WorldWideScience

Sample records for fuel services supply

  1. 32 CFR 766.13 - Sale of aviation fuel, oil, services and supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sale of aviation fuel, oil, services and... aviation fuel, oil, services and supplies. (a) General policy. In accordance with sections 1107 and 1108 of... Aviation fuel, oil, services, and supplies are not sold to civil aircraft in competition with...

  2. Redundancy of Supply in the International Nuclear Fuel Fabrication Market: Are Fabrication Services Assured?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seward, Amy M.; Toomey, Christopher; Ford, Benjamin E.; Wood, Thomas W.; Perkins, Casey J.

    2011-11-14

    For several years, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been assessing the reliability of nuclear fuel supply in support of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration. Three international low enriched uranium reserves, which are intended back up the existing and well-functioning nuclear fuel market, are currently moving toward implementation. These backup reserves are intended to provide countries credible assurance that of the uninterrupted supply of nuclear fuel to operate their nuclear power reactors in the event that their primary fuel supply is disrupted, whether for political or other reasons. The efficacy of these backup reserves, however, may be constrained without redundant fabrication services. This report presents the findings of a recent PNNL study that simulated outages of varying durations at specific nuclear fuel fabrication plants. The modeling specifically enabled prediction and visualization of the reactors affected and the degree of fuel delivery delay. The results thus provide insight on the extent of vulnerability to nuclear fuel supply disruption at the level of individual fabrication plants, reactors, and countries. The simulation studies demonstrate that, when a reasonable set of qualification criteria are applied, existing fabrication plants are technically qualified to provide backup fabrication services to the majority of the world's power reactors. The report concludes with an assessment of the redundancy of fuel supply in the nuclear fuel market, and a description of potential extra-market mechanisms to enhance the security of fuel supply in cases where it may be warranted. This report is an assessment of the ability of the existing market to respond to supply disruptions that occur for technical reasons. A forthcoming report will address political disruption scenarios.

  3. Nuclear fuel supply: challenges and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowen, S. [Cameco Corp., Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Prices of uranium, conversion services and enrichment services have all significantly increased in the last few years. These price increases have generally been driven by a tightening in the supply of these products and services, mostly due to long lead times required to bring these products and services to the market. This paper will describe the various steps in the nuclear fuel cycle for natural and enriched uranium fuel, will discuss the development of the front-end fuel cycle for low void reactivity fuel, and will address the challenges faced in the long-term supply of each component, particularly in the light of potential demand increases as a result of a nuclear renaissance. The opportunities for new capacity and uranium production will be outlined and the process required to achieve sufficient new supply will be discussed. (author)

  4. Coal slurry fuel supply and purge system

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Robert E.; Basic, Steven L.; Smith, Russel M.

    1994-01-01

    A coal slurry fuel supply and purge system for a locomotive engines is disclosed which includes a slurry recirculation path, a stand-by path for circulating slurry during idle or states of the engine when slurry fuel in not required by the engine, and an engine header fluid path connected to the stand-by path, for supplying and purging slurry fuel to and from fuel injectors. A controller controls the actuation of valves to facilitate supply and purge of slurry to and from the fuel injectors. A method for supplying and purging coal slurry in a compression ignition engine is disclosed which includes controlling fluid flow devices and valves in a plurality of fluid paths to facilitate continuous slurry recirculation and supply and purge of or slurry based on the operating state of the engine.

  5. Supply Security in Future Nuclear Fuel Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seward, Amy M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wood, Thomas W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gitau, Ernest T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ford, Benjamin E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-11-18

    Previous PNNL work has shown the existing nuclear fuel markets to provide a high degree of supply security, including the ability to respond to supply disruptions that occur for technical and non-technical reasons. It is in the context of new reactor designs – that is, reactors likely to be licensed and market ready over the next several decades – that fuel supply security is most relevant. Whereas the fuel design and fabrication technology for existing reactors are well known, the construction of a new set of reactors could stress the ability of the existing market to provide adequate supply redundancy. This study shows this is unlikely to occur for at least thirty years, as most reactors likely to be built in the next three decades will be evolutions of current designs, with similar fuel designs to existing reactors.

  6. Nuclear fuel supply view in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirimello, R.O. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Conuar SA (Argentina)

    1997-07-01

    The Argentine Atomic Energy Commission promoted and participated in a unique achievement in the R and D system in Argentina: the integration of science technology and production based on a central core of knowledge for the control and management of the nuclear fuel cycle technology. CONUAR SA, as a fuel manufacturer, FAE SA, the manufacturer of Zircaloy tubes, CNEA and now DIOXITEC SA producer of Uranium Dioxide, have been supply, in the last ten years, the amount of products required for about 1300 Tn of equivalent U content in fuels. The most promising changes for the fuel cycle economy is the Slight Enriched Uranium project which begun in Atucha I reactor. In 1997 seventy five fuel assemblies, equivalent to 900 Candu fuel bundles, will complete its irradiation. (author)

  7. 14 CFR 27.959 - Unusable fuel supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unusable fuel supply. 27.959 Section 27.959... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 27.959 Unusable fuel supply. The unusable fuel supply for each tank must be established as not less than the quantity at which the first...

  8. 14 CFR 29.959 - Unusable fuel supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unusable fuel supply. 29.959 Section 29.959... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.959 Unusable fuel supply. The unusable fuel supply for each tank must be established as not less than the quantity at which the first...

  9. Fossil fuels supplies modeling and research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiby, P.N.

    1996-06-01

    The fossil fuel supplies modeling and research effort focuses on models for US Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) planning and management. Topics covered included new SPR oil valuation models, updating models for SPR risk analysis, and fill-draw planning. Another task in this program area is the development of advanced computational tools for three-dimensional seismic analysis.

  10. ARBRE monitoring - the fuel supply chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilton, B.; Garstang, J.; Groves, S.; King, J.; Metcalfe, P.; Pepper, T.; McCrae, I.

    2005-07-01

    In this report the results of a study monitoring the fuel supply chain for the Arbre power plant from the growth of the crops is discussed as well as the handling, transport, and storage of the fuel, and monitoring the exhaust emissions and energy consumption of all the different stages of the process. The background to the study is traced and the objective of establishing confidence in the fuel supply is discussed. Details are given of the emissions to atmosphere from vehicles and machinery and of spores and dust. Energy and carbon requirements are examined along with the modelled water use of short rotation cultivation (SRC), water quality monitoring, the quality of runoff from wood stores, and soil carbon and fertility change. The performance of the SRC plantations is outlined and the practical lessons learnt are highlighted.

  11. Characterization and supply of coal based fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-06-01

    Studies and data applicable for fuel markets and coal resource assessments were reviewed and evaluated to provide both guidelines and specifications for premium quality coal-based fuels. The fuels supplied under this contract were provided for testing of advanced combustors being developed under Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) sponsorship for use in the residential, commercial and light industrial (RCLI) market sectors. The requirements of the combustor development contractors were surveyed and periodically updated to satisfy the evolving needs based on design and test experience. Available coals were screened and candidate coals were selected for further detailed characterization and preparation for delivery. A team of participants was assembled to provide fuels in both coal-water fuel (CWF) and dry ultrafine coal (DUC) forms. Information about major US coal fields was correlated with market needs analysis. Coal fields with major reserves of low sulfur coal that could be potentially amenable to premium coal-based fuels specifications were identified. The fuels requirements were focused in terms of market, equipment and resource constraints. With this basis, the coals selected for developmental testing satisfy the most stringent fuel requirements and utilize available current deep-cleaning capabilities.

  12. Procurement and supply of CANDU fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeley, E.G. [E.G. Bazeley and Associates, Whitby, Ontario (Canada)

    2002-11-01

    In 1955 a decision was made to proceed with construction of a Nuclear Power Demonstration Station (NPD) near Rolfton, Ontario. This project, headed by Atomic Energy of Canada with major involvement of private industry, was the genesis for the development of nuclear electric generation in Canada. This paper reviews one aspect of the Canadian program: the evolution of fuel procurement and supply, which in itself has been a remarkable Canadian achievement. (author)

  13. 14 CFR 23.959 - Unusable fuel supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unusable fuel supply. 23.959 Section 23.959 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Unusable fuel supply. (a) The unusable fuel supply for each tank must be established as not less than...

  14. 30 CFR 36.27 - Fuel-supply system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel-supply system. 36.27 Section 36.27 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF... Construction and Design Requirements § 36.27 Fuel-supply system. (a) Fuel tank. (1) The fuel tank shall...

  15. Fuel services; Servicios de combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marta, H.; Alvarez, P.; Jimenez, J.

    2006-07-01

    Refuelling outages comprise a number of maintenance tasks scheduled long in advance to assure a reliable operation throughout the next cycle and, in the long run, a safer and more efficient plant. Most of these tasks are routine service of mechanical and electrical system and likewise fuel an be considered a critical component as to handling, inspection, cleaning and repair. ENUSA-ENWESA AIE has been working in this area since 1995 growing from fuel repair to a more integrated service that includes new and spent fuel handling, inserts, failed fuel rod detection systems, ultrasonic fuel cleaning,fuel repair and a comprehensive array of inspection and tests related to the reliability of the mechanical components in the fuel assembly, all this, performed in compliance with quality, safety, health physics and any other nuclear standard. (Author)

  16. 14 CFR 25.959 - Unusable fuel supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unusable fuel supply. 25.959 Section 25.959 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.959 Unusable fuel supply. The...

  17. Service Quality in Supply Chain: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun K. Gupta

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Economic development of a country generally depends upon the growth amongst its agriculture, manufacture and service sectors. Part of service sector increasing day by day therefore quality of service is very important to maintain the economic growth of a nation. It is very easy to calculate the loss due to poor sale but it is very difficult to calculate the loss due to poor service quality. Good service always built up the confidence of the customer in the firm. In This paper the author has discussed the concept of service quality in supply chain and has given a core review. A three level development of service quality in supply chain has been explored and a relationship has been established between service quality, supply chain and service quality in supply chain.

  18. Architecture Study for a Fuel Depot Supplied from Lunar Assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Thomas M.; Casler, James G.

    2016-01-01

    This architecture study sought to determine the optimum architecture for a fuel depot supplied from lunar assets. Four factors - the location of propellant processing (on the Moon or on the depot), the depot location (on the Moon, L1, GEO, or LEO), the propellant transfer location (L1, GEO, or LEO), and the propellant transfer method (bulk fuel or canister exchange) were combined to identify 18 candidate architectures. Two design reference missions (DRMs) - a commercial satellite servicing mission and a Government cargo mission to Mars - created demand for propellants, while a propellant delivery DRM examined supply issues. The study concluded Earth-Moon L1 is the best location for an orbiting depot. For all architectures, propellant boiloff was less than anticipated, and was far overshadowed by delta-v requirements and resulting fuel consumption. Bulk transfer is the most flexible for both the supplier and customer. However, since canister exchange bypasses the transfer of bulk cryogens and necessary chilldown losses, canister exchange shows promise and merits further investigation. Overall, this work indicates propellant consumption and loss is an essential factor in assessing fuel depot architectures.

  19. INTERACTION OF AIR TRANSPORTATION AND FUEL-SUPPLY COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Zheleznaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the role of aviation fuel in the life of air transport. Fueling industry worldwide solves two main tasks - ensuring the safety and economy of air traffic. In Russia, there is one more task of airlines fuel supply. The article deals with fuel pricing taking into consideration today's realities.

  20. Fuel supply and distribution. Fixed base operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burian, L. C.

    1983-01-01

    Aviation gasoline versus other products, a changing marketplace, the Airline Deregulation Act of 1978, aviation fuel credit card purchases, strategic locations, storage, co-mingling of fuel, and transportation to/from central storage are discussed.

  1. Fuel Supply Shutdown Facility Interim Operational Safety Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BENECKE, M.W.

    2000-09-06

    The Interim Operational Safety Requirements for the Fuel Supply Shutdown (FSS) Facility define acceptable conditions, safe boundaries, bases thereof, and management of administrative controls to ensure safe operation of the facility.

  2. Fuel supply shutdown facility interim operational safety requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besser, R.L.; Brehm, J.R.; Benecke, M.W.; Remaize, J.A.

    1995-05-23

    These Interim Operational Safety Requirements (IOSR) for the Fuel Supply Shutdown (FSS) facility define acceptable conditions, safe boundaries, bases thereof, and management or administrative controls to ensure safe operation. The IOSRs apply to the fuel material storage buildings in various modes (operation, storage, surveillance).

  3. 24 CFR 3280.704 - Fuel supply systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...), shall be delivered from the system into the gas supply connection. (b) LP-gas containers—(1) Maximum... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fuel supply systems. 3280.704 Section 3280.704 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  4. Evaluation of Particle Counter Technology for Detection of Fuel Contamination Detection Utilizing Fuel System Supply Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-19

    utilizing Fuel System Supply Point Joel Schmitigal U S Army Tank Automotive Research DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution...UNCLASSIFIED 6 UNCLASSIFIED Receipt Vehicle Fuel Tank Fuel Injector Aviation Fuel DEF (AUST) 5695B 18/16/13 Parker 18...Test Center while AMRDEC was conducting Alcohol to Jet (ATJ) fuel flight tests (17). The test results indicated that on-line particle counters

  5. Social Capital Impact On Service Supply Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherry L. Avery

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – This study explores the impact of social capital on service firm supply chains.Design/methodology/approach – The theoretical underpinnings of social capital is reviewed from various disciplines, including sociology, management, and operations management.  This is used to develop a conceptual model of the use of social capital in a service supply chain setting.Findings - Social capital is proposed to improve the operational performance of service firms as a source of both physical and information resources.    The impact of social capital is projected to vary by firm size and service type.  Small firms have limited resources and thus a need for resources obtained through social capital.  Service firms that have high customization and customer contact are subject to process variations which can be mitigated by social capital.  A conceptual model is presented to test several propositions related to social capital.Originality/value – The impact of social capital has not been widely studied in an operational setting.  This is the first known study to specifically analyze the impact of social capital in service supply chains.

  6. The supply and utilization of dental services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewegen, P.P.; Postma, J.H.M.

    1984-01-01

    In this article the question is addressed whether regional differences in the supply of dental manpower influences the utilization of dental services. The percentage of the population that visits the dentist, is indeed higher in regions with a higher density of dentists. The number of people that vi

  7. Distillate Fuel Trends: International Supply Variations and Alternate Fuel Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    biodiesel used in blends with petroleum diesel. These improvements are in the form of changes to the applicable biodiesel specifications (ASTM D6751 and...or allowance of biodiesel in their primary, highway diesel fuel specification. The EU currently allows up to 7% blends with talk of increasing to 10... biodiesel in the highway diesel fuel specification, though the allowable amount may vary. And, other, non-hydrocarbon oil, blend components are not

  8. US Forest Service LANDFIRE Surface Fuel

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — LANDFIRE surface fuel data describe the composition and characteristics of wildland surface fuel and can be implemented within models to predict wildland fire...

  9. US Forest Service LANDFIRE Canopy Fuel

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — LANDFIRE canopy fuel data describe the composition and characteristics of wildland surface fuel and can be implemented within models to predict wildland fire...

  10. Fuel Cycle Services the Heart of Nuclear Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Soentono

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Fuel is essential for development whether for survival and or wealth creation purposes. In this century the utilization of fuels need to be improved although energy mix is still to be the most rational choice. The large amount utilization of un-renewable fossil has some disadvantages since its low energy content requires massive extraction, transport, and processing while emitting CO2 resulting degradation of the environment. In the mean time the advancement of nuclear science and technology has improved significantly the performance of nuclear power plant, management of radioactive waste, enhancement of proliferation resistance, and more economic competitiveness. Ever since the last decade of the last century the nuclear renaissance has taken place. This is also due to the fact that nuclear energy does not emit GHG. Although the nuclear fuel offers a virtually limitless source of economic energy, it is only so if the nuclear fuel is reprocessed and recycled. Consequently, the fuel cycle is to be even more of paramount important in the future. The infrastructure of the fuel cycle services worldwide has been adequately available. Various International Initiatives to access the fuel cycle services are also offered. However, it is required to put in place the International Arrangements to guaranty secured sustainable supply of services and its peaceful use. Relevant international co-operations are central for proceeding with the utilization of nuclear energy, while this advantageous nuclear energy utilization relies on the fuel cycle services. It is therefore concluded that the fuel cycle services are the heart of nuclear energy, and the international nuclear community should work together to maintain the availability of this nuclear fuel cycle services timely, sufficiently, and economically.

  11. 24 CFR 3285.605 - Fuel supply system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... installed if required by the LAHJ. (b) Crossovers. (1) Multi-section homes with fuel supply piping in both sections require crossover connections to join all sections of the home. The crossover design requirements... designed for a pressure that is at least 7 inches of water column and not more than 14 inches of...

  12. 76 FR 51357 - Notice of Availability: American Assured Fuel Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Notice... criteria in the case of supply disruptions in the nuclear fuel market. DOE will sell LEU from the AFS.... DOE will sell LEU to U.S. persons who will in turn sell to domestic or foreign recipients only...

  13. US Forest Service Hazardous Fuel Treatment Reduction

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting select activities that help reduce hazardous fuels on the landscape. This includes features representing Rx Fire, Wildfire,...

  14. An analysis of international nuclear fuel supply options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J'tia Patrice

    As the global demand for energy grows, many nations are considering developing or increasing nuclear capacity as a viable, long-term power source. To assess the possible expansion of nuclear power and the intricate relationships---which cover the range of economics, security, and material supply and demand---between established and aspirant nuclear generating entities requires models and system analysis tools that integrate all aspects of the nuclear enterprise. Computational tools and methods now exist across diverse research areas, such as operations research and nuclear engineering, to develop such a tool. This dissertation aims to develop methodologies and employ and expand on existing sources to develop a multipurpose tool to analyze international nuclear fuel supply options. The dissertation is comprised of two distinct components: the development of the Material, Economics, and Proliferation Assessment Tool (MEPAT), and analysis of fuel cycle scenarios using the tool. Development of MEPAT is aimed for unrestricted distribution and therefore uses publicly available and open-source codes in its development when possible. MEPAT is built using the Powersim Studio platform that is widely used in systems analysis. MEPAT development is divided into three modules focusing on: material movement; nonproliferation; and economics. The material movement module tracks material quantity in each process of the fuel cycle and in each nuclear program with respect to ownership, location and composition. The material movement module builds on techniques employed by fuel cycle models such as the Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) code developed at the Idaho National Laboratory under the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) for the analysis of domestic fuel cycle. Material movement parameters such as lending and reactor preference, as well as fuel cycle parameters such as process times and material factors are user-specified through a Microsoft Excel(c) data spreadsheet

  15. Fuel-cell powered uninterruptible power supply systems: Design considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woojin; Howze, Jo. W.; Enjeti, Prasad

    A 1-kVA fuel cell powered, line-interactive uninterruptible power supply (UPS) system that employs modular (fuel cell and power converter) blocks is introduced. Two commercially available proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (25-39 V, 500 W) modules together with suitable dc-dc and dc-ac power electronic converter modules are employed. A supercapacitor module is also used to compensate for the instantaneous power fluctuations and to overcome the slow dynamics of the fuel processor (reformers). Further energy stored in the supercapacitor is also utilized to handle a momentary overload such as 200% for a short duration. Due to the absence of batteries, the system satisfies the demand for an environmentally clean source of energy. A complete design that defines the amount of hydrogen storage required for a power outage of 1 h, and the sizing of the supercapacitors for transient load demand is presented for a 1-kVA UPS.

  16. Waste-to-fuel opportunities for British quick service restaurants: A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Velazquez Abad, A.; Cherrett, T; Holdsworth, P.

    2015-01-01

    The fast food supply chain is facing increasing operating costs due to volatile food and energy prices. Based on a case study of a major fast food logistics operator, this paper quantifies the potential for fuel generation from the waste generated by quick-service restaurants in Britain. Several fuel pathways and supply chains were mapped to understand the carbon intensity of the various waste-to-fuel opportunities, the number of heavy goods vehicles that might be powered and the key factors ...

  17. 10 CFR 205.375 - Guidelines defining inadequate fuel or energy supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Guidelines defining inadequate fuel or energy supply. 205... Electric Power § 205.375 Guidelines defining inadequate fuel or energy supply. An inadequate utility system fuel inventory or energy supply is a matter of managerial and engineering judgment based on...

  18. BUSINESS TENDENCIES IN SERVICES WITHIN SUPPLY CHAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Beata Skowron-Grabowska

    2008-01-01

    Supply chain management has been a major component of competitive strategy to enhance organizational productivity and profitability. Client satisfaction and improvement in profitability are two basic goals while organizing supply chain. In the paper author tried to prove that there is a correlation between organization of supply chain and subjective evaluation of economic situation by enterprises. Logistics integration helps enterprises to find their place in the supply chain.

  19. Air/fuel supply system for use in a gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Timothy A; Schilp, Reinhard; Gambacorta, Domenico

    2014-06-17

    A fuel injector for use in a gas turbine engine combustor assembly. The fuel injector includes a main body and a fuel supply structure. The main body has an inlet end and an outlet end and defines a longitudinal axis extending between the outlet and inlet ends. The main body comprises a plurality of air/fuel passages extending therethrough, each air/fuel passage including an inlet that receives air from a source of air and an outlet. The fuel supply structure communicates with and supplies fuel to the air/fuel passages for providing an air/fuel mixture within each air/fuel passage. The air/fuel mixtures exit the main body through respective air/fuel passage outlets.

  20. Fuel Costs, Propulsion Systems and Interplanetary Supply Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R.

    A perspective on the economics of space logistics in a future state where there are continuous supply routes between Earth and outlying bodies in the solar system is discussed. In particular, the dependence of the cost of transport on specific impulse and % of non-fuel mass as cargo is discussed. Also, a simple way to calculate the optimal cargo mass of a transport ship carrying a commodity with constant demand is proposed as well as qualitative issues regarding backhaul and inventory that space logistics planners will have to one day confront.

  1. 500 Watt Diesel Fueled TPV Portable Power Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, W. E.; Morgan, M. D.; Sundaram, V. S.; Butcher, T.

    2003-01-01

    A test-bed 500 watt diesel fueled thermophotovoltaic (TPV) portable power supply is described. The goal of the design is a compact, rugged field portable unit weighing less than 15 pounds without fuel. The conversion efficiency goal is set at 15% fuel energy to electric energy delivered to an external load at 24 volts. A burner/recuperator system has been developed to meet the objectives of high combustion air preheat temperatures with a compact heat exchanger, low excess air operation, and high convective heat transfer rates to the silicon carbide emitter surface. The burner incorporates a air blast atomizer with 100% of the combustion air passing through the nozzle. Designed firing rate of 2900 watts at 0.07 gallons of oil per hour. This incorporates a single air supply dc motor/fan set and avoids the need for a system air compressor. The recuperator consists of three annular, concentric laminar flow passages. Heat from the combustion of the diesel fuel is both radiantly and convectively coupled to the inside wall of a cylindrical silicon carbide emitter. The outer wall of the emitter then radiates blackbody energy at the design temperature of 1400°C. The cylindrical emitter is enclosed in a quartz envelope that separates it from the photovoltaic (PV) cells. Spectral control is accomplished by a resonant mesh IR band-pass filter placed between the emitter and the PV array. The narrow band of energy transmitted by the filter is intercepted and converted to electricity by an array of GaSb PV cells. The array consists of 216 1-cm × 1-cm GaSb cells arranged into series and parallel arrays. An array of heat pipes couple the PV cell arrays to a heat exchanger which is cooled by forced air convection. A brief status of the key TPV technologies is presented followed by data characterizing the performance of the 500 watt TPV system.

  2. A Comparison of R&D Supply Chains and Service and Manufacturing Supply Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Marzieh ShahmariChatghieh; Harri Haapasalo; Anyanitha Distanont

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a literature review to compare selected dimensions of manufacturing, services and R&D sectors supply chains. Each supply chain is seen as a system which proper input should be proceed to gain appropriate output. Therefore, to study the supply chains, inputs, outputs and the processors specifications should be considered and the most common characteristics of each sectors’ input and output are investigated; additionally, due to wide range of supply chain specifications the factor...

  3. Evaluation of combat service support logistics concepts for supplying a USMC Regimental Task Force

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    One of the primary responsibilities of a Marine Corps Combat Service Support Element (CSSE) is to provide water, fuel, and ammunition requirements for the primary task forces and other Marine Expeditionary Force (MEF) elements. This thesis evaluates existing and proposed concepts on how to best use the CSSE resources of a Force Service Support Group to transport supplies to Regimental Combat Teams over constrained networks with time constraints. A model was developed that optimizes the use of...

  4. Performance of fuel cell for energy supply of passive house

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badea, G.; Felseghi, R. A.; Rǎboacǎ, S. M.; Aşchilean, I.; Mureşan, D.; Naghiu, G.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrogen technology and passive house represent two concepts with a remarkable role for the efficiency and decarbonisation of energy systems in the residential buildings area. Through design and functionality, the passive house can make maximum use of all available energy resources. One of the solutions to supply energy of these types of buildings is the fuel cell, using this technology integrated into a system for generating electricity from renewable primary sources, which take the function of backup power (energy reserve) to cover peak load and meteorological intermittents. In this paper is presented the results of the case study that provide an analysis of the energy, environmental and financial performances regarding energy supply of passive house by power generation systems with fuel cell fed with electrolytic hydrogen produced by harnessing renewable energy sources available. Hybrid systems have been configured and operate in various conditions of use for five differentiated locations according to the main areas of solar irradiation from the Romanian map. Global performance of hybrid systems is directly influenced by the availability of renewable primary energy sources - particular geo-climatic characteristics of the building emplacement.

  5. Performance of fuel cell for energy supply of passive house

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badea, G.; Felseghi, R. A., E-mail: Raluca.FELSEGHI@insta.utcluj.ro; Mureşan, D.; Naghiu, G. [Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Building Services Engineering Department, Bd. December 21, no. 128-130, 400600, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Răboacă, S. M. [National R& D Institute for Cryogenic and Isotopic Technologies, str. Uzinei, no. 4, Rm. Vălcea, 240050 (Romania); Aşchilean, I. [SC ACI Cluj SA, Avenue Dorobanţilor, no. 70, 400609, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2015-12-23

    Hydrogen technology and passive house represent two concepts with a remarkable role for the efficiency and decarbonisation of energy systems in the residential buildings area. Through design and functionality, the passive house can make maximum use of all available energy resources. One of the solutions to supply energy of these types of buildings is the fuel cell, using this technology integrated into a system for generating electricity from renewable primary sources, which take the function of backup power (energy reserve) to cover peak load and meteorological intermittents. In this paper is presented the results of the case study that provide an analysis of the energy, environmental and financial performances regarding energy supply of passive house by power generation systems with fuel cell fed with electrolytic hydrogen produced by harnessing renewable energy sources available. Hybrid systems have been configured and operate in various conditions of use for five differentiated locations according to the main areas of solar irradiation from the Romanian map. Global performance of hybrid systems is directly influenced by the availability of renewable primary energy sources - particular geo-climatic characteristics of the building emplacement.

  6. Impact of Multilateral Approaches for Assurances of Nuclear Fuel Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Han Myung; Lee, B. W.; Ko, H. S.; Ryu, J. S.; Yang, M. H.; Oh, K. B.; Lee, K. S

    2007-12-15

    This study consists of 3 parts : analysis of the characteristics of the recent proposals for a nuclear fuel supply and the progress of them, responses from various sectors in the world, and measures for them. In response to recent proposals, majority of countries possessing sensitive nuclear fuel facilities are supportive in general. In contrast, many countries not possessing such facilities are reluctant about the proposals. To satisfy both parties, an ideal proposal could suggest measures to assure a non-proliferation as well as measures to acquire confidence from the so-called user nations. To get strong support from all countries concerned, the proposal should contain some critical elements such as clear attractiveness for a participation, equal opportunities for the participating countries, voluntarily in decision on a participation, and a gradual approach to remove any future obstacles encountered. The criteria to judge a legitimate need of a country for the introduction of nuclear fuel facilities should be prepared by a consensus. Compliance of a nonproliferation obligation, scale of an economy, and an energy security can be proposed as such criteria.

  7. Possibility of hydrogen supply by shared residential fuel cell systems for fuel cell vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ono Yusuke

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Residential polymer electrolyte fuel cells cogeneration systems (residential PEFC systems produce hydrogen from city gas by internal gas-reformer, and generate electricity, the hot water at the same time. From the viewpoint of the operation, it is known that residential PEFC systems do not continuously work but stop for long time, because the systems generate enough hot water for short operation time. In other words, currently residential PEFC systems are dominated by the amount of hot water demand. This study focuses on the idle time of residential PEFC systems. Since their gas-reformers are free, the systems have potential to produce hydrogen during the partial load operations. The authors expect that residential PEFC systems can take a role to supply hydrogen for fuel cell vehicles (FCVs before hydrogen fueling stations are distributed enough. From this perspective, the objective of this study is to evaluate the hydrogen production potential of residential PEFC systems. A residential PEFC system was modeled by the mixed integer linear programming to optimize the operation including hydrogen supply for FCV. The objective function represents annual system cost to be minimized with the constraints of energy balance. It should be noted that the partial load characteristics of the gas-reformer and the fuel cell stack are taken into account to derive the optimal operation. The model was employed to estimate the possible amount of hydrogen supply by a residential PEFC system. The results indicated that the system could satisfy at least hydrogen demand for transportation of 8000 km which is as far as the average annual mileage of a passenger car in Japan. Furthermore, hydrogen production by sharing a residential PEFC system with two households is more effective to reduce primary energy consumption with hydrogen supply for FCV than the case of introducing PEFC in each household.

  8. Model of service-oriented catering supply chain performance evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanqiong Gou

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper is constructing a performance evaluation model for service-oriented catering supply chain. Design/methodology/approach: With the research on the current situation of catering industry, this paper summarized the characters of the catering supply chain, and then presents the service-oriented catering supply chain model based on the platform of logistics and information. At last, the fuzzy AHP method is used to evaluate the performance of service-oriented catering supply chain. Findings: With the analysis of the characteristics of catering supply chain, we construct the performance evaluation model in order to guarantee the food safety, logistics efficiency, price stability and so on. Practical implications: In order to evolve an efficient and effective service supply chain, it can not only used to own enterprise improvement, but also can be used for selecting different customers, to choose a different model of development. Originality/value: This paper has a new definition of service-oriented catering supply chain. And it offers a model to evaluate the performance of this catering supply chain.

  9. 'Wagging the dog': supply chain management and service delivery

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wall, K

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available SUPPLY CHAIN management (SCM) regulations for public sector procurement of goods and services have greatly improved the transparency of procurement procedures, increased the opportunities for alternative suppliers and reduced the potential...

  10. Service Operations Optimization: Recent Development in Supply Chain Management

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Shen

    2015-01-01

    Services are the key of success in operation management. Designing the effective strategies by optimization techniques is the fundamental and important condition for performance increase in service operations (SOs) management. In this paper, we mainly focus on investigating SOs optimization in the areas of supply chain management, which create the greatest business values. Specifically, we study the recent development of SOs optimization associated with supply chain by categorizing them into ...

  11. 14 CFR 125.377 - Fuel supply: Turbine-engine-powered airplanes other than turbopropeller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel supply: Turbine-engine-powered... AIRCRAFT Flight Release Rules § 125.377 Fuel supply: Turbine-engine-powered airplanes other than... wind and other weather conditions expected, it has enough fuel— (1) To fly to and land at the...

  12. 14 CFR 121.646 - En-route fuel supply: flag and supplemental operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false En-route fuel supply: flag and supplemental operations. 121.646 Section 121.646 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 121.646 En-route fuel supply: flag and supplemental operations. (a) No person may dispatch or...

  13. Service Operations Optimization: Recent Development in Supply Chain Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Shen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Services are the key of success in operation management. Designing the effective strategies by optimization techniques is the fundamental and important condition for performance increase in service operations (SOs management. In this paper, we mainly focus on investigating SOs optimization in the areas of supply chain management, which create the greatest business values. Specifically, we study the recent development of SOs optimization associated with supply chain by categorizing them into four different industries (i.e., e-commerce industry, consumer service industry, public sector, and fashion industry and four various SOs features (i.e., advertising, channel coordination, pricing, and inventory. Moreover, we conduct the technical review on the stylish industries/topics and typical optimization models. The classical optimization approaches for SOs management in supply chain are presented. The managerial implications of SOs in supply chain are discussed.

  14. Simulation of Service Supply Chain Formation Based on Mobile Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhe; ZHANG Da-lu; XU Jian

    2005-01-01

    In E-Commerce, consumers and service suppliers can find the services through the searching of Mobile Agents (MA).The suppliers disassemble the service requests of consumers into the sub-requests. Then suppliers respond the subrequests cooperatively. Thus the Service Supply Chain(SSC) can be formed. But the existing bottom-up and upbottom supply chain formation fashions cannot be adapted to the SSC in distributed environment of E-Commerce. Task Dependency Network is exploited to illustrate the service relationship among consumers and suppliers. The formation of SSC with some simulations is elaborated. Then the influence on the formation of SSC caused by the type of service suppliers, the quantities of MA and its variety in number is elucidated.

  15. The Hardware Implementation of Demonstrator Air Independent Electric Supply System Based on Pem Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzeczka G.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of the research project whose the main goal was to build a technology demonstrator of an electric supply system based on the PEM fuel cell. The electric supply system is dedicated to operation on a board of a submarine during emergency situations. The underwater conditions influence on a specific architecture of supply subsystems of the PEM fuel cell system. In this case the fuel cell stack is supplied by both clean hydrogen and clean oxygen stored in pressurized tanks. The hydrogen has to be delivered in a closed loop, while the oxygen can be delivered in a closed or an open loop. In the technology demonstrator, the supply of the fuel cell stack by the hydrogen in the closed loop and the oxygen in the open loop with a precise control of its flow were used.

  16. Inventory Control by Multiple Service Levels under Unreliable Supplying Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byungsoo Na

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider an inventory system where there is random demand from customers as well as unreliable supplying capacity from supplier. In many real-world cases, supplier might fail to satisfy the amount of order from retailers or producers so that only partial proportion of order is satisfied or even fail to deliver all of the order. Moreover, recently a concern regarding unreliable supplying capacity has been increasing since the globalization makes the retailer or producer face the extended supply network with complicated and risky supplying capacity. Also, we consider two classified customers, of which one is willing to pay extra charge for expedited delivery service but the other is not reluctant to delay the delivery without any extra charge. We show that there exists an optimal threshold for inventory and price for each service level in the following sense: if the inventory level is less than the predetermined threshold, then the retailer or producer needs to order up to the threshold level and offer threshold price corresponding to service level. Otherwise, the retailer does not need to order. The risk of stockout due to unreliable supplying capacity can be mitigated by the dynamic pricing and inventory control with multiple service levels.

  17. Optimization of fuel supply map during starting process of electronic controlled diesel engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinguang LIANG; Xiumin YU; Yue GAO; Yunkai WANG; Hongyang YU; Baoli GONG

    2008-01-01

    Tests were conducted to study influence of fuel supply map during the starting process of an electronic con-trolled diesel engine using an electronic controlled diesel engine which was made up of a CA498Z diesel engine, a VP37 elec-tronic controlled distributor injection pump management system and a VS100 calibration system. The calibration pro-cess of starting fuel supply map was educed under the principle of low HC emission and rapid starting velocity. The cal-ibration methods of starting fuel supply map were obtained.

  18. 42 CFR 410.26 - Services and supplies incident to a physician's professional services: Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... specified in § 410.29. (2) Physical therapy, occupational therapy and speech-language pathology services... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Services and supplies incident to a physician's professional services: Conditions. 410.26 Section 410.26 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES...

  19. High efficiency fuel cell based uninterruptible power supply for digital equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, James; Tamizhmani, Govindasamy

    Eliminating the ac-dc converter (such as a computer's power supply), in a dc system when using a fuel cell based uninterruptible power supply (UPS), serves several primary functions. Firstly, it eliminates the need for a dc-ac inverter, and secondly, it eliminates a usually highly inefficient component-the power supply. Multiple conversions result in multiple inefficiencies. By replacing the computer's ac power supply with a high efficiency dc power supply capable of operating directly from a fuel cell - and thereby eliminating the inverter - the overall efficiency of the UPS can be increased by 50% or more. This is essential considering that the primary function of a fuel cell based UPS is long-term operation of the system, and poor efficiency equates to higher fuel consumption. Furthermore, inefficient systems have greater power demands, and therefore a larger fuel cell stack is needed to power them. At the present cost of fuel cell systems, this is a considerable problem. The easiest way to accomplish a direct dc UPS is to replace the computer's ac-dc power supply with a dc-dc power supply.

  20. Logistics service sharing in supply hub in industrial park (SHIP)

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, Xuan; 邱璇

    2013-01-01

    Industrial parks have played an indispensible role in boosting economic and industrial development. However, further development has been impeded by the shortage of land resources and by duplicate investments on common physical assets and services. This thesis proposes the concept of Supply Hub in Industrial Park (SHIP) as a public provider of warehousing and transportation services shared by manufacturing enterprises located within an industrial park. This research investigates four typic...

  1. SUPPLY CHAIN INFORMATION INTEGRATION THROUGH SERVICE ORIENTED ARCHITECTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Milanovic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years information integration became significant problem for both natural and legal persons in everyday operations. Huge amount of information are available, but insufficiently processed in order to have useful value. Choosing the right combination of tools and technologies for integration is prerequisite for requiring information from multiple heterogeneous sources and their qualitative and simple using after.In this paper, we have focused on information integration within companies which are parts of supply chain or network. This environment typically includes a various mix of sources, structured (such as relational or other databases, and unstructured (such as document repositories, spreadsheets, documents, web pages, emails and others. Effective information integration and sharing significantly enhances supply chain practices. Service oriented architecture (SOA is an architectural style for building software applications that use services available in a network such as the web. The use of SOA to achieve inter-enterprise supply network information integration has many advantages.

  2. Supply chain management in health services : an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, J.; Huijsman, R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose - This paper seeks to concentrate on the question whether any parallels can be found between the industrial sector and health care services with respect to the developments that have taken place in the area of Supply Chain Management. Starting from an analysis of existing literature, it is i

  3. Service differentiation in spare parts supply through dedicated stocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvarez, Elisa; van der Heijden, Matthijs C.; Zijm, Willem H.M.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate keeping dedicated stocks at customer sites in addition to stock kept at some central location as a tool for applying service differentiation in spare parts supply. We study the resulting two-echelon system in a multi-item setting, both under backordering and under emergency shipments

  4. Ecosystem service markets 101: supply and demand for nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhonda Mazza; Jeff Kline; Trista Patterson

    2012-01-01

    Establishing markets for ecosystem services—the benefits that nature provides, such as clean air, water, and wildlife habitat—has gained traction in some circles as a way to finance the conservation of these public goods. Market influences on supply and demand work in tandem to encourage ecosystem protection. Jeff Kline and Trista Patterson, scientists with the...

  5. Supply chain management in health services : an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, J.; Huijsman, R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose - This paper seeks to concentrate on the question whether any parallels can be found between the industrial sector and health care services with respect to the developments that have taken place in the area of Supply Chain Management. Starting from an analysis of existing literature, it is

  6. Impacts of Fuel price, Supply/Demand, and Seasonality on Class I Milk Price Differentials

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, HongSeok; McCarl, Bruce A.

    2014-01-01

    The Class I price differentials for milk were established in 2000 and continue in use today. These differentials are to reflect transport and other factors that vary across space. Since 2000 some key factors have changed like fuel price and supply/demand locations. We examine how the differentials match up with the distribution of shadow prices in a spatial transport model. We find consideration of fuel costs and supply demand location shifts raises the magnitude of the differentials by about...

  7. The Financing of Water Supply and Sewerage Services in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Florentina CUCOS

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Water supply and sewerage services represent utilities that must be provided to all users, both the urban and the rural. The responsibility to ensure these services in terms of non-discrimination and affordability belongs to the local authorities, which in the spirit of decentralization have exclusive jurisdiction on their establishment, organization and operation. Regardless of the chosen management, the funding of water supply and sewerage services, is accomplished by means of the prices and tariffs paid by the users. Their quantum, specific to some social services, covers the costs without allowing the accumulation of consistent profit margins, which would ensure the development of the specific infrastructure from the operators' own funds. It is therefore necessary that funding for the creation and rehabilitation of water supply and sewerage systems to be provided from other sources than the budgets of operators, such as: budgetary allocations of local public authorities, government or European funding programs. This paper is of interest because it captures just how the prices and tariffs for these services are composed, and the entire procedure for foundation, adjustment and modification that follows different rules from those of pricing in the market economy, and it provides a review of the types of programs through which the development of the specific technical-urban infrastructure and the significant increase in the number of users in the past 25 years.

  8. 7 CFR 612.6 - Application for water supply forecast service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application for water supply forecast service. 612.6... CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS SNOW SURVEYS AND WATER SUPPLY FORECASTS § 612.6 Application for water supply forecast service. Requests for obtaining water supply forecasts...

  9. 42 CFR 410.71 - Clinical psychologist services and services and supplies incident to clinical psychologist services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Clinical psychologist services and services and supplies incident to clinical psychologist services. 410.71 Section 410.71 Public Health CENTERS FOR... MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.71 Clinical psychologist...

  10. Fuel cell energy service Enron`s commerical program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, M.W.

    1996-04-01

    Enron, the premier provider of clean fuels worldwide, has launched a unique energy service based on fuel cell technology. The goal of this program is to bring the benefits of fuel cell power to the broad commercial marketplace. Enron`s Energy Service is currently based on a 200 kilowatt phosphoric acid power plant manufactured by ONSI Corporation. This plant is fueled by natural gas or propane, and exhibits superior performance. Enron offers a `no hassle` package that provides customers with immediate benefits with no upfront capital or technical risks. This paper describes Enron`s fuel cell commercial program.

  11. Learning to Select Supplier Portfolios for Service Supply Chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Li, Jingfei; Wu, Shaoyu; Meng, Dabin

    2016-01-01

    The research on service supply chain has attracted more and more focus from both academia and industrial community. In a service supply chain, the selection of supplier portfolio is an important and difficult problem due to the fact that a supplier portfolio may include multiple suppliers from a variety of fields. To address this problem, we propose a novel supplier portfolio selection method based on a well known machine learning approach, i.e., Ranking Neural Network (RankNet). In the proposed method, we regard the problem of supplier portfolio selection as a ranking problem, which integrates a large scale of decision making features into a ranking neural network. Extensive simulation experiments are conducted, which demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method. The proposed supplier portfolio selection model can be applied in a real corporation easily in the future.

  12. 42 CFR 410.50 - Institutional dialysis services and supplies: Scope and conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Institutional dialysis services and supplies: Scope... Medical and Other Health Services § 410.50 Institutional dialysis services and supplies: Scope and... following institutional dialysis services and supplies if they are furnished in approved ESRD facilities:...

  13. 14 CFR 121.645 - Fuel supply: Turbine-engine powered airplanes, other than turbo propeller: Flag and supplemental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel supply: Turbine-engine powered... SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.645 Fuel supply: Turbine-engine powered... Columbia with a turbine engine powered airplane the fuel requirements of § 121.643 apply....

  14. Optimisation of air supply to mobile fuel cell systems; Optimierung von Luftversorgungseinheiten fuer Brennstoffzellensysteme in Fahrzeugantrieben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pischinger, S. [RWTH Aachen (DE). Lehrstuhl fuer Verbrennungskraftmaschinen (VKA); Ogrzewalla, J.; Schoenfelder, C. [FEV Motorentechnik, Aachen (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Fuel cells will help to reduce fuel consumption and lessen our dependence on petroleum imports. The investigation focused on optimised design, construction and operation of air supply systemes for PEFC fuel cell systems in vehicle drives. Appropriate supercharging systems were selected and investigated, and the interaction of air supply with the overall system was researched. The use of mechanical expanders may improve the performance as compression energy is recovered by expansion of the cathode off-gas. Further, the influence of wetting concepts on fuel cell operation is investigated. Numeric simulations were made, and optimisation criteria were developed. Optimum charge pressure was found to be in the range of about 2 bar (absolute), depending on the moisturizing concept and of the moisture dependence of the fuel cell. Further, the system performance can be improved by 3-5 percent by installing an expander for energy recovery. (orig.)

  15. Supply Chain-based Solution to Prevent Fuel Tax Evasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzese, Oscar [ORNL; Capps, Gary J [ORNL; Daugherty, Michael [United States Department of Transportation (USDOT), Federal Highway Administration (FHWA); Siekmann, Adam [ORNL; Lascurain, Mary Beth [ORNL; Barker, Alan M [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    The primary source of funding for the United States transportation system is derived from motor fuel and other highway use taxes. Loss of revenue attributed to fuel-tax evasion has been assessed to be somewhere between $1 billion per year, or approximately 25% of the total tax collected. Any solution that addresses this problem needs to include not only the tax-collection agencies and auditors, but also the carriers transporting oil products and the carriers customers. This paper presents a system developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the Federal Highway Administration which has the potential to reduce or eliminate many fuel-tax evasion schemes. The solution balances the needs of tax-auditors and those of the fuel-hauling companies and their customers. The technology was deployed and successfully tested during an eight-month period on a real-world fuel-hauling fleet. Day-to-day operations of the fleet were minimally affected by their interaction with this system. The results of that test are discussed in this paper.

  16. Characterisation of a fuel cell based uninteruptable power supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aklil, D.; Gazey, R.; McGrath, D.

    2004-07-01

    This report presents the findings of tests carried out to determine if a fuel cell (FC) could be used instead of external batteries in UPS systems. Details are given of the configuration of the 1kW fuel cell based test UPS system (FC-UPS), fuel cell suitability for UPS, the start-up conditions, the on-load dynamic response, comparative weight/space savings of FC-UPS, lifetime costs compared to battery installations, and market readiness of FC systems for UPS deployment. The importance of the collaboration between the FC manufacturers and system integrator for the implementation of the project and of the testing and characterisation of FC products is stressed.

  17. Revenue-Sharing Contract Models for Logistics Service Supply Chains with Mass Customization Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The revenue-sharing contract is one of the most important supply chain coordination contracts; it has been applied in various supply chains. However, studies related to service supply chains with mass customization (MC are lacking. Considering the equity of benefit distribution between the members of service supply chains, in this paper, we designed two revenue-sharing contracts. The first contract for the maximum equity of a single logistics service integrator (LSI and single functional logistics service provider (FLSP in a two-echelon logistics service supply chain was designed by introducing the fair entropy function (“one to one” model. Furthermore, the method is extended to a more complex supply chain, which consists of a single LSI and multiple FLSPs. A new contract was designed not only for considering the equity of an LSI and each FLSP but also for the equity between each FLSP (“one to N” model. The “one to one” model in three-echelon LSSC is also provided. The result exemplifies that, whether in the “one to one” model or “one to N” model, there exists a best interval of customized level when the revenue-sharing coefficient reaches its maximum.

  18. Solid polyelectrolyte fuel cell power supply system; Kotai kobunshigata nenryo denchi dengen system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, T. [Kanagawa (Japan); Kadoma, H. [Yokohama (Japan); Hashizaki, K.; Tani, T. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-06-11

    When a previous solid polyelectrolyte fuel cell power supply system is used underwater, the water generated by the cell reaction is stored in a water storage tank and it is necessary that the system is suspended in case the generated water is full in the water storage tank to take the system out of water and the water in the tank is discharged in the atmosphere. The solid polyelectrolyte fuel cell power supply system of this invention is equipped with a discharge pump to exhaust the generated water out of the closed vessel accommodating the system or equipped with a device to exhaust the generated water into the outside water accompanied with gushing of high-pressure gas into the outside water. As a result, the water generated by the cell reaction can be exhausted from the system into the outside water at any required time so that the fuel cell power supply system can be operated continuously as far as the supply of the fuel or the oxidizer last. By the installment of this function, a solid polyelectrolyte fuel cell power supply system can be used as an independent underwater power source or as a power source for an underwater moving body. 4 figs.

  19. 42 CFR 405.2452 - Services and supplies incident to clinical psychologist and clinical social worker services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... psychologist and clinical social worker services. 405.2452 Section 405.2452 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... Qualified Health Center Services § 405.2452 Services and supplies incident to clinical psychologist and clinical social worker services. (a) Services and supplies incident to a clinical psychologist's...

  20. Department of Defense Fuel Spending, Supply, Acquisition, and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-20

    Figure 5). The range of crude oils assays are summarized in Table 5. In the past, when U.S. crude oil production was higher than today, refineries...declining worldwide crude oil production . In 2006, due to increasing fuel costs, the Bush Administration’s war on terrorism, and military operations in

  1. Study of Hydrogen Supply System with Ammonia Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saika, Takashi; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Nohara, Tetsuo; Ishimatsu, Shinji

    Carbon-free fuel is effective in preventing global warming. Hydrogen has no carbon and can be made also from nuclear energy or reproducible energies other than fossil fuels. However, hydrogen lacks portability because of its difficulty in liquefying, but ammonia can easily be liquefied at a room temperature and dissociated into high-content hydrogen and nitrogen using a suitable catalyst. An ammonia dissociation system for fuel cells is proposed in this paper. The residual ammonia by 13ppm or more in the dissociated gas (H2+ N2) causes a decrease in the output of fuel cells. To separate residual ammonia, it should be sent to an ammonia separator and then to an ammonia distiller. In the experiment, the authors examine the concentrations of ammonia after dissociation at various temperatures, pressures and space velocities. The ammonia separator uses the fact that ammonia dissolves well in water. Then the ammonia water is distilled in the distiller. Thereby, the authors have proposed an ammonia circulation system that is a clean energy system.

  2. Channel Coordination in Logistics Service Supply Chain considering Fairness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningning Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Logistics service supply chain (LSSC is a new type of service supply chain. This paper investigates the channel coordination issue in a two-echelon LSSC composed of one logistics service integrator (LSI and one functional logistics service provider (FLSP under fairness concerns. The models for a reservation price-only contract under disadvantageous inequality and advantageous inequality are established, respectively, in which the procurement cost, the potential shortage cost, and the operation cost are considered under stochastic market demand. Based on this model, the LSI’s optimal reservation quantity can be determined. Furthermore, we analyze the impact of fairness concerns and the related costs on channel performance and channel coordination. The results are presented in four aspects: (1 channel coordination of the LSSC can be achieved under certain conditions when the LSI experiences advantageous inequality; (2 the spiteful behavior of the LSI leads to the reduction of the channel profit, and channel coordination cannot be achieved when the LSI suffers from disadvantageous inequality; (3 the LSI’s reservation quantity and the channel profit are affected by the LSI’s fairness concerns; (4 motivated by the concerns of fairness, the LSI’s reservation quantity is related not only to his procurement cost and shortage cost but also to the FLSP’s operation cost.

  3. Trends in Rural Water Supply: Towards a Service Delivery Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Moriarty

    2013-10-01

    The papers in this special issue argue that tackling these challenges requires a shift in emphasis in rural water supply in developing countries: away from a de-facto focus on the provision of hardware for first-time access towards the proper use of installed hardware as the basis for universal access to rural water services. The outline of the main actions required to achieve this shift are becoming clearer. Chief amongst these are the professionalisation of community management and/or provision of direct support to community service providers; adoption of a wider range of service delivery models than community management alone; and addressing the sustainable financing of all costs with a particular focus on financing capital maintenance (asset management and direct support costs. This introductory paper provides an overview of these issues and a guide to the other articles, which demonstrate these points.

  4. Energy Supply- Production of Fuel from Agricultural and Animal Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriel Miller

    2009-03-25

    The Society for Energy and Environmental Research (SEER) was funded in March 2004 by the Department of Energy, under grant DE-FG-36-04GO14268, to produce a study, and oversee construction and implementation, for the thermo-chemical production of fuel from agricultural and animal waste. The grant focuses on the Changing World Technologies (CWT) of West Hempstead, NY, thermal conversion process (TCP), which converts animal residues and industrial food processing biproducts into fuels, and as an additional product, fertilizers. A commercial plant was designed and built by CWT, partially using grant funds, in Carthage, Missouri, to process animal residues from a nearby turkey processing plant. The DOE sponsored program consisted of four tasks. These were: Task 1 Optimization of the CWT Plant in Carthage - This task focused on advancing and optimizing the process plant operated by CWT that converts organic waste to fuel and energy. Task 2 Characterize and Validate Fuels Produced by CWT - This task focused on testing of bio-derived hydrocarbon fuels from the Carthage plant in power generating equipment to determine the regulatory compliance of emissions and overall performance of the fuel. Task 3 Characterize Mixed Waste Streams - This task focused on studies performed at Princeton University to better characterize mixed waste incoming streams from animal and vegetable residues. Task 4 Fundamental Research in Waste Processing Technologies - This task focused on studies performed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) on the chemical reformation reaction of agricultural biomass compounds in a hydrothermal medium. Many of the challenges to optimize, improve and perfect the technology, equipment and processes in order to provide an economically viable means of creating sustainable energy were identified in the DOE Stage Gate Review, whose summary report was issued on July 30, 2004. This summary report appears herein as Appendix 1, and the findings of the report

  5. Department of Defense Fuel Spending, Supply, Acquisition, and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-22

    atmospheric distillation. A topping refinery produces naphtha but no gasoline. • Hydroskimming refineries are equipped with atmospheric distillation... naphtha reforming and necessary processes to treat for sulfur. More complex than a topping refinery, hydroskimmers run light sweet crude and...maximum (-40°C). It is supplied under ASTM D1655 (Jet A) specification. Jet B is a distillate covering the naphtha and kerosene fractions. It can be used

  6. Fuel supply and control for turbocharged engines. (Latest citations from the Patent Bibliographic Database with Exemplary Claims). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning means for supplying a fuel air charge to turbocharged internal combustion engines. Adjustments and control techniques vary the fuel supply with changes in charge pressure and operating conditions. The citations generally refer to diesel and gasoline engines, but a few reference multi-fuels, such as alcohol and hydrogen additions to the primary fuel. (Contains a minimum of 137 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. Issues Associated with IAEA Involvement in Assured Nuclear Fuel Supply Arrangements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessler, Carol E.; Mathews, Carrie E.

    2008-02-08

    Assured nuclear fuel supply has been discussed at various times as a mechanism to help limit expansion of enrichment and reprocessing (E&R) capability beyond current technology holders. Given the events in the last few years in North Korea and Iran, concern over weapons capabilities gained from acquisition of E&R capabilities has heightened and brought assured nuclear fuel supply (AFS) again to the international agenda. Successful AFS programs can be valuable contributions to strengthening the nonproliferation regime and helping to build public support for expanding nuclear energy.

  8. Regulating output of a fuel supply channel of blocks 500 MW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smetana, A.Z.; Feofilov, G.P.; Nemerskiy, B.V.; Rayevskiy, S.A.

