avalanche mode. A large domain in electrical field strength, pressure, gap size and gas mixture type is covered. A reasonable agreement with the experiment is observed, giving confidence on the validity of both assumptions and treatment of the theory

  3. Production of uranium-molybdenum particles by spark-erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabanillas, E.D.; Lopez, M.; Pasqualini, E.E.; Cirilo Lombardo, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    With the spark-erosion method we have produced spheroidal particles of an uranium-molybdenum alloy using pure water as dielectric. The particles were characterized by optical metallography, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry and X-ray diffraction. Mostly spherical particles of UO 2 with a distinctive size distribution with peaks centered at 70 and 10 μm were obtained. The particles have central inclusions of U and Mo compounds

  4. Production of uranium-molybdenum particles by spark-erosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabanillas, E.D. E-mail: cabanill@cnea.gov.ar; Lopez, M.; Pasqualini, E.E.; Cirilo Lombardo, D.J

    2004-01-01

    With the spark-erosion method we have produced spheroidal particles of an uranium-molybdenum alloy using pure water as dielectric. The particles were characterized by optical metallography, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry and X-ray diffraction. Mostly spherical particles of UO{sub 2} with a distinctive size distribution with peaks centered at 70 and 10 {mu}m were obtained. The particles have central inclusions of U and Mo compounds.

  5. Modelling of spark to ignition transition in gas mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akram, M.

    1996-10-01

    This thesis pertains to the models for studying sparking in chemically inert gases. The processes taking place in a spark to flame transition can be segregated into physical and chemical processes, and this study is focused on physical processes. The plasma is regarded as a single-substance material. One and two-dimensional models are developed. The transfer of electrical energy into thermal energy of the gas and its redistribution in space and time along with the evolution of a plasma kernel is studied in the time domain ranging from 10 ns to 40 micros. In the case of ultra-fast sparks, the propagation of the shock and its reflection from a rigid wall is presented. The influence of electrode shape and the gap size on the flow structure development is found to be a dominating factor. It is observed that the flow structure that has developed in the early stage more or less prevails at later stages and strongly influences the shape and evolution of the hot kernel. The electrode geometry and configuration are responsible for the development of the flow structure. The strength of the vortices generated in the flow field is influenced by the power input to the gap and their location of emergence is dictated by the electrode shape and configuration. The heat transfer after 2 micros in the case of ultra-fast sparks is dominated by convection and diffusion. The strong mixing produced by hydrodynamic effects and the electrode geometry give the indication that the magnetic pinch effect might be negligible. Finally, a model for a multicomponent gas mixture is presented. The chemical kinetics mechanism for dissociation and ionization is introduced. 56 refs

  6. Gas temperature of capacitance spark discharge in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Ryo; Nifuku, Masaharu; Fujiwara, Shuzo; Horiguchi, Sadashige; Oda, Tetsuji

    2005-01-01

    Capacitance spark discharge has been widely used for studying the ignition of flammable gas caused by electrostatic discharge. In the present study, the gas temperature of capacitance spark discharge is measured. The gas temperature is an important factor in understanding the electrostatic ignition process because it influences the reaction rate of ignition. Spark discharge is generated in air with a pulse duration shorter than 100 ns. The discharge energy is set to 0.03-1 mJ. The rotational and vibrational temperatures of the N 2 molecule are measured using the emission spectrum of the N 2 second positive system. The rotational and vibrational temperatures are estimated to be 500 and 5000 K, respectively, which are independent of the discharge energy. This result indicates that most of the electron energy is consumed in the excitation of vibrational levels of molecules rather than the heating of the gas. The gas temperature after discharge is also measured by laser-induced fluorescence of OH radicals. It is shown that the gas temperature increases after discharge and reaches approximately 1000 K at 3 μs after discharge. Then the temperature decreases at a rate in the range of 8-35 K/μs depending on the discharge energy

  7. Spark igniter having precious metal ground electrode inserts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, N.A.

    1988-01-01

    This patent describes an igniter comprising a shell of a shell metal alloy which is resistant to spark erosion and corrosion, the shell having a firing end which terminates at its lower end in an annular ring, an insulator sealed within the metal shell and having a central bore and a surface extending inwardly toward the bore from the annular ring, a center electrode sealed within the bore of the insulator and having a firing end which is in spark gap relation with the annular ring of the shell and so positioned that a spark discharge between the firing end and the annular ring occurs along the inwardly extending surface of the insulator, and a plurality of oxidation and erosion resistant inserts, each of the inserts comprising a body of a metal selected from the group consisting of iridium, osmium, ruthenium, rhodium, platinum, and tungsten or an alloy or a ductile alloy of one of the foregoing metals, each of the bodies being embedded within a matching opening which extends from the exterior of the shell through the annular ring, being bonded to the shell

  8. River water remediation using pulsed corona, pulsed spark or ozonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izdebski, T.; Dors, M. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Szewalski Inst. of Fluid Flow Machiney, Fiszera (Poland). Centre for Plasma and Laser Engineering; Mizeraczyk, J. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Szewalski Inst. of Fluid Flow Machiney, Fiszera (Poland). Centre for Plasma and Laser Engineering; Gdynia Maritime Univ., Morska (Poland). Dept. of Marine Electronics

    2010-07-01

    The most common reason for epidemic formation is the pollution of surface and drinking water by wastewater bacteria. Pathogenic microorganisms that form the largest part of this are fecal bacteria, such as escherichia coli (E. coli). Wastewater treatment plants reduce the amount of the fecal bacteria by 1-3 orders of magnitude, depending on the initial number of bacteria. There is a lack of data on waste and drinking water purification by the electrohydraulic discharges method, which causes the destruction and inactivation of viruses, yeast, and bacteria. This paper investigated river water cleaning from microorganisms using pulsed corona, spark discharge and ozonization. The paper discussed the experimental setup and results. It was concluded that ozonization is the most efficient method of water disinfection as compared with pulsed spark and pulsed corona discharges. The pulsed spark discharge in water was capable of killing all microorganism similarly to ozonization, but with much lower energy efficiency. The pulsed corona discharge was found to be the less effective method of water disinfection. 21 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Research on retailer data clustering algorithm based on Spark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiuman; Zhou, Feng

    2017-03-01

    Big data analysis is a hot topic in the IT field now. Spark is a high-reliability and high-performance distributed parallel computing framework for big data sets. K-means algorithm is one of the classical partition methods in clustering algorithm. In this paper, we study the k-means clustering algorithm on Spark. Firstly, the principle of the algorithm is analyzed, and then the clustering analysis is carried out on the supermarket customers through the experiment to find out the different shopping patterns. At the same time, this paper proposes the parallelization of k-means algorithm and the distributed computing framework of Spark, and gives the concrete design scheme and implementation scheme. This paper uses the two-year sales data of a supermarket to validate the proposed clustering algorithm and achieve the goal of subdividing customers, and then analyze the clustering results to help enterprises to take different marketing strategies for different customer groups to improve sales performance.

  10. Experimental investigation of the vibrational and thermal response of a laser spark plug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Gregory S.

    A study was conducted in order to evaluate the external thermal and vibrational effects on the operation of a laser ignition system for internal combustion (IC) engine applications. West Virginia University (WVU) in conjunction with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) have constructed a prototype laser spark plug which has been designed to mount directly onto the head of a natural gas engine for the purpose of igniting an air/fuel (A/F) mixture in the engine's combustion chamber. To be considered as a viable replacement for the conventional electrode-based ignition system, integrity, durability and reliability must be justified. Thermal and oscillatory perturbations induced upon the ignition system are major influences that affect laser spark plug (LSP) operation and, therefore, quantifying these effects is necessary to further the advancement and development of this technology. The passively q-switched Nd:YAG laser was mounted on Bruel & Kjaer (B&K) Vibration Exciter Type 4808 Shaker in conjunction with at B&K Power Amplifier Type 2719, which was oscillated in 10 Hz intervals from 0 to 60 Hz using a sine wave to mimic natural gas engine operation. The input signal simulated the rotational velocity of the engine operating from 0 to 3600 RPM with the laser mounted in three different axial orientations. The laser assembly was wrapped with medium-temperature heat tape, outfitted with thermocouples and heated from room temperature to 140 ºF to simulate the temperatures that the LSP may experience when installed on an engine. The acceleration of the payload was varied between 50% and 100% of the oscillator's maximum allowable acceleration in each mounting orientation resulting in a total of 294 total setpoints. For each setpoint, pulse width, pulse width variation, q-switch delay, jitter and output energy were measured and recorded. Each of these dependent variables plays a critical role in multi photon ionization and precise control is necessary to limit

  11. Global environmental concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqi, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    Increased concern about global climate change is leading to an examination of options for reducing the emissions of gases believed to be the principal contributors to the Greenhouse Effect. Carbon dioxide is believed to be the largest contributor to such an effect, and the use of fossil fuels is the largest source of carbon dioxide emissions. geothermal energy is likely to receive increased attention in the years ahead as a way to reduce emissions of CO 2 . Several countries in Asia and the Pacific already have active geothermal programs. The Philippines have the second-largest installed geothermal capacity in the world. Japan and New Zealand have used geothermal energy for several decades. The present and future contributions of geothermal energy to the overall energy supply and reductions in carbon dioxide emissions in Asia and the Pacific are discussed in this paper

  12. An experimental study on regulated and unregulated pollutants from a spark ignition car fuelled on liquefied petroleum gas and Gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, A.N.; Yun-shan, G.E.; Jun-fang, W.; Jian-wei, T.; Gardezi, S.A.R.

    2010-01-01

    In the experimental study conducted on a spark ignition (SI) car running on a chassis dynamometer, fuelled on liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and gasoline, carbon monoxide (CO) and total hydrocarbons (HC) decreased by 37.3% and 46.8%, respectively, while oxides of nitrogen (NOx) increased by 59.7% due to higher compression ratio with LPG, compared with gasoline. In case of LPG fuel, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, 2-butanone, butyraldehyde, benzaldehyde and valeraldehyde decreased, leading to an over all decrease of about 35% and 26% in carbonyls and their ozone forming potential (OFP), respectively, compared with gasoline. Furthermore, benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, xylene and styrene decreased, resulting in an overall decrease of 38.8% in volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and 39.2% in BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylene) species due to more complete combustion with LPG, compared with gasoline. Further, the OFP of VOCs with LPG was 6% lower than that with gasoline fuel. (author)

  13. Estimation of operational parameters for a direct injection turbocharged spark ignition engine by using regression analysis and artificial neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tosun Erdi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at estimating the variation of several engine control parameters within the rotational speed-load map, using regression analysis and artificial neural network techniques. Duration of injection, specific fuel consumption, exhaust gas at turbine inlet, and within the catalytic converter brick were chosen as the output parameters for the models, while engine speed and brake mean effective pressure were selected as independent variables for prediction. Measurements were performed on a turbocharged direct injection spark ignition engine fueled with gasoline. A three-layer feed-forward structure and back-propagation algorithm was used for training the artificial neural network. It was concluded that this technique is capable of predicting engine parameters with better accuracy than linear and non-linear regression techniques.

  14. Effects of gaseous ammonia direct injection on performance characteristics of a spark-ignition engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Kyunghyun; Zacharakis-Jutz, George E.; Kong, Song-Charng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • This is the very first study in utilizing direct injection of gaseous ammonia in an SI engine. • Engine combustion using direct injection of gaseous ammonia is proven feasible. • Energy efficiency using ammonia is comparable to that using gasoline. • CO emissions are decreased but emissions of NOx and HC are increased when ammonia is used. - Abstract: The effects of direct injection of gaseous ammonia on the combustion characteristics and exhaust emissions of a spark-ignition engine were investigated. Port-injection gasoline was used to enhance the burning of ammonia that was directly injected into the engine cylinder. Appropriate direct injection strategies were developed to allow ammonia to be used in spark-ignition engines without sacrifice of volumetric efficiency. Experimental results show that with gasoline providing the baseline power of 0.6 kW, total engine power could increase to 2.7 kW when the injection timing of ammonia was advanced to 370 BTDC with injection duration of 22 ms. Engine performance with use of gasoline–ammonia was compared to that with gasoline alone. For operations using gasoline–ammonia, with baseline power from gasoline at 0.6 kW the appropriate ammonia injection timing was found to range from 320 to 370 BTDC for producing 1.5–2.7 kW. The peak pressures were slightly lower than those using gasoline alone because of the lower flame of ammonia, resulting in reduction of cylinder pressure. The brake specific energy consumption (BSEC) with gasoline–ammonia was very similar to that with gasoline alone. Ammonia direct injection caused slight reductions of BSCO for all the loads studied but significantly increased BSHC because of the reduced combustion temperature of ammonia combustion. The use of ammonia resulted in increased NOx emissions because of formation of fuel NOx. Ammonia slip was also detected in the engine exhaust because of incomplete combustion

  15. Heat transfer comparison between methane and hydrogen in a spark ignited engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierens, Roger; Demuynck, Joachim; Paepe, Michel de; Verhelst, Sebastian [Ghent Univ. (Belgium)

    2010-07-01

    Hydrogen is one of the alternative fuels which are being investigated at Ghent University. NO{sub x} emissions will occur at high engine loads and they are a constraint for power and efficiency optimization. The formation of NO{sub x} emissions is temperature dependent. Consequently, the heat transfer from the burning gases to the cylinder walls has to be accurately modelled if precise computer calculations of the emissions are wanted. Several engine heat transfer models exist but they have been cited to be inaccurate for hydrogen. We have measured the heat flux in a spark ignited engine with a commercially available heat flux sensor. This paper investigates the difference between the heat transfer of hydrogen and a fossil fuel, in this case methane. Measurements with the same indicated power output are compared and the effect of the heat loss on the indicated efficiency is investigated. The power output of hydrogen combustion is lowered by burning lean in contrast to using a throttle in the case of methane. Although the peak in the heat flux of hydrogen is 3 times higher compared to methane for a high engine power output, the indicated efficiency is only 3% lower. The heat loss for hydrogen at a low engine load is smaller than that of methane which results in a higher indicated efficiency. The richness of the hydrogen-air mixture has a great influence on the heat transfer process in contrast to the in-cylinder mass in the case of methane. (orig.)

  16. An experimental study on performance and emission characteristics of a hydrogen fuelled spark ignition engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahraman, Erol [Program of Energy Engineering, Izmir Institute of Technology, Urla, Izmir 35430 (Turkey); Cihangir Ozcanli, S.; Ozerdem, Baris [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Izmir Institute of Technology, Urla, Izmir 35430 (Turkey)

    2007-08-15

    In the present paper, the performance and emission characteristics of a conventional four cylinder spark ignition (SI) engine operated on hydrogen and gasoline are investigated experimentally. The compressed hydrogen at 20 MPa has been introduced to the engine adopted to operate on gaseous hydrogen by external mixing. Two regulators have been used to drop the pressure first to 300 kPa, then to atmospheric pressure. The variations of torque, power, brake thermal efficiency, brake mean effective pressure, exhaust gas temperature, and emissions of NO{sub x}, CO, CO{sub 2}, HC, and O{sub 2} versus engine speed are compared for a carbureted SI engine operating on gasoline and hydrogen. Energy analysis also has studied for comparison purpose. The test results have been demonstrated that power loss occurs at low speed hydrogen operation whereas high speed characteristics compete well with gasoline operation. Fast burning characteristics of hydrogen have permitted high speed engine operation. Less heat loss has occurred for hydrogen than gasoline. NO{sub x} emission of hydrogen fuelled engine is about 10 times lower than gasoline fuelled engine. Finally, both first and second law efficiencies have improved with hydrogen fuelled engine compared to gasoline engine. It has been proved that hydrogen is a very good candidate as an engine fuel. The obtained data are also very useful for operational changes needed to optimize the hydrogen fueled SI engine design. (author)

  17. Experimental cross-correlation nitrogen Q-branch CARS thermometry in a spark ignition engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockett, R. D.; Ball, D.; Robertson, G. N.

    2013-07-01

    A purely experimental technique was employed to derive temperatures from nitrogen Q-branch Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) spectra, obtained in a high pressure, high temperature environment (spark ignition Otto engine). This was in order to obviate any errors arising from deficiencies in the spectral scaling laws which are commonly used to represent nitrogen Q-branch CARS spectra at high pressure. The spectra obtained in the engine were compared with spectra obtained in a calibrated high pressure, high temperature cell, using direct cross-correlation in place of the minimisation of sums of squares of residuals. The technique is demonstrated through the measurement of air temperature as a function of crankshaft angle inside the cylinder of a motored single-cylinder Ricardo E6 research engine, followed by the measurement of fuel-air mixture temperatures obtained during the compression stroke in a knocking Ricardo E6 engine. A standard CARS programme (SANDIA's CARSFIT) was employed to calibrate the altered non-resonant background contribution to the CARS spectra that was caused by the alteration to the mole fraction of nitrogen in the unburned fuel-air mixture. The compression temperature profiles were extrapolated in order to predict the auto-ignition temperatures.

  18. Nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, H [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1976-10-01

    It is expected that nuclear power generation will reach 49 million kW in 1985 and 129 million kW in 1995, and the nuclear fuel having to be supplied and processed will increase in proportion to these values. The technical problems concerning nuclear fuel are presented on the basis of the balance between the benefit for human beings and the burden on the human beings. Recently, especially the downstream of nuclear fuel attracts public attention. Enriched uranium as the raw material for light water reactor fuel is almost monopolized by the U.S., and the technical information has not been published for fear of the diversion to nuclear weapons. In this paper, the present situations of uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, transportation, reprocessing and waste disposal and the future problems are described according to the path of nuclear fuel cycle. The demand and supply of enriched uranium in Japan will be balanced up to about 1988, but afterwards, the supply must rely upon the early establishment of the domestic technology by centrifugal separation method. No problem remains in the fabrication of light water reactor fuel, but for the fabrication of mixed oxide fuel, the mechanization of the production facility and labor saving are necessary. The solution of the capital risk for the construction of the second reprocessing plant is the main problem. Japan must develop waste disposal techniques with all-out efforts.

  19. Thermodynamic analysis of EGR effects on the first and second law efficiencies of a boosted spark-ignited direct-injection gasoline engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Tie; Wu, Da; Xu, Min

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We clarified the mechanism of EGR improving fuel economy of gasoline engines. • At constant air–fuel ratio, reduction of heat transfer loss is most significant. • At full load, elimination of fuel enrichment is dominant. • Combustion irreversibility increases with EGR. • Availability in the exhaust and heat transfer losses is smaller than energy losses. - Abstract: Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is effective to improve fuel economy of spark-ignition gasoline engines, but the detailed mechanism needs to be further investigated. In this paper, an in-depth analysis of the effects of cooled EGR on the fuel conversion efficiency of a boosted, spark-ignited, direct-injection, gasoline engines operated at the full, medium and low loads is conducted with the engine experiment and 1-D cycle simulation based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics. For all the operating loads, EGR increases the ratio of specific heat of working gas, reduces the fraction of heat transfer through the combustion chamber walls, and improves the pumping work during the gas exchanging stroke. Besides, EGR may replace the fuel enrichment at high load, advance the combustion phasing and increase the degree of constant volume heat release at the medium and high loads. As a result, about 1.1–4.1% improvements in the brake thermal efficiency are obtained by the 12–17% EGR at different loads. Despite the increased fraction of combustion-generated irreversibility (destruction in availability or exergy), the fraction of indicated work in the total availability increases with EGR for all the operating loads. Among the influencing factors, the effect of reduction in the heat transfer loss owing to EGR is dominant in improvement of the fuel conversion efficiency at constant air–fuel ratio, while replacement of the fuel enrichment with EGR is most effective at full load

  20. Sintering, consolidation, reaction and crystal growth by the spark plasma system (SPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omori, M. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Inst. for Materials Research

    2000-08-15

    The graphite die set in spark plasma system (SPS) is heated by a pulse direct current. Weak plasma, discharge impact, electric field and electric current, which are based on this current, induce good effects on materials in the die. The surface films of aluminum and pure WC powders are ruptured by the spark plasma. Pure AlN powder is sintered without sintering additives in the electric field. The spark plasma leaves discharge patterns on insulators. Organic fibers are etched by the spark plasma. Thermosetting polyimide is consolidated by the spark plasma. Insoluble polymonomethylsilane is rearranged into the soluble one by the spark plasma. A single crystal of CoSb{sub 3} is grown from the compound powders in the electric field by slow heating. Coupled crystals of eutectic powder are connected with each other in the electric field. (orig.)

  1. The effect of ethanol-gasoline blends on performance and exhaust emissions of a spark ignition engine through exergy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doğan, Battal; Erol, Derviş; Yaman, Hayri; Kodanli, Evren

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Examining the performance of ethanol-gasoline blend. • Evaluation of the exhaust emissions. • Energy and exergy analysis. • Calculation of irreversibility from cooling system and the exhaust resulting. - Abstract: Ethanol which is considered as an environmentally cleaner alternative to fossil fuels is used on its own or blended with other fuels in different ratios. In this study, ethanol which has high octane rating, low exhaust emission, and which is easily obtained from agricultural products has been used in fuels prepared by blending it with gasoline in various ratios (E0, E10, E20, and E30). Ethanol-gasoline blends have been used in a four-cylinder four-stroke spark ignition engine for performance and emission analysis under full load. In the experimental studies, engine torque, fuel and cooling water flow rates, and exhaust and engine surface temperature have been measured. Engine energy distribution, irreversible processes in the cooling system and the exhaust, and the exergy distribution have been calculated using the experimental data and the formulas for the first and second laws of thermodynamics. Experiments and theoretical calculations showed that ethanol added fuels show reduction in carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO_2) and nitrogen oxide (NO_X) emissions without significant loss of power compared to gasoline. But it was measured that the reduction of the temperature inside the cylinder increases the hydrocarbon (HC) emission.

  2. A Laser Spark Plug Ignition System for a Stationary Lean-Burn Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIntyre, D. L. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2007-05-01

    To meet the ignition system needs of large bore, high pressure, lean burn, natural gas engines a side pumped, passively Q-switched, Nd:YAG laser was developed and tested. The laser was designed to produce the optical intensities needed to initiate ignition in a lean burn, high compression engine. The laser and associated optics were designed with a passive Q-switch to eliminate the need for high voltage signaling and associated equipment. The laser was diode pumped to eliminate the need for high voltage flash lamps which have poor pumping efficiency. The independent and dependent parameters of the laser were identified and explored in specific combinations that produced consistent robust sparks in laboratory air. Prior research has shown that increasing gas pressure lowers the breakdown threshold for laser initiated ignition. The laser has an overall geometry of 57x57x152 mm with an output beam diameter of approximately 3 mm. The experimentation used a wide range of optical and electrical input parameters that when combined produced ignition in laboratory air. The results show a strong dependence of the output parameters on the output coupler reflectivity, Q-switch initial transmission, and gain media dopant concentration. As these three parameters were lowered the output performance of the laser increased leading to larger more brilliant sparks. The results show peak power levels of up to 3MW and peak focal intensities of up to 560 GW/cm2. Engine testing was performed on a Ricardo Proteus single cylinder research engine. The goal of the engine testing was to show that the test laser performs identically to the commercially available flashlamp pumped actively Q-switched laser used in previous laser ignition testing. The engine testing consisted of a comparison of the in-cylinder, and emissions behavior of the engine using each of the lasers as an ignition system. All engine parameters were kept as constant as possilbe while the equivalence ratio (fueling

  3. Spark Ignition Characteristics of a L02/LCH4 Engine at Altitude Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhenz, Julie; Sarmiento, Charles; Marshall, William

    2012-01-01

    The use of non-toxic propellants in future exploration vehicles would enable safer, more cost effective mission scenarios. One promising "green" alternative to existing hypergols is liquid methane/liquid oxygen. To demonstrate performance and prove feasibility of this propellant combination, a 100lbf LO2/LCH4 engine was developed and tested under the NASA Propulsion and Cryogenic Advanced Development (PCAD) project. Since high ignition energy is a perceived drawback of this propellant combination, a test program was performed to explore ignition performance and reliability versus delivered spark energy. The sensitivity of ignition to spark timing and repetition rate was also examined. Three different exciter units were used with the engine s augmented (torch) igniter. Propellant temperature was also varied within the liquid range. Captured waveforms indicated spark behavior in hot fire conditions was inconsistent compared to the well-behaved dry sparks (in quiescent, room air). The escalating pressure and flow environment increases spark impedance and may at some point compromise an exciter s ability to deliver a spark. Reduced spark energies of these sparks result in more erratic ignitions and adversely affect ignition probability. The timing of the sparks relative to the pressure/flow conditions also impacted the probability of ignition. Sparks occurring early in the flow could trigger ignition with energies as low as 1-6mJ, though multiple, similarly timed sparks of 55-75mJ were required for reliable ignition. An optimum time interval for spark application and ignition coincided with propellant introduction to the igniter and engine. Shifts of ignition timing were manifested by changes in the characteristics of the resulting ignition.

  4. Spark Ignition Characteristics of a LO2/LCH4 Engine at Altitude Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhenz, Julie; Sarmiento, Charles; Marshall, William

    2012-01-01

    The use of non-toxic propellants in future exploration vehicles would enable safer, more cost effective mission scenarios. One promising "green" alternative to existing hypergols is liquid methane/liquid oxygen. To demonstrate performance and prove feasibility of this propellant combination, a 100lbf LO2/LCH4 engine was developed and tested under the NASA Propulsion and Cryogenic Advanced Development (PCAD) project. Since high ignition energy is a perceived drawback of this propellant combination, a test program was performed to explore ignition performance and reliability versus delivered spark energy. The sensitivity of ignition to spark timing and repetition rate was also examined. Three different exciter units were used with the engine's augmented (torch) igniter. Propellant temperature was also varied within the liquid range. Captured waveforms indicated spark behavior in hot fire conditions was inconsistent compared to the well-behaved dry sparks (in quiescent, room air). The escalating pressure and flow environment increases spark impedance and may at some point compromise an exciter.s ability to deliver a spark. Reduced spark energies of these sparks result in more erratic ignitions and adversely affect ignition probability. The timing of the sparks relative to the pressure/flow conditions also impacted the probability of ignition. Sparks occurring early in the flow could trigger ignition with energies as low as 1-6mJ, though multiple, similarly timed sparks of 55-75mJ were required for reliable ignition. An optimum time interval for spark application and ignition coincided with propellant introduction to the igniter and engine. Shifts of ignition timing were manifested by changes in the characteristics of the resulting ignition.

  5. Spark Ignition LPG for Hydrogen Gas Combustion the Reduction Furnace ME-11 Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achmad Suntoro

    2007-01-01

    Reverse engineering method for automatic spark-ignition system of LPG to burn hydrogen gaseous in the reducing process of ME-11 furnace has been successfully implemented using local materials. A qualitative study to the initial behaviour of the LPG flame system has created an idea by modification to install an automatic spark-ignition of the LPG on the reducing furnace ME-11. The automatic spark-ignition system has been tested and proved working well. (author)

  6. Ignition assist systems for direct-injected, diesel cycle, medium-duty alternative fuel engines: Final report phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, A.K.

    2000-02-23

    This report is a summary of the results of Phase 1 of this contract. The objective was to evaluate the potential of assist technologies for direct-injected alternative fuel engines vs. glow plug ignition assist. The goal was to demonstrate the feasibility of an ignition system life of 10,000 hours and a system cost of less than 50% of the glow plug system, while meeting or exceeding the engine thermal efficiency obtained with the glow plug system. There were three tasks in Phase 1. Under Task 1, a comprehensive review of feasible ignition options for DING engines was completed. The most promising options are: (1) AC and the ''SmartFire'' spark, which are both long-duration, low-power (LDLP) spark systems; (2) the short-duration, high-power (SDHP) spark system; (3) the micropilot injection ignition; and (4) the stratified charge plasma ignition. Efforts concentrated on investigating the AC spark, SmartFire spark, and short-duration/high-power spark systems. Using proprietary pricing information, the authors predicted that the commercial costs for the AC spark, the short-duration/high-power spark and SmartFire spark systems will be comparable (if not less) to the glow plug system. Task 2 involved designing and performing bench tests to determine the criteria for the ignition system and the prototype spark plug for Task 3. The two most important design criteria are the high voltage output requirement of the ignition system and the minimum electrical insulation requirement for the spark plug. Under Task 3, all the necessary hardware for the one-cylinder engine test was designed. The hardware includes modified 3126 cylinder heads, specially designed prototype spark plugs, ignition system electronics, and parts for the system installation. Two 3126 cylinder heads and the SmartFire ignition system were procured, and testing will begin in Phase 2 of this subcontract.