    1980-01-01

    The operating optimal regime of a channel of fuel supply is guaranteed with maximum fuel load. In this case it is necessary to stabilize the load of fuel supply and to prevent evacuation of any of the bend sections in order to exclude damages to the feeders because of dynamic impacts of the loaded fuel. Currently control of the output of the feeders is done by an operator. Tests of the Troitskiy GRES indicated the average load of the channel of fuel supply 75% and difficulties in the work of the operator. Consequently, the Ural All-Union Heat-Engineering Institute developed the SAU. A flow sheet is presented for the system of regulation with continuous change in output of the feeders. For the loading device of blocks 500 MW equipped with feeders with 4-velocity electric motors, a logical automatic control has been developed which realizes optimal algorithm of operation on whose basis a graph has been developed for transitions of the automatic control. A plan is presented for stabilizing the productivity of fuel supply realizing this algorithm of control. On the whole, the system of automatic stabilization implements an integrated law of regulation of output, makes it possible to prevent complete emptying of the bins by simultaneous regulation of the load of the conveyer at the assigned level. It makes it possible to reduce the specific fuel consumption unit of electric energy increase reliability and quality of operation of the unit, free the personnel from the need of tracing the level of fuel in the bins and improve the conditions of its operation.

  9. Another driver of the Brazilian fuel ethanol supply chain: the consumers' preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana Isabella

    Full Text Available Abstract Many factors have been discussed in the literature as the causes for setbacks in the Brazilian ethanol supply chain, such as the low price of petroleum and the high price of sugar in the financial crisis in 2008. However, there is an important gap that was not explored yet, how do drivers choose to refuel their cars? Do the supply chain managers know their consumers? Based on that, this paper aims to demonstrate how the ethanol supply chain stakeholders perceive consumers' preferences and compare them to the factors that are taken into consideration by Brazilian flexible-fuel vehicles drivers when choosing types of fuel gasoline or ethanol. For that, we illustrated the case by using a sample of announcements collected from Brazilian news media featuring the supply chain managers' view and the survey taken by drivers to understand the consumer's actions. Our results indicate that there is a significant difference between the actual preferences of fuel consumers and the perceived consumers' preferences by the stakeholders. This disparity is probably the (or one of the main cause of the second setback in the Brazilian supply chain (2009–2012. Based on these results we point out the strategic implications in managing this supply chain and also the role of public policy in improving the diffusion of ethanol in Brazil.

  10. Role of membranes and membrane reactors in the hydrogen supply of fuel cells for transports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julbe, A.; Guizard, Ch. [Institut Europeen des Membranes, UMII, Lab. des Materiaux et des Procedes Membranaires, CNRS UMR 5635, 34 - Montpellier (France)

    2000-07-01

    Production, storage and supply of high-purity hydrogen as a clean and efficient fuel is central to fuel cells technology, in particular in vehicle traction. Actually, technologies for handling liquefied or gaseous hydrogen in transports are not available so that a number of alternative fuels are considered with the aim of in-situ generation of hydrogen through catalytic processes. The integrated concept of membrane reactors (MRs) can greatly benefit to these technologies. Particular emphasis is put on inorganic membranes and their role in MRs performance for H{sub 2} production.

  11. Fuel Application Efficiency in Ideal Cycle of Gas Turbine Plant with Isobaric Heat Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nesenchuk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reveals expediency to use in prospect fuels with maximum value  Qнр∑Vi and minimum theoretical burning temperature in order to obtain maximum efficiency of the ideal cycle in GTP with isobaric heat supply.

  12. Performance Analyses of Renewable and Fuel Power Supply Systems for Different Base Station Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Lorincz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Base station sites (BSSs powered with renewable energy sources have gained the attention of cellular operators during the last few years. This is because such “green” BSSs impose significant reductions in the operational expenditures (OPEX of telecom operators due to the possibility of on-site renewable energy harvesting. In this paper, the green BSSs power supply system parameters detected through remote and centralized real time sensing are presented. An implemented sensing system based on a wireless sensor network enables reliable collection and post-processing analyses of many parameters, such as: total charging/discharging current of power supply system, battery voltage and temperature, wind speed, etc. As an example, yearly sensing results for three different BSS configurations powered by solar and/or wind energy are discussed in terms of renewable energy supply (RES system performance. In the case of powering those BSS with standalone systems based on a fuel generator, the fuel consumption models expressing interdependence among the generator load and fuel consumption are proposed. This has allowed energy-efficiency comparison of the fuel powered and RES systems, which is presented in terms of the OPEX and carbon dioxide (CO2 reductions. Additionally, approaches based on different BSS air-conditioning systems and the on/off regulation of a daily fuel generator activity are proposed and validated in terms of energy and capital expenditure (CAPEX savings.

  13. Further Considerations for Development of the Comprehensive Fuel Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Donghoon; Ryu, Jaesoo; Jun, Eunju; Lee, Hanmyung; Lee, Kwangseok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The front-end fuel cycle services are reliably provided by commercial suppliers, and some multilateral approaches related on front-end fuel cycle including fuel bank are implemented as well. However in case of the back-end fuel cycle services, reprocessing services are provided by limited number of companies and disposal services are not currently provided in commercial market. In addition, multilateral fuel cycle mechanisms focused on the back-end fuel cycle are not being actively discussed. Recently, multilateral mechanism related to the back-end fuel cycle, called 'Comprehensive Fuel Service (CFS)' was suggested by United States in the International Framework for Nuclear Energy Cooperation (IFNEC). This study provides an overview of the CFS, opportunities and challenges for its implementation. It also provides considerations to encourage development of the multilateral and commercial-based CFS for the back-end fuel cycle. CFS suggested by U. S in IFNEC is commercially-based new nuclear fuel management system and expected to provide an economic alternative to development of long-term storage and disposal facilities and sensitive nuclear facilities. However, the CFS approach is faced with several challenges such as the development of multinational disposal facility. Above all, confidence building among the IFNEC member states based on common understanding is crucial to overcome these challenges. To achieve this, international communities should continually cooperate with stakeholders and discuss the consideration that suggested by this study. And we need to monitor progress of CFS concept that remains under development, and to prepare for multilateral discussion on CFS.

  14. Transport and supply logistics of biomass fuels: Vol. 2. Biomass and strategic modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, J.; Browne, M.; Cook, A.; Wicks, N.; Palmer, H.; Hunter, A.; Boyd, J.

    1996-10-01

    This document forms part of the United Kingdom Department of Trade and Industry project ''Transport and Logistics of Biomass Fuels'', which aimed to describe the distribution of existing and potential biomass resources in terms of their supply potential for power stations. Fixed areas of supply, or catchments, have been identified on colour maps of Britain showing the distribution of forest fuel, short rotation coppices, and various types of straw and animal slurry, using a specially written strategic modelling program. Adequate supplies of biomass resources are shown to exist in Britain, but siting of power stations to exploit these resources, will depend on transport and economic considerations appropriate at the time of construction. Biomass power stations in the megawatt capacity range could be resourced. (UK)

  15. Assessment of methane-related fuels for automotive fleet vehicles: technical, supply, and economic assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-02-01

    The use of methane-related fuels, derived from a variety of sources, in highway vehicles is assessed. Methane, as used here, includes natural gas (NG) as well as synthetic natural gas (SNG). Methanol is included because it can be produced from NG or the same resources as SNG, and because it is a liquid fuel at normal ambient conditions. Technological, operational, efficiency, petroleum displacement, supply, safety, and economic issues are analyzed. In principle, both NG and methanol allow more efficient engine operation than gasoline. In practice, engines are at present rarely optimized for NG and methanol. On the basis of energy expended from resource extraction to end use, only optimized LNG vehicles are more efficient than their gasoline counterparts. By 1985, up to 16% of total petroleum-based highway vehicle fuel could be displaced by large fleets with central NG fueling depots. Excluding diesel vehicles, which need technology advances to use NG, savings of 8% are projected. Methanol use by large fleets could displace up to 8% of petroleum-based highway vehicle fuel from spark-ignition vehicles and another 9% from diesel vehicles with technology advances. The US NG supply appears adequate to accommodate fleet use. Supply projections, future price differential versus gasoline, and user economics are uncertain. In many cases, attractive paybacks can occur. Compressed NG now costs on average about $0.65 less than gasoline, per energy-equivalent gallon. Methanol supply projections, future prices, and user economics are even more uncertain. Current and projected near-term methanol supplies are far from adequate to support fleet use. Methanol presently costs more than gasoline on an equal-energy basis, but is projected to cost less if produced from coal instead of NG or petroleum.

  16. FERTILIZERS SALES AND SERVICE. AGRICULTURAL SUPPLY - SALES AND SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NUMBER 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE IS TO ASSIST TEACHERS IN PREPARING HIGH SCHOOL AND POST-HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS FOR AGRICULTURAL SUPPLY OCCUPATIONS. ONE OF A SERIES, THIS MODULE WAS DEVELOPED ON THE BASIS OF STATE STUDIES BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE. THE SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE IS TO PREPARE STUDENTS FOR ENTRY AND ADVANCEMENT IN FERTILIZER SALES AND SERVICE.…

  17. Characteristics of wood chip fuel demand and supply in south-west Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teraoka, Y.; Sato, M.; Ijichi, S. [Faculty of Agriculture, Kagoshima Univ., Kagoshima (Japan)

    2012-11-01

    Although fossil fuel has been still important energy source in Japan, business managers who examine to sift energy source from oil to bio-fuels would increase for reducing CO{sub 2} emission and high energy cost. It would be quite reasonable choice for Japanese people to use woody biomass for energy sources but woody biomass fuel market hasn't been expanded. One of the reasons is that the Japanese timber production, processing and distribution sectors haven't considered the wood fuel production as by-product. Therefore, this study investigated a potential wood chip boiler demand in south-west Japan through a questionnaire survey for industrial sectors. Second aim is to explain the importance of management information such as a quantity of chip fuel production or distribution and a moisture content of chips from the example cases of installed chip boiler facilities. Expected facilities that would introduce a chip boiler are a hotel, a large hospital, a liquor factory and an aquaculture pool. There will be an annual wood chip fuel demand of 0.756 million green-ton (6.0 PJ) in Kagoshima Prefecture. Problems in more chip boilers introduction are a stable fuel supply and fuel moisture control in addition to the reduction of an initial and operational running cost.

  18. Characterization and supply of coal based fuels. Volume 1, Final report and appendix A (Topical report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-06-01

    Studies and data applicable for fuel markets and coal resource assessments were reviewed and evaluated to provide both guidelines and specifications for premium quality coal-based fuels. The fuels supplied under this contract were provided for testing of advanced combustors being developed under Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) sponsorship for use in the residential, commercial and light industrial (RCLI) market sectors. The requirements of the combustor development contractors were surveyed and periodically updated to satisfy the evolving needs based on design and test experience. Available coals were screened and candidate coals were selected for further detailed characterization and preparation for delivery. A team of participants was assembled to provide fuels in both coal-water fuel (CWF) and dry ultrafine coal (DUC) forms. Information about major US coal fields was correlated with market needs analysis. Coal fields with major reserves of low sulfur coal that could be potentially amenable to premium coal-based fuels specifications were identified. The fuels requirements were focused in terms of market, equipment and resource constraints. With this basis, the coals selected for developmental testing satisfy the most stringent fuel requirements and utilize available current deep-cleaning capabilities.

  19. Linking ecosystem service supply to stakeholder concerns on ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Policies to protect coastal resources may lead to greater social, economic, and ecological returns when they consider potential co-benefits and trade-offs on land. In Guánica Bay watershed, Puerto Rico, a watershed management plan is being implemented to restore declining quality of coral reefs due to sediment and nutrient runoff. However, recent stakeholder workshops indicated uncertainty about benefits for the local community. A total of 19 metrics were identified to capture stakeholder concerns, including 15 terrestrial ecosystem services in the watershed and 4 metrics in the coastal zone. Ecosystem service production functions were applied to quantify and map ecosystem service supply in 1) the Guánica Bay watershed and 2) a highly engineered upper multi-watershed area connected to the lower watershed via a series of reservoirs and tunnels. These two watersheds were compared to other watersheds in Puerto Rico. Relative to other watersheds, the Upper Guánica watershed had high air pollutant removal rates, forest habitat area, biodiversity of charismatic and endangered species, but low farmland quality and low sediment retention. The Lower Guánica watershed had high rates of denitrification and high levels of marine-based recreational and fishing opportunities compared to other watersheds, but moderate to low air pollutant removal, soil carbon content, sediment and nutrient retention, and terrestrial biodiversity. Our results suggest that actions in the wat

  20. [Ecosystem services supply and consumption and their relationships with human well-being].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Da-Shang; Zheng, Hua; Ouyang, Zhi-Yun

    2013-06-01

    Sustainable ecosystem services supply is the basis of regional sustainable development, and human beings can satisfy and improve their well-being through ecosystem services consumption. To understand the relationships between ecosystem services supply and consumption and human well-being is of vital importance for coordinating the relationships between the conservation of ecosystem services and the improvement of human well-being. This paper summarized the diversity, complexity, and regionality of ecosystem services supply, the diversity and indispensability of ecosystem services consumption, and the multi-dimension, regionality, and various evaluation indices of human well-being, analyzed the uncertainty and multi-scale correlations between ecosystem services supply and consumption, and elaborated the feedback and asynchronous relationships between ecosystem services and human well-being. Some further research directions for the relationships between ecosystem services supply and consumption and human well-being were recommended.

  1. Study on Market Supply of Rural Public Sports Service in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanjing; ZHU

    2015-01-01

    In the main trend of gradually improving socialist market economy and establishing public service type government,market supply of rural public sports service is necessary. On the basis of unique characteristics of China’s rural society and market experience of domestic and foreign public service,market supply methods were discussed about rural public sports service. However,there are certain factors restricting market supply in this process. On the basis of the analysis,it came up with several optimization measures for market supply of rural public sports service.

  2. Management Practice of Supply Chain Quality Management in Service-oriented Manufacturing Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ping Gu; Ruyi Song; Xuyun Chen

    2017-01-01

    Supply chain quality management (SCQM) in service-oriented manufacturing industries is needed in delivering value to customers in all process of supply chain management based on total quality management (TQM...

  3. Waste biomass toward hydrogen fuel supply chain management for electricity: Malaysia perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Izatul Husna; Ibrahim, Jafni Azhan; Othman, Abdul Aziz

    2016-08-01

    Green energy is becoming an important aspect of every country in the world toward energy security by reducing dependence on fossil fuel import and enhancing better life quality by living in the healthy environment. This conceptual paper is an approach toward determining physical flow's characteristic of waste wood biomass in high scale plantation toward producing gas fuel for electricity using gasification technique. The scope of this study is supply chain management of syngas fuel from wood waste biomass using direct gasification conversion technology. Literature review on energy security, Malaysia's energy mix, Biomass SCM and technology. This paper uses the theoretical framework of a model of transportation (Lumsden, 2006) and the function of the terminal (Hulten, 1997) for research purpose. To incorporate biomass unique properties, Biomass Element Life Cycle Analysis (BELCA) which is a novel technique develop to understand the behaviour of biomass supply. Theoretical framework used to answer the research questions are Supply Chain Operations Reference (SCOR) framework and Sustainable strategy development in supply chain management framework

  4. Future Vehicle Fuel Supply for Swedish Agriculture; Det svenska jordbrukets framtida drivmedelsfoersoerjning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlgren, Serina; Baky, Andras; Bernesson, Sven; Nordberg, Aake; Noren, Olle; Hansson, Per-Anders

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this project was to summarize existing knowledge and bring forward new knowledge, on the opportunities for Swedish agriculture to be supplied with tractor fuel also in a future when fossil oil becomes too rare or too expensive to use. The present use of fossil diesel oil is 2.71 TWh per year in the Swedish agricultural sector. This work examines the replacement of fossil diesel with alternative fuels of the so called first and second generation renewable fuels, based on raw material from both agriculture and forestry. The renewable fuels studied are rape methyl ester (RME), biogas, Fischer-Tropsch diesel (FTD), dimethyl ether (DME) and methanol. The energy balance and costs of the fuels in a system perspective, from production of raw material to use of fuel, have been highlighted in this project. The economic consequences on farm level for switching fuel have also been estimated. The land requirement for first generation renewable fuel varied between 105 000 and 223 000 hectares per year to supply Swedish agriculture with tractor fuel. For second generation fuels residues can be used as raw material, not requiring arable land for food production being set aside for growing energy crops. If short-rotation willow (Salix) is used, the land requirement varied between 143 000 and 330 000 hectares per year. These numbers are non-allocated, i.e. no division between fuel and by-products has been made. In some cases large amount of high quality by-products can occur, for example when producing ethanol, distillers grain is also produced which can be used as animal feed. Part of the land requirement needed for ethanol can therefore be accounted to animal production. For calculation of energy balances economic allocation was used for dividing energy use between fuel and by-products. First generation renewable fuels showed relatively low energy balances, ethanol from winter wheat lowest and ethanol from sugar beet highest. With exception of ethanol from

  5. 42 CFR 410.52 - Home dialysis services, supplies, and equipment: Scope and conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Home dialysis services, supplies, and equipment... Medical and Other Health Services § 410.52 Home dialysis services, supplies, and equipment: Scope and... patient in his or her home: (1) Purchase or rental, installation, and maintenance of all...

  6. Differential Game Analyses of Logistics Service Supply Chain Coordination by Cost Sharing Contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cooperation of all the members in a supply chain plays an important role in logistics service. The service integrator can encourage cooperation from service suppliers by sharing their cost during the service, which we assume can increase the sales by accumulating the reputation of the supply chain. A differential game model is established with the logistics service supply chain that consists of one service integrator and one supplier. And we derive the optimal solutions of the Nash equilibrium without cost sharing contract and the Stackelberg equilibrium with the integrator as the leader who partially shares the cost of the efforts of the supplier. The results make the benefits of the cost sharing contract in increasing the profits of both players as well as the whole supply chain explicit, which means that the cost sharing contract is an effective coordination mechanism in the long-term relationship of the members in a logistics service supply chain.

  7. Should the Defense Fuel Supply Center Trade in the Futures Market?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Market Research and Analysis . This department employs numerous industry economists, market analysts, and Strategic Petroleum Reserve experts. They provide...Contract Review. The actual buying offices include the 2 1nterview between C. Lee, Director of Market Research and Analysis , Defense Fuel Supply Center...redoubled their efforts to dramatically reduce military budgets. 4Interview between C. Lee, Director of Market Research and Analysis , Defense

  8. Experimental investigation on a turbine compressor for air supply system of a fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Masayasu [Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd., Yokosuka (Japan); Tsuchiyama, Syozo [Shipbuilding Research Association, Minato-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    This report covers part of a joint study on a PEFC propulsion system for surface ships, summarized in a presentation to this Seminar, entitled {open_quotes}Study on a Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell (PEFC) Propulsion System for Surface Ships{close_quotes}, and which envisages application to a 1,500 DWT cargo vessel. The aspect treated here concerns a study on the air supply system for the PEFC, with particular reference to system components.

  9. A Determination Method of Optimal Customization Degree of Logistics Service Supply Chain with Mass Customization Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Customization degree is a very important field of mass customization. Its improvement could enhance customer satisfaction and further increase customer demand while correspondingly it will increase service price and decrease customer satisfaction and demand. Therefore this paper discusses how to deal with such issues in logistics service supply chain (LSSC with a logistics service integrator (LSI and a customer. With the establishment of customer demand function for logistics services and profit functions of the LSI and the customer, three different decision modes are proposed (i.e., customization degree dominated by LSI, customization degree dominated by customer, and customization degree decided by concentrated supply chain; many interesting findings are achieved. Firstly, to achieve customization cooperation between LSI and customer, measures should be taken to make the unit increase cost of the customized logistics services lower than a certain value. Secondly, there are differences between the optimal customization degree dominated by LSI and that dominated by customer. And in both cases, the dominator could realize more profit than the follower. Thirdly, with the profit secondary distribution strategy, the modified decentralized decision mode could accomplish the maximum profit achieved in centralized decision mode and meanwhile get the optimal customization degree.

  10. Optimizing energy management of decentralized photovoltaic. Fuel cell - direct storage - power supply units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocklisch, Thilo; Schufft, Wolfgang; Bocklisch, Steffen [Chemnitz Univ. of Technology (TUC) (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents a new optimizing energy management concept for decentralized power supply units. Main goal is the coordinated utilization of dynamically controllable combined-heat-and-power-plants (e.g. fuel cell cogeneration plants) and electrochemical direct storages (e.g. future electric car batteries) for the active balancing of fluctuating renewable energy generation (e.g. building integrated photovoltaics) and fluctuation electricity consumption. The self-utilization and partial storage of renewable energy helps to stabilize the grid in a ''bottom-up'' approach. The new energy mangement concept features a three-layer control structure, which aims for the optimization of the power flows, minimizing the fuel consumption and the dynamic stress imposed onto the fuel cell. (orig.)

  11. Stackable Miniature Fuel Cells with On-Demand Fuel and Oxygen Supply

    OpenAIRE

    Hur, Janet

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation summarizes our progress towards miniature fuel cells that could replace and outperform small batteries to meet various power demands. With increasing need of power being critical for portable electronics, the demand for better batteries continues to grow. Lithium-ion batteries dominate the market at the moment, but the current capacities on the order of 200 Wh/kg are approaching their inherent limits. Many researchers have being pursuing alternative power sources, forming a ...

  12. Remodeling of Rural Public Service Supply Mechanism under the Background of New Village Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Under the background of new village construction, the necessity of remodeling the supply mechanism of rural public service is expounded. It is conducive to improving the capability of public service to satisfy farmers’ demand; to constructing a rural diversified public service system and improving the supply efficiency of rural public goods; to realizing the equalization of urban-rural public services to coordinate urban-rural development. Problems in the supply of Chinese rural public services are analyzed:the demand of rural public goods is enormous, governmental fiscal expenditure is insufficient; social organization is imperfect and public service capability is weak; urban-rural gap is large and the supply of pubic service is unequal; the system of rural public service is single and the functions are imperfect; the market degree of rural public service is low and the efficiency needs improving. In view of these problems, the strategies for remodeling the supply mechanism of rural public service are put forward, covering intensifying the input intensity of the government, expanding the coverage of public services; vigorously supporting the development of social organization and improving its capability of public goods; breaking through dual system and realizing the equalization of urban-rural public service; perfecting rural diversified public services and perfecting its public service functions; promoting the market progress of rural public services and improving the efficiency of public service.

  13. Supply chain management applications for forest fuel procurement. Cost or benefit?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windisch, J.; Roeser, D. (Finnish Forest Research Inst., Joensuu Research Unit (Finland)), email: johannes.windisch@metla.fi; Sikanen, L.; Gritten, D. (Univ. of Eastern Finland, School of Forest Science, Joensuu (Finland))

    2010-07-01

    It is commonly agreed that logistics is very demanding in forest fuel business. Even though logistics and supply chain management (SCM) tools already have found their way into forestry business, for example, in roundwood operations, they are not yet very widespread in the field of forest fuel procurement. The present study investigates if modern supply chain management applications are capable of increasing the profitability of forest fuel procurement operations. Since margins are low, decreasing the provision costs could boost wood-based bioenergy business. The study is based on the investigation of two Finnish forest owners associations (FOA) involved in forest fuel procurement using a modern SCM tool. The investigation is done by cost-benefit analysis (CBA) using the net present value (NPV) methodology to determine the profitability. According to the estimates made by the staff, which are based on data such as work time records and delivery notes from before and after introduction of the new system, in both FOAs, the benefits far outweigh the costs over a considered timespan of ten years. However, the amount of the NPV varied significantly. For FOA1, with an annual chip production of 150 000 loose m3, the NPV is 212 739 euro, while for FOA2, with an annual chip production of 37 000 loose m3, the NPV is 969 841 euro. Even if the NPV of FOA2 seems to be very high, the profitability of SCM tools in forest fuel procurement is clearly demonstrated. Additionally, the results indicate that a considerable cost saving potential in forest fuel procurement is attainable through improving work flows and thus reduce the work input. (orig.)

  14. Adaptive inverse control of air supply flow for proton exchange membrane fuel cell systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chun-hua; ZHU Xin-jian; SUI Sheng; HU Wan-qi; HU Ming-ruo

    2009-01-01

    To prevent the oxygen starvation and improve the system output performance, an adaptive inverse control (AIC) strategy is developed to regulate the air supply flow of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) system in this paper.The PEMFC stack and the air supply system including a compressor and a supply manifold are modeled for the purpose of performance analysis and controller design. A recurrent fuzzy neural network (RFNN) is utilized to identify the inverse model of the controlled system and generates a suitable control input during the abrupt step change of external disturbances.Compared with the PI controller, numerical simulations are performed to validate the effectiveness and advantages of the proposed AIC strategy.

  15. Historical Evolution and Innovation of Supply of Rural Public Cultural Service in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Ning; ZHANG Tao

    2012-01-01

    Based on the analysis of main body,decision making and financing mode concerning the supply of public cultural services in rural areas,we divide historical evolution of rural public cultural services in China into three periods:(i) The period from the founding of New China to the period before " Cultural Revolution" ;(ii) The period from " Cultural Revolution" to the period before the reform and opening-up;(iii) The period after the reform and opening-up.We analyze the defects in the supply of rural public cultural services in China:(i) Difference in the supply of public cultural services between urban and rural areas,caused by urban-rural " dual" structure;(ii) Insufficient supply of rural public cultural services,arising from unclear property rights and executive power of government at all levels;(iii) Structural imbalance in the supply of rural public cultural services,caused by top-down supply decision making mechanism;(iv) Single financing channels of rural public cultural services.From input,decision making,demand expression,financing and endogenous mechanism of supply of rural public cultural services,we put forward the recommendations for improving the supply of public cultural services in China.

  16. 42 CFR 414.330 - Payment for home dialysis equipment, supplies, and support services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment for home dialysis equipment, supplies, and... dialysis equipment, supplies, and support services. Link to an amendment published at 75 FR 49202, Aug. 12..., Medicare pays for home dialysis equipment and supplies only under the prospective payment rates...

  17. A Time Scheduling Model of Logistics Service Supply Chain with Mass Customized Logistics Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing demand for customized logistics services in the manufacturing industry, the key factor in realizing the competitiveness of a logistics service supply chain (LSSC is whether it can meet specific requirements with the cost of mass service. In this case, in-depth research on the time-scheduling of LSSC is required. Setting the total cost, completion time, and the satisfaction of functional logistics service providers (FLSPs as optimal targets, this paper establishes a time scheduling model of LSSC, which is constrained by the service order time requirement. Numerical analysis is conducted by using Matlab 7.0 software. The effects of the relationship cost coefficient and the time delay coefficient on the comprehensive performance of LSSC are discussed. The results demonstrate that with the time scheduling model in mass-customized logistics services (MCLSs environment, the logistics service integrator (LSI can complete the order earlier or later than scheduled. With the increase of the relationship cost coefficient and the time delay coefficient, the comprehensive performance of LSSC also increases and tends towards stability. In addition, the time delay coefficient has a better effect in increasing the LSSC’s comprehensive performance than the relationship cost coefficient does.

  18. A Framework of Sustainable Service Supply Chain Management: A Literature Review and Research Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Liu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the interdisciplinary research of supply chains and sustainability has received extensive, yet gradual, attention; when compared to the rapid economic growth of the service industry, however, sustainable supply chain management has not been systematically explored yet. It has not only great theoretical significance, but also positive practical significance to provide a framework for the operation of a sustainable service supply chain from a sustainable development point of view. Based on the triple bottom line (TBL, we have analyzed related sustainable supply chain management research between 2006 and 2015, reviewed papers involving two or three bottom lines as well, and then introduced some classical frameworks for manufacturing supply chain management and service supply chain management. Afterward, by analyzing the differences between the manufacturing and service industries, we propose a framework of sustainable service supply chain management (SSSCM. Based on the impacts of sustainable development TBL on service supply chain participants, we have finally made a framework for sustainable operation facing triads service supply chain and proposed a future research agenda.

  19. Conceptual Design of 500 watt portable thermophotovoltaic power supply using JP-8 fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBellis, Crispin L.; Scotto, Mark V.; Scoles, Stephen W.; Fraas, Lewis

    1997-03-01

    Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) and JX Crystals (JXC) have developed an innovative design for a compact, 500 watt net electric (We), 24-VDC thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power supply using JP-8 fuel. As currently envisioned, the TPV generator will be approximately 20 cm (8 inches) in diameter and 50 cm (20 inches) high, not including a fuel tank and controls. The total system may weigh as little as 7.5 kg (16.5 lb) without fuel. This system will achieve high efficiency and high power density relative to its size through the use of low bandgap gallium antimonide (GaSb) PV cells and a matched emitter. A thermally integrated fuel vaporizer and recuperator will boost system efficiency by transferring the unused energy in the exhaust stream to the incoming fuel and combustion air. At rated conditions and 500 We output, the system is expected to have an overall efficiency of 8% to 10%. This paper examines the trade-offs between system efficiency, power density, and weight required in the selection and configuration of the major system components.

  20. 31 CFR 560.410 - Exportation, reexportation, sale or supply of services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exportation, reexportation, sale or supply of services. 560.410 Section 560.410 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS Interpretations § 560.410 Exportation, reexportation, sale or supply of services. (a) The...

  1. Coordination mechanism of SaaS service supply chain: Based on compensation contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanli Guo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to build new contracts theories of SaaS service supply chain. Software as a Service (SaaS has become a hot topic in this industry . Compared with traditional manufacturing supply chain and general service supply chain, the new IT service supply chain which based on SaaS has characteristics of both service and IT. And SaaS is completely different from traditional software package model. Therefore the classic contracts, which be widely used in traditional manufacturing supply chain, can’t be directly applied in SaaS service supply chain. The necessary way of IT services developing is to study the SaaS service supply chain combining with characteristics of SaaS. Therefore, It focuses on the coordination of SaaS service supply chain. Design/methodology/approach: It tries to answer the following question: how do the ISV motivate SaaS operators to improve the service level through effective contracts mechanism under conditions of asymmetric information. In order to answer these questions, this paper does some researches including: Under the conditions of information asymmetry, supposing the service level (is related to the degree of effort of SaaS operator was private information, we construct model of compensation contract, i.e., to motivate SaaS operator to improve service level through transfer payments of compensation price. Findings and Originality/value: The study finds out that when ISV get to “positive feedback”, instead of the traditional market equilibrium, compensation contract (linear can coordinate satisfactorily the SaaS service supply chain. In the point of “positive feedback”, the marginal revenue equals the marginal cost, but it is not the equilibrium of ISV’profit-maximization. Research limitations/implications: There are some limitations in this research. In the linear compensation contracts, the compensation price is fixed value. If in the contract, we can create a change value

  2. Tractor Mechanics: Maintaining and Servicing the Fuel System. Learning Activity Packages 20-33.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Learning activity packages are presented for instruction in tractor mechanics. The packages deal with the duties involved in maintaining the fuel system. The following fourteen learning activity packages are included: servicing fuel and air filters, servicing fuel tanks and lines, adjusting a carburetor, servicing a carburetor, servicing the…

  3. Management Practice of Supply Chain Quality Management in Service-oriented Manufacturing Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Gu Ping; Song Ruyi; Chen Xuyun

    2017-01-01

    Supply chain quality management (SCQM) in service-oriented manufacturing industries is needed in delivering value to customers in all process of supply chain management based on total quality management (TQM). In the paper, we identify the latest themes through reviewing prior quality management and supply chain management(SCM) literature. In particular, we find manufacturing firms transform from providing products towards providing services, which means they need to go through fundamental ch...

  4. A Framework of Sustainable Service Supply Chain Management: A Literature Review and Research Agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Weihua Liu; Enze Bai; Liwei Liu; Wanying Wei

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the interdisciplinary research of supply chains and sustainability has received extensive, yet gradual, attention; when compared to the rapid economic growth of the service industry, however, sustainable supply chain management has not been systematically explored yet. It has not only great theoretical significance, but also positive practical significance to provide a framework for the operation of a sustainable service supply chain from a sustainable development point of vi...

  5. Research on TPL Service Level and Pricing Models in Supply Chain Coordination and Benefits Allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Ju Chunhua; Bao Fuguang; Wang Zongge

    2013-01-01

    Research on the method to strengthen the cooperation among members to achieve win-win result is an important subject in SCM. Nevertheless, most studies to date on supply chain pricing have only assumed that the market demand is only influenced by retail price but not by logistics service level. That is why our work is concerned with logistics service and product pricing strategies in supply chain consisting of the manufacturer, the retailer and the TPL provider. For three-echelon supply chain...

  6. Community-based management of water supply services

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mogane-Ramahotswa, B

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important aspects of suitability of water supply is the ability of the community to manage its own scheme. Unlike in urban settlement institutional arrangements for rural water supply are rudimentary. Over the past decade...

  7. The program cyberdiesel for mathematical modeling of fuel supply and local intracylinder processes in a diesel engine with volumetric carburetion

    OpenAIRE

    Maschenko, V. Yu.

    2007-01-01

    The program CyberDiesel is developed on the basis of complex mathematical model of fuel supply and local intracylinder processes in a diesel engine with volumetric carburetion. The program is intended for solving practical problems of coordinating constructive and adjusting parameters of fuel equipment and combustion chamber of a diesel engine by mathematical modeling methods.

  8. Coordination challenges on marrying information technology with service supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Yan; Akkermans, Henk

    2016-01-01

    Information technology (IT) advancement is boosting service innovations, and transforms service platforms towards highly or completely IT-enabled. The increasing extent of digitalization and the high rate of innovation makes service delivery processes highly automated and service platforms highly in

  9. Arizona Public Service - Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James E. Francfort

    2003-12-01

    Hydrogen has promise to be the fuel of the future. Its use as a chemical reagent and as a rocket propellant has grown to over eight million metric tons per year in the United States. Although use of hydrogen is abundant, it has not been used extensively as a transportation fuel. To assess the viability of hydrogen as a transportation fuel and the viability of producing hydrogen using off-peak electric energy, Pinnacle West Capital Corporation (PNW) and its electric utility subsidiary, Arizona Public Service (APS) designed, constructed, and operates a hydrogen and compressed natural gas fueling station—the APS Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant. This report summarizes the design of the APS Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant and presents lessons learned from its design and construction. Electric Transportation Applications prepared this report under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory manages these activities for the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity.

  10. Modelling healthcare internal service supply chains for the analysis of medication delivery errors and amplification effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banafsheh Behzad

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Healthcare is a universally used service that hugely affects economies and the quality of life. The research of service supply chains has found a significant role in the past decade. The main research goal of this paper is to model and simulate the internal service supply chains of a healthcare system to study the effects of different parameters on the outputs and capability measures of the processes. The specific objectives are to analyse medication delivery errors in a community hospital based on the results of the models and to explore the presence of bullwhip effect in the internal service supply chains of the hospital.Design/methodology/approach: System dynamics which is an approach for understanding the behaviour of complex systems, used as a methodology to model two internal service supply chains of the hospital with a sub-model created to simulate medication delivery errors in the hospital. The models are validated using the actual data of the hospital and the results are analyzed based on experimental design techniques.Findings: It is observed that the bullwhip effect may not occur in a hospital’s internal service supply chains. Furthermore the paper points out the conditions for reducing the medication delivery error in a hospital.Research limitations/implications: Because of the community hospital’s data availability the type of service supply chains modelled in this paper, are small service supply chains, representing only the tasks which are done inside the hospital. To better observe the bullwhip effect in healthcare service supply chains, the chains should be modelled more generally.Originality/value: The original system dynamics modelling of the internal service supply chains of a community hospital, with a sub-model simulating the medication delivery error.

  11. Explosion protection of fuel supply systems.; Explosionsschutz im Bereich der Brennstoffversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoetger, Jens; Klose, Stephanie [DMT GmbH und Co. KG, Dortmund (Germany). Zentrum fuer Brand- und Explosionsschutz

    2013-10-01

    Due to the flammability of the substances used, the risk of explosions cannot be excluded in the fuel supply system of power plants. In contrast to flammable gases and liquids, solid combustibles are normally handled in the presence of air. The fine portion of these combustibles is able to form explosive atmospheres. The use of imported coals requires reviewing the risk assessment of explosion protection. The use of biomass also requires detailed assessment of explosion risks based on the properties of the substances. (orig.)

  12. FUEL SERVICES: Customer focused on Product Support during the whole Life Time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langenberger, J.; Hummel, W.

    2015-07-01

    For more than 40 years, Fuel Services of AREVA has been delivering devices and providing on-site services primary at LWR worldwide. We support our worldwide customers in achieving safe and economic operation of the fuel assemblies (FA) and core components (CC) and have received excellent feedback from them. But the Fuel Services support goes beyond on-site activities. (Author)

  13. Cradle-to-Grave Nuclear Fuel Supply Assurance Workshop: Industry’s Potential Role

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengelsdorf, Harold (Hal); Hund, Gretchen; Kessler, Carol E.; Mahy, Heidi A.; McGoldrick, Fred; Seward, Amy M.

    2007-09-30

    The Pacific Northwest Center for Global Security hosted a workshop on June 6, 2007 in Washington D.C. to discuss the feasibility, merits and implications of the United States offering cradle-to-grave nuclear fuel cycle services to other countries. The workshop consisted of a small group of senior individuals from the private sector, government and the national laboratories. The workshop is summarized and recommendations given.

  14. Cradle-to-Grave Nuclear Fuel Supply Assurance Workshop: Industry’s Potential Role

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengelsdorf, Harold (Hal); Hund, Gretchen; Kessler, Carol E.; Mahy, Heidi A.; McGoldrick, Fred; Seward, Amy M.

    2007-09-30

    The Pacific Northwest Center for Global Security hosted a workshop on June 6, 2007 in Washington D.C. to discuss the feasibility, merits and implications of the United States offering cradle-to-grave nuclear fuel cycle services to other countries. The workshop consisted of a small group of senior individuals from the private sector, government and the national laboratories. The workshop is summarized and recommendations given.

  15. ELECTRONIC CONTROL FOR FUEL SUPPLY OF DIESEL ENGINE ON THE BASIS OF PROGRAMMABLE PID-REGULATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Bakhanovich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a schematic diagram of the Euro-3 diesel engine electronic control and describes hard- and software platform of the high pressure fuel pump pneumatic actuator control that allows to realize the concept of electronic fuel supply control of diesel engine KamAZ-740. The strategic dependence beetwen the angular position of fuel pump governor lever and the angular position of electronic accelerator pedal were put on the basis of electronic control concept. Implementation of this dependence was carried out by applying a modulated PWM signal with determined duty cycle by the controller to the coil proportional solenoid valve, which is responsible for the amount of air pressure in the working chamber of the power air cylinder, connected by articulated-type to the governor lever of the high pressure fuel pump. In this case, the feedback control by position of governor lever of the high pressure fuel pump was introduced in the control circuit, but engine crankshaft speed control was carried out using a software continuous PID governor. Developed strategy gives possibility to track the deflection  of control parameter from a predetermined value by real-time and almost instantly, to make a control action on actuators to eliminate this deflection, while providing a minimum time of transition. Governor’s setting (proportional, integral and differential component performed empirically using the classical Ziegler – Nichols method, based on the analysis of the safety factor of automatic control system. The results of calculating the coefficients of proportional integral-differential regulator and oscillograms HIL experiment on testing the proposed diesel engine throttle control strategies using visualization CoDeSys V2.3 are given in activity.

  16. [State of supply services for industrial hygiene and safety in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varona, Marcela E; Torres, Carlos Humberto; Díaz, Sonia M; Palma, Ruth Marién; Checa, Diana Milena; Conde, Juan Vicente

    2012-01-01

    Institutions that supply occupational health services must offer services that are reliable and of high quality across the spectrum of industrial hygiene and safety needs. Services for occupational health were identified at several institutions, and the technical quality and reliability of these services were compared in different regions of Colombia. This descriptive study identified the services available for industrial hygiene and safety in 15 cities of Colombia. A survey was conducted in 192 institutions offering such services and a statistical analysis of these results was undertaken. This sample was taken from a nationwide list of institutions purportedly licensed for this activity. Thirty-two percent (61) of the evaluated institutions provided hygiene services, and 48% (93) provided safety services. The range of health services was provided on a subcontract basis both for professional personnel and the equipment. Six institutions in the area of industrial hygiene and 1 in the area of industrial security were supplying services with pending or suspended institutional licenses. Deficiencies in the quality, infrastructure and levels of automation were identified at institutions that supply services of hygiene and industrial security. The resulting recommendatios are that the Ministry of the Social Protection fortifies mechanisms for (1) the evaluation and control of the supplied services, and (2) verify that the institutional activity is in accordance with current and valid licensing.

  17. Quality effort decision in service supply chain with quality preference based on quantum game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cuihua; Xing, Peng; Wang, Jianwei

    2015-04-01

    Service quality preference behaviors of both members are considered in service supply chain (SSC) including a service integrator and a service provider with stochastic demand. Through analysis of service quality cost and revenue, the utility functions are established on service quality effort degree and service quality preference level in integrated and decentralized SSC. Nash equilibrium and quantum game are used to optimize the models. By comparing the different solutions, the optimal strategies are obtained in SSC with quality preference. Then some numerical examples are studied and the changing trend of service quality effort is further analyzed by the influence of the entanglement operator and quality preferences.

  18. The determination of disparity between supply and demand in services market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macura Perica

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Respecting the principles of analytics, systematization and comprehensiveness, the paper deals with the frames of disparity between supply and demand in services market. The basic reasons for disparity are systematically divided into five groups: (1 reasons for problems in the area of information on supply and demand, (2 reasons for problems in the area of parallel functioning of the gray market, (3 reasons for problems in the area of psychological conditions and perceptions of consumers, (4 reasons for problems in the area of social and economic situation, (5 reasons in the area of institutional functioning. These groups contain reasons of the general character and reasons in individual areas and flows. The analysis of disparity has been conducted via relevant relations of demand and supply that exist in services market, as follows: (1 the relation of supply of services provided by companies towards adequate forms of demand (other companies, institutions, population, (2 the relation of institutions' supply of services toward adequate forms of demand (all companies, population and (3 the relation of unofficial supply of services toward adequate demand (population. Within basic prerequisites for the solution to disparity of demand and supply in the service sector, we have especially emphasized and analyzed personnel potential. We have analyzed elements and problems of the labor market, available personnel potential (personnel potential of the employed and the unemployed, as well as latent personnel potential.

  19. Consumers' risk elimination in fuel supply chain. The Attica's Marinas yacht fuelling case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liapis, Nikolaos [ELINOIL-HELLENIC PETROLEUM COMPANY, S.A., Kifisia (Greece); Zannikos, Fanourios [National Technical Univ. of Athens (Greece). Lab. of Fuels Technology and Lubricants

    2013-06-01

    Oil products distribution system is a complicated supply chain and includes a lot of uncertainties. A limited but quite interesting part of this system is yachting supply in marinas. Yachts usually are equipped with high efficiency and big horsepower modem engines; sea travelling is risky itself so fuel quality contributes significant in safety; many of the yachts are chartered for hired cruises and so operators have the right to purchase tax-free marine diesel, which creates conditions for smuggling and adulteration. All above create a great need for quality control in these fuels, as Greek oil companies do not apply at the moment Total Quality Management (TQM) for securing both quality specifications and quantity paid by the end user. In this research project the Laboratory of Fuel Technology and Lubricants of NTUA collected samples and analysed fuels delivered by tank trucks to yachts in six marinas in the district of Attica. These fuels were marketed by ELINOIL SA, a medium size oil distribution company, operating in Greece. ELINOIL has a market share of 6% of the Greek fuel market but is a market leader in yachting supply in Attica, having more than 50% of the specific market. Problems concerning fuel quality were analysed, direct or indirect causes were tracked, recorded and analysed, always in comparison with data from other Quality Control procedures applied from the company. A specially developed database was updated with facts and figures from incidents and quality issues covering this activity of the company during this period. The project, as it was targeted, detected the quality problems of the specific supply chain and ended to suggestions concerning the building of Quality Assurance System in yachting fuel supply. (orig.)

  20. Computers and the supply of radiology services: anatomy of a disruptive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Frank

    2008-10-01

    Over the next decade, computers will augment the supply of radiology services at a time when reimbursement rules are likely to tighten. Increased supply and slower growing demand will result in a radiology market that is more competitive, with less income growth, than the market of the past 15 years.

  1. Steam and fuel oil supply and purge valve with cooling steam feature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, B.F.; Buchanan, J.R.

    1991-09-17

    This patent describes a steam and fuel oil supply and purge valve. It comprises a valve body defining steam and oil inlet ports, at least one discharge port, a steam purge passageway interconnecting the steam inlet and discharge ports, an oil supply passageway interconnecting the oil inlet and discharge ports, a cooling steam passageway interconnecting the steam inlet and discharge ports, a steam valve and actuator member movable between first, second, third, and fourth positions in the valve body and operable to open and close the steam purge and cooling steam passageways, a small metering passageway in the steam valve and actuator member which is so dimensioned and located as to open prior to full opening movement of the valve member and actuator relative to its seat, an oil valve member movable between first and second positions to open and close the oil supply passageway, biasing means urging the oil valve member toward its second and closed positions, the steam valve and actuator member in its first and second positions respectively closing and opening the steam purge passageway.

  2. Analysis on Relationship between Supply-demand Coordination and Performance of Logistics Service Supply Chain: An Empirical Study from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-hua Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to discuss the relationship between supply-demand coordination and performance of Logistics Service Supply Chain (LSSC and help managers to understand which factors make significant influence on the performance of LSSC. In this paper, a correlation model for supply-demand coordination and performance analysis is presented, and then the survey method is adopted to conduct an empirical study. With software SPSS 15.0, the hypotheses are verified with multiple regression equations. The results show that the working efficiency of Functional Logistics Service Provider (FLSP, the training for FLSP, the order allocation fairness of Logistics Service Integrator (LSI and the uncertain degree of LSI’s order demand are positive to the cooperation performance. The level of information system sharing has no effect on cooperation satisfaction degree of FLSP. For the factors that have effect on cooperation satisfaction, LSI is more concerned about the efficiency of FLSP, while FLSP is more concerned about the cooperation profits. There is a big difference between their focuses. In order to successfully complete the cooperation of LSSC, the managers of LSI and FLSP must understand the each other's concerns, seek common ground while reserving differences, establish the strategic partnership, reduce the information asymmetry and improve satisfaction of cooperation.

  3. Procurement risk management practices and supply chain performance among mobile phone service providers in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Emily Adhiambo Okonjo; Peterson Obara Magutu; Richard Bitange Nyaoga

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the relationship between procurement risk management practices and supply chain performance among mobile phone service providers in Kenya. The study specifically set out to establish the extent to which mobile phone service providers have implemented procurement risk management practices and to determine the relationship between procurement risk management practices and supply chain performance. The study adopted a descriptive study design by collecting ...

  4. Mapping tsunami impacts on land cover and related ecosystem service supply in Phang Nga, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, G.; Burkhard, B.; Römer, H.; Sangkaew, S.; Graterol, R.; Haitook, T.; Sterr, H.; Sakuna-Schwartz, D.

    2013-12-01

    The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami caused damages to coastal ecosystems and thus affected the livelihoods of the coastal communities who depend on services provided by these ecosystems. The paper presents a case study on evaluating and mapping the spatial and temporal impacts of the tsunami on land use and land cover (LULC) and related ecosystem service supply in the Phang Nga province, Thailand. The method includes local stakeholder interviews, field investigations, remote-sensing techniques, and GIS. Results provide an ecosystem services matrix with capacity scores for 18 LULC classes and 17 ecosystem functions and services as well as pre-/post-tsunami and recovery maps indicating changes in the ecosystem service supply capacities in the study area. Local stakeholder interviews revealed that mangroves, casuarina forest, mixed beach forest, coral reefs, tidal inlets, as well as wetlands (peat swamp forest) have the highest capacity to supply ecosystem services, while e.g. plantations have a lower capacity. The remote-sensing based damage and recovery analysis showed a loss of the ecosystem service supply capacities in almost all LULC classes for most of the services due to the tsunami. A fast recovery of LULC and related ecosystem service supply capacities within one year could be observed for e.g. beaches, while mangroves or casuarina forest needed several years to recover. Applying multi-temporal mapping the spatial variations of recovery could be visualised. While some patches of coastal forest were fully recovered after 3 yr, other patches were still affected and thus had a reduced capacity to supply ecosystem services. The ecosystem services maps can be used to quantify ecological values and their spatial distribution in the framework of a tsunami risk assessment. Beyond that they are considered to be a useful tool for spatial analysis in coastal risk management in Phang Nga.

  5. The turbulent liquid fuel industry in Zimbabwe: options for resolving the crisis and improving supply to the poor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashange, Krispen [Department of Energy, Harare (Zimbabwe)

    2002-09-01

    Towards the end of the last decade, supplies in petroleum fuel have been erratic to the extent that Zimbabwe has at times operated with as low as 40% of normal supplies. These shortages were attributed mainly to foreign exchange shortages and alleged mismanagement and corruption at the National Oil Company of Zimbabwe (NOCZIM). As shortages intensified, problems of product shortage began to unfold, which adversely impacted on the urban poor. The public began to question the industry's policies on the sustainability of the liquid fuel sector policies in Zimbabwe. Of particular concern was policies regarding regulatory mechanisms, pricing, distribution, utilisation of storage facilities, supply routes and NOCZIM management. This paper evaluates the challenges facing the Zimbabwean petroleum sector and presents recommendations that could assist in ensuring a robust and functional national fuel sector. (Author)

  6. Balancing dental service requirements and supplies: the economic evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furino, A; Douglass, C W

    1990-12-01

    A conceptual model of the market for dental services is described. The model is based on principles of demand and production theory and the applications of those principles to the dental industry. The model highlights the significance of relevant economic indicators which are discussed to create an awareness of and, when possible, explain the challenges awaiting dentistry in the decades to come. It is concluded that, while dental service expenditures per dentist are likely to increase, larger portions of the population may not be able to afford dental care if prices of dental services continue to increase faster than individual budgets.

  7. Analysis and algorithms for service parts supply chains

    CERN Document Server

    Muckstadt, John A

    2005-01-01

    Services requiring parts has become a $1.5 trillion business annually worldwide, creating a tremendous incentive to manage the logistics of these parts efficiently by making planning and operational decisions in a rational and rigorous manner. This book provides a broad overview of modeling approaches and solution methodologies for addressing service parts inventory problems found in high-powered technology and aerospace applications. The focus in this work is on the management of high cost, low demand rate service parts found in multi-echelon settings. This unique book, with its breadth of topics and mathematical treatment, begins by first demonstrating the optimality of an order-up-to policy [or (s-1,s)] in certain environments. This policy is used in the real world and studied throughout the text. The fundamental mathematical building blocks for modeling and solving applications of stochastic process and optimization techniques to service parts management problems are summarized extensively. A wide range o...

  8. Managing the Services Supply Chain in the Department of Defense: Empirical Study of the Current Management Practices in the Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-21

    Managing the Services Supply Chain in the Department of Defense: Empirical Study of the Current Management Practices in the Army 21 September...Managing the Services Supply Chain in the Department of Defense: Empirical Study of the Current Management Practices in the Army 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...Service Supply Chain , Services Acquisition, Service Lifecycle, Contract Management, Project Management, Program Management = = ^Åèìáëáíáçå=oÉëÉ~êÅÜ

  9. Benefits and Barriers of Information and Communication Technologies Adoption in Facilities Management Services Supply Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scupola, Ada

      This paper presents the results of a study of factors impacting information and communication technology (ICT) adoption in the supply chain of facilities management services. The research questions addressed in this study are: What are the key factors that influence adoption and assimilation...... results show that there are a number of factors that influence adoption and assimilation of ICT in the supply chain of facilities management services, which have been grouped into organizational, technology and environmental factors. The study is relevant to researchers of ICT adoption, supply chain...

  10. Estimating spatially specific demand and supply of dental services: a longitudinal comparison in Northern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendicke, Falk; Jäger, Ralf; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Jordan, Rainer A; van den Berg, Neeltje

    2016-09-01

    Assessing the spatial distribution of oral morbidity-related demand and the workforce-related supply is relevant for planning dental services. We aimed to establish and validate a model for estimating the spatially specific demand and supply. This model was then applied to compare demand-supply ratios in 2001 and 2011 in the federal state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (Northern Germany). The spatial units were zip code areas. Demand per area was estimated by linking population-specific oral morbidities to working times via insurance claim data. Estimated demand was validated against the provided demand in 2001 and 2011. Supply was calculated for both years using cohort data from the dentist register. The ratio of demand and supply was geographically mapped and its distribution between areas assessed using the Gini coefficient. Between 2001 and 2011, a significant decrease of the general population (-7.0 percent), the annual demand (-13.1 percent), and the annual supply (-12.9 percent) was recorded. The estimated demands were nearly (2001: -4 percent) and completely (2011: ±0 percent) congruent with provided demands. The average demand-supply-ratio did not change significantly between 2001 and 2011 (P > 0.05), but was increasingly unequally distributed. In both years, few areas were over-serviced, while many were under-serviced. The established model can be used to estimate spatially specific demand and supply. © 2016 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  11. Integration of service providers into supply chain services and waste disposal transports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedekind, Saskia; Haasis, Hans-Dietrich

    2004-02-01

    An increasing number of manufacturers is responsible for the complete lifecycle of their products and they must create efficient and effective circular flow economic systems. The quality of these material and product cycles depend on the logistical processes and the development of logistic concepts, which have to suffer economic and ecological aims. The complexity of the different circular economic systems need the co-operation of the different participants in order to integrate the different core abilities. The aim of this contribution is to describe the possibilities of the service providers in combining services and transports of supply and waste disposal. As well as to represent their advantages, disadvantages and possible barriers. It was possible to refer to conclusions of the research project "Konfiguration von kooperativen Kreislaufwirtschaftssystemen unter besonderer Ber'cksichtigung von Logistikdienstleistern" within the scope of the Research Center of Logistics at the University of Bremen (FoLo). The research work was carried out in a closed collaboration of the following institutes and enterprises: University of Bremen, the Institute of Shipping Economics and Logistics (ISL) and the BLG International Logistics GmbH & Co.

  12. Exploring Different Order Decision Behaviors with Bullwhip Effect and Service Level Measures in Supply Chain System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuoqun Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since decision makers’ bounded rationality would impact supply chain performance, it is necessary to explore how the individual decisions work in the supply chain. This paper investigates bullwhip effect variation and service level tendency while the decisions are made by different decision makers. Based on the existing study results, the paper establishes a system dynamics model of supply chain conforming to modern supply chain characters. In the model, two adjustment parameters are adopted to describe individual differences in decision makers. The simulation result demonstrates that the behavioral adjustment with different extent results in different supply chain performance. The impact of two parameters is very different. The decision makers should try to avoid the overadjustment to the scarcity of supply from their upstream member.