  7. Recent developments concerning French fuel elements used in natural uranium - graphite - CO{sub 2} reactor systems; Developpements recents des elements combustibles francais de la filiere uranium naturel - graphite - CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salesse, M; Stohr, J A; Jeanpierre, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The policy followed in France for the development of fuel elements for reactors belonging to the Electricite de France has been to benefit as much as possible, for each new pile from the most recent technical progress by developing in each case a fuel element allowing the maximum power per channel. The two latest fuel elements thus studied by the French Atomic Energy Commission are of two different types: a tubular uranium element closed at both ends and cooled externally. (This type of element, chosen for the reactors EDF 2, EDF 3 and EDF 4 makes it possible to attain maximum specific powers of the order of 6 MW/metric ton.); an open tubular uranium element cooled both internally and externally, called an annular element which in being studied as a possibility for EDF 5. Such an element makes it possible to attain specific powers of over 12 MW/metric ton. The two types of element have the following common characteristics: - the can, for external cooling, has herning-bone type fins. This type of profile which has been vastly improved recently thereby increasing its thermal efficiency, has the important advantage of avoiding vibration of the element, but has posed problems of resistance to thermal cycling necessitating much research. - the fuel rods are placed inside graphite jackets, this limiting the vertical forces to which they are subjected and protecting them during charging and discharging. On the other hand, these elements present very different problems as for as the following points are concerned: - the characteristics required of the uranium tubes apart of course from a good dimensional stability during irradiation in the two cases are in the case of the closed tubes a very high resistance to external pressure, and in the case of the annular elements a low neutron absorption. Thus for each of these two cases it has been necessary to develop a suitable type of alloy. - a possible loosening of the can during thermal cycling, which is peculiar to the

  8. Fuel Class Higher Alcohols

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2016-08-17

    This chapter focuses on the production and combustion of alcohol fuels with four or more carbon atoms, which we classify as higher alcohols. It assesses the feasibility of utilizing various C4-C8 alcohols as fuels for internal combustion engines. Utilizing higher-molecular-weight alcohols as fuels requires careful analysis of their fuel properties. ASTM standards provide fuel property requirements for spark-ignition (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) engines such as the stability, lubricity, viscosity, and cold filter plugging point (CFPP) properties of blends of higher alcohols. Important combustion properties that are studied include laminar and turbulent flame speeds, flame blowout/extinction limits, ignition delay under various mixing conditions, and gas-phase and particulate emissions. The chapter focuses on the combustion of higher alcohols in reciprocating SI and CI engines and discusses higher alcohol performance in SI and CI engines. Finally, the chapter identifies the sources, production pathways, and technologies currently being pursued for production of some fuels, including n-butanol, iso-butanol, and n-octanol.

  9. Low temperature spark plasma sintering of YIG powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Garcia, L.; Suarez, M.; Menendez, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    A transition from a low to a high spin state in the magnetization saturation between 1000 and 1100 o C calcination temperature is observed in YIG powders prepared by oxides mixture. Spark plasma sintering of these powders between 900 and 950 o C leads to dense samples with minimal formation of YFeO 3 , opening the way to co-sintering of YIG with metals or metallic alloys. The optical properties depend on the sintering stage: low (high) density samples show poor (bulk) optical absorption.

  10. Spark gap overpressures in the transfer capacitor device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhardt, L.C.; Dike, R.S.

    1977-01-01

    A designer of spark gaps is often faced with two gas pressure problems, one static and one dynamic. The former is easy to obtain data on which to base intelligent design specifications; about the latter, less is known. It is the total internal pressure environment we have attempted to measure, in an un-time-resolved way, in order to give the designer some rationale in designing gaps of this category. We measure overpressures of approximately 400 PSI in a 13 cubic inch gap passing currents of approximately 200 kA

  11. Search for an optimum time response of spark counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devismes, A.; Finck, Ch.; Kress, T.; Gobbi, A.; Eschke, J.; Herrmann, N.; Hildenbrand, K.D.; Koczon, P.; Petrovici, M.

    2002-01-01

    A spark counter of the type developed by Pestov has been tested with the aim of searching for an optimum time response function, changing voltage, content of noble and quencher gases, pressure and energy-loss. Replacing the usual argon by neon has brought an improvement of the resolution and a significant reduction of tails in the time response function. It has been proven that a counter as long as 90 cm can deliver, using neon gas mixture, a time resolution σ<60 ps with about 1% absolute tail and an efficiency of about 90%

  12. Compaction of lithium-silicate ceramics using spark plasma sintering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubatík, Tomáš František; Lukáč, František; Mušálek, Radek; Brožek, Vlastimil; Stehlíková, K.; Chráska, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 1 (2017), s. 40-44 ISSN 0862-5468 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36566G Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Li2Si2O5 * Li2SiO3 * Spark plasma sintering (SPS) * Quantitative Rietveld refinement * X-ray diffraction (XRD) Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy OBOR OECD: Materials engineering Impact factor: 0.439, year: 2016 http://www.ceramics-silikaty.cz/index.php?page=cs_detail_doi&id=789

  13. Design report for an annular fuel element for accommodation of a carbide test bundle on the ring position of the KNK II/2 test zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haefner, H.E.

    1982-03-01

    This report describes an annular oxide element with Mark II rods for accommodation of a 19-pin carbide test bundle on position 201 in the test zone of the second core of KNK II as well as its behavior during the period of operation. The ring element comprises within a driver wrapper in three rows of pins 102 fuel pins of 7.6 mm diameter and six structural rods for fixing the spark eroded spacers. The report deals with the ring element with its individual components fuel rod, bundle, wrappers, head and foot and describes methods, criteria and results concerning the design. The carbide test bundle to be accommodated by the annular carrier element will be treated in a separate report. The loadability of the annular element with its components is demonstrated by generally valid standards for strength criteria

  14. Analysis of biomass and waste gasification lean syngases combustion for power generation using spark ignition engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marculescu, Cosmin; Cenuşă, Victor; Alexe, Florin

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a study for food processing industry waste to energy conversion using gasification and internal combustion engine for power generation. The biomass we used consisted in bones and meat residues sampled directly from the industrial line, characterised by high water content, about 42% in mass, and potential health risks. Using the feedstock properties, experimentally determined, two air-gasification process configurations were assessed and numerically modelled to quantify the effects on produced syngas properties. The study also focused on drying stage integration within the conversion chain: either external or integrated into the gasifier. To comply with environmental regulations on feedstock to syngas conversion both solutions were developed in a closed system using a modified down-draft gasifier that integrates the pyrolysis, gasification and partial oxidation stages. Good quality syngas with up to 19.1% - CO; 17% - H2; and 1.6% - CH4 can be produced. The syngas lower heating value may vary from 4.0 MJ/Nm(3) to 6.7 MJ/Nm(3) depending on process configuration. The influence of syngas fuel properties on spark ignition engines performances was studied in comparison to the natural gas (methane) and digestion biogas. In order to keep H2 molar quota below the detonation value of ⩽4% for the engines using syngas, characterised by higher hydrogen fraction, the air excess ratio in the combustion process must be increased to [2.2-2.8]. The results in this paper represent valuable data required by the design of waste to energy conversion chains with intermediate gas fuel production. The data is suitable for Otto engines characterised by power output below 1 MW, designed for natural gas consumption and fuelled with low calorific value gas fuels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of tetracaine on voltage-activated calcium sparks in frog intact skeletal muscle fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingworth, Stephen; Chandler, W Knox; Baylor, Stephen M

    2006-03-01

    The properties of Ca(2+) sparks in frog intact skeletal muscle fibers depolarized with 13 mM [K(+)] Ringer's are well described by a computational model with a Ca(2+) source flux of amplitude 2.5 pA (units of current) and duration 4.6 ms (18 degrees C; Model 2 of Baylor et al., 2002). This result, in combination with the values of single-channel Ca(2+) current reported for ryanodine receptors (RyRs) in bilayers under physiological ion conditions, 0.5 pA (Kettlun et al., 2003) to 2 pA (Tinker et al., 1993), suggests that 1-5 RyR Ca(2+) release channels open during a voltage-activated Ca(2+) spark in an intact fiber. To distinguish between one and greater than one channel per spark, sparks were measured in 8 mM [K(+)] Ringer's in the absence and presence of tetracaine, an inhibitor of RyR channel openings in bilayers. The most prominent effect of 75-100 microM tetracaine was an approximately sixfold reduction in spark frequency. The remaining sparks showed significant reductions in the mean values of peak amplitude, decay time constant, full duration at half maximum (FDHM), full width at half maximum (FWHM), and mass, but not in the mean value of rise time. Spark properties in tetracaine were simulated with an updated spark model that differed in minor ways from our previous model. The simulations show that (a) the properties of sparks in tetracaine are those expected if tetracaine reduces the number of active RyR Ca(2+) channels per spark, and (b) the single-channel Ca(2+) current of an RyR channel is normal voltage-activated sparks (i.e., in the absence of tetracaine) are produced by two or more active RyR Ca(2+) channels. The question of how the activation of multiple RyRs is coordinated is discussed.

  16. Fuel assembly and reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, Motoo; Koyama, Jun-ichi; Uchikawa, Sadao; Bessho, Yasunori; Nakajima, Akiyoshi; Maruyama, Hiromi; Ozawa, Michihiro; Nakamura, Mitsuya.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention concerns fuel assemblies charged in a BWR type reactor and the reactor core. The fuel assembly comprises fuel rods containing burnable poisons and fuel rods not containing burnable poisons. Both of the highest and the lowest gadolinia concentrations of the fuel rods containing gadolinia as burnable poisons are present in the lower region of the fuel assembly. This can increase the spectral shift effect without increasing the maximum linear power density. (I.N.)

  17. Advances in the electro-spark deposition coating process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.N.; Sheldon, G.L.

    1986-04-01

    Electro-spark deposition (ESD) is a pulsed-arc micro-welding process using short-duration, high-current electrical pulses to deposit an electrode material on a metallic substrate. It is one of the few methods available by which a fused, metallurgically bonded coating can be applied with such a low total heat input that the bulk substrate material remains at or near ambient temperatures. The short duration of the electrical pulse allows an extremely rapid solidification of the deposited material and results in an exceptionally fine-grained, homogenous coating that approaches (and with some materials, actually is) an amorphous structure. This structure is believed to contribute to the good tribological and corrosion performance observed for hardsurfacing materials used in the demanding environments of high temperatures, liquid metals, and neutron irradiation. A brief historical review of the process is provided, followed by descriptions of the present state-of-the-art and of the performance and applications of electro-spark deposition coatings in liquid-metal-cooled nuclear reactors

  18. Observations of dense plasma formation in the vacuum spark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuaqui, H.; Favre, M.; Wyndham, E.; Aliaga R, R.; Choi, P.; Dumitrescu-Zoita, C.

    1994-01-01

    A series of experimental observations have been performed on the dense plasma formations or Hot Spots generated in the Vacuum Spark. The plasma discharges are driven by a 1.5 Ohm, 120 ns line at currents up to 100 KA. The line may be used to deliver a rectangular current pulse when the line gap is used. Alternatively when the line gap is shorted, the Vacuum Spark itself switches the line. A Nd: Yag Laser, with an energy of 0.5 J in an 8 ns pulse, is used to pre ionizing the discharge. The formation of Hot Spots is studied under a range of different conditions. These include the pre ionizing conditions, as well as the Anode shape and the Anode Cathode separation. The optimization of these parameters permit very reproducible shot to shot behaviour. Of particular interest is the Hot Spot size dependence as a function of its temperature and of time. The use of a new variant on the Pin Hole Camera, the Slit Wire Camera provides a new method of measuring with precision the Hot Spot dimensions in different X-ray emission energy ranges. A quadruple hole Camera is used to measure the temperature of the Hot Spots. The temporal and spatial evolution of the X-ray emission is measured using using a Slit Wire, Scintillator, Fibre Optic, Photomultiplier array. The temporal emission of the X-rays is also observed using an array of PIN X-ray diodes. (author). 5 refs, 6 figs

  19. Exploratory studies on a passively triggered vacuum spark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rout, R.K. [High Pressure Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)]. E-mail: rkrout@apsara.barc.ernet.in; Auluck, S.K.H.; Kulkarni, L.V. [High Pressure Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India (India); Nagpal, J.S. [Radiation Standards and Instrumentation Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    1999-12-07

    The results of an experimental investigation on a passively triggered vacuum spark device are presented. The diagnostics include the current, x-ray and optical emission measurements. The sharp dips in the current derivative signal indicate the occurrence of pinching at an early stage of the discharge (at current {approx} 5 kA). A well-confined plasma with a central hot region was recorded using a streak camera. The pinched plasma was observed to undergo kink-type oscillations with a time period of 10-15 ns. Repeated plasma fronts were seen to move from the anode to the cathode with an average velocity of {approx}5x10{sup 6} cm s{sup -1}. Soft x-ray emission having a radiation intensity of a few hundred mR per discharge was observed. The x-ray signals obtained using photodiodes showed multiple bursts. A soft x-ray pinhole camera recorded micro-pinches of {approx}100 {mu}m. The x-ray emitting regions were confined to the inter-electrode gap. The x-ray emission characteristics were influenced by the electrolytic resistance, which was connected across the spark gap to initiate discharge. (author)

  20. Exploratory studies on a passively triggered vacuum spark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, R. K.; Auluck, S. K. H.; Nagpal, J. S.; Kulkarni, L. V.

    1999-12-01

    The results of an experimental investigation on a passively triggered vacuum spark device are presented. The diagnostics include the current, x-ray and optical emission measurements. The sharp dips in the current derivative signal indicate the occurrence of pinching at an early stage of the discharge (at current icons/Journals/Common/approx" ALT="approx" ALIGN="TOP"/>5 kA). A well-confined plasma with a central hot region was recorded using a streak camera. The pinched plasma was observed to undergo kink-type oscillations with a time period of 10-15 ns. Repeated plasma fronts were seen to move from the anode to the cathode with an average velocity of icons/Journals/Common/approx" ALT="approx" ALIGN="TOP"/>5 × 106 cm s-1. Soft x-ray emission having a radiation intensity of a few hundred mR per discharge was observed. The x-ray signals obtained using photodiodes showed multiple bursts. A soft x-ray pinhole camera recorded micro-pinches of icons/Journals/Common/approx" ALT="approx" ALIGN="TOP"/>100 µm. The x-ray emitting regions were confined to the inter-electrode gap. The x-ray emission characteristics were influenced by the electrolytic resistance, which was connected across the spark gap to initiate discharge.