  13. Rangeland Ecosystem Services: Nature's Supply and Human's Demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecosystem services are the benefits that society receives from nature and they include the regulation of climate, the pollination of crops, the provisioning of intellectual inspiration and recreational environment, as well as many essential goods such as food, fiber, and wood. Rangeland ecosystem se...

  14. PWR-FBR with closed fuel cycle for a sustainable nuclear energy supply in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Mi

    2007-01-01

    From the thermal reactor to the fast reactor and then to the fusion reactor; this is the three-step strategy that has been decided for a sustainable nuclear energy supply in China. As the main thermal reactor type, the commercialized development phase of the pressurized water reactor (PWR) has been stepped up. The development of the fast reactor (FBR) is still in the early stage, marked by China experimental fast reactor (CEFR), which is currently under construction. According to the strategy study on the fast reactor development in China, its engineering development will be divided into three steps: the CEFR with a power of 65 MWt 20 Mwe; the China prototype fast reactor (CPFR) with a power of 1 500 MWt/600 Mwe; and the China demonstration fast reactor (CDFR) with a power of 2 500-3 750 MWt 1 000-1 500 Mwe. With regards to the fuel cycle, a 100 ta PWR spent fuel reprocessing pilot plant and a 500 kg/a MOX fabrication plant are under construction. A project involving the construction of an industrial reprocessing plant and an MOX fabrication plant are also under application phase.

  15. Component development for 500 watt diesel fueled portable thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBellis, Crispin L.; Scotto, Mark V.; Fraas, Lewis; Samaras, John; Watson, Ron C.; Scoles, Stephen W.

    1999-03-01

    McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI) and JX Crystals have developed an innovative design for a compact, 500-watt, thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power supply using diesel fuel. Under a contract with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and managed by the U.S. Army Communications-Electronics Command (CECOM), this design is being reduced to hardware. Prototypes of the two main subsystems, the power converter assembly (PCA) and the burner/emitter/recuperator (BER), have been designed, fabricated, and tested. The PCA uses low-band-gap gallium antimonide (GaSb) photovoltaic (PV) cells for high efficiency and power density. The prototype PCA will be air cooled for system simplicity and portability. However, initial testing was performed on a water-cooled PCA. The BER uses a thermal vaporizer to produce a stable, high-intensity, low-emissions combustion zone inside an impervious emitter. A thermally integrated recuperator is utilized to boost system efficiency by transferring the unused energy in the exhaust stream to the incoming fuel and combustion air. This paper describes the design, testing and performance of the first-generation PCA and BER along with model predictions used for design and evaluation.

  16. Analyzing opportunities for energy conservation in municipal fleet management: service delivery patterns, equipment, supply, operations, and maintenance. Information bulletin of the energy task force of the urban consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    Vehicle fleet management as a five-step process is portrayed and the multiple energy conservation opportunities within each step are examined. The five steps described are, configuration of service area and service delivery patterns, equipping the fleet, operating the fleet, maintaining the fleet, and supplying the fleet with fuel. A systems approach to decision making about municipal fleets is outlined. Management options, control techniques, and devices are suggested for each of the five steps. Reference is made to analytic tools which will assist in deliberating options at each of these steps. These tools are presented in a list. Four concise case studies of jurisdictions which are taking deliberate steps to reduce fuel use are presented. Key opportunities for fuel conservation are then summarized, followed by a selected bibliography, and listing of reference materials and additional resources.

  17. Strategic network design of Java Island fuel supply with production-transportation solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianawati, Fauzia; Farizal, -; Surjandari, Isti; Marzuli, Rully

    2011-10-01

    This study aims to find more efficient supply network, from refineries / imports to fuel terminal, which still uses the Tanker, Tank Trucks or Rail Tank Wagon with an alternative pipeline that are considered more efficient than other transport modes, as well as gaining pipeline transportation network optimization analysis tailored to the capabilities/ capacity of refinery production and capacity of the pipe mode. With the complexity of the number of 3 point sources of supply, 19 destination of terminal, 4 kinds of products and 4 types of transport modes, transport-production model modified by adding multi-modal transport and investment costs of new pipeline. Then coded in Lingo program which adopts Branch & Bound technique and input the processed data in order to obtain an optimal distribution pattern produced the lowest distribution costs. This B&B solution was also compared with SCO solution which is a metaheuristic method. The results of this study lead to the development of new modes of pipeline connections in amount of 4 alternatives, generated from the optimal solution, but still potentially earned savings of about IDR 1 Trillion per year from cost-efficiency of product procurement and transportation costs.

  18. Stochastic Optimization of Supply Chain Risk Measures –a Methodology for Improving Supply Security of Subsidized Fuel Oil in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adinda Yuanita

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Monte Carlo simulation-based methods for stochastic optimization of risk measures is required to solve complex problems in supply security of subsidized fuel oil in Indonesia. In order to overcome constraints in distribution of subsidized fuel in Indonesia, which has the fourth largest population in the world—more than 250,000,000 people with 66.5% of productive population, and has more than 17,000 islands with its population centered around the nation's capital only—it is necessary to have a measurable and integrated risk analysis with monitoring system for the purpose of supply security of subsidized fuel. In consideration of this complex issue, uncertainty and probability heavily affected this research. Therefore, this research did the Monte Carlo sampling-based stochastic simulation optimization with the state-of-the-art "FIRST" parameter combined with the Sensitivity Analysis to determine the priority of integrated risk mitigation handling so that the implication of the new model design from this research may give faster risk mitigation time. The results of the research identified innovative ideas of risk based audit on supply chain risk management and new FIRST (Fairness, Independence, Reliable, Sustainable, Transparent parameters on risk measures. In addition to that, the integration of risk analysis confirmed the innovative level of priority on sensitivity analysis. Moreover, the findings showed that the new risk mitigation time was 60% faster than the original risk mitigation time.

  19. Supply and demand in physician markets: a panel data analysis of GP services in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Ian; Butler, James R G

    2014-09-01

    To understand the trends in any physician services market it is necessary to understand the nature of both supply and demand, but few studies have jointly examined supply and demand in these markets. This study uses aggregate panel data on general practitioner (GP) services at the Statistical Local Area level in Australia spanning eight years to estimate supply and demand equations for GP services. The structural equations of the model are estimated separately using population-weighted fixed effects panel modelling with the two stage least squares formulation of the generalised method of moments approach (GMM (2SLS)). The estimated price elasticity of demand of [Formula: see text] is comparable with other studies. The direct impact of GP density on demand, while significant, proves almost immaterial in the context of near vertical supply curves. Supply changes are therefore due to shifts in the position of the curves, partly determined by a time trend. The model is validated by comparing post-panel model predictions with actual market outcomes over a period of three years and is found to provide surprisingly accurate projections over a period of significant policy change. The study confirms the need to jointly consider supply and demand in exploring the behaviour of physician services markets.

  20. Integrated Electrical Power Supply System for Propulsion and Service Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-08-16

    propellers with hydraulically controlled pitch for ship propulsion . In such arrangement of equipment, two gas turbines customarily drive each of two...availability of commercial technology presently utilized on cruise ships having service equipment loads larger than their ship propulsion loads. However...accentuated on naval combat ships wherein a larger proportion of the power is utilized for ship propulsion purposes and operational efficiency is of

  1. Managing the Services Supply Chain in the Department of Defense: An Empirical Study of Current Management Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-23

    of services and the increasing importance of services acquisition offer a unique and significant opportunity for conducting research in the management of the service supply chain in the Department of Defense.

  2. Defense Inventory: Further Analysis and Enhanced Metrics Could Improve Service Supply and Depot Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    to be used up beyond recovery or repair—and provides these items to the services when requisitioned in support of approximately 2,400 weapon...distribution functions for depot maintenance operations varies across the services . For example, the Air Force and DLA have agreed to a local recovery ...DEFENSE INVENTORY Further Analysis and Enhanced Metrics Could Improve Service Supply and Depot Operations Report

  3. Measurement and control system for a fuel supply plant at an airport; Kuko kyuyu plant no keisoku seigyo system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-10

    Air transportation demand is increasing internationally both for passengers and cargoes. A number of Asian countries intend to have a hub airport for Asia, and moving forward building new airports and expanding the existing airports. In the area of airport fuel supply, Fuji Electric has received an order from the Inchon International Airport Public Corporation of Korea a measurement and control system, and is making adjustments at site now. This system is a high-reliability open system which links the controller (ICS-2000), FOCUS, and a UNIX computer by the information LAN and the control LAN according to Ethernet, and duplicates the control LAN. On the other hand, the system has such functions as control of aircraft fuel from receiving from a pipeline to filling it into a storage tank, control of rotation speed of delivery pumps and control of the number thereof for operation, thus attempting automation of fuel supply to aircraft. (translated by NEDO)

  4. METHODOLOGY FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF RFID VALUE ADDED SERVICES TO IMPROVE SUPPLY CHAIN OPERATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Sobottka, Thomas; Leitner, René; Sihn, Wilfried

    2012-01-01

    Despite the potential of RFID technologies to improve supply chain operations and control, RFID projects – especially in production heavy sectors – are often restricted to basic recognition functionalities, leaving much of the vast potential to improve supply chain operations and control unharnessed. This paper aims at providing a procedure to identify advanced value added services based on the RFID technology, tailor made to companies’ specific requirements. Considering all relevant processe...

  5. The logistics and the supply chain in the Juzbado Nuclear Fuel Manufacturing Plant; Cadena logistica en la fabrica de elementos combustibles de Juzbado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The paper describe the logistics and the supply chain in the Juzbado Nuclear Fuel Manufacturing Plant, located in Juzbado in the province of Salamanca. In the the article are described the principal elements in the supply chain and the difficulties of its management derived from the short period for the manufacturing of the nuclear fuel. It's also given a view in relation to the transportation by land sea of the nuclear components, uranium oxide powder and the manufactured fuel. The characteristics of the supply chain are determined by the plant production forecast, by the origin and high technology of the raw materials and by nuclear fuel delivery site locations. (Author)

  6. Procurement risk management practices and supply chain performance among mobile phone service providers in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Adhiambo Okonjo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to establish the relationship between procurement risk management practices and supply chain performance among mobile phone service providers in Kenya. The study specifically set out to establish the extent to which mobile phone service providers have implemented procurement risk management practices and to determine the relationship between procurement risk management practices and supply chain performance. The study adopted a descriptive study design by collecting data from the four (4 mobile telecommunication companies in Kenya using a self-administered questionnaire. Means, standard deviation, and regression analysis were used to analyze the data collected. The study established that most of the mobile phone service providers in Kenya had implemented procurement risk management practices. It was also clear that there was a very significant relationship between procurement risk management practices and supply chain performance.

  7. Analysis of liquid water formation in polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell flow fields with a dry cathode supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gößling, Sönke; Klages, Merle; Haußmann, Jan; Beckhaus, Peter; Messerschmidt, Matthias; Arlt, Tobias; Kardjilov, Nikolay; Manke, Ingo; Scholta, Joachim; Heinzel, Angelika

    2016-02-01

    PEM fuel cells can be operated within a wide range of different operating conditions. In this paper, the special case of operating a PEM fuel cell with a dry cathode supply and without external humidification of the cathode, is considered. A deeper understanding of the water management in the cells is essential for choosing the optimal operation strategy for a specific system. In this study a theoretical model is presented which aims to predict the location in the flow field at which liquid water forms at the cathode. It is validated with neutron images of a PEM fuel cell visualizing the locations at which liquid water forms in the fuel cell flow field channels. It is shown that the inclusion of the GDL diffusion resistance in the model is essential to describe the liquid water formation process inside the fuel cell. Good agreement of model predictions and measurement results has been achieved. While the model has been developed and validated especially for the operation with a dry cathode supply, the model is also applicable to fuel cells with a humidified cathode stream.

  8. Medication supply and management in rural Queensland: views of key informants in health service provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Amy Chen Wee; Emmerton, Lynne; Hattingh, Laetitia; Jarvis, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    Rural settings challenge health care providers to provide optimal medication services in a manner that is timely and of high quality. Extending the roles of rural health care providers is often necessary to improve access to medication services; however, there appears to be a lack of pharmacy-based involvement and support within the medication system. This article explores medication supply and management issues in rural settings, based on the governance perspectives of key informants on regulatory aspects, policy, and professional practice. The specific objectives were to (1) identify the key issues and existing facilitators and (2) explore the potential roles of pharmacy to improve medication supply and management services. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with representatives within regulatory or professional organizations. The participants were key informants who held leadership and/or managerial roles within their respective organizations and were recruited to provide insights from a governance perspective before data collection in the community. An interview guide, informed by the literature, assisted the flow of interviews, exploring topics, such as key issues, existing initiatives, and potential pharmacy-based facilitators, in relation to medication supply and management in rural settings. Issues identified that hindered the provision of optimal medication supply and management services in the rural areas centered on workforce, interprofessional communication, role structures, and funding opportunities. Legislative and electronic developments and support mechanisms aim to facilitate medication processes in rural areas. Potential initiatives to further enhance medication services and processes could explore extended roles for pharmacists and pharmacy support staff, as well as alternative service delivery models to enhance pharmacy workforce capacity. The study provided an overview of key issues with medication supply and management and highlighted

  9. Projecting supply and demand of hydrologic ecosystem services under future climate conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Li-Chi; Huang, Tao; Lee, Tsung-Yu

    2014-05-01

    Ecosystems provide essential goods and services, such as food, clean water, water purification, soil conservation and cultural services for human being. In a watershed, these water-related ecosystem goods and services can directly or indirectly benefit both local people and downstream beneficiaries through a reservoir. Water quality and quantity in a reservoir are of importance for agricultural, industrial and domestic uses. Under the impacts of climate and land use changes, both ecosystem service supply and demand will be affected by changes in precipitation patterns, temperature, urbanization and agricultural activities. However, the linkage between ecosystem service provisioning (ESP) and ecosystem service beneficiary (ESB), and scales of supply and demand of ecosystem services are not clear yet. Therefore, to investigate water-related ecosystem service supply under climate and land use change, we took the Xindian river watershed (303 km2) as a case study, where the Feitsui Reservoir provides hydro-power and daily domestic water use of 3,450,000 m3 for 3.46 million people in Taipei, Taiwan. We integrated a hydrological model (Soil and Water Assessment Tool, SWAT) and a land use change model (Conversion of Land Use and its Effects, CLUE-s) with future climate change scenarios derived from General Circulation Models (GCMs), to assess the changes in ecosystem service supply and demand at different hydrologic scales. The results will provide useful information for decision-making on future land use management and climate change adaptation strategies in the watersheds. Keywords: climate change, land use change, ecosystem service, watershed, scale

  10. Research on TPL Service Level and Pricing Models in Supply Chain Coordination and Benefits Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Chunhua

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Research on the method to strengthen the cooperation among members to achieve win-win result is an important subject in SCM. Nevertheless, most studies to date on supply chain pricing have only assumed that the market demand is only influenced by retail price but not by logistics service level. That is why our work is concerned with logistics service and product pricing strategies in supply chain consisting of the manufacturer, the retailer and the TPL provider. For three-echelon supply chain system with TPL service level, use game theory to analyze its pricing, production, service levels and profit allocation. Three different models are discussed which are based on Stackelberg games and cooperative game. We find that the whole supply chain profit brought by collaborative decision-making is much higher than it independent decision-making brings based on the research. And it can increase the whole profit through reasonable setting of allocation proportion of profit. The study proposes multiple effective distribution methods of supply chain profit and takes an example to perform empirical analysis on the results to proof effectiveness.

  11. Inventory Mo del with Supply Disruption Risk and Service Level Constraint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Quan-qing; LI Zhen-guo; LI Xiao-shen

    2014-01-01

    We develop a newsvender model with service level constraint for one-product and multi-supplier system, where the supplies are susceptible to disruption risks. We prove the convexity of the programming problem,and provide the neces-sary and sufficient conditions for the optimal order quantities. Through analysis or numerical experiments we observe the effects of the disrupt risk and the service level constraint on the optimal policy. We propose some managerial insights in managing the multi-source supply chain with disruption risks.

  12. Optimization Analysis of Supply Chain Resource Allocation in Customized Online Shopping Service Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianming Yao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For an online-shopping company, whether it can provide its customers with customized service is the key to enhance its customers’ experience value and its own competence. A good customized service requires effective integration and reasonable allocation of the company’s supply chain resources running in the background. Based on the analysis of the allocation of supply chain resources in the customized online shopping service mode and its operational characteristics, this paper puts forward an optimization model for the resource allocation and builds an improved ant algorithm to solve it. Finally, the effectiveness and feasibility of the optimization method and algorithm are demonstrated by a numerical simulation. This paper finds that the special online shopping environments lead to many dynamic and uncertain characters of the service demands. Different customized service patterns and their combination patterns should match with different supply chain resource allocations. The optimization model not only reflects the required service cost and delivery time in the objective function, but also considers the service scale effect optimization and the relations of integration benefits and risks. The improved ant algorithm has obvious advantages in flexibly balancing the multiobjective optimizations, adjusting the convergence speed, and adjusting the operation parameters.

  13. Intelligent uninterruptible power supply system with back-up fuel cell/battery hybrid power source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Yuedong; Guo, Youguang; Zhu, Jianguo; Wang, Hua

    2008-05-01

    This paper presents the development of an intelligent uninterruptible power supply (UPS) system with a hybrid power source that comprises a proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) and a battery. Attention is focused on the architecture of the UPS hybrid system and the data acquisition and control of the PEMFC. Specifically, the hybrid UPS system consists of a low-cost 60-cell 300 W PEMFC stack, a 3-cell lead-acid battery, an active power factor correction ac-dc rectifier, a half-bridge dc-ac inverter, a dc-dc converter, an ac-dc charger and their control units based on a digital signal processor TMS320F240, other integrated circuit chips, and a simple network management protocol adapter. Experimental tests and theoretical studies are conducted. First, the major parameters of the PEMFC are experimentally obtained and evaluated. Then an intelligent control strategy for the PEMFC stack is proposed and implemented. Finally, the performance of the hybrid UPS system is measured and analyzed.

  14. 77 FR 18272 - Uranium Enrichment Fuel Cycle Facility Inspection Reports Regarding Louisiana Energy Services LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ... COMMISSION Uranium Enrichment Fuel Cycle Facility Inspection Reports Regarding Louisiana Energy Services LLC...) staff has conducted inspections of the Louisiana Energy Services (LES), LLC, National enrichment... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Discussion The NRC staff has conducted inspections of the Louisiana...

  15. Agricultural Policies Exacerbate Honeybee Pollination Service Supply-Demand Mismatches Across Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeze, Tom D.; Vaissière, Bernard E.; Bommarco, Riccardo; Petanidou, Theodora; Seraphides, Nicos; Kozák, Lajos; Scheper, Jeroen; Biesmeijer, Jacobus C.; Kleijn, David; Gyldenkærne, Steen; Moretti, Marco; Holzschuh, Andrea; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Stout, Jane C.; Pärtel, Meelis; Zobel, Martin; Potts, Simon G.

    2014-01-01

    Declines in insect pollinators across Europe have raised concerns about the supply of pollination services to agriculture. Simultaneously, EU agricultural and biofuel policies have encouraged substantial growth in the cultivated area of insect pollinated crops across the continent. Using data from 41 European countries, this study demonstrates that the recommended number of honeybees required to provide crop pollination across Europe has risen 4.9 times as fast as honeybee stocks between 2005 and 2010. Consequently, honeybee stocks were insufficient to supply >90% of demands in 22 countries studied. These findings raise concerns about the capacity of many countries to cope with major losses of wild pollinators and highlight numerous critical gaps in current understanding of pollination service supplies and demands, pointing to a pressing need for further research into this issue. PMID:24421873

  16. Service-Learning in Supply Chain Management: Benefits, Challenges and Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenherr, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Service-learning (SL) is a pedagogical approach in which students are assigned a course-related project in a not-for-profit organization, and are tasked to apply course content to execute the project. While the benefits are multifarious, only recently have supply chain management (SCM) courses adapted this innovative teaching methodology. The…

  17. 48 CFR 253.213-70 - Completion of DD Form 1155, Order for Supplies or Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Completion of DD Form 1155... Forms 253.213-70 Completion of DD Form 1155, Order for Supplies or Services. Follow the procedures at PGI 253.213-70 for completion of DD Form 1155....

  18. 48 CFR 52.211-11 - Liquidated Damages-Supplies, Services, or Research and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.211-11 Liquidated Damages—Supplies, Services, or... liquidated damages are in addition to excess costs of repurchase under the Termination clause. (c) The... the control and without the fault or negligence of the Contractor as defined in the Default—Fixed...

  19. Service-Learning in Supply Chain Management: Benefits, Challenges and Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenherr, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Service-learning (SL) is a pedagogical approach in which students are assigned a course-related project in a not-for-profit organization, and are tasked to apply course content to execute the project. While the benefits are multifarious, only recently have supply chain management (SCM) courses adapted this innovative teaching methodology. The…

  20. Self-breathing micro fuel cells. Power supply to autonomous sensors; Selbstatmende Mikrobrennstoffzellen. Energieversorgung fuer autarke Sensoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiland, Matthias [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany); Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Zuverlaessigkeit und Mikrointegration (IZM), Berlin (Germany)

    2012-04-15

    There is a trend in system engineering towards smaller, autonomous components. Power supply is still a challenge, and primary batteries are still the most common solution. In some cases, when the required power is very low, ambient energy is utilized by energy harvesting. Passive micro fuel cell systems may be an alternative, but so far they could not be used with pulsed load profiles because the power density was too low. This may be changed by modified stack structures (up to 220 mW/cm2) so that power supply, e.g. to autonomous sensors, would be possible. (orig.)

  1. Future supply and demand for oncologists : challenges to assuring access to oncology services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erikson, Clese; Salsberg, Edward; Forte, Gaetano; Bruinooge, Suanna; Goldstein, Michael

    2007-03-01

    To conduct a comprehensive analysis of supply of and demand for oncology services through 2020. This study was commissioned by the Board of Directors of ASCO. New data on physician supply gathered from surveys of practicing oncologists, oncology fellows, and fellowship program directors were analyzed, along with 2005 American Medical Association Masterfile data on practicing medical oncologists, hematologists/oncologists, and gynecologic oncologists, to determine the baseline capacity and to forecast visit capacity through 2020. Demand for visits was calculated by applying age-, sex-, and time-from-diagnosis-visit rate data from the National Cancer Institute's analysis of the 1998 to 2002 Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database to the National Cancer Institute's cancer incidence and prevalence projections. The cancer incidence and prevalence projections were calculated by applying a 3-year average (2000-2002) of age- and sex-specific cancer rates from SEER to the US Census Bureau population projections released on March 2004. The baseline supply and demand forecasts assume no change in cancer care delivery and physician practice patterns. Alternate scenarios were constructed by changing assumptions in the baseline models. Demand for oncology services is expected to rise rapidly, driven by the aging and growth of the population and improvements in cancer survival rates, at the same time the oncology workforce is aging and retiring in increasing numbers. Demand is expected to rise 48% between 2005 and 2020. The supply of services provided by oncologists during this time is expected to grow more slowly, approximately 14%, based on the current age distribution and practice patterns of oncologists and the number of oncology fellowship positions. This translates into a shortage of 9.4 to 15.0 million visits, or 2,550 to 4,080 oncologists-roughly one-quarter to one-third of the 2005 supply. The baseline projections do not include any alterations based

  2. An order insertion scheduling model of logistics service supply chain considering capacity and time factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weihua; Yang, Yi; Wang, Shuqing; Liu, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Order insertion often occurs in the scheduling process of logistics service supply chain (LSSC), which disturbs normal time scheduling especially in the environment of mass customization logistics service. This study analyses order similarity coefficient and order insertion operation process and then establishes an order insertion scheduling model of LSSC with service capacity and time factors considered. This model aims to minimize the average unit volume operation cost of logistics service integrator and maximize the average satisfaction degree of functional logistics service providers. In order to verify the viability and effectiveness of our model, a specific example is numerically analyzed. Some interesting conclusions are obtained. First, along with the increase of completion time delay coefficient permitted by customers, the possible inserting order volume first increases and then trends to be stable. Second, supply chain performance reaches the best when the volume of inserting order is equal to the surplus volume of the normal operation capacity in mass service process. Third, the larger the normal operation capacity in mass service process is, the bigger the possible inserting order's volume will be. Moreover, compared to increasing the completion time delay coefficient, improving the normal operation capacity of mass service process is more useful.

  3. An Order Insertion Scheduling Model of Logistics Service Supply Chain Considering Capacity and Time Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Order insertion often occurs in the scheduling process of logistics service supply chain (LSSC, which disturbs normal time scheduling especially in the environment of mass customization logistics service. This study analyses order similarity coefficient and order insertion operation process and then establishes an order insertion scheduling model of LSSC with service capacity and time factors considered. This model aims to minimize the average unit volume operation cost of logistics service integrator and maximize the average satisfaction degree of functional logistics service providers. In order to verify the viability and effectiveness of our model, a specific example is numerically analyzed. Some interesting conclusions are obtained. First, along with the increase of completion time delay coefficient permitted by customers, the possible inserting order volume first increases and then trends to be stable. Second, supply chain performance reaches the best when the volume of inserting order is equal to the surplus volume of the normal operation capacity in mass service process. Third, the larger the normal operation capacity in mass service process is, the bigger the possible inserting order’s volume will be. Moreover, compared to increasing the completion time delay coefficient, improving the normal operation capacity of mass service process is more useful.

  4. An Order Insertion Scheduling Model of Logistics Service Supply Chain Considering Capacity and Time Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Wang, Shuqing; Liu, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Order insertion often occurs in the scheduling process of logistics service supply chain (LSSC), which disturbs normal time scheduling especially in the environment of mass customization logistics service. This study analyses order similarity coefficient and order insertion operation process and then establishes an order insertion scheduling model of LSSC with service capacity and time factors considered. This model aims to minimize the average unit volume operation cost of logistics service integrator and maximize the average satisfaction degree of functional logistics service providers. In order to verify the viability and effectiveness of our model, a specific example is numerically analyzed. Some interesting conclusions are obtained. First, along with the increase of completion time delay coefficient permitted by customers, the possible inserting order volume first increases and then trends to be stable. Second, supply chain performance reaches the best when the volume of inserting order is equal to the surplus volume of the normal operation capacity in mass service process. Third, the larger the normal operation capacity in mass service process is, the bigger the possible inserting order's volume will be. Moreover, compared to increasing the completion time delay coefficient, improving the normal operation capacity of mass service process is more useful. PMID:25276851

  5. Engine Tune-Up Service. Unit 5: Fuel and Carburetion Systems. Student Guide. Automotive Mechanics Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, Ludy

    This student guide is for Unit 5, Fuel and Carburetion Systems, in the Engine Tune-Up Service portion of the Automotive Mechanics Curriculum. It deals with inspecting and servicing the fuel and carburetion systems. A companion review exercise book and posttests are available separately as CE 031 218-219. An introduction tells how this unit fits…

  6. 40 CFR 52.351 - United States Postal Service substitute Clean Fuel Fleet Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States Postal Service substitute Clean Fuel Fleet Program. 52.351 Section 52.351 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... § 52.351 United States Postal Service substitute Clean Fuel Fleet Program. Revisions to the...

  7. Factors Influencing the Supply Efficiency of Basic Public Service at County Level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zongbing; DENG; Junliang; ZHANG; Yonggang; FENG; Ju; WANG

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,we use DEA-Tobit model to conduct empirical study on the governmental supply efficiency of public service in Chongqing’s 38 counties and the influencing factors during the period 2008-2011.The results show that the supply efficiency of basic public service at county level is generally low,and there is significant regional differences and strong volatility;per capita GDP,population density and population size,and level of education of the residents,are significantly correlated with the supply efficiency of basic public service at county level,but traffic density,urbanization level,and the proportion of government spending on public service to total fiscal expenditure,have no significant effects on the efficiency of basic public service at county level.Based on this,we propose some policy recommendations for enhancing the level of local economic development and the level of education,and reasonably guiding the residents’agglomeration.

  8. Benefits and Barriers of Information and Communication Technologies Adoption in Facilities Management Services Supply Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scupola, Ada

    of ICT systems in the supply chain of facilities management services? By taking the starting point in the literature of supply chain, supply chain management, facilities management and ICT adoption a semi-structured interview guide has been developed and 12 in depth interviews have been conducted.  The...

  9. Quantifying and Mapping the Supply of and Demand for Carbon Storage and Sequestration Service from Urban Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Chang Zhao; Heather A Sander

    2015-01-01

    Studies that assess the distribution of benefits provided by ecosystem services across urban areas are increasingly common. Nevertheless, current knowledge of both the supply and demand sides of ecosystem services remains limited, leaving a gap in our understanding of balance between ecosystem service supply and demand that restricts our ability to assess and manage these services. The present study seeks to fill this gap by developing and applying an integrated approach to quantifying the su...

  10. The Analysis and Quality Improvement of Eco-Tourism Services by Using the Supply-Demand Interface Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Gheorghe

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Supply-Demand Interface Platform is the key to the improvement of eco-tourism services in Romania. In the present paper, I have presented the modus operandi of this Supply-Demand Interface Platform, the advanages and disadvantages offered to the accommodation units that wish to use this IT model, as well as the advanages and disadvantages for the beneficiaries of the eco-tourism services provided by these units (accommodation services, catering, transportation, guidance services.

  11. Characterization and supply of coal based fuels. Quarterly report, August 1, 1987--October 31, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    Contract objectives are as follows: Develop fuel specifications to serve combustor requirements; Select coals having appropriate compositional and quality characteristics as well as an economically attractive reserve base; Provide quality assurance for both the parent coals and the fuel forms; and deliver premium coal-based fuels to combustor developers as needed for their contract work. Progress is discussed.

  12. Underground coal gasification (UCG: A new trend of supply-side economics of fossil fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Mao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available China has a huge demand for energy. Under the present energy structure of rich coal, lean oil, less gas, limited and low-rising rate renewable energy, discussion focus is now on the high-efficient mining of coal as well as its clean-and-low-carbon use. In view of this, based on an analysis of the problems in the coal chemical industry and the present coal utilization ways such as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC, this paper proposes that underground coal gasification (UCG technology is a realistic choice. By virtue of its advantages in many aspects such as safety & environment, integrated use of superior resources, economic feasibility, etc. this technology can serve as the front-end support and guarantee for coal chemical industry and IGCC. Under the present situation, the following proposals were presented to promote the development of this technology. First, R&D of technical products should be strengthened, a comprehensive feasibility study assessment system should be established, and the relevant criteria in the industry should be formulated. Second, precise market positioning of UCG products should be made with much concern on the integrated economic indicators of each product's complete flow scheme, following the principle of “Technical Feasibility First, Economic Optimization Followed”. Third, a perfect operation and management pattern should be established with strict control over high-efficient, environmentally-friendly, safe, harmonious & compact objectives in the whole industry chain. In conclusion, to realize the large-scale UCG commercial production will strongly promote the optimization and innovation of fossil fuels supply-side economics in China.

  13. Supply Chain Sustainability Analysis of Fast Pyrolysis and Hydrotreating Bio-Oil to Produce Hydrocarbon Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adom, Felix K.; Cai, Hao; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Hartley, Damon; Searcy, Erin; Tan, Eric; Jones, Sue; Snowden-Swan, Lesley

    2016-03-31

    This report describes the supply chain sustainability analysis (SCSA) of renewable gasoline and diesel produced via fast pyrolysis of a blended woody feedstock. The metrics considered in this analysis include supply chain greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and water consumption.

  14. Differential Dynamic Evolutionary Model of Emergency Financial Service Supply Chain in Natural Disaster Risk Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujian Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A government-market-public partnership (GMPP could be a feasible arrangement for providing insurance coverage for natural disaster. Firstly, we put forward GMPP management mode. Secondly, the emergency financial service supply chain for natural disaster risk is built from the view of supply chain. Finally, the objective of this paper is to obtain insights into the cooperative and competitive relationship in GMPP system. We establish the cooperative and competitive differential dynamic evolutionary models and prove the existence of equilibrium solutions in order to solve the coordination problems. In conclusion, the equilibrium solutions can be achieved among the insurers, the operating governments, and the public.

  15. NETWORK CENTRISM OPTIMIZATION OF EXPEDITIOUS SERVICE OF ELEMENTS OF THE POWER SUPPLY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye.I. Sokol

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Development of precision selection criteria of options of technical realization of effective active and adaptive system of expeditious service of elements of a power supply system in the conditions of network-centric management. Methodology. In development of power supply systems their evolution from the elementary forms using elementary network technologies and models of interactions in power to more irregular shapes within the concept of Smart Grid with elements of network-centric character is observed. This direction is based on Internet-technologies of the last generation, and realize models of power activity which couldn't be realized before. Results. The number of possible options of active and adaptive system of expeditious service of elements of a power supply system is usually rather big and it is difficult to choose the acceptable option by direct search. Elimination of admissible options of the technical realization constructed on the principles of a network centrism means application of the theory of multicriteria optimization from a position of discrete programming. The basis of procedure of elimination is made by algorithm of an assessment of system by criterion of accuracy. Originality. The case of an assessment of the precision characteristic of system at restrictions for the set accuracy is connected with need of decomposition of requirements of all system in general and on separate subsystems. For such decomposition the ratios connecting the accuracy of functioning of a separate subsystem with variations of parameters of all system, and also with precision characteristics of subsystems of the lower levels influencing this subsystem are received. Practical value. In the conditions of the network-centric organization of management of expeditious service of elements of a power supply system elimination of options of subsystems when using precision criterion allows to receive the maximum number of essentially possible

  16. Mapping ecosystem services: The supply and demand of flood regulation services in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturck, J.; Poortinga, A.; Verburg, P.H.

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystem services (ES) feature highly distinctive spatial and temporal patterns of distribution, quantity, and flows. The flow of ecosystem goods and services to beneficiaries plays a decisive role in the valuation of ES and the successful implementation of the ES concept in environmental planning.

  17. Investigating Willingness to Pay to Improve Water Supply Services: Application of Contingent Valuation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamshat Tussupova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Safe water supply is one of the important Millennium Goals. For development of market water supply services, the willingness of consumers to pay is essential. The consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP for piped water supply using the contingent valuation (CV method with different starting point bids was investigated for the Pavlodar Region, Kazakhstan. The results showed that households with access to groundwater (well or borehole water users perceived this as of good quality. Consumers without access to groundwater used open-source, standpipe or delivered water for which they had to travel and spend time or to pay. Open source water and standpipe water quality was perceived as bad or satisfactory. More than 90% of the consumers were willing to pay for better water quality and regular water supply. The mean WTP was estimated to be about 1120 in bids and about 1590 KZT per household per month in open-ended question format (150 KZT is ~1 USD as of January 2012. The results can be used to better identify the proper technological choice and the level of service to be provided making rural water projects both sustainable and replicable at a larger scale.

  18. Focusing Conservation Efforts on Ecosystem Service Supply May Increase Vulnerability of Socio-Ecological Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Laterra

    Full Text Available Growing concern about the loss of ecosystem services (ES promotes their spatial representation as a key tool for the internalization of the ES framework into land use policies. Paradoxically, mapping approaches meant to inform policy decisions focus on the magnitude and spatial distribution of the biophysical supply of ES, largely ignoring the social mechanisms by which these services influence human wellbeing. If social mechanisms affecting ES demand, enhancing it or reducing it, are taken more into account, then policies are more effective. By developing and applying a new mapping routine to two distinct socio-ecological systems, we show a strong spatial uncoupling between ES supply and socio-ecological vulnerability to the loss of ES, under scenarios of land use and cover change. Public policies based on ES supply might not only fail at detecting priority conservation areas for the wellbeing of human societies, but may also increase their vulnerability by neglecting areas of currently low, but highly valued ES supply.

  19. Supply Chain Based Solution to Prevent Fuel Tax Evasion: Proof of Concept Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capps, Gary J [ORNL; Lascurain, Mary Beth [ORNL; Franzese, Oscar [ORNL; Earl, Dennis Duncan [ORNL; West, David L [ORNL; McIntyre, Timothy J [ORNL; Chin, Shih-Miao [ORNL; Hwang, Ho-Ling [ORNL; Connatser, Raynella M [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL; Moore, Sheila A [ORNL

    2011-12-01

    The goal of this research was to provide a proof-of-concept (POC) system for preventing non-taxable (non-highway diesel use) or low-taxable (jet fuel) petrochemical products from being blended with taxable fuel products and preventing taxable fuel products from cross-jurisdiction evasion. The research worked to fill the need to validate the legitimacy of individual loads, offloads, and movements by integrating and validating, on a near-real-time basis, information from global positioning system (GPS), valve sensors, level sensors, and fuel-marker sensors.

  20. Fuel supply of direct carbon fuel cells via thermal decomposition of hydrocarbons inside a porous Ni anode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Hak Gyu; Li, Cheng Guo; Jalalabadi, Tahereh; Lee, Dong Geun [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    This study offers a novel method for improving the physical contact between the anode and fuel in a direct carbon fuel cell (DCFC): a direct generation of carbon in a porous Ni anode through the thermal decomposition of gaseous hydrocarbons. Three kinds of alkane hydrocarbons with different carbon numbers (CH4, C2H6, and C3H8) are tested. From electron microscope observations of the carbon particles generated from each hydrocarbon, we confirm that more carbon spheres (CS), carbon nanotubes (CNT), and carbon nanofibers (CNF) were identified with increasing carbon number. Raman scattering results revealed that the carbon samples became less crystalline and more flexible with increasing carbon number. DCFC performance was measured at 700 degree Celsius with the anode fueled by the same mass of each carbon sample. One-dimensional carbon fuels of CNT and CNF more actively produced and had power densities 148 and 210 times higher than that of the CS, respectively. This difference is partly attributed to the findings that the less-crystalline CNT and CNF have much lower charge transfer resistances than the CS.

  1. Improving Inventory Management and Supply Chain of Diesel Fuel in Pertamina 5 Main Depots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Togar M Simatupang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Planning Operation subdivision at PT Pertamina has to generate supply decisions includingmain depot to supply, supply point and transportation mode. However, the variability inplanning a supply schedule renders the process of determining a supply decision asineffective. The last assessment on uncertainties was done at 2006 and has not beenconsidered during decision making process. On the other hand, the result of this researchindicates that the uncertainty level is too high to be ignored and the poor informationexchange between the regional offices and the head office decreases the Planning Operation’sability to create plans that covers the company condition. This paper proposes an appropriatesafety stock to withstand the uncertainties and a supply scheduling process that also considersuncertainties by using Monte-Carlo Simulation with random numbers to simulate the events inthe upcoming period.Key words: inventory management, distribution planning, managing uncertainties, montecarlosimulation

  2. Ecosystem service information to benefit sustainability standards for commodity supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca; Jonell, Malin; Guerry, Anne; Lambin, Eric F; Morgan, Alexis J; Pennington, Derric; Smith, Nathan; Franch, Jane Atkins; Polasky, Stephen

    2015-10-01

    The growing base of information about ecosystem services generated by ecologists, economists, and other scientists could improve the implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of commodity-sourcing standards being adopted by corporations to mitigate risk in their supply chains and achieve sustainability goals. This review examines various ways that information about ecosystem services could facilitate compliance with and auditing of commodity-sourcing standards. We also identify gaps in the current state of knowledge on the ecological effectiveness of sustainability standards and demonstrate how ecosystem-service information could complement existing monitoring efforts to build credible evidence. This paper is a call to the ecosystem-service scientists to engage in this decision context and tailor the information they are generating to the needs of the standards community, which we argue would offer greater efficiency of standards implementation for producers and enhanced effectiveness for standard scheme owners and corporations, and should thus lead to more sustainable outcomes for people and nature.

  3. Distributor– Retailer Interface in Pharmaceutical Supply Chain: Service Quality Measurement Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehralian, Gholamhossein; Babapour, Jafar; peiravian, farzad

    2016-01-01

    In the current competitive market, service quality management is the key to the survival and success of businesses. SERVQUAL is a popular service quality measurement scale (SQMS) that has served as a basis for subsequent research on service quality; it has been used for testing different aspects of service quality in a market. The purpose of our study is, therefore, to develop a service quality measurement scale (SQMS) for the distributor–retailer interface of Pharm supply chains (PSC) in Iran. A survey was performed to collect data from pharmacies located in Tehran. A valid and reliable questionnaire delivered to pharmacies, and 400 pharmacies were intended to participate in our survey. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to develop an SQMS in this study. Sufficient sampling was undertaken to do CFA. Consistent with other service quality studies, this Res developed an SQMS with five dimensions and 20 items for PSC, and contributes to mangers to regularly measure service quality. This is an initial study to develop a framework for measuring service quality in Iranian PCS. The framework can be used effectively to achieve competitive advantage at the distributor–retailer interface. PMID:28243297

  4. Distributor- Retailer Interface in Pharmaceutical Supply Chain: Service Quality Measurement Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehralian, Gholamhossein; Babapour, Jafar; Peiravian, Farzad

    2016-01-01

    In the current competitive market, service quality management is the key to the survival and success of businesses. SERVQUAL is a popular service quality measurement scale (SQMS) that has served as a basis for subsequent research on service quality; it has been used for testing different aspects of service quality in a market. The purpose of our study is, therefore, to develop a service quality measurement scale (SQMS) for the distributor-retailer interface of Pharm supply chains (PSC) in Iran. A survey was performed to collect data from pharmacies located in Tehran. A valid and reliable questionnaire delivered to pharmacies, and 400 pharmacies were intended to participate in our survey. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to develop an SQMS in this study. Sufficient sampling was undertaken to do CFA. Consistent with other service quality studies, this Res developed an SQMS with five dimensions and 20 items for PSC, and contributes to mangers to regularly measure service quality. This is an initial study to develop a framework for measuring service quality in Iranian PCS. The framework can be used effectively to achieve competitive advantage at the distributor-retailer interface.

  5. Fuels, Lubricants, and Coolants. FOS: Fundamentals of Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Deere Co., Moline, IL.

    This manual on fuels, lubricants, and coolants is one of a series of power mechanics tests and visual aids on automotive and off-the-road agricultural and construction equipment. Materials present basic information with illustrations for use by vocational students and teachers as well as shop servicemen and laymen. Focusing on fuels, the first of…

  6. On the Supply Chain Management Supported by E-Commerce Service Platform for Agreement based Circulation of Fruits and Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Liwei; Huang, Yuchi; Ma, Zengjun; Zhang, Jie; Lv, Qingchu

    According to analysis of the supply chain process of agricultural products, the IT application requirements of the market entities participating in the agreement based circulation of fruits and vegetables have been discussed. The strategy of supply chain management basing on E-commerce service platform for fruits and vegetables has been proposed in this paper. The architecture and function composing of the service platform have been designed and implemented. The platform is constructed on a set of application service modules User can choose some of the application service modules and define them according to the business process. The application service modules chosen and defined by user are integrated as an application service package and applied as management information system of business process. With the E-commerce service platform, the supply chain management for agreement based circulation of agricultural products of vegetables and fruits can be implemented.

  7. Financial Mechanisms to Improve the Supply of Ecosystem Services from Privately-Owned Australian Native Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Ferguson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Much of Australia’s native forest is privately-owned and is needing investment to maintain and improve the supply of a wide range of ecosystem services. This paper reviews mechanisms presently used in Australia to improve the supply of ecosystem services, with particular emphasis on financial mechanisms. Auction, green bond and biobanking schemes are widely and, so far, successfully used in a number of States, especially in projects where the actions required and ecosystem services can be readily measured. Measurement of biodiversity and biodiversity-based services remains problematic, despite some fairly widespread application of different measurement systems. Inadequate or variable measurement systems could engender a loss of investor interest if equivalence or gains cannot be appropriately verified. A new Biodiversity Investment Scheme is proposed, based on the structure used commercially in Managed Investment Schemes. The choice of mechanism, however, will be mainly determined by landowner attitudes to assignment of property rights, and by scale, the extent of public versus private consumption goods, and the transaction costs and risks.

  8. Prairie dog decline reduces the supply of ecosystem services and leads to desertification of semiarid grasslands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Martínez-Estévez

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic impacts on North American grasslands, a highly endangered ecosystem, have led to declines of prairie dogs, a keystone species, over 98% of their historical range. While impacts of this loss on maintenance of grassland biodiversity have been widely documented, much less is known about the consequences on the supply of ecosystem services. Here we assessed the effect of prairie dogs in the supply of five ecosystem services by comparing grasslands currently occupied by prairie dogs, grasslands devoid of prairie dogs, and areas that used to be occupied by prairie dogs that are currently dominated by mesquite scrub. Groundwater recharge, regulation of soil erosion, regulation of soil productive potential, soil carbon storage and forage availability were consistently quantitatively or qualitatively higher in prairie dog grasslands relative to grasslands or mesquite scrub. Our findings indicate a severe loss of ecosystem services associated to the absence of prairie dogs. These findings suggest that contrary to a much publicize perception, especially in the US, prairie dogs are fundamental in maintaining grasslands and their decline have strong negative impacts in human well - being through the loss of ecosystem services.

  9. Study on the Supply Efficiency of Rural Public Service in China Based on Three-stage DEA Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zongbing; DENG; Chaoying; WU; Junliang; Zhang; Ju; WANG

    2014-01-01

    Improving the supply efficiency of rural public service is an important way to solve the severe shortage of rural public service. In this article,we use three-stage DEA model to carry out empirical research of the supply efficiency of rural public service in 31 provinces and regions of China. The results show that if without control over exogenous environment variables and random brunt,the classic DEA method will overestimate the rural public service efficiency; after controlling the impact of the external environmental factors,the mean of supply efficiency of rural public service in 31 provinces and regions of China is 0. 697; the improved rural per capita income,population density,population size and the educational level of residents,is a significantly favorable factor for enhancing the supply efficiency of rural public service,while the increase in the proportion of fiscal spending on rural public service to GDP plays no significant role in improving the rural public service efficiency; according to their efficiency type,the provinces and regions should adopt some measures,such as improving the management level or expanding the supply scale,to improve the supply efficiency.

  10. An Integrated Model for Identifying Linkages Between the Management of Fuel Treatments, Fire and Ecosystem Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, R. R.; Anderson, S.; Moritz, M.; Plantinga, A.; Tague, C.

    2015-12-01

    Vegetation fuel treatments (e.g. thinning, prescribed burning) are a frequent tool for managing fire-prone landscapes. However, predicting how fuel treatments may affect future wildfire risk and associated ecosystem services, such as forest water availability and streamflow, remains a challenge. This challenge is in part due to the large range of conditions under which fuel treatments may be implemented, as response is likely to vary with species type, rates of vegetation regrowth, meteorological conditions and physiographic properties of the treated site. It is also due to insufficient understanding of how social factors such as political pressure, public demands and economic constraints affect fuel management decisions. To examine the feedbacks between ecological and social dimensions of fuel treatments, we present an integrated model that links a biophysical model that simulates vegetation and hydrology (RHESSys), a fire spread model (WMFire) and an empirical fuel treatment model that accounts for agency decision-making. We use this model to investigate how management decisions affect landscape fuel loads, which in turn affect fire severity and ecosystem services, which feedback to management decisions on fuel treatments. We hypothesize that this latter effect will be driven by salience theory, which predicts that fuel treatments are more likely to occur following major wildfire events. The integrated model provides a flexible framework for answering novel questions about fuel treatments that span social and ecological domains, areas that have previously been treated separately.

  11. Energy development and security and supply-side ideology: oligopoly, monopoly, and imperfect competition make fossil fuel regulation a necessity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groth, P.G.

    1985-04-01

    Should energy development, of any form, be encouraged by the federal government. Inasmuch as conventional economic theories all are inapplicable, incomplete, or unrealistic as descriptions and explanations of real world energy markets, they cannot illuminate this value question. To date, American energy policies generally have manipulated supplies and prices of energy. If the objectives of energy policy are to conserve fuel, to reduce vulnerability to energy-related inflation, to control expenditures on energy, and to free Western Europe, Japan, and the US from dependence upon hostile or potentially hostile suppliers, then an effective policy would have to alter both demand and supply for energy. Advocates of simplistic deregulation, unwilling or unable to anticipate the undesirable consequences of that policy, invite the very governmental interference from which they recoil.

  12. Thermodynamic study of characteristics of the converter with separated supply of hydrocarbon fuel for thermo-oxidative and steam reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassina, I. A.; Malkov, Yu. P.; Molchanov, O. N.; Stepanov, S. G.; Troshchinenko, G. A.; Zasypkin, I. M.

    2014-04-01

    Thermodynamic studies of the converter characteristics were performed to produce hydrogen-containing syngas from hydrocarbon fuel (kerosene) with its separated supply for thermo-oxidative and steam reforming. It is demonstrated that the optimal conditions of the converter performance correlate with the oxidant ratio of α > 0.5 at the heattransfer wall temperature of 1200 K. Hydrogen content in the final syngas reaches 60 % by volume, free carbon (soot) deposition in reforming products is excluded, and there is no need to apply walls water cooling in the converter.

  13. Self-Supply as a Complementary Water Services Delivery Model in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Butterworth

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Self-supply, where households invest to develop their own easily-accessible water supplies, is identified as an alternative service delivery model that is potentially complementary to more highly subsidised community-level provision. The approach is widespread in Ethiopia with family wells bringing additional benefits that are in line with wider government objectives, such as supporting small-scale irrigation. However, two recent studies show the current performance of traditional or family wells to be far below potential with most sources providing unsafe water in the absence of adequate protection. Wider formal recognition of Self-supply in policy and the development of the government-led Self-supply Acceleration Programme (SSAP aim to extend access and improve aspects of performance including water quality. However, a key finding of the paper is that successful uptake of this programme requires a transformation in the attitudes of donor agencies and the roles of government regional- and woreda-level staff, amongst others. Necessary shifts in mindsets and revision of planning mechanisms, as well as the day-to-day operational support requirements, represent a challenge for an under-resourced sector. Other household-focused development interventions such as Community-led Total Sanitation (CLTS and Household Water Treatment and Storage (HWTS face some similar challenges, so the processes for the development of one approach could help in the scaling up of all.

  14. Service Innovation in Supply Chain Finance%供应链金融服务创新

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜超峰

    2015-01-01

    供应链金融是运用供应链管理理念和方法,为供应链链条上的企业提供的金融服务,其模式是以核心企业的上下游为服务对象,以真实的交易为前提,在采购、生产、销售的各个环节提供金融服务。众多企业供应链相互交织,构成了一个庞大的供应链金融网络。发展供应链金融有很多益处,如可为众多中小企业提供融资服务,可提高银行贷款安全度,可加快货币资金流转速度,可快速提供经济预警,可多业融合,跨界经营,增强经济创新动力。从发展的角度看,随着金融与物流两业的日益融合,金融与物流开始融入电子商务平台,互联网金融潮流开始兴起,在线供应链金融出现平台化趋势,大宗商品在线交易也艰难前行。当前,随着供应链金融日益向信用担保方向发展,向实物担保方向发展,向商贸、金融、物流一体化方向发展,向电商、金融、物流合作平台方向发展,为更好地适应供应链金融速度快、流程标准化、融合化等新特点,控制供应链金融风险,为供应链金融提供一个更加良好的发展环境,一要改变考核体制和机制,既不要填鸭式贷款,也不要釜底抽薪;二要重视大数据,用好大数据,确保基础数据的真实性,确保数据能够聚焦成指标,确保不同数据体系之间能够互联互通,确保能够积累准确的参数,确保树立先进的数据应用理念,借助大数据全方位了解企业信息,判断企业信用好坏,在行业判断、企业评估、风险控制中充分发挥大数据的作用;三要构建供应链网络金融体系,把眼光放大到整个供应链网络,及时发现问题隐患,规避风险。%Supply chain finance is the activities to provide related enterprises with financial service with the help of ideas and methods of supply chain management;the essence of that is to

  15. Services Supply Chain in the Department of Defense: Drivers of Success in Services Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-30

    Maverick Missile, C-20 (Gulfstream IV), and the F-22 Raptor . He was also a contracting squadron commander for an Air Force pilot training base and the...managerial implications. Introduction The service sector represents the largest and the fastest-growing segment of the economies of the United States...labeled a failure because of quality. The group consisting of contracts greater than $1 to $10 million was the largest of all the grouped dollar

  16. 服务供应链及其区域经济影响研究%Research on Service Supply Chain and Its Impacts on Regional Economics.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雅萍

    2007-01-01

    It shows in the tendency of the global economic development in recent years that Services Science would no doubt become the next hot topic in economic study. And service supply chain is a new study aspect in supply chain management of services science. This article begins with study on the definition and characters of service supply chain, compares this with traditional supply chain, establishes the structure of its form and puts it into our regional economics to examine its impacts.

  17. Analysis of Potential Impacts of Inclusion of Locally Supplied Services into Reduced VAT Rate on the Suppliers of these Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Randová

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Member States of the European Union are in accordance with the Community law allowed to include locally supplied services into reduced value added tax rates (hereinafter referred to as “VAT rates” without time restriction. In the Czech Republic there has not yet been a sufficient political will to implement this possibility into the legislation. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the potential impact of the relevant Directive implementation into the Czech VAT Act on the tax liability of the suppliers of these services. The paper is based on the comparison of the national legislation and the Community law, and their analysis. Moreover, the deductive method is used in this paper.

  18. Physician production is at a steady supply, but demand for physician services is increasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Perry

    2004-01-01

    A shortage of physicians, not a surplus, is now predicted in the United States, a mismatch of supply at the same annual rate compared to constantly increasing demand. The yearly renewal from U.S. graduates and international medical graduates completing graduate medical education is now in a steady state. The ripple effect of expanded cohorts of actively practicing physicians proceeding through the practice span shows the beginning signs of stabilization. The demand and need for physician services in healthcare delivery continue to rise as population, aging, economic expansion, and technology inexorably increase. The gap in the balance of steady supply and increasing demand produces a dilemma that worsens over time, uncertain as to intervention. An informed dialogue is important to ascertain the role and emphasis of market-place incremental steps and/or the possibilities of governmental intrusion. The time frame for action, as new goals emerge, is approaching given a decade or more years necessary in new physician production.

  19. Assistive technologies along supply chains in health care and in the social services sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Peter; Hauer, Katharina; Schloffer, Evelyn; Leyrer, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Health care systems in Austria and Slovenia are currently facing challenges due to scarce resources and demographic change which can be seen especially along the supply chains. The main objective of this paper is to present an option to improve the use of assistive technologies. An extensive literature research for the theoretic part as well as a qualitative survey for the empiric part focusing on short-term care were carried out. Results show that there is a lack of information and training on assistive technologies. As a consequence, their full potential cannot be exploited. Therefore a guideline for nursing consultations was developed. To conclude, both the literature research and the qualitative survey show that assistive technologies have high potentials to improve the supply chains in the health care and social services sector, but there is a lot of information and training on them needed.

  20. Methods of aircraft fuel system protection against low-temperature failures of its serviceability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    П. Ф. Максютинський

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available The following aircraft fuel system protection methods against low-temperature failures of its serviceability have been considered: the method of fuel temperature stabilization in the tanks at a predetermined level, also method of hydrocleaning of low-temperature deposits from the fuel pump filter. By the application of calculations and experimental research we have determined parameters of the system for the fuel temperature stabilization by means of utilization of heat at the radiator of the air-conditioning system and the effectiveness of the hydrocleaning of low-temperature deposits. The design of punched collector and the effective modes of hydrocleaning have been proposed

  1. Program description for the program Fuel program supply July 1, 2011 up to June 30, 2015; Programbeskrivning foer programmet Braensleprogrammet tillfoersel 1 juli 2011 till 30 juni 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-04-15

    The Fuel program supply is included as one of three programs in a cohesive commitment to increased, sustainable and efficient production and use of indigenous and renewable fuels that are implemented by the Swedish Energy Agency from July 1, 2011 to June 30, 2015. The program focuses on growing, maintenance and harvesting of biomass from forestry and agriculture. The program consists of three areas: - The sub-area Efficient forest fuel system consists of efforts to reduce costs, improve quality and increase the supply of forest fuels. - The sub-area Energy crops from agriculture consists of investments in issues related to tillage, construction, maintenance, harvesting and logistics for energy crops, and by an ongoing project on more efficient plant breeding of willow for new markets. - The sub-area Silviculture for increased biofuel production includes both forestry measures and new forms of cultivation of fast growing tree species for energy purposes. It does not address environmental issues, processing of fuels, fuel quality or processes in which fuel is converted to heat, electricity or fuel. Questions about conversion and processing as well as sustainability, environment and resource use are treated in the two parallel running programs, the Fuel program conversion and the Fuel program sustainability

  2. Quantifying and Mapping the Supply of and Demand for Carbon Storage and Sequestration Service from Urban Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chang; Sander, Heather A

    2015-01-01

    Studies that assess the distribution of benefits provided by ecosystem services across urban areas are increasingly common. Nevertheless, current knowledge of both the supply and demand sides of ecosystem services remains limited, leaving a gap in our understanding of balance between ecosystem service supply and demand that restricts our ability to assess and manage these services. The present study seeks to fill this gap by developing and applying an integrated approach to quantifying the supply and demand of a key ecosystem service, carbon storage and sequestration, at the local level. This approach follows three basic steps: (1) quantifying and mapping service supply based upon Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) processing and allometric models, (2) quantifying and mapping demand for carbon sequestration using an indicator based on local anthropogenic CO2 emissions, and (3) mapping a supply-to-demand ratio. We illustrate this approach using a portion of the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area of Minnesota, USA. Our results indicate that 1735.69 million kg carbon are stored by urban trees in our study area. Annually, 33.43 million kg carbon are sequestered by trees, whereas 3087.60 million kg carbon are emitted by human sources. Thus, carbon sequestration service provided by urban trees in the study location play a minor role in combating climate change, offsetting approximately 1% of local anthropogenic carbon emissions per year, although avoided emissions via storage in trees are substantial. Our supply-to-demand ratio map provides insight into the balance between carbon sequestration supply in urban trees and demand for such sequestration at the local level, pinpointing critical locations where higher levels of supply and demand exist. Such a ratio map could help planners and policy makers to assess and manage the supply of and demand for carbon sequestration.

  3. Quantifying and Mapping the Supply of and Demand for Carbon Storage and Sequestration Service from Urban Trees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Zhao

    Full Text Available Studies that assess the distribution of benefits provided by ecosystem services across urban areas are increasingly common. Nevertheless, current knowledge of both the supply and demand sides of ecosystem services remains limited, leaving a gap in our understanding of balance between ecosystem service supply and demand that restricts our ability to assess and manage these services. The present study seeks to fill this gap by developing and applying an integrated approach to quantifying the supply and demand of a key ecosystem service, carbon storage and sequestration, at the local level. This approach follows three basic steps: (1 quantifying and mapping service supply based upon Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR processing and allometric models, (2 quantifying and mapping demand for carbon sequestration using an indicator based on local anthropogenic CO2 emissions, and (3 mapping a supply-to-demand ratio. We illustrate this approach using a portion of the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area of Minnesota, USA. Our results indicate that 1735.69 million kg carbon are stored by urban trees in our study area. Annually, 33.43 million kg carbon are sequestered by trees, whereas 3087.60 million kg carbon are emitted by human sources. Thus, carbon sequestration service provided by urban trees in the study location play a minor role in combating climate change, offsetting approximately 1% of local anthropogenic carbon emissions per year, although avoided emissions via storage in trees are substantial. Our supply-to-demand ratio map provides insight into the balance between carbon sequestration supply in urban trees and demand for such sequestration at the local level, pinpointing critical locations where higher levels of supply and demand exist. Such a ratio map could help planners and policy makers to assess and manage the supply of and demand for carbon sequestration.

  4. 32 CFR 700.835 - Work, facilities, supplies, or services for other Government departments, State or local...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... other Government departments, State or local governments, foreign governments, private parties and....835 Work, facilities, supplies, or services for other Government departments, State or local... Federal and State governments, local governments, foreign governments, private parties, and...

  5. Order Allocation Research of Logistics Service Supply Chain with Mass Customization Logistics Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the order allocation between a logistics service integrator (LSI and multiple functional logistics service providers (FLSPs with MCLS. To maximize the satisfaction of FLSPs, minimize the total cost of LSI, and maximize the customized degree, this paper establishes a multiobjective order allocation model of LSSC that is constrained by meeting customer demand, customer order decoupling point, and order difference tolerance coefficient. Numerical analysis is performed with Lingo 12 software. This paper also discusses the influences of scale effect coefficient, order difference tolerance coefficient, and relationship cost coefficient on the comprehensive order allocation performance of the LSSC. Results show that LSI prefers FLSPs with better scale effect coefficients and does not need to set an extremely high order difference tolerance coefficient. Similarly, setting a high relationship cost coefficient does not necessarily correspond to better results. For FLSPs, the continuous improvement of large-scale operational capacity is required. When the comprehensive order allocation performance of the LSSC is high, the LSI should offer cost compensation to improve the satisfaction of the LSSC.

  6. Installation of an on-site power generation facility using gas as a fuel used as an emergency power supply for fire fighting facilities; Shoboyo setsubinado no hijo dengen ni shiyosuru gas wo nenryo to suru jika hatsuden setsubi no donyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, K. [Fire Defence Agency, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-02-01

    This paper summarizes provisions in the Fire Service Law when an on-site power generation facility using gas as a fuel is used as an emergency power supply for fire fighting facilities. The provisions described include the following: regulations on output, number of facilities, operation systems and reserve fuels when installing a power generation facility burning gas exclusively used for normal power use and disaster prevention (a power generation facility using gaseous fuel to be used as a normal and emergency power supply in fire fighting facilities), precautions on operation of these facilities, and evaluation on assurance of stable supply source of the main fuel when no installation of the reserve fuel supply system is required. These regulations take the view of the current status of increase in the structures subjected to fire fighting activities that have installed on-site power generation facilities and cogeneration plants used as ordinary power supply systems. The regulations have become enforced based on the result of discussions on the said power generation facilities burning gas exclusively by the discussion committee for the on-site power generation facilities used as power supply systems for fire fighting facilities in the Nippon Engine Generator Association. 2 figs.

  7. Understanding the Factors Influencing Nonindustrial Private Forest Landowner Interest in Supplying Ecosystem Services in Cumberland Plateau, Tennessee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Tian

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Private forests provide a range of ecosystem services for society including provisioning, regulating, cultural, and supporting services. Sustaining the supply of such services depends on the interest of nonindustrial private forest (NIPF landowners in managing their forests for such services. Assessing factors that influence NIPF landowner intentions would be useful in identifying potential suppliers of ecosystem services and in designing and implementing outreach and education programs to elevate the interests of less interested landowners. Using data collected from a mail survey of NIPF landowners on the Cumberland Plateau of Tennessee, this study examined how landowner interest in supplying ecosystem services was influenced by socio-demographic characteristics, economic and market factors, land management objectives, and ownership motivations. To that end, a multivariate logistic regression model was employed to analyze the supply of three types of ecosystem services: carbon storage (regulating service, water quality (provisioning service, and aesthetics (cultural service. Results revealed that landowner interest in managing forests for ecosystem services were significantly related to socio-demographic factors, management and ownership characteristics, and availability of financial incentives. These findings will improve the understanding of the market segment of landowners as related to ecosystem services. The findings may facilitate the development of market protocols and outreach programs that promote payments for ecosystem services in Tennessee and elsewhere.

  8. Tendering and relationships in strategic logistics service provider selection for global supply chain organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tambo, Torben

    The selection of logistics service providers (LSPs) is regarded as a critical and complex process. Within the areas of innovation and development of supply chains, lasting relationships are generally regarded as a positive and value-creating factor. Occasionally, relationships between buyer and LSP......, and it stresses the temporal dimension of business relationships. In adapting a governmental-style of systematic purchasing, a number of pragmatic approaches are observed, such as the desire to have a common comparison of suppliers, while accepting that cost is only one out of several factors. Pragmatism...

  9. Biofuel Impacts on World Food Supply: Use of Fossil Fuel, Land and Water Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert McCormack

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly growing world population and rising consumption of biofuels are increasing demand for both food and biofuels. This exaggerates both food and fuel shortages. Using food crops such as corn grain to produce ethanol raises major nutritional and ethical concerns. Nearly 60% of humans in the world are currently malnourished, so the need for grains and other basic foods is critical. Growing crops for fuel squanders land, water and energy resources vital for the production of food for human consumption. Using corn for ethanol increases the price of U.S. beef, chicken, pork, eggs, breads, cereals, and milk more than 10% to 30%.

  10. Fuel cells for stationary energy supply; Brennstoffzellen in der stationaeren Energieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leprich, Uwe; Thiele, Andreas [Institut fuer ZukunftsEnergieSysteme (IZES), Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2005-06-15

    Starting point for this investigation was the question, whether the incentives, caused by the CHP law from March the 19th 2002, are short- and medium term adequate to introduce fuel cells as small CHP plants broadly on the market or rather develop them at least to a standard of market maturity. This has - based on our analysis - definitely to be answered in the negative: for this, the fixed bonus is too small to influence the costs for investment and running of a fuel cell plant lasting. One of the aims of the CHP law - the reduction of the yearly CO2-emissions in Germany by a broader introduction of the technology on the market - can actually not be reached. Although, fuel cells may obtain a quite important climate-political significance, if their economical availability will be secured and related basic conditions are set today. By the CHP law, the federal government however demonstrated publicly that it is willing to support the development of the fuel cell and its introduction on the market. This signal is not only supporting the industry to align its middle- and long term decisions but it is also helping users and operators of fuel cells by providing a legal security about the guarantee for grid connection and remuneration Based on the perspectives for an establishing of small CHP plants including fuel cells, the range of possible stimulating and supporting measures was investigated in a second step. While doing so, it was differentiated between a flanking of the existing CHP law, its further development and other alternative measures. By this, there are several starting points to realize changes or rather adaptations in the CHP law. According to this investigation and in the interest of an increased spreading of small CHP- and fuel cell plants, these possibilities should be made use of as fast as possible. The investigation was terminated by examinating selected technical, energy-economical as well as energy political chances and requirements for hydrogen

  11. Supply structures for electrical energy and heat from fuel cells; Versorgungsstrukturen fuer elektrische Energie und Waerme mit Brennstoffzellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asmuth, P.C.

    2007-07-01

    This dissertation was dedicated to the study of profit-optimised planning of supply structures for electrical energy and heat from fuel cells giving due consideration to conditions as are relevant to the planning of electricity networks. Various supply structures were drafted making use of all degrees of freedom, and the influence of the stand-alone operation of sub-networks powered by fuel cells on reliability of supply was analysed and its impact on network structure planning determined. In doing so a particular focus was placed on electricity networks. In terms of output the dissertation provides a set of planning principles for supply structures based on predominantly decentralised energy production from fuel cells. These principles are relevant to the development of new housing estates as well as for the development of target structures in fundamental planning. [German] Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wurden Untersuchungen zur wirtschaftlich optimalen Planung von Versorgungsstrukturen fuer elektrische Energie und Waerme mit Brennstoffzellen unter Beruecksichtigung der fuer die Planung elektrischer Netze relevanten Randbedingungen durchgefuehrt. Zusaetzlich zu den Brennstoffzellen werden Speicher fuer elektrische Energie, fuer Waerme und fuer Gas, Umwandlungsanlagen zur H2-Gewinnung sowie Strukturen im elektrischen Netz, im Waermenetz sowie im Erdgas- und H2-Netz analysiert. Mit besonderem Fokus auf die elektrischen Netze werden erstmalig Kriterien zur Einhaltung einer Mindestversorgungszuverlaessigkeit als technische Randbedingung bei der Planung der MS- und NS-Netze mit Brennstoffzellen beruecksichtigt. Dafuer werden moegliche Inselnetzkonfigurationen des elektrischen Netzes mit Brennstoffzellen in Abhaengigkeit von verschiedenen Netzausfaellen konzipiert und der Ausfall der Gasversorgung ueber den Ausfall der Brennstoffzellen abgebildet. Darauf basierend wird der Einfluss des Inselbetriebes dieser Teilnetze mit Brennstoffzellen auf die Versorgungszuverlaessigkeit

  12. Capability Coordination in Agricultural Products Logistics Service Supply Chain with Revenue-sharing Contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiling He

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To solve the capability coordination in logistics service based on the agricultural products industry, a two-stage agricultural products Logistics Service Supply Chain (LSSC was established with one agricultural products logistics service integrator and one functional logistics service provider. Based on the non-storage property of logistics service capability, the revenue-sharing contract model was built under the uncertain demand. The optimal logistics capability order quantity and the revenue-sharing coefficient were calculated when the agricultural products LSSC achieved coordination. Revenue-sharing contract can coordinate the agricultural products LSSC effectively compared with no contract. A numerical simulation was taken by MATLAB 7.0. The change of purchase price has no influence on the optimal logistics capability order quantity and the expected profit of agricultural products LSSC. It achieves a redistribution of members’ profits. With the increases of penalty cost, the optimal logistics capability order quantity and the expected profit of provider increase, while the expected profit of integrator and agricultural products LSSC decrease.

  13. Supply Chain-Based Solution to Prevent Fuel Tax Evasion: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capps, Gary J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Engineering and Transportation Sciences Division; Franzese, Oscar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Engineering and Transportation Sciences Division; Lascurain, Mary Beth [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Engineering and Transportation Sciences Division; Siekmann, Adam [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Engineering and Transportation Sciences Division; Barker, Alan M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Electrical and Electronics Systems Research Division

    2016-07-28

    The primary source of funding for the United States transportation system is derived from motor fuel and other highway use taxes. Loss of revenue attributed to fuel-tax evasion has been assessed to be somewhere between 1 billion and 3 billion per year. Any solution that addresses this problem needs to include not only the tax-collection agencies and auditors, but also the carriers transporting oil products and the carriers customers. This report presents a system developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the Federal Highway Administration which has the potential to reduce or eliminate many fuel-tax evasion schemes. The solution balances the needs of tax-auditors and those of the fuel-hauling companies and their customers. The system has three main components. The on-board subsystem combined sensors, tracking and communication devices, and software (the on-board Evidential Reasoning System, or obERS) to detect, monitor, and geo-locate the transfer of fuel among different locations. The back office sub-system (boERS) used self-learning algorithms to determine the legitimacy of the fuel loading and offloading (important for tax auditors) and detect potential illicit operations such as fuel theft (important for carriers and their customers, and may justify the deployment costs). The third sub-system, the Fuel Distribution and Auditing System or FDAS, is a centralized database, which together with a user interface allows tax auditors to query the data submitted by the fuel-hauling companies and correlate different parameters to quickly identify any anomalies. Industry partners included Barger Transport of Weber City, Virginia (fleet); Air-Weigh, of Eugene, Oregon (and their wires and harnesses); Liquid Bulk Tank (LBT) of Omaha, Nebraska (three five-compartment trailers); and Innovative Software Engineering (ISE) of Coralville, Iowa(on-board telematics device and back-office system). ORNL conducted a pilot test with the three instrumented vehicles

  14. Supply Chain-Based Solution to Prevent Fuel Tax Evasion: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capps, Gary J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Engineering and Transportation Sciences Division; Franzese, Oscar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Engineering and Transportation Sciences Division; Lascurain, Mary Beth [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Engineering and Transportation Sciences Division; Siekmann, Adam [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Engineering and Transportation Sciences Division; Barker, Alan M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Electrical and Electronics Systems Research Division

    2016-07-28

    The primary source of funding for the United States transportation system is derived from motor fuel and other highway use taxes. Loss of revenue attributed to fuel-tax evasion has been assessed to be somewhere between 1 billion and 3 billion per year. Any solution that addresses this problem needs to include not only the tax-collection agencies and auditors, but also the carriers transporting oil products and the carriers customers. This report presents a system developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the Federal Highway Administration which has the potential to reduce or eliminate many fuel-tax evasion schemes. The solution balances the needs of tax-auditors and those of the fuel-hauling companies and their customers. The system has three main components. The on-board subsystem combined sensors, tracking and communication devices, and software (the on-board Evidential Reasoning System, or obERS) to detect, monitor, and geo-locate the transfer of fuel among different locations. The back office sub-system (boERS) used self-learning algorithms to determine the legitimacy of the fuel loading and offloading (important for tax auditors) and detect potential illicit operations such as fuel theft (important for carriers and their customers, and may justify the deployment costs). The third sub-system, the Fuel Distribution and Auditing System or FDAS, is a centralized database, which together with a user interface allows tax auditors to query the data submitted by the fuel-hauling companies and correlate different parameters to quickly identify any anomalies. Industry partners included Barger Transport of Weber City, Virginia (fleet); Air-Weigh, of Eugene, Oregon (and their wires and harnesses); Liquid Bulk Tank (LBT) of Omaha, Nebraska (three five-compartment trailers); and Innovative Software Engineering (ISE) of Coralville, Iowa(on-board telematics device and back-office system). ORNL conducted a pilot test with the three instrumented vehicles

  15. A Performance Evaluation System for Agricultural Services in Agricultural Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zangeneh Morteza

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is comparing all possible scenarios to improve the performance of agricultural supply chain (ASC. For this purpose, at first all scenarios is discussed and the main constraints, i.e. available budget and time, is considered. In this study the drivers to improve the performance of ASC is select and distribute the best agricultural service packages in the target ASC. All discussed scenarios need a selection procedure. So a multilevel approach is developed to select the best service package for each scenario. All selection methods are based on performance measurement which had been selected in first level of the approach. Fuzzy decision making and Analytic Hierarchy Process have been used for the approach. A numerical example is solved at the end of the paper to show the capability of the approach and comparing the scenarios.

  16. Advanced gis-based model for estimating power plant's supply logistics in a region with intense competition of forest fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpinen, Olli-Jussi; Jaeppinen, Eero; Ranta, Tapio [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology, Mikkeli (Finland)], e-mail: olli-jussi.korpinen@lut.fi

    2012-11-01

    Increasing forest fuel use in Finland has resulted in intense competition of energy wood in some areas. One of them is the region of Central Finland. Within a 50 km distance from the city of Jyvaeskylae 1.5 TWh of forest fuels are used annually in five CHP plants. The supply areas of the plants are partly overlapping and the spatial dispersion of fuel suppliers' in the area is difficult to model. This paper presents a supply analysis taking into account the proximity of competing power plants. Power plants' market positions are modeled by a zonal classification method which is based on geographical analysis of biomass demand and availability. The analysis was used in a case study evaluating future prospects of forest fuel use in Jyvaeskylae and the surrounding region. The results indicate that even a small increase in fuel demand by the same demand point cause significant increase in supply costs for power plants in Jyvaeskylae. However, if new competing facilities with high fuel demand are built near the edge of the supply area of Jyvaeskylae, economical impacts are marginal. Keywords: forestry residues, combined heat and power generation (CHP), biorefining, transport sector, geographical information system (GIS)

  17. Demand and supply-based operating modes--a framework for analyzing health care service production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillrank, Paul; Groop, P Johan; Malmström, Tomi J

    2010-12-01

    The structure of organizations that provide services should reflect the possibilities of and constraints on production that arise from the market segments they serve. Organizational segmentation in health care is based on urgency and severity as well as disease type, bodily function, principal method, or population subgroup. The result is conflicting priorities, goals, and performance metrics. A managerial perspective is needed to identify activities with similar requirements for integration, coordination, and control. The arguments in this article apply new reasoning to the previous literature. The method used in this article to classify health care provision distinguishes different types of health problems that share generic constraints of production. The analysis leads to seven different demand-supply combinations, each with its own operational logic. These are labeled demand and supply-based operating modes (DSO modes), and constitute the managerial building blocks of health care organizations. The modes are Prevention, Emergency, One visit, Project, Elective, Cure, and Care. As analytical categories the DSO modes can be used to understand current problems. Several operating modes in one unit create managerial problems of conflicting priorities, goals, and performance metrics. The DSO modes are constructed as managerially homogeneous categories or care platforms responding to general types of demand, and supply constraints. The DSO modes bring methods of industrial management to bear on efforts to improve health care. © 2010 Milbank Memorial Fund. Published by Wiley Periodicals Inc.

  18. SOLID FUEL OF HYDROCARBON, WOOD AND AGRICULTURAL WASTE FOR LOCAL HEAT SUPPLY SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Khroustalev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In Belarus oil refining and oil producing industries are paid close attention. On the background of the active maintaining the level of oil processing and volume of oil extraction in our country and in the countries of the Eurasian Economic Union there is a steady formation of hydrocarbon-containing waste; therefore recycling of the latter is an urgent task to improve the competitiveness of production. The most cost-effective way of using hydrocarbon waste is the conversion of it into power resources. In this case it is possible to obtain significant power-saving and economic effect of the combined use of a hydrocarbon, wood, agricultural and other combustible waste, meanwhile improving the ecological situation at the sites of waste storage and creating a solid fuel with the necessary energy and specified physical-and-chemical properties. A comprehensive solution of a recycling problem makes it possible to use as energy resources a lot of waste that has not found application in other technologies, to produce alternative multi-component fuel which structure meets environmental and energy requirement for local heating systems. In addition, the implementation of such technology will make it possible to reduce power consumption of enterprises of various kinds that consume fuel and will also increase the share of local fuels in the energy balance of a particular region.

  19. Ecological control of atmospheric air contamination on the objects of aviation fuel supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е. Л. Матвеева

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Considered are the problems of necessity of organization of ecological policy at a level of an airenterprise, with the purpose of reduction of harmful effect of an antropogeneous load on an envi­ronment, diminution of harmful effect of aviation fuel and lubricating materials on safety of work, reduction of losses of oil products

  20. Fuel supply of nuclear power industry with the introduction of fast reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraviev, E. V.

    2014-12-01

    The results of studies conducted for the validation of the updated development strategy for nuclear power industry in Russia in the 21st century are presented. Scenarios with different options for the reprocessing of spent fuel of thermal reactors and large-scale growth of nuclear power industry based on fast reactors of inherent safety with a breeding ratio of ˜1 in a closed nuclear fuel cycle are considered. The possibility of enhanced fuel breeding in fast reactors is also taken into account in the analysis. The potential to establish a large-scale nuclear power industry that covers 100% of the increase in electric power requirements in Russia is demonstrated. This power industry may be built by the end of the century through the introduction of fast reactors (replacing thermal ones) with a gross uranium consumption of up to ˜1 million t and the termination of uranium mining even if the reprocessing of spent fuel of thermal reactors is stopped or suffers a long-term delay.

  1. Optimum Operation Condition on Distributed Power Supply System with Micro Gas Turbine/Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hiroshi; Yamada, Miki; Usui, Hiromoto; Komoda, Yoshiyuki

    In order to find the optimum operation condition of a distributed power supply system of 30kW class micro gas turbine (MGT) and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) hybrid system with the combination of line electric power and supplied gas, a system analysis has been performed. In this study, an absorption chiller and a boiler were mounted to utilize the exhausted heat from the MGT/SOFC system. The time variation of energy consumption in 24 hours for house and market models was taken into consideration for the calculation of the energy saving ratio of the present system. The operation ratio defined with the ratio of power supply of MGT/SOFC system to the power required at the peak load was changed as a parameter. From the comparison with the system using line power and gas, it is found that the present system shows high energy saving ratio around 0.4 of the operation ratio, but the energy saving ratio severely decreases in the range of high operation ratio. In this study, it is revealed that the thermal storage system effectively improves the energy saving ratio especially for the house model in winter season.

  2. 78 FR 9431 - Shaw AREVA MOX Services, LLC (Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility); Order Approving Indirect...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... COMMISSION [NRC-2011-0081; Docket No. 70-3098; Construction Authorization No. CAMOX-001] Shaw AREVA MOX... Construction Authorization I Shaw AREVA MOX Services, LLC (MOX Services) holds Construction ] Authorization (CA) CAMOX-001 for construction of a Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) at the...

  3. 77 FR 65729 - Uranium Enrichment Fuel Cycle Facility Inspection Reports Regarding Louisiana Energy Services LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-30

    ... COMMISSION Uranium Enrichment Fuel Cycle Facility Inspection Reports Regarding Louisiana Energy Services LLC... inspections of the Louisiana Energy Services (LES), LLC, National Enrichment Facility in Eunice, New Mexico... Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR) 70.32 (k) and section 193(c) of the Atomic...

  4. 78 FR 23312 - Uranium Enrichment Fuel Cycle Inspection Reports Regarding Louisiana Energy Services, National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... COMMISSION Uranium Enrichment Fuel Cycle Inspection Reports Regarding Louisiana Energy Services, National... Energy Services (LES), LLC, National Enrichment Facility in Eunice, New Mexico, and has authorized the... Energy Act of 1954, as amended. The introduction of UF 6 into any module of the National...

  5. 78 FR 63518 - Uranium Enrichment Fuel Cycle Inspection Reports Regarding Louisiana Energy Services, National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... COMMISSION Uranium Enrichment Fuel Cycle Inspection Reports Regarding Louisiana Energy Services, National... conducted inspections of the Louisiana Energy Services (LES), LLC, National Enrichment Facility in Eunice... the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended. The introduction of UF 6 into any module of the...

  6. Finding the food-fuel balance. Supply and demand dynamics in global vegetable oil markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savanti, P.

    2012-10-15

    Demand for vegetable oils for food and biofuel use is expected to increase by an additional 23 million tonnes by 2016; however supply is expected to struggle to keep up with this demand, according to this Rabobank report. Vegetable oil stocks have reached a 38 year low this year due in large part to constraints such as land availability and adverse weather.

  7. Adaptation and validation of indicators concerning the sterilization process of supplies in Primary Health Care services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isis Pienta Batista Dias Passos

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to adapt and validate, by expert consensus, a set of indicators used to assess the sterilization process of dental, medical and hospital supplies to be used in PHC services.METHOD: qualitative methodological study performed in two stages. The first stage included a focal group composed of experts to adapt the indicators to be used in PHC. In the second stage, the indicators were validated using a 4-point Likert scale, which was completed by judges. A Content Validity Index of ≥ 0.75 was considered to show approval of the indicators.RESULTS: the adaptations implemented by the focal group mainly referred to the physical structure, inclusion of dental care professionals, inclusion of chemical disinfection, and replacement of the hot air and moist heat sterilization methods. The validation stage resulted in an index of 0.96, which ranged from 0.90 to 1.00, for the components of the indicators.CONCLUSION: the judges considered the indicators after adaptation to be validated. Even though there may be differences among items processed around the world, there certainly are common characteristics, especially in countries with economic and cultural environments similar to Brazil. The inclusion of these indicators to assess the safety of healthcare supplies used in PHC services should be considered.

  8. Determinants of willingness to pay for improved water supply services in rural Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tussupova, Kamshat

    2017-04-01

    The UN Sustainable development goals declare to provide water, sanitation and hygiene for all. The supply of affordable and safe water is a global priority and there is thus a requirement for a safe drinking water management and management of excreta disposal and wastewater. The current paper assesses the determinants of consumers' willingness to connect and pay (WTP) for the piped water in rural Kazakhstan. The results show that local villagers use water from different sources and at least three quarters of the respondents are willing to connect and use water from the piped water supply. The general defined determinants for WTP should be carefully considered among the different water users. Perceived water quality is a variable that is relevant for all water users. Other variables such as perceived reliability and the time-spent to collect water from the source, in-household treatment of water, and income perception are also significant but differently correlated with the WTP among different water users. Although, piped water is considered to be a safe system if properly managed, still some water users are reluctant to pay for the system and are satisfied with their current water supply and sanitation services. In this case, a proper management for the drinking water and wastewater and safe management of the excreta disposal should be supplied. It is recommended to include local water userś opinion as regard the willingness to connect and pay for the piped water system. The findings are of particular importance for policy-makers, water managers, engineers, and public health specialists.

  9. Use of a service evaluation and lean thinking transformation to redesign an NHS 111 refer to community Pharmacy for Emergency Repeat Medication Supply Service (PERMSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazar, Hamde; Nazar, Zachariah; Simpson, Jill; Yeung, Andre; Whittlesea, Cate

    2016-08-26

    To demonstrate the contribution of community pharmacy from NHS 111 referrals out of hours (OOH) for emergency supply repeat medication requests via presentation of service activity, community pharmacist feedback and lean thinking transformation. Descriptive service evaluation using routine service activity data over the pilot period; survey of community pharmacists, and service redesign through lean thinking transformation. North East of England NHS 111 provider and accredited community pharmacies across the North East of England. Patients calling the North East of England NHS 111 provider during OOH with emergency repeat medication supply requests. NHS 111 referral to community pharmacies for assessment and if appropriate, supply of emergency repeat medication. Number of emergency repeat medication supply referrals, completion rates, reasons for rejections, time of request, reason for access, medication(s), pharmaceutical advice and services provided. Secondary outcomes were community pharmacist feedback and lean thinking transformation of the patient pathway. NHS 111 referred 1468 patients to 114 community pharmacies (15/12/2014-7/4/2015). Most patients presented on Saturdays, with increased activity over national holidays. Community pharmacists completed 951 (64.8%) referrals providing 2297 medications; 412 were high risk. The most common reason for rejecting referrals was no medication in stock. Community pharmacists were positive about the provision of this service. The lean thinking transformation reduced the number of non-added value steps, waits and bottlenecks in the patient pathway. NHS 111 can redirect callers OOH from urgent and emergency care services to community pharmacy for management of emergency repeat medication supply. Existing IT and community pharmacy regulations allowed patients to receive a medication supply and pharmaceutical advice. Community pharmacists supported integration into the NHS OOH services. Adopting lean thinking provided a

  10. Never the twain shall meet? : Simulating sales & operations planning ramp-up dynamics in IT-enabled service supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkermans, Henk; Voss, C.; van Oers, Roeland; Zhu, Quan

    2016-01-01

    In IT-enabled service supply chains offering services through a mix of manual and automated activities, volume ramp-ups are notoriously difficult. Especially difficult is the attempt to effectively balance the inherently conflicting objectives of the functions Sales, who want to increase output as

  11. Public Attitudes towards Socio-Cultural Aspects of Water Supply and Sanitation Services: Palestine as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Marwan

    2005-01-01

    Identifying and considering public attitudes towards various aspects of water supply and sanitation services by planners and decision makers represent an important developmental element relating to the quality, efficiency, and performance of those services. A sample of 1000 Palestinian adults completed a questionnaire assessing attitudes towards…

  12. Coordination of Multi-leaders and Multi-followers in Supply Chain of Value-Added Telecom Services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dai Jianhua; Bai Xiuguang; Shu Huaying

    2011-01-01

    In order to study supply chain of the telecom value-added service,a multi-leaders and multifollowers Stackelberg game model with multiple telecom operators and multiple service providers whose income is composed of information fee division and advertisement was constructed.Then a demonstration was simulated,and the results were compared with the situation of service providers' income only from information fee division.The simulated and compared results indicate that,the enterprises in the supply chain have the nature of pursuing the maximum profits in capital markets; meanwhile,firstmover advantages and some enterprise can get more profits with the information asymmetry.

  13. The Value of Advanced Smart Metering in the Management of Urban Water Supply Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardiola, J.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Giuliani, M.; Castelletti, A.; Cominola, A.; Arregui de la Cruz, F.; Escriva-Bou, A.; Soriano, J.; Pérez, J. J.; Castillo, J.; Barba, J.; González, V.; Rizzoli, A. E.

    2016-12-01

    This work intends to outline the experience of the implementation and further exploitation of an extensive network of smart meters (SM) in the city of Valencia by Aguas de Valencia, the water utility that offers water supply and sanitation services to the city of Valencia and its metropolitan area. Valencia has become the first large city in Europe fully equipped with a point-to-point fixed network of SM (currently with more than 430,000 units, about 90% of the meters of the city). The shift towards a water supply management system based on SM is a complex process that entails changes and impacts on different management areas of the water supply organization. A new data management and processing platform has been developed and is already proving notable benefits in the operation of the system. For example, a tool allows to automatically issue and manage work orders when abnormalities such as internal leaks (constant consumption) or meter alarms are detected. Another tool has been developed to reduce levels of non-revenue water by continuously balancing supply and demand in district metered areas. Improving leak detection and adjusting pressure levels has significantly increased the efficiency of the water distribution network. Finally, a service of post-meter leak detection has been also implemented. But the SM also contribute to improve demand management. The customers now receive detailed information on their water consumption, valuable for improving household water management and assessing the value of water conservation strategies. SM are also key tools for improving the level of understanding of demand patterns. Users have been categorized into different clusters depending in their consumption patterns characteristics. Within the EU SmartH2O project, a high resolution and frequency monitoring of residential uses has been conducted in a selected sample of households for a precise disaggregation of residential end-uses. The disaggregation of end-uses allows for

  14. [Organization of the drug supply chain in state health services: potential consequences of the public-private mix].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Moreno, Sergio; Martínez-Ojeda, Rosa Haydeé; López-Arellano, Oliva; Jarillo-Soto, Edgar; Castro-Albarrán, Juan Manuel

    2011-01-01

    To assess the consequences of private outsourcing on the overall supply and filling of prescriptions in state health services. The research was conducted using quantitative and qualitative techniques in 13 states. The information was collected through interviews and direct observation. The interviews were carried on staff of state health services related to the drug supply chain and users of health services. The quantitative approach examined the percentage of stocked full recipes in a sample of users. States that have opted for the fully outsourced model, and properly monitored this choice, have increased the supply of drugs to their users and guaranteed the supply in the care units in charge. Other states with the outsourced model have multiple problems: direct purchase of drugs not included in the basic drugs catalogue, failure of suppliers and shortage of supplies in the laboratories that provide the company. The main disadvantages identified in all models were: the subordination of the medical criteria to administrative criteria, insufficient planning based on local care needs, heterogeneous procedures, insufficient knowledge of regulations and lack of normativity. The results indicate that the incorporation of private providers in the drug supply chain may not be the solution to bring down the shortage faced by health services, especially at the hospital level. The shift to outsourcing models has developed without incorporating evaluation mechanisms and the consequences that this transition can have on state health systems must be investigated more deeply.

  15. Ethanol vehicle fuel : energy balance, GHG reductions, supply and economic overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rilett, J.

    2003-04-15

    This paper examined the following four aspects of ethanol vehicle fuels: energy balance of ethanol, potential for greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions, Canadian production capacity based on available ethanol feedstock, and an overview of the economic issues in the Canadian ethanol industry. All recent research conducted by private consulting firms, government researchers in Canada and the United States, and academia indicate that ethanol presents a positive energy balance. Only one recent study concludes that ethanol has a negative energy balance. It was argued that this conclusion was reached because the data was outdated and improper assumptions were made concerning energy inputs for the production of ethanol. Researchers indicate that ethanol as a vehicle fuel yields GHG emission reductions. Mixtures of 10 per cent ethanol and 90 per cent gasoline (E10) result in GHG reductions estimated in the 1 to 5 per cent range when compared to pure gasoline. The same estimates suggest that if all gasoline sold in Alberta was an E10 blend, the minimum reduction of GHG emissions would be approximately 103,220 tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent. In this paper, wheat was considered as a feed stock, and numbers indicate that 4.6 million tonnes of wheat would be suitable for ethanol feedstock, exceeding the government goal of having 35 per cent of all gasoline as E10 blend. Corn produced in eastern Canada would also increase available feedstock. A large ethanol industry in Canada would require fuel tax exemptions and mandatory blending percentages to make it a viable market. 20 refs., 4 tabs., 1 fig.

  16. Trading Off Global Fuel Supply, CO2 Emissions and Sustainable Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Liam; Ross, Ian; Foster, John; Hankamer, Ben

    2016-01-01

    The United Nations Conference on Climate Change (Paris 2015) reached an international agreement to keep the rise in global average temperature 'well below 2°C' and to 'aim to limit the increase to 1.5°C'. These reductions will have to be made in the face of rising global energy demand. Here a thoroughly validated dynamic econometric model (Eq 1) is used to forecast global energy demand growth (International Energy Agency and BP), which is driven by an increase of the global population (UN), energy use per person and real GDP (World Bank and Maddison). Even relatively conservative assumptions put a severe upward pressure on forecast global energy demand and highlight three areas of concern. First, is the potential for an exponential increase of fossil fuel consumption, if renewable energy systems are not rapidly scaled up. Second, implementation of internationally mandated CO2 emission controls are forecast to place serious constraints on fossil fuel use from ~2030 onward, raising energy security implications. Third is the challenge of maintaining the international 'pro-growth' strategy being used to meet poverty alleviation targets, while reducing CO2 emissions. Our findings place global economists and environmentalists on the same side as they indicate that the scale up of CO2 neutral renewable energy systems is not only important to protect against climate change, but to enhance global energy security by reducing our dependence of fossil fuels and to provide a sustainable basis for economic development and poverty alleviation. Very hard choices will have to be made to achieve 'sustainable development' goals.

  17. Trading Off Global Fuel Supply, CO2 Emissions and Sustainable Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam Wagner

    Full Text Available The United Nations Conference on Climate Change (Paris 2015 reached an international agreement to keep the rise in global average temperature 'well below 2°C' and to 'aim to limit the increase to 1.5°C'. These reductions will have to be made in the face of rising global energy demand. Here a thoroughly validated dynamic econometric model (Eq 1 is used to forecast global energy demand growth (International Energy Agency and BP, which is driven by an increase of the global population (UN, energy use per person and real GDP (World Bank and Maddison. Even relatively conservative assumptions put a severe upward pressure on forecast global energy demand and highlight three areas of concern. First, is the potential for an exponential increase of fossil fuel consumption, if renewable energy systems are not rapidly scaled up. Second, implementation of internationally mandated CO2 emission controls are forecast to place serious constraints on fossil fuel use from ~2030 onward, raising energy security implications. Third is the challenge of maintaining the international 'pro-growth' strategy being used to meet poverty alleviation targets, while reducing CO2 emissions. Our findings place global economists and environmentalists on the same side as they indicate that the scale up of CO2 neutral renewable energy systems is not only important to protect against climate change, but to enhance global energy security by reducing our dependence of fossil fuels and to provide a sustainable basis for economic development and poverty alleviation. Very hard choices will have to be made to achieve 'sustainable development' goals.

  18. Study on Service Supply Chain and its Architecture%服务供应链及其体系结构研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程建刚

    2012-01-01

    This paper put forward an architecture, defined service supply ehain, discussed the relationship between service supply chain and product supply chain, analyzed main contains of study and implementation of service supply chain. At last, a property service supply chain structure model was raised as an example.%对国内外的研究现状做了比较系统的梳理和总结,在此基础上提出了服务供应链理论的体系结构,分析和讨论了服务供应链研究和实施的主要内容。

  19. Report on emergency electrical power supply systems for nuclear fuel cycle and reactor facilities security systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    The report includes information that will be useful to those responsible for the planning, design and implementation of emergency electric power systems for physical security and special nuclear materials accountability systems. Basic considerations for establishing the system requirements for emergency electric power for security and accountability operations are presented. Methods of supplying emergency power that are available at present and methods predicted to be available in the future are discussed. The characteristics of capacity, cost, safety, reliability and environmental and physical facility considerations of emergency electric power techniques are presented. The report includes basic considerations for the development of a system concept and the preparation of a detailed system design.

  20. Comparing bioenergy production sites in the Southeastern US regarding ecosystem service supply and demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Markus A; Chand, Tanzila; Priess, Joerg A

    2015-01-01

    Biomass for bioenergy is debated for its potential synergies or tradeoffs with other provisioning and regulating ecosystem services (ESS). This biomass may originate from different production systems and may be purposefully grown or obtained from residues. Increased concerns globally about the sustainable production of biomass for bioenergy has resulted in numerous certification schemes focusing on best management practices, mostly operating at the plot/field scale. In this study, we compare the ESS of two watersheds in the southeastern US. We show the ESS tradeoffs and synergies of plantation forestry, i.e., pine poles, and agricultural production, i.e., wheat straw and corn stover, with the counterfactual natural or semi-natural forest in both watersheds. The plantation forestry showed less distinct tradeoffs than did corn and wheat production, i.e., for carbon storage, P and sediment retention, groundwater recharge, and biodiversity. Using indicators of landscape composition and configuration, we showed that landscape planning can affect the overall ESS supply and can partly determine if locally set environmental thresholds are being met. Indicators on landscape composition, configuration and naturalness explained more than 30% of the variation in ESS supply. Landscape elements such as largely connected forest patches or more complex agricultural patches, e.g., mosaics with shrub and grassland patches, may enhance ESS supply in both of the bioenergy production systems. If tradeoffs between biomass production and other ESS are not addressed by landscape planning, it may be reasonable to include rules in certification schemes that require, e.g., the connectivity of natural or semi-natural forest patches in plantation forestry or semi-natural landscape elements in agricultural production systems. Integrating indicators on landscape configuration and composition into certification schemes is particularly relevant considering that certification schemes are governance

  1. Comparing bioenergy production sites in the Southeastern US regarding ecosystem service supply and demand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus A Meyer

    Full Text Available Biomass for bioenergy is debated for its potential synergies or tradeoffs with other provisioning and regulating ecosystem services (ESS. This biomass may originate from different production systems and may be purposefully grown or obtained from residues. Increased concerns globally about the sustainable production of biomass for bioenergy has resulted in numerous certification schemes focusing on best management practices, mostly operating at the plot/field scale. In this study, we compare the ESS of two watersheds in the southeastern US. We show the ESS tradeoffs and synergies of plantation forestry, i.e., pine poles, and agricultural production, i.e., wheat straw and corn stover, with the counterfactual natural or semi-natural forest in both watersheds. The plantation forestry showed less distinct tradeoffs than did corn and wheat production, i.e., for carbon storage, P and sediment retention, groundwater recharge, and biodiversity. Using indicators of landscape composition and configuration, we showed that landscape planning can affect the overall ESS supply and can partly determine if locally set environmental thresholds are being met. Indicators on landscape composition, configuration and naturalness explained more than 30% of the variation in ESS supply. Landscape elements such as largely connected forest patches or more complex agricultural patches, e.g., mosaics with shrub and grassland patches, may enhance ESS supply in both of the bioenergy production systems. If tradeoffs between biomass production and other ESS are not addressed by landscape planning, it may be reasonable to include rules in certification schemes that require, e.g., the connectivity of natural or semi-natural forest patches in plantation forestry or semi-natural landscape elements in agricultural production systems. Integrating indicators on landscape configuration and composition into certification schemes is particularly relevant considering that certification

  2. The Impact of Price Comparison Service on Pricing Strategy in a Dual-Channel Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, price comparison service (PCS websites are more and more popular due to its features in facilitating transparent price and promoting rational purchase decision. Motivated by the industrial practices, in this study, we examine the pricing strategies of retailers and supplier in a dual-channel supply chain influenced by the signals of PCS. We categorize and discuss three situations according to the signal availability of PCS, under which the optimal pricing strategies are derived. Finally, we conduct a numerical study and find that in fact the retailers and supplier are all more willing to avoid the existence of PCS with the objective of profit maximization. When both of retailers are affected by the PCS, the supplier is more willing to reduce the availability of price information. Important managerial insights are discussed.

  3. The entry of logistics service provider (LSP into the wine industry supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulconis François

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the wine industry supply chain (WSC organization from a social network approach, with an emphasis on the role of logistics service providers (LSP could hold in the flow monitoring. We try to understand if LSP can be a substitute to traditional actors for intermediation management. This substitution phenomenon must take account of the wine industry culture that may constitute an obstruction or an accelerator for the development of this activity. We present a conceptual model of the WSC, and we discuss the possible future role of the LSP. This paper introduces a framework contributing to understand worldwide WSC organization, mapping tools and strategies to assess the reasons of their evolution. The cultural impact is underlined in this type of industry showing it could present a boundary to market access for LSP.

  4. United Kingdom. The supply of gas storage services; Gran Bretagna: i servizi di stoccaggio del gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alviani, F. [Law and Economics Consulting Group, London (United Kingdom)

    1999-09-01

    This article investigates BG Storage monopoly position in the supply of gas storage services. The company is currently thought by the regulator to be exploiting its monopoly power to price in discriminatory way. The analysis, however, shows that unsold storage capacity depend on the current over capacity in the United Kingdom gas market, more than on the abuse od market power. [Italian] Questo articolo analizza la posizione di monopolio di BG Storage nell'offerta di servizi di stoccaggio del gas. Dall'analisi emerge che la capacita' di stoccaggio invenduta potrebbe dipendere piu' dalla situazione di sovracapacita' del mercato del gas inglese che dall'abuso di posizione dominante, di cui la compagnia e' accusata.

  5. Urban Water Supply Industry Marketization of China in View of Public Water Service and Water Resource Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yining

    2010-01-01

    Started with the discussions on the value orientation of urban water supply industry marketization,the article points out that the current urban water supply industry marketization reform is inconsistent with the goal of public water service equalization to some extent.The article also analyzes the problems emerged in urban water supply industry marketization reform and various reasons in view of efficiency and fairness.An efficiency and fairness oriented management model is built in this article to illustrate how the government should conciliate interests of various communities involved in the process of marketization reform of the urban water supply industry so as to actualize the coordination of efficiency and fairness.At the end,an assumption on urban water price is put forward to help achieve the public water service equalization.

  6. Enhanced performance of an air-cathode microbial fuel cell with oxygen supply from an externally connected algal bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakarla, Ramesh; Kim, Jung Rae; Jeon, Byong-Hun; Min, Booki

    2015-11-01

    An algae bioreactor (ABR) was externally connected to air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs) to increase power generation by supplying a high amount of oxygen to cathode electrode. The MFC with oxygen fed from ABR produced maximum cell voltage and cathode potential at a fixed loading of 459 mV and 10 mV, respectively. During polarization analysis, the MFC displayed a maximum power density of 0.63 W/m(2) (at 2.06 A/m(2)) using 39.2% O2 from ABR, which was approximately 30% higher compared with use of atmospheric air (0.44 W/m(2), 20.8% O2,). The cyclic voltammogram analysis exhibited a higher reduction current of -137 mA with 46.5% O2 compared to atmospheric air (-115 mA). Oxygen supply by algae bioreactor to air-cathode MFC could also maintain better MFC performance in long term operation by minimizing cathode potential drop over time.

  7. Fuzzy double model control for air supply on a PEM fuel cell system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Xiaohong; Zhang, Haochen; An, Aimin; Liu, Xin; Chen, Liwen [Lanzhou Univ. of Technology, Gansu (China). College of Electric and Information Engineering

    2013-07-01

    Oxygen excess ratio control is closely related to the performance and safety of a Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell system. Some control strategies should be used to regulate the oxygen excess ratio at the suitable value in order to avoid stack starvation and damage. And in this paper, a simple fuzzy double model control has been proposed to adjust the oxygen excess ratio under variation load currents. The double model controller combines a PID controller and a fuzzy logic controller which can be switched based on the fuzzy inference rules during the regulation process. The simulation results demonstrate that the fuzzy double model control can adjust the oxygen excess ratio at the setting point when the current is changed, and improve the dynamic performance of oxygen excess ratio than fuzzy PID control.

  8. Willingness to pay for public services and quality of supply in the electricity area; Zahlungsbereitschaft fuer Service public und Versorgungsqualitaet im Strombereich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leukert, K.; Telser, H.; Vaterlaus, S.; Mahler, P.

    2008-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the results of a study made on the willingness to pay for public services and quality of supply in the electricity area. First, the starting point of the study and definitions of quality of supply and security of supply are noted. The methods used in the study are presented and macro-economic aspects are reviewed. The costs of black-outs are examined and the carrying out of surveys in the electricity market is discussed. The results of surveys made in households and commercial enterprises concerning the willingness to pay for security of supply and the costs incurred when supplies fail are presented and discussed. The report is completed with a comprehensive list of references and an appendix containing the results of the various tests and surveys made.

  9. White Matter Lipids as a Ketogenic Fuel Supply in Aging Female Brain: Implications for Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosinski, Lauren P; Yao, Jia; Yin, Fei; Fonteh, Alfred N; Harrington, Michael G; Christensen, Trace A; Trushina, Eugenia; Brinton, Roberta Diaz

    2015-12-01

    White matter degeneration is a pathological hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's. Age remains the greatest risk factor for Alzheimer's and the prevalence of age-related late onset Alzheimer's is greatest in females. We investigated mechanisms underlying white matter degeneration in an animal model consistent with the sex at greatest Alzheimer's risk. Results of these analyses demonstrated decline in mitochondrial respiration, increased mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide production and cytosolic-phospholipase-A2 sphingomyelinase pathway activation during female brain aging. Electron microscopic and lipidomic analyses confirmed myelin degeneration. An increase in fatty acids and mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism machinery was coincident with a rise in brain ketone bodies and decline in plasma ketone bodies. This mechanistic pathway and its chronologically phased activation, links mitochondrial dysfunction early in aging with later age development of white matter degeneration. The catabolism of myelin lipids to generate ketone bodies can be viewed as a systems level adaptive response to address brain fuel and energy demand. Elucidation of the initiating factors and the mechanistic pathway leading to white matter catabolism in the aging female brain provides potential therapeutic targets to prevent and treat demyelinating diseases such as Alzheimer's and multiple sclerosis. Targeting stages of disease and associated mechanisms will be critical.

  10. Microbial fuel cells as power supply of a low-power temperature sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaled, Firas; Ondel, Olivier; Allard, Bruno

    2016-02-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) show great promise as a concomitant process for water treatment and as renewable energy sources for environmental sensors. The small energy produced by MFCs and the low output voltage limit the applications of MFCs. Specific converter topologies are required to step-up the output voltage of a MFC. A Power Management Unit (PMU) is proposed for operation at low input voltage and at very low power in a completely autonomous way to capture energy from MFCs with the highest possible efficiency. The application of sensors for monitoring systems in remote locations is an important approach. MFCs could be an alternative energy source in this case. Powering a sensor with MFCs may prove the fact that wastewater may be partly turned into renewable energy for realistic applications. The Power Management Unit is demonstrated for 3.6 V output voltage at 1 mW continuous power, based on a low-cost 0.7-L MFC. A temperature sensor may operate continuously on 2-MFCs in continuous flow mode. A flyback converter under discontinuous conduction mode is also tested to power the sensor. One continuously fed MFC was able to efficiently and continuously power the sensor.

  11. 49 CFR 1242.60 - Locomotive fuel, electric power purchased/produced for motive power and servicing locomotives...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locomotive fuel, electric power purchased/produced for motive power and servicing locomotives (accounts XX-51-67, XX-51-68 and XX-51-69). 1242.60 Section...-Transportation § 1242.60 Locomotive fuel, electric power purchased/produced for motive power and servicing...

  12. 76 FR 22735 - Shaw AREVA MOX Services, Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility; License Amendment Request, Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Shaw AREVA MOX Services, Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility; License Amendment Request, Notice.... Introduction The NRC has received, by letter dated February 8, 2011, an amendment request from Shaw AREVA...

  13. An Order Allocation Model based on the Competitive and Rational Pre-Estimate Behavior in Logistics Service Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Liu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the actual order allocation process of Logistics Service Supply Chain (LSSC, Functional Logistics Service Providers (FLSPs are strategic: they will pre-estimate the order allocation results to decide whether or not to participate in order allocation. Considering a two-echelon Logistics Service Supply Chain (LSSC consisting of one Logistics Service Integrator (LSI and several competitive FLSPs, we establish an order allocation optimization model of LSSC based on the pre-estimate and competitive behavior of FLSPs. The model considers three objectives: to minimize the cost of LSI, to maximize the order satisfaction of FLSPs and to match the different logistics capacities of FLSPs as much as possible. Numerical analysis is performed to discuss the effects of the competition among FLSPs on the order allocation results. The results show that with the rational expectations equilibrium, competitions among FLSPs help improve the comprehensive performance of LSSC.

  14. Rural water supply and related services in developing countries — Comparative analysis of several approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajard, Y.; Draper, M.; Viens, P.

    1981-05-01

    The proposed paper deals with a comparative analysis of several approaches possible and actually used for a joint action of local institutions and foreign aid in the field of water supply and related services such as sanitation to villages and small rural agglomerations (market towns, etc.) in developing countries. This comparative analysis is based on examples of actual programmes in this field. The authors have participated in most of the programmes selected as examples, at various levels and in various capacities, from conception to design, implementation and/or evaluation (i.e. rural development programmes in Ivory Coast, Ghana (upper region), Benin and Ethiopia. The authors were not involved in other examples such as water supply and/or sanitation to small urban centres in Benin, Ivory Coast, etc. They have, however, witnessed them directly and have obtained, therefore, first-hand information on their organization, execution and results. Several typical examples of actual projects are briefly defined and characterized. The paper undertakes, then, to compare, in a clinical fashion, the advantages and drawbacks of the approaches taken in the various examples presented. The paper finally proposes a recommendation for a realistic approach to joint action between local/domestic and foreign financing/assistance agencies and executing bodies (consultants, contractors) in the field of rural water supply, sanitation, and more generally, health improvement. The definition of this line of approach is made in terms of logical framework, i.e. goals, purposes, outputs and inputs at the various stages of the project, up to actual evaluation of execution and impact if possible; description of practical indicators of the two types of evaluation. A particular attention is given to the problems of technological choices, in view of the constraints imposed by the natural environment, by the human and social patterns; in view also of the institutions and the economy. Another point

  15. Alteration of bacterial communities and organic matter in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) supplied with soil and organic fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocali, Stefano; Galeffi, Carlo; Perrin, Elena; Florio, Alessandro; Migliore, Melania; Canganella, Francesco; Bianconi, Giovanna; Di Mattia, Elena; Dell'Abate, Maria Teresa; Fani, Renato; Benedetti, Anna

    2013-02-01

    The alteration of the organic matter (OM) and the composition of bacterial community in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) supplied with soil (S) and a composted organic fertilizer (A) was examined at the beginning and at the end of 3 weeks of incubation under current-producing as well as no-current-producing conditions. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis revealed a significant alteration of the microbial community structure in MFCs generating electricity as compared with no-current-producing MFCs. The genetic diversity of cultivable bacterial communities was assessed by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis of 106 bacterial isolates obtained by using both generic and elective media. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes of the more representative RAPD groups indicated that over 50.4% of the isolates from MFCs fed with S were Proteobacteria, 25.1% Firmicutes, and 24.5% Actinobacteria, whereas in MFCs supplied with A 100% of the dominant species belonged to γ-Proteobacteria. The chemical analysis performed by fractioning the OM and using thermal analysis showed that the amount of total organic carbon contained in the soluble phase of the electrochemically active chambers significantly decreased as compared to the no-current-producing systems, whereas the OM of the solid phase became more humified and aromatic along with electricity generation, suggesting a significant stimulation of a humification process of the OM. These findings demonstrated that electroactive bacteria are commonly present in aerobic organic substrates such as soil or a fertilizer and that MFCs could represent a powerful tool for exploring the mineralization and humification processes of the soil OM.