  1. Air spark-like plasma source for antimicrobial NOx generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlovich, M J; Galleher, C; Curtis, B; Clark, D S; Graves, D B; Ono, T; Machala, Z

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate and analyse the generation of nitrogen oxides and their antimicrobial efficacy using atmospheric air spark-like plasmas. Spark-like discharges in air in a 1 L confined volume are shown to generate NO x at an initial rate of about 1.5  ×  10 16 NO x molecules/J dissipated in the plasma. Such a discharge operating in this confined volume generates on the order of 6000 ppm NO x in 10 min. Around 90% of the NO x is in the form of NO 2 after several minutes of operation in the confined volume, suggesting that NO 2 is the dominant antimicrobial component. The strong antimicrobial action of the NO x mixture after several minutes of plasma operation is demonstrated by measuring rates of E. coli disinfection on surfaces and in water exposed to the NO x mixture. Some possible applications of plasma generation of NO x (perhaps followed by dissolution in water) include disinfection of surfaces, skin or wound antisepsis, and sterilization of medical instruments at or near room temperature. (paper)

  2. Spark and HPC for High Energy Physics Data Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehrish, Saba; Kowalkowski, Jim; Paterno, Marc

    2017-05-01

    A full High Energy Physics (HEP) data analysis is divided into multiple data reduction phases. Processing within these phases is extremely time consuming, therefore intermediate results are stored in files held in mass storage systems and referenced as part of large datasets. This processing model limits what can be done with interactive data analytics. Growth in size and complexity of experimental datasets, along with emerging big data tools are beginning to cause changes to the traditional ways of doing data analyses. Use of big data tools for HEP analysis looks promising, mainly because extremely large HEP datasets can be represented and held in memory across a system, and accessed interactively by encoding an analysis using highlevel programming abstractions. The mainstream tools, however, are not designed for scientific computing or for exploiting the available HPC platform features. We use an example from the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in Geneva, Switzerland. The LHC is the highest energy particle collider in the world. Our use case focuses on searching for new types of elementary particles explaining Dark Matter in the universe. We use HDF5 as our input data format, and Spark to implement the use case. We show the benefits and limitations of using Spark with HDF5 on Edison at NERSC.

  3. Efficiency improvement of a spark-ignition engine at full load conditions using exhaust gas recirculation and variable geometry turbocharger – Numerical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjerić, Momir; Taritaš, Ivan; Tomić, Rudolf; Blažić, Mislav; Kozarac, Darko; Lulić, Zoran

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A cylinder model was calibrated according to experimental results. • A full cycle simulation model of turbocharged spark-ignition engine was made. • Engine performance with high pressure exhaust gas recirculation was studied. • Cooled exhaust gas recirculation lowers exhaust temperature and knock occurrence. • Leaner mixtures enable fuel consumption improvement of up to 11.2%. - Abstract: The numerical analysis of performance of a four cylinder highly boosted spark-ignition engine at full load is described in this paper, with the research focused on introducing high pressure exhaust gas recirculation for control of engine limiting factors such as knock, turbine inlet temperature and cyclic variability. For this analysis the cycle-simulation model which includes modeling of the entire engine flow path, early flame kernel growth, mixture stratification, turbulent combustion, in-cylinder turbulence, knock and cyclic variability was applied. The cylinder sub-models such as ignition, turbulence and combustion were validated by using the experimental results of a naturally aspirated multi cylinder spark-ignition engine. The high load operation, which served as a benchmark value, was obtained by a standard procedure used in calibration of engines, i.e. operation with fuel enrichment and without exhaust gas recirculation. By introducing exhaust gas recirculation and by optimizing other engine operating parameters, the influence of exhaust gas recirculation on engine performance is obtained. The optimum operating parameters, such as spark advance, intake pressure, air to fuel ratio, were found to meet the imposed requirements in terms of fuel consumption, knock occurrence, exhaust gas temperature and variation of indicated mean effective pressure. By comparing the results of the base point with the results that used exhaust gas recirculation the improvement in fuel consumption of 8.7%, 11.2% and 1.5% at engine speeds of 2000 rpm, 3500 rpm and 5000

  4. Fuel performance and operation experience of WWER-440 fuel in improved fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagarinski, A.; Proselkov, V.; Semchenkov, Yu.

    2007-01-01

    The paper summarizes WWER-440 second-generation fuel operation experience in improved fuel cycles using the example of Kola NPP units 3 and 4. Basic parameters of fuel assemblies, fuel rods and uranium-gadolinium fuel rods, as well as the principal neutronic parameters and burn-up achieved in fuel assemblies are presented. The paper also contains some data concerning the activity of coolant during operation (Authors)

  5. The optimization of some of the conditions for analysis by spark-source mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearton, D.C.P.; Sobiecki, A.

    1980-01-01

    The need for improved precision in spark-source mass spectrometry is highlighted. Several parameters, such as photoplate-development technique, instrumental stability and focus, and sparking conditions, were optimized. Measurements made under these optimum conditions attained precisions of more than 12 per cent

  6. Development of spark cathode E-guns. Draft final reprt, Phase I, July--October 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loda, G.; Lindstrand, R.

    1979-01-01

    A 12 sided spark cathode is designed and constructed to replace the bladed, cold cathode structure in the electron gun of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory Antares prototype power amplifier. Design work includes computer modeling and full scale low voltage modeling. Life testing to 100,000 pulses is documented. The spark cathode offers precise control of emission site location and a high reliability

  7. Automated qualification and analysis of protective spark gaps for DC accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Srutarshi; Rajan, Rehim N.; Dewangan, S.; Sharma, D.K.; Patel, Rupesh; Bakhtsingh, R.I.; Gond, Seema; Waghmare, Abhay; Thakur, Nitin; Mittal, K.C. [Accelerator and Pulse Power Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2014-07-01

    Protective spark gaps are used in the high voltage multiplier column of a 3 MeV DC Accelerator to prevent excessive voltage build-ups. Precise gap of 5 mm is maintained between the electrodes in these spark gaps for obtaining 120 kV± 5 kV in 6 kg/cm{sup 2} SF{sub 6} environment which is the dielectric medium. There are 74 such spark gaps used in the multiplier. Each spark gap has to be qualified for electrical performance before fitting in the accelerator to ensure reliable operation. As the breakdown voltage stabilizes after a large number of sparks between the electrodes, the qualification process becomes time consuming and cumbersome. For qualifying large number of spark gaps an automatic breakdown analysis setup has been developed. This setup operates in air, a dielectric medium. The setup consists of a flyback topology based high voltage power supply with maximum rating of 25 kV. This setup works in conjunction with spark detection and automated shutdown circuit. The breakdown voltage is sensed using a peak detector circuit. The voltage breakdown data is recorded and statistical distribution of the breakdown voltage has been analyzed. This paper describes details of the diagnostics and the spark gap qualification process based on the experimental data. (author)

  8. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Sei; Ando, Ryohei; Mitsutake, Toru.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention concerns a fuel assembly suitable to a BWR-type reactor and improved especially with the nuclear characteristic, heat performance, hydraulic performance, dismantling or assembling performance and economical property. A part of poison rods are formed as a large-diameter/multi-region poison rods having a larger diameter than a fuel rod. A large number of fuel rods are disposed surrounding a large diameter water rod and a group of the large-diameter/multi-region poison rods in adjacent with the water rod. The large-diameter water rod has a burnable poison at the tube wall portion. At least a portion of the large-diameter poison rods has a coolant circulation portion allowing coolants to circulate therethrough. Since the large-diameter poison rods are disposed at a position of high neutron fluxes, a large neutron multiplication factor suppression effect can be provided, thereby enabling to reduce the number of burnable poison rods relative to fuels. As a result, power peaking in the fuel assembly is moderated and a greater amount of plutonium can be loaded. In addition the flow of cooling water which tends to gather around the large diameter water rod can be controlled to improve cooling performance of fuels. (N.H.)

  9. Ignition of turbulent swirling n-heptane spray flames using single and multiple sparks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchionea, T.; Ahmeda, S.F.; Mastorakos, E. [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2009-01-15

    This paper examines ignition processes of an n-heptane spray in a flow typical of a liquid-fuelled burner. The spray is created by a hollow-cone pressure atomiser placed in the centre of a bluff body, around which swirling air induces a strong recirculation zone. Ignition was achieved by single small sparks of short duration (2 mm; 0.5 ms), located at various places inside the flow so as to identify the most ignitable regions, or larger sparks of longer duration (5 mm; 8 ms) repeated at 100 Hz, located close to the combustion chamber enclosure so as to mimic the placement and characteristics of a gas turbine combustor surface igniter. The air and droplet velocities, the droplet diameter, and the total (i.e. liquid plus vapour) equivalence ratio were measured in inert flow by phase Doppler anemometry and sampling respectively. Fast camera imaging suggested that successful ignition events were associated with flamelets that propagated back towards the spray nozzle. Measurements of ignition probability with the single spark showed that localised ignition inside the spray is more likely to result in successful flame establishment when the spark is located in a region of negative velocity, relatively small droplet Sauter mean diameter, and mean equivalence ratio within the flammability limits. Ignition with the single spark was not possible at the location where the multiple spark experiments were performed. For those, the multiple spark sequence lasted approximately 1 to 5 s. It was found that a long spark sequence increases the ignition efficiency, which reached a maximum of 100% at the axial distance where the recirculation zone had maximum width. Ignition was not feasible with the spark downstream of about two burner diameters. Visualisation showed that small flame kernels emanate very often from the spark, which can be stretched as far as 20 mm from the electrodes by the turbulent velocity fluctuations. These kernels survive very little time. Successful overall

  10. SciSpark: Highly Interactive and Scalable Model Evaluation and Climate Metrics for Scientific Data and Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We will construct SciSpark, a scalable system for interactive model evaluation and for the rapid development of climate metrics and analyses. SciSpark directly...

  11. Methods to improve efficiency of four stroke, spark ignition engines at part load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutlar, Osman Akin; Arslan, Hikmet; Calik, Alper Tolga

    2005-01-01

    The four stroke, spark ignition (SI) engine pressure-volume diagram (p-V) contains two main parts. They are the compression-combustion-expansion (high pressure loop) and the exhaust-intake (low pressure or gas exchange loop) parts. The main reason for efficiency decrease at part load conditions for these types of engines is the flow restriction at the cross sectional area of the intake system by partially closing the throttle valve, which leads to increased pumping losses and to increased low pressure loop area on the p-V diagram. Meanwhile, the poorer combustion quality, i.e. lower combustion speed and cycle to cycle variations, additionally influence these pressure loop areas. In this study, methods for increasing efficiency at part load conditions and their potential for practical use are investigated. The study also includes a review of the vast literature on the solution of this problem. This investigation shows that the potential for increasing the efficiency of SI engines at part load conditions is not yet exhausted. Each method has its own advantages and disadvantages. Among these, the most promising methods to decrease the fuel consumption at part load conditions are stratified charge and variable displacement engines. When used in combination, the other listed methods are more effective than their usage alone

  12. Numerical investigation of natural gas direct injection properties and mixture formation in a spark ignition engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadollahi Bijan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a numerical model has been developed in AVL FIRE software to perform investigation of Direct Natural Gas Injection into the cylinder of Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engines. In this regard two main parts have been taken into consideration, aiming to convert an MPFI gasoline engine to direct injection NG engine. In the first part of study multi-dimensional numerical simulation of transient injection process, mixing and flow field have been performed via three different validation cases in order to assure the numerical model validity of results. Adaption of such a modeling was found to be a challenging task because of required computational effort and numerical instabilities. In all cases present results were found to have excellent agreement with experimental and numerical results from literature. In the second part, using the moving mesh capability the validated model has been applied to methane Injection into the cylinder of a Direct Injection engine. Five different piston head shapes along with two injector types have been taken into consideration in investigations. A centrally mounted injector location has been adapted to all cases. The effects of injection parameters, combustion chamber geometry, injector type and engine RPM have been studied on mixing of air-fuel inside cylinder. Based on the results, suitable geometrical configuration for a NG DI Engine has been discussed.

  13. A new spark detection system for the electrostatic septa of the SPS North (experimental) Area

    CERN Multimedia

    Barlow, R A; Borburgh, J; Carlier, E; Chanavat, C; Pinget, B

    2013-01-01

    Electrostatic septa (ZS) are used in the extraction of the particle beams from the CERN SPS to the North Area experimental zone. These septa employ high electric fields, generated from a 300 kV power supply, and are particularly prone to internal sparking around the cathode structure. This sparking degrades the electric field quality, consequently affecting the extracted beam, vacuum and equipment performance. To mitigate these effects, a Spark Detection System (SDS) has been realised, which is based on an industrial SIEMENS S7-400 programmable logic controller and deported Boolean processors modules interfaced through a PROFINET fieldbus. The SDS interlock logic uses a moving average spark rate count to determine if the ZS performance is acceptable. Below a certain spark rate it is probable that the ZS septa tank vacuum can recover, thus avoiding transition into a\

  14. Oxy-fuel combustion of pulverized fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen; Yan, Jinyue

    2016-01-01

    Oxy-fuel combustion of pulverized fuels (PF), as a promising technology for CO2 capture from power plants, has gained a lot of concerns and also advanced considerable research, development and demonstration in the last past years worldwide. The use of CO2 or the mixture of CO2 and H2O vapor as th...

  15. Dual-fuel engine with cylinder pressure based control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritscher, Bert [Caterpillar Motoren GmbH und Co. KG, Kiel (Germany). Large Power Systems Div.

    2013-10-15

    Cylinder pressure sensors were initially used to detect knocking and misfiring on spark ignited gas engines. On its latest MaK brand dual-fuel engine, Caterpillar Motoren is harnessing the deep insights into combustion and engine condition that can be derived direct from the origin of engine power in sophisticated control, monitoring and diagnostic systems. (orig.)

  16. Modelling and multi-objective optimization of a variable valve-timing spark-ignition engine using polynomial neural networks and evolutionary algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atashkari, K.; Nariman-Zadeh, N.; Goelcue, M.; Khalkhali, A.; Jamali, A.