  16. 31 CFR 560.204 - Prohibited exportation, reexportation, sale or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibited exportation, reexportation, sale or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran. 560.204 Section 560.204 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT...

  17. 31 CFR 545.204 - Prohibited exportation, reexportation, sale, or supply of goods, software, technology, or services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibited exportation, reexportation, sale, or supply of goods, software, technology, or services. 545.204 Section 545.204 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT...

  18. 77 FR 37908 - Federal Supply Service; Submission for OMB Review; Standard Form (SF) 123, Transfer Order-Surplus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... regarding Standard Form (SF) 123, transfer order-surplus personal property and continuation sheet. A notice was published in the Federal Register at 77 FR 12840, on March 2, 2012. No comments were received... ADMINISTRATION Federal Supply Service; Submission for OMB Review; Standard Form (SF) 123, Transfer...

  19. The Optimal Strategies of Risk-Averse Newsvendor Model for a Dyadic Supply Chain with Financing Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxin Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the budget-constrained newsvendor problem under risk aversion with financing service and builds a two-stage supply chain decision model on the order quantity and wholesale price. The budget-constrained retailer as a newsvendor faces a nonnegative random demand and the financial institution provides the loan service for the retailer who is risk-averse. This paper first explores the impact of risk aversion on the decisions in financial supply chain. Different from the existing research, we analyze how the financing service of bank loan impacts the risk-averse newsvendor’s decision and how the risk-averse behavior of the retailer influences the optimal strategies in supply chain with CVaR risk measure criterion. It is found that the order quantity decreases in the degree of risk aversion. The optimal order quantity is decreasing in initial budget, wholesale price, and interest rate. It is worth noting that the financing service can improve the profit of the supply chain system when the retailer has a low initial wealth. Finally, to compare with the existing results the theoretical analysis and numerical examples are also illustrated.

  20. Scheduling Performance Evaluation of Logistics Service Supply Chain Based on the Dynamic Index Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Scheduling is crucial to the operation of logistics service supply chain (LSSC, so scientific performance evaluation method is required to evaluate the scheduling performance. Different from general project performance evaluation, scheduling activities are usually continuous and multiperiod. Therefore, the weight of scheduling performance evaluation index is not unchanged, but dynamically varied. In this paper, the factors that influence the scheduling performance are analyzed in three levels which are strategic environment, operating process, and scheduling results. Based on these three levels, the scheduling performance evaluation index system of LSSC is established. In all, a new performance evaluation method proposed based on dynamic index weight will have three innovation points. Firstly, a multiphase dynamic interaction method is introduced to improve the quality of quantification. Secondly, due to the large quantity of second-level indexes and the requirements of dynamic weight adjustment, the maximum attribute deviation method is introduced to determine weight of second-level indexes, which can remove the uncertainty of subjective factors. Thirdly, an adjustment coefficient method based on set-valued statistics is introduced to determine the first-level indexes weight. In the end, an application example from a logistics company in China is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  1. Social Corporate Responsibility regarding Household Consumer Satisfaction with the Electric Power Supply Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Ana Georgescu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The issue of the practical manifestation of corporate social responsibility towards consumers is highly important to the socio-economic reality in Romania. The present paper is the result of an investigation carried out in this field and it is distinguished by two aspects. The first aspect is its target audience used for research - household consumers of electricity, who can be called "vulnerable", captive consumers. The second aspect is the specificity of the electricity market. The aim of the research was to study the relationship between corporate social responsibility, instantiated by the quality of services provided by S.C. Electrica S.A. – Electrica Distribution and Supply South Transylvania and the consumers' loyalty towards the company, in case other electricity suppliers emerge. A subsidiary aspect was the generation of a database having an impact on customer retention. We have carried out some quantitative research, based on the survey method, having a sample of 521 household consumers from the Mures County. The study we carried out proves that consumer satisfaction, their degree of satisfaction under different aspects, is a way of gaining their trust on this particular market. Those consumers with a higher degree of trust in the company are more loyal. This will result in reducing migration to another electricity supplier, in the future, when all household consumers become eligible.

  2. The Ontario Energy Board`s draft standard supply service code: effects on air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbons, J.; Bjorkquist, S. [Ontario Clean Air Alliance, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1999-06-29

    The Ontario Clean Air Alliance (OCAA), a coalition of 67 organizations, takes issue with the Ontario Energy Board`s draft document `Standard Supply Service Code`, particularly sections 2.2.2. and 2.5.2 which they claim are not in the public interest unless the Ontario government implements the OCAA`s recommended emission caps. The alliance is of the view that without strict new environmental regulations the proposed Code would encourage the use of coal for electricity generation. Public health, the environment, consumer interests, job creation and promotion of a competitive electricity market would all be jeopardized by this development, the alliance states. The argument is supported by extensive reference to the Final Report of the Ontario Market Design Committee (MDC) which also emphasized the importance of combining the introduction of competition with appropriate environmental regulations, singling out the emission cap and trade program, and recommending that it be launched concurrently with the electricity market opening for competition. The view of the MDC was that public support for restructuring would not be forthcoming in the absence of regulatory measures to control power plant emissions. 25 refs.

  3. Effects of changes in micro- and macro-environmental factors on the supply of hospitals services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassaye, W W; Tseng, K C

    1990-01-01

    The failures, marketing difficulties and financial hardships hospitals have experienced raises a question as to whether they have been responsive to the changes in the micro and macro-environmental factors. To determine how responsive hospitals have been to these changes, we investigate the impact of a number of selected factors on the supply of hospital services during 1972 through 1978. The findings indicate that despite the fact that the economy went through recessionary periods, and the demographic distribution exhibited both a shift and a change in the aging and birth rates of the nation, the changes in hospitals' responsiveness have been less than satisfactory. It appears that hospitals readily respond to the changes in the micro-environment than to the changes in macro-environment. Their response to the changes in the macro-environment. Their response to the changes in the macro-environment may be characterized as an effort to create a higher level of production whose goal is to create a still higher level of needs and wants.

  4. Towards a More Sustainable Food Supply Chain: Opening up Invisible Waste in Food Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Derqui

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Future challenges to the global food supply chain are complex. In order to embrace sustainability, companies should change their management practices towards more efficient resource use. Food waste being a misuse of resources, we identify its causes and possible ways of minimising it. To achieve this goal, we conducted explorative research with qualitative and quantitative data through in-depth semi-structured interviews and an open questionnaire with top Spanish food service companies. Results show that most businesses mainly tend to minimise food waste according to economic criteria, without taking into account the social, ethical or environmental factors. As a consequence, just “visible” food waste that has an economic impact on the results is minimised. Nevertheless, visibility of real waste is often low. At the same time, awareness of (and therefore initiatives to reduce food waste that does not directly affect a firm’s profit can be increased through multi-stakeholder collaboration. Opportunities for reducing food waste therefore arise from increasing the visibility of food that is discarded as well as addressing plate waste. We identify best practices that could lead to a reduction of the amount of food waste generated in the out of home channel in Spain.

  5. Thermodynamic Characteristic Study of a High-temperature Flow-rate Control Valve for Fuel Supply of Scramjet Engines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Wen; TONG Zhizhong; LI Songjing; LI Hongzhou; ZHANG Liang

    2012-01-01

    Thermodynamic characteristics are of great importance for the performance of a high-temperature flow-rate control valve,as high-temperature environment may bring problems,such as blocking of spool and increasing of leakage,to the valve.In this paper,a high-temperature flow-rate control valve,pilot-controlled by a pneumatic servo system is developed to control the fuel supply for scramjet engines.After introducing the construction and working principle,the thermodynamic mathematical models of the valve are built based on the heat transfer methods inside the valve.By using different boundary conditions,different methods of simulations are carried out and compared.The steady-state and transient temperature field distribution inside the valve body are predicted and temperatures at five interested points are measured.By comparing the simulation and experimental results,a reasonable 3D finite element analysis method is suggested to predict the thermodynamic characteristics of the high-temperature flow-rate control valve.

  6. Development of a Novel Oxygen Supply Process and its Integration with an Oxy-Fuel Coal-Fired Boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-12-31

    BOC, the world's second largest industrial gas company, has developed a novel high temperature sorption based technology referred to as CAR (Cyclic Autothermal Recovery) for oxygen production and supply to oxy-fuel boilers with flue gas recycle. This technology is based on sorption and storage of oxygen in a fixed bed containing mixed ionic and electronic conductor materials. The objective of the proposed work was to construct a CAR PDU that was capable of producing 10-scfm of oxygen, using steam or recycled flue gas as the sweep gas, and install it in the Combustion Test Facility. The unit was designed and fabricated at BOC/The Linde Group, Murray Hill, New Jersey. The unit was then shipped to WRI where the site had been prepared for the unit by installation of air, carbon dioxide, natural gas, nitrogen, computer, electrical and infrastructure systems. Initial experiments with the PDU consisted of flowing air into both sides of the absorption systems and using the air heaters to ramp up the bed temperatures. The two beds were tested individually to operational temperatures up to 900 C in air. The cycling process was tested where gases are flowed alternatively from the top then bottom of the beds. The PDU unit behaved properly with respect to flow, pressure and heat during tests. The PDU was advanced to the point where oxygen production testing could begin and integration to the combustion test facility could occur.

  7. [Spatiotemporal variation of water source supply service in Three Rivers Source Area of China based on InVEST model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Tao; Wu, Shao-Hong; Dai, Er-Fu; Liu, Yu-Jie

    2013-01-01

    The Three Rivers Source Area is the largest ecological function region of water source supply and conservation in China. As affected by a variety of driving factors, the ecosystems in this region are seriously degraded, giving definite impacts on the water source supply service. This paper approached the variation patterns of precipitation and runoff coefficient from 1981 to 2010, quantitatively estimated the water source supply of the ecosystems in the region from 1980 to 2005 based on InVEST model, and analyzed the spatiotemporal variation pattern and its causes of the water source supply in different periods. In 1981-2010, the precipitation in the Three Rivers Source Area had a trend of increase after an initial decrease, while the precipitation runoff coefficient presented an obvious decreasing trend, suggesting a reduced capability of runoff water source supply of this region. The potential evapotranspiration had a declining trend, but not obvious, with a rate of -0.226 mm x a(-1). In 1980-2005, the water source supply of the region represented an overall decreasing trend, which was most obvious in the Yellow River Source Area. The spatiotemporal variation of the water source supply in the Three Rivers Source Area was the results of the combined effects of climate and land use change, and the climate factors affected the water source supply mainly through affecting the precipitation and potential evapotranspiration. Climate and land use change induced the ecosystem degradation and underlying surface change, which could be the main driving forces of the declined water source supply in the Three Rivers Source Area.

  8. Recent Developments in the Management of Cameco Corporation's Fuel Services Division Waste - 13144

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Thomas P. [Cameco Corporation, Port Hope, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    Cameco Corporation is a world leader in uranium production. Headquartered in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan our operations provide 16% of the world uranium mine production and we have approximately 435 million pounds of proven and probable uranium reserves. Cameco mining operations are located in Saskatchewan, Wyoming, Nebraska and Kazakhstan. Cameco is also a major supplier of uranium processing services required to produce fuel for the generation of clean energy. These operations are based in Blind River, Cobourg and Port Hope, Ontario and are collectively referred to as the Fuel Services Division. The Fuel Services Division produces uranium trioxide from uranium ore concentrate at the Blind River Refinery. Cameco produces uranium hexafluoride and uranium dioxide at the Port Hope Conversion Facility. Cameco operates a fuel manufacturing facility in Port Hope, Ontario and a metal fabrication facility located in Cobourg, Ontario. The company manufactures fuel bundles utilized in the Candu reactors. Cameco's Fuel Services Division produces several types of low-level radioactively contaminated wastes. Internal processing capabilities at both the Blind River Refinery and Port Hope Conversion Facility are extensive and allow for the recycling of several types of waste. Notwithstanding these capabilities there are certain wastes that are not amenable to the internal processing capabilities and must be disposed of appropriately. Disposal options for low-level radioactively contaminated wastes in Canada are limited primarily due to cost considerations. In recent years, Cameco has started to ship marginally contaminated wastes (<500 ppm uranium) to the United States for disposal in an appropriate landfill. The landfill is owned by US Ecology Incorporated and is located near Grand View, Idaho 70 miles southeast of Boise in the Owyhee Desert. The facility treats and disposes hazardous waste, non-hazardous industrial waste and low-activity radioactive material. The site

  9. Test Firing of chunk wood - Is it possible to automate the fuel supply?; Proveldning av knubbved - Aer det moejligt att automatisera braenslematningen?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Tomas; Danielsson, Bengt-Olof

    2013-05-15

    Chunk wood is a wood fuel with a fuel particle length typically between 50 and 150 mm. The ad-vantage of chunk wood compared to wood chips is that the fuel dry as fast as fuel wood, but can be produced and handled as wood chip. Technologies for efficient producing, drying and distribution of Chunk wood have been developed since the 1970:s and machines for manufacturing the fuel is available on the market, but still there is no small-scale heating equipment in operation to burn the fuel automatically. The aim of the study was to investigate how the feeding and firing of chunk wood works in a standard 200 kW biomass boiler for various types of biofuels. The main focus was on studying how the fuel feeding system works using chunk wood and if the combustion and emissions are satisfactory. The boiler have a main fuel feeding auger screw connected to the bottom of the fuel storage, followed by a cell feeder and another auger screw that is feeding the fuel into the combustion chamber. The power consumption for the fuel feeding auger screws and the CO-emissions were measured during the firing period. In order to obtain reference values for the stresses in the fuel feeding system and the CO-emissions, regular wood chips were initially fired followed by the chunk wood firing. During the chunk wood firing period several interruptions in the fuel feeding occurred, as the trigger mechanism for the motor protection stopped the fuel supply. Most of the interruptions, however, could be resolved through manual reversing of the fuel feeding auger screw. Only at two occasions the entrance to the auger screw were manually cleared from large fuel pieces. The cell feeder and the auger screw feeding the fuel into the combustion chamber were stopped twice, and to continue operating the boiler it was enough to restart the feeding system. However, as they are both operated by the same motor we do not know whether the two shutdowns that occurred were caused by feeding problems in the auger

  10. Evaluating the green practice of food service supply chain management based on fuzzy DEMATEL-ANP model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoying; Zhu, Qinghua

    2017-01-01

    The question on how to evaluate a company's green practice has recently become a key strategic consideration for the food service supply chain management. This paper proposed a novel hybrid model that combines a fuzzy Decision Making Trial And Evaluation Laboratory(DEMATEL) and Analysis Network Process(ANP) methods, which developed the green restaurant criteria and demonstrated the complicated relations among various criteria to help the food service operation to better analyze the real-world situation and determine the different weight value of the criteria .The analysis of the evaluation of green practices will help the food service operation to be clear about the key measures of green practice to improve supply chain management.

  11. Effects of Supply Chain Risk Management on Organization Performance: Case of Andy Forwarders Services Limited

    OpenAIRE

    Caroline Wanjiru Munyuko

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to determine the effects of Supply chain risk management on organization performance. Previous studies have focused on risk management within the general context of an organization but little attention has been focused on how supply chain risk affect organization performance in terms of its bottom line profits and overall organization objectives. Particular attention was paid to the effects of supply chain risk management variables to the performance of the org...

  12. 76 FR 34634 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Prioritizing Sources of Supplies and Services for Use by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... Strategic Sourcing Initiative (FSSI) agreements). The existing contracts and instruments are not listed in...) under Federal Supply Schedule contracts (e.g., Federal Strategic Sourcing Initiative (FSSI) agreements...

  13. Supply of equipment and components, materials of dedicated commercial grade, other services; Suministro de equipos y respuestos. Materiales de grado comercial dedicados. Otros servicios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perdices, D.; Perez Medina, E.

    2014-10-01

    The following article describes the course of action of Tecnatom as Procurement Agent and Manufacturing Manager for the supply materials, equipment and components for the Spanish Nuclear Power Plants. We have devoted a special mention to the supply of dedicated commercial grade items (CGI), bringing together the services of Manufacturing Manager, Engineering service and testing facilities, simplifying the control of the supply chain with total warranty. (Author)

  14. Available reprocessing and recycling services for research reactor spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tozser, Sandor; Marshall, Frances M.; Adelfang, Pablo; Bradley, Edward [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Budu, Madalina Elena [SOSNY Research and Development Company, Moscow (Russian Federation); Chiguer, Mustapha [AREVA, Paris La Defense (France)

    2016-03-15

    International activities in the back end of the research reactor (RR) fuel cycle have so far been dominated by the programmes of acceptance of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) by the country where it was originally enriched. In the future inventories of LEU SNF will continue to be created and the back end solution of RR SNF remains a critical issue. The IAEA, based on the experience gained during the decade of international cooperation in supporting the objectives of the HEU take-back programmes, drew up a report presenting available reprocessing and recycling services for RR SNF. This paper gives an overview of the report, which will address all aspects of reprocessing and recycling services for RR SNF.

  15. Land Use/Land Cover Change Induced Impacts on Water Supply Service in the Upper Reach of Heihe River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Geng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Heihe River Basin is the second largest inland river basin in China, where water supply service in the upper reach has greater influence on the sustainable development of middle and lower reaches. This study analyzed the influence of land use/land cover change (LUCC on the water supply service in the upper reach by carrying out scenario simulation. Firstly, we analyzed the LUCC and climate change in the upper reach during 1990–2005; then the water supply service, which was represented by the annual water yield, was estimated with the Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST model. Thereafter three scenarios (precipitation change and LUCC change combined, LUCC change only, and precipitation change only were established to analyze the impacts of LUCC and precipitation change on the water yield. The results show that the LUCC exerted great influence on water yield, while the impact of precipitation change is even more significant than that of LUCC. Although there are still some uncertainties, the results of this study can still provide valuable reference information for ecological conservation and water resource management in the upper reach of the Heihe River Basin.

  16. Assessment of Water Supply as an Ecosystem Service in a Rural-Urban Watershed in Southwestern Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jujnovsky, Julieta; González-Martínez, Teresa Margarita; Cantoral-Uriza, Enrique Arturo; Almeida-Leñero, Lucia

    2012-03-01

    Studies from the ecosystem services perspective can provide a useful framework because they allow us to fully examine the benefits that humans obtain from socio-ecological systems. Mexico City, the second largest city in the world, has faced severe problems related to water shortages, which have worsened due to increasing population. Demand for space has forced changes in land cover, including covering areas that are essential for groundwater recharge. The city has 880 km2 of forest areas that are crucial for the water supply. The Magdalena River Watershed was chosen as a model because it is a well-preserved zone within Mexico City and it provides water for the population. The general aim of this study was to assess the ecosystem service of the water supply in the Magdalena River Watershed by determining its water balance (SWAT model) and the number of beneficiaries of the ecosystem services. The results showed that the watershed provides 18.4 hm3 of water per year. Baseflow was dominant, with a contribution of 85%, while surface runoff only accounted for 15%. The zone provides drinking water to 78,476 inhabitants and could supply 153,203 potential beneficiaries. This work provides an example for understanding how ecosystem processes determine the provision of ecosystem services and benefits to the population in a rural-urban watershed in Mexico City.

  17. Assessment of water supply as an ecosystem service in a rural-urban watershed in southwestern Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jujnovsky, Julieta; González-Martínez, Teresa Margarita; Cantoral-Uriza, Enrique Arturo; Almeida-Leñero, Lucia

    2012-03-01

    Studies from the ecosystem services perspective can provide a useful framework because they allow us to fully examine the benefits that humans obtain from socio-ecological systems. Mexico City, the second largest city in the world, has faced severe problems related to water shortages, which have worsened due to increasing population. Demand for space has forced changes in land cover, including covering areas that are essential for groundwater recharge. The city has 880 km(2) of forest areas that are crucial for the water supply. The Magdalena River Watershed was chosen as a model because it is a well-preserved zone within Mexico City and it provides water for the population. The general aim of this study was to assess the ecosystem service of the water supply in the Magdalena River Watershed by determining its water balance (SWAT model) and the number of beneficiaries of the ecosystem services. The results showed that the watershed provides 18.4 hm(3) of water per year. Baseflow was dominant, with a contribution of 85%, while surface runoff only accounted for 15%. The zone provides drinking water to 78,476 inhabitants and could supply 153,203 potential beneficiaries. This work provides an example for understanding how ecosystem processes determine the provision of ecosystem services and benefits to the population in a rural-urban watershed in Mexico City.

  18. The Re-Conceptualization of the Port Supply Chain as a Smart Port Service System: The Case of the Port of Salerno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Botti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a re-conceptualization of the port supply chain as a smart service system, in accordance with the theory of service science. Starting from a short literature review about the port supply chain approach and service science, a new comprehensive framework is provided to better understand seaport dynamics and the creation of competitive port supply chains. The methodology used is the case study approach. The Authors examined the Port of Salerno (Italy and re-conceptualized it as a smart port service system. The originality of the work lies in the application of service science as a lens to re-conceptualize the port supply chain, that allows the implementation of a logistic framework. Both theoretical and practical implications are provided to enrich the literature about port supply chains and to support port operators.

  19. Water Supply and Sanitation in Mauritania : Turning Finance into Services for 2015 and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    The situation within the water supply and sanitation (WSS) sector in Mauritania is somewhat contradictory: in spite of the weakness of the institutions in charge of the sector and the lack of financing for sanitation and, more recently, for the rural water supply (RWS) subsector, significant improvements have been made in the access rates since 1990. The institutional reform of the RWS sub...

  20. Future changes in the supply of goods and services from natural ecosystems: prospects for the European north

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Jansson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Humans depend on services provided by ecosystems, and how services are affected by climate change is increasingly studied. Few studies, however, address changes likely to affect services from seminatural ecosystems. We analyzed ecosystem goods and services in natural and seminatural systems, specifically how they are expected to change as a result of projected climate change during the 21st century. We selected terrestrial and freshwater systems in northernmost Europe, where climate is anticipated to change more than the global average, and identified likely changes in ecosystem services and their societal consequences. We did this by assembling experts from ecology, social science, and cultural geography in workshops, and we also performed a literature review. Results show that most ecosystem services are affected by multiple factors, often acting in opposite directions. Out of 14 services considered, 8 are expected to increase or remain relatively unchanged in supply, and 6 are expected to decrease. Although we do not predict collapse or disappearance of any of the investigated services, the effects of climate change in conjunction with potential economical and societal changes may exceed the adaptive capacity of societies. This may result in societal reorganization and changes in ways that ecosystems are used. Significant uncertainties and knowledge gaps in the forecast make specific conclusions about societal responses to safeguard human well-being questionable. Adapting to changes in ecosystem services will therefore require consideration of uncertainties and complexities in both social and ecological responses. The scenarios presented here provide a framework for future studies exploring such issues.

  1. A Time Scheduling Model of Logistics Service Supply Chain Based on the Customer Order Decoupling Point: A Perspective from the Constant Service Operation Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In mass customization logistics service, reasonable scheduling of the logistics service supply chain (LSSC, especially time scheduling, is benefit to increase its competitiveness. Therefore, the effect of a customer order decoupling point (CODP on the time scheduling performance should be considered. To minimize the total order operation cost of the LSSC, minimize the difference between the expected and actual time of completing the service orders, and maximize the satisfaction of functional logistics service providers, this study establishes an LSSC time scheduling model based on the CODP. Matlab 7.8 software is used in the numerical analysis for a specific example. Results show that the order completion time of the LSSC can be delayed or be ahead of schedule but cannot be infinitely advanced or infinitely delayed. Obtaining the optimal comprehensive performance can be effective if the expected order completion time is appropriately delayed. The increase in supply chain comprehensive performance caused by the increase in the relationship coefficient of logistics service integrator (LSI is limited. The relative concern degree of LSI on cost and service delivery punctuality leads to not only changes in CODP but also to those in the scheduling performance of the LSSC.

  2. A time scheduling model of logistics service supply chain based on the customer order decoupling point: a perspective from the constant service operation time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weihua; Yang, Yi; Xu, Haitao; Liu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yijia; Liang, Zhicheng

    2014-01-01

    In mass customization logistics service, reasonable scheduling of the logistics service supply chain (LSSC), especially time scheduling, is benefit to increase its competitiveness. Therefore, the effect of a customer order decoupling point (CODP) on the time scheduling performance should be considered. To minimize the total order operation cost of the LSSC, minimize the difference between the expected and actual time of completing the service orders, and maximize the satisfaction of functional logistics service providers, this study establishes an LSSC time scheduling model based on the CODP. Matlab 7.8 software is used in the numerical analysis for a specific example. Results show that the order completion time of the LSSC can be delayed or be ahead of schedule but cannot be infinitely advanced or infinitely delayed. Obtaining the optimal comprehensive performance can be effective if the expected order completion time is appropriately delayed. The increase in supply chain comprehensive performance caused by the increase in the relationship coefficient of logistics service integrator (LSI) is limited. The relative concern degree of LSI on cost and service delivery punctuality leads to not only changes in CODP but also to those in the scheduling performance of the LSSC.

  3. Experience of Areva in fuel services for PWR and BWR; Experiencia de Areva en servicios de combustible para PWR y BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, I.

    2015-07-01

    AREVA being an integrated supplier of fuel assemblies has included in its strategy to develop services and solutions to customers who desire to improve the performance and safety of their fuel. These services go beyond the simple 'after sale' services that can be expected from a fuel supplier: The portfolio of AREVA includes a wide variety of services, from scientific calculations to fuel handling services in a nuclear power plant. AREVA is committed to collaborate and to propose best-in-class solutions that really make the difference for the customer, based on 40 years of Fuel design and manufacturing experience. (Author)

  4. Who controls the logistics emissions? Challenges in making fragmented supply chains environmentally sustainable from logistics service providers’ perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbasi, Maisam; Sternberg, Henrik; Nilsson, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    that impact the cost and time requirements from customers of logistics services are not yet a reality. Research limitations/implications (if applicable) This paper implies that LSP sustainability cannot be investigated in isolation if a company does not manage proprietary resources. Practical implications (if......Purpose The purpose of this article is to explore the environmental impact of Logistics Service Provider (LSP) activities in the light of increased customer attention and fragmentation of the industry. It also explores to what extent the LSPs can actually monitor the environmental impact...... of logistics activities in the supply chain? Design/methodology/approach The methodology of this paper is a literature review, a qualitative interview survey, and three case studies. A framework on sustainability challenges in supply chains derived from the literature is used to structure and analyze...

  5. Prime Contract Awards by Service Category and Federal Supply Classification, Fiscal Years 1992, 1991, 1990 and 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Elct Eq Comps 616 0 0 0 H966 Other Quail !y Cntl Svcs/Instruments 8 Lab Equip 204 0 0 0 H970 Other Quality Cntl Svcs/ADP Equip S Supplies 836 0 0 0...Testing 8 Devic 65 0 H270 Equip 8 Mats Tesi 8 ; 1 les 0 Cl 2.576 0 TABLE 4-2 Other Services and Construction by DoD

  6. Supply- and Demand-Side Factors Influencing Utilization of Infant and Young Child Feeding Counselling Services in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuong H; Kim, Sunny S; Nguyen, Tuan T; Tran, Lan M; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Frongillo, Edward A; Ruel, Marie T; Rawat, Rahul; Menon, Purnima

    2016-01-01

    Adequate utilization of services is critical to maximize the impact of counselling on infant and young child feeding (IYCF), but little is known about factors affecting utilization. Our study examined supply- and demand-side factors associated with the utilization of IYCF counselling services in Viet Nam. We used survey data from mothers with children Higher maternal education was associated with higher utilization both for one-time and repeated use. Being a farmer, belonging to an ethnic minority, and having a wasted child were associated with greater likelihood of achieving the minimum recommended number of visits, whereas child stunting or illness were not. Distance to health center was a barrier to repeated visits. Among supply-side factors, good counselling skills (PR: 1.3-1.8) was the most important factor associated with any service use, whereas longer employment duration and greater work pressure of health center staff were associated with lower utilization. Population attributable risk estimations showed that an additional 25% of the population would have achieved the minimum number of visits if exposed to three demand-generation strategies, and further increased to 49% if the health staff had good counseling skills and low work pressure. Our study provides evidence that demand-generation strategies are essential to increase utilization of facility-based IYCF counselling services in Viet Nam, and may be relevant for increasing and sustaining use of nutrition services in similar contexts.

  7. Price and Service Competition in the Supply Chain with both Pure Play Internet and Strong Bricks-and-Mortar Retailers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Dan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the traditional retail industry, some supermarket chains and department stores have been maintaining strong positions as the market comes to maturity. They can make use of the strong positions to squeeze their suppliers and obtain extra earnings. This situation may be challenged by the rapid development of e-commerce. Consumers’ purchase habits have been changing and many manufacturers are starting to sell goods through electronic retailers, in addition to their traditional distribution channels. This paper analyzes price and service competition in the dual-channel supply chain with both pure play Internet and strong bricks-and mortar retailers, investigates the influence of retailer power and proposes some competitive strategies for traditional retailer under e-commerce environment. The demand model is proposed based on consumer utility theory, and Stackelberg theory is used to analyze the game process in which the manufacturer is the leader and the two retailers, acting simultaneously, are the followers. The equilibrium price and service decisions of the supply chain members are reached. The analysis of the competitive strategy is divided into two parts. Firstly, the influence of the retailer power on members of the supply chain is examined. We find that although the traditional retailer can use its power to depress the wholesale price, this strategy cannot help the traditional retailer increase its profit. Secondly, other competitive strategies of the traditional retailer are analyzed and the traditional retailer is found to be able to improve its operating status through adjusting prices and services via specific actions.

  8. The state and prospect of nuclear energetics supply in fuel; Stan i perspektywy zaopatrzenia energetyki jadrowej w paliwo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dembinski, W. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    1996-12-31

    The worldwide demand on nuclear fuel for energetics has been analysed on the base of data from the period 1988-1994. Production of nuclear fuels in different countries has been shown and compared for 1992, 1993 and 1994. The increasing deficit of uranium has been noticed from 1986. Alternative sources of nuclear fuels utilization, e.g. military origin uranium and plutonium recycling, have been also discussed. 4 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs.

  9. Managing a sustainable, low carbon supply chain in the English National Health Service: The views of senior managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grose, Jane; Richardson, Janet

    2013-04-18

    Objectives:In an effort to reduce costs and respond to climate change, health care providers (Trusts) in England have started to change how they purchase goods and services. Many factors, both internal and external, affect the supply chain. Our aim was to identify those factors, so as to maintain future supply and business continuity in health and social care.Methods:Qualitative interviews with 20 senior managers from private and public sector health service providers and social care providers in south west England. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed.Results:There were four areas of concern: contradictions with government legislation which caused confusion about how best to deliver sustainable solutions; procurement was unclear and created multiple approaches to purchasing bulk items at low cost; internal organizational systems needed to be reconsidered to embed sustainability; and embedding sustainability requires a review of organizational systems. There are examples of sustainability solutions throughout the National Health Service (NHS) but the response continues to be patchy. More research is needed into why some Trusts and some staff do not recognize the benefits of a core approach or find the systems unable to respond.Conclusions:The NHS is one of the major purchasers of goods and services in England and is therefore in an excellent position to encourage sustainable resource management, manufacturing, use and disposal.

  10. Linking demand and supply factors in identifying cultural ecosystem services of urban green infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegetschweiler, K. Tessa; de Vries, Sjerp; Arnberger, Arne

    2017-01-01

    Urban green infrastructure provides a number of cultural ecosystem services that are greatly appreciated by the public. In order to benefit from these services, actual contact with the respective ecosystem is often required. Furthermore, the type of services offered depend on the physical...... applicability for urban management and planning...

  11. Linking demand and supply factors in identifying cultural ecosystem services of urban green infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hegetschweiler, K.T.; Vries, de Sjerp; Arnberger, Arne; Bell, Simon; Brennan, Michael; Siter, Nathan; Olafsson, Anton Stahl; Voigt, Annette; Hunziker, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    Urban green infrastructure provides a number of cultural ecosystem services that are greatly appreciated by the public. In order to benefit from these services, actual contact with the respective ecosystem is often required. Furthermore, the type of services offered depend on the physical charact

  12. Localization of tecnichal assistance facilities of a provider of maintenance service for fuel pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Afonso Sellitto

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to calculate the location of bases of technical assistance to fuel stations of a network of distribution of fossil fuels and biofuels in the State of Paraná. The research method was the quantitative modeling. The methodology included the separation of the municipalities in the State of Paraná in clusters, supported by the k-means method. Seven clusters, beyond the capital, were defined. Each cluster was treated as a local market. Then, by the barycenter method, Cartesian coordinates of gravity centers of the regions were calculated. The cities with lower distances to the calculated coordinates were chosen to host the bases of technical assistance, which minimizes cost and time of transportation to each city of the respective region. The main contribution of this research was the location of the seven service centers.

  13. Mixed Supply Model of Public Service Provision in “Village to Residence” Community: An Empirical Case Study in Jinan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlei Huang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available China is experiencing rapid transition of urbanization. From the 1980s till now, the transformation of “village to residence” has become a prominent approach for numerous villages in the urban-fringe areas of China. This paper discusses the mixed supply model of public service provision, on the basis of an empirical study of two cases in Jinan City, by illustrating the transformation of urbanization and how public services in the communities are delivered. The paper also considers existing challenges in the model and accordingly provides a series of policy suggestions, including defining responsibilities of government, speeding up the joint-stock reform of collective assets and innovating the public service provision mechanism.

  14. The Effect of a First Child on Female Labor Supply: Evidence from Women Seeking Fertility Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristia, Julian P.

    2008-01-01

    Estimating the causal effect of a first child on female labor supply is complicated by the endogeneity of fertility. This paper addresses this problem by focusing on a sample of women from the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) who sought help to become pregnant. After a certain period, only some of these women gave birth. Results using this…

  15. The Effect of a First Child on Female Labor Supply: Evidence from Women Seeking Fertility Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristia, Julian P.

    2008-01-01

    Estimating the causal effect of a first child on female labor supply is complicated by the endogeneity of fertility. This paper addresses this problem by focusing on a sample of women from the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) who sought help to become pregnant. After a certain period, only some of these women gave birth. Results using this…

  16. 28 CFR 0.140 - Authority relating to advertisements, and purchase of certain supplies and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authority relating to advertisements, and... Administrative Matters § 0.140 Authority relating to advertisements, and purchase of certain supplies and... action in the following-described matters: (a) Authorizing the publication of advertisements, notices,...

  17. Service the Two-Piece Flo-Jet Carburetor. Fuel System. Student Manual 3. Small Engine Repair Series. First Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Pamela

    This student manual, part of a small-engine repair series on servicing fuel systems, is designed for use by special needs students in Texas. The manual explains in pictures and short sentences, written on a low reading level, the job of servicing two-piece flo-jet carburetors. Along with the steps of this repair job, specific safety and caution…

  18. Influence of fuel mass load, oxygen supply and burning rate on emission factor and size distribution of carbonaceous particulate matter from indoor corn straw burning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guofeng Shen; Miao Xue; Siye Wei; Yuanchen Chen; Bin Wang; Rong Wang; Huizhong Shen

    2013-01-01

    The uncertainty in emission estimation is strongly associated with the variation in emission factor (EF),which could be influenced bya variety of factors such as fuel properties,stove type,fire management and even methods used in measurements.The impacts of thesefactors are complicated and often interact with each other.Controlled burning experiments were conducted to investigate the influencesof fuel mass load,air supply and burning rate on the emissions and size distributions of carbonaceous particulate matter (PM) fromindoor corn straw bunting in a cooking stove.The results showed that the EFs of PM (EFpM),organic carbon (EFoc) and elementalcarbon (EFEc) were independent of the fuel mass load.The differences among them under different burning rates or air supply amountswere also found to be insignificant (P > 0.05) in the tested circumstances.PM from the indoor corn straw burning was dominated byfine PM with diameter less than 2.1 μm,contributing 86.4% ± 3.9% of the total.The size distribution of PM was influenced by theburning rate and air supply conditions.On average,EFPM,EFoc and EFEC for corn straw burned in a residential cooking stove were(3.84 ± 1.02),(0.846 ± 0.895) and (0.391 ± 0.350) g/kg,respectively.EFPM,EFoc and EFEc were found to be positively correlatedwith each other (P < 0.05),but they were not significantly correlated with the EF of co-emitted CO,suggesting that special attentionshould be paid to the use of CO as a surrogate for other incomplete combustion pollutants.

  19. Strategies for Orchestrating and Managing Supply Chains in Public Service Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Veenstra, A.F.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.; Klievink, B.

    2009-01-01

    Joining-up is high on the e-government agenda as this is expected to improve service delivery to citizens and businesses. It requires public and private organizations to cooperate with each other within networks that are formed around public services that cross the boundaries of organizations.

  20. Netchain coordinator services in pork supply chains including inspections according to the AMOR principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hagan, Juliane; Ellebrecht, Susanne; Petersen, Brigitte

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents a mutual inspection concept between livestock production and processing, coordinated by a netchain coordinator acting as the service provider. The concept is based on an analysis of demand and offer with respect to the coordination of livestock health status certificates. Surveys have been conducted amongst piglet producers and pig fatteners (nfarmers=206) to reflect the demand for coordination services. Another survey amongst service providers (nproviders=21) determines the availability of these services. The results show a clear demand amongst farmers for the netchain coordinator services of livestock health status certificates. It has also been found that some service providers offer audit and monitoring procedures to enable certification with highly varying degrees of service quality. Based on the surveys, the joint organisation of livestock health status certificates between producer, fattener and service provider will be presented. It will be shown that for greater efficiency, coordination should be based on the principles of Alliances for the Mutual Organisation of Risk oriented inspection strategies (AMOR). To enable the mutual organisation of inspections, four key steps have been identified to develop and test AMOR as an innovative form of cooperation: (i) inspection design, (ii) responsibilities and tasks, (iii) information and communication structures, and (iv) shared cost and benefit model.

  1. Strategies for Orchestrating and Managing Supply Chains in Public Service Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Veenstra, A.F.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.; Klievink, B.

    2009-01-01

    Joining-up is high on the e-government agenda as this is expected to improve service delivery to citizens and businesses. It requires public and private organizations to cooperate with each other within networks that are formed around public services that cross the boundaries of organizations. Cross

  2. Treatment of synthetic arsenate wastewater with iron-air fuel cell electrocoagulation to supply drinking water and electricity in remote areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Hwan; Maitlo, Hubdar Ali; Park, Joo Yang

    2017-05-15

    Electrocoagulation with an iron-air fuel cell is an innovative arsenate removal system that can operate without an external electricity supply. Thus, this technology is advantageous for treating wastewater in remote regions where it is difficult to supply electricity. In this study, the possibility of real applications of this system for arsenate treatment with electricity production was verified through electrolyte effect investigations using a small-scale fuel cell and performance testing of a liter-scale fuel cell stack. The electrolyte species studied were NaCl, Na2SO4, and NaHCO3. NaCl was overall the most effective electrolyte for arsenate treatment, although Na2SO4 produced the greatest electrical current and power density. In addition, although the current density and power density were proportional to the concentrations of NaCl and Na2SO4, the use of concentrations above 20 mM of NaCl and Na2SO4 inhibited arsenate treatment due to competition effects between anions and arsenate in adsorption onto the iron hydroxide. The dominant iron hydroxide produced at the iron anode was found to be lepidocrocite by means of Raman spectroscopy. A liter-scale four-stack iron-air fuel cell with 10 mM NaCl electrolyte was found to be able to treat about 300 L of 1 ppm arsenate solution to below 10 ppb during 1 day, based on its 60-min treatment capacity, as well as produce the maximum power density of 250 mW/m(2).

  3. Do protected areas networks ensure the supply of ecosystem services? Spatial patterns of two nature reserve systems in semi-arid Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro, Antonio J.; Martín-López, Berta; López, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    that protected areas provide social and economic benefits that can be used to build political support and raise funds for conservation. We analyzed the capability of current protected area networks in the semi-arid region of Spain to provide intermediate regulating services (habitat preservation for threatened...... ecosystem services supplied by different of protected areas networks, with category VI areas (Natura-2000 sites) generally showing the highest potential for ecosystem services supply. This demonstrates the important role of Natura-2000 sites for preserving regulating services in the European semi...

  4. Provision of Continuity in Power Supply of Wind Power Stations by Improvement of Methods for Control of Oil Transformer Serviceability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Rolik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems pertaining to reduction of time for restoration of a wind power station (WPS by development of a method and control means according to informative parameter. A high-voltage oil transformer has been selected as a control WPS object.  The paper shows that the most informative parameter determining continuity in WPS power supply is an over-heating temperature of oil transformer elements. A method and means for control of WPS oil transformer serviceability are proposed in the paper.

  5. Managing the Service Supply Chain in Department of Defense: Implications for the Program Management Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-30

    Supply Chain in Department of Defense: Implications for the Program Management Infrastructure Published: 30 April 2007 by Rene G. Rendon, Lecturer, and Uday Apte, Professor, Naval Postgraduate School 4th Annual Acquisition Research Symposium of the Naval Postgraduate School: Approved for public release, distribution unlimited. Prepared for: Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California 93943 Acquisition Research: Creating Synergy for Informed Change May 16-17, 2007 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188

  6. Financial Mechanisms to Improve the Supply of Ecosystem Services from Privately-Owned Australian Native Forests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ian Ferguson; Laura Levetan; Neville D. Crossman; Lauren T. Bennett

    2016-01-01

    .... Auction, green bond and biobanking schemes are widely and, so far, successfully used in a number of States, especially in projects where the actions required and ecosystem services can be readily measured...

  7. Coordinating a Service Supply Chain under Arms Offset Program’s Intervention by Performance-Based Contracting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Kuei Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates a support service supply chain for coordinating with a local third-party logistics provider by arms offset program’s intervention and develops a performance-based contracting framework for the coordinating problem, which remains scarce in the literatures. The performance-based contracting framework evaluates payments and profits for the support service by a game-theoretical approach with principal-agent model. We prove that the proposed framework is an effective tool in acquiring the balance between maximum profit and minimum payment for both parties in the coordinating problem without moral hazard issue. A numerical study consolidates the formulated schemes as contracting preference for both parties’ decision with a higher profit margin at a lower customer’s payment.

  8. Engine Performance (Section B: Fuel and Exhaust Systems). Auto Mechanics Curriculum Guide. Module 3. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rains, Larry

    This module is the third of nine modules in the competency-based Missouri Auto Mechanics Curriculum Guide. Six units cover: fuel supply systems; carburetion; carburetor service; gasoline engine electronic fuel injection; diesel fuel injection; and exhaust systems and turbochargers. Introductory materials include a competency profile and…

  9. SOFC solid oxide fuel cell power plants for the decentralised electric energy supply; SOFC-Brennstoffzellen-Kraftwerke fuer die dezentrale elektrische Energieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogang Tchonla, Etienne

    2012-07-01

    To use the fuel cell economically, the efficiency of the system must still be raised so that it can be set up in the market. Within the scope of analysis on this topic, a 120-kW-SOFC-demonstration power plant was to be considered. Since not enough information about the demonstration power plant from the operator was available for the investigation, we had to calculate with the help of the known technical data of similar power plants. After that a model was build and simulated by means of MATLAB/Simulink. Before that the single power plant components were being described. Two of them (the boost converter as well as the inverter) were looked at more thoroughly. As a result of the analysis, it was found that a standard inverter which had been conceived for other applications, for example, Photovoltaic or Wind Power can also be used for fuel cells. Unfortunately, this was not the case for the added boost converter. It had to be precisely conceived for the used fuel cell type. After this discovery information was won for the realization of a 1-MW-Fuel Cell Power Plant. The topology of the 1-MW-power plant was fixed on the basis of the 120-kW-system. A parallel connection of eight 120-kW SOFC-fuel cell aggregates is intended, as well as a connection at the outlet side 120-kW boost converters. A standard inverter with 1 MW electrical power as well as a 1-MVA-transformer could be used for the realization of the 1-MW-power plant. The binding of the power plant in the three-phase current network was examined in view of the norms, laws and connection conditions. Beside the distinction of the operating forms of the power plant (parallel or isolated operation) the security of the plant was emphasized with regard to quick fault recognition, safe supply line isolation in the fault case as well as a compliance of the prescribed regulations. To verify the calculated results as well as the provided models, a 10-kW-labor sample was built and examined in the lab. This experimental

  10. Are more resources always the answer? A supply and demand analysis for public health services in Brazilian municipalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Rocha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine whether it is necessary to increase available resources to local governments or if better use of these funds is sufficient. The paper contributes to the literature by looking both at the supply and demand for public health services. If the demand is estimated correctly, one can compare its expected value to actual health expenditures. Even if actual expenditures are lower than the estimated demand, it is not certain that additional spending is necessary. If the efficiency scores (supply side indicate that local governments can simply “save” resources to make up for the difference, then it is possible to reduce (or bring to zero new resources only by requiring local governments to efficiently manage their expenditures. Since municipalities in Brazil are very heterogeneous, we estimate their efficiency using the metafrontier approach (O’Donnell et al., 2008, while we estimate the demand through an equation derived from the median voter theorem model. Using 2010 data, we find evidence that efficient management of spending is sufficient to meet excess demand for goods and services in the health sector.

  11. Feedstock Supply System Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels Conversion Pathway: Fast Pyrolysis and Hydrotreating Bio-Oil Pathway "The 2017 Design Case"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin L. Kenney; Kara G. Cafferty; Jacob J. Jacobson; Ian J. Bonner; Garold L. Gresham; J. Richard Hess; William A. Smith; David N. Thompson; Vicki S. Thompson; Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Neal Yancey

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy promotes the production of liquid fuels from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass sustainable supply, logistics, conversion, and overall system sustainability. As part of its involvement in this program, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) investigates the feedstock logistics economics and sustainability of these fuels. Between 2000 and 2012, INL quantified and the economics and sustainability of moving biomass from the field or stand to the throat of the conversion process using conventional equipment and processes. All previous work to 2012 was designed to improve the efficiency and decrease costs under conventional supply systems. The 2012 programmatic target was to demonstrate a biomass logistics cost of $55/dry Ton for woody biomass delivered to fast pyrolysis conversion facility. The goal was achieved by applying field and process demonstration unit-scale data from harvest, collection, storage, preprocessing, handling, and transportation operations into INL’s biomass logistics model.

  12. Co-flow anode/cathode supply heat exchanger for a solid-oxide fuel cell assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haltiner, Jr., Karl J.; Kelly, Sean M.

    2005-11-22

    In a solid-oxide fuel cell assembly, a co-flow heat exchanger is provided in the flow paths of the reformate gas and the cathode air ahead of the fuel cell stack, the reformate gas being on one side of the exchanger and the cathode air being on the other. The reformate gas is at a substantially higher temperature than is desired in the stack, and the cathode gas is substantially cooler than desired. In the co-flow heat exchanger, the temperatures of the reformate and cathode streams converge to nearly the same temperature at the outlet of the exchanger. Preferably, the heat exchanger is formed within an integrated component manifold (ICM) for a solid-oxide fuel cell assembly.

  13. Study the Fuel Price on Optimal Planning of Distributed Energy Resources as Private Sector in Supplying Electrical Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Nafar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an optimized design of Hybrid Power System in a distribution system including sources like, photovoltaic array, fuel cell and battery bank. In this study the effect of Fuel Price on optimal results is investigated.In this research, an algorithm has been developed for evaluation and cost optimization Hybrid Power System. The costs include capital cost, replacement cost, operation and maintenance cost, fuel cost and production cost for Hybrid Power System and DG power during different load profile. Then an objective function with aim to minimizing of total costs has been considered. A genetic algorithm approach is employed to obtain the best cost value of Hybrid Power System construction. This study tested on case study network on Mardasht city in Iran.

  14. Research on the Complexity of Dual-Channel Supply Chain Model in Competitive Retailing Service Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junhai; Li, Ting; Ren, Wenbo

    2017-06-01

    This paper examines the optimal decisions of dual-channel game model considering the inputs of retailing service. We analyze how adjustment speed of service inputs affect the system complexity and market performance, and explore the stability of the equilibrium points by parameter basin diagrams. And chaos control is realized by variable feedback method. The numerical simulation shows that complex behavior would trigger the system to become unstable, such as double period bifurcation and chaos. We measure the performances of the model in different periods by analyzing the variation of average profit index. The theoretical results show that the percentage share of the demand and cross-service coefficients have important influence on the stability of the system and its feasible basin of attraction.

  15. Land management influences trade-offs and the total supply of ecosystem services in alpine grassland in Tibet, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junxi; Zhao, Yan; Yu, Chengqun; Luo, Liming; Pan, Ying

    2017-05-15

    Developing sustainable use patterns for alpine grassland in Tibet is the primary challenge related to conserving these vulnerable ecosystems of the 'world's third pole' and guaranteeing the well-being of local inhabitants. This challenge requires researchers to think beyond the methods of most current studies that are limited to a single aspect of conservation or productivity, and focus on balancing various needs. An analysis of trade-offs involving ecosystem services provides a framework that can be used to quantify the type of balancing needed. In this study, we measured variations in four types of ecosystem services under five types of grassland management including grazing exclusion, sowing, combined plowing and grazing exclusion, combined plowing and sowing, and natural grassland, from 2013 to 2015. In addition, we accessed the existence and changing patterns of ecosystem service trade-offs using Spearman coefficients and a trade-off index. The results revealed the existence of trade-offs among provisioning and regulating services. Plowing and sowing could convert the trade-off relationships into synergies immediately. Grazing exclusion reduced the level of trade-offs gradually over time. Thus, the combined plowing and sowing treatment promoted the total supply of multiple ecosystem services when compared with natural grassland. We argue that the variations in dry matter allocation to above- and belowground serve as one cause of the variation in trade-off relationships. Another cause for variation in trade-offs is the varied species competition between selection effects and niche complementarity. Our study provides empirical evidence that the effects of trade-offs among ecosystem services could be reduced and even converted into synergies by optimizing management techniques. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Supply Chain Contracting for After-sales Service and Product Support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Li (Dong)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Over the past decades, business model innovation in product and its service has been growing rapidly, especially for durable goods. Companies shift their strategies from selling physical products to delivering solutions and performance for customers. Within this context, th

  17. Services Supply Chain in the Department of Defense: Drivers of Acquisition Management Practices in the Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    corhb/Files/Training_Reference_Guidance/ACC%20Pamph let%2070-1%20Final%20Sig%20032610.pdf Williamson, O. E. (1979). Transaction - cost economics: The...Theory and Principal-Agent Problem – Transaction Cost Economics – Service Operations Management – Contractual Theory: How contracts are planned

  18. Supply-Chain Culture Clashes in Europe. Pitfalls in Japanese Service Operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.B.M. de Koster (René); M. Shinohara

    2006-01-01

    textabstractJapanese companies value service and quality highly and they put much effort in realising this. However, survey research carried out in 2001 among senior managers of Japanese logistics companies in the Netherlands, indicated that these efforts do not result in significant performance dif

  19. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume III. Resources and fuel cycle facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    Volume III explores resources and fuel cycle facilities. Chapters are devoted to: estimates of US uranium resources and supply; comparison of US uranium demands with US production capability forecasts; estimates of foreign uranium resources and supply; comparison of foreign uranium demands with foreign production capability forecasts; and world supply and demand for other resources and fuel cycle services. An appendix gives uranium, fissile material, and separative work requirements for selected reactors and fuel cycles.

  20. Dollar Summary of Federal Supply Classification and Service Category by Company, FY84, Part 6 (7540-9999).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    CONTRACTOR TOTAL 17C. 31 EZELL OIL COMPANY INC CALIFORNIA DLA LIQUID PROPELLANTS & FUEL PETROLEUM BASE 5 EZELL TEXACO DISTRIBUTOR ALABAMA OLA LIQUID...LIQUID PROPELLANTS & FUEL PETROLEUM BASE IC016 TEXAS DLA LIQUID PROPELLANTS & FUEL PETROLEUM BASE 75.2!3 CONTRACTOR TOTAL 87.3 TEXACO LTD UN KINGDOM DLA...MARKETING ECUADOR DLA FUEL OILS 339 UN KINGDOM DLA FUEL OILS 13.284 TEXAS DLA FUEL OILS 26C.5C7 CONTRACTOR TOTAL 274.130 COLDIRON FUEL INC NEW YORK DLA FUEL

  1. Customer Service Analysis of Tactical Air Command Base Level Supply Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    other components of the marketing mix , i.e. price, product, and promotion, and identifying the contribution of each of these components to the overall...identify a customer service and marketing strategy (28:6). They set out to test the hypothesis that the " marketing mix components of product, price...relevant criteria identified during the first three phases of the study to determine a strategic marketing mix for the industry (28:9). The variables used

  2. Supply- and Demand-Side Factors Influencing Utilization of Infant and Young Child Feeding Counselling Services in Viet Nam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuong H Nguyen

    Full Text Available Adequate utilization of services is critical to maximize the impact of counselling on infant and young child feeding (IYCF, but little is known about factors affecting utilization. Our study examined supply- and demand-side factors associated with the utilization of IYCF counselling services in Viet Nam. We used survey data from mothers with children <2y (n = 1,008 and health staff (n = 60 from the evaluation of a program that embedded IYCF counseling into the existing government health system. The frequency of never users, one-time users, repeat users, and achievers of the recommended minimum number of visits at health facilities were 45.1%, 13.0%, 28.4% and 13.5%, respectively. Poisson regression showed that demand-generation strategies, especially invitation cards, were the key factors determining one-time use (Prevalence ratio, PR 3.0, 95% CI: 2.2-4.2, repeated use (PR 3.2, 95% CI: 2.4-4.2, and achievement of minimum visits (PR 5.5, 95% CI: 3.6-8.4. Higher maternal education was associated with higher utilization both for one-time and repeated use. Being a farmer, belonging to an ethnic minority, and having a wasted child were associated with greater likelihood of achieving the minimum recommended number of visits, whereas child stunting or illness were not. Distance to health center was a barrier to repeated visits. Among supply-side factors, good counselling skills (PR: 1.3-1.8 was the most important factor associated with any service use, whereas longer employment duration and greater work pressure of health center staff were associated with lower utilization. Population attributable risk estimations showed that an additional 25% of the population would have achieved the minimum number of visits if exposed to three demand-generation strategies, and further increased to 49% if the health staff had good counseling skills and low work pressure. Our study provides evidence that demand-generation strategies are essential to increase

  3. Research on General Airport's Aviation Fuel Supply Model in China%我国通用机场航油保障模式探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凤

    2016-01-01

    通用机场航油供应由于需求分散、需求量小、设施建设滞后、保障能力低以及物流环节长等因素,尚未统一建立起完善的航油保障模式,一定程度上制约了我国通用机场的发展。在分析我国现行的通用机场航油保障模式现状及其存在问题的基础上,给出提升我国通用航空航油保障水平的对策与建议,旨在为民航主管部门制定行业政策和广大通航企业保障航油供应提供建设性的意见,推进我国通航产业持续快速发展。%Due to factors such as scattered and low demand ,backward facility construction ,low guarantee capability ,and long logistics ,our country has not uniformly established the perfect fuel guarantee mode , which restrains the development of general airports to some extent .The paper offers the countermeasures and suggestions on promoting the guarantee level of general aviation fuel on the basis of analyzing the cur-rent status and problems of general airport fuel guarantee mode ,aiming to provide constructive suggestions for civil aviation administrations to work out industrial policies and for general aviation enterprises to guar-antee fuel supply ,and further facilitating the sustainable and rapid development of our country's general a-viation industry .

  4. Supply and demand for long-term care services from the perspective of leaders of health care institutions1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoliński, Bolesław

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Poland's transition into the stage of intensive population aging imposes changes in demand for different forms of care (including long-term). The proportion of dependent persons (requiring care) in the population continues to increase. The number of people aged 80 and above (in 2013 – 1.48 million) will double by 2050 and reach 3.54 million. The research objective was to gain knowledge on the supply and demand of different institutionalized forms of care services from the healthcare system perspective. Material and methods A computer-assisted personal interview (CAPI) survey was carried out on a Poland-wide quota sample of health care and nursing centres operating within the healthcare system. The respondent group consisted of 96 directors of health care facilities. Results In the opinion of more than a half of surveyed directors, supply of health care and nursing centres in their region is insufficient in terms of the needs of both patients and elderly people. In the context of patients, the deficit is observed primarily in health care and treatment centres, long-term nursing care and health care institutions, whereas for the elderly people the main concern is availability of nursing care, day care or social aid centres. More than half of surveyed institutions admit patients requiring care on an ongoing basis; however, in the case of health care and treatment centres more than a year-long waiting time proved to be a frequent phenomenon. In the opinion of the surveyed directors, the key factors influencing the number of available places and waiting time are insufficient financing and personnel deficit. Conclusions Introduction of multiple changes to the operation of the care system in Poland is necessary in order to improve its availability, effectiveness and quality. Achievement of this objective requires implementation of a cohesive and integrated system dedicated to monitoring and diagnosing both the supply and demand for different forms of care

  5. Trends in the supply of California’s emergency departments and inpatient services, 2005–2014: a retrospective analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Jessica L; Niedzwiecki, Matthew J; Hsia, Renee Y

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Given increasing demand for emergency care, there is growing concern over the availability of emergency department (ED) and inpatient resources. Existing studies of ED bed supply are dated and often overlook hospital capacity beyond ED settings. We described recent statewide trends in the capacity of ED and inpatient hospital services from 2005 to 2014. Design Retrospective analysis. Setting Using California hospital data, we examined the absolute and per admission changes in ED beds and inpatient beds in all hospitals from 2005 to 2014. Participants Our sample consisted of all patients inpatient and outpatient) from 501 hospital facilities over 10-year period. Outcome measures We analysed linear trends in the total annual ED visits, ED beds, licensed and staffed inpatient hospital beds and bed types, ED beds per ED visit, and inpatient beds per admission (ED and non-ED). Results Between 2005 and 2014, ED visits increased from 9.8 million to 13.2 million (an increase of 35.0%, pbeds also increased (by 29.8%, pbeds. Despite this growth, ED beds per visit decreased by 3.9%, from 6.0 ED beds per 10 000 ED visits in 2005 to 5.8 beds in 2014 (p=0.01). While overall admission numbers declined by 4.9% (p=0.06), inpatient medical/surgical beds per visit grew by 11.3%, from 11.6 medical/surgical beds per 1000 admissions in 2005 to 12.9 beds in 2014 (pbeds per admission, by −15.3% (pbeds cannot keep pace with growing patient demand for acute care. Analysis of ED and inpatient supply should capture dynamic variations in patient demand. Our novel ‘beds pervisit’ metric offers improvements over traditional supply measures. PMID:28495813

  6. 产品供应能力、服务集成能力与合作绩效的关系研究:服务供应链的视角%Product Supply Capability, Service Integrated Capability and Cooperation Performance: Service Supply Chain Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈金亮

    2012-01-01

    With the development of service industry and the proportion increase of service m product and man- ufacturing, service supply chain has been becoming an important mode of firm's relationship, and has been playing an important role in the economy. However, the studies about service supply chain are not too much, and some ex- isted studies are about the concept and framework of service supply chain, few studies discuss the mechanism in service supply chain operation. Service supply chain practices develop so fast that theories of service supply chain are not enough to support the practices activities. There are many theoretical topics in service supply chain area need to be solved, and cooperation performance in service supply chain is one of the hot topics. Therefore, this pa- per focuses on cooperation performance in service supply chain. With the market dominant theory, this study extends the value co-creation in service supply chain. Based on the market dominant theory, service supplier should have both product supply capability and service integrated ca- pability in order to acquire the competitive advantage. Based on the partnership legitimacy theory, the mechanism how product supply capability and service integrated capability improve the cooperation performance is happened by the mediation of legitimacy, and acquiring partnership legitimacy is helpful to cooperation performance. After analyzing product dominant and service dominant to find out the resources service supplier acquiring the competitive advantage, this study analyze the relationship between product supply capability and cooperation per- formance, and the relationship between service integrated capability and cooperation performance with the drive of value co-creation. Then the mediating effect of partnership legitimacy between product supply capability and coop- eration performance, and the mediating effect of partnership legitimacy between service integrated capability and co- operation

  7. Effect of Coal Contaminants on Solid Oxide Fuel System Performance and Service Life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, Gopala N.; Jayaweera, Palitha; Perez, Jordi; Hornbostel, M.; Albritton, John R.; Gupta, Raghubir P.

    2007-10-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s SECA program envisions the development of high-efficiency, low-emission, CO2 sequestration-ready, and fuel-flexible technology to produce electricity from fossil fuels. One such technology is the integrated gasification-solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) that produces electricity from the gas stream of a coal gasifier. SOFCs have high fuel-to-electricity conversion efficiency, environmental compatibility (low NOx production), and modularity. The primary objective of the Phase I study was to determine the sensitivity of the performance of solid oxide fuel cells to trace level contaminants present in a coal-derived gas stream in the temperature range 700° to 900°C. Laboratory-scale tests were performed with 1-inch diameter solid oxide fuel cells procured from InDec B.V., Netherlands. These cells produce 0.15, 0.27, and 0.35 W/cm2 at 700°, 750°, and 800°C, respectively, in a H2 anode feed and are expected to be stable within 10% of the original performance over a period of 2000 h. A simulated coal-derived gas containing 30.0% CO, 30.6% H2 11.8% CO2, 27.6% H2O was used at a rate of ~100 standard cm3/min to determine the effect of contaminants on the electrical performance of the cells. Alumina or zirconia components were used for the gas manifold to prevent loss of contaminants by reaction with the surfaces of the gas manifold Short-term accelerated tests were conducted with several contaminants including As, P, CH3Cl, HCl, Hg, Sb, and Zn vapors. In these tests, AsH3, PH3, Cd vapor and CH3Cl identified as the potential contaminants that can affect the electrical performance of SOFCs. The effect of some of these contaminants varied with the operating temperature. Cell failure due to contact break inside the anode chamber occurred when the cell was exposed to 10 ppm arsenic vapor at 800°C. The electrical performance of SOFC

  8. [The AIDS epidemic in Brazil and differences according to geographic region and health services supply].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grangeiro, Alexandre; Escuder, Maria Mercedes Loureiro; Castilho, Euclides Ayres de

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify different profiles in the AIDS epidemic in Brazil by relating them to the health sector's organization, situations involving increased risk of infection, and the degree of implementation of the response by health services. The Brazilian municipalities (counties) were grouped according to the magnitude of the epidemic and its trends from 2002 and 2006, and were then studied using indicators obtained from secondary databases. Municipalities with large epidemics (39%) displayed more situations associated with risk of infection, and those with an upward trend in incidence (11.5%) showed a lower degree of response. Cities with large epidemics but with downward or stable trends had 68.6% of all the anonymous testing centers and 75.8% of the outpatient clinics, and performed 81.4% of all the HIV antibody tests in the health system. Preventive measures in schools and primary health services showed low coverage rates. Differences were observed between geographic regions. Inequalities in the degree of implementation of the response to HIV may contribute to different profiles in the epidemic around the country.

  9. 77 FR 70193 - Shaw Areva MOX Services (Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility); Notice of Atomic Safety and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Shaw Areva MOX Services (Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility); Notice of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Reconstitution Pursuant to 10 CFR 2.313(c) and 2.321(b), the Atomic Safety and...

  10. Misplaced Inventory and Lead-Time in the Supply Chain: Analysis of Decision-Making on RFID Investment with Service Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Hao Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Radio-frequency identification (RFID, as the key technology of Internet of Things (IoT, has been hailed as a major innovation to solve misplaced inventory and reduce lead-time. Many retailers have been pushing their suppliers to invest this technology. However, its associated costs seem to prohibit its widespread application. This paper analyzes the situation of service level in a retail supply chain, which has resulted from misplaced inventory and lead-time. By newsvendor model, we analyze the difference between with- and without-RFID technologies in service level of centralized and decentralized supply chains, respectively. Then with different service levels, we determine the tag cost thresholds at which RFID technology investment becomes profitable in centralized and decentralized supply chains, respectively. Furthermore, we apply a linear transfer payment coefficient strategy to coordinate with the decentralized supply chain. It is found that whether the adoption of RFID technology improves the service level depends on the cost of RFID tag in the centralized system, but it improves the service level in the decentralized system when only the supplier bears the cost of RFID tag. Moreover, the same cost thresholds of RFID tag with different service levels exist in both the centralized and the decentralized cases.

  11. Reflections on supply-demand mismatch in dialysis services in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhry, N K; Naylor, C D

    1995-09-01

    The population-based dialysis rate in Ontario more than doubled between 1981 and 1992; yet there is concern about over-loaded facilities, delayed treatment and denial of dialysis through nonreferral and implicit rationing. A working party involving several stakeholders has been established in Ontario to address these issues. However, clinical policy making concerning dialysis services is impeded in all provinces by a lack of information. The causes of the moderately large variations in dialysis rates from province to province remain unclear. The exact extent and risks of delayed therapy have not been well defined. Dialysis protocols vary inexplicably among centres, and cost data on different methods of providing dialysis are limited. Many steps could be taken in Ontario and other provinces to generate a better information base for planning and managing dialysis services. Predialysis clinics with outreach programs could help to ensure equitable access to this life-saving therapy. Criteria for choosing modes and intensities of renal-replacement therapy must be reviewed. In areas of clear disagreement and uncertainty, patients could be randomly assigned to different protocols and outcomes studied. In areas of agreement, the criteria should be standardized. Advance directives may help ascertain patients' wishes concerning the initiation or continuation of dialysis, and more accurate data on prognosis of different patient subgroups would aid in early identification of patients in a hopelessly deteriorating situation. Last, studies comparing the "output" (e.g., hours on hemodialysis) per dollar of different dialysis units and modalities are also needed to ensure that all facilities are opening efficiently without compromising patient outcomes.

  12. Health supply chain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Rolf; Gallagher, Pat

    2010-01-01

    This chapter gives an educational overview of: * The actual application of supply chain practice and disciplines required for service delivery improvement within the current health environment. * A rationale for the application of Supply Chain Management (SCM) approaches to the Health sector. * The tools and methods available for supply chain analysis and benchmarking. * Key supply chain success factors.

  13. Selecting financial service providers for supply chains : How cross-functional collaboration can improve effectiveness and efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Judith; Hofmann, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Supply chain finance solutions aim at win-win situations for all supply chain partners. They simultaneously address collaborative working capital improvements, supply chain cooperation as well as risk mitigation. To achieve a fit with these objectives the paper derives an iterative three-step decision process for configuring supply chain finance solutions: Define and configure, design and decide. The design step is further subdivided in selecting internal and external supply chain partn...

  14. Supply sensitive services in Swiss ambulatory care: An analysis of basic health insurance records for 2003-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Künzi Beat

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Swiss ambulatory care is characterized by independent, and primarily practice-based, physicians, receiving fee for service reimbursement. This study analyses supply sensitive services using ambulatory care claims data from mandatory health insurance. A first research question was aimed at the hypothesis that physicians with large patient lists decrease their intensity of services and bill less per patient to health insurance, and vice versa: physicians with smaller patient lists compensate for the lack of patients with additional visits and services. A second research question relates to the fact that several cantons are allowing physicians to directly dispense drugs to patients ('self-dispensation' whereas other cantons restrict such direct sales to emergencies only. This second question was based on the assumption that patterns of rescheduling patients for consultations may differ across channels of dispensing prescription drugs and therefore the hypothesis of different consultation costs in this context was investigated. Methods Complete claims data paid for by mandatory health insurance of all Swiss physicians in own practices were analyzed for the years 2003-2007. Medical specialties were pooled into six main provider types in ambulatory care: primary care, pediatrics, gynecology & obstetrics, psychiatrists, invasive and non-invasive specialists. For each provider type, regression models at the physician level were used to analyze the relationship between the number of patients treated and the total sum of treatment cost reimbursed by mandatory health insurance. Results The results show non-proportional relationships between patient numbers and total sum of treatment cost for all provider types involved implying that treatment costs per patient increase with higher practice size. The related additional costs to the health system are substantial. Regions with self-dispensation had lowest treatment cost for primary care

  15. Reverse supply chain service process model for the iron and steel industry%钢铁工业逆向供应链服务过程模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王蕾; 夏绪辉; 熊颖清; 刘军伟; 周敏

    2015-01-01

    根据钢铁工业逆向供应链流程,分析了钢铁工业逆向供应链及其服务的基本定义和三个服务主体的特征。在此基础上,构建了一种二层级三维度钢铁工业逆向供应链服务过程模型。在服务抽象维、服务组织与协同运作维、服务网络跨级控制与服务增值维等三个维度构成的空间里,完成由服务方案匹配与决策实现的三阶段构成的第一级服务响应以及由服务功能实现的两阶段构成的第二级服务响应过程。探讨了服务过程实现中的服务模块化、服务知识获取与共享、服务模块智能匹配等关键技术。以某钢铁企业废钢逆向供应服务为实际应用案例,验证了模型的可行性。%ABSTRACT The basic definition and the characteristics of three service principals of reverse supply chain service for the iron and steel industry is analyzed according to the reverse supply chain process of the iron and steel industry. Based on this work, a two-hierarchical and three-dimensional reverse supply chain service process model is built for the iron and steel industry. A three-dimensional service space is constructed, including services abstraction, service organization and collaborative operation, and service network control and service value-added. In the space, the first hierarchical service response constituted by the three stages of service programme matching and decision-making, and the second hierarchical service response constituted by the two stages of service func-tion realization are accomplished. The key technology of service process realization including service modularization, service knowledge acquisition and sharing, and service modular intelligent matching is discussed. Finally, the feasibility of the model is proved by a case of scrap steel reverse supply service for one iron and steel enterprise.

  16. A Simple Power Management Scheme with Enhanced Stability for a Solar PV/Wind/Fuel Cell/Grid Fed Hybrid Power Supply Designed for Industrial Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saravanan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new power conditioner topology with an intelligent power management controller that integrates multiple renewable energy sources such as solar energy, wind energy, and fuel cell energy with battery and AC grid supply as backup to make the best use of their operating characteristics with better reliability than that could be obtained by single renewable energy source based power supply. The proposed embedded controller is programmed to perform MPPT for solar PV panel and WTG, SOC estimation and battery, maintaining a constant voltage at PCC and power flow control by regulating the reference currents of the controller in an instantaneous basis. The instantaneous variation in reference currents of the controller enhances the controller response as it accommodates the effect of continuously varying solar insolation and wind speed in the power management. It also prioritizes the sources for consumption to achieve maximum usage of green energy than grid energy. The simulation results of the proposed power management system with real-time solar radiation and wind velocity data collected from solar centre, KEC, and experimental results for a sporadically varying load demand are presented in this paper and the results are encouraging from reliability and stability perspectives.

  17. Evaluation of a Regional Retrofit Programme to Upgrade Existing Housing Stock to Reduce Carbon Emissions, Fuel Poverty and Support the Local Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Louise Patterson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The first-ever legally binding global climate deal that will be adopted by 195 countries was introduced in Paris in 2015, highlighting that climate change is being recognised as a real and urgent global problem. Legislative interventions need to be accompanied by significant action across all sectors of the built environment through reducing energy demand, providing energy supply from low carbon sources and combining with this with energy storage to enable necessary targets to be met. Retrofitting existing buildings is critical to making these cuts as 80% of buildings currently in existence will still be present in 2050. These retrofits need to be undertaken rapidly using replicable and affordable solutions that benefit both the householder whilst significantly reducing emissions. This paper will present an evaluation of a £9.6 million regional scale retrofit programme funded under the Welsh Governments Arbed 1 Programme which aimed to reduce fuel poverty, reduce carbon emissions and support the energy efficiency and renewable supply chain and encourage recruitment and training in the sector. Results have been obtained from desk top data collection and energy modelling calculations. The evaluation work presents the technical, environmental and economic impacts of the programme and demonstrates lessons learnt to help improve the implementation of the other regional retrofit projects providing evidence of the impacts of a large scale retrofit programme that are necessary for the deep carbon reductions required in the near future.

  18. Development, investigation and modelling of a micro reformer as part of a system for off-grid power supply with PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochlitz, Lisbeth

    2008-11-18

    In this thesis a micro reformer fuel cell system ({mu}RFCS) for 300 Wel off-grid power supply, fuelled with bioethanol, was simulated, designed, developed and investigated in a test-rig. First a literature study was carried through to point out the specific characteristics of micro reforming, the most important being heat transfer, and present the systems currently under research and already on the market. As a next step, the processes of the RFCS were simulated with the commercial simulation tool CHEMCAD. This comprised thermodynamic equilibrium simulations for the separate reactions of steam reforming, water gas shift and selective methanation. It also included a simulation of the complete {mu}RFCS with thermodynamic equilibrium for all reactors and assumed values for heat loss and fuel cell efficiency. The resulting net electrical efficiency was 24%. As a third step, a reaction pathway scheme with parallel and serial reactions for the steam reforming reaction of ethanol was simulated, developed, evaluated and proven plausible by matching the simulation to experimental results obtained in the {mu}RFCS test rig. The equilibrium simulations were used to evaluate the catalyst screening carried through for reformer, water gas shift and selective methanation catalysts. The catalysts for the {mu}RFCS were chosen and the optimum operating conditions determined by the screening tests. Having accomplished the simulation and design of the system, the largest proportion of this work was spent on the construction, set-up, testing and evaluation of the complete {mu}RFCS. The focus for the evaluations lay on the reformer side of the system. The technical feasibility was demonstrated for an ethanol/water mix of 3 ml/min at S/C 3. The first tests without optimized heat and water management between the reformer system and the fuel cell system resulted in power output of around 115 W{sub el}, at a total electrical efficiency of 31%. (orig.)

  19. 两级物流服务供应链的服务集成商运作风险分析%The Analysis of Service Integrators Operational Risks in Two-Echelon Logistics Service Supply Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李杨; 刘璐; 徐国虎

    2011-01-01

    物流服务集成商作为物流服务供应链的核心,在"一个服务集成商,多个服务供应商"两级物流服务供应链模式下,存在着服务运作过程中的风险。从与功能型物流服务供应商合作过程产生的违约风险,包括利益分配不均风险、信用风险、逆向选择风险,以及服务集成商自身能力风险、不可抗力风险来分析两级物流服务供应链下服务集成商运作的风险,并提出了相应的对策。%Logistics service integrators as the core of logistics service supply chain exist on service operational risks in the model of two-echelon logistics service supply chain of "one service integrators, multiple service providers". This article analyzes service integrators" operational risks in two-echelon logistics service supply chain from the default risk in the co- operation with function-based logistics service providers, including the risk of interest uneven distribution, credit risk, risk of adverse selection, and the risk of service integrators" ability.

  20. Electric energy supply to isolated residences from the network through low power fuel cells; Fronecimento de energia eletrica a residencias isoladas da rede atraves de celulas a combustivel de baixa potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra, Eduardo Torres; Furtado, Jose Geraldo de Melo [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: etserra@cepel.br, e-mail: furtado@cepel.br

    2008-07-01

    This paper discusses the technical and socio economical aspects of the utilization of fuel cells for supplying electric power to isolated residences under an analysis on the global and brazilian energy scenarios, focusing the ascertaining of the high inequality of electric energy consumption among the various regions and countries in the world and the electric power access viability for the population lesser favoured. The paper performs an energetic analysis allowing an estimate of daily average consumption of electric energy of a low income family, and also discusses an attendance alternative of this demand by using small generation unities consisting of polymeric membranes fuel cells and reformers of primary fuel. Also, the paper analyses the possibilities of using various fuels for the hydrogen production to be used in fuel cell and estimates the cost of electric energy generated as function the main parameters which characterizes the enterprise.

  1. Effect of growth solution, membrane size and array connection on microbial fuel cell power supply for medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roxby, Daniel N; Nham Tran; Pak-Lam Yu; Nguyen, Hung T

    2016-08-01

    Implanted biomedical devices typically last a number of years before their batteries are depleted and a surgery is required to replace them. A Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) is a device which by using bacteria, directly breaks down sugars to generate electricity. Conceptually there is potential to continually power implanted medical devices for the lifetime of a patient. To investigate the practical potential of this technology, H-Cell Dual Chamber MFCs were evaluated with two different growth solutions and measurements recorded for maximum power output both of individual MFCs and connected MFCs. Using Luria-Bertani media and connecting MFCs in a hybrid series and parallel arrangement with larger membrane sizes showed the highest power output and the greatest potential for replacing implanted batteries.

  2. Alcohol additives to gasoline: an economic way for extending supplies of fuels and for increasing octane ratings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jawetz, P.

    1979-08-01

    Methods for increasing the octane rating of unleaded gasoline, including the use of fermentation alcohols, are discussed. It is postulated that the public has been misinformed by DOE and the oil companies about the benefits and commercialization of ethanol for fuel use. Ethanol increases the octane rating by 2 points. It takes 5% more crude oil to produce the same octane rating as regular gas plus alcohol. There is also evidence that performance as measured in miles/gallon also increases with gasohol. The total utility factor using ethanol as an octane booster additive is 3.75 or 1 Btu ethanol replaces 3.75 Btu gasoline. This value multiplied by 0.5 factor (suggested by gasohol opponents as the value for energy balance in ethanol production worst-case analysis) there is still a utility factor of 1.87. The author makes recommendations concerning the economics of the situation.

  3. Star-Forming Brightest Cluster Galaxies at 0.25 < z < 1.25: A Transitioning Fuel Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, M.; Stalder, B.; Bayliss, M.; Allen, S. W.; Applegate, D. E.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Bautz, M.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Brodwin, M.; Carlstrom, J. E.

    2016-02-01

    We present a multi-wavelength study of 90 brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) in a sample of galaxy clusters selected via the Sunyaev Zel'dovich effect by the South Pole Telescope, utilizing data from various ground- and space-based facilities. We infer the star formation rate (SFR) for the BCG in each cluster, based on the UV and IR continuum luminosity, as well as the [O II] emission line luminosity in cases where spectroscopy is available, finding 7 systems with SFR > 100 Msun/yr. We find that the BCG SFR exceeds 10 Msun/yr in 31 of 90 (34%) cases at 0.25 < z < 1.25, compared to ~1-5% at z ~ 0 from the literature. At z > 1, this fraction increases to 92(+6)(-31)%, implying a steady decrease in the BCG SFR over the past ~9 Gyr. At low-z, we find that the specific star formation rate in BCGs is declining more slowly with time than for field or cluster galaxies, most likely due to the replenishing fuel from the cooling ICM in relaxed, cool core clusters. At z > 0.6, the correlation between cluster central entropy and BCG star formation - which is well established at z ~ 0 - is not present. Instead, we find that the most star-forming BCGs at high-z are found in the cores of dynamically unrelaxed clusters. We investigate the rest-frame near-UV morphology of a subsample of the most star-forming BCGs using data from the Hubble Space Telescope, finding complex, highly asymmetric UV morphologies on scales as large as ~50-60 kpc. The high fraction of star-forming BCGs hosted in unrelaxed, non-cool core clusters at early times suggests that the dominant mode of fueling star formation in BCGs may have recently transitioned from galaxy-galaxy interactions to ICM cooling.

  4. Concept and cost of a pipeline system to supply hydrogen to fuel cell cars in Germany; Konzept und Kosten eines Pipelinesystems zur Versorgung des deutschen Strassenverkehrs mit Wasserstoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krieg, Dennis

    2012-11-01

    Fuel cells and hydrogen have the potential to be essential contributors for meeting the challenges of the future traffic sector. The key challenges include: - reducing global and local emissions - reducing import dependencies - preserving Germany's competitiveness - ensuring sufficient availability of the energy carrier Hydrogen is assumed to be the most appropriate energy carrier, since it can be produced via any primary energy and in terms of security is comparable to natural gas. In the long run, renewable energy, e.g. via wind power electrolysis, will make emission-free driving feasible. In order to use hydrogen to fuel cars, a comprehensive distribution infrastructure is required. This is completely different than the case of conventional fuels such as gasoline or diesel. Large amounts of hydrogen can be transported in a gaseous state in pipelines, as is common practice for natural gas. This option has not been examined to date. In particular, at the moment no suitable material has been identified for transporting hydrogen, which degrades the stability of the pipe. The aim of this thesis was to design a technical concept for a pipeline system that would make it possible to supply hydrogen to fuel cell cars. Using the assumptions of the study GermanHy, crucial technical questions were investigated. These questions comprise aspects such as general material requirements, feed-in, transportation and feed-out of the hydrogen. With respect to the material challenges, different potential possibilities are provided in order to ensure that no embrittlement will occur. Taking Germany as an example, the design and length of the pipeline system were investigated as well as the related economic and ecological aspects. A Monte Carlo simulation was conducted in order to calculate the probability density of both the investment and the specific cost. These results were placed in the overall context by calculating the economic impact of production, storage and fuelling

  5. The first demonstration of a microbial fuel cell as a viable power supply: Powering a meteorological buoy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tender, Leonard M.; Gray, Sam A. [Center for Bio/Molecular Science and Engineering, Naval Research Laboratory Code 6900, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Groveman, Ethan [Millburn High School, Millburn, NJ 07041 (United States); Lowy, Daniel A. [Nova Research, Inc., Alexandria, VA 22308 (United States); Kauffman, Peter [Northwest Metasystems, Inc., Bainbridge Island, WA 98110 (United States); Melhado, Julio [Neptune Sciences, Slidell, LA 70461 (United States); Tyce, Robert C.; Flynn, Darren (Department of Ocean Engineering, University of Rhode Island, Narragansett, RI 02882 USA); Petrecca, Rose; Dobarro, Joe (Rutgers University, Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Marine Field Station, Tuckerton, NJ 08087 USA)

    2008-05-01

    Here we describe the first demonstration of a microbial fuel cell (MFC) as a practical alternative to batteries for a low-power consuming application. The specific application reported is a meteorological buoy (ca. 18-mW average consumption) that measures air temperature, pressure, relative humidity, and water temperature, and that is configured for real-time line-of-sight RF telemetry of data. The specific type of MFC utilized in this demonstration is the benthic microbial fuel cell (BMFC). The BMFC operates on the bottom of marine environments, where it oxidizes organic matter residing in oxygen depleted sediment with oxygen in overlying water. It is maintenance free, does not deplete (i.e., will run indefinitely), and is sufficiently powerful to operate a wide range of low-power marine-deployed scientific instruments normally powered by batteries. Two prototype BMFCs used to power the buoy are described. The first was deployed in the Potomac River in Washington, DC, USA. It had a mass of 230 kg, a volume of 1.3 m{sup 3}, and sustained 24 mW (energy equivalent of ca. 16 alkaline D-cells per year at 25 C). Although not practical due to high cost and extensive in-water manipulation required to deploy, it established the precedence that a fully functional scientific instrument could derive all of its power from a BMFC. It also provided valuable lessons for developing a second, more practical BMFC that was subsequently used to power the buoy in a salt marsh near Tuckerton, NJ, USA. The second version BMFC has a mass of 16 kg, a volume of 0.03 m{sup 3}, sustains ca. 36 mW (energy equivalent of ca. 26 alkaline D-cells per year at 25 C), and can be deployed by a single person from a small craft with minimum or no in-water manipulation. This BMFC is being further developed to reduce cost and enable greater power output by electrically connecting multiple units in parallel. Use of this BMFC powering the meteorological buoy highlights the potential impact of BMFCs to

  6. 物流服务供应链协同研究综述%Review of Research about Logistics Service Supply Chain Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白世贞; 于丽

    2015-01-01

    Research on logistics service supply chain collaboration is a new direction for logistics.The article discusses the definitions and research status of logistics service supply chain.By analyzing the structure and the level of the logistics service supply chain,proposes the pattern and conceptual model of logistics service supply chain,and forecasts the prospect of research directions.%物流服务供应链协同研究是物流研究领域的一个新的方向。文中首先对物流服务供应链的相关定义、研究现状进行了梳理和述评,通过分析物流服务供应链的结构,协同的层次,提出物流服务供应链的模式和协同概念模型,并对未来相关研究进行展望。

  7. A Revealed Preference Approach to Estimating Supply Curves for Ecosystem Services: Use of Auctions to Set Payments for Soil Erosion Control in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jack, B.K.; Beria, L.; Ferraro, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    To supply ecosystem services, private landholders incur costs. Knowledge of these costs is critical for the design of conservation-payment programs. Estimating these costs accurately is difficult because the minimum acceptable payment to a potential supplier is private information. We describe how a

  8. Star-Forming Brightest Cluster Galaxies at 0.25 < z < 1.25: A Transitioning Fuel Supply

    CERN Document Server

    McDonald, M; Bayliss, M; Allen, S W; Applegate, D E; Ashby, M L N; Bautz, M; Benson, B A; Bleem, L E; Brodwin, M; Carlstrom, J E; Chiu, I; Desai, S; Gonzalez, A H; Hlavacek-Larrondo, J; Holzapfel, W L; Marrone, D P; Miller, E D; Reichardt, C L; Saliwanchik, B R; Saro, A; Schrabback, T; Stanford, S A; Stark, A A; Vieira, J D; Zenteno, A

    2015-01-01

    We present a multi-wavelength study of 90 brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) in a sample of galaxy clusters selected via the Sunyaev Zel'dovich effect by the South Pole Telescope, utilizing data from various ground- and space-based facilities. We infer the star formation rate (SFR) for the BCG in each cluster, based on the UV and IR continuum luminosity, as well as the [O II] emission line luminosity in cases where spectroscopy is available, finding 7 systems with SFR > 100 Msun/yr. We find that the BCG SFR exceeds 10 Msun/yr in 31 of 90 (34%) cases at 0.25 1, this fraction increases to 92(+6)(-31)%, implying a steady decrease in the BCG SFR over the past ~9 Gyr. At low-z, we find that the specific star formation rate in BCGs is declining more slowly with time than for field or cluster galaxies, most likely due to the replenishing fuel from the cooling ICM in relaxed, cool core clusters. At z > 0.6, the correlation between cluster central entropy and BCG star formation - which is well established at z ~ 0 - i...

  9. Re-energizing energy supply: Electrolytically-produced hydrogen as a flexible energy storage medium and fuel for road transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emonts, Bernd; Schiebahn, Sebastian; Görner, Klaus; Lindenberger, Dietmar; Markewitz, Peter; Merten, Frank; Stolten, Detlef

    2017-02-01

    ;Energiewende;, which roughly translates as the transformation of the German energy sector in accordance with the imperatives of climate change, may soon become a byword for the corresponding processes most other developed countries are at various stages of undergoing. Germany's notable progress in this area offers valuable insights that other states can draw on in implementing their own transitions. The German state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) is making its own contribution to achieving the Energiewende's ambitious objectives: in addition to funding an array of 'clean and green' projects, the Virtual Institute Power to Gas and Heat was established as a consortium of seven scientific and technical organizations whose aim is to inscribe a future, renewable-based German energy system with adequate flexibility. Thus, it is tasked with conceiving of and evaluating suitable energy path options. This paper outlines one of the most promising of these pathways, which is predicated on the use of electrolytically-produced hydrogen as an energy storage medium, as well as the replacement of hydrocarbon-based fuel for most road vehicles. We describe and evaluate this path and place it in a systemic context, outlining a case study from which other countries and federated jurisdictions therein may draw inspiration.

  10. Do investments in wildfire risk reduction lead to downstream watershed service outcomes? An integrated wildfire-erosion-economic analysis of return on investment from fuel treatments in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C.; Jones, K.; Addington, R.; Cannon, J.; Cheng, T.; Gannon, B.; Kampf, S. K.; Saavedra, F.; Wei, Y.; Wolk, B.

    2016-12-01

    Large, severe wildfires negatively impact forested watersheds in the Western United States and jeopardize critical ecosystem services. Specifically, severe wildfires increase overland flow and runoff that contains sediment and debris, and cause other natural hazards such as floods. High erosion from burned watersheds can fill water supply reservoirs and clog water filtration systems, which has direct costs to water utilities in the form of increased water treatment costs and damage to infrastructure. With increasing wildfire risk due to global climate change and other factors, municipal water providers and users have been investing in management practices to reduce high-severity wildfire risk and increase source water security. In this research we integrate wildfire and erosion prediction models to estimate the return on investment from wildfire fuel treatments in the Upper South Platte watershed, southwest of Denver, Colorado. Denver Water and the U.S. Forest Service created the Forest-To-Faucets Partnership, one of the first payments for watershed services (PWS) programs in the United States. To date they have spent more than $30 million in the Upper South Platte to restore forests and conduct fuel reduction work across landownerships. However, due to the lack of appropriate analytical tools, it is still unclear what returns are being achieved with these investments, aside from the total number of acres treated. In this analysis we consider three treatment scenarios - current fuel treatment investments, a series of investments based on prioritization criteria, and investments based on accessibility - and model potential burn probability, fire severity and erosion. We then estimate the economic benefits of avoiding runoff using past expenditures by Denver Water and compare these to treatment costs. This research directly informs management practices in the Upper South Platte watershed and provides a framework that can inform decisions to optimize location, size

  11. Stochastic Dynamic Model on the Consumption – Saving Decision for Adjusting Products and Services Supply According with Consumers` Attainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Prelipcean

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The recent crisis and turbulences have significantly changed the consumers’ behavior, especially through its access possibility and satisfaction, but also the new dynamic flexible adjustment of the supply of goods and services. The access possibility and consumer satisfaction should be analyzed in a broader context of corporate responsibility, including financial institutions. This contribution gives an answer to the current situation in Romania as an emerging country, strongly affected by the global crisis. Empowering producers and harmonize their interests with the interests of consumers really require a significant revision of the quantitative models used to study long-term consumption-saving behavior, with a new model, adapted to the current conditions in Romania in the post-crisis context. Based on the general idea of the model developed by Hai, Krueger, Postlewaite (2013 we propose a new way of exploiting the results considering the dynamics of innovative adaptation based on Brownian motion, but also the integration of the cyclicality concept, the stochastic shocks analyzed by Lèvy and extensive interaction with capital markets characterized by higher returns and volatility.

  12. 旅游服务供应链形成动因及其模式演进%Formation Causes and Modal Evolution of Tourist Service Supply Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭海玲; 严建援; 张丽; 孙赫

    2011-01-01

    首先从旅游产品和服务及其需求两个角度归纳出旅游服务供应链的特点,从客户、经济和环境价值三方面剖析了旅游服务供应链的形成动因,探究了电子商务对其深远影响.在此基础上,探讨了传统旅游服务供应链模式和基于B2C电子商务旅游服务供应链多元化结构模式的构建,对旅游服务供应链的演进过程进行了全面总结,完善了旅游服务供应链的架构.%The paper first summarizes the characteristics of the tourist service supply chain from the perspectives of the supply and demand of the tourist product and service, studies the causes behind the formation of the tourist service supply chain on the aspects of customer, economy and environment and analyzes the far-reaching influence of E-commerce in this respect. On this basis, the paper investigates the traditional mode of the tourist service supply chain and the establishment of the B2C based mode of the diversified tourist service supply chain, summarizes its overall evolutionary process and completes its general architecture.

  13. 服务供应链绩效的可拓评价研究%Extension Assessment on Service Supply Chain Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张婷; 赵宁

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve the operation efficiency of the service supply chain, the paper gives a comprehensive evalua- i tion on the performance of service supply chain from both qualitative and quantitative aspects. The paper proposes a matter - element model of service supply chain performance and extension assessment which is based on the dependent function. The dependent function value can reflect each single index level and the comprehensive level of the service supply chain performance objectively and concisely. And the paper also exemplifies the application and specialty of the extension assess- j ment on service supply chain performance.%为提高服务供应链的运营效率,利用可拓理论的思想方法建立了服务供应链绩效评价的物元模型,并提出基于关联函数的可拓优度评价方法,对服务供应链绩效进行定性与定量相结合的综合评价.关联函数值可以客观简洁地反映服务供应链绩效的各单项指标水平以及综合水平.为管理者在服务供应链的发展运营中提供决策依据.并结合实例研究,分析了服务供应链绩效可拓评价的应用方法及特点.

  14. Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Anders; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    2014-01-01

    Fuel cells have been the subject of intense research and development efforts for the past decades. Even so, the technology has not had its commercial breakthrough yet. This entry gives an overview of the technological challenges and status of fuel cells and discusses the most promising applications...... of the different types of fuel cells. Finally, their role in a future energy supply with a large share of fluctuating sustainable power sources, e.g., solar or wind, is surveyed....

  15. Development of Electrolysis System Powered by Solar-Cell Array to Supply Hydrogen Gas for Fuel-Cell Energy Resource Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priambodo, Purnomo Sidi; Yusivar, Feri; Subiantoro, Aries; Gunawan, Ridwan

    2009-09-01

    The huge demand of energy worldwide and the depletion of fossil based energy, is a strong reason to rapidly develop any kind of renewable energy resources, which has economical advantages and zero pollution effect. One of the renewable energy technologies aimed in this paper is the generation of electric-energy based on fuel-cell technology, where the input hydrogen (H2) gas is supplied by electrolysis system powered by renewable energy system based on solar cell. In this paper, the authors explain the development of electrolysis system which is powered by solar cell array to supply hydrogen for fuel-cell system. The authors explain in detail how to design an efficient electrolysis system to obtain high ratio conversion of electric energy to hydrogen gas volume. It includes the explanation of the usage of multiple anodes with a single cathode for many solar cell inputs in a single electrolysis system. Hereinafter this is referred as multiple anode electrolysis system. This multiple anode electrolysis system makes the management of hydrogen gas becomes more efficient and effective by using only a single hydrogen gas storage system. This paper also explain the careful design of the resistance value of the electrolysis system to protect or avoid the solar cell panel to deliver excessive current to the electrolysis system which can cause damage on the solar cell panel. Moreover, the electrolyte volume detector is applied on the system as a tool to measure the electrolyte concentration to assure the system resistance is still in the allowed range. Further, the hydrogen gas produced by electrolysis system is stored into the gas storage which consists of silica-gel purifier, first stage low pressure gas bottle, vacuum pump, and second stage high pressure gas bottle. In the first step, the pump will vacuum the first bottle. The first bottle will collect the hydrogen from the electrolysis system through the silica gel to get rid of water vapor. When the first bottle

  16. Fuel distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tison, R.R.; Baker, N.R.; Blazek, C.F.

    1979-07-01

    Distribution of fuel is considered from a supply point to the secondary conversion sites and ultimate end users. All distribution is intracity with the maximum distance between the supply point and end-use site generally considered to be 15 mi. The fuels discussed are: coal or coal-like solids, methanol, No. 2 fuel oil, No. 6 fuel oil, high-Btu gas, medium-Btu gas, and low-Btu gas. Although the fuel state, i.e., gas, liquid, etc., can have a major impact on the distribution system, the source of these fuels (e.g., naturally-occurring or coal-derived) does not. Single-source, single-termination point and single-source, multi-termination point systems for liquid, gaseous, and solid fuel distribution are considered. Transport modes and the fuels associated with each mode are: by truck - coal, methanol, No. 2 fuel oil, and No. 6 fuel oil; and by pipeline - coal, methane, No. 2 fuel oil, No. 6 oil, high-Btu gas, medium-Btu gas, and low-Btu gas. Data provided for each distribution system include component makeup and initial costs.

  17. Exploration on Power Supply Marketing Services in All Things Internet Era%万物互联时代的供电营销服务探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄奕杰; 吴晓芳

    2016-01-01

    文章认为,大数据、云计算、物联网、移动互联网等技术与供电营销服务理念的碰撞,将从根本上促进传统服务的创新,并催生一系列供电营销新服务模式。从而在进一步实现电力资源供需平衡、合理配置,满足用户便捷、智能、个性化用电需求的同时,增强用户忠诚度与供电企业竞争力,实现社会、用户、企业的三方共赢。%The paper holds that big data, cloud computing, networking, mobile Internet technology and power supply marketing service concept of collision, fundamentally promote the innovation of traditional service, and spawned a series of power supply marketing new service mode. In order to further realize power resources supply and demand balance, reasonable conifguration, meet the users convenient, intelligent, personalized demand at the same time, increase customer loyalty and the power supply enterprise competitiveness, realize society, customers, enterprises tripartite win-win.

  18. Feedstock Supply System Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels: Conversion Pathway: Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons The 2017 Design Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Kenney; Kara G. Cafferty; Jacob J. Jacobson; Ian J Bonner; Garold L. Gresham; William A. Smith; David N. Thompson; Vicki S. Thompson; Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Neal Yancey

    2013-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy promotes the production of a range of liquid fuels and fuel blendstocks from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass collection, conversion, and sustainability. As part of its involvement in this program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) investigates the feedstock logistics economics and sustainability of these fuels. Between 2000 and 2012, INL conducted a campaign to quantify the economics and sustainability of moving biomass from standing in the field or stand to the throat of the biomass conversion process. The goal of this program was to establish the current costs based on conventional equipment and processes, design improvements to the current system, and to mark annual improvements based on higher efficiencies or better designs. The 2012 programmatic target was to demonstrate a delivered biomass logistics cost of $35/dry ton. This goal was successfully achieved in 2012 by implementing field and process demonstration unit-scale data from harvest, collection, storage, preprocessing, handling, and transportation operations into INL’s biomass logistics model. Looking forward to 2017, the programmatic target is to supply biomass to the conversion facilities at a total cost of $80/dry ton and on specification with in-feed requirements. The goal of the 2017 Design Case is to enable expansion of biofuels production beyond highly productive resource areas by breaking the reliance of cost-competitive biofuel production on a single, abundant, low-cost feedstock. If this goal is not achieved, biofuel plants are destined to be small and/or clustered in select regions of the country that have a lock on low-cost feedstock. To put the 2017 cost target into perspective of past accomplishments of the cellulosic ethanol pathway, the $80 target encompasses total delivered feedstock cost, including both grower payment and logistics costs, while meeting all

  19. Coordination contract of service supply chain considering fairness concerns%考虑公平关切的服务供应链协调契约

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳键; 舒斯亮

    2015-01-01

    针对服务集成商公平关切行为,建立了服务提供商和服务集成商的博弈模型,分析论证了批发价契约无法实现服务供应链协调的问题,探讨了“成本共担+收入共享”组合式契约协调的有效性。研究结果表明,成本共担契约和收入共享契约都无法实现服务供应链的协调,而组合式契约不仅能有效协调服务供应链,且协调具有一定柔性,但随着服务集成商公平关切程度的增加,服务提供商与服务集成商的协调空间变小,协调柔性减弱,且对服务提供商更不利。%Considering fairness concerns of the service integrator, a game model of the service provider and the service integrator is established. The analysis demonstrates that the wholesale price contract can’t realize the service supply chain coordination. Therefore, a combined contract of“cost sharing and revenue sharing”is presented to coordinate the service supply chain, and its effectiveness is discussed. The study results show that:the contract of cost sharing and revenue sharing can’t achieve the coordination of service supply chain, the combined contract can’t only coordinate the service supply chain, and also its coordination has flexibility. But with fairness concerns of the service integrator increasing, the negotiation space of the service provider and the service integrator becomes small, and the coordination flexibility will gradually weaken and more unfavorable for the service provider.

  20. An evaluation of the Forest Service Hazardous Fuels Treatment Program—Are we treating enough to promote resiliency or reduce hazard?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole M. Vaillant; Elizabeth D. Reinhardt

    2017-01-01

    The National Cohesive Wildland Fire Management Strategy recognizes that wildfire is a necessary natural process in many ecosystems and strives to reduce conflicts between fire-prone landscapes and people. In an effort to mitigate potential negative wildfire impacts proactively, the Forest Service fuels program reduces wildland fuels. As part of an internal program...

  1. Fuel cells and battery storgae systems: Future technologies for a safe and environmentally responsive energy supply. Brennstoffzellen und Batteriespeicher: Zukunftstechnologien fuer eine sichere und umweltgerechte Energieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drenckhahn, W.; Hassmann, K.; Kuehne, H.M.

    1992-01-01

    In the light of measures to be adopted for a reduction of CO[sub 2] emissions, a special emphasis needs to be placed on the application of regenerative energies juxtaposed to the enhancement of the efficiencies of fossil-fuelled power stations and further extension of nuclear energy applications. In industrialized countries with compound power networks, the feeding of regenerative energies means direct savings in fossil fuels and a reduction of CO[sub 2] production if the local power grid is capable of absorbing that power supply which fluctuates across time. Once this absorption capacity has been exhausted, we will be faced with the problem of intermediate storage of electric power. As a rule, island-type systems cannot dispense with a storage system at all and regenerative energy technologies like photovoltaics will not be applied unless suitable power storage systems are available. The author discusses the state of development of electrochemical energy converters and storage systems and their future application options. (orig.)

  2. Department of Defense Prime Contract Awards by Service Category and Federal Supply Classification. Fiscal Years 1996, 1995, 1994, and 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Rehabilitation Services 1,260 555 118 357 Q519 Psychiatry Services 16,457 26,100 30,437 30,665 Q520 Podiatry Services 102 0 0 0 Q521 Pulmonary...Musical Inst, Phonographs, and Home-Type Radios 2,620 2,257 1,602 3,465 Recreational and Athletic Equipment 7810 Athletic and Sporting Equipment 7820...Rehabilitation Services Q519 Psychiatry Services Q520 Podiatry Services Q521 Pulmonary Services Q522 Radiology Services Q523 Surgery Services Q525

  3. E-commerce Enabled Supply Chain Management Based on Web Service%基于Web服务的电子商务供应链管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Chunling; YUAN Lin

    2008-01-01

    s:Increased global competition and demand for greater product variety resuit in the emergence of dynamic supply chain,which need to be co-operated without sacrificing their flexibility.Traditional application systems such as ERP,lack the autonomy and flexibility required by dynamic network.EDI is costly and EDI interfaces miss the decision values and logistic control required for supply chain management.Giyen the limitations of EDI application and traditional application system,this Paper is aimed at exploring a new adaptable software architecture to realize enterprise application integration across organizational network.The functional structure and service platform of a software component architecture in the supply chain management is presented.Due to the simple and low-cost method provided for information communication and sharing by Web Services,we select Wleb Services as our implementation technology of the software component architecture.Finally,a case of implementation process of procurement based on Wleb service is illustrated.

  4. Research on the Port Logistics Services Supply Chain Integration System%集成化的港口物流服务供应链体系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈莉莉; 陈燕

    2014-01-01

    Port is the hub and important node in international logistics transport network.The concepts are proposed,such as the fourth generation port,port modern logistics and port services supply chain,as well as the link between them.The port logistics services supply chain characteristics is discussed.Integration port logistics services supply chain can improve the value-added service and management capabilities.%港口是国际网络化物流运输的枢纽和重要节点,文中系统研究了第四代港口、港口现代物流和港口服务供应链等相关理论。根据现代物流理念提出港口物流服务供应链的特征。建立集成化的港口物流服务供应链体系构建模式。对于提高港口物流服务供应链网络的增值服务能力和管理运作水平具有重要的研究意义。

  5. Application of mobile operation terminal in the power supply service%移动作业终端在供电服务中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李靖波; 郭斌

    2014-01-01

    Combined with the current situations of power sup-ply service of electric power enterprises, it introduces the applica-tion method and result of mobile operation terminal based on geo-graphic information system in power supply service. The method mainly includes:the construction of power supply service technical support platform, integrated marketing information system and dis-tribution business of production system, the vehicle terminal repair vehicle configuration with GPS positioning function, the repair per-sonnel dispensing smart PAD terminal, the CDMA wireless net-work which realizes information exchange with the master station system, and intelligent fault repair management, visual manage-ment for power cut, marketing service resources visualization man-agement and other functions, to solve "blind" problems in the 95598 power supply service dispatch.%结合电力企业供电服务现状,介绍了基于地理信息系统的移动作业终端在供电服务中的应用方法和效果。主要包括:建设供电服务技术支撑平台,集成营销信息化系统和配网生产业务系统等,对抢修车辆配置具备GPS定位功能的车载终端,对抢修人员配发智能PAD终端,通过CDMA无线网络,实现与主站系统的信息交互,实现智能故障抢修管理、停电可视化管理、营销服务资源可视化管理等功能,解决95598供电服务调度业务的“盲调”问题。

  6. Managing the current and future supply of ecosystem services in the Hungarian and Romanian Tisza River Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petz, K.; Minca, E.L.; Werners, S.E.; Leemans, R.

    2012-01-01

    Ecosystem services that sustain human well-being depend on the continued functioning of ecosystems, proper management and supporting institutions. However, the interaction between these factors and ecosystem services is poorly understood. Therefore, we assessed how ecosystem services are represented

  7. Best mix of primary energy resources by renewable energy and fossil fuel with CCS in view of security,stability and sustainability——A vision on hydrogen supply chain by organic chemical hydride method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junichi; SAKAGUCHI

    2010-01-01

    The best mix scenario by renewable energy and fossil fuel with or without CCS(Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage) would be a solution to compromise Greenhouse Gases emission issue caused by carbon dioxide(CO2),and depletion of crude oil and natural gas reserves.As fossil fuel with pre-combustion CCS means hydrogen manufacturing and also hydrogen can be produced via electrolysis with renewable energy,it is desirable to establish transportation and storage systems of hydrogen as a clean energy.In this paper a vision on Hydrogen Supply Chain by Organic Chemical Hydride(OCH) Method as well as comparison of CCS configuration are discussed.

  8. Influence of fuel composition on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from a fleet of in-service passenger cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, McKenzie C. H.; Ayoko, Godwin A.; Morawska, Lidia.; Ristovski, Zoran D.; Jayaratne, E. Rohan

    The composition of exhaust emissions from eight in-service passenger cars powered by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and unleaded petrol (ULP) were measured on a chassis dynamometer at two driving speeds (60 and 80 km h -1) with the aims of evaluating their polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contents and investigating the effects of the type of fuel on vehicle performance, ambient air quality and associated health risks. Naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, pyrene, chrysene, benzo(a)anthracene and benzo(b)fluoranthene were the most prominent PAHs emitted by both ULP and LPG powered cars. The total emission factors of PAHs from LPG cars were generally lower than (but statistically comparable with) those of ULP cars. Similarly, the total BAP eq of the PAHs emitted by LPG cars were lower than those from ULP cars. Multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) methods showed that cars powered by LPG fuel performed better than those powered by ULP fuel in term of PAH levels. The implications of these observations on the advantages and disadvantages of using ULP and LPG fuels are discussed.