    2007-01-01

    The main reason for the efficiency decrease at part load conditions for four-stroke spark-ignition (SI) engines is the flow restriction at the cross-sectional area of the intake system. Traditionally, valve-timing has been designed to optimize operation at high engine-speed and wide open throttle conditions. Several investigations have demonstrated that improvements at part load conditions in engine performance can be accomplished if the valve-timing is variable. Controlling valve-timing can be used to improve the torque and power curve as well as to reduce fuel consumption and emissions. In this paper, a group method of data handling (GMDH) type neural network and evolutionary algorithms (EAs) are firstly used for modelling the effects of intake valve-timing (V t ) and engine speed (N) of a spark-ignition engine on both developed engine torque (T) and fuel consumption (Fc) using some experimentally obtained training and test data. Using such obtained polynomial neural network models, a multi-objective EA (non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm, NSGA-II) with a new diversity preserving mechanism are secondly used for Pareto based optimization of the variable valve-timing engine considering two conflicting objectives such as torque (T) and fuel consumption (Fc). The comparison results demonstrate the superiority of the GMDH type models over feedforward neural network models in terms of the statistical measures in the training data, testing data and the number of hidden neurons. Further, it is shown that some interesting and important relationships, as useful optimal design principles, involved in the performance of the variable valve-timing four-stroke spark-ignition engine can be discovered by the Pareto based multi-objective optimization of the polynomial models. Such important optimal principles would not have been obtained without the use of both the GMDH type neural network modelling and the multi-objective Pareto optimization approach

  17. Controlling spark timing for consecutive cycles to reduce the cyclic variations of SI engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaleli, Alirıza; Ceviz, Mehmet Akif; Erenturk, Köksal

    2015-01-01

    Minimization of the cyclic variations is one of the most important design goal for spark-ignited engines. Primary motivation of this study is to reduce the cyclic variations in spark ignition engines by controlling the spark timing for consecutive cycles. A stochastic model was performed between spark timing and in–cylinder maximum pressure by using the system identification techniques. The incylinder maximum pressure of the next cycle was predicted with this model. Minimum variance and generalized minimum variance controllers were designed to regulate the in–cylinder maximum pressure by changing the spark timing for consecutive cycles of the test engine. The produced control algorithms were built in LabView environment and installed to the Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) chassis. According to the test results, the in–cylinder maximum pressure of the next pressure cycle can be predicted fairly well, and the spark timing can be regulated to keep the in–cylinder maximum pressure in a desired band to reduce the cyclic variations. At fixed spark timing experiments, the COV Pmax and COV imep were 3.764 and 0.677%, whereas they decreased to 3.208 and 0.533% when GMV controller was applied, respectively. - Highlights: • Cycle per cycle spark timing control was carried out. • A stochastic process model was described between P max and the spark timing. • The cyclic variations in P max was decreased by keeping it in a desired band. • Different controllers were used to adjust spark timing signal of the next cycle. • COV Pmax was decreased by about 15% by using GMV controller

  18. INVESTIGATION OF COMBUSTION, PERFORMANCE AND EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS OF SPARK IGNITION ENGINE FUELLED WITH BUTHANOL – GASOLINE MIXTURE AND A HYDROGEN ENRICHED AIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredas Rimkus

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, spark ignition engine fuelled with buthanol-gasoline mixture and a hydrogen-enriched air was investigated. Engine performance, emissions and combustion characteristics were investigated with different buthanol (10% and 20% by volume gasoline mixtures and additionally supplied oxygen and hydrogen (HHO gas mixture (3.6 l/min in the sucked air. Hydrogen, which is in the HHO gas, improves gasoline and gasoline-buthanol mixture combustion, increases indicated pressure during combustion phase and decreases effective specific fuel consumption. Buthanol addition decreases the rate of heat release, the combustion temperature and pressure are lower which have an influence on lower nitrous oxide (NOx emission in exhaust gases. Buthanol lowers hydrocarbon (HC formation, but it increases carbon monoxide (CO concentration and fuel consumption. Combustion process analysis was carried out using AVL BOOST software. Experimental research and combustion process numerical simulation showed that using balanced buthanol and hydrogen addition, optimal efficient and ecological parameters could be achieved when engine is working with optimal spark timing, as it would work on gasoline fuel.

  19. Mixture distribution in a multi-valve twin-spark ignition engine equipped with high-pressure multi-hole injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitroglou, N; Arcoumanis, C; Mori, K; Motoyama, Y

    2006-01-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence has been mainly used to characterise the two-dimensional fuel vapour concentration inside the cylinder of a multi-valve twin-spark ignition engine equipped with high-pressure multi-hole injectors. The effects of injection timing, in-cylinder charge motion and injector tip layout have been quantified. The flexibility in nozzle design of the multi-hole injectors has proven to be a powerful tool in terms of matching overall spray cone angle and number of holes to specific engine configurations. Injection timing was found to control spray impingement on the piston and cylinder wall, thus contributing to quick and efficient fuel evaporation. It was confirmed that in-cylinder charge motion plays a major role in engine's stable operation by assisting in the transportation of the air-fuel mixture towards the ignition locations (i.e. spark-plugs) in the way of a uniformly distributed charge or by preserving stratification of the charge depending on operating mode of the engine

  20. Reconstruction of data for an experiment using multi-gap spark chambers with six-camera optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maybury, R.; Daley, H.M.

    1983-06-01

    A program has been developed to reconstruct spark positions in a pair of multi-gap optical spark chambers viewed by six cameras, which were used by a Rutherford Laboratory experiment. The procedure for correlating camera views to calculate spark positions is described. Calibration of the apparatus, and the application of time- and intensity-dependent corrections are discussed. (author)

  1. Spark ignition engine performance and emissions in a high compression engine using biogas and methane mixtures without knock occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Montoya Juan Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose to use biogas in an internal combustion engine with high compression ratio and in order to get a high output thermal efficiency, this investigation used a diesel engine with a maximum output power 8.5 kW, which was converted to spark ignition mode to use it with gaseous fuels. Three fuels were used: Simulated biogas, biogas enriched with 25% and 50% methane by volume. After conversion, the output power of the engine decreased by 17.64% when using only biogas, where 7 kW was the new maximum output power of the engine. The compression ratio was kept at 15.5:1, and knocking did not occur during engine operation. Output thermal efficiency operating the engine in SI mode with biogas enriched with 50% methane was almost the same compared with the engine running in diesel-biogas dual mode at full load and was greater at part loads. The dependence of the diesel pilot was eliminated when biogas was used in the engine converted in SI mode. The optimum condition of experiment for the engine without knocking was using biogas enriched with 50% methane, with 12 degrees of spark timing advance and equivalence ratio of 0.95, larger output powers and higher values of methane concentration lead the engine to knock operation. The presence of CO2 allows operating engines at high compression ratios with normal combustion conditions. Emissions of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and unburnt methane all in g/kWh decreased when the biogas was enriched with 50% methane.

  2. Investigations on the effects of ethanol–methanol–gasoline blends in a spark-ignition engine: Performance and emissions analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Elfasakhany

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses performance and exhaust emissions from spark-ignition engine fueled with ethanol–methanol–gasoline blends. The test results obtained with the use of low content rates of ethanol–methanol blends (3–10 vol.% in gasoline were compared to ethanol–gasoline blends, methanol–gasoline blends and pure gasoline test results. Combustion and emission characteristics of ethanol, methanol and gasoline and their blends were evaluated. Results showed that when the vehicle was fueled with ethanol–methanol–gasoline blends, the concentrations of CO and UHC (unburnt hydrocarbons emissions were significantly decreased, compared to the neat gasoline. Methanol–gasoline blends presented the lowest emissions of CO and UHC among all test fuels. Ethanol–gasoline blends showed a moderate emission level between the neat gasoline and ethanol–methanol–gasoline blends, e.g., ethanol–gasoline blends presented lower CO and UHC emissions than those of the neat gasoline but higher emissions than those of the ethanol–methanol–gasoline blends. In addition, the CO and UHC decreased and CO2 increased when ethanol and/or methanol contents increased in the fuel blends. Furthermore, the effects of blended fuels on engine performance were investigated and results showed that methanol–gasoline blends presents the highest volumetric efficiency and torque; ethanol–gasoline blends provides the highest brake power, while ethanol–methanol–gasoline blends showed a moderate level of volumetric efficiency, torque and brake power between both methanol–gasoline and ethanol–gasoline blends; gasoline, on the other hand, showed the lowest volumetric efficiency, torque and brake power among all test fuels.

  3. Development of microwave-enhanced spark-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Yuji; Moon, Ahsa; Kaneko, Masashi

    2010-01-01

    We propose microwave-enhanced spark-induced breakdown spectroscopy with the same measurement and analysis processes as in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, but with a different plasma generation mechanism. The size and lifetime of the plasma generated can contribute to increased measurement accuracy and expand its applicability to industrial measurement, such as an exhaust gas analyzer for automobile engine development and its regulation, which has been hard to operate by laser at an engineering evaluation site. The use of microwaves in this application helps lower the cost, reduce the system size, and increase the ease of operation to make it commercially viable. A microwave frequency of 2.45 GHz was used to enhance the volume and lifetime of the plasma at atmospheric condition even at elevated pressure.

  4. Overvoltage protection by point-plane spark gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarlett, W.R.; Riepe, K.B.

    1979-01-01

    In electron-beam-controlled discharge CO 2 lasers, such as those used in the Antares and Helios laser-fusion drivers at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL), protection needs to be provided against possible damage due to overvoltage. A passive (self-breakdown) point-plane spark gap has been developed and successfully used in the Helios power amplifiers which operate at voltages up to 300 kV. A gap of similar design is planned for use in the Antares power amplifiers which operate at 550 kV. These gaps must reliably hold off the normal discharge voltage, but break down with short delay if overvoltaged, diverting the discharge energy to a resistor. A prototype of the Antares gap has been built and is undergoing tests. Parameters being investigated include voltage polarity, gap spacing, gas composition, and gas pressure. Results of these measurements and the operational experience of the Helios gaps will be presented

  5. The Spark of Life: Darwin and the Primeval Soup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Carl

    It's possible that within a decade, a space probe may swing into orbit around Europa and hurl a drill-tipped robot into its icy crust. If that turns out to be the case, no one will watch its performance more anxiously than Christopher Wills and Jeffrey Bada, the coauthors of The Spark of Life. As Europa orbits around Jupiter, the giant planet's gravity exerts enormous tidal forces on the moon with clock-like regularity-forces that Wills and Bada predict should create an environment favorable to the origin of life. If the probe does uncover some kind of indigenous life on Europa, it may bolster the central claim of this intriguing book: that similar processes made life possible on our own planet.

  6. Quasi-spherical compression of a spark-channel plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panarella, E.

    1980-01-01

    An axial spark channel in deuterium has been used as a target for implosive shock waves created with a conventional cylindrical theta-pinch device. The compression of the channel by the implosive waves raised the plasma electron temperature to approximately 120 eV for approximately 6 kJ of condenser bank energy and 1 Torr initial gas pressure. In order to improve the efficiency of compression of the channel plasma and to reduce the end losses inherent in the cylindrical configuration, the theta-pinch geometry was then converted from cylindrical into spherical. Under identical conditions of gas pressure and condenser bank energy, the electron temperature now peaked at approximately 400 eV. When the bank energy was increased to approximately 10 kJ, neutron production was observed. The total neutron output per shot ranged from 10 5 to 10 6 and increased inversely with the pinch discharge volume

  7. Parallel combinations of pre-ionized low jitter spark gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzsimmons, W.A.; Rosocha, L.A.

    1979-01-01

    The properties of 10 to 30 kV four electrode field emission pre-ionized triggered spark gaps have been studied. A mid-plane off-axis trigger electrode is biased at +V 0 /2, and a field emission point is located adjacent to and biased at the grounded cathode potential. Simultaneous application of a -V 0 trigger rapid pulse to both the electrodes results in the rapid sequential closing of the anode-trigger and trigger-cathode gaps. The observed jitter is about 1.5 ns. Parallel operation of these gaps (up to 10 so far) connected to a common capacitive load has been studied. A simple theory that predicts the number of gaps that may be expected to operate in parallel is discussed

  8. Research on personalized recommendation algorithm based on spark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zeng; Liu, Yu

    2018-04-01

    With the increasing amount of data in the past years, the traditional recommendation algorithm has been unable to meet people's needs. Therefore, how to better recommend their products to users of interest, become the opportunities and challenges of the era of big data development. At present, each platform enterprise has its own recommendation algorithm, but how to make efficient and accurate push information is still an urgent problem for personalized recommendation system. In this paper, a hybrid algorithm based on user collaborative filtering and content-based recommendation algorithm is proposed on Spark to improve the efficiency and accuracy of recommendation by weighted processing. The experiment shows that the recommendation under this scheme is more efficient and accurate.

  9. Distributed Parallel Endmember Extraction of Hyperspectral Data Based on Spark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zebin Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing dimensionality and volume of remotely sensed hyperspectral data, the development of acceleration techniques for massive hyperspectral image analysis approaches is a very important challenge. Cloud computing offers many possibilities of distributed processing of hyperspectral datasets. This paper proposes a novel distributed parallel endmember extraction method based on iterative error analysis that utilizes cloud computing principles to efficiently process massive hyperspectral data. The proposed method takes advantage of technologies including MapReduce programming model, Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS, and Apache Spark to realize distributed parallel implementation for hyperspectral endmember extraction, which significantly accelerates the computation of hyperspectral processing and provides high throughput access to large hyperspectral data. The experimental results, which are obtained by extracting endmembers of hyperspectral datasets on a cloud computing platform built on a cluster, demonstrate the effectiveness and computational efficiency of the proposed method.

  10. COMPACTION OF LITHIUM-SILICATE CERAMICS USING SPARK PLASMA SINTERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Frantisek Kubatik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the compaction of ceramics based on lithium-silicate by spark plasma sintering (SPS. The initial powder was prepared by calcination in a resistance furnace at a temperature of 1300 °C with the ratio of Li/Si = 1. Compacting by SPS was carried out at temperatures of 800 - 1000 °C with a maximum pressure of 80 MPa. Samples with open porosity of less than 1 % were prepared at the temperature of 1000 °C. According to the quantitative Rietveld refinement of x-ray diffraction data, the dominant phases in all samples were Li₂Si₂O₅ and Li₂SiO₃, together representing over 80 wt. % of the sintered material.

  11. ZrB₂-CNTs Nanocomposites Fabricated by Spark Plasma Sintering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hua; Meng, Songhe; Xie, Weihua; Xu, Chenghai; Niu, Jiahong

    2016-11-29

    ZrB₂-based nanocomposites with and without carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as reinforcement were prepared at 1600 °C by spark plasma sintering. The effects of CNTs on the microstructure and mechanical properties of nano-ZrB₂ matrix composites were studied. The results indicated that adding CNTs can inhibit the abnormal grain growth of ZrB₂ grains and improve the fracture toughness of the composites. The toughness mechanisms were crack deflection, crack bridging, debonding, and pull-out of CNTs. The experimental results of the nanograined ZrB₂-CNTs composites were compared with those of the micro-grained ZrB₂-CNTs composites. Due to the small size and surface effects, the nanograined ZrB₂-CNTs composites exhibited stronger mechanical properties: the hardness, flexural strength and fracture toughness were 18.7 ± 0.2 GPa, 1016 ± 75 MPa, and 8.5 ± 0.4 MPa·m 1/2 , respectively.

  12. Quartz crystal reinforced quartz glass by spark plasma sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torikai, D.; Barazani, B.; Ono, E.; Santos, M.F.M.; Suzuki, C.K.

    2011-01-01

    The Spark Plasma Sintering presents fast processing time when compared to conventional sintering techniques. This allows to control the grain growth during sintering as well as the diffusion rate of a multi-material compounds, and make possible obtainment of functionally graded materials and nanostructured compounds. Powders of high purity silica glass and crystalline silica were sintered in a SPS equipment at temperatures around 1350° C, i.e., above the softening temperature of silica glass and below the melting temperature of quartz crystal. As a result, glass ceramics with pure silica glass matrix reinforced with crystalline alpha-quartz grains were fabricated at almost any desired range of composition, as well as controlled size of the crystalline reinforcement. X-ray diffraction and density measurements showed the possibility to manufacture a well controlled density and crystallinity glass-ceramic materials. (author)

  13. Human resource recommendation algorithm based on ensemble learning and Spark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Zihan; Zhang, Xingming; Wang, Haoxiang; Xu, Hongjie

    2017-08-01

    Aiming at the problem of “information overload” in the human resources industry, this paper proposes a human resource recommendation algorithm based on Ensemble Learning. The algorithm considers the characteristics and behaviours of both job seeker and job features in the real business circumstance. Firstly, the algorithm uses two ensemble learning methods-Bagging and Boosting. The outputs from both learning methods are then merged to form user interest model. Based on user interest model, job recommendation can be extracted for users. The algorithm is implemented as a parallelized recommendation system on Spark. A set of experiments have been done and analysed. The proposed algorithm achieves significant improvement in accuracy, recall rate and coverage, compared with recommendation algorithms such as UserCF and ItemCF.

  14. What sparks interest in science? A naturalistic inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Julie Kay Cropper

    This study examined how career scientists became interested in science. Eight practicing scientists were asked a focus question, "What sparked your interest in science?" Their responses recorded during personal interviews and reported in correspondence frame this qualitative study. Analysis of the data revealed a variety of influences. The influences were coded, arranged into lists, and grouped by theme. A total of 18 themes emerged from the data. Five of the emerging themes were common across all of the participants. They were the influence of a family member, the influence of a teacher, being naturally curious, being interested in science, and reading books, magazines, and/or encyclopedias. Five themes were common among 5 to 7 participants. These themes included visiting museums, having broad exposure, enjoyment of mathematics, enjoying being outside, and freedom to play and explore. Eight themes were common among 2 to 4 of the participants. They were financial incentive, influence of religion, participation in science fairs, influence of the manned space program, having a scientist in the family, having the opportunity to teach others, not seeing self as a scientist, and first generation college graduate. The emerging themes were compared and contrasted with historical and contemporary literature. Vocational psychology's leading career choice and development literature was also aligned with the emerging themes. Data from this study supports tenets of Trait and Factor Theory, Developmental Theory, and Social Learning Theory. Reported data also supports the proposed movement toward a unified theory of career choice and development. A combination of personality traits, developmental stages, self-efficacy, and learning experiences influenced the vocational decisions of the scientists who participated in this study. The study concludes with suggestions for sparking and sustaining interest in science that people responsible for preparing future scientists may find

  15. Mechanochemical synthesis and spark plasma sintering of the cerium silicides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alanko, Gordon A.; Jaques, Brian; Bateman, Allyssa [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, Boise State University, 1910 University Drive, Boise, ID 83725 (United States); Butt, Darryl P., E-mail: darrylbutt@boisestate.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, Boise State University, 1910 University Drive, Boise, ID 83725 (United States); Center for Advanced Energy Studies, 995 University Boulevard, Idaho Falls, ID 83401 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Ce{sub 5}Si{sub 3}, Ce{sub 3}Si{sub 2}, CeSi, CeSi{sub 2−x} and CeSi{sub 2} were mechanochemically synthesized. • Temperature and pressure were monitored to investigate reaction progress. • All syntheses proceeded through a MSR event followed by rapid solid-state diffusion. • Milling time before MSR correlates well with effective heat of formation. • Some synthesized material was densified by spark plasma sintering. - Abstract: The cerium silicides, Ce{sub 5}Si{sub 3}, Ce{sub 3}Si{sub 2}, CeSi, CeSi{sub 2−y}, and CeSi{sub 2−x}, have been prepared from the elements by mechanochemical processing in a planetary ball mill. Preparation of the cerium silicide Ce{sub 5}Si{sub 4} was unsuccessfully attempted and potential reasons for this are discussed. Temperature and pressure of the milling vial were monitored in situ to gain insight into the mechanochemical reaction kinetics, which include a mechanically-induced self-propagating reaction (MSR). Some prepared powders were consolidated by spark plasma sintering to high density. Starting materials, as-milled powders, and consolidated samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The results obtained help elucidate key questions in mechanochemical processing of intermetallics, showing first phase formation similar to thin films, MSR ignition times that are composition- and milling speed-dependent, and sensitivity of stable compound formation on the impact pressure. The results demonstrate mechanochemical synthesis as a viable technique for rare earth silicides.

  16. Nuclear fuel elements design, fabrication and performance

    CERN Document Server

    Frost, Brian R T

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear Fuel Elements: Design, Fabrication and Performance is concerned with the design, fabrication, and performance of nuclear fuel elements, with emphasis on fast reactor fuel elements. Topics range from fuel types and the irradiation behavior of fuels to cladding and duct materials, fuel element design and modeling, fuel element performance testing and qualification, and the performance of water reactor fuels. Fast reactor fuel elements, research and test reactor fuel elements, and unconventional fuel elements are also covered. This volume consists of 12 chapters and begins with an overvie

  17. Renewable liquid transport fuels from microbes and waste resources

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, Rhodri

    2014-01-01

    In order to satisfy the global requirement for transport fuel sustainably, renewable liquid biofuels must be developed. Currently, two biofuels dominate the market; bioethanol for spark ignition and biodiesel for compression ignition engines. However, both fuels exhibit technical issues such as low energy density, poor low temperature performance and poor stability. In addition, bioethanol and biodiesel sourced from first generation feedstocks use arable land in competition with food producti...

  18. Global proliferation concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpkins, R.

    1978-01-01

    The Non-Proliferation Treaty and the IAGA Safeguards System are discussed. President Carter's program to defer commercial reprocessing and recycle, to restructure the breeder program, to develop alternative fuel cycles, to increase US uranium enrichment capability, to provide fuel assurance for consumer nations, to continue the embargo of sensitive technology and equipment and to develop the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation Program is outlined

  19. Safety studies concerning nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailly, Jean; Pelce, Jacques

    1980-01-01

    The safety of nuclear installations poses different technical problems, whether concerning pressurized water reactors or fast reactors. But investigating methods are closely related and concern, on the one hand, the behavior of shields placed between fuel and outside and, on the other, analysis of accidents. The article is therefore in two parts based on the same plan. Concerning light water reactors, the programme of studies undertaken in France accounts for the research carried out in countries where collaboration agreements exist. Concerning fast reactors, France has the initiative of their studies owing to her technical advance, which explains the great importance of the programmes under way [fr

  20. Hydrogen-enriched fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roser, R. [NRG Technologies, Inc., Reno, NV (United States)

    1998-08-01

    NRG Technologies, Inc. is attempting to develop hardware and infrastructure that will allow mixtures of hydrogen and conventional fuels to become viable alternatives to conventional fuels alone. This commercialization can be successful if the authors are able to achieve exhaust emission levels of less than 0.03 g/kw-hr NOx and CO; and 0.15 g/kw-hr NMHC at full engine power without the use of exhaust catalysts. The major barriers to achieving these goals are that the lean burn regimes required to meet exhaust emissions goals reduce engine output substantially and tend to exhibit higher-than-normal total hydrocarbon emissions. Also, hydrogen addition to conventional fuels increases fuel cost, and reduces both vehicle range and engine output power. Maintaining low emissions during transient driving cycles has not been demonstrated. A three year test plan has been developed to perform the investigations into the issues described above. During this initial year of funding research has progressed in the following areas: (a) a cost effective single-cylinder research platform was constructed; (b) exhaust gas speciation was performed to characterize the nature of hydrocarbon emissions from hydrogen-enriched natural gas fuels; (c) three H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} fuel compositions were analyzed using spark timing and equivalence ratio sweeping procedures and finally; (d) a full size pick-up truck platform was converted to run on HCNG fuels. The testing performed in year one of the three year plan represents a baseline from which to assess options for overcoming the stated barriers to success.

  1. Fuel cell opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, K. [Hydrogenics Corporation, Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    The opportunities for fuel cell development are discussed. Fuel cells are highly efficient, reliable and require little maintenance. They also produce virtually zero emissions. The author stated that there are some complicated issues to resolve before fuel cells can be widely used. These include hydrogen availability and infrastructure. While the cost of fuel cells is currently very high, these costs are constantly coming down. The industry is still in the early stages of development. The driving forces for the development of fuel cells are: deregulation of energy markets, growing expectations for distributed power generation, discontinuity between energy supply and demand, and environmental concerns. 12 figs.

  2. Draft environmental impact statement on a proposed nuclear weapons nonproliferation policy concerning foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel: Volume 2, Appendix E, Evaluation of human health effects of overland transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This Appendix provides an overview of the approach used to assess the human health risks that may result from the overland transportation of foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel. The Appendix includes discussion of the scope of the assessment, analytical methods used for the risk assessment (i.e., computer models), important assessment assumptions, determination of potential transportation routes, and presents the results of the assessment. In addition, to aid in the understanding and interpretation of the results, specific arm of uncertainty are described, with an emphasis an how the uncertainties may affect comparisons of the alternatives. he approach used in this Appendix is modeled after that used in the Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Draft Environmental Impact Statement (SNF ampersand INEL Draft EIS) (DOE, 1994b). The SNF ampersand INEL Draft EIS did not perform as detailed an analysis on the specific actions taken for foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel because of the breadth necessary to analyze the entire spent fuel management program. However, the fundamental assumptions used in this analysis are consistent with those used in the SNF ampersand INEL Draft EIS (DOE, 1994b), and the same computer codes and generic release and accident data are used. The risk assessment results are presented in this Appendix in terms of ''Per-shipment'' risk factors, as well as for the total risks associated with each alternative. Per-shipment risk factors provide an estimate of the risk from a single spent nuclear fuel shipment between a specific origin and destination. They are calculated for all possible origin and destination pairs for each spent nuclear fuel type. The total risks for a given alternative are found by multiplying the expected number of shipments by the appropriate per-shipment risk factors. This approach provides maximum flexibility for determining the risks for a large number of potential

  3. Characterization and in situ fluorescence diagnostic of the deposition of YBa2Cu3O7-x thin films by pseudo-spark electron beam ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Q.D.; Matacotta, F.C.; Masciarelli, G.; Fuso, F.; Arimondo, E.; Sandrin, G.

    1992-12-01

    The pseudo-spark electron beam ablation (PSA) technique is a comparatively simple and inexpensive method to deposit thin films of oxide materials. The effect of the electron beam power density on the efficiency of the PSA is studied. Results concerning the optimization of the deposition process of high quality superconducting YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x thin films on single crystal SrTiO 3 substrates are reported. Correlation between processing parameters and superconducting properties of the thin films are presented: in particular, the effects of the break-down voltage of the pseudo-spark and geometrical arrangement of the target-substrate-beam system on the T c of the resulting films. In situ spectral analysis of the radiative emission from the plasma plume has been performed at different distances from the surface of the target and at different break-down voltages of the pseudo-spark. The role of the oxygen pressure in the PSA process, which could be one order of magnitude less than that for a typical laser ablation system, is discussed. (author). 17 refs, 7 figs, 1 tab

  4. [Significance of various implantate localizations of Sparks prostheses, experimental studies in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brieler, H S; Parwaresch, R; Thiede, A

    1976-01-01

    Our investigations show that Sparks prostheses after subcutaneous implantation are suitable for vascular grafting. At the end of the organization period the connective tissue becomes strong, and after the third and fourth weeks collagenous and elastic fibers can be seen. Ten weeks after s.c. implantation, collagenous fibers predominate. After this the Sparks prostheses can be used as a vascular graft. Intraperitoneal implantation, however, shows a histologically different picture with characteristic findings: only fat cells can be observed, a strong granulation tissue with elastic and collagenous fibers is not present. After intraperitoneal implantation Sparks prostheses are therefore unsuitable for vascular grafts.

  5. The secular and the supernatural: madness and psychiatry in the short stories of Muriel Spark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beveridge, A W

    2015-01-01

    Edinburgh-born Muriel Spark is one of modern Scotland's greatest writers. Examination of her work reveals that the subjects of madness and psychiatry are recurrent themes in her writing. She herself had a mental breakdown when she was a young woman and she took an interest in the world of psychiatry and psychoanalysis. In her short stories, Spark approaches the subject of madness in a variety of ways: she relates it to the supernatural; to writing fiction; and to religion. She frequently juxtaposes secular and supernatural explanations of mental disturbance. Spark adopts a sceptical and, at times, mocking view of psychiatrists and psychiatric treatment. Both psychoanalysis and pills are seen as problematic.

  6. Improving the Tribological Properties of Spark-Anodized Titanium by Magnetron Sputtered Diamond-Like Carbon

    OpenAIRE

    Zhaoxiang Chen; Xipeng Ren; Limei Ren; Tengchao Wang; Xiaowen Qi; Yulin Yang

    2018-01-01

    Spark-anodization of titanium can produce adherent and wear-resistant TiO2 film on the surface, but the spark-anodized titanium has lots of surface micro-pores, resulting in an unstable and high friction coefficient against many counterparts. In this study, the diamond-like carbon (DLC) was introduced into the micro-pores of spark-anodized titanium by the magnetron sputtering technique and a TiO2/DLC composite coating was fabricated. The microstructure and tribological properties of TiO2/DLC ...

  7. Damping Resonant Current in a Spark-Gap Trigger Circuit to Reduce Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    DAMPING RESONANT CURRENT IN A SPARK- GAP TRIGGER CIRCUIT TO REDUCE NOISE E. L. Ruden Air Force Research Laboratory, Directed Energy Directorate, AFRL...REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Damping Resonant Current In A Spark- Gap Trigger Circuit To Reduce Noise 5a...thereby triggering 2 after delay 0, is 1. Each of the two rail- gaps (represented by 2) is trig- gered to close after the spark- gap (1) in the

  8. Measure of the volumetric efficiency and evaporator device performance for a liquefied petroleum gas spark ignition engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masi, Massimo; Gobbato, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Measure of the effect of LPG fuel on volumetric efficiency of a SI petrol ICE. ► Steady-state and transient performance of a LPG evaporator device on a SI ICE. ► Volume displaced by LPG causes slight performance loss in SI petrol engines. ► LPG reveals peak efficiency and high-efficiency range wider than petrol in SI ICE’s. ► One-stage pressure reducer for LPG performs satisfactorily during SI ICE transients. - Abstract: The use of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) as fuel for spark ignition engines originally designed to be gasoline fuelled is common practice in many countries. Despite this, some questions remain still open. The present paper deals with the two main problems related to LPG port-fuel SI engines: the volumetric efficiency drop and the LPG evaporator device performance. A passengers car SI engine equipped with a “third generation” kit for the dual-fuel operation was tested using a dynamometer test rig. A single-stage pressure reducer was selected as LPG evaporator, to take advantage of an additional pre-heating of the liquid LPG that allows higher power output than a two-stage device of the same size. Engine performance, volumetric efficiency and change of LPG thermodynamic states in the evaporator were measured both in steady-state and transient operation of the engine. Steady-state measurements show the advantage of LPG in terms of engine efficiency, and quantify the drop in steady-state brake torque due to the volume swept by gaseous fuel in the fresh charge admission process. On the other hand, transient measurements show that a single-stage evaporator device is capable to match overall simplicity and satisfactory performance during strong changes in engine load.