  9. Designing a reproductive health services package in the universal health insurance scheme in Thailand: match and mismatch of need, demand and supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teerawattananon, Yot; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj

    2004-10-01

    In October 2001 Thailand introduced universal healthcare coverage (UC) financed by general tax revenue. This paper aims to assess the design and content of the UC benefit package, focusing on the part of the package concerned with sexual and reproductive health (SRH). The economic concept of need, demand and supply in the process of developing the SRH package was applied to the analysis. The analysis indicated that SRH constitutes a major part of the package, including the control of communicable and non-communicable diseases, the promotion and maintenance of reproductive health, and early detection and management of reproductive health problems. In addition, the authors identified seven areas within three overlapping spheres; namely need, demand and supply. The burden of disease on reproductive conditions was used as a proxy indicator of health needs in the population; the findings of a study of private obstetric practice in public hospitals as a proxy of patients' demands; and the SRH services offered in the UC package as a proxy of general healthcare supply. The authors recommend that in order to ensure that healthcare needs match consumer demand, the inclusion of SRH services not currently offered in the package (e.g. treatment of HIV infection, abortion services) should be considered, if additional resources can be made available. Where health needs exist but consumers do not express demand, and the appropriate SRH services would provide external benefits to society (e.g. the programme for prevention of sexual and gender-related violence), policymakers are encouraged to expand and offer these services. Efforts should be made to create consumer awareness and stimulate demand. Research can play an important role in identifying the services in which supply matches demand but does not necessarily reflect the health needs of the population (e.g. unnecessary investigations and prescriptions). Where only demand or supply exists (e.g. breast cosmetic procedures and

  10. The clause of the local content in the auctions and licitations of the ANP as an incentive way for goods and services local supplying; A clausula do conteudo local nos leiloes e licitacoes da ANP como meio de incentivo ao fornecimento local de bens e servicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Regina Celia Palacio [Universidade de Salvador (UNIFACS), BA (Brazil). Mestrado em Regulacao da Industria de Energia

    2006-07-01

    The Brazilian Federal Law number 9.478, known as the Oil Law (August 6th 1997), broke the PETROBRAS monopoly and changed the structural model of the oil business in Brazil, allowing others petroleum companies, rather than PETROBRAS, to operate in the exploration and production sector of the Brazilian petroleum industry. The Law 9.478 also created the ANP - Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (National Agency for Oil, Natural Gas and Bio fuels), having among its attributes the obligation to implement the national oil and gas policy toward a more competitive environment in the Brazilian oil business. The entrance of new operating companies consisted in chance for the growth of the local supply of goods and services. One of the mechanisms found for the ANP to contribute with this growth was the inclusion of bidding and contractual conditions for Local Contents (LC), related to supply of goods and services. For this mechanism the operator companies are obliged to buy, in Brazil, a minimum percentile amount of goods and services. However, the bidding and contractual conditions for Local Contents (LC) have generated quarrels around its percentages in each round of the auctions, as well as of its effectiveness in stimulating the local supply of goods and services to the petroleum industry. This paper presents the conditions established by ANP for LC, explains the concept and as the LC is calculated, and shows its evolution through the seven rounds of the auctions. (author)

  11. Effect of Coal Contaminants on Solid Oxide Fuel System Performance and Service Life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopala Krishnan; P. Jayaweera; J. Bao; J. Perez; K. H. Lau; M. Hornbostel; A. Sanjurjo; J. R. Albritton; R. P. Gupta

    2008-09-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy's SECA program envisions the development of high-efficiency, low-emission, CO{sub 2} sequestration-ready, and fuel-flexible technology to produce electricity from fossil fuels. One such technology is the integrated gasification-solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) that produces electricity from the gas stream of a coal gasifier. SOFCs have high fuel-to-electricity conversion efficiency, environmental compatibility (low NO{sub x} production), and modularity. Naturally occurring coal has many impurities and some of these impurities end in the fuel gas stream either as a vapor or in the form of fine particulate matter. Establishing the tolerance limits of SOFCs for contaminants in the coal-derived gas will allow proper design of the fuel feed system that will not catastrophically damage the SOFC or allow long-term cumulative degradation. The anodes of Ni-cermet-based SOFCs are vulnerable to degradation in the presence of contaminants that are expected to be present in a coal-derived fuel gas stream. Whereas the effects of some contaminants such as H{sub 2}S, NH{sub 3} and HCl have been studied, the effects of other contaminants such as As, P, and Hg have not been ascertained. The primary objective of this study was to determine the sensitivity of the performance of solid oxide fuel cells to trace level contaminants present in a coal-derived gas stream in the temperature range 700 to 900 C. The results were used to assess catastrophic damage risk and long-term cumulative effects of the trace contaminants on the lifetime expectancy of SOFC systems fed with coal-derived gas streams.

  12. 基于Web服务的药品供应链管理系统研究%Research on Drug Supply Chain Management System Based on Web Services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王占明; 和征; 张利旺; 张永生

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To implement the zero rate sales, procurement and distribution of essential drugs in the primary health service agencies. Methods: This system constructs the drug supply chain management system based on the SOA architecture and Web services technology .Result: The system implements the seamless integration between the different hospital information systems (HIS) and the drug supply chain management system. The system eliminates the "islands of information ".Conclusions:The system makes the HIS and the drug supply chain management system to work together to improve the performance of the drug supply chain management.%目的:在基层卫生服务机构实行基本药物零差率销售、采购和配送工作。方法:利用SOA架构与Web服务技术,建立基于Web服务的药品供应链管理系统。结果:实现了不同的医院信息系统(HIS)与药品供应链管理系统的无缝集成,消除了“信息孤岛”。结论:HIS与药品供应链管理系统协同工作,进一步提高了药品供应链管理绩效。

  13. Study on key Issues and Critical Success Factors of e - Supply Chain Management in Health Care Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debashri Dey , Asoke Nath

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to tremendous growth in informationtechnology (IT and economic globalizationnow the competition is among enterprises andtheir supply chains and not restricted toenterprises only. In the present globaleconomic scenario, the organizations areforced to rethink their operations, alliances,partnerships and strategies to cope with theseand similar changes. Supply chaincompetitiveness has been emerged as one ofthe strongest tool for gaining competitiveadvantages. Although healthcare industrieshave responded serious competitivechallenges through their network alliance,the theoretical element for sustainablecompetitive advantage of healthcare supplychain has not been well examined. A supplychain is competitive if it is able to create anddeliver value for its customers and itscomponents. In the growing economy ofIndia, supply chain competitiveness (SCC isa real solution to the problems faced byorganizations in this global environment,which now ultimately leads to a World of e-SCM (Electronic Supply ChainManagement. The present paper discussessome of the e-supply chain competitivenessissues and presents roles of suppliers,manufacturers and distributors, some futureperspectives of e-SCM with an aim to identifythe critical issues related to supply chaincompetitiveness and presents roles of themajor components of supply chain,altogether. The authors have also discussedthe emerging challengesof healthcare supplychains and their impact in collaborativehealthcare network for global markets.

  14. Construction and Application of the Mobile Power Supply Service System%移动式供电服务系统的建设与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚廷志; 李红兵

    2012-01-01

    从业务和功能构架、数据构架、安全构架及集成构架4个方面,阐述了移动式供电服务系统的建设方法,介绍了系统的具体应用及带来的社会效益和经济效益,说明了供电企业建设移动式供电服务系统的必要性和意义.%In this article the author explained the construction of mobile power supply service system in four respects of marketing professional and functional architecture,data architecture,security architecture and integrated framework, and then stated the application and social and economic benefits of the system. It is necessary and significant for power company to establish mobile power supply service system.

  15. Closed-loop Supply Chain Information System Based on Service-oriented Architecture%基于SOA的闭环供应链信息系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    计三有; 仇艳丽

    2011-01-01

    深入分析了闭环供应链中信息管理面临的挑战和实现要求,介绍了面向服务的体系架构(SOA)的结构模型与技术,进而把SOA思想引入闭环供应链信息系统实现中,提出了一种新的闭环供应链信息系统架构方案,建立了基于SOA的闭环供应链信息系统模型,并详细分析了模型中各组成部分在整个系统中的作用,研究结果表明,该系统能够较好地解决闭环供应链信息集成的复杂性等问题.%Challenge and realization requirements of closed - loop supply chain information management were discussed. Structural model and technology of service - oriented architecture ( SOA) were introduced. The SOA idea was introduced to realize the closed - loop supply chain information system. A new architecture design for closed - loop supply chain information system was proposed. And SOA - based model for closed - loop supply chain information system was put forward. The function of each part in the model was emphatically analyzed. Research results show that the system can solve the complex problem of the closed - loop supply chain information system integration.

  16. Low Temperature Properties Of Fuel Mixtures Of Kerosene And Fame Type Used To Supply Turbine Engines In Marine And Other Non-Aeronautical Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wojciech Dzięgielewski; Bartosz Gawron; Andrzej Kulczycki

    2015-01-01

    .... Specific conditions in which fuels are combusted in turbine engines used in these applications are the reason why fuel mixtures of kerosene and FAME type should reveal relevant low temperature characteristics...

  17. A GUIDE TO FUEL PERFORMANCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LITZKE,W.

    2004-08-01

    Heating oil, as its name implies, is intended for end use heating consumption as its primary application. But its identity in reference name and actual chemical properties may vary based on a number of factors. By name, heating oil is sometimes referred to as gas oil, diesel, No. 2 distillate (middle distillate), or light heating oil. Kerosene, also used as a burner fuel, is a No. 1 distillate. Due to the higher heat content and competitive price in most markets, No. 2 heating oil is primarily used in modern, pressure-atomized burners. Using No. 1 oil for heating has the advantages of better cold-flow properties, lower emissions, and better storage properties. Because it is not nearly as abundant in supply, it is often markedly more expensive than No. 2 heating oil. Given the advanced, low-firing rate burners in use today, the objective is for the fuel to be compatible and achieve combustion performance at the highest achievable efficiency of the heating systems--with minimal service requirements. Among the Oil heat industry's top priorities are improving reliability and reducing service costs associated with fuel performance. Poor fuel quality, fuel degradation, and contamination can cause burner shut-downs resulting in ''no-heat'' calls. Many of these unscheduled service calls are preventable with routine inspection of the fuel and the tank. This manual focuses on No. 2 heating oil--its performance, properties, sampling and testing. Its purpose is to provide the marketer, service manager and technician with the proper guidelines for inspecting the product, maintaining good fuel quality, and the best practices for proper storage. Up-to-date information is also provided on commercially available fuel additives, their appropriate use and limitations.

  18. Pilot-Scale Demonstration of a Novel, Low-Cost Oxygen Supply Process and its Integration with Oxy-Fuel Coal-Fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krish Krishnamurthy; Divy Acharya; Frank Fitch

    2008-09-30

    In order to achieve DOE targets for carbon dioxide capture, it is crucial not only to develop process options that will generate and provide oxygen to the power cycle in a cost-effective manner compared to the conventional oxygen supply methods based on cryogenic air separation technology, but also to identify effective integration options for these new technologies into the power cycle with carbon dioxide capture. The Linde/BOC developed Ceramic Autothermal Recovery (CAR) process remains an interesting candidate to address both of these issues by the transfer of oxygen from the air to a recycled CO{sub 2} rich flue-gas stream in a cyclic process utilizing the high temperature sorption properties of perovskites. Good progress was made on this technology in this project, but significant challenges remain to be addressed before CAR oxygen production technology is ready for commercial exploitation. Phase 1 of the project was completed by the end of September 2008. The two-bed 0.7 tons/day O2 CAR process development unit (PDU) was installed adjacent to WRI's pilot scale coal combustion test facility (CTF). Start-up and operating sequences for the PDU were developed and cyclic operation of the CAR process demonstrated. Controlled low concentration methane addition allowed the beds to be heated up to operational temperature (800-900 C) and then held there during cyclic operation of the 2-bed CAR process, in this way overcoming unavoidable heat losses from the beds during steady state operation. The performance of the PDU was optimized as much as possible, but equipment limitations prevented the system from fully achieving its target performance. Design of the flue gas recirculation system to integrate CAR PDU with the CTF and the system was completed and integrated tests successfully performed at the end of the period. A detailed techno-economic analysis was made of the CAR process for supplying the oxygen in oxy-fuel combustion retrofit option using AEP's 450

  19. Draft of law relating to revamping of natural gas supply public service and to development of gas enterprises; Avant projet de loi relatif a la modernisation du service public du gaz naturel et au developpement des entreprises gazieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bricq [ed.] [Deputee de Seine-et-Marne, Assemblee Nationale, Paris (France)

    2000-02-07

    The state secretariat for industry has launched a large public debate between June and October 1999 based on a white book titled 'Towards the future organization of the gas sector'. The suggestions obtained were substantial. A brief presentation is added to the draft of the law devoted to revamping of natural gas supply public service and to development of gas enterprises. The presentation addresses the following points: 1. A public gas supply service modern and thought to reconcile the dynamism, equity and solidarity. 2. A controlled opening of the natural gas market towards competition: participating to the struggle for employment. 3. Tools ensuring the quality of gas supply and security of resources. 4. A transparent and efficient regulation: creating the conditions of a nondiscriminatory competition. 5. Requirements for developing the transport of natural gas regime. 6. Storage. 7. Social questions. The draft of the law relating to revamping of natural gas supply public service and to development of gas enterprises is a working document, not engaging the government. It is based on six titles. Title 1 and Title 2 treat the points 1 and 2 mentioned above. Title 3 contains two chapters devoted to transparency and accounting dissociation and to regulation in the natural gas sector, respectively. The Title 4 contains three chapters devoted to: 1. authorization of the works of natural gas transport; 2. gas distribution and 3. exploitation of the transport and natural gas distribution network. The fifth Title is dedicated to underground storage. The sixth Title presents diverse directives.

  20. Fuel cell with internal flow control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haltiner, Jr., Karl J.; Venkiteswaran, Arun [Karnataka, IN

    2012-06-12

    A fuel cell stack is provided with a plurality of fuel cell cassettes where each fuel cell cassette has a fuel cell with an anode and cathode. The fuel cell stack includes an anode supply chimney for supplying fuel to the anode of each fuel cell cassette, an anode return chimney for removing anode exhaust from the anode of each fuel cell cassette, a cathode supply chimney for supplying oxidant to the cathode of each fuel cell cassette, and a cathode return chimney for removing cathode exhaust from the cathode of each fuel cell cassette. A first fuel cell cassette includes a flow control member disposed between the anode supply chimney and the anode return chimney or between the cathode supply chimney and the cathode return chimney such that the flow control member provides a flow restriction different from at least one other fuel cell cassettes.

  1. 分散式服务供应链系统的协调机制研究%Study on Coordination Mechanism of Distributive Service Supply Chain System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李贵春

    2016-01-01

    指出供应链系统包括集中和分散的模型。集中供应链系统允许供应链的性能优化,集中控制确保了系统的效率,但是可行性很小。分散供应链系统包含有几个自我关注利润最大化的成员,很难优化整个供应链的收益。因此,协调机制对为了追求协调渠道的决策者来说是有必要的。主要对分散式服务供应链系统的协调机制问题进行了系统性分析,梳理现有研究的成果,找出目前研究中的重点和难点,归纳未来研究的方向。%In this paper, we pointed out that the supply chain system could be classified into the centralized and distributive ones. The centralized supply chain system allowed for the performance optimization of the supply chain, where the centralized control ensured the efficiency of the system, but was rather infeasible. In contrast, the distributive supply chain system composed of several members concerned with maximizing their own profit, thus increasing the difficulty in optimizing the overall benefit of the supply chain. As a result, a coordination mechanism was necessary for the decision-makers who pursued means of coordination. Then we analyzed systematically the coordination mechanism of the distributive service supply chain system, summarized the current research findings as well as the key points and obstacles, and at the end, proposed the direction for future researches.

  2. Brazilian oil and gas supply and service industry's: context and perspectives; Contexto e perspectivas do segmento para-petrolifero brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Antonio Ricardo Pimentel de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes the goods and services supply oil segment, as different than the oil companies segment itself. It points to the transformations in the goods and services supply segment from the 1980s until now. At that time with low international oil prices, the oil companies induced the goods and services firms to assume a major role in development of technology. Inside the country here, the goods and services segment had high local content performance but it was associated to low technology intensity or to branches of large multinational firms installed in the Brazilian market. The paper points the French approaching on this same oil segment and its applicability to the Brazilian case, giving one example of financial R and D resources for supporting such a target. Otherwise than in France some specific obstacles can be found here in that development purpose. As alternative some others scenarios were finally explored in the paper for further suggestions for institutional approaching in this Brazilian industrial oil segment. (author)

  3. Standard guide for evaluation of materials used in extended service of interim spent nuclear fuel dry storage systems

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 Part of the total inventory of commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is stored in dry cask storage systems (DCSS) under licenses granted by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The purpose of this guide is to provide information to assist in supporting the renewal of these licenses, safely and without removal of the SNF from its licensed confinement, for periods beyond those governed by the term of the original license. This guide provides information on materials behavior under conditions that may be important to safety evaluations for the extended service of the renewal period. This guide is written for DCSS containing light water reactor (LWR) fuel that is clad in zirconium alloy material and stored in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), at an independent spent-fuel storage installation (ISFSI). The components of an ISFSI, addressed in this document, include the commercial SNF, canister, cask, and all parts of the storage installation including the ISFSI pad. The language of t...

  4. Web-service Oriented Establishment of Optimal-quality Flexible Product Service Supply Chain%面向Web service构建质量最优化柔性产品服务供应链

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何小利; 宋钰

    2013-01-01

    随着经济全球化和信息化的发展,产品服务化供应链已经成为当前一种主流的经营模式。将产品服务封装为Web service应用,并在此基础上构建产品服务簇,从而提高服务供应链的柔性。结合Web service服务质量评价,提出一种求解质量最优化柔性产品服务供应链方案。%In this paper, we encapsulated the product services into Web-service apps and on such basis built the product service clusters to improve the flexibility of the service supply chain. Then in connection with an evaluation of the quality of the Web-service, we proposed a solution of the optimal-quality flexible product-service supply chain.

  5. Research on telecommunication resale service supply chain coordination with revenue-sharing contract%电信业务转售收入共享合同研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑惠莉; 达庆利; 曹爱红

    2004-01-01

    The competition and cooperation between traditional telecom operators and resale operators in the supply chain are discussed, when the telecom industry developed telecommunication resale service. Supply chain contract is an effective way to coordinate the supply chain. This paper analyzes the revenue-sharing contract between telecom operators and resale operators. The study shows that by setting up a rational revenue-sharing ratio and wholesale price, a revenue-sharing contract can coordinate this supply chain, and telecom operators and resale operators can achieve a "win-win" solution.%从供应链的角度, 研究了电信业在开展转售电信业务时, 传统运营商与转售商之间的竞争与合作问题. 供应链合同(契约)是实现供应链协调的一种有效方法, 本文通过对运营商与转售商之间建立收入共享合同的分析研究得到:通过收入共享比例和批发价的合理设置, 收入共享合同可以协调电信业务转售供应链, 实现运营商与转售商的"双赢".

  6. Service Oriented Supply Chain Performance Evaluation%面向服务的供应链绩效评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林智崧; 李良春; 宋桂飞; 邓立杰

    2015-01-01

    面向服务的架构 SOA 是一种应用程序体系结构。从国内外供应链管理绩效测评方法研究存在的不足出发,结合供应链绩效管理需求,介绍了 SOA 定义及其特性,构建了面向服务的供应链绩效管理评价体系架构;描述了其业务应用层、服务总线层及基础服务层的基本组成与功能;分析了该评价体系的运行方式。%Service‐oriented Architecture(SOA) is an application architecture .From the lack of research on supply chain management performance evaluation methods existing at home and abroad ,combined with supply chain performance manage‐ment needs ,definition and characteristics of SOA is introduced ,and a service‐oriented supply chain performance management evaluation system architecture is proposed .Than basic composition and function of the business application layer ,the service bus layer and the basic services layer are described the operation mode of the evaluation system is analyzed .

  7. State of supply services for industrial hygiene and safety in Colombia Estado de la oferta técnica de servicios de higiene y seguridad industrial, Colombia, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Vicente Conde

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Introduction. Institutions that supply occupational health services must offer services that are reliable and of high quality across the spectrum of industrial hygiene and safety needs.
    Objective. Services for occupational health were identified at several institutions, and the technical quality and reliability of these services were compared in different regions of Colombia.
    Materials and methods. This descriptive study identified the services available for industrial hygiene and safety in 15 cities of Colombia. A survey was conducted in 192 institutions offering such services and a statistical analysis of these results was undertaken. This sample was taken from a nationwide list of institutions purportedly licensed for this activity.
    Results. Thirty-two percent (61 of the evaluated institutions provided hygiene services, and 48% (93 provided safety services. The range of health services was provided on a subcontract basis both for professional personnel and the equipment. Six institutions in the area of industrial hygiene and 1 in the area of industrial security were supplying services with pending or suspended institutional licenses.
    Conclusion. Deficiencies in the quality, infrastructure and levels of automation were identified at institutions that supply services of hygiene and industrial security. The resulting recommendatios are that the Ministry of the Social Protection fortifies mechanisms for (1 the evaluation and control of the supplied services, and (2 verify that the institutional activity is in accordance with current and valid licensing.

    Introducción. Las instituciones prestadoras de servicios de prevención de riesgos laborales tienen la función de ofrecer servicios técnicos y confiables en salud ocupacional, seguridad e higiene industrial.
    Objetivo. Identificar la oferta de servicios existentes respecto a la prevención de riesgos laborales (parte de higiene y seguridad industrial

  8. An art report to analyze internal and external research status for the establishment of the safe supply system of the foods for military meal service using ionization energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Jang Ho; Jo, Cheol Hun; Kim, Dong Ho; Lee, You Seok

    2003-09-15

    Since the risk of food-borne pathogenic diseases such as E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella always remains in the military meal service system, it is necessary to develop the method to eliminate this problem. According to the preference survey of military meals, it is shown that soldiers preferred the improvement in quality such as tastes and variety to the increase in quantity. For this reason, the supply of diverse foods, improvement of cooking methods, and the complement of meal service facilities are required. The developed countries such as the United States maintain the facilities to control the environmental factors such as temperature, moisture, and oxygen and they develop and use the rapid methods to test the storage times of each category of foods based on the theoretical studies of food storage/preservation/processing and their experimental data. Due to the ordinary sanitation methods are gradually limited all over the world, as new technology for prevention of food-borne diseases and establishment to manufacture wholesome food, a radiation technology is very effective to ensure safe food and preservation/distribution, improve the safety of processed food and its manufacturing processes. And, the military meal service including combat rations furnishes viability, energy, ability for duty, and mental rest to soldiers. Furthermore, it ensures combat capabilities, enhances mobility power of troops, improves combat efficiency, and establishes the military supply system. It is necessary to study irradiation technique in order to establish the safe food supply system for military meal service and eliminate contamination such as food-borne disease for combat crews as an essential element in military power.

  9. Development and Use of the Hydrologic Ensemble Forecast System by the National Weather Service to Support the New York City Water Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shedd, R.; Reed, S. M.; Porter, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    The National Weather Service (NWS) has been working for several years on the development of the Hydrologic Ensemble Forecast System (HEFS). The objective of HEFS is to provide ensemble river forecasts incorporating the best precipitation and temperature forcings at any specific time horizon. For the current implementation, this includes the Global Ensemble Forecast System (GEFS) and the Climate Forecast System (CFSv2). One of the core partners that has been working with the NWS since the beginning of the development phase of HEFS is the New York City Department of Environmental Protection (NYCDEP) which is responsible for the complex water supply system for New York City. The water supply system involves a network of reservoirs in both the Delaware and Hudson River basins. At the same time that the NWS was developing HEFS, NYCDEP was working on enhancing the operations of their water supply reservoirs through the development of a new Operations Support Tool (OST). OST is designed to guide reservoir system operations to ensure an adequate supply of high-quality drinking water for the city, as well as to meet secondary objectives for reaches downstream of the reservoirs assuming the primary water supply goals can be met. These secondary objectives include fisheries and ecosystem support, enhanced peak flow attenuation beyond that provided natively by the reservoirs, salt front management, and water supply for other cities. Since January 2014, the NWS Northeast and Middle Atlantic River Forecast Centers have provided daily one year forecasts from HEFS to NYCDEP. OST ingests these forecasts, couples them with near-real-time environmental and reservoir system data, and drives models of the water supply system. The input of ensemble forecasts results in an ensemble of model output, from which information on the range and likelihood of possible future system states can be extracted. This type of probabilistic information provides system managers with additional

  10. Uninterruptible power supply for GSM/UMTS base stations using fuel cells. PEM-FC back-up system - Final report; Unterbrechungsfreie Stromversorgung (USV) fuer GSM/UMTS-Basisstationen mit Brennstoffzellen. PEM-FC Back-Up System - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trachte, U.; Wellig, B.; Luethi, E.; Gander, T.; Haerri, V.

    2010-06-15

    The Lucerne University of Applied Sciences and Arts - Lucerne School of Engineering and Architecture conducted field tests with an uninterruptible power supply (UPS) with fuel cell technology since January 2006. The project took place in collaboration with the industrial partners Swisscom (Schweiz) AG, as a user of UPS-systems in telecommunications and the American Power Conversion Corporation as a producer and market leader of UPS-Systems. In this project, the lead-acid batteries were replaced by a PEM fuel cell system. The delayed start-up behaviour of the fuel cell was bridged with supercapacitor technology. The system was connected to an existing working base station of a telecommunication installation, which was installed on the roof of the Lucerne School of Engineering and Architecture in Horw. Hydrogen was provided by two pressurized tanks. The full quantity of hydrogen assured a stand-alone operation for about 6 hours under the load of the telecommunication base station. The field test included monthly grid failure simulations of 5x5 minutes and 2x20 minutes power failures. Also during grid failure simulations for more than 4 hours and during two real outages up to one and a half hour the system provided the demanded power. The field test was performed for a period of three and a half years. Excellent results of the approximately 350 start-up's confirm the functionality, reliability and performance of the system. Under the load of the base station the fuel cell system started with a reliability of 100%. At the end of the tests a decrease of the fuel cell voltage of about 3.3% was measured. The fuel cell system was still fully operational at this time. An amount of energy of about 470 kWh was provided. In addition to the field test, the environmental impact of the lead-acid batteries, which are normally used, and of the fuel cell system was investigated. The comparison between the fuel cell system and lead-acid batteries without recycling showed a

  11. Adoption of a service innovation in the business market : An empirical test of supply-side variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frambach, RT; Nooteboom, B; Wedel, M; Barkema, H.W.

    The objective of this article is to assess the influence of variables over which suppliers have control (supply-side variables) on the adoption gf innovations in addition to adopter-side variables. The empirical study focused on the adoption of electronic banking in the Dutch business market. A

  12. Adoption of a service innovation in the business market : An empirical test of supply-side variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frambach, RT; Nooteboom, B; Wedel, M; Barkema, H.W.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this article is to assess the influence of variables over which suppliers have control (supply-side variables) on the adoption gf innovations in addition to adopter-side variables. The empirical study focused on the adoption of electronic banking in the Dutch business market. A quan

  13. Low Temperature Properties Of Fuel Mixtures Of Kerosene And Fame Type Used To Supply Turbine Engines In Marine And Other Non-Aeronautical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Dzięgielewski Wojciech; Gawron Bartosz; Kulczycki Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    A worldwide trend to popularise gradually increasing use of biofuels in various applications was a motivation for gaining interest in FAME as a commonly available biocomponent to fuels combusted in turbine engines. These engines are mainly used in aeronautics, but many of them are also used in other, non-aeronautical areas, including marine navigation. Specific conditions in which fuels are combusted in turbine engines used in these applications are the reason why fuel mixtures of kerosene an...

  14. Strategy for rendering services and supplying goods in Brazilian marginal fields: challenges and adaptations to a new reality; Estrategia na prestacao de servicos e fornecimento de bens em campos marginais no Brasil: desafios e adaptacoes a uma nova realidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Leonardo Pacheco de; Machado Neto, Clarindo Caetano

    2009-07-01

    The issues related to the operation of the marginal fields administered by independent companies, the main changes in the supply of goods and rendering of services and the challenges ahead are presented and discussed. (author)

  15. 从有效供给角度看公共气象服务分类%Classification of Public Meteorological Service from Perspective of the Effective Supply

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛源; 彭莹辉

    2013-01-01

    传统的公共气象服务分类方法存在理念过时、缺乏针对性和操作性较差等缺陷。从有效供给角度对公共气象服务进行分类,能够准确反映公共气象服务的核心矛盾,持续提升公共气象服务的效益,紧跟社会发展潮流,更好地促进公共气象服务的发展。从有效供给角度对公共气象服务进行分类时,应遵循底线原则、动态原则和效率原则。改进公共气象服务分类,应当建立与国家主流一致的分类标准,动态调整公共气象服务的分类及内容,逐步完善公共气象服务的市场供给机制,发挥政府在公共气象服务中的责任主体职能。%The traditional classification method of public meteorological service has such shortcomings as outdated concept, lack of pertinence and poor operability. Classifying public meteorological service from per-spective of the effective supply can reflect the core contradiction of public meteorological service accurately, continue to improve the benefits of the public meteorological service, follow the trend of social development and promote the development of public meteorological service. Some principles should be followed such as the bot-tom line principle, the dynamic principle and efficiency principle. In order to improve classification of public meteorological service, we should establish the classification standard consistent with the national mainstream, dynamically adjust classification and content of public meteorological service, gradually improve marketing sup-ply mechanism of public meteorological service and give full play to function of the government as the main body of responsibility in the public meteorological service.

  16. 医疗服务供应链管理模型研究%Study on Medical Service Supply Chain Management Model Based on Information Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王振锋; 郭鹏; 颜功兴

    2012-01-01

    在分析医疗服务特点的基础上,建立了基于信息平台的医疗服务供应链管理模型.其中,供应商、医院和患者通过信息平台进行有效沟通,进行需求管理、人力资源管理、医疗服务能力管理、供应商关系管理、医疗服务质量管理和医患关系管理,以及与卫生局、食品药品监督管理局、银行和政府等医疗服务供应链外部的联系.通过CR医院的实证分析,证明了基于信息平台的医疗服务供应链管理模型的有效性和实用性.%Based on analyzing characteristics of medical service, the medical service supply chain management model based on information platform is establishment. Hospital, providers and patients communicates through the information platform, realizing demand management, human resources management, medical service ability management, supplier relationship management, medical service quality management and doctor-patient relationship management, as well as links medical service supply chain external, health bureau, food and drug administration, banking, government, and so on. Through empirical analysis of CR hospital, validity and practicability of the model is proved.

  17. Dollar Summary of Federal Supply Classification and Service Category by Company, FY83, Part 5 (N065-W059).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    TREE SVC NEW MEXICO USAF LANDSCAPING - GROUNDSKEEPING 74 TIFF CULTURE INC ARIZONA USAF LANDSCAPING - GROUNDSKEEPING 40 TITO CONTRACTOR MARYLAND NAVY...HELICOPTERS CALIFOKNIA USAF AIR PASSENGER SERVICE s 75 TWIN TOWN LEASING CO FLORIDA USAF AIR PASSENGER SERVICE 207 UNIMARE UFFICIO VIAGGI E TURISMO ITALY NAVY

  18. [A qualitative approach to drug supply in Mexico: evaluation in the services for population with no medical insurance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados-Cosme, José Arturo; Tetelboin-Henrion, Carolina; Garduño-Andrade, María de Los Ángeles; Rivera-Márquez, José Alberto; Martínez-Ojeda, Rosa Haydeé

    2011-01-01

    To identify the main problems that the drug supply chain (DSCh) faces in the state health systems (SHS); establishing how they relate to the degree of outsourcing. Officials of the SHS hospitals and health centers were interviewed in a sample of 12 entities during the first half of 2008. Transcripts of the interviews were processed through the qualitative analysis program Atlas.ti 5.0; the analysis was aimed at reconstructing the phases of DSCh for identifying problems narrated by informants using the phenomenological approach to discourse analysis. There is a marked tendency to replace the conventional model by one that is characterized by greater involvement of private providers; all the models show specific problems that might be derived from the degree of outsourcing. The supply of drugs in the studied SHS differ from the pattern implemented according to the modality adopted; outsourcing is not exempt of problems and does not seem to fully resolve the difficulties encountered in conventional ways.

  19. Corporate and supply chain network governance of third party logistics service providers: Effects on buyers’ intention to continue the relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih Börteçine Avci

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the impact of corporate governance, supply chain network governance and competencies such as sales and logistics competence on buyers’ intention to relationship continuity. A total number of 258 questionnaires were distributed to Turkish manufacturing firms, selected using cross-sectional sampling method from the Istanbul and Edirne Chamber of Commerce and Industry in Turkey. The data of survey was analysed using PLS-SEM model with WARP PLS 5.0 software. Our findings indicate that corporate governance and supply chain network governance seem to have a positive effect on sales competence and logistics competence, and together, they influence buyers’ intention to relationship continuity. In this respect, the outcomes of this study may provide valuable insights for the third-party logistics (3PL literature in terms of buyers’ intention to relationship continuity.

  20. Preliminary Compatibility Assessment of Metallic Dispenser Materials for Service in Ethanol Fuel Blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawel, Steven J [ORNL; Kass, Michael D [ORNL; Janke, Christopher James [ORNL

    2009-11-01

    The compatibility of selected metals representative of those commonly used in dispensing systems was evaluated in an aggressive E20 formulation (CE20a) and in synthetic gasoline (Reference Fuel C) in identical testing to facilitate comparison of results. The testing was performed at modestly elevated temperature (nominally 60 C) and with constant fluid flow in an effort to accelerate potential interactions in the screening test. Based on weight change, the general corrosion of all individual coupons exposed in the vapor phase above Reference Fuel C and CE20a as well as all coupons immersed in Reference Fuel C was essentially nil (<0.3 {micro}m/y), with no evidence of localized corrosion such as pitting/crevice corrosion or selective leaching at any location. Modest discoloration was observed on the copper-based alloys (cartridge brass and phosphor bronze), but the associated corrosion films were quite thin and apparently protective. For coupons immersed in CE20a, four different materials exhibited net weight loss over the entire course of the experiment: cartridge brass, phosphor bronze, galvanized steel, and terne-plated steel. None of these exhibited substantial incompatibility with the test fluid, with the largest general corrosion rate calculated from coupon weight loss to be approximately 4 {micro}m/y for the cartridge brass specimens. Selective leaching of zinc (from brass) and tin (from bronze) was observed, as well as the presence of sulfide surface films rich in these elements, suggesting the importance of the role of sulfuric acid in the CE20a formulation. Analysis of weight loss data for the slightly corroded metals indicated that the corrosivity of the test environment decreased with exposure time for brass and bronze and increased for galvanized and terne-plated steel. Other materials immersed in CE20a - type 1020 mild steel, type 1100 aluminum, type 201 nickel, and type 304 stainless steel - each appeared essentially immune to corrosion at the test

  1. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Qi, Zhigang

    2013-01-01

    Preface Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel CellsFuel CellsTypes of Fuel CellsAdvantages of Fuel CellsProton Exchange Membrane Fuel CellsMembraneCatalystCatalyst LayerGas Diffusion MediumMicroporous LayerMembrane Electrode AssemblyPlateSingle CellStackSystemCell Voltage Monitoring Module (CVM)Fuel Supply Module (FSM)Air Supply Module (ASM)Exhaust Management Module (EMM)Heat Management Module (HMM)Water Management Module (WMM)Internal Power Supply Module (IPM)Power Conditioning Module (PCM)Communications Module (COM)Controls Module (CM)SummaryThermodynamics and KineticsTheoretical EfficiencyVoltagePo

  2. Incremental cost of increasing access to maternal health care services: perspectives from a demand and supply side intervention in Eastern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayora, Chrispus; Ekirapa-Kiracho, Elizabeth; Bishai, David; Peters, David H; Okui, Olico; Baine, Sebastian Olikira

    2014-01-01

    High maternal and infant mortality continue to be major challenges to the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals for many low and middle-income countries. There is now evidence that voucher initiatives can increase access to maternal health services. However, a dearth of knowledge exists on the cost implications of voucher schemes. This paper estimates the incremental costs of a demand and supply side intervention aimed at increasing access to maternal health care services. This costing study was part of a quasi-experimental voucher study conducted in two districts in Eastern Uganda to explore the impact of demand and supply - side incentives on increasing access to maternal health services. The provider's perspective was used and the ingredients approach to costing was employed. Costs were based on market prices as recorded in program records. Total, unit, and incremental costs were calculated. The estimated total financial cost of the intervention for the one year of implementation was US$525,472 (US$1 = 2200UgShs). The major cost drivers included costs for transport vouchers (35.3%), health system strengthening (29.2%) and vouchers for maternal health services (18.2%). The average cost of transport per woman to and from the health facility was US$4.6. The total incremental costs incurred on deliveries (excluding caesarean section) was US$317,157 and US$107,890 for post natal care (PNC). The incremental costs per additional delivery and PNC attendance were US$23.9 and US$7.6 respectively. Subsidizing maternal health care costs through demand and supply - side initiatives may not require significant amounts of resources contrary to what would be expected. With Uganda's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita of US$55` (2012), the incremental cost per additional delivery (US$23.9) represents about 5% of GDP per capita to save a mother and probably her new born. For many low income countries, this may not be affordable, yet reliance on donor funding is often

  3. DOE Coal Gasification Multi-Test Facility: fossil fuel processing technical/professional services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hefferan, J.K.; Lee, G.Y.; Boesch, L.P.; James, R.B.; Rode, R.R.; Walters, A.B.

    1979-07-13

    A conceptual design, including process descriptions, heat and material balances, process flow diagrams, utility requirements, schedule, capital and operating cost estimate, and alternative design considerations, is presented for the DOE Coal Gasification Multi-Test Facility (GMTF). The GMTF, an engineering scale facility, is to provide a complete plant into which different types of gasifiers and conversion/synthesis equipment can be readily integrated for testing in an operational environment at relatively low cost. The design allows for operation of several gasifiers simultaneously at a total coal throughput of 2500 tons/day; individual gasifiers operate at up to 1200 tons/day and 600 psig using air or oxygen. Ten different test gasifiers can be in place at the facility, but only three can be operated at one time. The GMTF can produce a spectrum of saleable products, including low Btu, synthesis and pipeline gases, hydrogen (for fuel cells or hydrogasification), methanol, gasoline, diesel and fuel oils, organic chemicals, and electrical power (potentially). In 1979 dollars, the base facility requires a $288 million capital investment for common-use units, $193 million for four gasification units and four synthesis units, and $305 million for six years of operation. Critical reviews of detailed vendor designs are appended for a methanol synthesis unit, three entrained flow gasifiers, a fluidized bed gasifier, and a hydrogasifier/slag-bath gasifier.

  4. 国内燃料油供需现状分析与思考%The Analysis of Domestic Fuel Oil Supply-Demand Status and Some Considerations about It

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海波

    2015-01-01

    Fuel oil is a petroleum product variety with relatively high market-oriented degree in China at present. China formally opened fuel oil price at 2001 for the first time, then published the adjustment of import-export quota and excise rate as well as other policy measures several times. Domestic fuel oil market basically integrates with international market, the internationalization of products have been further enhanced. Following the development of local refining enterprises, the application of fuel oil extends from traditional power generation, heating and transportation to processing use. The article analyzes the supply-demand status of domestic fuel oil as well as the situation facing it and puts forward some considerations about domestic fuel oil market development.%燃料油是目前我国市场化程度较高的石油产品品种。我国最早于2001年正式放开了燃料油的价格,之后又数次发布进出口配额、消费税率调整等政策措施,国内燃料油市场与国际市场基本接轨,产品的国际化程度进一步提高。随着地方炼油企业的发展,燃料油的用途从传统的发电、供热、运输等领域又扩展到了加工使用。本文分析了国内燃料油供需现状及其面临的形势,提出了关于国内燃料油市场开发的若干思考。

  5. Design of the Engine Fuel Supplying System Based on Ultrasonic Atomization%基于超声波雾化的发动机燃油供给系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明容; 陈进从; 程清伟; 黄烨芳

    2013-01-01

    According to the carburetor engine is of high fuel consumption,bad emission,and EFI engine is of high price,a set of fuel oil supply system,in place of the carburetor,based on ultrasonic atomization is designed.The fuel for the new system which is atomized into micron grade fog grain with ultrasonic system,increases the fuel and air mixing contact area,makes the fuel mixes more uniform.The experimental results show that the HC and CO concentration in tail gas of new system is significantly lower,and CO2 emission increases,which demonstrates that the fuel burns more fully.It achieves the effect of energy saving and emission reduction.The cost is equivalent to carburetor type.%针对化油器式摩托车发动机油耗高、排放不好,电喷式价格贵等特点,笔者设计了一套基于超声波雾化的燃油供给系统代替化油器.新系统采用超声波雾化系统提供燃油,雾化后的燃油成微米级雾粒,增大燃油与空气接触混合的面积,使燃油混合更加均匀.实验结果显示,使用新系统发动机比原化油器式发动机尾气中HC、CO浓度明显降低,CO2增大,从而表明燃油燃烧更加充分,达到节能减排的效果,成本与化油器式相当.

  6. Fuel cell catalyst degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arenz, Matthias; Zana, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Fuel cells are an important piece in our quest for a sustainable energy supply. Although there are several different types of fuel cells, the by far most popular is the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Among its many favorable properties are a short start up time and a high power density...

  7. 某蒸发式稳定器燃烧特性及供油匹配数值研究%Numerical investigation on combustion characteristics and fuel supply matching for an evaporative flame-holder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁兆波; 金捷

    2012-01-01

    为了研究一种适用于亚燃冲压发动机燃烧室的蒸发式火焰稳定器方案,采用PDF燃烧模型对其燃烧特性及供油匹配进行了流动及两相燃烧数值模拟与分析,重点研究了不同主燃区/局部供油匹配以及不同主燃区供油浓度分布等对燃烧性能的影响,获得了燃气温度峰值与均匀性相对优化的供油方案。%To study an evaporative flame-holder suitable for the ramjet combustor, the numerical simulation and analysis of two-phase combustion flow field for combustion characteristics and the fuel supply matching was carried out based on PDF combustion model. The influence of different main combustion zone / local fuel-feeding matching and fuel-feeding density distribution in different main combustion zone on the combustion performance were studied emphatically. An optimization fu- el-feeding scheme for peak value and uniformity of gas temperature were obtained. The calculation result of the scheme is rational. It has an important significance for the optimization design for the fuel-feeding scheme of the evaporative flame-holder.

  8. Estimating the cost of improving service quality in water supply: A shadow price approach for England and wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinos-Senante, María; Maziotis, Alexandros; Sala-Garrido, Ramón

    2016-01-01

    Service quality to customers is an aspect that cannot be ignored in the performance assessment of water companies. Nowadays water regulators introduce awards or penalties to incentivize companies to improve service quality to customers when setting prices. In this study, the directional distance function is employed to estimate the shadow prices of variables indicating the lack of service quality to customers in the water industry i.e., written complaints, unplanned interruptions and properties below the reference level. To calculate the shadow price of each undesirable output for each water company, it is needed to ascribe a reference price for the desirable output which is the volume of water delivered. An empirical application is carried out for water companies in England and Wales. Hence, the shadow price of each undesirable output is expressed both as a percentage of the price of the desirable output and in pence per cubic meter of water delivered The estimated results indicate that on average, each additional written complaint that needs to be dealt with by the water company includes a service quality cost of 0.399p/m(3). As expected, when looking at the other service quality variables which involve network repair or replacement, these values are considerably higher. On average, the water company must spend an extra 0.622p/m(3) to prevent one unplanned interruption and 0.702p/m(3) to avoid one water pressure below the reference level. The findings of this study are of great importance for regulated companies and regulators as it has been illustrated that improvements in the service quality in terms of customer service could be challenging and therefore ongoing investments will be required to address these issues.

  9. Progress and Prospective of Researches on Logistics Service Supply Chain%物流服务供应链的研究进展及其趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彤; 张琬嘉

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we reviewed statistically the domestic and foreign literatures on the logistics service supply chain for the period between 2006 and 2015, then summarized the status of the domestic and foreign researches on this subject for the past decade, commented on the last progress in the studies on the structural mode, collaborative system, performance evaluation, risk management and application of the logistics service supply chain, and at the end, determined the subjects for the researches in this field in the future.%对2006-2015年国内外有关物流服务供应链的文献进行了统计,根据文献资料梳理了近十年国内外对物流服务供应链的研究现状,概括和总结了物流服务供应链结构模式、协同体系、绩效评价、风险管理、应用领域的最新研究进展。通过对已有研究成果的比较分析,指出物流服务供应链的集成化、信息化、绿色化和跨界性研究是未来的研究主题。

  10. RELATIONS OF DISTRIBUTION OF THE LOW SULPHUR SHIPPING FUELS IN REGION OF THE BALTIC SEA IN THE BUNKERING BOAT-SHIP SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Matejski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents relations of distribution of the low sulphur marine fuels as result of being in force the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL 73/78, especially the record establishing the region of the Baltic Sea and the North See as sulphur emission control areas (SECA. There are presented obligatory regulations and their influence on sale of the particular kinds of fuels in this region. There are also presented chosen procedures of care about cargo in relation bunker boat – harbour – ship, the delivery fuel procedures in relation bunker boat–ship and the quantitative analysis of distributed fuels on an example of chosen bunker boat.

  11. Labour market assessment of the offshore oil and gas industry supply and service sector in Newfoundland and Labrador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-09-01

    The Petroleum Industry Human Resource Committee (PIHRC) commissioned this study in December 2002 to develop a profile of the labour demand and supply for the upstream production phase of the offshore oil and gas industry. Interviews with representatives from more than 45 countries in the offshore oil and gas sector in Newfoundland and Labrador were conducted. In addition, the results of a mail survey forwarded to an additional 42 companies were included along with a review of secondary labour market research. More than 340 positions were identified in the production phase in the study. Of these, approximately 80 were identified as difficult to recruit for a variety of reasons including: insufficient experience in the oil industry; occupational shortages; short-term or project employment opportunities; very limited employment opportunities and limited occupational supply; lack of specific occupational training programs; and additional projects possibly leading to occupational shortages. The study provided valuable input concerning future labour market and human resource planning and career counselling on the 340 positions previously identified. 10 tabs.

  12. Optimisation of compressed-air supply for control purposes at Valorec Services AG; Optimierung der Steuerluft - Versorgung bei der Valorec Services AG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dott, R.; Afjei, T.

    2005-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project that looked at the possibilities of optimising the supply of compressed air provided around the clock by four compressor systems of varying ages in a facility in Basle, Switzerland. The initial situation is analysed and the potential for making savings is estimated. Various possibilities for improvement are considered including changing the topology of the compressed-air network, the replacement of certain compressors and a new control system. Appropriate measures are proposed and compared with new installations.

  13. Online Shopping Service Supply Chain Coordination Contract Considering Bilateral Service Level%考虑双边服务水平的网购服务供应链协调契约

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦星红; 苏强; 李贵萍

    2016-01-01

    本文考虑了由单个网络商店和单个第三方物流企业( TPL)所构成的二级网购服务供应链,在双方服务水平同时影响市场需求的情况下,研究了网购服务供应链的服务质量协调问题。通过对比分散式和集中式供应链中各方的均衡决策,指出传统价格契约的不足,提出采用收益共享契约对供应链进行协调,并分析了该契约实现供应链协调的条件和局限。研究结果表明:收益共享契约能激励双方提高服务水平、实现供应链协调;协调契约实施前后各方的基本服务水平对各自的收益和服务决策均有正向影响,且相应的影响在协调契约下更明显。此外,研究还指出供应链系统可能会因TPL服务能力不足发生服务拥塞,使得系统运营效率降低。最后,通过算例验证了收益共享契约的有效性,并对主要参数的灵敏度进行了分析。%In this paper , service quality coordination mechanism is studied in a two-layer service supply chain that consists of one online store and one TPL with the market demand dependent on their service levels .Service decisions are compared and analyzed in two different scenarios:decentralized decision and centralized decision . And then the limitations of the traditional price-only contract in the first scenario are pointed out .Considering the scenario of centralized decision as a benchmark , we propose a revenue sharing contract ( RSC ) as a method to coordin ate the decentralized supply chain and give the conditions and limitations of the contract to realize supply chain coordination .The results show that the RSC can motivate both online store and TPL to improve service lev-el and realize service supply chain coordination .Moreover , the result shows that basic service levels of all mem-bers have a positive influence on their service decision in the two scenarios , and the effect is greater in the sec-ond scenario .However , the

  14. Consumer-inclusive innovation strategies for the Dutch water supply sector: Opportunities for more sustainable products and services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hegger, D.L.T.; Spaargaren, G.; Vliet, van B.J.M.; Frijns, J.

    2011-01-01

    This article reflects on the consequences of contemporary shifts in the relationships between water utilities, their competitors and domestic end users. Such changing relations come along with the development of new more sustainable products and services. By distinguishing between ‘upstream’ vs.

  15. 42 CFR 410.27 - Outpatient hospital or CAH services and supplies incident to a physician or nonphysician...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... osteopathy, as specified in §§ 410.47 and 410.49, respectively. (B) For services furnished in an off-campus... of medicine or osteopathy, as specified in §§ 410.47 and 410.49, respectively. (b) Drugs...

  16. Strategic Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    March 7, 2003. [29] Velis, Lil. “ Publishing Industry : Supply Chain Strategy in Action,” briefing presented to ICAF Strategic Supply Seminar, May 6...Lambert and Stock, page 48. [32] Velis, Lil. “ Publishing Industry : Supply Chain Strategy in Action,” briefing presented to ICAF Strategic Supply

  17. Improvements and adaptive changes to the fuel channel fitness-for-service assessment process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedran, P.J. [Canadian Power Utility Services Limited, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    The first formal Fitness-for-Service (FFS) assessment methodology in the CANDU industry was issued to the AECB in 1991 in the CANDU Pressure Tube Fitness-for-Service Guidelines (FFSG), which were later incorporated into CSA N285.8 in the mid 1990s. While the utilities have continued to benefit greatly from repeated, successful FFS assessments, industry changes since 1991 have conspired to apply mounting pressures on the FFS community, to the potential detriment of the assessment process. This paper identifies inherent challenges, historical challenges, and more recent difficulties encountered by the FFS assessment community and gives recommendations for relieving some of the mounting pressures on the FFS assessors and for improving the FFS assessment process. (author)

  18. Oferta pública y privada de servicios sanitarios por comunidades autónomas Public and private supply of health services by autonomous communities in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz González

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo resume las desigualdades territoriales en la oferta de servicios sanitarios, y discute sus implicaciones sobre las desigualdades en el acceso y la utilización. En el ámbito de la atención primaria, destacan las diferencias regionales en el proceso de implantación de la reforma y en la dotación de servicios complementarios a los tradicionales, que conviven con desigualdades territoriales significativas en la cobertura y el acceso a algunos programas asistenciales. Por su parte, la oferta de camas sigue siendo desigual entre las comunidades autónomas (CCAA, particularmente en las dotaciones geriátricas, y más aún en las psiquiátricas. Es notable la desigualdad que conlleva la oferta privada no benéfica en las distintas CCAA. Asimismo, las dotaciones de aparatos de alta tecnología médica (ATM son todavía muy desiguales entre las CCAA, particularmente las más recientes, pero se distribuyen de forma más homogénea que hace 10 años. Las desigualdades territoriales en la oferta de servicios sanitarios, aunque tangibles, son menores que las de los servicios sociosanitarios. Todavía mayor, aunque menos visible, es la desigualdad de utilización y acceso a los servicios sanitarios y sociales que el dispositivo asistencial ofertado. Además, en este ámbito la desigualdad de género se superpone a la de ámbito territorial.This chapter summarizes the main territorial inequalities in health care supply, and the related effects on access and use of health care facilities. Firstly, in the field of primary health care, the most notable inequalities refer to the process of introduction of the reform and to complementary services supply, together with the coverage of and access to some health care programs. Secondly, the distribution of hospital beds across regions is far from being uniform, specially with respect to geriatric and psychiatric beds. In addition, profit oriented private care is unequally distributed across

  19. Heating subsurface formations by oxidizing fuel on a fuel carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello, Michael; Vinegar, Harold J.

    2012-10-02

    A method of heating a portion of a subsurface formation includes drawing fuel on a fuel carrier through an opening formed in the formation. Oxidant is supplied to the fuel at one or more locations in the opening. The fuel is combusted with the oxidant to provide heat to the formation.

  20. Self-organization of port service supply chain based on fractal theory%港口服务分形供应链自组织演化模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林国龙; 杨阳; 胡志华

    2012-01-01

    As service products doint have inventory characteristics, port service supply chain needs to find a general reconstruction model to adapt the environment. The traditional stable supply chain models according to dynamic supply chain models are more suitable because of the change of the market demands. Fractal supply chain with self-similarity, self-organization and self-optimization can make the supply chain's agility and stability balanced better. System dynamic method based on fractal theory is applied on port services supply chain organization, the evolution of port services and supply chain organizations are studied, and the overall competitiveness and internal collaboration capabilities of the port service supply chain are revealed.%服务产品具有无法库存等特征,要求港口服务供应链结构具有自组织的能力.从分形理论的角度出发,研究港口服务供应链的组织过程.通过分形结构研究,找到一种能适应环境和通用的动态供应链组织模式.在港口服务供应链分形结构的基础上,运用系统动力学方法,建立了自组织模型,揭示了港口供应链整体竞争力和内部协作能力对于整个港口供应链结构演化的影响.

  1. Listing of United States companies that supply goods and services for geothermal explorers, developers and producers internationally

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-08-01

    This List is composed solely of US companies with major offices within the United States. All of the companies listed are involved in selling geothermally related goods and services internationally, or have the proven capability to do so. Each specific listing includes the company name, the name or title of the key contact person, address, telephone and if available a facsimile machine or telex number.

  2. Dollar Summary of Federal Supply Classification and Service Category by Company, FY84, Part 1 (1005-2610).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    CONTROLLED ALLOY INC NEW YORK USAF AIRFRAME STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS as CPT CORPORATION PENN NAVY AIRFRAME STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS 32- CRANE CO CALIFORNIA...1730 (CONTINUED) TRUMP INDUSTRIES INC ALABAMA NAVY AIRCRAFT GROUND SERVICING EQUIPMENT $ 02 TURCOTTE MANUFACTURING CO INC MASS USAF AIRCRAFT GROUND...ITEMS 49 NATIONAL STL SHIPBUILDING CO CALIFORNIA NAVY MARINE HARDWARE AND HULL ITEMS 3,503- NON FERROUS METAL INC WASHINGTON NAVY MARINE HARDWARE AND

  3. The MomConnect mHealth initiative in South Africa: Early impact on the supply side of MCH services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Peter; Pillay, Yogan; Fernandes, Antonio; Sebidi, Jane; Allen, Rob

    2016-11-01

    MomConnect is an mHealth initiative giving pregnant women information via SMS. We report on an analysis of the compliments and especially complaints component of the feedback. We scrutinised the electronic databases containing information on the first seventeen months of operation of MomConnect. During this time, 583,929 pregnant women were registered on MomConnect, representing approximately 46 per cent of pregnant women booking their pregnancy in the public sector in South Africa. These women gave feedback on services received: 4173 compliments and 690 complaints. Nearly three quarters (74 per cent) of all complaints were resolved. The complaints were classified into those related to health services (29 per cent), staff (22 per cent), health systems (42 per cent) and other (6 per cent). These complaints were fed back to managers in the health facilities. This has resulted in improvements in the quality of services, e.g. decreased drug stock-outs and change of behaviour of some health workers.

  4. 涉及第三方物流服务质量的供应链协调%Supply Chain Coordination Involving Logistics Service Quality of TPLSP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤建新; 劳水琴

    2012-01-01

    在考虑信息完全共享且需求随机条件下,引入第三方物流服务提供商(third party logistics service provider,TPLSP)在物流运作中出现的货损货差因素,建立了由供应商、TPLSP和分销商组成的三级供应链独立决策模型和集中式决策模型.设计了收益共享契约,通过算例的仿真计算与分析,验证了实际情况中货损货差成本往往由TPLSP独自承担所造成的对TPLSP激励不足的问题.进一步证明了选择恰当的收益分配系数能够使供应链达到帕累托最优,同时也能激励TPLSP为减少货损货差付出努力;并给出了最优订货批量、TPLSP和供应商的协调定价以及收益分配系数的取值范围.%Cargo loss and damage in the logistics operation were introduced under the assumption of random demand and supply chain information being fully shared. An independent decision model and a centralized decision model were established with a supply chain of the supplier, the third party logistics service provider and the distributor. A revenue sharing contract was designed. Simulation and analysis results show the third party logistics service provider undertaking all the cargo loss and damage will result in the providers' insufficient incentives. The Pare to optimization can be realized by selecting proper benefit allotting coefficients, and the third party logistics service provider is therefore encouraged to make efforts to reduce cargo loss and damage. Finally, the paper presents a proposal about the optimal order quantity, prices of the third party logistics service provider and supplier, range of benefit allotting coefficients.