  9. Communication of 8 June 2009 received from the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Korea concerning a non-paper 'The Republic of Korea's suggestion on possible criteria for multilateral approaches to the nuclear fuel cycle'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a communication dated 8 June 2009 from the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Korea, transmitting the text of a non-paper entitled 'The Republic of Korea's Suggestion on Possible Criteria for Multilateral Approaches to the Nuclear Fuel Cycle'. As requested in that communication, the abovementioned non-paper is herewith circulated for the information of all Member States

  10. Preliminary statement concerning the expert opinion and other documents relating to the Wackersdorf fuel reprocessing plant, laid open between June 18 and July 15, 1985 by the Bavarian Ministry of State for Regional Development and Environmental Affairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The conclusion drawn in the statement is that the expert opinions and documents available do not justify the granting of a first partial licence for the erection of the fuel reprocessing plant. Such a first partial licence would include the site approval, the outline design approval, and part-construction permits, in this case for instance for the fuel element receiving store. The site approval would be a premature decision according to this statement, as some decisive expert opinions (on meteorological, hydrological, and radioecological site conditions) are not yet completed. The documents available for evaluation of the design concept are said to have been insufficient in many regards, so that all the authors can state at the present time is that 'there may be technically feasible solutions by now'. This is judged to be an insufficient basis for an outline design approval in accordance with the Atomic Energy Act. The reasons brought forward against licensing the fuel element receiving store are similar. For lack of appropriate documents, the authors of the statement found themselves unable to assess the safety of a major component, the fuel element storage tank. (orig./HSCH) [de

  11. Alternate-Fueled Flight: Halophytes, Algae, Bio-, and Synthetic Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, R. C.

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic and biomass fueling are now considered to be near-term aviation alternate fueling. The major impediment is a secure sustainable supply of these fuels at reasonable cost. However, biomass fueling raises major concerns related to uses of common food crops and grasses (some also called "weeds") for processing into aviation fuels. These issues are addressed, and then halophytes and algae are shown to be better suited as sources of aerospace fuels and transportation fueling in general. Some of the history related to alternate fuels use is provided as a guideline for current and planned alternate fuels testing (ground and flight) with emphasis on biofuel blends. It is also noted that lessons learned from terrestrial fueling are applicable to space missions. These materials represent an update (to 2009) and additions to the Workshop on Alternate Fueling Sustainable Supply and Halophyte Summit at Twinsburg, Ohio, October 17 to 18, 2007.

  12. An image scanner for real time analysis of spark chamber images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesaroni, F.; Penso, G.; Locci, A.M.; Spano, M.A.

    1975-01-01

    The notes describes the semiautomatic scanning system at LNF for the analysis of spark chamber images. From the projection of the images on the scanner table, the trajectory in the real space is reconstructed

  13. Spark PRM: Using RRTs within PRMs to efficiently explore narrow passages

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Kensen

    2014-05-01

    © 2014 IEEE. Probabilistic RoadMaps (PRMs) have been successful for many high-dimensional motion planning problems. However, they encounter difficulties when mapping narrow passages. While many PRM sampling methods have been proposed to increase the proportion of samples within narrow passages, such difficult planning areas still pose many challenges. We introduce a novel algorithm, Spark PRM, that sparks the growth of Rapidly-expanding Random Trees (RRTs) from narrow passage samples generated by a PRM. The RRT rapidly generates further narrow passage samples, ideally until the passage is fully mapped. After reaching a terminating condition, the tree stops growing and is added to the roadmap. Spark PRM is a general method that can be applied to all PRM variants. We study the benefits of Spark PRM with a variety of sampling strategies in a wide array of environments. We show significant speedups in computation time over RRT, Sampling-based Roadmap of Trees (SRT), and various PRM variants.

  14. Quantitative determination of minor and trace elements in rocks and soils by spark source mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ure, A.M.; Bacon, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    Experimental details are given of the quantitative determination of minor and trace elements in rocks and soils by spark source mass spectrometry. The effects of interfering species, and corrections that can be applied, are discussed. (U.K.)

  15. Spark PRM: Using RRTs within PRMs to efficiently explore narrow passages

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Kensen; Denny, Jory; Amato, Nancy M.

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 IEEE. Probabilistic RoadMaps (PRMs) have been successful for many high-dimensional motion planning problems. However, they encounter difficulties when mapping narrow passages. While many PRM sampling methods have been proposed to increase the proportion of samples within narrow passages, such difficult planning areas still pose many challenges. We introduce a novel algorithm, Spark PRM, that sparks the growth of Rapidly-expanding Random Trees (RRTs) from narrow passage samples generated by a PRM. The RRT rapidly generates further narrow passage samples, ideally until the passage is fully mapped. After reaching a terminating condition, the tree stops growing and is added to the roadmap. Spark PRM is a general method that can be applied to all PRM variants. We study the benefits of Spark PRM with a variety of sampling strategies in a wide array of environments. We show significant speedups in computation time over RRT, Sampling-based Roadmap of Trees (SRT), and various PRM variants.

  16. Preparation of Ni-Ti shape memory alloy by spark plasma sintering method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Salvetr, P.; Kubatík, Tomáš František; Novák, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 4 (2016), s. 804-808 ISSN 1213-2489 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Ni-Ti alloy * Powder metallurgy * Reactive sintering * Spark plasma sintering Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials

  17. High speed streak techniques for measuring the growth of spark channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suleebka, P.

    1975-01-01

    The manner of expansion of an electric spark channel is of interest in the understanding of such phenomena as lightning. The development of a camera suitable for photography of this expansion is described, with some results for hydrogen. (author)

  18. A 4π scintillation counter-optical spark chamber system for neutral particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demarzo, C.; Distante, A.; Guerriero, L.; Niccolini, C.; Posa, F.; Walder, F.; Chen, G.T.Y.; Fletcher, C.R.; Lanou, R.E. Jr.; Thornton, R.K.; Barton, D.S.; Lyons, T.; Marx, M.; Rosenson, L.; Thern, R.

    1975-01-01

    The authors describe a scintillation counter-optical spark chamber system developed for the detection of high energy gamma rays and neutrons. They describe the system components and their use in two completed experiments. (Auth.)

  19. Apparatus and method for the spectrochemical analysis of liquids using the laser spark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremers, David A.; Radziemski, Leon J.; Loree, Thomas R.

    1990-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the qualitative and quantitative spectroscopic investigation of elements present in a liquid sample using the laser spark. A series of temporally closely spaced spark pairs is induced in the liquid sample utilizing pulsed electromagnetic radiation from a pair of lasers. The light pulses are not significantly absorbed by the sample so that the sparks occur inside of the liquid. The emitted light from the breakdown events is spectrally and temporally resolved, and the time period between the two laser pulses in each spark pair is adjusted to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio of the emitted signals. In comparison with the single pulse technique, a substantial reduction in the limits of detectability for many elements has been demonstrated. Narrowing of spectral features results in improved discrimination against interfering species.

  20. 2009 Fuel Cell Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, Bill [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Gangi, Jennifer [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Curtin, Sandra [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Delmont, Elizabeth [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general.

  1. Risk assessment of parents' concerns at 18 months in preventive child health care predicted child abuse and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staal, Ingrid I E; Hermanns, Jo M A; Schrijvers, Augustinus J P; van Stel, Henk F

    2013-07-01

    As child maltreatment has a major impact, prevention and early detection of parenting problems are of great importance. We have developed a structured interview which uses parents' concerns for a joint needs assessment by parents and a child health care nurse, followed by a professional judgment on the risk level of future parenting and developmental problems: the Structured Problem Analysis of Raising Kids (SPARK). Previous results have shown that the risk assessment of the SPARK is associated with risk factors for child maltreatment. This study reports the predictive value of the SPARK for reports on high impact parenting problems and child abuse and neglect. Cross-sectional study with a 1.5-year follow-up based on 1,850 18-month old children, living in Zeeland, a province of the Netherlands. Data on the SPARK were obtained in the period of June 2007 to March 2008. Outcomes of the SPARK were in October 2009 compared to reports of the Advice and Reporting Centers for Child Abuse and Neglect (ARCAN) and Youth Care Agency (YCA). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was done using the risk assessment, parents' concerns, the perceived need for support and known risk factors as predictors. The overall risk assessment of the SPARK is the strongest predictor for reports to ARCAN and YCA in the 1.5 years after completing the SPARK (odds ratio of high versus low risk: 16.3 [95% confidence interval: 5.2-50.8]. Controlling for the risk assessment, only the sum of known risk factors and an unemployed father remained as significant predictors. The reported groups differ significantly from the children without a report with regard to family characteristics, but not with regard to child characteristics. A structured assessment of the concerns and care needs of toddlers' parents by a child health care nurse is a valuable predictor of reports on child abuse and neglect and serious parenting problems in toddlers. Systematically exploring and evaluating parental

  2. Breakdown characteristics in DC spark experiments of copper focusing on purity and hardness

    CERN Document Server

    Yokoyama, Kazue; Higashi, Yasuo; Higo, Toshi; Matsumoto, Shuji; Santiago-Kern, Ana Rocia; Pasquino, Chiara; Calatroni, Sergio; Wuensch, Walter

    2010-01-01

    The breakdown characteristics related to the differences in purity and hardness were investigated for several types of copper using a DC spark test system. Three types of oxygen-free copper (OFC) materials, usual class 1 OFC 7-nine large-grain copper and 6-nine hot-isotropic-pressed (HIP) copper with/without diamond finish, were tested with the DC spark test system. The measurements of the beta, breakdown fields, and breakdown probability are presented and discussed in this paper.

  3. Meter of dynamics of restoring the electrical strength of spark gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, E.A.; Kravchenko, S.A.; Yagnov, V.A.; Shipuk, I.Ya.

    1997-01-01

    Method for diagnostics of the dynamics spark gap electric strength restoration and an electric device for its realization are described. The electric strength measurement error, conditioned by the breakdown current through electric probes or the contacts of a spark gap under investigation, is reduced to minimum due to fast switching off the probe voltage if the breakdown current exceeds some established value (1 mA). 1 ref

  4. Analyzing large data sets from XGC1 magnetic fusion simulations using apache spark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Churchill, R. Michael [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2016-11-21

    Apache Spark is explored as a tool for analyzing large data sets from the magnetic fusion simulation code XGCI. Implementation details of Apache Spark on the NERSC Edison supercomputer are discussed, including binary file reading, and parameter setup. Here, an unsupervised machine learning algorithm, k-means clustering, is applied to XGCI particle distribution function data, showing that highly turbulent spatial regions do not have common coherent structures, but rather broad, ring-like structures in velocity space.

  5. Modeling and optimization of the multichannel spark discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhi-Bo; Wu Yun; Jia Min; Song Hui-Min; Li Ying-Hong; Sun Zheng-Zhong

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports a novel analytic model of this multichannel spark discharge, considering the delay time in the breakdown process, the electric transforming of the discharge channel from a capacitor to a resistor induced by the air breakdown, and the varying plasma resistance in the discharge process. The good agreement between the experimental and the simulated results validated the accuracy of this model. Based on this model, the influence of the circuit parameters on the maximum discharge channel number (MDCN) is investigated. Both the input voltage amplitude and the breakdown voltage threshold of each discharge channel play a critical role. With the increase of the input voltage and the decrease of the breakdown voltage, the MCDN increases almost linearly. With the increase of the discharge capacitance, the MDCN first rises and then remains almost constant. With the increase of the circuit inductance, the MDCN increases slowly but decreases quickly when the inductance increases over a certain value. There is an optimal value of the capacitor connected to the discharge channel corresponding to the MDCN. Finally, based on these results, to shorten the discharge time, a modified multichannel discharge circuit is developed and validated by the experiment. With only 6-kV input voltage, 31-channels discharge is achieved. The breakdown voltage of each electrode gap is larger than 3 kV. The modified discharge circuit is certain to be widely used in the PSJA flow control field. (paper)

  6. Collision experiment on highly ionized ions using vacuum spark source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, S.; Ohtani, S.; Kadota, K.; Fujita, J.

    1982-03-01

    Cross sections for one-electron capture by Fe 6 + in H 2 are measured below 10 keV by using a vacuum spark ion source. It is found that the cross sections show little dependence on the collision energy and this value is about 6 x 10 - 15 cm 2 . This ion source, which has no electrode for ion extraction, can produce ions from several hundreds eV to several tens of keV and the maximum charge state of 16 in Fe at 125J discharge energy. With ion selection system of 2.7 m time-of-flight and an electrostatic analyzer of 1% resolving power, 10 2 - 10 3 ions/pulse are obtained. Because of poor reproducibility of ion beam, charge-transferred ions and unreacted ions are measured simultaneously with a microchannel plate which has two anodes behind. By utilizing the feature of pulsed ion beam and this ion selection system, it is possible to obtain cross sections for various charge states of ions simultaneously. (author)

  7. Spark plasma sintering of titanium aluminide intermetallics and its composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldoshan, Abdelhakim Ahmed

    Titanium aluminide intermetallics are a distinct class of engineering materials having unique properties over conventional titanium alloys. gamma-TiAl compound possesses competitive physical and mechanical properties at elevated temperature applications compared to Ni-based superalloys. gamma-TiAl composite materials exhibit high melting point, low density, high strength and excellent corrosion resistance. Spark plasma sintering (SPS) is one of the powder metallurgy techniques where powder mixture undergoes simultaneous application of uniaxial pressure and pulsed direct current. Unlike other sintering techniques such as hot iso-static pressing and hot pressing, SPS compacts the materials in shorter time (< 10 min) with a lower temperature and leads to highly dense products. Reactive synthesis of titanium aluminide intermetallics is carried out using SPS. Reactive sintering takes place between liquid aluminum and solid titanium. In this work, reactive sintering through SPS was used to fabricate fully densified gamma-TiAl and titanium aluminide composites starting from elemental powders at different sintering temperatures. It was observed that sintering temperature played significant role in the densification of titanium aluminide composites. gamma-TiAl was the predominate phase at different temperatures. The effect of increasing sintering temperature on microhardness, microstructure, yield strength and wear behavior of titanium aluminide was studied. Addition of graphene nanoplatelets to titanium aluminide matrix resulted in change in microhardness. In Ti-Al-graphene composites, a noticeable decrease in coefficient of friction was observed due to the influence of self-lubrication caused by graphene.