  5. Customer Service Status and Improvement Measures of Power Supply Enterprises%供电企业的客户服务现状及改进措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭嘉亮

    2015-01-01

    The power supply enterprise wants to obtain the sustained development, in the competitive market to gain the superiority, must unceasingly solve the enterprise in the power customer service aspect existence question. Only in this way can meet the needs of power users. Combined with the experience of customer service, this analysis of the existing problems in our country's power customer service is analyzed, and the improvement measures are put forward for reference only.%供电企业要想得到持续发展,在竞争激烈的市场中赢得优势,就必须不断解决企业在电力客户服务方面存在的问题。只有这样,才能满足电力用户的需求。结合客户服务岗位的工作经验,分析了现阶段我国的电力客户服务中普遍存在的问题,并提出了改进措施,仅供参考。

  6. Batteries and fuel cells in the transport sector and stationary energy supply. Current status of the NIP federal market preparation programme and the electromobility model regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelm, Tilman [NOW GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2013-06-01

    Hydrogen and fuel cells as well as batteries are key technologies in the context of achieving climate goals and for the transformation of the energy sector. Their successful commercial introduction requires joint efforts from public and private stakeholders. In a first step R and D and demonstration programs were implemented to accelerate their respective market preparation. The National Innovation Program for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies (NIP) as well as large field tests of battery electric vehicles are ongoing combining technological development with market relevant aspects such as safety or public acceptance. (orig.)

  7. Alternate-Fueled Flight: Halophytes, Algae, Bio-, and Synthetic Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, R. C.

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic and biomass fueling are now considered to be near-term aviation alternate fueling. The major impediment is a secure sustainable supply of these fuels at reasonable cost. However, biomass fueling raises major concerns related to uses of common food crops and grasses (some also called "weeds") for processing into aviation fuels. These issues are addressed, and then halophytes and algae are shown to be better suited as sources of aerospace fuels and transportation fueling in general. Some of the history related to alternate fuels use is provided as a guideline for current and planned alternate fuels testing (ground and flight) with emphasis on biofuel blends. It is also noted that lessons learned from terrestrial fueling are applicable to space missions. These materials represent an update (to 2009) and additions to the Workshop on Alternate Fueling Sustainable Supply and Halophyte Summit at Twinsburg, Ohio, October 17 to 18, 2007.

  8. Coordinating Strategy for Service Supply Chain:Based on Customer Queuing%基于顾客排队的服务供应链协调策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文隆; 刘新梅; 王韬

    2014-01-01

    The current research on the service supply chain is still limited by the traditional product supply chainresearch framework.Research on the characteristics of service is the key topic of service supply chain manage -ment.Based on the unique characteristics that service supply chain is customer -oriented, the relationships amonga service provider, an integrator and customers are analyzed firstly.A customer queuing service supply chainmodel is established secondly.Decision problems under centralized and decentralized service supply chain areexplored thirdly.Results indicate that through choosing reasonable cost sharing coefficient and formulating costsharing contract a service provider and a service integrator are able to achieve the Pareto optimal under decentral -ized service supply chain.The results of this study have certain significance for developing and deepening theservice supply chain research.%现阶段对于服务供应链的研究仍受限于传统产品供应链的研究框架,专门针对服务特性的供应链研究是该领域的核心议题。基于服务供应链面向顾客的独有特性,首先分析了服务供应链中服务提供商、集成商与顾客之间的服务关系,然后构建了基于顾客排队的服务供应链模型,其次探讨了集中式和分散式服务供应链下双方的决策问题。研究结果表明,服务提供商、服务集成商通过选择合理的成本共担系数,制定相应的成本共担契约,是协调分散式服务供应链、实现帕累托最优的最佳策略。研究结论对于开拓和深化服务供应链研究具有一定的启示意义。

  9. Coordination analysis on tourism service supply chain%旅游服务供应链中协调问题分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周泉

    2016-01-01

    The current rapid economic development, tourism has also ushered in a good period of development, tourism relates to food, shelter, transportation, travel, shopping, entertainment composition, the presence of various sectors are not independent of each other and there is a supply contact between the needs of the different nodes of the enterprise need to achieve information sharing and coordinated development, achieve cooperation and colaborative management. This paper analyzes and studies on tourism service supply chain coordination.%当前社会经济快速发展,旅游业也迎来了良好的发展时期,旅游业涉及食、住、行、游、购、娱组成,各行业的存在并不是独立的,彼此间存在着供给与需求之间的联系,不同节点中的企业需要实现信息的共享,协调发展,实现合作,并协同管理。本文就旅游服务供应链中的协调问题进行分析和研究。

  10. 面向文献提供服务的版权管理解决方案*%Solution of Digital Rights Management for Document Supply Service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莉

    2013-01-01

    For the scenario of document supply service in digital libraries, this paper proposes a digital rights management solution D-DOIs. D-DOIs solution is based on the Handle system. It identifies a specific document delivery behavior using D-DOI, combining with the digital watermarking technology and the QR code technology, which can enable the continuous tracking of the dissemination of the digital object.%面向数字图书馆的文献提供服务这一特定应用场景,文章提出基于Handle架构的D-DOIs解决方案,通过对文献传递行为的唯一标识,结合数字水印和二维码技术,实现对数字对象传播的持续追踪。

  11. Low Temperature Properties Of Fuel Mixtures Of Kerosene And Fame Type Used To Supply Turbine Engines In Marine And Other Non-Aeronautical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzięgielewski Wojciech

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A worldwide trend to popularise gradually increasing use of biofuels in various applications was a motivation for gaining interest in FAME as a commonly available biocomponent to fuels combusted in turbine engines. These engines are mainly used in aeronautics, but many of them are also used in other, non-aeronautical areas, including marine navigation. Specific conditions in which fuels are combusted in turbine engines used in these applications are the reason why fuel mixtures of kerosene and FAME type should reveal relevant low temperature characteristics. The article presents results of tests of low temperature properties of mixtures of the jet fuel Jet A-1 and methyl esters of higher fatty acids (FAME. The prepared mixtures contained different contents of FAME. The obtained results present changes of: viscosity, cloud point, pour point, crystallising point, and cold filter plugging point, depending on the percentage by volume of FAME. They also prove that the course of changes of low temperature properties of these mixtures is affected by chemical structure of the biocomponent.

  12. Competition Issues and Inherently Governmental Functions Performed by Contractor Employees on Contracts to Supply Fuel to U.S. Troops in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    storage, and testing costs. lOTC proVided several reasons for its offer bein well above DLA · In order to further analyze [QTC’s $2.10 unit price, the...ln fact, prior to 2004, the Pcntaeon had imported fUel directly lhrouah Iordlll without bein & roquircd to obtain a letter of authorization from the

  13. Comparison of the socioeconomic impacts of international fuel service centers versus dispersed nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braid, Jr., R. B.

    1979-01-01

    The paper investigates a variety of community impacts including: public services, fiscal issues, economic matters, land and water use, political and social cohesion, and legal considerations. Comparisons of socioeconomic impacts of colocated versus dispersed sites are made on the basis of the size of the impacted communities, the size and type of nuclear facility, and the facility's construction time frame. The paper concludes that, under similar circumstances, most of the socioeconomic impacts of colocated nuclear facilities would be somewhat less than the sum of the impacts associated with equivalent dispersed sites. While empirical data is non-existent, the paper contends, however, that because the socioeconomic impacts of colocated facilities are so great and readily identifiable to a public unskilled in making comparisons with the dispersed alternative, the facilities will likely generate so much public opposition that IFSCs will probably prove infeasible.

  14. A technique for determining the optimum mix of logistics service providers of a make-to-order supply chain by formulating and solving a constrained nonlinear cost optimization problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrityunjoy Roy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a technique has been developed to determine the optimum mix of logistic service providers of a make-to-order (MTO supply chain. A serial MTO supply chain with different stages/ processes has been considered. For each stage different logistic service providers with different mean processing lead times, but same lead time variances are available. A realistic assumption that for each stage, the logistic service provider who charges more for his service consumes less processing lead time and vice-versa has been made in our study. Thus for each stage, for each service provider, a combination of cost and mean processing lead time is available. Using these combinations, for each stage, a polynomial curve, expressing cost of that stage as a function of mean processing lead time is fit. Cumulating all such expressions of cost for the different stages along with incorporation of suitable constraints arising out of timely delivery, results in the formulation of a constrained nonlinear cost optimization problem. On solving the problem using mathematica, optimum processing lead time for each stage is obtained. Using these optimum processing lead times and by employing a simple technique the optimum logistic service provider mix of the supply chain along with the corresponding total cost of processing is determined. Finally to examine the effect of changes in different parameters on the optimum total processing cost of the supply chain, sensitivity analysis has been carried out graphically.

  15. Research on performance evaluation in logistics service supply chain based on gray analytic hierarchy process%基于灰色AHP的物流服务供应链绩效评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪霖; 王伟鑫

    2011-01-01

    Logistics service supply chain that is a core of the logistics service integration business is a new-type supply chain.It can provide the flexible logistics service and guarantee logistics operation of the product supply chain.As the logistics supply chain is a very complex system,a performance evaluation of logistics service supply chain which based on gray level analysis is proposed.The method takes into account the target classification of the different views of experts.Subjectivi-ty and one-sidedness of the evaluator and difficulty to decide the result are avoided.An integration logistics supply chain of a vehicle factory in Chongqing as an example,the factors of logistics service supply chain performance are evaluated.%物流服务供应链是以物流服务集成商为核心,通过提供柔性化的物流服务,保证产品供应链物流运作的一种新型供应链.由于物流服务供应链是一个十分复杂的系统,在此提出了基于灰色层次分析法的物流服务供应链绩效评价方法,综合考虑不同专家对指标分类的意见,避免评估者评价时的主观性、片面性以及决策者对评估结果难做决断的现象.结合重庆某整车厂整合汽车物流供应链为例,对影响物流服务供应链绩效的因素进行了评价.

  16. Nuclear reactors and fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    The Nuclear Fuel Center (CCN) of IPEN produces nuclear fuel for the continuous operation of the IEA-R1 research reactor of IPEN. The serial production started in 1988, when the first nuclear fuel element was delivered for IEA-R1. In 2011, CCN proudly presents the 100{sup th} nuclear fuel element produced. Besides routine production, development of new technologies is also a permanent concern at CCN. In 2005, U{sub 3}O{sub 8} were replaced by U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-based fuels, and the research of U Mo is currently under investigation. Additionally, the Brazilian Multipurpose Research Reactor (RMB), whose project will rely on the CCN for supplying fuel and uranium targets. Evolving from an annual production from 10 to 70 nuclear fuel elements, plus a thousand uranium targets, is a huge and challenging task. To accomplish it, a new and modern Nuclear Fuel Factory is being concluded, and it will provide not only structure for scaling up, but also a safer and greener production. The Nuclear Engineering Center has shown, along several years, expertise in the field of nuclear, energy systems and correlated areas. Due to the experience obtained during decades in research and technological development at Brazilian Nuclear Program, personnel has been trained and started to actively participate in design of the main system that will compose the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) which will make Brazil self-sufficient in production of radiopharmaceuticals. The institution has participated in the monitoring and technical support concerning the safety, licensing and modernization of the research reactors IPEN/MB-01 and IEA-R1. Along the last two decades, numerous specialized services of engineering for the Brazilian nuclear power plants Angra 1 and Angra 2 have been carried out. The contribution in service, research, training, and teaching in addition to the development of many related technologies applied to nuclear engineering and correlated areas enable the institution to

  17. Restoration enhances wetland biodiversity and ecosystem service supply, but results are context-dependent: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meli, Paula; Rey Benayas, José María; Balvanera, Patricia; Martínez Ramos, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Wetlands are valuable ecosystems because they harbor a huge biodiversity and provide key services to societies. When natural or human factors degrade wetlands, ecological restoration is often carried out to recover biodiversity and ecosystem services (ES). Although such restorations are routinely performed, we lack systematic, evidence-based assessments of their effectiveness on the recovery of biodiversity and ES. Here we performed a meta-analysis of 70 experimental studies in order to assess the effectiveness of ecological restoration and identify what factors affect it. We compared selected ecosystem performance variables between degraded and restored wetlands and between restored and natural wetlands using response ratios and random-effects categorical modeling. We assessed how context factors such as ecosystem type, main agent of degradation, restoration action, experimental design, and restoration age influenced post-restoration biodiversity and ES. Biodiversity showed excellent recovery, though the precise recovery depended strongly on the type of organisms involved. Restored wetlands showed 36% higher levels of provisioning, regulating and supporting ES than did degraded wetlands. In fact, wetlands showed levels of provisioning and cultural ES similar to those of natural wetlands; however, their levels of supporting and regulating ES were, respectively, 16% and 22% lower than in natural wetlands. Recovery of biodiversity and of ES were positively correlated, indicating a win-win restoration outcome. The extent to which restoration increased biodiversity and ES in degraded wetlands depended primarily on the main agent of degradation, restoration actions, experimental design, and ecosystem type. In contrast, the choice of specific restoration actions alone explained most differences between restored and natural wetlands. These results highlight the importance of comprehensive, multi-factorial assessment to determine the ecological status of degraded, restored

  18. 基于服务能力的物流供应链协同运作研究%Based on collaborative operation of the logistics supply chain service capabilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付新宇

    2015-01-01

    The essence of logistic s is supply chain,and this supply chain service capabilities prerequisite for cooperation, which is the core of the service provider of logistics integrators, efficient use of resources together to achieve coordinated operation of supply chain logistics service system, to obtain excess interest.%物流服务的本质就是一种供应链,而这种供应链以服务能力为合作的前提,其中核心的服务提供者就是物流集成商,对资源进行有效利用,共同实现供应链物流服务系统的协同运作,获取超额利益。

  19. The Relevant Effects of Customer Knowledge among Internal Enterprises in Service Supply Chain%服务供应链中内部企业知识的关联性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻立

    2012-01-01

    对服务供应链的运作特点进行研究,在明确服务供应链的内部企业知识构成的基础上,运用结构方程模型揭示服务供应链内部企业知识的相互作用关系.%This paper studied the operation characteristics of service supply chain. Based on the clear understanding about the constitutive components of internal enterprises knowledge in service supply chain, the paper adopted Structural Equation Models to uncover the relevant effects and influence of knowledge interaction among internal enterprises in service supply chain.

  20. Evaluating the hydrological functioning and the supply of water provisioning services to support the ecosystem-water-food-energy nexus in the Arno river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacetti, Tommaso; Willaarts, Barbara; Caporali, Enrica; Schroeder Esselbach, Boris

    2017-04-01

    Water, flowing in a basin, underpins key provisioning ecosystem services like freshwater supply, food and energy production. River basin management largely determines the type of water-related ecosystem services (WES) that are provided and the extent to which trade-offs and synergies might arise. Gaining insights on the ecohydrological behavior of a basin and on the conflicting anthropic pressures on the available water resources allows to identify the most important WES, as well as the existence of WES supply and demand hotspots. This information is crucial for water resources management and, in the context of the European Union, also required to comply with the requirements of the Water Framework Directive (WFD). The purpose of this research is to quantify the provisioning WES in the upstream part of the Arno river basin (Central Italy) and identify WES hotspots and fluxes. Current information on how water is allocated in the Arno basin remains scarce, despite the increasing water demand by some sectors, particularly irrigation, and a number of emerging conflicts among users. It is expected that research outputs can support the improvement of the existing management framework, moving from the classical DPSIR (Driving forces, Pressure, State, Impact e Response) approach, where impacts must be reduced or mitigated, to a more proactive framework to support the sustainability of the Arno basin and meet the different policy goals. The eco-hydrological model SWAT (Soil Water Assessment Tool) is applied to spatially quantify the provision of WES. The preliminary results of this research indicate that the highest amount of water yield, i.e. net amount of water that contributes to streamflow and represents the main blue water fund, originates in the northern part of the basin, characterized by forest areas. In contrast, the southern part of the basin, which is mainly agriculturally used, gives a minor contribution to the overall water yield, in direct proportion to the

  1. Determination of consumption biogenic solid fuels in the commercial sector, trade, services (tertiary sector). Final report; Ermittlung des Verbrauchs biogener Festbrennstoffe im Sektor Gewerbe, Handel, Dienstleistungen (GHD-Sektor). Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viehmann, Cornelia; Westerkamp, Tanja; Schwenker, Andre; Schenker, Marian; Thraen, Daniela; Lenz, Volker [DBFZ Deutsches BiomasseForschungsZentrum gemeinnuetzige GmbH, Leipzig (Germany); Ebert, Marcel [Leipziger Institut fuer Energie GmbH (Ireland), Leipzig (DE)

    2012-07-01

    The policy has both national and European level ambitious program aimed at expansion of renewable energy and related to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. In the national action plan for renewable energy of the Federal Republic of Germany these goals are defined by 2020. The share of renewable energy in the provision of heat and cold should therefore rise from 6.6% to 15.5% of gross final energy consumption. According to the increasing importance of solar-thermal, near-surface and geothermal heat, the relative share of biomass is decreasing. However biomass makes with those listed in the national action plan with 79% an essential amount in regenerative heat market [BMU 2010]. For the pursuit of goals and reviews, the support measures and packages of measures which are initiated in this context, a regular and timely reporting on the development of the above objectives is mandatory. The diverse and growing reporting requirements such as in the EU directive on the promotion of renewable energy, require, however well-founded knowledge of the sector-specific energy consumption from renewable sources. While the data available for use of biogenic solid fuels in the sectors household and industry has improved significantly in recent years, for the sector commercial sector, trade, services (tertiary sector) reliable figures are still lacking. Against this background, the objective is to present study, in close cooperation with the Federal Environment Agency (UBA), the determination of the final energy consumption biogenic solid fuels in the tertiary sector in Germany for the year 2008. The basis is, in addition to the development of the current knowledge of the energy and heat consumption, the delimitation and characterization of the sector and the development of an extrapolation tools. The demand for this tool is its expandability and update possibility. From the industry-nonspecific and industry-specific input data can be derived, collecting for the extrapolation

  2. An examination of the factors fueling migration amongst Community Service practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candice Reardon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research is needed in order to understand the potential influence of the Bilateral Agreement between South Africa and the United Kingdom (UK, as well as other more recent international and local policies restricting movement of South African health workers abroad; and to determine what effect they have on the migration intentions and plans of health professionals in South Africa.Aim: The aims were to (1 explore the migration intentions and the factors that influence these intentions amongst Community Service (CS nurses and doctors; (2 explore their views and opinions about the Bilateral Agreement between the UK and South Africa (SA and other UK policies around the recruitment and employment of foreign health professionals; and (3 understand the impact of these policies on the migration plans of these CS doctors and nurses.Method: Qualitative focus groups and interviews were conducted with 23 CS doctors and nurses. To supplement this, 6 interviews were conducted with nurses and a doctor who had worked in the UK.Results: A higher disposition toward moving abroad was apparent amongst those who had experienced a challenging and frustrating CS year. Poor working conditions, including long work hours, high patient loads and inadequate resources and equipment, as well as low salaries and the perceived ambivalence of the government to the complaints of health practitioners, were influencing decisions to migrate abroad.Conclusion: The findings suggest that government efforts to better manage, recognise and respect the work and contribution of health professionals to the country would go a long way toward retaining health professionals.

  3. An examination of the factors fueling migration amongst Community Service practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candice Reardon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research is needed in order to understand the potential influence of the Bilateral Agreement between South Africa and the United Kingdom (UK, as well as other more recent international and local policies restricting movement of South African health workers abroad; and to determine what effect they have on the migration intentions and plans of health professionals in South Africa.Aim: The aims were to (1 explore the migration intentions and the factors that influence these intentions amongst Community Service (CS nurses and doctors; (2 explore their views and opinions about the Bilateral Agreement between the UK and South Africa (SA and other UK policies around the recruitment and employment of foreign health professionals; and (3 understand the impact of these policies on the migration plans of these CS doctors and nurses.Method: Qualitative focus groups and interviews were conducted with 23 CS doctors and nurses. To supplement this, 6 interviews were conducted with nurses and a doctor who had worked in the UK.Results: A higher disposition toward moving abroad was apparent amongst those who had experienced a challenging and frustrating CS year. Poor working conditions, including long work hours, high patient loads and inadequate resources and equipment, as well as low salaries and the perceived ambivalence of the government to the complaints of health practitioners, were influencing decisions to migrate abroad.Conclusion: The findings suggest that government efforts to better manage, recognise and respect the work and contribution of health professionals to the country would go a long way toward retaining health professionals.

  4. Can Ketones Help Rescue Brain Fuel Supply in Later Life? Implications for Cognitive Health during Aging and the Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunnane, Stephen C; Courchesne-Loyer, Alexandre; Vandenberghe, Camille; St-Pierre, Valérie; Fortier, Mélanie; Hennebelle, Marie; Croteau, Etienne; Bocti, Christian; Fulop, Tamas; Castellano, Christian-Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    We propose that brain energy deficit is an important pre-symptomatic feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) that requires closer attention in the development of AD therapeutics. Our rationale is fourfold: (i) Glucose uptake is lower in the frontal cortex of people >65 years-old despite cognitive scores that are normal for age. (ii) The regional deficit in brain glucose uptake is present in adults brain glucose uptake is impaired in AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), but brain uptake of ketones (beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate), remains the same in AD and MCI as in cognitively healthy age-matched controls. These observations point to a brain fuel deficit which appears to be specific to glucose, precedes cognitive decline associated with AD, and becomes more severe as MCI progresses toward AD. Since glucose is the brain's main fuel, we suggest that gradual brain glucose exhaustion is contributing significantly to the onset or progression of AD. (iv) Interventions that raise ketone availability to the brain improve cognitive outcomes in both MCI and AD as well as in acute experimental hypoglycemia. Ketones are the brain's main alternative fuel to glucose and brain ketone uptake is still normal in MCI and in early AD, which would help explain why ketogenic interventions improve some cognitive outcomes in MCI and AD. We suggest that the brain energy deficit needs to be overcome in order to successfully develop more effective therapeutics for AD. At present, oral ketogenic supplements are the most promising means of achieving this goal.

  5. Polygeneration smart grids. A solution for the supply of electricity, potable water and hydrogen as fuel for transportation in remote areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyriakarakos, George; Mohamed, Essam S.; Papadakis, George [Agricultural Univ. of Athens (Greece). Dept. of Natural Resources and Agricultural Engineering

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents the concept of polygeneration smart grids along with experimental results taken during winter 2009-2010 of a pilot polygeneration smart grid focusing on the evolution of the control strategy. In this smart grid the energy of the sun and the wind is harvested by photovoltaic panels and a wind turbine. The system products are electrical energy, potable water through desalination and hydrogen as both medium term energy storage and transportation fuel. Potable water is also used as seasonal energy storage. The components of the system include PV, a wind turbine, batteries, a PEM fuel cell, a PEM electrolyzer, metal hydride tank, hydrogen vehicle refueling subsystem, reverse osmosis desalination unit, data logging system and a control system. Two different controllers have been developed and tested for this smart grid; an ON/OFF controller which operates the electrolyzer, fuel cell and desalination unit at preset points and a fuzzy logic controller which allows for part load operation. The system is installed at the Agricultural University of Athens and the experimental process is ongoing. (orig.)

  6. Fuel flexible fuel injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuthill, Richard S; Davis, Dustin W; Dai, Zhongtao

    2015-02-03

    A disclosed fuel injector provides mixing of fuel with airflow by surrounding a swirled fuel flow with first and second swirled airflows that ensures mixing prior to or upon entering the combustion chamber. Fuel tubes produce a central fuel flow along with a central airflow through a plurality of openings to generate the high velocity fuel/air mixture along the axis of the fuel injector in addition to the swirled fuel/air mixture.

  7. Supply Chain Sustainability Analysis of Renewable Hydrocarbon Fuels via Indirect Liquefaction, Fast Pyrolysis, and Hydrothermal Liquefaction: Update of the 2016 State-of-Technology Cases and Design Cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Hao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States; Dunn, Jennifer [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States; Pegallapati, Ambica [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States; Li, Qianfeng [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States; Canter, Christina [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States; Tan, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Biddy, Mary [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Davis, Ryan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Markham, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Talmadge, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hartley, Damon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Thompson, David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Meyer, Pimphan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhu, Yunhua [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Snowden-Swan, Lesley [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jones, Susanne [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) aims to develop and deploy technologies to transform renewable biomass resources into commercially viable, high-performance biofuels, bioproducts and biopower through public and private partnerships (DOE, 2016). BETO and its national laboratory teams conduct in-depth technoeconomic assessments (TEA) of biomass feedstock supply and logistics and conversion technologies to produce biofuels, and life-cycle analysis of overall system sustainability.

  8. The EASTR Study: indications for transfusion and estimates of transfusion recipient numbers in hospitals supplied by the National Blood Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, A W; Llewelyn, C A; Casbard, A; Johnson, A J; Amin, M; Ballard, S; Buck, J; Malfroy, M; Murphy, M F; Williamson, L M

    2009-12-01

    This study provides data on National Blood Service (NBS) red blood cell (RBC, n = 9142), platelet (PLT, n = 4232) and fresh frozen plasma (FFP, n = 3584) recipients independently sampled by monthly quota from 29 representative hospitals over 12 months in 2001-2002. Hospitals were stratified by size according to total yearly RBC issues. Transfusion indications were chosen from diagnostic and procedural codes, and recipients grouped into Epidemiology and Survival of Transfusion Recipients Case-mix Groups (E-CMGs). The main E-CMGs were digestive [19% of RBC recipients; including 5% gastrointestinal (GI) bleeds and 3% colorectal surgery], musculoskeletal (15%; 12% hip and knee replacement), haematology (13%) and obstetrics and gynaecology (10%). Renal failure, fractured neck of femur, cardiac artery by-pass grafting (CABG) and paediatrics, each accounted for 3-4% recipients. FFP recipients: the main E-CMGs were digestive (21% of FFP recipients; including 7% GI bleeds and 3% colorectal surgery), hepatobiliary (15%; 7% liver disease and 2% liver transplant), cardiac (12%) and paediatrics (9%) The renal, paediatrics, vascular and haematology E-CMGs each had 6-7% of recipients. PLT recipients: the main E-CMGs were haematology (27% of PLT recipients; including 9% lymphoma and 8% acute leukaemia), cardiac (17%), paediatrics (13%), hepatobiliary (10%) and digestive (9%). Back-weighting gave national estimates of 433 000 RBC, 57 500 FFP and 41 500 PLT recipients/year in England and North Wales, median age 69, 64 and 59 years, respectively. Digestive and hepatobiliary indications emerged as the top reason for transfusion in RBC and FFP recipients, and was also a frequent indication in PLT recipients.

  9. Fuel processors for fuel cell APU applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aicher, T.; Lenz, B.; Gschnell, F.; Groos, U.; Federici, F.; Caprile, L.; Parodi, L.

    The conversion of liquid hydrocarbons to a hydrogen rich product gas is a central process step in fuel processors for auxiliary power units (APUs) for vehicles of all kinds. The selection of the reforming process depends on the fuel and the type of the fuel cell. For vehicle power trains, liquid hydrocarbons like gasoline, kerosene, and diesel are utilized and, therefore, they will also be the fuel for the respective APU systems. The fuel cells commonly envisioned for mobile APU applications are molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC), solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), and proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). Since high-temperature fuel cells, e.g. MCFCs or SOFCs, can be supplied with a feed gas that contains carbon monoxide (CO) their fuel processor does not require reactors for CO reduction and removal. For PEMFCs on the other hand, CO concentrations in the feed gas must not exceed 50 ppm, better 20 ppm, which requires additional reactors downstream of the reforming reactor. This paper gives an overview of the current state of the fuel processor development for APU applications and APU system developments. Furthermore, it will present the latest developments at Fraunhofer ISE regarding fuel processors for high-temperature fuel cell APU systems on board of ships and aircrafts.

  10. DOE perspective on fuel cells in transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kost, R.

    1996-04-01

    Fuel cells are one of the most promising technologies for meeting the rapidly growing demand for transportation services while minimizing adverse energy and environmental impacts. This paper reviews the benefits of introducing fuel cells into the transportation sector; in addition to dramatically reduced vehicle emissions, fuel cells offer the flexibility than use petroleum-based or alternative fuels, have significantly greater energy efficiency than internal combustion engines, and greatly reduce noise levels during operation. The rationale leading to the emphasis on proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells for transportation applications is reviewed as are the development issues requiring resolution to achieve adequate performance, packaging, and cost for use in automobiles. Technical targets for power density, specific power, platinum loading on the electrodes, cost, and other factors that become increasingly more demanding over time have been established. Fuel choice issues and pathways to reduced costs and to a renewable energy future are explored. One such path initially introduces fuel cell vehicles using reformed gasoline while-on-board hydrogen storage technology is developed to the point of allowing adequate range (350 miles) and refueling convenience. This scenario also allows time for renewable hydrogen production technologies and the required supply infrastructure to develop. Finally, the DOE Fuel Cells in Transportation program is described. The program, whose goal is to establish the technology for fuel cell vehicles as rapidly as possible, is being implemented by means of the United States Fuel Cell Alliance, a Government-industry alliance that includes Detroit`s Big Three automakers, fuel cell and other component suppliers, the national laboratories, and universities.

  11. Coordination of Revenue Sharing Contract in Service Supply Chains with Incentive Mechanism%激励机制下服务供应链的收益分享契约协调性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞海宏; 刘南

    2011-01-01

    As the comprehensive service provider operational modes such as the fourth party logistics, financial service package experts and so on rise, the operation optimization problem of the service supply chain attracts great concern. Based on revenue sharing contract trading environment, this paper constructs a pure service two-echelon structure and analyses the service supply chain's incentive mechanism and coordination mechanism, Based on the analysis, this paper claims that in order to optimize the it's benefits service supply chain calls for the service provider to implement incentive mechanism on service supplier; and service supply chains based on revenue sharing contract can also realize coordination, and has good flexibility of the profit distribution.%随着第四方物流、一揽子金融服务专家等综合服务提供商运作模式的兴起,服务供应链的运作优化问题备受关注.本文基于收益分享契约的交易环境,构建了一个纯服务的两级供应链结构,分析了服务供应链的激励机制和协调机制.分析得出,服务供应链为了实现效益最优化,需要综合服务提供商向专业服务供应商实施努力激励;收益分享契约下含有激励机制的服务供应链能够实现协调,而且拥有良好的利润分配柔性.

  12. Can Ketones Help Rescue Brain Fuel Supply in Later Life? Implications for Cognitive Health during Aging and the Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunnane, Stephen C.; Courchesne-Loyer, Alexandre; Vandenberghe, Camille; St-Pierre, Valérie; Fortier, Mélanie; Hennebelle, Marie; Croteau, Etienne; Bocti, Christian; Fulop, Tamas; Castellano, Christian-Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    We propose that brain energy deficit is an important pre-symptomatic feature of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) that requires closer attention in the development of AD therapeutics. Our rationale is fourfold: (i) Glucose uptake is lower in the frontal cortex of people >65 years-old despite cognitive scores that are normal for age. (ii) The regional deficit in brain glucose uptake is present in adults brain glucose uptake is impaired in AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), but brain uptake of ketones (beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate), remains the same in AD and MCI as in cognitively healthy age-matched controls. These observations point to a brain fuel deficit which appears to be specific to glucose, precedes cognitive decline associated with AD, and becomes more severe as MCI progresses toward AD. Since glucose is the brain’s main fuel, we suggest that gradual brain glucose exhaustion is contributing significantly to the onset or progression of AD. (iv) Interventions that raise ketone availability to the brain improve cognitive outcomes in both MCI and AD as well as in acute experimental hypoglycemia. Ketones are the brain’s main alternative fuel to glucose and brain ketone uptake is still normal in MCI and in early AD, which would help explain why ketogenic interventions improve some cognitive outcomes in MCI and AD. We suggest that the brain energy deficit needs to be overcome in order to successfully develop more effective therapeutics for AD. At present, oral ketogenic supplements are the most promising means of achieving this goal. PMID:27458340

  13. Collaborative Optimization of a Supply Chain for Emergency Rescue Services under Sudden Incidents%突发事件下应急救援服务供应链的协同优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何新华

    2013-01-01

    Supply chains of Emergency rescue services under sudden incidents are the core of the emergency management structure,whose collaborative optimization is the key to emergency security system.This paper combines the characteristics of emergency rescue services and emergency management,and finds out those management principles based on methodologies of collaborative network and service supply chain.Then an elementary method for designing collaborative optimization models of emergency rescue services supply chain is presented from discussion of profit requirements and collaborative endeavor levels of all participants in emergency rescue services supply chain.A collaborative optimization model of emergency rescue services supply chain is developed,and numerical analysis reveals that the ultimate goal of collaborative service operation is to maximize satisfaction of requirements of emergency services within reasonable cost of integrated operation and prompt response to emergency service demanders when emergency accidents happen,and it will achieve the maximum of overall beneficial results in the emergency rescue service supply chain.%本文注重结合应急救援服务供应链和应急管理的特点,基于协同网络和服务供应链各方找出其中的规律进行分析;并依据应急救援服务供应链各方之间利润需求和协同努力程度及协同关系的不同,提出了应急救援服务供应链协同优化模型的基本设计思路;通过构建应急救援服务供应链协同优化模型和数值分析,得出其服务运作协同的最终目的是在合理的集成运作成本条件下,快速响应突发事件下的需求者,最大限度地满足应急服务需求,从而实现应急救援服务供应链整体效益的最大化.

  14. Decision-Making for Supply Chain Integration Supply Chain Integration

    CERN Document Server

    Lettice, Fiona; Durowoju, Olatunde

    2012-01-01

    Effective supply chain integration, and the tight co-ordination it creates, is an essential pre-requisite for successful supply chain management.  Decision-Making for Supply Chain Integration is a practical reference on recent research in the area of supply chain integration focusing on distributed decision-making problems. Recent applications of various decision-making tools for integrating supply chains are covered including chapters focusing on: •Supplier selection, pricing strategy and inventory decisions in multi-level supply chains, •RFID-enabled distributed decision-making, •Operational risk issues and time-critical decision-making for sensitive logistics nodes, Modelling end to end processes to improve supply chain integration, and •Integrated systems to improve service delivery and optimize resource use. Decision-Making for Supply Chain Integration provides an insight into the tools and methodologies of this field with support from real-life case studies demonstrating successful application ...

  15. Are Solar Fuels Sustainable?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwese, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Summary The combined problems of too little fossil fuels to supply the world’s future energy needs and the possible negative environmental effects of carbon dioxide emissions which are coupled to their usage has led to the development of fuels based on s

  16. Are Solar Fuels Sustainable?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwese, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Summary The combined problems of too little fossil fuels to supply the world’s future energy needs and the possible negative environmental effects of carbon dioxide emissions which are coupled to their usage has led to the development of fuels based on s

  17. 48 CFR 908.1170 - Leasing of fuel-efficient vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Leasing of fuel-efficient vehicles. 908.1170 Section 908.1170 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPETITION ACQUISITION PLANNING REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Leasing of Motor Vehicles 908.1170 Leasing...

  18. Fuel cells and virtual power plants. Aspects of environmental and technology policy regarding an efficient energy supply for buildings; Brennstoffzellen und virtuelle Kraftwerke. Energie-, umwelt- und technologiepolitische Aspekte einer effizienten Hausenergieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droste-Franke, Bert [Europaeische Akademie GmbH, Neuenahr-Ahrweiler (Germany); Berg, Holger; Koetter, Annette; Krueger, Joerg; Mause, Karsten; Pielow, Johann-Christian; Romey, Ingo; Ziesemer, Thomas

    2009-07-01

    The possibilities of making sustainable use of available energy resources are currently a much-discussed topic. One instance of this are sustainable energy supply systems for buildings. Fuel cells in mini power plants which can be used in place of a heating system are an option to this end. When coupled and steered in a coordinated manner fuel cells function as virtual power plants which can be operated according to demand to cover the base load as well as peaks in demand. The present study points out ways of making sustainable use of two technologies for energy supply systems for buildings: the fuel cell and the virtual power plant. To begin with it compares competitor technologies, points out distortions of competition and analyses framework conditions. Taking this as a point of departure it elaborates strategies for the removal of innovation barriers and gives recommendations for action for dealing with these technologies in the realms of environmental, energy and technology policy. Amongst other things the authors identify challenges involved in designing technology promotion schemes, developing additional profit sources, avoiding the abuse of market power and creating a legal framework for the use of these technologies. This interdisciplinary research study brings together aspects from the fields of energy technology, technology assessment, political science, economics and jurisprudence. It is intended for readers from the realms of science, politics, the energy industry and the interested layperson. [German] Die nachhaltige Nutzung verfuegbarer Energieressourcen, deren Moeglichkeiten derzeit viel diskutiert werden, beinhaltet auch eine zukunftsfaehige Hausenergieversorgung. Eine Option dafuer stellen Brennstoffzellen in Minikraftwerken als Heizungsersatz dar, mit denen bei einer koordinierten Kopplung und Steuerung in sogenannten Virtuellen Kraftwerken durch bedarfsgerechte Fahrweise neben einer Grundversorgung auch Nachfragespitzen abgedeckt werden koennen

  19. A Research on Knowledge Services of Supply Chain Members Based on Lean Thinking%精益思想视域下的供应链成员知识服务研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚伟; 张自豪; 佟泽华

    2015-01-01

    基于精益思想的视角,采用文献分析方法,对供应链成员知识服务研究现状进行梳理,对成员知识服务存在的问题进行剖析。针对相应问题,将知识服务流程归纳为需求表征、知识集成、知识融合及显性化、知识服务反馈4个环节,并将精益思想融入供应链成员知识服务中,构建了成员知识服务的精益模型,设计了“宏观链—微观环”的组合方式,并提出了实施策略,即知识需求确定,知识流分析,知识产品价值拉动和服务过程优化。%Based on the perspective of Lean Thinking , using the method of literature analysis , and com-bing the research status of the knowledge services in supply chain members , the issues of the knowledge services in supply chain members are analyzed .In accordance with the corresponding problems , knowl-edge services processes , which can be summed up as demand representation , knowledge integration , knowledge fusion and externalization , knowledge services feedback , and lean thinking , are incorporated into the knowledge services in supply chain members .Then a lean model of the knowledge services in sup-ply chain members is built , a“macro-chain-micro-ring” combination designed , and the corresponding im-plementation strategy put forward which includes the requirements definition , knowledge flow analysis , knowledge product value driving and service process optimization .

  20. [The status quo and future prospects of emergency medical service systems in Japan in view of the tight supply-demand situation for medical resources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aruga, Tohru

    2016-02-01

    Considering the tight supply-demand situation for medical resources contributing to emergency medical service(EMS) systems at present and in the future in Japan, the author has explained the present states and future prospects of EMS systems in our country. EMS in remote places in this country is now consisting of the concentration of limited human resources, and is therefore suggestive of the EMS systems in the future, because we will have to deal with the possible exhaustion of EMS in our superannuated society progressing now and in the future. And also EMS systems will have to be maintained in the future with concerted efforts of all the medical staffs. The transferring the medical doctors' tasks to those of nurses and other staffs, that is to say the task shifting has just authorized by recent laws, and so the task shifting will be useful in the future EMS systems performed by all kinds of medical workers, in whom general physicians will be included as they are to be distributed throughout this country in the future.

  1. Costs of integrating demand-based reproductive health commodity model into the Government and NGO service delivery systems in Bangladesh: a supply side perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Ziaul; Sarker, Abdur Razzaque; Anwar, Shahela; Kabir, Humayun; Gazi, Rukhsana

    2015-01-01

    To estimate additional total cost and average cost of integrating the demand-based reproductive health commodity model into the existing Government and NGO facilities in Bangladesh. Activity based cost analysis was conducted during 2006-2008 in two low performing rural sub-districts (Nabigong and Raipur sub-district) and one urban slum area in Dhaka city, Bangladesh. Activity-based cost data were collected using ingredient approach, which comprised of listing all types of inputs by activity, quantities and prices for each input. Total cost was presented according to capital and recurrent items. The supply side perspective was considered for entire analysis. The total cost of integrating demand-based reproductive health commodity (DBRHC) model into the Government and NGO service delivery system was estimated to BDT 18,667,634 (US$274,524). The proportion of capital cost was 59 % and the recurrent cost was 41 % of the total cost. The average cost per beneficiaries was BDT 230 (US$3.38) only for introducing this model into the existing health system. The built-in interventions of DBRHC model were doable at low-cost at the selected Government and NGO settings at the grass-root level. The model has potential of further cost containment during scaling up-if the intervention costs are adjusted with the existing functionaries of the Government and NGOs.

  2. Pulverized fuel-oxygen burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Curtis; Patterson, Brad; Perdue, Jayson

    2017-09-05

    A burner assembly combines oxygen and fuel to produce a flame. The burner assembly includes an oxygen supply tube adapted to receive a stream of oxygen and a solid fuel conduit arranged to extend through the oxygen tube to convey a stream of fluidized, pulverized, solid fuel into a flame chamber. Oxygen flowing through the oxygen supply tube passes generally tangentially through a first set of oxygen-injection holes formed in the solid fuel conduit and off-tangentially from a second set of oxygen-injection holes formed in the solid fuel conduit and then mixes with fluidized, pulverized, solid fuel passing through the solid fuel conduit to create an oxygen-fuel mixture in a downstream portion of the solid fuel conduit. This mixture is discharged into a flame chamber and ignited in the flame chamber to produce a flame.

  3. The EURATOM Supply Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lightner, J.

    1989-11-01

    With the coming liberalization of trade and industry within the European Community (EC) and a more centrally-coordinated EC external trade policy, it is timely to ask if in the 1990s there will be any significant changes in the commercial relations between the EC and non-EC companies trading in nuclear fuel. The key vehicle for implementing any change of policy would probably be the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) Supply Agency in Brussels, which is charged under the EURATOM Treaty with overseeing the equitable supply of nuclear fuel to and among EC companies. The EURATOM Supply Agency (the Agency) is a signatory to almost all EC-company contracts for transactions that occur on the territory of the Community, which includes Belgium, Denmark, France, the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), Great Britain, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain. During the 1980s, the Supply Agency has rarely tried to influence the commercial decisions of EC member companies. The nuclear fuel industry has largely perceived the Agency as an administrative office that registers contracts and maintains relations with some outside governments, particularly Australia, Canada, and the USA. However, in 1988 the Agency began to have a more direct commercial impact when it reviewed the practice-previously conducted routinely by the EURATOM Safeguards Directorate in Luxembourg at the request of EC-member companies-of swapping safeguards obligations on equivalent quantities of uranium at different locations (flag swapping). The Agency`s actions inhibiting flag swaps, as well as a related de facto policy restricting material swaps of Southern African uranium, caused it to be viewed as obstructive by some EC companies. During 1989 the discussion about flag swaps and swaps involving South African and Namibian uranium has subsided, and a far-reaching discussion has arisen about EC trade policy in general.

  4. Photo series for quantifying fuels and assessing fire risk in giant sequoia groves. Forest Service general technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weise, D.R.; Gelobter, A.; Haase, S.M.; Sackett, S.S.

    1997-03-01

    Fuels and stand inventory data are presented for giant sequoia by using 18 different photos located in giant sequoia/mixed conifer stands in the Sierra Nevada of California. Total fuel loading ranges from 7 to 72 tons/acre. The stands have been subjected to a variety of disturbances including timbers harvesting, wildfire, prescribed fire, and recreational use. Fire behavior predictions were made by using 10th, 50th, and 90th percentile weather conditions and the inventoried fuels information. The long-term visual impacts of the various management activities can also be partially assessed with this photo series.

  5. Editorial: Supply Chain Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidonis, D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This special issue has followed up the 2nd Olympus International Conference on Supply Chains held on October 5-6, 2012, in Katerini, Greece. The Conference was organized by the Department of Logistics of Alexander Technological Educational Institution (ATEI of Thessaloniki, in collaboration with the Laboratory of Quantitative Analysis, Logistics and Supply Chain Management of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTH. During the 2-Days Conference more than 50 research papers were presented covering the following thematic areas: (i Business Logistics, (ii Transportation, Telematics and Distribution Networks, (iii Green Logistics, (iv Information and Communication Technologies in Supply Chain Management, and (v Services and Quality. Three keynote invited speakers addressed interesting issues for the Humanitarian Logistics, Green Supply Chains of the Agrifood Sector and the Opportunities and Prospects of Greek Ports chaired Round Tables with other Greek and Foreign Scientists and Specialists.

  6. Perioperative supply chain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feistritzer, N R; Keck, B R

    2000-09-01

    Faced with declining revenues and increasing operating expenses, hospitals are evaluating numerous mechanisms designed to reduce costs while simultaneously maintaining quality care. Many facilities have targeted initial cost reduction efforts in the reduction of labor expenses. Once labor expenses have been "right sized," facilities have continued to focus on service delivery improvements by the optimization of the "supply chain" process. This report presents a case study of the efforts of Vanderbilt University Medical Center in the redesign of its supply chain management process in the department of Perioperative Services. Utilizing a multidisciplinary project management structure, 3 work teams were established to complete the redesign process. To date, the project has reduced costs by $2.3 million and enhanced quality patient care by enhancing the delivery of appropriate clinical supplies during the perioperative experience.

  7. Texas Disasters II: Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to Assist the Texas Forest Service in Mapping and Analyzing Fuel Loads and Phenology in Texas Grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, Michael; Williams, Meredith; Fenn, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    The risk of severe wildfires in Texas has been related to weather phenomena such as climate change and recent urban expansion into wild land areas. During recent years, Texas wild land areas have experienced sequences of wet and dry years that have contributed to increased wildfire risk and frequency. To prevent and contain wildfires, the Texas Forest Service (TFS) is tasked with evaluating and reducing potential fire risk to better manage and distribute resources. This task is made more difficult due to the vast and varied landscape of Texas. The TFS assesses fire risk by understanding vegetative fuel types and fuel loads. To better assist the TFS, NASA Earth observations, including Landsat and Moderate Resolution Imaging Specrtoradiometer (MODIS) data, were analyzed to produce maps of vegetation type and specific vegetation phenology as it related to potential wildfire fuel loads. Fuel maps from 2010-2011 and 2014-2015 fire seasons, created by the Texas Disasters I project, were used and provided alternating, complementary map indicators of wildfire risk in Texas. The TFS will utilize the end products and capabilities to evaluate and better understand wildfire risk across Texas.

  8. FUEL CELL MANPACK POWER SOURCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    battery provides required power density and instantly available power while the fuel cell efficiently converts a primary fuel to electrical power at a...field supply, afford an extremely high energy density making the hybrid fuel cell system competitive on cost per kilowatt hour with standard military zinc-carbon primary batteries. (Author)

  9. Molten carbonate fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaun, T.D.; Smith, J.L.

    1986-07-08

    A molten electrolyte fuel cell is disclosed with an array of stacked cells and cell enclosures isolating each cell except for access to gas manifolds for the supply of fuel or oxidant gas or the removal of waste gas. The cell enclosures collectively provide an enclosure for the array and effectively avoid the problems of electrolyte migration and the previous need for compression of stack components. The fuel cell further includes an inner housing about and in cooperation with the array enclosure to provide a manifold system with isolated chambers for the supply and removal of gases. An external insulated housing about the inner housing provides thermal isolation to the cell components.

  10. Petroleum supply monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blends, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  11. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  12. 第三方物流企业开发线上供应链金融服务研究%Research on Third -party Logistics Companies to Develop Online Financial Services Supply Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐维莉

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of Internet technology,online supply chain finance has become a new direction for the development of supply chain finance is the focus areas of numerous third -party logistics companies,financial institutions and the electricity supplier of common concern.This article from the perspective of a third -party logistics companies,analyzes the advantages to develop online financial services products supply chain,to build around online supply chain finance platform functionality,describes the contents of the supply chain and financial services operational processes,to third -party logistics companies development of supply chain finance value -added services to provide reference.%伴随着互联网技术的快速发展,线上供应链金融已成为供应链金融发展的新方向,是众多第三方物流企业、金融机构及电商共同关注的焦点领域。文中从第三方物流企业角度,分析了开发线上供应链金融服务产品的优势,围绕线上供应链金融平台功能的搭建,介绍了供应链金融服务项目的内容及运作流程,以期为第三方物流企业开发供应链金融增值服务提供参考。

  13. Information in the supply chain: measuring supply chain performance

    OpenAIRE

    Bytheway, Andrew

    1995-01-01

    Information is one of many factors in the development of supply chain operations. It is a key factor in a number of new initiatives, such as: business process management. partnership development, efficient customer response, tighter integration of supply chain operations and outsourcing of ancillary operations. Improvement of the supply chain takes place at different levels: simple efficiency (the Improvement of existing processes), improved quality of service (the redesign of ...

  14. 2009 Fuel Cell Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, Bill [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Gangi, Jennifer [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Curtin, Sandra [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Delmont, Elizabeth [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general.

  15. 基于服务代理的敏捷供应链节点间接口实现%Service agent-based interface implementation of agile supply chain nodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王继鹏; 张瑞红; 王爱民

    2011-01-01

    为实现跨越制造行业供应链各节点的信息流集成,提出了使用具有自治、适应、合作特征的细粒度服务代理的合作来实现供应链系统敏捷性和可重构性,研究4种不同类型节点间的交互需求,重点确定了服务代理并建立相应的服务规约,采用Web Service技术实现了一个钢铁行业敏捷供应链原型系统.实验结果表明,该方法能够帮助制造行业敏捷供应链节点企业以低成本根据供应链的形成和解体进行快速重构和调整,实现了制造行业供应链敏捷化目的.%To integrate the information flow across each node in manufacturing industry supply chain, the autonomous, adaptive, cooperative service agent is adopted to achieve the supply chain agility and reconfigur ability. The interaction need of different types of nodes is studied, service agents and establish appropriate service protocols are established. A prototype of the steel industry agile supply chain system with web service technology is realized. The experiment shows that the method can support manufacturing supply chain enterprises to smartly conduct the rapid reconfiguration and adjustment of supply chain at a low cost.

  16. Hybrid renewable energy systems for the supply of services in rural settlements of mediterranean partner countries. The HYRESS project - the case study of the hybrid system - microgrid in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadakis, G.; Mohamed, E.S.; Kyriakarakos, G. [Agricultural Univ. of Athens (Greece); Kassem, A.W.S. [Alexandria Univ., El Chatbi (Egypt). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Hybrid renewable energy systems is one of the most promising application of renewable energy technologies in remote areas, where the cost of grid extension is prohibitive and the price of fossil fuels increase drastically with the remoteness of the location. Applications of hybrid systems range from small power supplies for remote households providing electricity for lighting or water pumping and water supply to village electrification for remote communities. The strategic objective of the HYRESS project is to remove the knowledge barriers against the installation of Renewable Energy Systems and creation of micro grids. In order to fulfill this objective, three different modular hybrid systems with the generating technologies connected to the AC side were designet, installed and evaluated in three selected remote sites far away from the grid in Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia. This paper describes the hybrid system installed in Egypt as a case study and presents first operation results. (orig.)

  17. Medication Days Supply, Adherence, Wastage, and Cost

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — In an attempt to contain Medicaid pharmacy costs, nearly all states impose dispensing limits on medication days supply. Although longer days supply appears to...

  18. Nursing Supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Nursing Supplies Page Content Article Body Throughout most of ... budget. (Nursing equipment also makes wonderful baby gifts.) Nursing Bras A well-made nursing bra that comfortably ...

  19. Co-digestion of rice straw and cow dung to supply cooking fuel and fertilizers in rural India: Impact on human health, resource flows and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfez, Sophie; De Meester, Steven; Dewulf, Jo

    2017-12-31

    Anaerobic digestion of cow dung with new feedstock such as crop residues to increase the biogas potential is an option to help overcoming several issues faced by India. Anaerobic digestion provides biogas that can replace biomass cooking fuels and reduce indoor air pollution. It also provides digestate, a fertilizer that can contribute to compensate nutrient shortage on agricultural land. Moreover, it avoids the burning of rice straw in the fields which contributes to air pollution in India and climate change globally. Not only the technical and economical feasibility but also the environmental sustainability of such systems needs to be assessed. The potential effects of implementing community digesters co-digesting cow dung and rice straw on carbon and nutrients flows, human health, resource efficiency and climate change are analyzed by conducting a Substance Flow Analysis and a Life Cycle Assessment. The implementation of the technology is considered at the level of the state of Chhattisgarh. Implementing this scenario reduces the dependency of the rural community to nitrogen and phosphorus from synthetic fertilizers only by 0.1 and 1.6%, respectively, but the dependency of farmers to potassium from synthetic fertilizers by 31%. The prospective scenario returns more organic carbon to agricultural land and thus has a potential positive effect on soil quality. The implementation of the prospective scenario can reduce the health impact of the local population by 48%, increase the resource efficiency of the system by 60% and lower the impact on climate change by 13%. This study highlights the large potential of anaerobic digestion to overcome the aforementioned issues faced by India. It demonstrates the need to couple local and global assessments and to conduct analyses at the substance level to assess the sustainability of such systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Horizontal Cooperation Strategy of After-sales Service in Dual-channel Supply Chain%双渠道供应链中售后服务横向合作策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈远高; 郭燕翔

    2013-01-01

    Considering the outsourcing after-sales service provided to online shoppers by a traditional retailer,the horizontal cooperation service strategy and coordination of dual-channel supply chain with internet direct channel and traditional retailer channel were studied.The demand model of dual channel supply chain under horizontal service cooperation was developed,and the optimal decisions of supply chain members were compared with each other.The two propositions of optimal pricing and service provision were presented for the supply chain effective cooperation.Finally,the numerical experiment was done to discuss the impact of related parameters on the decision variables of supply chain members.The results show that the service cooperation leads to the optimal allocation of service resource in supply chain system and promotes the profit of dual-channel partners to achieve win-win outcome.%针对传统零售商向网络直销渠道消费者提供售后服务时,双渠道供应链系统的横向合作策略与协调问题,建立了存在售后服务横向合作的双渠道供应链需求模型,分析了Stackelberg博弈中供应链成员的最优策略,并研究了渠道的最优定价和服务水平的相关命题,最后进行了算例分析,探讨了渠道竞争程度、服务敏感程度等参数对供应链决策变量的影响.结果表明,传统渠道商与网络渠道商之间通过售后服务外包实现横向服务合作,可以实现供应链系统的优化,在大多数情况下能够有效提升双渠道供应链成员的利润水平从而实现双赢.