  8. Social Interactions Sparked by Pictorial Warnings on Cigarette Packs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marissa G. Hall

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Message Impact Framework suggests that social interactions may offer smokers the opportunity to process pictorial warnings on cigarette packs more deeply. We aimed to describe adult smokers’ social interactions about pictorial cigarette pack warnings in two longitudinal pilot studies. In Pilot Study 1, 30 smokers used cigarette packs with one of nine pictorial warnings for two weeks. In Pilot Study 2, 46 smokers used cigarette packs with one of five pictorial warnings for four weeks. Nearly all smokers (97%/96% in Pilot Study 1/2 talked about the warnings with other people, with the most common people being friends (67%/87% and spouses/significant others (34%/42%. Pilot Study 2 found that 26% of smokers talked about the warnings with strangers. Discussions about the health effects of smoking and quitting smoking were more frequent during the first week of exposure to pictorial warnings than in the week prior to beginning the study (both p < 0.05. Pictorial warnings sparked social interactions about the warnings, the health effects of smoking, and quitting smoking, indicating that pictorial warnings may act as a social intervention reaching beyond the individual. Future research should examine social interactions as a potential mediator of the impact of pictorial warnings on smoking behavior.

  9. Consolidation of copper and aluminium powders by spark plasma sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiprasad, M.; Atchayakumar, R.; Thiruppathi, K.; Raghuraman, S.

    2016-09-01

    Processing in the powder metallurgy route has emerged as an economical process for the production of near net shaped components with a wide range of desired mechanical properties suitable for various applications of industrial needs. This research work was conducted with an objective of studying the improvisation of density and hardness of Copper-Aluminium alloy prepared by spark plasma sintering. Cu-Al alloy with a composition of 95% copper and 5% aluminium was prepared by SPS process. SPS is a low voltage, DC pulse current activated, pressure-assisted sintering, which enables sintering at lower temperatures and shorter durations. The combination offered by Cu-Al alloy of high strength and high corrosion resistance results their applications under a wide variety of conditions. The density and hardness of the prepared sample were measured by conducting appropriate tests. Apparently, the values of hardness and density of the specimen prepared by SPS seemed to be better than that of conventional sintering. The experimental procedure, testing methodologies and analysis are presented.

  10. Development of a semi-empirical convective heat transfer correlation based on thermodynamic and optical measurements in a spark ignition engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irimescu, Adrian; Merola, Simona Silvia; Tornatore, Cinzia; Valentino, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new convective heat transfer correlation was developed for spark ignition engines. • Measurements in an experimental optical power unit were used for validation. • Fuel effects were correctly modeled and verified with methane and hydrogen. • Results were compared to two other widely used correlations. • Calibration was found to be easier for the proposed model. - Abstract: Internal combustion engines are still the main technology for energy conversion in automotive transport and are set to remain the main choice of propulsion solutions for some time to come. Development and design of these power units in the quest for improved efficiency and reduced environmental impact is increasingly reliant on simulations in order to reduce costs. Therefore, continuous improvement of sub-models used for numerical investigation is required so that correct and pertinent results are obtained. Convective heat transfer is receiving much attention in this respect, especially as direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engines can feature abnormal combustion phenomena such as mega-knock, mainly driven by local hot spots in the combustion chamber, that can be extremely damaging as they cannot be mitigated with existing control procedures. As a result, thermal stratification is more and more investigated through both quasi-dimensional and more complex computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes. Alternative fuels are also extensively studied, especially as their specific properties that are different from those of gasoline can make their application challenging, thus requiring further insight in order to identify suitable injection and ignition control strategies. A new convective heat transfer correlation was developed for application in quasi-dimensional models, with a more fundamental basis combined with the application of a flow field model; results were compared to existing and extensively used empirical equations. Assessments were based on in-cylinder pressure

  11. Fuel Exhaling Fuel Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor Bhat, Zahid; Thimmappa, Ravikumar; Devendrachari, Mruthyunjayachari Chattanahalli; Kottaichamy, Alagar Raja; Shafi, Shahid Pottachola; Varhade, Swapnil; Gautam, Manu; Thotiyl, Musthafa Ottakam

    2018-01-18

    State-of-the-art proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) anodically inhale H 2 fuel and cathodically expel water molecules. We show an unprecedented fuel cell concept exhibiting cathodic fuel exhalation capability of anodically inhaled fuel, driven by the neutralization energy on decoupling the direct acid-base chemistry. The fuel exhaling fuel cell delivered a peak power density of 70 mW/cm 2 at a peak current density of 160 mA/cm 2 with a cathodic H 2 output of ∼80 mL in 1 h. We illustrate that the energy benefits from the same fuel stream can at least be doubled by directing it through proposed neutralization electrochemical cell prior to PEMFC in a tandem configuration.

  12. Communication dated 30 May 2007 from the Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the IAEA concerning enrichment bonds - A voluntary scheme for reliable access to nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a letter dated 30 May 2007 from the Permanent Mission of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the IAEA attaching a UK Non-paper entitled 'Food for Thought: Enrichment Bonds - A Voluntary Scheme for Reliable Access to Nuclear Fuel'. As requested in that letter, the letter and the attachment is now being circulated for the information of all Member States

  13. A new spark detection system for the electrostatic septa of the SPS North (experimental) Area

    CERN Document Server

    Barlow, R A; Borburgh, J; Carlier, E; Chanavat, C; Fowler, T; Pinget, B

    2014-01-01

    Electrostatic septa (ZS) are used in the extraction of the particle beams from the CERN SPS to the North Area experimental zone. These septa employ high electric fields, generated from a 300 kV power supply, and are particularly prone to internal sparking around the cathode structure. This sparking degrades the electric field quality, consequently affecting the extracted beam, vacuum and equipment performance. To mitigate these effects, a Spark Detection System (SDS) has been realised, which is based on an industrial SIEMENS S7-400 programmable logic controller and deported Boolean processor modules interfaced through a PROFINET fieldbus. The SDS interlock logic uses a moving average spark rate count to determine if the ZS performance is acceptable. Below a certain spark rate it is probable that the ZS septa tank vacuum can recover, thus avoiding transition into a state where rapid degradation would occur. Above this level an interlock is raised and the high voltage is switched off. Additionally, all spark si...

  14. Ca2+ sparks act as potent regulators of excitation-contraction coupling in airway smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuge, Ronghua; Bao, Rongfeng; Fogarty, Kevin E; Lifshitz, Lawrence M

    2010-01-15

    Ca2+ sparks are short lived and localized Ca2+ transients resulting from the opening of ryanodine receptors in sarcoplasmic reticulum. These events relax certain types of smooth muscle by activating big conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels to produce spontaneous transient outward currents (STOCs) and the resultant closure of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels. But in many smooth muscles from a variety of organs, Ca2+ sparks can additionally activate Ca2+-activated Cl(-) channels to generate spontaneous transient inward current (STICs). To date, the physiological roles of Ca2+ sparks in this latter group of smooth muscle remain elusive. Here, we show that in airway smooth muscle, Ca2+ sparks under physiological conditions, activating STOCs and STICs, induce biphasic membrane potential transients (BiMPTs), leading to membrane potential oscillations. Paradoxically, BiMPTs stabilize the membrane potential by clamping it within a negative range and prevent the generation of action potentials. Moreover, blocking either Ca2+ sparks or hyperpolarization components of BiMPTs activates voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels, resulting in an increase in global [Ca2+](i) and cell contraction. Therefore, Ca2+ sparks in smooth muscle presenting both STICs and STOCs act as a stabilizer of membrane potential, and altering the balance can profoundly alter the status of excitability and contractility. These results reveal a novel mechanism underlying the control of excitability and contractility in smooth muscle.

  15. Spark chamber used for the visualization of the 125I labeled thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morucci, Jean-Pierre; Seigneur, Alain; Lansiart, Alain

    1971-03-01

    This spark chamber is a stationary detector used for the visualization of the 125 I labeled thyroid; it is sensitive to X and low energy gamma rays. This device is filled mainly with pressurized xenon (1.5 kg/cm 2 ) and behaves as an X-ray image intensifier: the incident radiation is detected and initiates a spark. The energy dissipated by the spark is reduced and controlled by a double coated anode, while an electronic circuit triggered by the initiation of the spark discharges the detector capacitance. The sparks are recorded on a photographic plate during the examination. X ray optics are used for collimation between the thyroid and the detector. A modulation transfer function was measured for 125 I. Communication theory was used to determine the best way of combining the collimator and spark chamber. This device is being used in the Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot at Orsay. Its performance is superior to that of conventional scintigraphs. Further applications are envisaged [fr

  16. Monitoring fuel consumption for reciprocating engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zebelean, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that Northwest Pipeline Corp. has experienced substantial fuel cost savings through a program that provides continuous monitoring of predicted consumption against actual usage for reciprocating engines. With the continuous monitoring program, the company can gauge specific fuel consumption, flag inefficient engines and determine possible problems with computer software or hardware used to measure engine operations. The plan was initiated as part of an overall effort to reduce pipe line operating cost to remain market competitive by reducing cost of services to the customer. One of the factors in determining Northwest Pipeline's cost of service is the cost of fueling engines to transport natural gas. In 1990, Northwest consumed approximately 9,600,000 MMBtu in engine fuel. Fuel gas always has been accounted for and measured. However, the thermal efficiency of the fuel gas consumed was never quantified. Engineering management set a goal in 1989 to audit fuel consumption monthly on the basis of actual fuel consumed compared to the manufacturer's predicted consumption curves. The fuel consumption comparison between actual consumption with manufacturer's predicted consumption decreased 4% in six months after the first report was published. Unbalanced engines, faulty spark plugs, fuel valves, engines requiring overhauls, and even computer software and hardware problems were found, based on this report. Total decrease in the comparison of 4% was not all realized. Approximately 1.5% of the decrease was due to revising the manufacturer's fuel consumption curves to correctly predict Northwest's vintage of engine

  17. Experimental Investigation of Augmented Spark Ignition of a LO2/LCH4 Reaction Control Engine at Altitude Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhenz, Julie; Sarmiento, Charles; Marshall, William

    2012-01-01

    The use of nontoxic propellants in future exploration vehicles would enable safer, more cost-effective mission scenarios. One promising green alternative to existing hypergols is liquid methane (LCH4) with liquid oxygen (LO2). A 100 lbf LO2/LCH4 engine was developed under the NASA Propulsion and Cryogenic Advanced Development project and tested at the NASA Glenn Research Center Altitude Combustion Stand in a low pressure environment. High ignition energy is a perceived drawback of this propellant combination; so this ignition margin test program examined ignition performance versus delivered spark energy. Sensitivity of ignition to spark timing and repetition rate was also explored. Three different exciter units were used with the engine s augmented (torch) igniter. Captured waveforms indicated spark behavior in hot fire conditions was inconsistent compared to the well-behaved dry sparks. This suggests that rising pressure and flow rate increase spark impedance and may at some point compromise an exciter s ability to complete each spark. The reduced spark energies of such quenched deliveries resulted in more erratic ignitions, decreasing ignition probability. The timing of the sparks relative to the pressure/flow conditions also impacted the probability of ignition. Sparks occurring early in the flow could trigger ignition with energies as low as 1 to 6 mJ, though multiple, similarly timed sparks of 55 to 75 mJ were required for reliable ignition. Delayed spark application and reduced spark repetition rate both correlated with late and occasional failed ignitions. An optimum time interval for spark application and ignition therefore coincides with propellant introduction to the igniter.

  18. Fuel trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    A first part of this report proposes an overview of trends and predictions. After a synthesis on the sector changes and trends, it indicates and comments the most recent predictions for the consumption of refined oil products and for the turnover of the fuel wholesale market, reports the main highlights concerning the sector's life, and gives a dashboard of the sector activity. The second part proposes the annual report on trends and competition. It presents the main operator profiles and fuel categories, the main determining factors of the activity, the evolution of the sector context between 2005 and 2015 (consumptions, prices, temperature evolution). It analyses the evolution of the sector activity and indicators (sales, turnovers, prices, imports). Financial performances of enterprises are presented. The economic structure of the sector is described (evolution of the economic fabric, structural characteristics, French foreign trade). Actors are then presented and ranked in terms of turnover, of added value, and of result

  19. The Effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR on the Emission of a Single Cylinder Spark Ignition Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limyaa Mahdi Asaad

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A single cylinder variable compression ratio spark ignition engine type PRODIT was used in this study. The  experiments  were  conducted  with  gasoline  fuel  (80  octane  No.at  equivalence  ratio  (Ø  =1.  This study examined the effects of exhaust gas recirculation on emission. It was conducted at engine speeds (1500, 1900, 2300 and 2700 r.p.m..The  exhaust  gases  were  added  in  volumetric  ratios  of  10%,  20%  and  30%  of  the  entering  air/fuel charge. The results showed that the EGR addition decreases the CO2 concentrations, in the same time CO and HC concentrations increase remarkably.  NOx concentration decreased highly with the increase of EGR percentage at variable engine speeds and constant torque. Also, it decreased when the engine run  at  constant  speed  and  variable  engine  torque.  The  exhaust  gas  temperature  decreased  with increasing EGR ratio.

  20. Fabrication of Tungsten-Rhenium Cladding materials via Spark Plasma Sintering for Ultra High Temperature Reactor Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charit, Indrajit; Butt, Darryl; Frary, Megan; Carroll, Mark

    2012-11-05

    This research will develop an optimized, cost-effective method for producing high-purity tungsten-rhenium alloyed fuel clad forms that are crucial for the development of a very high-temperature nuclear reactor. The study will provide critical insight into the fundamental behavior (processing-microstructure- property correlations) of W-Re alloys made using this new fabrication process comprising high-energy ball milling (HEBM) and spark plasma sintering (SPS). A broader goal is to re-establish the U.S. lead in the research field of refractory alloys, such as W-Re systems, with potential applications in very high-temperature nuclear reactors. An essential long-term goal for nuclear power is to develop the capability of operating nuclear reactors at temperatures in excess of 1,000K. This capability has applications in space exploration and some special terrestrial uses where high temperatures are needed in certain chemical or reforming processes. Refractory alloys have been identified as being capable of withstanding temperatures in excess of 1,000K and are considered critical for the development of ultra hightemperature reactors. Tungsten alloys are known to possess extraordinary properties, such as excellent high-temperature capability, including the ability to resist leakage of fissile materials when used as a fuel clad. However, there are difficulties with the development of refractory alloys: 1) lack of basic experimental data on thermodynamics and mechanical and physical properties, and 2) challenges associated with processing these alloys.